Comment on Infusing Value in Supply – SELRS Update by Equity vs. Equality; differences & discoveries – SELRS Update « GFSA News        
[...] Infusing Value in Supply – SELRS Update [...]
          Comment on Infusing Value in Supply – SELRS Update by Angie Dedrick        
Wow, fantastic work! Bravo to the SELRS Facilitators, Guiding Group and the GFSA Animators for bringing some clarity to our very confusing and frustrating food system. It gives me great hope to see this work!
          Comment on Digesting the Global Food System – SELRS update by John Zylstra        
The production and consumption of food is indeed a complicated diagram. I just read a story about 17 kindergarten children dying in a minibus accident in china. The article said they had 64 people in a nine passenger bus. So safety took a back seat. As safety increases, cost increases, and ghg emissions also increase, since they will need seven buses instead of one. To some extent this also applies to food production.? As we increase safety and capacity, will our costs and ghg emissions increase? Can local food including backyards guarantee a certain supply? or will it always need a surplus backup system? And how does this backup system remain viable?
          Three days in Berlin (or improving the pim user experience)        

KDE Project:

Last weekend I've met with some of our old timer KDEPIM developers and some of the newer ones who are interested in KDEPIM or related technologies in the KDAB offices in Berlin.
Being a KDAB employee for a few years already (wow, time is passing quickly), the place was familiar, the people looked familiar. The foosball table was slightly familiar, although some players changed their dresses in order to spread confusion inside the visitor's heads. That is the only reason we've lost against locals with 5-0, 5-0.
Suprisingly enough, the table wasn't used that much. Why? Because people were busy either working and talking. What they talked about I don't know too much, as I focused on some issues I planned to fix, but others can testify that Volker did not sit too much in front of his computers, but was dragged from one place to another for various discussions.
Most of us started on Friday around noon. I won't tell too much about what others did, that is mostly their problem. Especially if they were on the other side of the room and I didn't saw their screens, I can't tell if they worked at all or not. They looked like they did though. ;) I can share some things about what some sitting nearby did. See later.
As recently I became the de-facto maintainer and bugfixer for mail filters, I worked mostly on them. Unfortunately the first attempt to fix a bug failed: a bug that bothers me, although it is not the most reported one. It is about mails not being filtered for a while after a resume from hibernation. It is hard to reproduce, and although I run into it, I couldn't reproduce reliably enough and in a way I can debug it. After fighting with it and realising it won't work, I gave up. See you next time.
Meantime we had some excellent food in an Indian restaurant, then when finally everybody arrived (almost everybody to be honest, plus even some more from KDAB who didn't sign up, but show up there), we were ready to start with presenting the kdepim and Akonadi architecture. Old time pimsters Volker Krause, Kevin Krammer and Tobias Koenig helped me with it, and sometimes saved me, as my knowledge in some area proved to be superficial. We ended up with a pretty impressive drawing on the whiteboard:
Hopefully for those being on site it was understandable.

Time passed, so we went out for dinner to a Greek restaurant at the corner. Nice place, third time being there, good food (seems Berlin has only good eating places). We even saw how Germany won over Ireland. Too bad Steveire (Stephen Kelly) was not there... We continued with some more talks and hacking, then everybody went to their sleeping places.
Some left earlier, some later waiting for remote developers to show up and discuss the patches (he didn't show up).

Day 2
Next day started around 9 o'clock for some. Later for others. I continued with the filter debugging and fixing. I looked at the bugreports and tried to come up with some bugs that are both would help the users and myself. I'm selfish, I want to fix the bugs I run into. ;) One problem that bothered me for a long time is that email content from online IMAP is downloaded even if no filter for IMAP requires it (but a filter for e.g POP3 needs the full content). Now this is fixed and those who use online imap could notice a great speedup in mail syncing (depending on their filter setup). Another often reported issue was duplicating the mails, especially after spam filtering. You've ended up with a mail in the spam folder and a mail in the original place. This could be combined with a conflict dialog shown up as well for that mail. This problem actually revealed a not-well handled case down inside the Akonadi stack that was created by a reordering of filter commands in the filtering code. For those who want technical details: if there was a move action (like "move mail to spam folder") followed by a modify action (like "mark as read"), the filter reordered this to "mark as read" followed by a move. Unfortunately this exposed two problems, (mostly, but not only) IMAP specific: on IMAP you can't modify a mail, instead you create a new one and delete the old. What happened here is that a filter changed the mail (run through bogofilter/spamassasin), then the "mark as read" action was executed, which uploaded the changes, including the changed mail to the IMAP server. This caused a new ID for the item on the IMAP server. The mail with the old ID was deleted. Then the filter agent performed a move, but he had only the *old* ID, before the modifications. The move - if performed between two different resources, like IMAP and local maildir - is technically a copy followed by a delete. The copy worked fine, but the delete didn't. It tried to delete the old mail again (which was gone), not the modified version. That's how you ended up with a duplicate.
The current solution is to reorder the filtering pipeline, so the move is performed before the flag modifications. The extra benefit is that the filtered message is not uploaded again just to be deleted the next second. Speedup, less network traffic, better user experience. This doesn't fix the main problem with Akonadi, but it is an acceptable workaround. The reordering is so far only in the master branch (KDE 4.10), but the relevant code will be backported to the 4.9 branch, so it will be in 4.9.3.
And speaking of conflicts, that was the next hot topic, and one of the often reported bugs. It was mostly caused by conflicting flag changes (read/spam/important/etc), either caused by KMail itself plus the filtering or just KMail. After some discussion we agreed, that reporting conflicts on flag changes doesn't make sense, so we should not bother the user. It is not data loss, and in worst case some flag is reset. In normal case nothing wrong happens, as Akonadi is able to merge two changes in the flags (or so claims Volker).
I have to admit that this fix was not completed at the sprint, I finished it today, as I noticed more code in KDEPIM that didn't disable conflict check on flag changes.
While doing the changes, I did quite some refactoring, cleaning up the code as much as I could do for the parts I touched. The code was originally deep inside KMail (as most of other code), got extracted from it for 4.8.0, and now we are at the stage that we can make the extracted code more cleaner, we can remove some things that doesn't make sense anymore now that the filtering is not inside KMail.
While reading the bug reports, I also run into one indicating that mails arriving to an MBOX account (like /var/spool/mail/username) are not filtered automatically. Sounds like an easy bug to fix and so was it. Now they are filtered.
Finally another annoying issue was fixed: there was no indication that filtering is ongoing. Now when this happens, you can see in the KMail's progress bar.
The net result of the above: faster filtering, less annoying and useless error dialogs for the users. And according to bugzilla, 31 bugs less (some were duplicates though).

Nepomuk...one of the things that, well, so far I was always recommending for users to turn off. Slight detour here: what is Nepomuk and its relation to KMail? Nepomuk helps you to find data. It indexes all kind of data and with some queries you can find e.g every file where my name is mentioned, all email addresses from any file, etc. There is a process that goes through the akonadi data (emails, calendars, etc) and "feeds" to it for Nepomuk to be indexed. Then there are queries and code in KMail accessing Nepomuk: getting email addresses for composer's autocompletion, searching inside mail bodies, tagging your emails with custom tags, etc.
Unfortunately there are problems around it. One is that some queries ae processed quite slowly, that in turn slows down KMail, leading to poor user experience. E.g switching between mails, sending mails, etc. is slow. Or startup is slow or even blocked. I tried to fix the last part as I just run into it, but as this was my very first Nepomuk related patch, I'm not sure 100% succeeded. We found a problem with the Nepomuk API itself, and I informed Vishesh, the Nepomuk developer about it (even if I used non-blocking calls against Nepomuk, one call is blocking without question). He suggested something I might try later, although I'd be more happier if somebody with real Nepomuk knowledge could give a review of the pim Nepomuk usage.
Then there is the Akonadi feeder, that gives the data to Nepomuk. Something is not perfect there and the indexing causes a serious slowdown, where either itself or Nepomuk (actually its storage backend, virtuoso) starts to use the CPU *a lot*. This is the main reason I recommend to users to disable Nepomuk so far. We had Christian Mollekopf the author of the feeder in the sprint, and he worked on some optimizations. Hopefully this will improve the situation. Meantime we (and I) tried to convince Vishesh to use KMail, so he can see himself the problems our users face.

As a break we had another presentation, this time about KMail itself, what components make up KMail, how they are distributed. As far as I saw, this was less interesting to the audience, they rather looked at their computers and hacked on something. Luckily our KMail maintainer, Laurent Montel, is super active, but I wouldn't mind more contributors. Too bad he wasn't at the sprint.

We had a lunch at a nearby place, nothing extra, but the food was (again) good.

What did other do? Let's see what I can remember... Sune dreamed about crypto stuff and composite jobs. He worked on making some cryptographic code asynchronous and started to get faimiliar with kdepim code. I'd not say he picked up the easiest job.
Volker run around all the time, discussed various things like "spanish sync" with Alex Fiestas (see here), database backends with Martin, change recorder with David Faure (who remotely joined the meeting and got lost inside the change recorder code ... he has the solution now in his head, so be patient, we will end up with a better implementation for it that again speeds up Akonadi), job pipelines with me, and who knows what with others, as for a long time he just disappeared with a bunch of developers. They actually ended up in the lobby discussing "stuff". Milian Wolf, who is not (or not yet?) a KDEPIM developer, but mainly a KDevelop one, joined us and used massif to track down some ugly memory usage in KMail. And he did a good job in it. Previously KMail used more and more memory as you navigated between large folders (Alex mentioned some 2GB for him), while now it levels up at one point and doesn't increase. He might blog himself about, as he has also some nice graphs.
Then there were two guys from KDAB, who are old time pim developers (quiz: find their names in this blog), but they cooked something else, not related to KDEPIM, not related concretely to KDE, but to a lower level: to Qt. It is an amazingly cool stuff, but I don't want to give more details. Expect it to be presented a the Qt Developer Days, either in a talk or at the KDAB booth. Don't worry, I'm pretty sure it will be freely available what they did and KDE can enjoy it in the future.
I'm sorry that I don't remember what the rest did. In general I know that Martin Klapetek worked on the social network resources, Mark Gaiser, who recently started to work on KDEPIM stuff eagerly listened to our presentations and worked on a QML calendar application, Alex kept reporting bugs and discussed improvements with Volker, while John Layt, the "timezone KDE guy" worked on plasma calendar related issues.
As a KDE person Chani also joined us for a while, we quickly nominated her as the QML and Plasma person, so all questions related to them were immediately redirected to Chani. Jos Poortvilet was also supposed to join for some talks, but he could show up only on Sunday for personal reasons.
At the end of the day everybody was so busy, so instead of going out for eating, we just ordered some pizza. And most of us stood in the office well past midnight.

Day 3
Well, the above partially happened on Sunday. It was a shorter day for me, due to the late night standup before, and that I had to go to the airport after lunch. A lunch that wasn't exactly as planned. We went out for a Doner Kebab place that is supposed to be the best one in Berlin. It is just a small kiosk on the sidewalk in a street, but man, there was a big queue for it. On a Sunday! Locals says it is worse on weekdays. Even after almost an hour, we still had 10 persons in front of us, my departure time was approaching, so I gave up and instead bought some (quite good) chinese fast-food from a nearby place, then rushed to the airport.
A long journey awaited me with a 3 hour stopover in Munich, but luckily I had a power supply there and even some network (they offer 30 minutes/day/phone number), so I could continue on the work I started at the sprint. After flying and driving another 2.5 hours, I arrived late (or rather early) morning next day back home, and after sleept until around 10. Then I started to work again for KDAB, a work that is just as enjoyable as working for KDE. After all, the two communities has a serious overlap. ;)
That's from the sprint. If you'll be at the Qt Developer Days Europe, we might meet there. I'm looking forward for a good conference.


          à¸—ำไมแท็กซี่ถึงไม่อยากจะให้อูเบอร์เข้ามาให้บริการได้ในไทย        
ไม่แปลกหรอกว่าทำไมคนขับแท็กซี่ถึงไม่อยากจะให้มีคนรับส่งคนได้เหมือนกับเขาได้มากขึ้น เพราะ มันทำให้ฝั่ง supply มากชึ้นโดยไม่จำเป็น เพราะ แต่ไหนแต่ไร คนที่เป็นคนปกติตามบ้าน มีรถอยู่แล้ว เค้าเหล่านั้นจะไม่สามารถเข้ามาขับรถเพือรับส่งคนได้แต่อย่างใด แต่ว่าทีนี้ เหมือนว่าทางแอพอูเบอร์ฺจะไม่ได้สนใจเรื่องกฏหมายหรือข้อกำหนดเดิมๆของบ้านเมืองก่อนหน้าแล้ว เพื่อทดสอบ หรือลองดูว่ามีความต้องการของตลาดหรือไม่อย่างไร และ ผลเป็นแค่ชัดว่า ทุกคนอยากจะได้บริการประเภทอื่นๆที่ไม่ใช่เป็นแค่ taxi ทั่วๆไปเพื่อรับส่งคนอีกต่อไป เรียกได้ว่า  UberX นั้นตอบโจทย์กับความต้องการเหล่านี้ของคนเมืองทุกคนได้เป็นอย่างดี คนที่ขับ  Uber ไม่ใช่ความทุกคนจะเป็นคนขับที่ดี แต่คนที่เหลืออยู่ต่างหากจะเหลือแค่คนขับที่ดีเท่านั้น ประเด็นคือ คนที่ขับอูเบอร์นั้นจะได้รับการกรองแล้วกรองอีกจากคนนั่ง เพราะ คนนั่งจะให้ดาวหรือ rate review คนขับได้...
          Commentaires sur Unexpected Landscape & Tent Pictures par Helmet Camera        
Thank you, I've recently been searching for information about this topic for a while and yours is the greatest I've came upon so far.But, what in regards to the bottom line? Are you sure about the supply? <a href='http://bbs.0510huodong.com/home.php?mod=space&uid=1031557&do=profile&from=space' rel="nofollow">Helmet Camera</a>
          Proenhance patch - Get a longer lasting        



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Proenhance patch - Improve your performance on bed

          Proenhance patch - How can you Use Effectively The Proenhance Patch        



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ProEnhance was developed in order to supply a safe, trustworthy and efficient help to lengthen your penis. ProEnhance is a mixture of ancient awareness of herbal drugs and complicated technologies, resulting in a product that will guarantee the desired level of success.

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Related info:
Penis enlargement devices - The reason why it is popular
Penis enlargement devices - The reason why it is popular
Penis enlargement devices - The reason why it is popular
Penis enlargement devices - Truth about penis enlargement devices

          How Barack Obama's Modification of Your Mortgage Can Really Help Those Suffering Financially        
The New Mortgage Loan Modification Programs were introduced by the Obama administration in March 2009. For those of you struggling to meet your monthly repayments and with the threat of possible foreclosure hanging over you, this could be just the thing you are looking for.

With the agonizing recent recession and slump in housing prices, this has had a huge effect on millions of Americans. The Obama Loan Modification process has been introduced to help you through these hard times.

So what help is the government offering exactly?

Should you own and live in your mortgaged property and have a loan balance of below $729,750 you may be eligible. The government are looking to streamline your payments for up to five years. This may involve lowering the interest rate or extending the term of your mortgage.

For those of you suffering financial hardship and wishing to participate in this plan, you will be required to write and sign a letter stating such and if your overall debts are above 55% of your income, you will have to agree to take part in credit counseling. The final criteria to be eligible is that you must haven taken your loan out prior to January 1st 2009.

The process is a very rigorous form of verification, involving proof of ownership, proof of income and expenditure, through supplying relevant documents. Many industry experts believe that if these plans had been brought in a few years ago, then perhaps the current housing crisis could have been avoided altogether.

There are many companies who can help you through the legal and financial aspects for the Modification of your mortgage.

However, some Loan Modification Companies have been reported to charge anywhere between $1500 - $5000 to perform this service. So this, of course, has led the way for certain individuals to fight back and complete the procedures on their own. To learn how you can complete this process yourself Click Here.
          Daniel Boone        

Daniel Boone

BOONE, Daniel, pioneer, born in Berks County, Pennsylvania, 22 October, 1734 (For more on Daniel Boone's birthplace please visit his Homestead); died in Missouri, 26 Sept., 1820. Among the immigrants that landed, 10 Oct., 1717, at Philadelphia was George Boone, of Exeter, England, who came with his wife and eleven children, bought land near Bristol, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and joined the society of Friends. His son, Squire Boone, married Sarah Morgan, and Daniel was their son. Squire Boone, who was a farmer, moved, about 1748, to Holman's Ford, on the Yadkin, in North Carolina.

Daniel's education was very limited; he could read and write, but beyond that all he knew related to the fields, the woods, the net, the rifle, and hunting. He was a hunter born, and loved the solitude of the forest. Strong, brave, lithe, inured to hardship and privation, he traced his steps through the pathless forest, sought out the hiding places of panther, bear, and wolf, and was the match of any Indian in the sagacity with which he detected the footsteps of the red man. About 1755 he married Rebecca Bryan and set up his own log cabin, but, displeased with the encroachments of civilization on his solitude, and incited by the glowing accounts brought by John Finley, who had penetrated into the unknown regions of Kentucky, formed a company of six kindred spirits, and, bidding adieu to his family and the comforts of home, on 1 May, 1769, set out on his perilous journey of exploration.

America's Four Republics: The More or Less United States
By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
Edited: Naomi Yavneh Klos, Ph.D.

  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774 (Georgia joined in 1775)  and governed through a British Colonial Continental Congress.  Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 states on July 2nd, 1776 (New York abstained until July 8th), and governed through the United States Continental CongressJohn Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union was founded by 13 States on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation, and governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People  was formed by 11 states on March 4th, 1789 (North Carolina and Rhode Island joined in November 1789 and May 1790, respectively), with the enactment of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The fourth and current United States Republic governs through  the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled, the U.S. President and Commander-in-Chief, and the U.S. Supreme Court.  George Washington served as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief.

After numerous adventures with the Indians, having become intimately acquainted with the character of the country, established an enviable reputation for sagacity and integrity on important frontier service assigned to him by Lord Dunmore in the campaign against the Indians, usually called "Lord Dunmore's War," and constructed a strong fort on the left bank of Kentucky river, which he named "Boonesborough," he determined to bring his wife and family to the new home. Some of his neighbors joined him, and he conducted the party, numbering upward of thirty, safely to "Boonesborough" without having encountered any other difficulties than such as are common to this passage. 



 Daniel Boone founded Boonesborough while he worked for Richard Henderson of the Transylvania Company.


On one occasion Boone, with an armed party of thirty men, had gone for a supply of salt to a place called "Salt Licks," nearly 100 miles north of Boonesborough, and was captured, with twenty-seven of his men, by a band of more than 100 Indian warriors led by two Frenchmen. 



They carried them first to Old Chillicothe, on the Miami, and then to Detroit, where they surrendered for a ransom all their prisoners except Boone; him they took back to Old Chillicothe, where the great Blackfish, a renowned Shawanese chief, adopted him into his family under an imposing but painful ceremonial; all his hair, except a tuft three or four inches in diameter on the crown of the head, was plucked out; that tuft was allowed to grow to the length of the "warlock," dressed with feathers and ribbons; an ablution in the river was supposed to cleanse him from the taint of white blood; a coat of paint on his face, and a solemn charge from Blackfish, completed the rite. 

After a prolonged and anxious residence among them, during which he was kindly treated, he discovered their intention of marching upon Boonesborough, and resolved, at the peril of certain death in the event of recapture, to attempt his escape and save his family and friends. Chased by 450 Indians, he performed that daring feat in the forty-third year of his age, and thus simply records it: "On the 16th [of June], before sunrise, I departed in the most secret manner, and arrived at Boonesborough on the 20th, after a journey of 160 miles, during which I had but one meal." 




At the fort he learned that his wife and children, despairing of ever seeing him again, had returned, and safely reached her father's home in North Carolina. The Indians assailed the fort, but were repelled with loss, and retreated. Boone then, in the autumn of 1778, rejoined his family on the Yadkin, and returned with them to Kentucky in 1780. 

The country, though well settled, was still unsafe, and, soon after his return, Boone and his brother, Squire, were surprised by Indians; Squire was killed and scalped, and Daniel had a narrow escape. A sanguinary engagement, called the "Battle of the Blue Licks," took place in 1782, in which Boone's two sons fought at his side. One of them was killed, and the other severely wounded. Boone was full of expedients, and on one occasion extricated himself from four armed Indians by blinding them with tobacco dust. Kentucky was admitted into the union, 4 Feb., 1791, and in the survey of the state the title to Boone's land was disputed. The case was decided against him, and, stung to the quick by the wrong, he had again to seek a new home, which he established at Point Pleasant, between the Ohio and the Great Kanawha; but in 1795 he removed to Missouri, then a Spanish possession, and received not only the appointment of commandant of the Femme Osage district, but a grant of 8,000 acres. The Spanish possessions passed into the hands of Napoleon, who sold them to the United States, and, in the survey that followed, the Spanish grant of Boone's lands was pronounced invalid. An appeal to the legislature of Kentucky, and another to congress, resulted in a grant by the latter of 850 acres. Boone was then seventy-five years of age, hale and strong. The charm of the hunter's life clung to him to the last, and in his eighty-second year he went on a hunting excursion to the mouth of Kansas river. He had made his own coffin and kept it under his bed, and after his death they laid him in it to rest by the side of his wife, who had passed away seven years before. 

On 13 Sept., 1845, their remains were removed to the cemetery near Frankfort, Kentucky, a few miles from the fort of Boonesborough, by the concurrent action of the citizens of Frankfort and the legislature of Kentucky. 


Cemetery in Frankfort, Kentucky where Daniel and Rebecca Bryan Boone were re-interred


His son, Enoch, born in Boonesborough, Kentucky, in 1777 ; d. 8 March, 1862, was the first white male child born in Kentucky. Daniel Boone's wife, with her daughters, went to live with her husband in his palisaded fort in June, 1776, and while there gave birth to this son; but after Boone's capture, on 7 Feb., 1778, his family returned to North Carolina. -- Edited Appleton's American Biography Copyright© 2001 by Stan Klos TM




An American biographical and historical dictionary Containing an account of the lives, characters, and writings of the most eminent persons in North America from its first settlement, and a summary of the history of the several colonies and of the United States. By: W. Hyde, 1832.


BOONE, Daniel, colonel, one of the first settlers of Kentucky, was born about 1730. While he was young, his parents, who came from Bridgeworth,England removed from Pennsylvania or Virginia to the Yadkin river in North Carolina. 






He was early addicted to hunting in the woods; in the militia he attained to the rank of colonel. In 1769, in consequence of the representation of John Finley, who had penetrated into the wilderness of Kentucky, he was induced to accompany him in a journey to that country. He had four other companions, John Stuart, Joseph Holden, James Money, and William Cool, with whom he set out May 1. On the 7th of June they arrived at the Red river, a branch of the Kentucky; and here from the top of a hill they had a view of the fertile plain's, of which they were in pursuit. They encamped and remained in this place till Dec. 22, when Boone and Stuart were captured by the Indians near Kentucky river. In about a week they made their escape; but on returning to their camp, they found it plundered and deserted by their companions, who had gone back to Carolina.




Stuart was soon killed by the Indians; but Boone being joined by his brother, they remained and prosecuted the business of hunting during the winter, without further molestation. His brother going home for supplies in May 1770, he remained alone in the deep solitude of the western wilderness until his return with ammunition & horses July 27th. During this period this wild man of the woods, though greeted every night with the howlings of wolves, was delighted in his excursions with the survey of the beauties of the country and found greater pleasure in the solitude of wild nature, than he could have found amid the hum of the most elegant city. With his brother he traversed the country to Cumberland river. It was not until March 1771, that he returned to his family, resolved to conduct them to the paradise, which he had explored.


Students and Teachers of US History this is a video of Stanley and Christopher Klos presenting America's Four United Republics Curriculum at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The December 2015 video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn students, professors and guests that numbered about 200. - Click Here for more information



Having sold his farm, he set out with his own and 5 other families, Sept. 25,1773, and was joined in Powell's valley by 40 men. After passing over two mountains, called Powell's and Walden's, through which, as they ranged from the north east to the south west, passes were found, and approaching the Cumberland, the rear of the company was attacked by the Indians on the 10th of October, when six men were killed, among whom was the eldest son of colonel Boone. One man was also wounded, and the cattle were scattered. This disaster induced them to retreat about 40 miles to the settlement on Clinch River, where he remained with his family, until June 6,1774, when, at the request of gov. Dunmore, he conducted a number of surveyors to the falls of Ohio. On this tour of 800 miles he was absent two months. After this he was entrusted by the governor, during the campaign against the Shawanese, with the command of three forts. 



Early in 1775, at the request of a company in North Carolina, he attended a treaty with the Cherokee Indians at Wataga in order to make of them the purchase of lands on the south side of the Tennessee river. After performing this service, he was employed to mark out a road from the settlements on the Holston to the Kentucky river. While thus employed, at the distance of about 15 miles from what is now Boonesborough, the party was attacked March 20, and 23, 1775 by the Indians, who killed four and wounded five. Another man was killed in April. On the first day of this month at a salt lick, on the southern bank of the Kentucky,in what is now Boonesborough a few miles from Lexington, he began to erect a fort, consisting of a block house & several cabins, enclosed with palisades. On the 14th of June he returned to his family in order to remove them to the tort.. His wife and daughters were the first white women, who stood on the banks of the Kentucky river. Dec. 24th one man was killed and another wounded. July 14, 1776, when all the settlements were attacked, two of Colonel Calway's daughters and one of his own were taken prisoners; Boone pursued with 18 men and in two days overtook the Indians, killed two of them, and recovered the captives.






The Indians made repeated attacks upon Boonesborough; Nov. 15,1777 with 100 men, and July 4 with 200 men. On both sides several were killed and wounded; but the enemy were repulsed; as they were also July 19 from Logan's fort of 15 men, which was besieged by 200. The arrival of 25 men from Carolina and in August of 100 from Virginia gave a new aspect to affairs, and taught the savages the superiority of "the long knives," as they called the Virginians. Jan. 1, 1778 he went with 30 men to the blue licks on the Licking river to make salt for the garrison. Feb. 7, being alone, he was captured by a party of 102 Indians and 2 Frenchmen; he capitulated for his men, and they were all carried to Chillicothe on the Little Miami, whence he and 10 men were conducted to Detroit, where he arrived March 30. The governor, Hamilton, treated him with much humanity, and offered 1001, for his redemption. But the savages refused the offer from affection to their captive. Being carried back to Chillicothe in April, he was adopted as a son in an Indian family. He assumed the appearance of cheerfulness ; but his thoughts were on his wife and children. Aware of the envy of the Indians, he was careful not to exhibit his skill in shooting. In June he went to the salt springs on the Sciota. On his return to Chillicothe he ascertained, that 450 warriors were preparing to proceed against Boonesborough. He escaped June 16, and arrived at the fort June 20th, having travelled 160 miles in 4 days, with but one meal. His wife had returned to her father's. Great efforts were made to repair the fort in order to meet the expected attack. On August 1st, he went out with 19 men to surprise Point Creek town on the Sciota; meeting 30 Indians, he put them to flight and captured their baggage. At last, Aug. 8, the Indian army of 444 men, led by captain Dugnesne and 11 other Frenchmen, and their own chiefs, with British colors flying, summoned the fort to surrender. 



The next day Boone, having a garrison of only 50 men, announced his resolution to defend the fort, while a man was alive. They then proposed that 9 men should be sent out 60 yards from the fort to enter into a treaty; and when the articles were agreed upon and signed, they said it was customary on such occasions, as a token of sincere friendship, for two Indians to shake every white man by the hand. Accordingly two Indians approached each of the nine white men, and grappled with the intent of making him a prisoner; but the object being perceived, the men broke away and re-entered the fort.



An attempt was now made to undermine it; but a counter trench defeated that purpose. Atlast on the 20th the enemy raised the siege, having lost 37 men. Of Boone's men two were killed and four wounded. "We picked, up," said he, "125 pounds of bullets, besides what stuck in the logs of our fort, which certainly is a great proof of their industry." In 1779, when Boone was absent, revisiting his family in Carolina, Colonel Bowman with 160 men fought the Shawanese Indians at old Chillicothe. 



In his retreat the Indians pursued him for 30 miles, when in another engagement col. Harrod suggested the successful project of mounting a number of horses and breaking the Indian line. Of the Kentuckians 9 were killed. June 22nd,1780, about 600 Indians and Canadians under col. Bird attacked Riddle's and Martin's stations and the forks of Licking river with 6 pieces of artillery, and carried away all as captives. Gen. Clarke, commanding at the falls of Ohio, marched with his regiment and troops against Reccaway, the principal Shawanese town on a branch of the Miami, and burned the town, with the loss of 17 on each side. 


About this time Boone returned to Kentucky with his family. In Oct. 1780, soon after he was settled again at Boonesborough, he went with his brother to the Blue Licks, and as they were returning the latter was slain by a party of Indians, and he was pursued by them by the aid of a dog. By shooting him Boone escaped. The severity of the ensuing winter was attended with great distress, the enemy having destroyed most of the corn. The people subsisted chiefly on buffalo's flesh. In May 1732 the Indians having killed a man at Ashton's station, captain A. pursued with 25 men, but in an attack upon' the enemy he was killed with 12 of his men. Aug. 10 two boys were carried off from major Hay's station. Capt. Holden pursued with 17 men; but he also was defeated, with the loss of four men. In a field near Lexington an Indian shot a man and running to scalp him, was him- self shot from the fort and fell dead upon his victim. On the 15th Aug. 500 Indians attacked Briant's station, five miles from Lexington,and destroyed all the cattle; but they were repulsed on the third day, having about 30 killed, while of the garrison 4 were killed and 3 wounded. Boone, with cols. Todd and Trigg and major Harland, collected 176 men and pursued on the 18th.



They overtook the enemy the next day a mile beyond the Blue Licks, about 40 miles from Lexington, at a remarkable bend of a branch of Licking river. A battle ensued, the enemy having a line formed across from one bend to the other, but the Kentuckians were defeated with the great loss of 60 killed, among whom were cols. Todd and Trigg, and Major Harland, and Boone's second son. Many were the widows made in Lexington on that fatal day. The Indians having 4 more killed, 4 of the prisoners were given up to the young warriors to be put to death in the most barbarous manner. 

General Clarke, accompanied by Boone, immediately marched into the Indian country and desolated it, burning old Chillicothe, Peccaway, New Chillicothe, Willis town, and Chillicothe. With the loss of four men he took seven prisoners and five scalps, or killed five Indians. In October the Indians attacked Crab orchard. One of the Indians having entered a house, in which were a woman and a negro, and being thrown to the ground by the negro, the woman cut off his head. From this period to the peace with Great Britain the Indians did no harm. "Two darling sons and a brother," said Boone, "have I lost by savage hands, which have also taken from me 40 valuable horses and abundance of cattle. Many dark and sleepless nights have I spent, separated from the cheerful society of men, scorched by the summer's sun and pinched by the winter's cold, an instrument ordained to settle the wilderness."

From this period he resided in Kentucky and Virginia till 1798, when in consequence of an imperfect legal title to the lands, which he had settled, he found himself dispossessed of his property. In his indignation he fled from the delightful region, which he had explored, when a wilderness, and which now had a population of half a million. With his rifle he crossed the Ohio and plunged into the immense country of the Missouri In 1799 he settled on the Femme Osage river with numerous followers. In 1800 he discovered the Boone's Lick country, now a fine settlement: in the same year he visited the head waters of the Grand Osage river and spent the winter upon the head waters of the Arkansas. At the age of 80, in company with a white man and a black man, laid under strict injunctions to carry him back to his family, dead or alive, he made a hunting trip to the head waters of the Great Osage, and was successful in trapping beaver and other game.




In January 1812 he addressed a memorial to the legislature of Ky. stating that he owned not an acre of land in the region, which he first settled; that in 1794 he passed over into the Spanish province of Louisiana, under an assurance from the governor, who resided at St. Louis, that land should be given him; that accordingly 10 thousand acres were given him on the Missouri and he became Syndic or chief of the district of St. Charles; but that on the acquisition of Louisiana by the United States his claims were rejected by the commissioners of land, because he did not actually reside; and that thus at the age of 80 he was a wanderer, having no spot of his own, whereon to lay his bones.

The legislature instructed their delegates to congress to solicit a confirmation of this grant. He retained, it is believed, 2,000 In his old age he pursued his active course of life, trapping bears and hunting with his rifle. Though a magistrate and sometimes a member of the legislature of Virginia, and much engaged in agriculture; yet he preferred the solitude of the wilderness to the honors of civil office and the society of men.


He died at the house of his son, Major A. Boone, at Charette, Montgomery Company, September 26th, 1820, aged nearly 90 years. His wife died in the same place. He left sons and daughters in Missouri. In consequence of his death the legislature of Missouri voted to wear a badge of mourning for 20 days. A brother died in Mississippi Oct. 1808, aged 81. 

Col. Boone was of common stature, of amiable disposition, and honorable integrity. In his last years he might have been seen by the traveler at the door of his house, with his rifle on his knee and his faithful dog at his side, lamenting the departed vigor of his limbs, and meditating on the scenes of his past life.

Whether he also meditated on the approaching scenes of eternity and his dim eyes ever kindled up with the glorious hopes of the christian is not mentioned in the accounts of him, which have been examined. But of all objects an irreligious old man, dead as to worldly joy and dead as to celestial hope, is the most pitiable. An account of his adventures, drawn up by himself, was published in Filson's supplement to Imlay's Description of the Western Territory, 1793.— Niles Register, March 13, 1813.

Capitals of the United States and Colonies of America

Philadelphia
Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 24, 1774
Philadelphia
May 10, 1775 to Dec. 12, 1776
Baltimore
Dec. 20, 1776 to Feb. 27, 1777
Philadelphia
March 4, 1777 to Sept. 18, 1777
Lancaster
September 27, 1777
York
Sept. 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778
Philadelphia
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783
Princeton
June 30, 1783 to Nov. 4, 1783
Annapolis
Nov. 26, 1783 to Aug. 19, 1784
Trenton
Nov. 1, 1784 to Dec. 24, 1784
New York City
Jan. 11, 1785 to Nov. 13, 1788
New York City
Nov. 1788 to March 3,1789
New York City
March 3,1789 to August 12, 1790


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          The worlds energy crisis        
The world’s energy crisis The world is gradually marching towards a severe energy crisis, what with an ever-increasing demand of energy overstepping its supply. We have always known that the energy we use everyday is not unlimited, yet we take it for granted. Oil, gas, power, even water has limited availability. Yet, we have not taken enough precautions to deal with a possible energy crisis. When I say ‘we’, I am not referring to the governments but to all of us, the common people.

Oil and gas have already become too expensive, and with each passing day, they are moving towards being extinct. Some ignorant people think that energy crisis is a myth. They fail to see the big picture. There have been three major energy crises so far – the 1973 oil crisis, the 1979 energy crisis, and the 1990 oil-price hike, apart from several regional crisis. Prices have been rapidly increasing for the last five years, thanks to the ever-increasing demand and the increasing shortage of energy resources. How soon will it be all gone?
Are the cynics right in saying that we are making a mountain of a molehill, or is the energy crisis for real? Picture this: We have already exhausted 50 percent of the available oil. At the current rate of consumption, the rest of the oil will finish in 32 years! Imagine if the rate of consumption increases! We all know it is bound to increase. So, even the present generation will face an acute energy crisis in the later years, let alone future generations.

What are we doing about it? Are we equipped to face the impending energy crisis? What can you and I do to tackle it? For starters, we need to understand the importance of energy in our lives and stop taking it for granted. We have to minimize the use of oil, gas, electricity, or any other fuel. We cannot afford to waste any available energy. It is also important to spread awareness about limited availability of energy resources. Simple things like joining a car pool, switching off car engines at traffic lights, and minimizing the use of gas and oil in everyday activities will help a long way in crisis-readiness.

What are the alternate energy options?
As a responsible world citizen, start looking for alternate energy solutions like solar energy and wind energy. Employing these alternate power solutions is extremely feasible and cost-effective. You will not only cut down your power bills but also contribute to a better future of the world.

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          Resistance at Standing Rock: Dispatches from the Front Lines        

UPDATES:





  • Water Protector Legal Collective Files Suit for Excessive Force against Peaceful Protesters


  • Veterans to Serve as ‘Human Shields’ for Dakota Pipeline Protesters



  • Oceti Sakowin encampment on Oct. 6, 2016. The proper name for the people commonly known as the Sioux is Oceti Sakowin, (Och-et-eeshak-oh-win) meaning Seven Council Fires.








    Story and Photos by John Briggs

    Cool Justice Editor's Note: OK to repost, courtesy of John Briggs and The Cool Justice Report.







    Corporate – Government Alliance Versus the American People

    Native Americans from tribes across the country have gathered on the windswept plains of North Dakota to pray with Mother Earth to keep the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) from pumping 500,000 gallons of oil a day beneath the Missouri River. The natives know the pipeline will most certainly leak or break, as have most U.S. pipelines, fouling the water for the Great Sioux Nation and 18 million non-Natives downstream.

    The standoff -- which began in April -- continues as a new U.S. administration ascends to power with a president-elect who campaigned denying human-caused climate change and threatening the Paris Climate accords. This remains the overriding reality despite a mini walk back by Donald Trump pledging an open mind to The New York Times this week.

    Standing Rock illuminates the brazen alliance that has developed between corporate and government interests. Viewed from the front lines, the law has been turned into a fig leaf for repression and suppression. Only the discipline and spiritual clarity of the water protectors and the native elders has kept people from being killed or seriously injured since April when the movement began.

    The fused police-DAPL force is doing everything it can to incite a violent reaction from the resisters so as to crack down, clear the camps, imprison, or even gun down the natives. More than one commentator has found the atmosphere at Standing Rock similar to what led to the Wounded Knee massacre in 1890 when 300 Sioux were murdered by government troops who mistook their prayerful Ghost Dance for a war dance.

    A great deal is at issue at Standing Rock. The Sioux and their numerous native and non-native allies face a militarized force whose composition tells us something dark about the complex façade that U.S. democracy has become and suggests the proto-fascist zombi lurking beneath. More deeply, Standing Rock also emblemizes a struggle that is taking place at this moment in human history between two distinct modes of human consciousness.

    One mode is the familiar anthropocentric (human-centered) consciousness that the dominant culture most of us were born into favors—a consciousness that assumes reality is a collection of objects to be extracted, owned, and branded. Humans are the focus of this consciousness, meaning that our concerns about climate change focus primarily on the fate of our own species.

    Distinct from this anthropocentric mind-set is a second, ancient and spiritual mode of awareness that understands that the earth and its landscapes are not objects; they are relationships, including the tangle of relationships that gave us birth. This ancient mode of consciousness is potential in everyone, but for most it has been buried beneath the piles of conceptual objects that we have come to believe constitute our reality.

    The Indigenous Peoples gathered at Standing Rock are guided by this ancient, holistic, earth-mind consciousness, and so they understand that humans are not the most valuable living objects on the planet: we are not in control of the planet; it is not our job to manage nature; rather, our sacred task is to work with Mother Earth and other beings as members of Earth’s family. If we don’t, Mother Earth will make us face this spiritual truth one way or another.

    Guided by their ancient, earth-mind awareness, Native Americans have taken up a role as “water protectors.” “Mni Wiconi, Water is Life” is the slogan of the Standing Rock movement.

    Every day scores of Sioux from North Dakota, South Dakota and nearby states, along with Paiute, Shoshoni, Diné, and a sampling of other Natives from the 300 or so tribes whose flags fly at the Standing Rock encampments set out to pipeline construction sites in a convoy to engage in “actions” on the “front lines.”

    There the protectors sing and pray in the face of physical harassment and arrests by heavily armed police fused with a corporate security force.

    DAPL and their overlord company, Energy Transfer Partners, have lavished campaign contributions on politicians in North Dakota and the U.S. Congress so that they could use the state’s eminent domain powers to force purchase of land for the pipeline all across North Dakota, beginning in the Bakken fields in the northwest corner of the state where the fracked crude oil is extracted. Similar eminent domain arrangements were achieved in other states through which the 1,200-mile line traverses before reaching a river port in Illinois. The company promised Congress and the public that the pipeline would carry oil for 100 percent domestic use only, but it is clear from reporting done by the website The Intercept that the oil will be sold on international markets.

  • Though Promised for Domestic Use, Dakota Access Pipeline May Fuel Oil Exports


  • The DAPL line, now virtually complete except for permission from the Army Corps of Engineers to fill in the link that crosses under the Missouri River, passes just north of the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation and Cannon Ball, North Dakota. The DAPL construction runs through sacred burial and archeological grounds that the Lakota people were given free access to by treaties with the U.S. Government in the 19th Century. In mounting their resistance to the pipeline, the Standing Rock Sioux have been turned into “trespassers on their own land.”

    In late August, the tribe’s lawyers filed a stop work petition in federal court detailing areas where sacred sites would be disturbed if construction continued on its planned trajectory. The federal judge routinely forwarded a copy of the filing to DAPL. Over Labor Day weekend, when the company would not have been expected to work, pipeline crews leapfrogged to the disputed sacred and preemptively bulldozed them under. Too late, the judge granted the Sioux an emergency restraining order, but, then in a curious move, allowed construction in some areas where sacred sites have been discovered. DAPL has ignored a request from the Obama administration not to work in buffer areas on either side of the river. No fines have been imposed for intentionally bulldozing the disputed sacred sites.

  • The Legal Case for Blocking the Dakota Access Pipeline


  • Burial ground at center of police confrontations is known historical site


  • In recent live-stream videos from the front lines, DAPL-police snipers can be seen perched on top of a sacred mound called Turtle Island, their high-powered rifle crosshairs trained on the water protectors who are standing in prayer in the frigid lake below.

    North Dakota wants the federal government to pick up the tab for the massive expenditures required to keep the Native Americans under their guns. Alternatively, the CEO of Energy Transfers, Kelcy Warren, has offered to pick up the millions-of-dollars tab.

  • ETP CEO Kelcy Warren Says They Have Offered to Pay Protest Related Expenses


  • Native media have documented that DAPL has already been supplying military-style equipment, drones, armored vehicles, riot gear, water canons, concussion grenades and other armaments. The tax-payer-funded and corporate-sponsored front lines phalanx is led by the Morton County Sheriff’s Department, which has local jurisdiction, reinforced by North Dakota State Troopers, North Dakota National Guard units, sheriffs and police from six nearby states—all interpenetrated by DAPL security (while the FBI lurks in the background). A contingent of Hennepin County, Minnesota, Sheriffs’ Deputies were recalled following protests back home. Residents in the state of Ohio are writing letters and calling legislators to express their distress that their law enforcement has been enlisted into this repressive force.

  • Hennepin Co. sheriff's deputies leave Standing Rock protest


  • Native media’s live stream videos show DAPL security teams in mirror-visor helmets and black ops body armor with no identification, mingling with the police, sometimes directing them when and who to mace or pepper spray. They point out media making video for arrest. The big fossil fuel company evidently has plenty of experience dealing with protestors around the world. In their blank, reflecting visors we can see the soulless Darth Vader face of the government-corporate proto-fascist state the U.S. is becoming.

    Of course, this struggle with the Wasi’chu (Lakota word for the white man, meaning literally “takes too much”) is an old story for Native-Americans. In the 18th and 19th centuries it took the form of the Sioux nations trying to hold back the tsunami of colonizers flooding into their ancestral lands, occupying and despoiling them. The big difference now is that the fire-power of the state (think Custer’s 7th Cavalry or present day militarized police) has been fused with vast profit centers dependent for their existence on plundering the earth in the name of energy-squandering lifestyle survival.

    The provocations the water protectors endure take many forms. There is the psychological pressure of constant surveillance: the heavy police presence on the roads around tribal and reservation lands, the DPLA helicopter and a small plane that circle constantly above the encampments; there is the Bureau of Indian Affairs station set up on a knoll to suck out data from the cell phones of anyone in the area. There is the pepper spraying and tasing of water protectors who are praying. There is the more recent blasting of the protectors with freezing water canons in sub zero weather. There is the constant threat of weapons pointed at them. One twitching trigger finger could set off a slaughter.

    The water protectors are unarmed. The resistance movement does not allow guns in the encampments. One day, at one of the front line actions, an armed man showed up with a pistol and began firing. Possibly he was paid by DAPL to create an incident. The Natives are aware of paid provocateurs or agitators passing through the camps, pulling dirty tricks, looking to start something. Antimedia reported about the man with the gun: “According to an official statement from the tribe, the man fired several shots from his gun before being peacefully apprehended by tribal police. Witnesses at the scene say he pointed his gun at several protesters. The man was clearly trying to provoke violence that could later be used to demonize protesters who have so far remained peaceful.”

    The news site added, “The Morton County Sheriff’s Department circulated a false report claiming the man was shot, presumably by protesters… [As images show], the man was not harmed. The Sheriff’s Department has since retracted that report. Anti-Media’s attempts to obtain clarifying comments from Morton County Sheriffs were ignored.”

  • Dakota Access Caught Infiltrating Protests to Incite Violence, Funding Trolls Online


  • On a hill overlooking Oceti Sakowin, the largest of the Standing Rock encampments, an old army tent houses the field office of the rotating teams of lawyers who come to Standing Rock to help out. They use donations made to the resistance to bail out protectors who have been arrested; they try to negotiate with the police so the protectors can be allowed to pray. The constant arrests on trumped-up charges are an ongoing harassment—people maced or beaten, violently thrown to the ground and zip-tied. Often activists are charged with trespass and “riot” on the Morton County Sheriff’s novel legal theory that if several people are arrested for trespass that must signify that they were engaged in a riot.

    All this naturally requires court time and money to defend, incarceration in usually unpleasant conditions, including dog kennels. (Though the white allies who are arrested seem to get better treatment.)

    Arrests are to be expected as a consequence of civil disobedience. But some arrests are directed at chilling speech. One lawyer who came to Standing Rock from the Oregon-based Civil Liberties Defense Center, an activist defense nonprofit primarily involved in climate protests, https://cldc.org/ told Jordan Chariton of The Young Turks Network that often after the day’s action was over, police would stop the last cars in the caravan. They would then make “snatch and grab” arrests, impounding the cars of people who had come to support the water protectors but had no expectation that they’d be arrested when the action was over and the police told them to leave. They have to pay heavy fines ($900) to get their cars back. She said the arrests and impoundment fines for their cars are unlawful. “The intention with those types of actions is to scare out-of-towners from being comfortable coming to these actions. So they’re trying to chill the rights of others to come and participate in these protests.”

  • Environmental Lawyer Explains Standing Rock Legal Issues




  • The authorities regularly characterize the natives as terrorists, and local radio spreads false rumors of farm animals being slaughtered and stolen, reported vandalism—the kind of thing you would expect from psychologically projected homesteader fears about savage Indians of earlier centuries.

    Yes, Magazine on Oct. 31 reported: “The county sheriff is claiming the water protectors were violent and that police were stopping a riot. But hours of live video feed from people caught in the confrontation showed instead a military-style assault on unarmed people: police beating people with batons, police with assault rifles, chemical mace, guns firing rubber bullets and beanbag rounds, tasers.”

  • Why Police From 7 Different States Invaded a Standing Rock Camp—and Other Questions


  • The UN has sent human rights observers. According to Salon, Nov. 16, 2016: “The U.N. special rapporteur said that American law enforcement officials, private security firms and the North Dakota National Guard have used unjustified force against protesters.

    “ ‘This is a troubling response to people who are taking action to protect natural resources and ancestral territory in the face of profit-seeking activity,’ [Maina] Kiai [U.N. special rapporteur] said in his statement, which was issued by the Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights and was endorsed by several other U.N. experts.

  • Native Americans facing excessive force in North Dakota pipeline protests – UN expert


  • “At least 400 activists have been detained and often have been held in ‘inhuman and degrading conditions in detention,’ Kiai added. Some indigenous protesters have said they were treated like animals and even held in dog kennels.

  • Dakota pipeline protesters say they were detained in dog kennels; 268 arrested in week of police crackdown


  • “ ‘Marking people with numbers and detaining them in overcrowded cages, on the bare concrete floor, without being provided with medical care, amounts to inhuman and degrading treatment,’ the U.N. expert said.

    “ ‘The excessive use of State security apparatus to suppress protest against corporate activities that are alleged to violate human rights is wrong,’ he continued, noting that it violates U.N. guidelines on business and human rights.

    “Amnesty International USA, which has repeatedly criticized authorities for not respecting the rights of protesters, issued another statement on Tuesday noting that U.S. authorities had put up roadblocks to prevent journalists and human rights observers from documenting the protests and the official response.”

  • U.N. experts call for halt in Dakota Access pipeline, blast “excessive force” against protesters


  • Living on Earth reporter Sandy Tolan reflected: “You know, at times I felt I was back reporting in the West Bank, and not the Northern Plains…”

  • Standing With the Standing Rock Sioux


  • The Bundy crew was the cowboys, not the Indians

    Compare the government response at Standing Rock with the response occasioned by Ammon Bundy and his gang of armed militants when they occupied Oregon’s Malheur National Wildlife Refuge for over a month in January 2016. Imagine if the Bundy gang had been pepper sprayed, beaten, hit with water cannon, tased. But the Bundy crew were taking over the refuge to proclaim their belief that public lands should be given free to the profit-making private ranching business. In other words, the Bundy crew was the cowboys, not the Indians.

    The mainstream corporate media has largely ignored the stand-off at Standing Rock. Rallies have taken place around the world at places like Tokyo, Stockholm, and Auckland, but the sad truth is many foreigners have heard more about Standing Rock than Americans have. Not surprising. The news editors, working for corporate media conglomerates, choose what they believe we should know and what fits the larger corporate agenda, and so they devote massively more play to Brad Pitt, to the gossipy politics of who’s-on-first, and to whatever the latest glittering consumer thing is than they do to climate change and issues highlighted by the poor and the powerless, like Standing Rock. What coverage that does exist is usually cursory and misleading.

    Fortunately, alternative media have been on the scene and active at Standing Rock. As someone who taught journalism for more nearly 20 years, it has been refreshing for me to see what the alternative press is accomplishing.

    Amy Goodman of the webcast Democracy Now brought the prayer-resistance movement to national attention over the summer. She was arrested and charged with riot in absentia for her live reports of water protectors being set upon by dogs. The charge was later dismissed in court.

    Jordan Chariton of The Young Turks Network has done searching interviews and incisive commentary from the scene.

    But my absolute favorite news source at Standing Rock is Myron Dewey’s Digital Smoke Signals. Dewey does updates every day, which he posts on Facebook. I highly recommend anyone who has a Facebook account to “follow” him. I went to Standing Rock on Oct. 4-11 with two friends and I have since been able to keep up with developments on the ground through Dewey’s Facebook broadcasts. He posts live stream unedited clips that constitute what he calls an ongoing “documentation” of what is happening day-to-day at the movement.

    Here is Dewey at night standing on a hillside next to the Oceti Sakowin encampment. His face appears in the glow of his screen. Then he’s panning and zooming in on a large grassfire as he’s telling us about it. His finger appears in the screen and points out where the fire started. He says the helicopter which constantly circulates over the camp suddenly disappeared 20 minutes before they saw the first flames. He zooms to the area where he and the person he is with first spotted the fire. He says, “It looked like someone using a drip torch.” He says they called 911, but it’s been over an hour and the Morton County Fire Department hasn’t shown up. He tells the people in the camp, his audience, not to worry, though. It looks like the fire was started by DAPL employees to scare them or hurt them. But the Oceti Sakowin is full of Indians who supplement their income by wild-land firefighting, work that also benefits Mother Earth; he mentions that he is himself a “hotshot” firefighter [one of the elite crews]. He and his fellow firefighters can tell by the wind direction that the fire won’t harm the camp.

    Now here’s Dewey on a bright morning walking along the road by Oceti Sakowin. A young man appears on screen, and Dewey asks him who he is and why he’s here. He’s from the Paiute nation. “I’m here to protect the water,” he says. Dewey asks him to sing a Paiute song. The young man closes his eyes and sings.

    In another nighttime broadcast find we ourselves looking through a car windshield, headlights illuminating the highway, centerlines whizzing by. We hear voices talking in the backseat. The car drives on and on. We’re just watching the road. Then ahead is a police roadblock. The police van looms. Dewey gets out with his camera and calls over to the officers, asks them where they’re from, inquires about where the road blocks are, what are the open routes. At one level it’s a mundane exchange between a citizen and police, but you experience the edginess of the situation. More deeply, you feel the riskiness and pathos that is involved any human interaction. Dewey firmly exercises his right to have these protect-and-serve police respond to him civilly; he is cordial and respectful in a way that reinforces to them and to his viewers that he is after all not their enemy but a fellow human being. Dewey asks more questions and the lead officer says he doesn’t want to be filmed; Dewey offers to turn his camera away from them and onto himself. The distant officers disappear from the screen and Dewey’s face fills it. The contact officer walks nearer; we can hear his voice. Dewey can’t resist a joke, though. He asks the officer if he’s sure he doesn’t want to become famous by putting his face on Dewey’s screen? You realize these are just guys doing their job. Dewey understands that, but he also wants to educate them about the water protectors’ mission. He never misses an opportunity to educate his adversary, as well as his own people about the larger dimensions of the Standing Rock resistance. When he gets back in the car, someone in the back seat says “Let’s get out of here; this is enemy territory.” Dewey laughs, turning the car around, “It’s not enemy territory.”

    I believe you learn more about Standing Rock by watching Dewey’s unedited video than you ever could from watching any number of dramatically produced, commercially constricted reports on CNN, complete with the drumb-drumb latest crisis theme music.

    Dewey explains to his viewers that what they’re seeing is a “documentation” that’s not edited. “It’s not scripted. It’s not acted out.”

    After a month of watching Dewey’s daily reports I realize more fully than I ever have before how ghastly and vacuous mainstream news reporting is: a production where facts have been emptied of the humanity of real encounters, replaced by the shallow performances of reporters and news sources, slick, clichéd phrasing, behavior slotted into ready made categories, events analyzed and even predigested. The news about reality comes to us compartmentalized in trays like tasteless microwave dinners. Rarely is the reader or viewer allowed to simply experience the event unfolding through the reporter’s eyes or camera. The stories are crafted and slickly packaged. Their very polish and stimulating presentation sabotages their meaning and replaces it with a meaningless, artificial understanding.

    Note that I am not saying that the news these days is politically biased. Some obviously is, but the left or right bias charge is a serious red herring, a mis-direction. In fact, in mainstream media’s very effort to appear neutral and unbiased means events are chopped up and pieced together to fit the templates of a few hackneyed forms of storytelling: the winner-loser story, the conflict story, the individual overcoming obstacles story, the facing bad choices stories, he-said, she-said stories, scandal stories, hypocrisy stories. You’ve seen them all, repeatedly.

    Most of these templates come plated with a cynicism, skepticism, superiority, or sentimentality that grabs our attention by adding a dash of disgust. The current journalistic manner of telling stories reduces and dismisses the story in a way that sometimes makes the commercials and pop-up ads come as a relief. None of the common journalistic templates or attitude has much to do with real life as it’s lived in the moment. It’s not what people really experience in their lives. Instead, it’s how they’ve been conditioned to wrap up experience afterward in a dramatized way that leaches out the nuance, that leaves out the moment-to-moment uncertainty, or as the Lakota call it, the Wakan, the deep mystery of relationships that permeates every event. And that’s what Dewey’s broadcasts have in abundance. You get to see him interacting with the people who show up on his screen. You get to feel his humanity and the mystery of everyday relationships taking place at Standing Rock that he brings to light. It’s certainly not dramatic or melodramatic. It’s not interesting or stimulating in the usual way. It does seem really important.

    So when Dewey sits in his parked car and does an update video on “10 things to know about DAPL” (Nov. 18, 2016), there’s no editing and no script, meaning that you get to see him thinking through what those top 10 things might be. Some points he makes are incisive and comic, others not so much. But the not-so-much ones can lead you to thinking about gray areas, the imprecise observations we all make. He asks a guy who just got in the car to help out with his list and the guy, William Hawk Birdshead, goes immediately serious on him until Dewey says, “I was trying to keep it light.” So the Birdshead says, “Laughter is good medicine.” Suddenly they’re off. Dewey mimics the shifty-eyed look of the FBI guys lurking around the area and denying they are FBI, the DAPL security characters trying to look all steely and tough. We learn that in the encampments they say that “DAPL dresses up like Ninja Turtles.” You can tell that it’s DAPL undercover because those guys never drive rez cars, which are rusted and dented. Nobody is spared. Dewey describes the water protectors just arriving from California as dudes who’ve “got their animal spirits on… They’re all furred up. They’re coming in all mystical and crystals.” He and his buddy laugh, which Dewey says is laughter “in a good way,” because the whole thing going on at Standing Rock is deadly serious but you need laughter, because that’s good medicine for healing. And healing and praying are about “getting reconnected with the Earth.”

    This points to a major difference between anthropocentric prayer as most of us know it and earth-mind prayer. In the prayer that most people are familiar with, an individual seeks intercession for human needs with a transcendent being. The Native prayer is about healing not getting. The prayer is a community ceremony or song or ritual to maintain or restore the balance between and among beings, both animate and inanimate. Prayer is to all my relatives, all my relations, the birds, the water, the wind, the buffalo, my family, even those who oppose me as enemies. Mitakuye Oyasin is an important Lakota phrase that means “all my relations.” When you’re watching a Dewey update from Standing Rock you’re experiencing Mitakuye Oyasin in action. It’s newscasting as a kind of prayer, in the earth-mind sense. Whether he’s engaging in laughter or educating about the spiritual importance of water, you can see that what he’s getting at is healing relationships. Watching and listening, you get to be part of that healing.

    What Dewey does goes way beyond advocacy journalism.

    Our traveling companion for our visit to Standing Rock, Lakota elder Tiokasin Ghosthorse, also provides a good way to keep up with developments through the interviews he conducts for his weekly syndicated broadcast from WPKN in Bridgeport Conn. and WBAI in New York City. On Oct. 31, 2016, Tiokasin interviewed a young man who was seized on Oct. 27 when a frontline camp was destroyed by police. Trenton Joseph Castillas Bakeberg, in the bloodline of Crazy Horse, was praying in a sweat lodge when the militarized police swept through the camp. They yanked him out of the sweat lodge and arrested him. The young water protector told Tiokasin:

    “I pray that we’ll be able to keep a state of prayer and peace, as we have been… Although there’s some people on our side are more likely to tend toward violence. But there’s also people on our side to stop them. Don’t start a fight. That’s what it’s all about, keeping it peaceful because the elders told us in the beginning that all it takes is one single act of violence, one person attacking a police officer and they’ll unleash the fear on all of us. This wrath that we have with our military overseas, we’re beginning to see it now in the heart of our own country. All for the greed and the corporate interests of this government. They say we’re a democracy but it’s not showing anymore. The people didn’t want this pipeline, but this foreign entity that they call a corporation, Energy Transfers, is saying, we don’t care. We want this money. We need this for economic stability of the country and that somehow trumps the interests of our communities and our nation as a whole….We’re standing up to this corporate machine with prayer and love.”

  • Forcibly removed from prayer at Standing Rock


  • Against a heavily armed, corporatized democracy designed to ensure that only powerful business and political elites rule the land and possess the wealth of its objects, the Native-American people at Standing Rock stand in defense of Mother Earth armed with songs, prayers, and an understanding that Earth’s objects are us, and we are them. They are our relatives. It seems better armament than most of us Wasi’shu possess. Webster defines fascism as “a political system headed by a dictator in which the government controls business and labor and opposition is not permitted.” It’s an incendiary word, and readers might think ill of me for introducing it here. Certainly we are not a fascist state yet. But for the prayer-resistance at Standing Rock, the clear alliance between corporate and government interests to quell their opposition under color of the law has a fascist flavor.

    It should not surprise anyone that the new US president reportedly holds stocks that directly fund the Dakota Access Pipeline and that the DAPL CEO Kelcy Warren gave the Trump campaign a substantial donation.

  • Trump's Personal Investments Ride on Completion of Dakota Access Pipeline


  • This is how the proto-fascism works. Ironically (or perhaps absurdly), Trump may have been elected by people hoping he would somehow counter the tightening grip of multinational corporations on their lives. One might wish for that to happen.

    At a deep level, Standing Rock may suggest that such absurdities as a Trump presidency occur because our mode of consciousness is impaired or inadequate to the situation it has created on our planet at this historical time. Too many of us have gone dead to the natural world we come from. Our obsessive anthropocentric mode of consciousness has reduced nature and reality at large to a bunch of things we have names for—things that feed our greed. Fortunately, many Indigenous people have retained an acute and ancient consciousness that we are those rocks and trees and clouds, and birds and water that we see outside our windows, and that restoring our relationships with them is incumbent on us.

    John Briggs is emeritus distinguished Professor of Writing and Aesthetics from Western Connecticut State University. He was the English Department’s journalism coordinator for 18 years and was one of the founders of Western’s Department of Writing, Linguistics, and Creative Process. He is the author of several well-known books on chaos theory, fractals and creativity. He lives in the hilltown of Granville, Mass., where served as a Selectman for five years and as reserve police officer for 10 years.


    When people at Standing Rock talk about the black snake they mean the pipeline, referring to an old Sioux legend about a black snake that will threaten the end of the world. The Lakota prophet Black Elk said that in the seventh generation, the Sioux tribes would unite to save the world.

    Media covering the Standing Rock resistance movement:

  • Digital Smoke Signals


  • Myron Dewey, Facebook


  • The Antimedia


  • Democracy Now


  • The Intercept


  • The Guardian


  • Censored News


  • Unicorn Riot


  • Living on Earth


  • The Indigenous Environmental Network


  • Status of Standing Rock court claim



  •           Keeping harmful algae blooms out of Cincinnati water        

    Greater Cincinnati's Water Technology Innovation Cluster Confluence is putting on a private summit Wednesday to address ways of keeping harmful algae blooms out of the local water supply.

    Just this August a toxic algal bloom in Lake Erie near the Toledo water intake prevented nearly 500,000 residents from getting their drinking water for three days.


              WV chemical spill not affecting local water supply        

    The chemical spill affecting water supplies in a large portion of West Virginia has the Greater Cincinnati Water Works keeping a close eye on local water quality.

    "Currently the spill has not reached the Cincinnati area," says Communications Officer Michele Ralston.

    The spill occurred in the Elk River which is a tributary of the Kanawha River. The Kanawha flows into the Ohio River at Point Pleasant, West Virginia.


              ECO-IMPERIALISMO, HIDROELÉCTRICAS, MENTIRAS Y VERDADES        
    Esta mañana me encontré este artículo en el muro de un amigo http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2705631/el_quimbo_colombia_enelendesas_low_carbon_hydroelectric_racket.html. El artículo por un imperialismo ecológico critica el imperialismo económico, pero su crítica, aunque razonable en algunos puntos, no deja de tener el trasfondo errado de muchos ecologistas: ¡imponer condiciones a los países subdesarrollados para que los ecologistas de los desarrollados sigan contaminando en paz! Pero lo irónico es que The ecologist critica una de las fuentes de generación de energía renovable más bonitas, eficientes y que puede darle a la gente que vive en ese territorio que llaman Colombia fuentes de riqueza. Además, la crítica se hace de manera ligera pasando por alto las consideraciones del International Panel on Climate Change acerca de sus ventajas.  En el punto que acierta es precisamente en los abusos del estado sobre las comunidades, donde vale la pena resaltar que el aprovechamiento del potencial hidroeléctrico no da derecho a expropiar, en favor del que sea. 

    Este escrito consta de varias partes. El primero es que hay una confusión entre inversión extranjera y concesión de monopolios extranjeros, donde los ecologistas aciertan. Y para la aclaración cito a un a un profesor de la Universidad de New York, a Murray Rothbard. Luego, muestro que tras el ecologismo hay también imperialismo, pero uno que suele gustarle a ciertas izquierdas, uno que impone condiciones insoportables a los países pobres, para que los ecologistas nórdicos no tengan cargos de conciencia por prender la calefacción, dado que en las zonas tropicales hay selvas que se beneficiarán de su cariño al planeta. En ella explico que hay una falacia en cuanto a la consideración que hace el artículo de las hidroeléctricas, incluso basándome en el IPCC. Posteriormente, se muestra que las hidroeléctricas además de ser tecnologías que producen energía eficiente sin emisiones de CO2 (no se discute acá el tema de si el cambio climático es originado o no por el hombre) es una oportunidad de ofrecer energía barata. El precio de la energía se relaciona con el crecimiento económico, inclusive una disminución de la demanda de energía puede ser un indicio previo a una crisis económica. La energía eléctrica es clave en la industria y una energía más barata puede disminuir costos. Finalmente, ante un planteamiento del artículo que menciona las pérdidas de energía en transmisión y distribución (o sea los cables que llevan la energía de la planta a su casa) que denuncian a que se deben ¿a las leyes de la física? ¿a viabilidad técnica pero no económica? ¿a ineficiencia? Esto porque consideraban que era más importante disminuir las pérdidas que construir hidroeléctricas. Hasta cierto punto, por física, las pérdidas en transmisión son inevitables, no sé cuál sea el punto. Pero eso no es una excusa para no mejorar la oferta. 

    IMPERIALISMO ECONÓMICO Y MONOPOLIO ESTATAL
    El imperialismo ecológico es una realidad. Sin embargo, muchos partidos de izquierda al ser ecologistas están convencidos de que no es imperialismo. Ya Hayek denunciaba que existía una imposición de países ricos y contaminados que obligaban a países pobres y selváticos a generar amplias áreas protegidas. Esto genera como dice don Alpiniano en El Tomismo Desdeñado unos beneficios a unas personas que no les corresponden, imponiendo cargas a otros que no las merecen. Sin embargo, luego de que en estos países -como Colombia- nadie puede hacer nada, ni tiene cómo adquirir recursos para explotar sus ventajas ahí sí llegan empresas extranjeras que, haciendo convenios con el gobierno, adquieren los beneficios que los nacionales no han tenido. 

    Hace Murray Rothbard, citado por el instituto Mises Hispano una distinción importante entre la sana inversión extranjera y la alianza de empresas ricas con gobiernos ineptos pobres:

    "Los conservadores norteamericanos insisten en particular en resaltar ante los países retrasados las grandes posibilidades y la importancia de las inversiones privadas procedentes de los países avanzados, y les incitan a crear un clima favorable a las mismas, de modo que no se vean sujetas al instigamiento de los gobernantes. Todo ello es muy cierto, pero, una vez más, a menudo es irreal, dada la situación de estos países. Estos conservadores caen persistentemente en el error de no saber distinguir entre las inversiones exteriores legítimas del mercado libre y las basadas en concesiones monopolistas y en donaciones de vastas extensiones de tierras otorgadas por los Estados subdesarrollados. En la medida en que las inversiones exteriores se basan en monopolios y en agresiones contra el campesinado, en esa misma medida adquiere el capitalismo extranjero las características de los señores feudales y debe ser combatido con los mismos medios"

    En este sentido, estoy de acuerdo con el artículo -y en contra del imperialismo económico- en que el estado confunde inversión extranjera con monopolio extranjero. Y el monopolio es desagradable venga de donde venga, sea el monopolio estatal tan "nacional", como cualquier otro. Por eso, cuando Robledo, senador del Polo, defendía a los arroceros por la imposición ridícula de tener que comprar nuevas semillas estaba promoviendo algo anarcocapitalista y liberal, aunque con argumentos de izquierda. 

    Lo mismo pasa en este caso, si se trata de una inversión privada ¿por qué el estado entra y desaloja campesinos? ¿Por qué expropia? Y por más que la ley diga que la expropiación requiere una indemnización al precio del avalúo comercial, ¿es el avalúo comercial el precio de venta? Hombre, no estoy en momento de calcular las rentas campesinas vs las rentas hidroeléctricas, pero sospecho que las rentas hidroeléctricas son más altas. Ahora, si el campesino no quiere vender al precio que dice el avaluador ¿por qué le quita el estado su tierra bajo la excusa del "bien común" para las rentas particulares? No creo que si la transacción se diera en condiciones de libre mercado los campesinos salieran a protestar. Hay alrededor de un millón de kilómetros de líneas de transmisión eléctrica, y si uno viaja por carretera suele ver vacas o sembrados alrededor. ¿Por qué esos campesinos no protestan? Porque 1. esos terrenos no son expropiados sino que cuentan con servidumbres de paso, 2. Se suelen hacer arreglos de mercado. Hombre, hay casos de casos, pero en general no se ve un descontento generalizado. 

    Pero, no, la herramienta de la expropiación es el arma para el bien común, como en Venezuela que hay mucho "bien común", siendo tan paradisiado que prefieren venirse para Colombia. La expropiación existe pero tiene sus límites. En todo caso, sin estado Â¿quién expropiaría para que se hicieran las vías? 

    IMPERIALISMO ECOLÓGICO

    Sin embargo, las razones ecológicas que plantean para oponerse a las hidroeléctricas son más bien pobres. En primer lugar, las consideran también causa del calentamiento global. ¿Cómo? No quiero citar el artículo porque me da pereza pero la idea se resume en 1. cortan bosques tropicales que recogen el CO2, 2. son fuentes de Metano. Hombre ¿cómo un artículo que cita el Panel Intergubernamental sobre el Cambio Climático para defender a los campesinos y el agro sale a decir que son más contaminantes? En primer lugar, si uno revisa lo que dice el IPCC en materia de energía hidoeléctrica (sacaron un documento sobre energías alternativas) su resumen -de la IPCC- arranca así: "Hydropower offers significant potential for carbon emissions reductions" http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srren/Chapter%205%20Hydropower.pdf. Creo que en ese punto "The ecologist" se equivoca. 

    Por otro lado argumenta que las represas (reservoirs) son fuentes de Metano. La verdad, lo que dicen los científicos climáticos es que si bien el metano CH4 es un gas efecto invernadero, su absorción es más rápida que el CO2, una diferencia que va desde unas décadas en el metano, hasta miles de años para el dióxido de carbono. Además, de acuerdo con la siguiente imagen que proviene del último reporte del IPCC parte del CO2 proviene del uso de la tierra http://www.slideshare.net/fullscreen/IPCCGeneva/fifth-assessment-report-synthesis-report/11:
    Francamente, si queremos disminuir TODAS las emisiones humanas de CO2 hay que empezar por dejar de respirar. ¿Y todas las artificiales? Dudo que la energía que utiliza "The ecologist" sea propiamente energía que no emita CO2 -bueno, puede ser nuclear que no les gusta tampoco- pero no es de las "terribles" hidroeléctricas. 

    ¿Qué otra razón puede tener "The ecologist"? ¿Proteger los bosques de los países subdesarrollados? ¿Para qué? ¿Para que haya bosques que puedan chuparse el CO2 que producen sus plantas a carbón, gas, petróleo, etc. a costa de energía más costosa, menor productividad, entre otras, en nuestros países? ¿Para que ellos puedan seguir subsidiando sus industrias a cambio de que las nuestras no puedan competir en sus mercados por el costo de la energía?

    DEFENDIENDO LAS HIDROELÉCTRICAS

    LAGO CALIMA
    Lago Calima.
    Uno de los embalses en Colombia.
    En un apartado anterior cuestioné el manejo del monopolio estatal con la empresa. El estado es una asociación de políticos corruptos con empresarios ineficientes. Pero tanto la oportunidad a nivel de recursos hídricos que hay en Colombia, la eficiencia energética de las hidroeléctricas, su costo en comparación con las térmicas a base de carbón, gas, gasolina, su posibilidad de cambiar potencia (a diferencia de otras renovables de potencia inestable) y almacenar la energía, entre muchas otras, me hacen tenerle cariño a esta tecnología. Creo que en el punto anterior quedó desvirtuado que las hidroeléctricas tengan impactos a nivel global vía CO2 (lo que hacen es quitar el calmadero de conciencia de los ecologistas ricos que les permite seguir emitiendo CO2 bajo la tranquilidad que los bosques tropicales los recogerán). El metano no me preocupa realmente y creo que es una afirmación que no estaba fundamentada, al fin y al cabo, los embalses no son aguas estancadas. 

    El potencial hidroeléctrico de ese territorio que llaman Colombia es una maravilla. Eso sin contar con el potencial energético de otras tecnologías renovables como las fotovoltaicas por su ubicación terrestre, las mareomotrices, entre otras. Que cualquiera venga y lo explote es necesario, aunque en condiciones de mercado, no monopólicas ni imperialistas. Adicionalmente, la energía hidroeléctrica es más barata. En el siguiente gráfico hay un promedio de los precios mensuales en comparación al porcentaje de generación térmica en Colombia:

    Por puro azar puede observarse con claridad la correlación entre el porcentaje de generación térmica en Colombia y el precio constante (deflactado con IPC) de la energía. Como la gráfica de generación térmica de alguna manera encaja con la hidráulica (la cogeneración y la eólica representan porcentajes insignificantes) podría afirmarse que a mayor generación hidráulica en general menos precio. ¿Por qué se presentan esos baches en la generación? La razón es muy simple, el agua es renovable pero no predecible. Si uno mira las correlaciones de series de ingresos los caudales en dos o tres días tienen altas correlaciones, pero alrededor de dos meses -algo que corroboré con un ex empleado de ISA e ISAGEN- las correlaciones son nulas. 

    Hay incertidumbre en el ingreso del agua. Adicionalmente, en unas ocasiones por década se presenta el fenómeno del niño. El fenómeno del niño genera lluvias en Perú -un país desértico- y trae sequía a un país lluvioso como Colombia. Como el agua escasea hay que producir la energía con un sustituto: las termoeléctricas. El costo de la energía se dispara. En este momento parece que están las condiciones para que se dé el fenómeno del Niño si es que no estamos ya en él. De ese fenómeno se ha venido especulando desde que empecé a investigar este tema en Junio del año pasado (o sea el 2014). Esa especulación posiblemente también influye en los precios, el aumento de la producción térmica y la disminución de la hidroeléctrica porque ante el riesgo de escasez se empieza a guardar el agua. El profesor John Jairo García y otros de EAFIT en un paper al respecto proponía medir las expectativas de aportes al sistema en relación con el precio: 

    "Una variable importante sobre la determinación del precio en el mercado no regulado que debiera incluirse en estudios futuros son las expectativas climatológicas; en la medida en que se espere una disminución del recurso hídrico, generará expectativas de aumentos en el precio.". http://revistas.upb.edu.co/index.php/cienciasestrategicas/article/view/1093/1313

    La intuición tras el análisis es muy buena, pero dudo que pueda encontrarse una variable de expectativas climatológicas. Aunque si algo me soprendió de John Jairo era esa capacidad de creatividad econométrica. El caso es que la ventaja de tener un sistema donde el "combustible"que es el agua es variable, permite inferir que, al menos en las condiciones geográficas de los Andes Colombianas, es más barato que el uso de otros combustibles.

    Es así como la construcción de hidroeléctricas -aunque respetando los derechos de propiedad privada- es una necesidad para mantener bajos los precios de la energía. Hay muchos trabajos que buscan predecir el precio de la energía y lo hacen en función de variables hídricas. Pero nada mejor que leer los errores de las predicciones pasadas de los economistas. En este artículo participó mi amigo y profesor de econometría Mauricio Lopera y dice lo siguiente:

    " La coherencia del resultado se corrobora en el mes de enero de 2014, donde se aprecia una caída grande en el precio producto de la entrada en operación de El Quimbo y Sogamoso, las cuales en conjunto aumentan la oferta de electricidad en 1220 MW" http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/1552/155226077004.pdf
    Mauricio nos insistía mucho que verificáramos que el resultado econométrico coincidiera con la "intuición" económica.  El problema es que las predicciones se equivocan y fuertemente. En el artículo citado, se muestra que los precios caerían en enero de 2014, la razón sería lógica la entrada de hidrosogamoso y quimbo (que es la que menciona The ecologist). Los precios en 2014 en bolsa fueron altísimos, y apenas hoy 16/01/2015 leí que estaban inaugurando la planta de hidrosogamoso. Lo que es cierto es que esas plantas deberían influir en la disminución del precio por el aumento de la oferta, además, de un insumo mucho más barato como "combustible" que el carbón. En eso acertó el trabajo de Mauricio y otros. Pero el cómo o cuánto bajarán los precios no podemos calcularlo con exactitud. 

    DEFICIENCIAS DEL SISTEMA
    Los cables suelen dañar las fotos de paisajes.
    Pero ¿no puede haber buenas fotos de cables de alta tensión?

    El sistema de energía que nace con las leyes 142 y en concreto 143 de 1994 tiene muchas deficiencias. Aunque la L143/94 trataba de dar paso a un modelo más parecido al de un mercado, esa distinción del mercado regulado del consumidor de energía hace que nos saquen un ojo de la cara porque sus precios están muy por encima de los de bolsa; aunque relativamente influidos por ellos como lo mostraba el profesor John Jairo García. El modelo aunque avanza hacia tratar de liberar lo que considera de mercado y regular lo que considera "monopolio natural" se queda corto. Pero realmente si hay algo aburrido es la regulación del sistema de energía, como todas las regulaciones. Hablemos más bien de leyes bonitas, las del "fatum" o de la naturaleza... las humanas dan asco. 

    Quiero enfocarme más en los problemas que mencionaba "The ecologist" y es las "pérdidas" de energía del sistema de transmisión y distribución. Una de las leyes de la física es la ley de la entropía. Básicamente consiste en que aunque la energía no se destruye, solamente se transforma, se degrada a formas de energía más "desordenadas". Básicamente la energía se transforma en "calor", o que es lo mismo que movimiento y vibración molecular. Utilizaremos el término "pérdida" de energía en un sentido amplio, o económico, pero entendiendo que solamente es una transformación no utilizable.  Esta es la razón por la cual no existe una máquina perfecta, sin desgaste y de movimiento absoluto. Por esta razón los relojes de péndulo necesitaban que les dieran "cuerda". 

    De esta manera, por cada 1 KWh (3.600.000 Joules) que produce uno recibe una cantidad menor de energía porque esta se ha "pérdido" transformándose en calor. Esto se debe a que los transformadores -que no entiendo cómo funcionan pero cambian el voltaje- generan pérdidas, la transmisión de energía puede generar calor, en la costa el desgaste de los cables genera pérdidas. Todo esto, como me decía un ex trabajador del sector eso es parte del costo de la energía. Dice textualmente "The ecologist" que se pierde alrededor del 16% de la energía generada:

    "Yet the Government is neglecting simple options to raise power supply - like reducing the high level of losses in transmission and distribution, which run at about 16% of power generation and amount to some 10,000 GWh per year - more than four times the energy production of El Quimbo."
    Pero es que por las leyes de la física: ¡tiene que "perderse" parte de la energía generada! De la energía potencial del agua embalsada el 80%-90% se transmite por medio de la electricidad y el 10%-20% se "pierde" o sea se transforma en "calor". ¡Y es de las más bajas! Las térmicas pierden el 59% de la energía contenida en el combustible, las nucleares el 70%  (CARTA GONZÁLEZ, CALERO PÉREZ, COLMENAR SANTOS, CASTRO GIL, & COLLADO FERNÁNDEZ, 2013, pp. 113-114). Puede que pueda perderse menos bajo un mantenimiento mucho más costoso, o puede que efectivamente pueda perderse menos. El caso es que siempre se va a "perder" algo de la energía. 

    Puede que The Ecologist tenga razón en que se aumente la eficiencia energética. Algo que puede ser inviable o física o económicamente. Pero eso no es razón para impedir que se produzcan plantas de producción de energía eléctrica, es bueno aumentar la oferta por todos los medios. 

    Lo que no puede el gobierno es ordenar que se cree energía, ni que no se degrade una parte en otras formas. Gracias a Dios las leyes de la física son inderogables, imprescriptibles, inembargables, anteriores al ser humano mismo. ¿Puede imaginarse una ley que cree energía? El Congreso de Colombia Decreta "Créase energía a partir de la nada...". Gracias a Dios eso no es posible, no soy capaz de imaginarme la inflación energética lo que produciría, al menos la moneda de la naturaleza es absolutamente neutral. O una ley que diga "Derógase la gravedad", el totazo que se pegarían de cuenta de creer en su validez sería de lo lindo...

    IN CONCLUSIÓN
    En primer lugar pido perdón al lector por tratar la energía de una forma tan política. Es decir, es demasiado pobre, aunque no más pobre que el Ministro de Minas que confundió potencia con energía, pero ¿quién es uno para cuestionar a los "doctores" Ministros? ¡De pronto ignoro una ley que asimila energía con potencia! En segundo lugar, no es esta, ni más faltaba una defensa al régimen de energía eléctrica Colombiana, tan no lo es, que arranco dándole la razón a los ecologistas en que muchas de esas empresas grandes y concesionadas arrasan con las comunidades. El problema de esas empresas grandes, no es la falta de estado, por el contrario, su exceso, lo que falta es libertad. 

    Lo que sí creo es que en sanas condiciones de mercado y con precios justos a los dueños de las tierras, la construcción de hidroeléctricas es una de las ventajas que tiene este territorio geográficamente llamado Colombia. Es vital empezar a utilizar en este territorio las ventajas que ofrece el desarrollo de miles de tecnologías de energía renovable, como la solar, la mareomotriz, la eólica y la más fuerte la hidroeléctrica. En esta región se podría utilizar un potencial enorme para producir energía barata, renovable y libre de elementos contaminantes. Esta energía se podría exportar. ¿Por qué no hay líneas de transmisión a Panamá y Centro América? ¿Por qué no hay líneas de transmisión al Perú? ¿Imposibilidad logística? ¿No serán más bien los elevados costos regulatorios -que agudizan las barreras de entrada- sumado al monopolio estatal? ¿O el monopolio de la transmisión es "natural"? 

     BIBLIOGRAFÍA
    Casi todas las citas salen de internet así que si no refiero la fuente, está el link. Las formalidades APA o lo que sea me parecen demasiado engorrosas para escribir informalmente. Con el internet debería bastar con el link. El único libro que cito, con todas las normas mamonas para probar su existencia, es:

    CARTA GONZÁLEZ, J. A., CALERO PÉREZ, R., COLMENAR SANTOS, A., CASTRO GIL, A., & COLLADO FERNÁNDEZ, E. (2013). Centrales de energías renovables. Generación eléctrica con energías renovables. (P. E. S.A. Ed. SEGUNDA ed.). Madrid, España.




              VLO and Oil        
    VLO and oil in general are taking a hit right now because of the warm winter (see article below), but I think VLO and oil will do well in the long term. There are many variables in the price of oil, and warm weather is only one of them. The winter is not over yet, there's still a chance colder weather will appear. The middle east conflicts also affects oil prices. If there is a shortage in supply, oil prices will go up. Odds are, the the prices of oil will go up in the long term. I'll hold on my shares of VLO. Verdict: HOLD on VLO ----------------------------------------- Source: Scottrade News 1/2/2007 Oil Prices Face Warm Weather, High Stocks The new year began with a whimper, weatherwise, in the world’s biggest heating oil market. In New York City, temperatures on the first day of 2007 hit a peak of 54 degrees - 45% above normal and 10 degrees warmer than the first day of spring 2006. The current spring-like weather - in line with forecasts - looks likely to put strong pressure on heating oil and crude oil futures prices when trading resumes on the New York Mercantile Exchange on Wednesday. But there’s more afoot that can rile the market than just the warmest December on record in Boston, in the heart of New England, where heating oil inventories stand at their highest level since 1998. Latest revised data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration show oil demand in October in the U.S. - the world’s largest oil consumer - was 2.7% lower than expected, though still 2.5% above a year ago. The new figures put demand at 20.757 million barrels a day in October - some 567,000 barrels a day below earlier indications - as demand figures for heating oil, gasoline and jet fuel were reduced. EIA’s preliminary data would have put October demand at 21.324 million barrels a day, the highest level since December 2005. The weakness at the start of the fourth quarter calls into question whether U.S. demand will manage to post even the modest year-to-year gain of 1.25% to 21.05 million barrels a day, which EIA forecasts would make it the strongest quarter of 2006.
              Pigs brutally stabbed with swords on Spanish pig farm to supply leading UK Supermarket Morrisons        
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              Online or Store Bought Legal Forms Are Dangerous        

    Potential clients frequently ask me why they should not buy contract forms online or from an office supply store. Why pay for an attorney when I can buy a legal form for a nominal fee?  I understand the inclination to go online because its entirely at your convenience and it is undoubtedly cheaper.  However, this comes at […]

    The post Online or Store Bought Legal Forms Are Dangerous appeared first on Blog: News & Legal Articles from Our Team.


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              MODEX 2012 Includes WTG Supply Chain Finalist Liftn Buddy        
    MODEX 2012 Includes WTG Supply Chain Finalist Liftn Buddy in early February
              MODEX Exhibitor Ergologistics Finalist in WTG Supply Chain Awards        
    MODEX Exhibitor Ergologistics Finalist in WTG Supply Chain Awards
              Hand Truck Leader Lift n Buddy Finalist for Supply Chain Awards        
    Electric Hand Truck Leader Lift n Buddy Finalist for Supply Chain Distinction Awards
              Supply Chain Distinction Awards Has Lift n Buddy on Shortlist for Recognition        
    Supply Chain Distinction Awards Has Lift n Buddy on Shortlist for Recognition
              Lift n Buddy Profiled by Manufacturing Journalist TR Cutler        
    Lift n Buddy Profiled by Manufacturing Journalist TR Cutler in WTG Manufacturing and Supply Chain News
              WTG Manufacturing and Supply Chain News Looks at Lift n Buddy to Avoid Back Injury        
    WTG Manufacturing and Supply Chain News Looks at Lift n Buddy to Avoid Back Injury
              Start Your Own Building Maintenance Business        
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              Why FamilySearch Is Ending Microfilm Rental & How to Get Genealogy Records Now        
    Guest blog post by Family Tree Magazine Contributing Editor Sunny Jane Morton



    For 80 years, the FamilySearch Family History Library (FHL) has made its enormous stash of microfilmed genealogy records available to researchers through an inexpensive rental service through local FamilySearch Centers.

    That's about to change: FamilySearch has announced that this service will end Aug. 31. Reasons include declining demand for film, dramatic increases in the costs of reproducing films, and the difficulty of supporting aging microfilm technology.

    It’s easy to be dismayed by the news, even when you acknowledge it was bound to happen. Many of us have solved family history mysteries with these microfilmed records. 

    Fortunately, most FamilySearch microfilm is already been digitized and posted on the free FamilySearch website or another genealogy site. That's more than 1.5 million rolls, including the most popular ones. “The remaining [eligible] microfilms should be digitized by the end of 2020," according to the announcement. "All new records from its ongoing global efforts are already using digital camera equipment."

    I've been a grateful user of the film rental program. And the millions of records FamilySearch makes available online for free more than offset offsets this inconvenience to my research.

    But after Aug. 31 and before 2020, what can we do about accessing records that aren't yet digitized? Try these seven ideas:

    1. Keep using the FamilySearch online catalog of the FHL's books and microfilmed records.
    You can order microfilm up through Aug. 31 (click here to see how); you'll get 90 days to view the film. When digitized films are posted at FamilySearch, the item's catalog entry links to the online collection. Even if you don’t find a borrowable item in the catalog, it's useful for identifying records you may be able to access elsewhere (see below). Here are our tips on searching the catalog.

    2. Check other libraries.
    If you find a noncirculating item described in the FamilySearch catalog, click the link to view the catalog record in WorldCat.



    It'll take you to this item's listing in WorldCat, a free catalog of holdings in libraries around the world. You'll see libraries that have the item, and link to their lending policies. You may discover records in other formats, such as digitized, in a book or original manuscript records.

    3. Search for digitized versions of the records.
    Search the web for the names and descriptions of records you've identified in the FamilySearch catalog. You may find digitized versions at free sites such as HathiTrust, Internet Archive, state library websites, and others. Also search the database catalogs on genealogy websites such as Ancestry.com, MyHeritage and Findmypast.

    4. Visit a genealogy library such as ...
    5. Use library lookup and photocopy services.
    Some libraries fill requests for lookups and photocopies for a fee. Check the website or call for instructions; usually, you must provide the book or microfilm title and specifics such as a name, date or page number. Firms offering research at the FHL include Genealogists.com.

    6. Hire a researcher.
    If you need someone to search through records—not just check an index or flip to the page you specify and copy it—consider hiring a researcher by the hour. Many libraries offer in-house research services, or they may supply a list of local researchers.

    7. Find original records.
    It might be easier to access original records, if they exist, than microfilmed versions. Start with the FamilySearch catalog listing. Look for the name of the repository that provided the original records (often under "Author"). Search that repository’s website to see if the records are still there. Another option is to search ArchiveGrid, a catalog of archival items in US repositories. Here's how to use ArchiveGrid.

    FamilySearch's renewed focus on digital efforts means its free online genealogy resources will grow even faster. Watch ShopFamilyTree.com for my Aug. 21 webinar on the free FamilySearch website, in which I'll share my search tricks for getting the most out of this website.

    Meanwhile, grab my must-have comparison of the "big three" commercial sites, Ancestry, Findmypast and MyHeritage. I'll help you decide which one's right for you.

    SaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSave
              First Look at New Orbital Welding Power Supply        

    read more


              [Article] Air-Sealing Tips for Efficiency That Lasts // Part 1: Start on the Drawing Board        
    We founded 475 High Performance Building Supply with one primary goal: being a resource for professionals in North America who want to build airtight. Over the years we’ve worked with everyone from tiny-house enthusiasts in Southern California to the firms building the world’s largest Passive House in New York, and we’ve learned endless lessons on how to integrate strategies for long-lasting airtightness. The bulk of what we’ve learned is applicable to all buildings, regardless of size, shape, use, or type. Thanks to a deepening understanding of its value, and to advances in the ...
              The generic drug market ‘is at risk now’ from deflation, trade group says        
    An imbalance in supply and demand is the cause of recent pain in the generics industry, said trade group chief.
              Westinghouse to Supply Advanced Safety System to Ukraine Nuclear Power Plants        

    Westinghouse Electric Company today announced that it has been awarded a contract by the National Nuclear Energy Generating Company of Ukraine (NNEGC Energoatom) to provide a passive hydrogen control system for VVER Units 1 and 2 at the Zaporizhia Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine.

    (PRWeb October 30, 2014)

    Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/11/prweb12289598.htm


              Westinghouse Recognizes Czech Moravian-Silesian Region Fundamental to Temelin AP1000® Reactor Success        

    Westinghouse recognizes Czech Moravian-Silesian region fundamental to Temelin AP1000® reactor success; identifies 28 local companies with the potential to supply the project, including companies within the Vítkovice Machinery Group; unveils successful fabrication of demonstration module section of AP1000 plant; warns further interruptions in the Temelín tender will undermine and postpone socio-economic benefits to region and the Czech Republic.

    (PRWeb March 26, 2014)

    Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/03/prweb11705193.htm


              4 Ways to Use Fresh Mint in the Kitchen        

    Mint is a summer staple in many herb gardens that is known for being very easy to grow. So what do you do with an abundant supply of fresh mint? The Different Types of Mint Before we get into all the tasty ways to use fresh mint, let’s look at two of the most common more...

    The post 4 Ways to Use Fresh Mint in the Kitchen appeared first on Natural Factors.


               Normal service is resumed        
    Hello everyone! 

    It seems like a long time ago since I last posted but it's only been 24 days. In that time I've been to Donegal for two weeks and my cousin from Ireland came to visit me here in Bedford. I have had a wonderful three weeks and it was also good to have a break from blogging! I did miss everyone else's blogs and have tried to catch up since I returned.

    I'm going to dedicate this part of the post to Fiona of 'Made in a Muddle' here. Fiona has a mobile home in France and asked me to do a post about about my mobile home in Ireland - so here goes.

    The site we stay at  is at the top of a hill and has about 180 mobile homes in total. It is split into two separate areas by a road. There is a children's playground; a green play space with trees and tyre swings; a football/tennis/basketball pitch; picnic sites and a hut for wet weather activities, on site. There are also woods to the rear of the site, two nearby lakes and lots of local beaches.  Our mobile home is on the upper slope of the hill and at the end of a row. It is a truly beautiful spot and we are surrounded by mountains.

    We are 17 miles from the town of Donegal; 3.5 miles from Killybegs and about 7 miles from Ardara. There is a garage cum post office cum grocery shop cum deli at the bottom of the hill, about 4 miles away and it's our nearest shop.

    Image may contain: sky, cloud, house, plant, tree, outdoor and nature

    This is 'Ruby Super' hereafter referred to as the 'caravan'. She is a static caravan or mobile home made by Atlas and was originally made in the mid to late 1990s. I bought her in April 2014 after I retired in March. I had the wooden decking/patio and base around the caravan made especially. Ruby Super has three bedrooms but can sleep eight people as the seating area in the living area pulls down into a double bed.


    There is no central heating but I do have a gas fire in the living room and two other electric heaters. However, electric voltage is is limited in a caravan and you learn pretty quickly how many electrical items can be in use at the same time. When the electricity is 'tripped' it's only a short walk to the decking to 'throw' the switch. As it can get very cold, in the evenings especially, I always have a good supply of throws and blankets which are stored in the large basket.




    I like the layout in the caravan  - apart from the sleeping areas and bathroom, everything else is open plan. From the kitchen window and two of the bedroom windows I can see St. John's Point which is one of the longest peninsulas in Ireland.  The peninsula is separated on either side by McSwyne's Bay and Inver Bay; which feed into Donegal Bay and the North Atlantic Ocean. On a clear day, I can also see Ben Bulben mountain  across Donegal Bay in Co. Sligo. If you look very carefully at the picture below, in the distance on the left hand side you can just make out Ben Bulben. There were very few clear days on this trip but when it is clear it's as if I can lean out of the window and touch the sea!



    The kitchen is compact but has lots of storage space. I have no washing machine but there is a laundry on site with two washing machines and two tumble dryers. They are not free; unfortunately...


    This is the bathroom. There is a shower to the left of the photo.


    There is a separate loo



    One double bedroom complete with another wardrobe of clothes, shoes, jewellery and perfume!


    Two twin bedrooms.

    When we've been away from the caravan between September to Easter, the caravan suffers from mildew. We leave plates of salt and humidifiers (non electrical) bought at hard ware shops to help with the mildew. This year we've left the blinds up and curtains open to maximise any sunshine and warmth; until I return in July. The caravan heats up really quickly when it's sunny. 

    We also have to pack any clothing or textiles, including bedding, away in plastic bags to avoid them becoming mildewed. If we were able to visit more frequently this would be less of an issue. So far though, it has been the only problem we've experienced and we love Ruby Super. When I return in July, I shall be applying weather protection stain to the decking and washing the outside of the caravan with a mop and bucket. Thanks to Fiona for alerting me to this - it was in the terms and conditions,  but I had completely missed it!

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------

    Are you ready for some outfit posts? Not many I'm afraid; I was too busy having a good time!


    I only managed one selfie with the selfie stick. Everything charity shopped. Cardigan; 50p at a jumble sale, top; £1.00 rail somewhere, can't remember where I bought the trousers.


    All jewellery and headscarf charity shopped.

    When OH arrived we spent a day in Derry.


    Taken outside the Guildhall in Co.Derry. Everything charity shopped except the bag; online retail and the boots; Christmas present. The mac is by Max Mara and I bought it for 4 euros at my favourite charity shop in Killybegs, Co. Donegal. I also bought a pair of brown trousers and a green and black pair of trousers there for 2 euros each and a tunic by Apricot for 3 euros. It was a chilly day in Derry hence the gloves and scarf!




    I'm standing against the wall that once surrounded the city of Derry. This plaque is in memory of all those who were killed  by weapon systems within the city and district of Derry.


    Another part of the wall. 
    OH and I had a really good rummage in the charity shops of Derry on Easter Saturday. There were nine in total that we found and only one was closed. I was quite restrained for a change (!) and bought a necklace in a hospice shop and a Desigual tunic top in the Red Cross shop; where I got discount bringing the price down from £6.00 to £4.80! On the way to Derry we stopped at Ballyboffey to have a rummage and I bought a pair of trainers and a pair of walking shoes for 99 cents each. In the Donkey Sanctuary charity shop I bought a ring for 5 euros and a couple of books.


    This picture was taken in Letterkenny, where we stopped for a meal on the way back from Derry. I have no idea what the sculpture is and there was no information about it that I could see.

     We also spent a day in Sligo where we went rummaging as well as visiting family. I bought some white jeans for 2.50 euros and a couple of bangles. I also visited another cousin and his wife in Mullaghmore, Co. Sligo before OH came out. This the view of the Atlantic from their garden:

    On that occasion my cousin's wife, Martina and another cousin Caroline, and I, went walking around the base of Ben Bulben. It was a beautiful walk and we had two dogs with us who were very well behaved throughout. 

    And other than reading, eating, sleeping, a bit of walking, listening to the radio and starting (finally) a new crochet blanket, I did very little else! 

    Only another 100+ rows to go....
    I'll post about my cousin's visit in my next post. It's good to be back!

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              Canadians Advocate Boosting Vitamin D in Pregnancy        

    A Canadian medical society recommends pregnant women and nursing moms boost their intake of vitamin D dramatically

    Food for Thought

    Canadian pediatricians certainly aren't shirking controversy when it comes to a vitamin guideline they've developed for pregnant women and nursing moms. They're asking these women to boost their intake of vitamin D dramatically—to 10 times the daily doses advocated by most health organizations in the States. This new prescription is aimed at combating rickets—leg deformations caused by soft bones—in youngsters who get too little of the sunshine vitamin.

    Vitamin D helps build strong bones by helping the body absorb calcium. Getting pregnant and nursing women to take more of the vitamin ensures that plenty will reach developing children.

    In the past, most people had little trouble getting enough vitamin D—they just went outdoors where ultraviolet rays from the sun trigger chemical reactions in skin to make this vital nutrient. However, some people always had trouble making enough. Canadian kids at highest risk of vitamin deficits generally live in First Nations and Inuit communities. With sun-filtering pigments in their skin, and living at high latitudes, they must glean most of their vitamin D from the diet—generally a poor source—not the sun.

    Most North American women—including those in the United States—eat diets delivering only about 100 international units, or IU, of vitamin D daily, according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM), in Washington, D.C. That is half of what IOM recommends and a mere 5 percent of what Canadian pediatricians are now advocating for new and soon-to-be moms.

    Although IOM's dietary recommendations are for the United States, the Canadian health establishment has tended to rubber stamp them. In this case, though, Canada's health agency took the unusual tack of signing off on a Canadian Paediatric Society proposal to boost the recommended intake by women who are pregnant or breast feeding to 2,000 IU per day. This new guideline appears in a consensus statement published in September by the society in its journal, Paediatrics & Child Health.

    Soon the society will begin sending its new guideline to every provincial, territorial, and aboriginal health department across Canada, notes Marie Adèle Davis, the group's executive director. The goal, she told Science News Online, is to make sure all public health officials learn about it—not just pediatricians.

    The higher recommendation equals the amount that IOM has designated as the safe upper limit for vitamin D's daily consumption. Most nutritionists don't really consider that value is a true ceiling for safe intake—especially since sunbathing on a bright summer day can generate 10,000 to 20,000 IU in the body without harm. Still, for political and legal reasons, most organizations shy away from advocating intakes near what IOM has flagged as a potential maximum for safe consumption.

    Now a number of researchers suspect that intakes by pregnant and lactating women much below 2,000 IU per day could actually prove unsafe for child health.

    Reinhold Vieth of the University of Toronto explained why, recently, to officials with Health Canada, a counterpart to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. To prevent rickets, he argued, a baby needs 400 IU of vitamin D per day. And in many parts of Canada, he said, nursing women may require several thousand IU of vitamin D per day to get 400 IU into their breast milk. Vieth had been recruited by the Canadian Paediatric Society to help defend its proposed guideline to government officials.

    U.S. physicians won't quibble over the 400 IU figure for babies and young children, notes pediatrician Frank R. Greer, chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP) committee on nutrition. Although the 1997 IOM report says 200 IU of vitamin D per day should be sufficient for anyone under 50—including children—few researchers buy that. "Everybody feels that we should be taking more than 200 IU," says Greer, of the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

    Unlike the Canadian Paediatric Society, though, "We [at AAP] don't really have any influence on what pregnant and lactating women take," Greer says. "However, I can say that AAP's committee on nutrition has recommended to the board that we go back to [recommending] 400 IU for all children." That's the amount in a teaspoon of cod liver oil—the vitamin D supplement of choice throughout the early 20th century. Greer expects his committee's recommendation to be approved by AAP's board, perhaps within the next month.

    Optimal needs vary

    For most of the past century, nutrient guidelines have been set to prevent gross deficiencies—shortfalls that could cause disease. Those recommendations tended to represent minimally adequate intakes. Over the past decade, however, considerable debate has surrounded what vitamin D consumption levels would be optimal versus merely adequate.

    The controversy has been fueled by a steady stream of studies that have emerged since the IOM set its vitamin D guidelines. Nearly all demonstrate substantial health benefits from relatively high intakes of vitamin D—amounts well in excess of what most individuals now get. Moreover, those benefits extend well beyond protecting bone. More vitamin D seems to diminish the risk of cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, muscle loss, viral infections—even gum disease.

    Researchers gauge vitamin D sufficiency on the basis of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-HD). This is not the form of the vitamin that is consumed—nor the hormonal form that the body actually uses—but an intermediary. To achieve optimal concentrations of 25-HD, growing numbers of nutrition and health scientists suggest, most of us would need intakes of 800 to 4,000 IU per day (see Vitamin D: What's Enough?).

    How much vitamin D someone needs can vary widely, largely depending on the amount of skin that gets exposed to the sun each day—and for how long. Further complicating the picture, some skin is heavily pigmented, filtering sunlight out. Many people cover up with clothes or sunblock when they go outdoors. Still others live at high latitudes—as Canadians do—where little ultraviolet radiation makes it through the atmosphere during much of the year.

    Even for women in the southern United States, however, "we've found that lactating women need about 6,000 IU a day to transfer enough vitamin D into their milk to supply adequate amounts to a nursing infant," says Bruce W. Hollis of the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston.

    Nor are nursing moms the only individuals who may need relatively large doses of the vitamin. Hollis' research has shown that black women may sometimes need 4,000 IU a day for months at a time to compensate for little time outdoors, heavy skin pigmentation, and/or obesity—a factor that appears to diminish the body's ability to use vitamin D efficiently (see Understanding Vitamin D Deficiency).

    Another reason for moms' supplementation?

    In March, researchers at Harvard Medical School reported evidence that ample vitamin D diminishes the chance a child will develop asthma, a scourge who's incidence has been rising, especially in black and low-income communities (see Childhood Vitamin D—A New Benefit?). Recently, an additional putative benefit has emerged for pregnant women and their developing babies.

    A study linked elevated risk of preeclampsia—high blood pressure that develops in some women during the last half of pregnancy—with low intakes of vitamin D. This condition, which can lead to miscarriage and even the death of the mother—ordinarily develops in some three to seven percent of first pregnancies.

    Pittsburgh researchers enrolled 1,198 women who were pregnant for the first time and measured their blood concentrations of vitamin D within the first 22 weeks of gestation. Subsequently, 59 women developed preeclampsia. Blood values from all but four were compared to a similar group of recruits who maintained normal blood pressure throughout their pregnancies.

    The higher a woman's blood concentrations of 25-HD, the lower her chance of developing preeclampsia—and that risk fell steadily and "strikingly" with increasing vitamin D values, Lisa M. Bodnar of the University of Pittsburgh and her colleagues found.

    Moreover, babies whose moms had developed preeclampsia were far more likely to have low vitamin-D values than were children whose moms had maintained normal blood pressure. "These differences were found in our population despite widespread prenatal/multivitamin use in the 3 months before delivery," Bodnar's group reports in the September Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

    Black women face far higher risks of developing this hypertensive syndrome. Overall, black women are also far likelier than other ethnic or racial groups to have low blood levels of vitamin D. Against this backdrop, Bodnar's group says, "our data linking vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia risk raises the intriguing possibility that vitamin D may contribute to racial disparities in this [syndrome]."

    "The story of deficiency begins with vitamin D itself and its primary mode of synthesis, which is from sunlight," argue Adekunle Dawodu of the University of Cincinnati and Carol L. Wagner of the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston. In a commentary in the September Archives of Disease in Childhood, they report a resurgence of rickets around the world, not only in children at high latitudes, but also in the Arab world and Asia where culture or excessive temperatures may keep women and children indoors or covered up.

    A shift from vitamin-D sufficiency to widespread deficiency has occurred rapidly—mostly throughout a half-century. The reason for it is clear, Dawodu and Wagner say: "insufficient sun exposure and inadequate corrective vitamin-D supplementation." They conclude, much as the Canadian Paediatric Society just has, that dosing moms during pregnancy and lactation "would achieve the double effect of preventing vitamin-D deficiency in both mothers and children." But unlike the Canadian society, they note that doses considerably higher than 2,000 IU may be necessary for some individuals and communities.

    As a goal, achieving population-wide vitamin D sufficiency "may be one of the more important preventative public health initiatives," conclude Dawodu and Wagner.


    If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

    Citations

    American Academy of Pediatrics

    141 Northwest Point Boulevard

    Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098


    Lisa M. Bodnar

    Department of Epidemiology

    University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health

    A742 Crabtree Hall

    130 DeSoto Street

    Pittsburgh, PA 15261


    John J. Cannell

    Psychiatry Department

    Atascadero State Hospital

    10333 El Camino Real

    Atascadero, CA 93423

    Marie Adèle Davis

    Canadian Paediatric Society

    2305 St. Laurent Boulevard

    Ottawa, Ont. K1G 4J8

    Canada

    Frank R. Greer

    Department of Pediatrics

    University of Wisconsin, Madison

    Madison, WI 53792

    Bruce W. Hollis

    Department of Pediatrics

    Medical University of South Carolina

    P.O. Box 250917

    171 Ashley Avenue, Room BM326

    Charleston, SC 29425


    Reinhold Vieth

    Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

    Mount Sinai Hospital

    600 University Avenue

    Toronto, ON M5G 1X5

    Canada
    Further Reading

    Cannell, J.J. In press. Autism and vitamin D. Medical Hypotheses. Abstract available at [Go to].

    Dijkstra, S.H., et al. 2007. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of high-risk mothers. Archives of Disease in Childhood 92(September):750-753. Available at [Go to].

    Moore, C.E., M.M. Murphy, and M.F. Holick. 2005. Vitamin D intakes by children and adults in the United States differ among ethnic groups. Journal of Nutrition 135(October):2478-2485. Available at [Go to].

    Raloff, J. 2007. Childhood vitamin D—A new benefit? Science News Online (May 19). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2007. Childhood vitamin D—A dark side? Science News Online (May 12). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2006. The antibiotic vitamin. Science News 170(Nov. 11):312-317. Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2005. Breathing easier with vitamin D. Science News Online (Dec. 17). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2005. Vitamin D boosts calcium potency. Science News Online (Nov. 12). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2005. Understanding vitamin D deficiency. Science News Online (April 30). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2004. Vitamin D: What's enough? Science News 166(Oct. 16):248-249. Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2004. Vitamin boost. Science News 166(Oct. 9):232-233. Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2004. Should foods be fortified even more? Science News Online (Sept. 11). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2000. Calcium may become a dieter's best friend. Science News 157(April 29):277. Available at [Go to].

    Williams, A.F. 2007. Vitamin D in pregnancy: An old problem still to be solved? Archives of Disease in Childhood 92(September):740-741. Available at [Go to].

              Quality        
    A key component of the Los Angeles County ECE landscape, in addition to access and workforce, is the quality of the ECE services available. While access deals with the available supply of ECE services to meet the needs of the population, and workforce focuses on who is providing care to young children, quality is considered…
              Corsair AX860i 80Plus Platinum 860W ATX Zwart power supply unit        

    Normale prijs: € 249,95

    Aanbiedingsprijs: € 229,95


              LaCie Bigger Disk Power Supply        

    Normale prijs: € 45,95

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              Hewlett Packard Enterprise J8713A 1500W Grijs power supply unit        

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              SAN DIEGO COMIC CON!!! 2012 edition        
    hey everybody,


    I'll be at the San Diego ComicCon friday and saturday roaming around.  I will mostly be signing at the SLG (booth #1815) selling my books and t-shirts, from time to time i'll be doing sketches at the Cartoon Art Museum Sketch-a-thon (booth #1930), and of course I'll be at the Adventure Time panel (in the audience not on the panel) if I can get in.

    My schedule at the SLG booth:
    friday 11:30 - 1:00  2:30 - 5:30
    saturday just  2:30 - 5:30

    I have no schedule at the CAM Sketch-a-thon so check my twitter feed for updates on when I'll be there.

    map of my where-a-bouts at the con



    I'll also have a limited supply of prints and zines for sale at the tr!ckster store and of course my new wallet design will be on sale at the Poketo table (booth 4634).

    here's where the trickster store is.  





    please come by and say hello,


    -a



              Purchasing & Production Manager        

    Production & Purchasing Manager | Full Time Position

    Bazzaz, Inc. is seeking to fill a full-time position for a Purchasing & Production Manager. 

    Bazzaz is a designer and manufacturer of superior-quality motorcycle & ATV electronics and dynamometers located in Chino Hills, CA. We are committed to providing customers the very best experience which we believe stems from hiring the best employees. For more information on the company please visit bazzaz.net.

    Location: Chino Hills, CA

    Description: Seeking an individual who will plan, organize, and control production at Bazzaz Z-Fi fuel controller factory, which produces harnesses, strain gages, and printed circuit boards. Candidate must be committed to ensuring that Bazzaz products are produced efficiently, on time, within budget and to the highest quality standard. Issues Purchase Orders for the raw materials. Candidate should be solution-driven and acutely focused on quality. Listed below are the basic duties and requirements of the position:

      • Supervises production assembly team of 12-20 persons. Subordinates perform assembly of products or sub-assemblies according to verbal or written instructions, or by following drawings or diagrams. Provides work direction and reviews work performance.
      • Responsible for light maintenance of production machinery for harnessing and SMT.
      • Production Planning and ability to apply LEAN manufacturing techniques.
      • Manages the purchasing function according to department policy and procedure. Accepts and scrutinizes vendor bids or proposals. Selects sources based upon analysis. Arranges vendor contracts, bargains for best costs, and observes quality of purchased materials. Prepares reports and required documents. Organizes activities with sales, engineering, production, or warehouse personnel.
      • Manages inventory of materials, parts, and finished product to maintain required supply. Maintains records, replenishes stock, and plans for future requirements based on orders, production schedules and forecasts. Strives to achieve JIT.
      • Quality assurance - Manages quality assurance operations for the factory. Comes up with new ideas to enforce and improve quality programs. Monitors Production Department's conformance with QA standards and procedures. Conducts quality assurance training for employees engaged in materials handling or product assembly. Suggests methods for improving product quality or design, or manufacturing processes.
      • Manages shipping & receiving staff. With an emphasis on efficiency and accuracy.
      • Provide production updates to Bazzaz Team.
      • Harness Documentation / Create BOM.
      • Assist R&D.
      • Reports to Vice President.

    We are looking for a responsible, highly motivated and detail oriented individual, who wants to be part of a growing and dynamic company. This person must be a problem solver, have a get it done attitude, and enjoys working with a team. Bazzaz is on the leading edge of technology in the motorcycle aftermarket industry and this position plays a critical role in delivering the ultimate customer experience.

    Desired Qualifications:

      • Minimum of a 2 year degree.
      • Minimum of 2 years of experience in production and/or purchasing for wiring harnesses and/or printed circuit board assembly.
      • Winning attitude. Must be a team player and enjoy working in a fun yet focused atmosphere.
      • Experience with MRP/ERP software.
      • Computer literate with accurate data entry skills.
      • Able to read a wiring diagram.
      • Person shall demonstrate competency when using scales and other hand tools. Individuals should exhibit strong communication and organizational skills.
      • Mechanically inclined.
      • Ability to lift 50 pounds.
      • Bilingual in Spanish and English, preferred but not required.

    Benefits:

      • Starting salary is $40-50K annually, based on experience.
      • After six months eligible for company Health/Dental/Vision Insurance.
      • 1 week vacation. 6 Paid personal days. Paid Holidays.
      • Monthly bonus plan.

    Applicant must successfully pass a drug screening, E-Verify, and background check in order to qualify.

    Bazzaz, Inc. is an at-will, equal opportunity employer. If you believe yourself to be a good candidate and meet all requirements, please e-mail a brief description of your qualifications and resume to jbuxton@Bazzaz.net.

    *Position descriptions and anticipated skills acquired are neither conclusive nor definite and can be expected to change throughout term of employment. 


              Elon Musk promises to fix South Australia’s electricity woes in 100 days        

    Tesla CEO Elon Musk has promised to fix the Australian state of South Australia’s electricity crisis in 100 days – or it’s free. For context, South Australia has recently experienced a series of electricity blackouts. The causes of this are twofold: demand exceeding supply, and recurring failures in the state’s power generation infrastructure. On Thursday, Lyndon Rive, Tesla VP for Energy Products and Solar City CEO, said that the company could install between 100 and 300 megawatt hours of batteries. It also said that the company could do the same in the neighboring state of Victoria, which lingers under the…

    This story continues at The Next Web
              Happiness is a Warm Goat Cheese        
    Hadass and LouiseMaking chevre
     The lovely Louise May (she of chicken-at-city-hall fame) taught a cheese-making class at The Food Studio last night, and I was privileged to attend.

    Louise has a herd of goats on her farm that she milks herself, and she demonstrated making cheese from commercially available (i.e., pasteurised) local goat's milk, licensed under the Manitoba Dairy Act, as well as raw milk from her farm, which is not.

    The Manitoba Dairy Act prohibits the sale of raw dairy in Manitoba, which is very unfortunate for those of us who would prefer it. A farmer may use it for herself or her dependants, but she can't legally even give it away to anyone else, let alone make a living from it. There are many reasons to consider raw milk far superior to pasteurised milk, which is severely denatured. While I understand the public health concerns, it seems to me that a good inspection policy should be able to shut down any farm that operated in unsanitary conditions. It is quite insane that fast food is legal in Manitoba but raw milk is not. Definitely a campaign to consider once Louise is done with the urban chickens!

    In any case, we learned how to make chevre, ricotta and feta, all of which turn out nicely with commercial milk, and mozzarella, which in general does not. We were able to compare the milk-curdling capabilities of apple cider vinegar and lemon juice (the apple cider won in terms of flavour). We learned about mesophilic starter culture and vegetable rennet (not made from baby calf stomach lining, yay).

    Gorgeous chevreCurdling milk The Queen of Cheese Making (and source of all the recipes we learned) is Ricki Carroll, founder of the New England Cheesemaking Supply Company. She was mentioned in Barbara Kingsolver's wonderful book (and the beginning of my journey into making stuff rather than buying it): Animal, Vegetable, Miracle: A Year of Food Life (affiliate link).

    Ricki's recipes are available online, but also neatly compiled into a book, Home Cheese Making: Recipes for 75 Homemade Cheeses (also an affiliate link). 

    Because nothing is ever perfect, I did have one complaint - I would have liked Louise to have given us a handout. With so many different kinds of cheese on the go, it became quite confusing to keep track of what goes into what. While I intend to acquire the book (or download my favourite recipes if I am feeling cheap), it would have been easier to make notes on a handout while they were fresh in my mind.

    In conclusion, a lovely time was had by all, there was much laughter and discussion as well as some serious learning. If you are interested in artisanal cheese, Louise's classes are a great way to get into it.

    Addendum: Louise's recipes can be found at http://aurorafarm.ca/recipes/.















              Bees in the baobab        

    The Bedik people came to south-east Senegal from Mali in the thirteenth century. They now number around 8,000 people, living in and around seven villages in the hills of this remote corner of Senegal. I came to spend a few days in the ‘capital’ of the Bedik country, the village of Iwol.

    Bees are an important part of the history of Iwol. When Alpha Yahya attacked them from his base in Guinea to convert them to Islam, they fled into the surrounding hills, hiding in the caves. But realising that they could not defeat Yahya and his army, they offered their 12 fittest young men as a sacrifice to the village’s guardian spirit so that the village could be saved. The spirit accepted this offering and sent a swarm of bees to attack Yahya’s soldiers. The stings were so bad that they all fell down dead on the spot (only Yahya himself survived), and the Bedik got their village back.

    At one side of the village is an old, gnarled baobab tree, some 23m in circumference. This sprouted, many centuries ago, over the burial place of some members of the Camara family – which somehow makes it sacred. As the bees now nest in it I suppose it is doubly sacred.

    A nice by-product of this is the honey, which the Bedik add to palm wine to make a delicious mead drink.

    Whilst many of the Bedik are now Catholic, they are at the same time still animist – having decided, apparently, to maintain this alongside their Catholicism so as not to lose their traditions. An important part of those traditions is the annual initiation ceremony by which the boys of this and nearby villages come of age. Whilst the whole initiation takes some five months, much of it taking place out in the sacred forest, it begins with a public ceremony in the village and it was this I had come to see.

    It starts with the presentation by each boy of a cockerel to the village spirit. The cockerel is slaughtered, cut open, and the colour of the inside of its testicles checked – a healthy white and the boy may be initiated, but if this is black then further consultations with the spirits are required. In the worst case it may be decided that it would be bad luck for the boy to be initiated and he has to come back again the next year. Thankfully this possibly traumatic experience (for the boy) is rare, and this year all 18 boys were able to continue.

    The cockerel is plucked and cooked over the coals, then skewered with a big stick that is placed in the roof of the initiate’s home, to mark his location. Then the masks appear from the hills – men from the village in a mask costume made from raffia and leaves – carrying big sticks and hunting for the boys. They find the huts with the chickens and try to take the boys, but the villagers are prepared and protect the boys whilst fighting back against the masks with their own big sticks. It is all quite chaotic and it seems some people do end up with some big bruises, but everyone involved sported big grins – it is obviously an event that the villagers really enjoy!

    Over the following few days one can hear occasional drumming and shrieking coming from a specially built little hut in the middle of the village, and the boys emerge from time to time to parade around. Their appearance is suggestive of girls at this point, with an elaborate hairdo and earrings, and they stamp their feet rhythmically as they move, so a bunch of iron hooks dangling on their backs jangle loudly. I didn’t get the whole of the story behind these parades, but the boys move as if exhausted, and have one or two villagers who support each of them – although occasionally the boys throw off that support and try to make a run for the church at the top of one hill, from where the girls are watching the ceremony. They are always caught and pulled back before they get there, however.

    This goes on for some four days but everyone told me I should stay as the ceremony ends with a massive celebratory dance which the whole village attends in their best attire. This dance was supposed to start Tuesday afternoon and go on all day Wednesday, but on Tuesday nothing happened (my guide told me it was because the women had work to do, both the regular work such as the long walk to the well to collect water but also the preparation of food to give to those organising the initiation). On Wednesday the atmosphere was a little different, and there was plenty of millet beer being drunk all around. So much millet beer though that the final dance never happened. I was disappointed, but had to remind myself that it was a part of the village life, and that it was this real village life (rather than dances put on for tourists) that I had come to see. Perhaps if they were better at organising things they would not still be living in a picturesque village without a water supply, holding traditional animist ceremonies, and the women would no longer be wearing porcupine quills through their noses.
              WANT TO MAKE GOOD & EASY MONEY DURING THE HUNGRY GHOST FESTIVAL? TRY THIS!        

    As the Gate of Hell opened last night, scores of Singaporean began the age old tradition of burning incense and money to the deceased. But did you know, for the brave, desperate and foolhardy, this is also the time to strike it rich and make some serious cash.

    Rumour has it that selling salt in a cemetery is one of the easiest ways to earn fast money. Wanting to preserve their decomposing bodies/states, spirits roaming the Earth need salt, lots of it to maintain their presence. And when there's a demand, supplying this demand would make one loads of money.

    First, any prospective salt seller has to pack his salt into multiple packets such that his supply will never run out for the night. After that, just before dusk, make his/her way to a suitable spot in the cemetery and sit down comfortably while bowing your heads. Then comes the waiting game, the salt seller has to be patient and follow the rules of this trade.

    It is rumoured that the two important rules are: 1) Never look up at all times during his stint in the cemetery 2) Never fall asleep or leave the selected spot until the day breaks. If one violates any of these rules, your life would be in grave danger.

    If one is able to resist the urge to peep at the "customers", the buyers would put the money onto the seller's hands after taking the salt. When the morning finally arrives, quickly pack up and leave with your stack of money. According to those who tried it before, these are not hell bank notes but cold hard legal tender.

    Are you brave enough to try this out this 7th Month?

    Editor's Note: 

    Do you have a story to share? Please use our submission form or email us at editorial@allsingaporestuff.com. If not, why not give us a 'Like'?

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              BZU Declares MA/MSc Supply Exams Result 2017        
    Multan, Baha Uddin Zakariya University Multan has conducted the MA/MSc supply exams 2016 in the subjects like Arabic, Botany, Physics, Political Science, Zoology part 1 and Statistics part 1 and 2. Now the exams department of BZU declared the BZU MA/MSc result 2017 after checking of the papers and preparation of the master degree supply [...]
              wood carving kitchen knife        
    Wood carving faq for wood carver wannabees, If you do not know if there is a wood carving supply store in your area, i would suggest that you first set up a support system .. Knife engraving, metal engraving, wood carving, glass, Metal engraving with the 400xs and the power carver high speed engraver. www.scmart.com… Read More »
              When farming is your life….and then it’s gone.        
    Takes about 3 minutes to sell a cow, takes about a life time to build a herd to sell.  – Ivor Jones. A few years back, I met Marianne and her daughter, Liz, in the parking lot of  Tractor Supply in Cobleskill, NY – I was bringing them chickens.  Marianne and I met via the
              Watch: Five friends, one van and the search for powder in Japan        

    Japan is known for its seemingly endless supply of powder in the winter months, but what happens when it’s unusually dry? This past season, skiers Cody Cirillo, Mark Nowakiwsky and Carson Morford, snowboarder Grant Giller and filmer Tucker Brumley, set off to the Land of the Rising Sun for two weeks—living in a van, experiencing […]

    The post Watch: Five friends, one van and the search for powder in Japan appeared first on Freeskier Magazine.


              1000 Payday Loans Cash Advance: An ideal way of finance        
    Financial assistance by the source of lending institutes is a reliable source at the time of financial failure but only for good creditors and for whom, can perform all the formalities that are declared by the lenders for approval. If you converse about this agreement with the lenders of traditional loans and bad creditors, it is not liked so simple for them. Mostly lenders reject the approval request of the people who are suffering from bad credit past. If you are also having bad credit problems, you can opt for the lenders of 1000 Payday Loans Cash Advance. This is an easy and instant lending alternative that can supply the hard cash to the applicant just within hours with all their default, arrears, bankruptcy and other reasons of bad credit.




    Loan approval by the source of any traditional loans will not come easily at the time when applicant have some unpaid bills with their name but the terms of 1000 Payday Loans Cash Advance makes it suitable and unproblematic for applicant to access the finance by an effortless and convenient manner without the tension about their credit past. Including with all that, the online proceeding of this loan becomes fortunate thing for the people to get cash only in hours. By this course of endorsement the applicant do not need to collect a lot of papers to fax with the application form and does not require any collateral to pledging against the loaned amount. To attain the financial support by the source of 1000 Payday Loans Cash Advance the applicant have to fill an online application form where they have to provide all the relevant details as like all the personal details, residential details, banking account details and some more.




    As above explained that faxing, credit verification, and collateral is not the clause of loan of lenders of this loan for approval but they grant the loan on the basis of some personal details and employment. The terms of lenders for the agreement of the loans are the applicant must be above 18 years of age and should be employed for the past few months with the earning amount of $ 1000 monthly. Along with it, the applicant should also have a 6 months valid bank account. The applicant has to send all these details the lender of the loan via an online application and after implementation, submit it over the website of the lender and inside a span of minutes the applicant will be the get in touched of lender. Once the details of application are verified, the applicant can draw the approved amount from their bank account within 24 hours of applying that ranges between of $100 and $1500 for the repayment duration till the salary day.


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              CD-i 180 adventures        
    Over the last week I have been playing with the CD-i 180 player set. There’s lots to tell about, so this will be a series of blog posts, this being the first installment.

    The CD-i 180 is the original CD-i player, manufactured jointly by Philips and Sony/Matsushita, and for a score of years it was the development and “reference” player. The newer CD-i 605 player provided a more modern development option but it did not become the “reference” player for quite some years after its introduction.

    The CD-i 180 set is quite bulky, as could be expected for first-generation hardware. I have added a picture of my set to the Hardware section of the CD-i Emulator website; more fotos can be found here on the DutchAudioClassics.nl website (it’s the same player, as evidenced by the serial numbers).

    The full set consists of the CDI 180 CD-i Player module, the CDI 181 Multimedia Controller or MMC module and the CDI 182 Expansion module. The modules are normally stacked on top of each other and have mechanical interlocks so they can be moved as a unit. Unfortunately, I do not have the CDI 182 Expansion module nor any user manuals; Philips brochures for the set can be found here on the ICDIA website.

    Why am I interested in this dinosaur? It’s the first mass-produced CD-i player (granted, for relatively small masses), although there were presumably some earlier prototype players. As such, it contains the “original” hardware of the CD-i platform, which is interesting from both a historical and an emulation point of view.

    For emulation purposes I have been trying to get hold of CD-i 180 ROMs for some years, there are several people that still have fully operational sets, but it hasn’t panned out yet. So when I saw a basic set for sale on the CD-Interactive forum I couldn’t resist the temptation. After some discussion and a little bartering with the seller I finally ordered the set about 10 days ago. Unfortunately, this set does not include a CDI 182 module or pointing device.

    I had some reservations about this being a fully working set, but I figured that at least the ROM chips would probably be okay, if nothing else that would allow me to add support for this player type to CD-i Emulator.

    In old hardware the mechanical parts are usually the first to fail, this being the CDI 180 CD-i Player module (which is really just a CD drive with a 44.1 kHz digital output “DO” signal). A workaround for this would be using an E1 or E2 Emulator unit; these are basically CD drive simulators that on one side read a CD-i disc image from a connected SCSI hard disk and on the other side output the 44.1 kHz digital output “DO” signal. Both the CDI 180 and E1/E2 units are controlled via a 1200 baud RS232 serial input “RS” signal.

    From my CD-i developer days I have two sets of both Emulator types so I started taking these out of storage. For practical reasons I decided to use an E1 unit because it has an internal SCSI hard disk and I did not have a spare one lying around. I also dug out an old Windows 98 PC, required because the Philips/OptImage emulation software doesn’t work under Windows XP and newer, and one of my 605 players (I also have two of those). Connecting everything took me a while but I had carefully stored all the required cables as well and after installing the software I had a working configuration after an hour or so. The entire configuration made quite a bit of mechanical and fan noise; I had forgotten this about older hardware!

    I had selected the 605 unit with the Gate Array AH02 board because I was having emulation problems with that board, and I proceeded to do some MPEG tests on it. It turns out the hardware allows for some things that my emulator currently does not, which means that I need to do some rethinking. Anyway, on with the 180 story.

    In preparation for the arrival of the 180 set I next prepared an disc image of the “OS-9 Disc” that I created in November 1993 while working as a CD-i developer. This disc contains all the OS-9 command-line programs from Professional OS-9, some OS-9 and CD-i utilities supplied by Philips and Microware and some homegrown ones as well. With this disc you can get a fully functional command-line prompt on any CD-i player with a serial port, which is very useful while researching a CD-i player’s internals.

    The Philips/Optimage emulation software requires the disc image files to include the 2-second gap before logical block zero of the CD-i track, which is not usually included in the .bin or .iso files produced by CD image tools. So I modified the CD-i File program to convert my existing os9disc.bin file by prepending the 2-second gap, in the process also adding support for scrambling and unscrambling the sector data.

    Scrambling is the process of XORing all data bytes in a CD-ROM or CD-i sector with a “scramble pattern” that is designed to avoid many contiguous identical data bytes which can supposedly confuse the tracking mechanism of CD drives (or so I’ve heard). It turned out that scrambling of the image data was not required but it did allow me to verify that the CD-I File converted image of a test disc is in fact identical to the one that the Philips/Optimage mastering tools produce, except for the ECC/EDC bytes of the gap sectors which CD-I File doesn’t know how to generate (yet). Fortunately this turned out not to be a problem, I could emulate the converted image just fine.

    Last Thursday the 180 set arrived and in the evening I eagerly unpacked it. Everything appeared to be in tip-top shape, although the set had evidently seen use.

    First disappointment: there is no serial port on the right side of 181 module. I remembered that this was actually an option on the module and I had not even bothered to ask the seller about it! This would make ROM extraction harder, but I was not completely without hope: the front has a Mini-DIN 8 connector marked “CONTROL” and I fully expected this to be a “standard” CD-i serial port because I seemed to remember that you could connect standard CD-i pointing devices to this port, especially a mouse. The built-in UART functions of the 68070 processor chip would have to be connected up somewhere, after all.

    Second disappointment: the modules require 120V power, not the 220V we have here in Holland. I did not have a voltage converter handy so after some phone discussion with a hardware-knowledgeable friend we determined that powering up was not yet a safe option. He gave me some possible options depending on the internal configuration so I proceeded to open up the CDI 181 module, of course also motivated by curiosity.

    The first thing I noticed was that there were some screws missing; obviously the module had been opened before and the person doing it had been somewhat careless. The internals also seemed somewhat familiar, especially the looks of the stickers on the ROM chips and the placement of some small yellow stickers on various other chips.

    Proceeding to the primary reason for opening up the module, I next checked the power supply configuration. Alas, nothing reconfigurable for 220V, it is a fully discrete unit with the transformer actually soldered to circuit board on both input and output side. There are also surprisingly many connections to the actual MMC processor board and on close inspection weird voltages like –9V and +9V are printed near the power supply outputs, apart from the expected +5V and +/–12V, so connecting a different power supply would be a major undertaking also.

    After some pondering of the internals I closed up the module again and proceeded to closely inspect the back side for serial numbers, notices, etc. They seemed somewhat familiar but that isn’t weird as numbers often do. Out of pure curiosity I surfed to the DutchAudioClassics.nl website to compare serial numbers, wanting to know the place of my set in the production runs.

    Surprise: the serial numbers are identical! It appears that this exact set was previously owned by the owner of that website or perhaps he got the photographs from someone else. This also explained why the internals had seemed familiar: I had actually seen them before!

    I verified with the seller of the set that he doesn’t know anything about the photographs; apparently my set has had at least four owners, assuming that the website owner wasn’t the original one.

    On Friday I obtained a 120V converter (they were unexpectedly cheap) and that evening I proceeded to power up the 180 set. I got a nice main menu picture immediately so I proceeded to attempt to start a CD-i disc. It did not start automatically when I inserted it, which on second thought makes perfect sense because the 181 MMC module has no way to know that you’ve just inserted a disc: this information is not communicated over 180/181 interconnections. So I would need to click on the “CD-I” button to start a disc.

    To click on a screen button you need a supported pointing device, so I proceeded to connect the trusty white professional CD-i mouse that belongs with my 605 players. It doesn’t work!

    There are some mechanical issues which make it doubtful that the MiniDIN connector plugs connect properly, so I tried an expansion cable that fit better. Still no dice.

    The next step was trying some other CD-i pointing devices, but none of them worked. No pointing devices came with the set, and the seller had advised me thus (they were presumable lost or sold separately by some previous owner). The only remaining option seemed to be the wireless remote control sensor which supposedly uses RC5.

    I tried every remote in my home, including the CD-i ones, but none of them give any reaction. After some research into the RC5 protocol this is not surprising, the 180 set probably has a distinct system address code. Not having a programmable remote handy nor a PC capable of generating infrared signals (none of my PCs have IrDA) I am again stuck!

    I spent some time surfing the Internet looking for RC5 remotes and PC interfaces that can generate RC5 signals. Programmable remotes requiring a learning stage are obviously not an option so it will have to be a fully PC-programmable remote which are somewhat expensive and I’m not convinced they would work. The PC interface seems the best option for now; I found some do-it-yourself circuits and kits but it is all quite involved. I’ve also given some thought to PIC kits which could in principle also support a standard CD-i or PC mouse or even a joystick, but I haven’t pursued these options much further yet.

    Next I went looking for ways to at least get the contents of the ROM chips as I had determined that these were socketed inside the MMC module and could easily be removed. There are four 27C100 chips inside the module, each of which contains 128Kb of data for a total of 512Kb which is the same as for the CD-i 605 player (ignoring expansion and full-motion video ROMs). The regular way to do this involves using a ROM reading device, but I haven’t gotten one handy that supports this chip type and neither does the hardware friend I mentioned earlier.

    I do have access to an old 8 bit Z80 hobbyist-built system capable of reading and writing up to 27512 chips which are 64Kb, it is possible to extend this to at least read the 27C100 chip type. This would require adapting the socket (the 27512 is 28 pins whereas the 27C100 has 32 pins) and adding one extra address bit, if nothing else with just a spare wire. But the Z80 system is not at my house and some hardware modifications to it would be required, for which I would have to inspect the system first and dig up the circuit diagrams; all quite disappointing.

    While researching the chip pinouts I suddenly had an idea: what if I used the CD-i 605 Expansion board which also has ROM sockets? This seemed an option but with two kids running around I did not want to open up the set. That evening however I took the board out of the 605 (this is easily done as both player and board were designed for it) and found that this Expansion board contains two 27C020 chips, each containing 256Kb of data. These are also 32 pins but the pinouts are a little different, so a socket adapter would also be needed. I checked the 605 technical manual and it did not mention anything about configurable ROM chip types (it did mention configurable RAM chip types, though) so an adapter seemed the way to go. I collected some spare 40 pin sockets from storage (boy have I got much of that) and proceeded to open up the 180 set and take out the ROM chips.

    When determining the mechanical fit of the two sockets for the adapter I noticed three jumpers adjacent to the ROM sockets of the expansion board and I wondered… Tracing of the board connections indicated that these jumpers were indeed connected to exactly the ROM socket pins differing between 27C100 and 27C020, and other connections indicated it at least plausible for these jumpers to be exactly made for the purpose.

    So I changed the jumpers and inserted one 180 ROM. This would avoid OS-9 inadvertently using data from the ROM because only half of each 16-bit word would be present, thus ensuring that no module headers would be detected, and in the event of disaster I would lose only a single ROM chip (not that I expected that to be very likely, but you never know).

    Powering up the player worked exactly as expected, no suspicious smoke or heat generation, so the next step was software. It turns out that CD-i Link already supports downloading of ROM data from specific memory addresses and I had already determined those addresses from the 605 technical manual. So I connected the CD-i 605 null-modem cable with my USB-to-Serial adapter between CD-i player and my laptop and fired off the command line:

    cdilink –p 3 –a 50000 –s 256K –u u21.rom

    (U21 being the socket number of the specific ROM I chose first).

    After a minute I aborted the upload and checked the result, and lo and behold the u21.rom file looked like an even-byte-only ROM dump:
    00000000  4a00 000b 0000 0000 0004 8000 0000 0000 J...............
    00000010 0000 0000 0000 003a 0000 705f 6d6c 2e6f .......:..p_ml.o
    00000020 7406 0c20 0000 0000 0101 0101 0101 0101 t.. ............
    This was hopeful, so I restarted the upload again and waited some six minutes for it to complete. Just for sure I redid the upload from address 58000 and got an identical file, thus ruling out any flakey bits or timing problems (I had already checked that the access times on the 27C100 and 27C020 chips were identical, to say 150ns).

    In an attempt to speed up the procedure, I next attempted to try two ROMs at once, using ones that I thought not to be a matched even/odd set. The 605 would not boot! It later turned out that the socket numbering did not correspond to the even/odd pairing as I expected so this was probably caused by the two ROMs being exactly a matched set and OS-9 getting confused as the result. But using a single ROM it worked fine.

    I proceeded to repeat the following procedure for the next three ROMs: turn off the 605, remove the expansion board, unsocket the previous ROM chip, socket the next ROM chip, reinsert the expansion board, turn on the 605 and run CD-i Link twice. It took a while, all in all just under an hour.

    While these uploads were running I wrote two small programs rsplit and rjoin to manipulate the ROM files into a correct 512Kb 180 ROM image. Around 00:30 I had a final cdi180b.rom file that looked good and I ran it through cditype –mod to verify that it indeed looked like a CD-I player ROM:
      Addr     Size      Owner    Perm Type Revs  Ed #  Crc   Module name
    -------- -------- ----------- ---- ---- ---- ----- ------ ------------
    0000509a 192 0.0 0003 Data 8001 1 fba055 copyright
    0000515a 26650 0.0 0555 Sys a000 83 090798 kernel
    0000b974 344 0.0 0555 Sys 8002 22 b20da9 init
    0000bacc 2848 0.0 0555 Fman a00b 35 28611f ucm
    0000c5ec 5592 0.0 0555 Fman a000 17 63023d nrf
    0000dbc4 2270 0.0 0555 Fman a000 35 d6a976 pipeman
    0000e4a2 774 0.0 0555 Driv a001 6 81a3e9 nvdrv
    0000e7a8 356 0.0 0555 Sys a01e 15 e69105 rp5c15
    0000e90c 136 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 f25f23 tim070
    0000e994 420 0.0 0555 Driv a00c 6 7b3913 tim070driv
    0000eb38 172 0.0 0555 Driv a000 1 407f81 null
    0000ebe4 102 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 cf450e pipe
    0000ec4a 94 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 f54010 nvr
    0000eca8 96 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 17ec68 icard
    0000ed08 1934 0.0 0555 Fman a000 31 b41f17 scf
    0000f496 120 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 61 dd8776 t2
    0000f50e 1578 0.0 0555 Driv a020 16 d0a854 u68070
    0000fb38 176 0.1 0777 5 8001 1 a519f6 csd_mmc
    0000fbe8 5026 0.0 0555 Sys a000 292 e33cc5 csdinit
    00010f8a 136 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 6 041e2b iic
    00011012 152 0.0 0555 Driv a02c 22 e29688 ceniic
    000110aa 166 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 8 c5b823 ptr
    00011150 196 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 8 a0e276 cdikeys
    00011214 168 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 8 439a33 ptr2
    000112bc 3134 0.0 0555 Driv a016 11 faf88d periic
    00011efa 4510 0.0 0555 Fman a003 96 a4d145 cdfm
    00013098 15222 0.0 0555 Driv a038 28 122c79 cdap18x
    00016c0e 134 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 35f12f cd
    00016c94 134 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 d2ce2f ap
    00016d1a 130 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 1586c2 vid
    00016d9c 18082 10.48 0555 Trap c00a 6 5f673d cio
    0001b43e 7798 1.0 0555 Trap c001 13 46c5dc math
    0001d2b4 2992 0.0 0555 Data 8020 1 191a59 FONT8X8
    0001de64 134 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 c5ed0e dd
    0001deea 66564 0.0 0555 Driv a012 48 660a91 video
    0002e2ee 62622 0.1 0555 Prog 8008 20 ec5459 ps
    0003d78c 4272 0.0 0003 Data 8001 1 9f3982 ps_medium.font
    0003e83c 800 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 c1ac25 ps_icons.clut
    00040000 2976 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 0a3b97 ps_small.font
    00040ba0 7456 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 764338 ps_icons.clu8
    000428c0 107600 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 7b9b4e ps_panel.dyuv
    0005cd10 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8001 1 2a8fcd ps_girl.dyuv
    00065730 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 e1bb6a ps_mesa.dyuv
    0006e150 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 8e394b ps_map.dyuv
    00076b70 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 c60e5e ps_kids.dyuv

    File Size Type Description
    ------------ ------ ------------ ------------
    cdi180b.rom 512K cdi000x.rom Unknown CD-i system ROM
    cdi180b.rom 512K cdi000x.mdl Unknown CD-i player
    cdi180b.rom 512K unknown.brd Unknown board
    Of course cditype didn’t correctly detect the ROM, player and board type, but the list of modules looks exactly like a CD-i player system ROM. It is in fact very similar to the CD-i 605 system ROM, the major differences are the presence of the icard and *iic drivers, the absence of a slave module and the different player shell (ps module with separate ps_* data modules instead of a single play module).

    It being quite late already, I resocketed all the ROMs in the proper places and closed up both players, after testing that they were both fully functional (insofar as I could test the 180 set), fully intending to clean up and go to bed. As an afterthought, I took a picture of the running 180 set and posted it on the CD-Interactive forums as the definitive answer to the 50/60 Hz power question I’d asked there earlier.

    The CD-i Emulator urge started itching however, so I decided to give emulation of my new ROM file a quick go, fully intending to stop at any major problems. I didn’t encounter any of those, however, until I had a running CD-i 180 player three hours later. I reported the fact on the CDinteractive forum, noting that there was no pointing device or disc access yet, and went to a well-deserved sleep. Both of these issues are major ones and those I postponed for the next day.

    To get the new player type up and running inside CD-i Emulater, I started by using the CD-i 605 F1 system specification files cdi605a.mdl and minimmc.brd as templates to create the new CD-i 180 F2 system files cdi180b.mdl and maximmc.brd. Next I fired up the emulator and was rewarded with bus errors. Not unexpected and a good indicator of where the problems are. Using the debugger and disassembler I quickly determined that the problems were, as expected, the presence of the VSR instead of VSD and the replacement of the SLAVE by something else. Straightening these out took a bit of time but it was not hard work and very similar to work I had done before on other player types.

    This time at least the processor and most of the hardware was known and already emulated; for the Portable CD-i board (used by the CD-i 370, DVE200 and GDI700 players) both of these were not the case as they use the 68341 so-called integrated CD-i engine which in my opinion is sorely misnamed as there is nothing CD-i about the chip, it is just the Motorola version of an 68K processor with many on-chip peripherals in remarkably similar to the Philips 68070 in basic functionality.

    Saturday was spent doing household chores with ROM research in between, looking for the way to get the pointing device working. It turned out to be quite involved but at the end of the day I had it sort of flakily working in a kludgy way; I’ll report the details in a next blog post.

    Sunday I spent some time fixing the flakiness and thinking a lot about fixing the kludginess; this remains to be done. I also spent time making screenshots and writing this blog post.

    So to finish up, there is now a series of 180 screenshots here on the CD-i Emulator website as reported in the What's New section. A very nice player shell, actually, especially for a first generation machine.

    I will report some ROM and chip finds including new hopes for replacing the missing pointing device in a next blog post.
              Water rorting continues in the Murray-Darling Basin aided and abetted by the NSW Nationals        

    And local government and commercial interests in the Murray-Darling Basin have the hide to cry that they are water deprived and should be allowed to dam and divert water from the Clarence River catchment until that coastal system is a pale shadow of its vibrant self.

    The Guardian, 4 August 2017:

    The New South Wales regional water minister, Niall Blair, has quietly granted himself the power to approve illegal floodplain works retrospectively.

    A Wentworth Group scientist, Jamie Pittock, has accused the NSW government of actively undermining the Murray-Darling basin plan as revelations have continued about the state government’s management of the river system.

    Since Four Corners report raised allegations of water theft and secret meetings between a senior NSW water bureaucrat and a small number of irrigators,Blair is under increasing pressure over his water responsibilities.

    This followed Daily Telegraph reports that the Nationals MP had been urging his Liberal colleague, the environment minister, Gabrielle Upton, to change the Barwon-Darling water-sharing plan retrospectively to favour large irrigators. He said the change was needed because of an error in the rules.

    It has now come to light that Blair gazetted a Barwon-Darling valley floodplain management plan which gives him power to approve flood works built illegally even if they do not comply with requirements prior to the plan.

    Under clause 39 of the new Barwon-Darling valley plan, a flood work that does not comply can be approved if “in the minister’s opinion” it is for an access road, a supply channel, a stock refuge or an infrastructure protection work
    .
    A spokesman for WaterNSW said three relevant applications from the Barwon-Darling region had been received since the change but none had yet been approved.

    The NSW Greens MLC Jeremy Buckingham called on the NSW premier, Gladys Berejiklian, to remove the water portfolio from the National party after the regulation changes came to light.

    “This is disgraceful example of the National party giving away free water to their big irrigator mates,” Buckingham said. “Many of these areas are so flat that even a 10 to 20cm bank can divert a huge amount of water into an irrigation dam and away from natural waterways.

    “It’s a massive gift of water to the big irrigators. If we want to recover the water in the future then taxpayer will have to hand over huge amounts of compensation for what were illegal constructions.”

    A spokeswoman for Blair said the gazettal was a “significant legacy issue” required to create a process where unapproved works could be properly and transparently assessed. She said to be considered, works must not have been previously refused and would still need to be assessed under certain criteria.

    “Supply channels are one of the types of existing works that clause 39 indicates that we will accept application for,” the spokeswoman said. “Just because they are existing, doesn’t mean that they will be approved, just that they can apply. This approach is being rolled out through all floodplain management plans.”

    Pittock, an associate professor in the Fenner school of environment and society at the Australian National University, said the revelations showed NSW was systematically white-anting the Murray Darling plan.

    “The ‘rule error’ and other questionable dealings between wealthy irrigators, government officials and politicians in NSW highlight how the intent of the basin plan can be frustrated by those hostile to its implementation at the state level,” he told Guardian Australia.

    “Changes of regulations in NSW have allowed irrigators to take erstwhile environmental flows by allowing greater pump capacity and earlier extraction based on river heights such that commonwealth-purchased environmental water in Queensland in not ‘shepherded’ through New South Wales to the lower Murray.

    “Consequently towns like Broken Hill, pastoralists and Aboriginal communities, as well as the environment, have been starved of water.


              This is what privatisation did to Australia's household electricity bills        

    When three eastern and one southern state formed the National Electricity Market in December 1998 Australia had the lowest retail prices in the world along with the United States and Canada.

    The rules which underpin this National Electricity Market are created by the Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC) set up by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) - through the COAG Energy Council - for that purpose and to advise federal & state governments on how best to develop energy markets over time.

    The Australian Energy Regulator (AER) sets the amount of revenue that network businesses can recover from customers for using networks (electricity poles and wires and gas pipelines) that transport energy.

    So far so good. There's a defined market and there are rules.

    Then the privatisation of electricity supply and infrastructure began in earnest.

    It should come as no surprise that this push towards full privatisation, with its downhill spiral in service delivery and uphill climb in cost to retail customers, began and was progressed during the term of Liberal Prime Minister John Howard.

    By 2017 the NSW Berejiklian Coalition Government has almost completed its three-stage privatisation of state power infrastructure by selling off poles and wires and, it goes without saying that the retail cost of electricity is expected to rise again next year.

    This is where we stand today……………………

    [Graphs in Financial Review, 4 August 2017]
    The Financial Review, 4 Augut 2017:

    The annual cost to households of accepting a standing offer from one of the big three retailers instead of the best offer in the market has been estimated at $830 in Victoria, $900 in Queensland and $1400-$1500 in NSW and SA by the St Vincent de Paul Society.

    Mr Mountain said power bills are constructed in such a complex way that ordinary customers without sophisticated spreadsheet and analytical skills have little hope of analysing competing offers to work out which offers them the best deal.

    Private comparison websites do not include all market offers and charge retailers for switching customers, while the websites offered by the Australian Energy Regulator and the Victorian government do not provide the tools customers need to discriminate among offers.

    Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull has ordered the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) to conduct an inquiry into electricity supply, costs and pricing, including retail pricing.

    The Treasurer should have a preliminary report from the ACCC in his hands by the end of September this year, however this body does not submit a final report until 30 June 2018 with no guarantee that any recommendations will be adopted by government and industry.

    Quite frankly, it appears the privatisation train left the platform some time ago and there is no way to halt or divert it in order to genuinely benefit household consumers.


              Still feel unhappy with the Turnbull Government's policies on underground, land surface and marine waters? So you should        

    “Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.” [US National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration]

    Every Northern Hemisphere Spring this dead zone occurs in the Gulf of Mexico and increases in size over time.



    It is only one of more than 400 hypoxic areas world-wide which were mapped in 2008.


    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), Andrew H. Altieri et al, 2017, Tropical dead zones and mass mortalities on coral reefs:

    Oxygen-starved coastal waters are rapidly increasing in prevalence worldwide. However, little is known about the impacts of these “dead zones” in tropical ecosystems or their potential threat to coral reefs. We document the deleterious effects of such an anoxic event on coral habitat and biodiversity, and show that the risk of dead-zone events to reefs worldwide likely has been seriously underestimated. Awareness of, and research on, reef hypoxia is needed to address the threat posed by dead zones to coral reefs.

    Degradation of coastal water quality in the form of low dissolved oxygen levels (hypoxia) can harm biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Extreme hypoxic conditions along the coast, leading to what are often referred to as “dead zones,” are known primarily from temperate regions. However, little is known about the potential threat of hypoxia in the tropics, even though the known risk factors, including eutrophication and elevated temperatures, are common. Here we document an unprecedented hypoxic event on the Caribbean coast of Panama and assess the risk of dead zones to coral reefs worldwide. The event caused coral bleaching and massive mortality of corals and other reef-associated organisms, but observed shifts in community structure combined with laboratory experiments revealed that not all coral species are equally sensitive to hypoxia. Analyses of global databases showed that coral reefs are associated with more than half of the known tropical dead zones worldwide, with >10% of all coral reefs at elevated risk for hypoxia based on local and global risk factors. Hypoxic events in the tropics and associated mortality events have likely been underreported, perhaps by an order of magnitude, because of the lack of local scientific capacity for their detection. Monitoring and management plans for coral reef resilience should incorporate the growing threat of coastal hypoxia and include support for increased detection and research capacity.

    Anyone still in favour of allowing an expansion of coal mining in the Galilee Basin, Queensland?

    Anyone still comfortable with the amount of agricultural/industrial run-off into the Great Barrier Reef, marine protected areas and Australian coastal waters, which is allowed under state and federal policies?

    It’s not just our rivers and aquifers which are suffering from political inaction and vested interest greed.

    BACKGROUND

    The Australian Government’s OzCoasts website states:

    A reduction in dissolved oxygen concentrations is amongst the most important effects of eutrophication on aquatic organisms [4]. Hypoxia can cause direct mortality, reduced growth rates and altered behaviour and distributions of fish [4] and other organisms. In addition, bottom-water hypoxia can interact with elevated water temperatures at the surface to produce a "temperature-oxygen squeeze" effect, which can greatly reduce the amount of summer habitat available for some species [12]. Eggs and larvae of fish (and crustaceans) may be particularly susceptible to this effect because these life history stages are less able to avoid unfavourable conditions, and because they live in near shore areas, such as estuaries, where too-high water temperatures and too-low oxygen conditions often occur [5]. Changes in fish assemblages and crustaceans in response to hypoxia and & anoxia can render these organisms more susceptible to fishing pressure, and can increase the abundance of non-targeted species in by-catch [4].

    Dissolved oxygen status also influences the uptake or release of nutrients from sediment. When oxygen is depleted, the nitrification pathway is blocked, and efficiencies may be lowered. As a consequence, more nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorous) are released from the sediment in bio-available forms [7]. These nutrients help to sustain algal blooms, and therefore continue the supply organic matter to the sediments [7]. With organic matter (energy) diverted from invertebrate consumption to microbial decomposition, the natural pattern of energy flow is altered, and pelagic and opportunistic species are favoured [8]. Indeed, an increased ratio of planktivore:demersal fish biomass is an important effect of eutrophication [11]. Low bottom water oxygen concentrations are also conducive to the build-up of toxic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia gas, which can also be harmful to benthic organisms and fish. Even short-lived anoxic events can cause the mass mortality of fish and benthic organisms [10].

    Overall, anoxic and hypoxic events can cause large reductions in the abundance, diversity and harvest of fish in affected waters [4], and can contribute to an overall loss of bio-diversity[9]. However, the extent to which bottom water anoxia causes declines in overall fish production depends on a balanced between the negative and positive and effects of eutrophication in the full spectrum of habitats within the system [4]……

    Major research institutions, universities and government (local and State) agencies gather oxygen data for specific research studies. Some information on anoxic and hypoxic events in Australian coastal waterways was compiled during the National Land & Water Resources Audit. In most cases, no data was available. However, localised or short-lived periods of hypoxia were reported in the Derwent and Huon estuaries (TAS) and in the Tuggerah Lakes (NSW). Prolonged and extensive anoxia is experienced in the Gippsland Lakes.

    Note:

    Anoxia is an extreme form of hypoxia.

              So why might the far right of the Liberal and National parties being pushing for a postal plebiscite on same-sex marriage?        

    The Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) states this of national plebiscites:

    Plebiscites

    An issue put to the vote which does not affect the Constitution is called a plebiscite. A plebiscite is not defined in the Australian Constitution, the Electoral Act or the Referendum Act. A plebiscite can also be referred to as a simple national vote.

    Governments can hold plebiscites to test whether people either support or oppose a proposed action on an issue. The government is not bound by the 'result' of a plebiscite as it is by the result of a Constitutional referendum. Federal, state and territory governments have held plebiscites on various issues.

    Under s. 7A of the Electoral Act, the AEC can conduct a plebiscite as a fee-for-service election, with the AEC entering into 'an agreement, on behalf of the Commonwealth, for the supply of goods or services to a person or body'. The rules for a plebiscite or fee-for-service election are normally contained in the terms of the agreement between the AEC and the person funding the election.

    Military service plebiscites were held in 1916 and 1917 but, as they were not proposals to amend the Constitution, the provisions of section 128 of the Constitution did not apply. Voters in all federal territories were permitted to vote. Both the military service plebiscites sought a mandate for conscription and were defeated.

    The first thing to note about a national plebiscite is that its outcome is not binding on the federal parliament or on any MP or senator.

    Additionally, voting in a national plebiscite can be voluntary, unless otherwise stated in any legislation authorising a specific plebiscite. As was the case in the National Song Poll in May 1977 at which 7.59 million people or est. 90%+ of registered voters cast a voluntary ballot.

    Besides being voluntary a plebiscite can also be a mail-out ballot as was the Election of Delegates to the Constitutional Convention some twenty years later in December 1997, at which 6 million ballot papers were returned, scrutinised and counted – that is to say only 50.04% of all eligible voters actually voluntarily voted and an est. 1.13% of these cast informal ballots.

    A parliamentary vote on same-sex marriage was calculated as costing $17 million in 2016. A stand-alone same-sex plebiscite was estimated to cost up to $525 million in that same year.

    An important point to note about a national plebiscite on same-sex marriage is that it is unnecessary as s51 of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act gives federal parliament power to make laws regarding marriage and, parliament exercised that right as recently as 2004 when it changed the definition of marriage in order To ensure that same sex marriages are not recognised as marriage in Australia, inclusive of those performed under the laws of another country that permits such unions.

    So one can see why far-right federal MPs and senators would be in favour of a voluntary plebiscite, particularly a postal one.

    It may cost taxpayers more but the chances of a high voter participation rate is not as certain and, if the government of the day doesn't like the results of the ballot it can decide to not to act on them.

    These parliamentarians probably believe those voters who will be less likely to return a postal ballot will not be those strongly opposed to same-sex marriage, but those who are undecided, neutral, or disinterestedly in favour of rewriting the Marriage Act to allow gay couples to wed.

    In the minds of zealots like Eric Abetz and Tony Abbott this is probably seen as giving their cause a fighting chance and absolving them of any responsibility for continuing to actively oppose same-sex marriage.


              Surprise, surprise - those Murray-Darling Basin water raiders have slithered over the horizon once more and are eyeing off the Clarence Valley river system yet again        

    With so little fanfare that much of  Northern Rivers region missed it, the NSW Berejiklian Government reopened the March 2016 inquiry into augmentation of water supply for rural and regional New South Wales on 28 May 2017, with Terms of Reference published in July 2017.

    This Upper House inquiry is chaired by Robert Brown MLC, from the Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party and its reporting date has been extended to 30 March 2018. 

    Current committee membership is as follows:

    Robert Brown MLC, Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party, Chair
    Mick Veitch MLC, Australian Labor Party, Deputy Chair
    Jeremy Buckingham MLC, The Greens
    Rick Colless MLC, The Nationals
    Scot MacDonald MLC, Liberal Party
    Greg Pearce MLC, Liberal Party
    Penny Sharpe MLC, Australian Labor Party
    Daniel Mookhey MLC, Australian Labor Party
    Paul Green MLC, Christian Democratic Party
    * Jeremy Buckingham MLC (Greens)is substituting for Dr Mehreen Faruqui MLC for the duration of the inquiry.
    * Matthew Mason-Cox MLC (Liberal)  is substituting for Hon Greg Pearce MLC for the duration of the inquiry.
    * Paul Green MLC and Penny Sharpe MLC will be participating for the duration of the inquiry.

    A poorly advertised public hearing scheduled for 1 August 2017 in Lismore (with details sent to media on 31 July 2017) excluded Northern Rivers residents from giving evidence unless they represented a small number of invited groups.

    It appears the committee had also determined that Clarence Valley Council was to be asked its view on diverting Clarence River system flood water.

    Given flood water is already diverted to the purpose built Shannon Creek side dam to ensure a sustainable water supply for the est. 125,103 residents (Census 2016) currently living in Clarence Valley and Coffs Harbour local government areas, there are no prizes for guessing where any additional water diversion would be allocated.

    Yes, that paragon of sustainable water mismanagement - the cluster of councils, industries, irrigators and water traders within the Murray-Darling Basin.

    It will come as no surprise that Griffith Council is still pursuing a Clarence River dam and divert scheme. North Coast Voices reported on its obsession in August 2016.

    This is what the Griffith City Council Deputy mayor, Dino Zappacosta of Zappacosta Estate Wines in Hanwood, told the inquiry on 1 March 2017:

    The issue that my committee, Build More Dams, has looked at is that we need more water because farmers are crying out for more water. We need new water. By "new water", I mean water that is not currently being used at all. We looked at various options, including the Clarence Valley area, where millions and millions of megalitres of water flow out into the sea for what seems to be no real benefit at all for the community of the Clarence region, other than for the natural farming land and the fishery industry there.

    It soon became apparent that, appart from the notion of free water at the expense of Clarence Valley communities’ social, cultural, aesthetic, environmental and economic values, Griffith Council knew little about how this dam and divert scheme would work.

    The Hon. RICK COLLESS: You have been talking about the Clarence River diversion scheme. Is it correct that that is essentially restricted to the Mann River subcatchment?

    Mr ZAPPACOSTA: To the best of my knowledge, it covers most of the tributaries—for example, the Boyd River, the Mann River, the Nymboida River and the Timbarra River. They are highlighted on map 2, which was provided to the Committee.

    The Hon. RICK COLLESS: I am a little confused about the way the map reads. It appears as though the water is coming out of the Mann River catchment, which is a subcatchment of the Clarence. The divisions appear to be above the confluence of the Nymboida and the Mann. You recommend a 23 per cent Clarence River diversion, but the question is: What percentage of is that of the Mann River flow and what environmental impact will that have on the Mann River below where it is diverted? We should keep in mind the history of the Snowy River and what has happened there over the past 50 years. Does anybody have any thoughts about that? Mr ZAPPACOSTA: I will have to take on notice exactly how much comes from the Mann River itself.

    The Hon. RICK COLLESS: What is the reduction in flow from the sub-catchment rivers below where the water is diverted from them? What environmental impacts will that have on those rivers?

    Mr ZAPPACOSTA: I appreciate the question. I think what you are asking is something we should dig into a bit deeper; there should be a study of it, preferably a feasibility study.

    The Hon. RICK COLLESS: There needs to be a lot of work done on this, as you would appreciate.

    While the Director of Utilities at Griffith City Council stated:

    As an engineer I see the great benefits of supporting a scheme such as the Clarence River diversion scheme, not only from a water augmentation point of view. My directorate covers water supply as well as the flooding impacts caused by rainfall run-off. The Clarence River diversion scheme is not only a supply scheme but a flood mitigation solution, as the general manager mentioned. In my research I have referred to the document entitled Lower Clarence Flood Model—Update 2013 produced by BMT WBM consultants. They happen to be the same consultants who undertook our flood study and provided our flood mitigation options. They work across the State and they are well versed in flooding, from the Northern Rivers down to our area.

    The Clarence River catchment on the far North Coast of New South Wales is one of the largest catchments on the east coast of Australia. It is approximately 20,000 square kilometres. It is above the towns of Grafton, Maclean and Yamba, and it is home to more than 20,000 people. The lower Clarence Valley has a long history of flooding, since settlement in about 1850. Bear with me as I read out the dates of the flooding events. I was just going to say a number, but it has more of an impact when you follow the years of flooding that the area has endured due to the large catchment that sits above it. Floods were recorded in 1863 and 1864. There was a record flood in 1890 in which two people lost their lives and there was extensive damage to the rural area. Further floods occurred in 1921 and 1928. Since 1945 the incidence of major flooding has been much higher, with floods occurring in 1945, 1946, 1948, 1950, 1954, 1956, 1959, 1963, 1967, 1968, 1974, 1976, 1980, 1988, 1996, 2001, 2009 and 2013.

    There is a regular occurrence of extreme flooding in the Northern Rivers catchment, below the Clarence River. Section 4.4 of the Lower Clarence Flood Model—Update 2013 acknowledges that "the river flows originating from upstream of Grafton dominate flooding in the Lower Clarence Valley". Diversion of the Clarence River flows for that area towards the west, and the 25 per cent or 23.8 per cent that will be captured, diverted and controlled, will be of great benefit to flood mitigation in the Northern Rivers area. The document further says that it will maximise the investment from the Government not only to help solve water augmentation issues but to reduce the financial and human impacts flooding has in the northern coastal areas. The Clarence River diversion scheme was documented in 1981 by David Coffey and he estimated costings back then. We have done a projection to a present-day cost of approximately $10 billion. There are statistics on the map that I have provided to the Committee.

    The Snowy Mountains scheme would have cost $10 billion in present-day money, so there are similar costings in the schemes. The 1,100 gigalitres diverted per annum from the Clarence River has generated $1.82 billion in agriculture. The scheme means that 23.8 per cent of the flows that would be heading down to flood people can be diverted. When you equate the $550 million a year in flood damages with the cost of a diversion scheme, 1,100 gigalitres can generate $1.8 billion a year in agriculture growth. The additional water means that 118,000 hectares of viable open country can be farmed. The offset of diversion and flood protection is that it is beneficial to all. That is where I will leave it.

    The public hearing in Griffith was reported thus by The Area News on 2 March 2017:

    HIGH-profile Griffith water users and city officials enjoyed a rare opportunity to sit face-to-face with Members of the NSW Upper House on Wednesday to discuss their handling of water….

    The Honourable Rick Colless, The Honourable Paul Green, The Honourable Matthew Mason-Cox and The Honourable Penelope Sharpe were on hand to hear the concerns of the community….

    Along with wanting to fix the water sharing plans, the other hot topic was the Clarence River Scheme, initially conceptualised by David Coffey in the 1970s.

    The plan outlined diverting river flows westward from high rainfall catchments in the Northern Rivers.

    According to Griffith City Council, the scheme will benefit lands south of the Dumaresq River while also providing flows into the Murray River, reducing the reliance for Murray-Darling Basin allocations to fill the original allocation to the basin. 

    “We have looked at various options and we look at the Clarence Valley area where there are millions of millions of megalitres of water flowing out into the sea for what seems to be for no real benefit,” Councilor Dino Zappacosta said.

    Griffith City Council general manager, Brett Stonestreet said it’s time the scheme is looked at again.

    “It provides new water to give this state another shot in the arm,” he said.

    “It also looks at potentially reducing flooding impact of the coastal communities adjacent to the Clarence by 25 per cent.

    “There is a huge amount of money that can be generated and inland communities rediscovered and regenerated through new water.”

    Mayor Dal Broi was pleased with how the inquiry was conducted and the feedback from the Senators.

    “Some of the questions that were asked by the panel members, we know now what they are thinking,” he said.

    “They were very receptive to the concept of new water so whether it's the diversion of the Clarence or lifting the wall on Burrinjuck Dam ... they were very receptive to that because we tried to make the point that the limited resources at the moment.”

    “We need new water if our regions are to grow and have a better long-term sustainable allocation.”

    Not content with bringing down the largest river system in Australia in order to line their own pockets, these wanabee water raiders just keep on coming after what they see as more 'free' water for the rorting.

    Clarence Valley Council gave evidence at the re-opened inquiry on 1 August and the only question of interest to the water raiders came after a few minutes of questioning at Page 26 of the Lismore public hearing transcript:

    The Hon. GREG PEARCE: Thank you for your submission. In your submission you talk about this idea of diversion of the Clarence River to west of the Great Dividing Range. Could you give us a bit of a background on that proposal and what your council thinks about it?

    Mr ANDERSON: I will start but Mr Mashiah might finish. Our council has resolved six times that they do not support the diversion of the Clarence, and each time that has been unanimous in regard to council's position. That is based on the fact that damage to the environment and the ecological systems that work within the Clarence River emerge from there. 

    The CHAIR [Robert Brown MLC, Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party]: You probably cannot answer this, but that is an all-encompassing position of council?

    Mr ANDERSON: Yes.

    The CHAIR : I wonder what the council's position would be on the diversion of floodwaters only.

    Mr ANDERSON: Again, Mr Chair, like you said, I cannot answer that question.

    The CHAIR: What I am asking you is that I guess the council's resolutions were not burrowed down to that extent to be able to answer that question. We might ask Clarence council for an opinion on that.

    The Hon. GREG PEARCE: Are those decisions supported by an independent side to pick advice? How were they derived?

    Mr MASHIAH: There was a Healthy Rivers Commission inquiry into the Clarence in I think it was 1999, from memory, and part of the outcome of that commission inquiry was the importance of regular flood events in terms of the fishing industry and also the cane industry. I believe you have representatives from the cane industry here with us later.

    The CHAIR: This afternoon, yes.

    Mr MASHIAH: And also in terms of fisheries, one of the aspects that Clarence Valley Council has been active in for the past 20 years is trying to manage the floodplain to address issues such as acid runoff.

    The CHAIR: Solid sulfate soils.

    Mr MASHIAH: As the sulfate soils and particular acids run off. So we have done things like open floodgates and—

    The CHAIR: And you should be congratulated.

    Mr MASHIAH: Thank you, Mr Chair, for that. I will pass that on to the relevant staff who have been coordinating that. The regular flushing of those areas, which are fish breeding grounds, by floodwaters is very important. So if floods were diverted there are significant concerns from the fishing industry about the ongoing viability of the industry because the grounds where fish breed, according to the studies that have been undertaken, would then be adversely impacted. So that is one of the reasons that the fishing industry has very strongly opposed, through our estuary management committee in particular and through the estuary management plan, any diversion of water and we have tried to ensure that the fish breeding grounds are protected.

    The CHAIR: I just made the observation that most of those fish breeding grounds would not be the same areas of land that are subject to high residential development or business or commercial or other aspects. In other words, you are not talking about the township of Grafton itself, you are talking river peripheries, flooded-out areas, for breeding concerns?

    Mr MASHIAH: The challenge is that the urban footprint on the lower Clarence floodplain is probably about 1 to 2 per cent of the total surface area and all the urban areas are surrounded by rural areas. So it is very hard to work out how you manage that 1 or 2 per cent without adversely impacting the other 98 per cent, or vice versa, how do you manage the 98 per cent without adversely impacting 1 or 2 per cent of urban area?

    The CHAIR: The 2013 flood, you have described it as a major flood, correct?

    Mr MASHIAH: It was the flood of record at Grafton.

    The CHAIR: I am wondering how the 2013 flood would have enhanced the fishery on the Clarence?

    Mr MASHIAH: The main issue with the 2013 flood—I guess with any flood in the Clarence the flood behaviour in the upper river is a lot different to the flood behaviour in the lower river because of the tidal influences in particular and also how wet the floodplain is already. The 2013 event was actually three floods.

    The CHAIR: And they rolled up on each other?

    Mr MASHIAH: Yes, within a three-week period—quite distinct flood events.

    The CHAIR: So it was a prolonged flood.

    Mr MASHIAH: It was a prolonged flood and that meant there was significant inundation of back swamp areas, and I understand that there were some areas that effectively were areas that were flushed that had not been flushed in floods probably since 2001, so it is probably 12 years. So from an ecological perspective, talking to our environmental scientists, I understand that it was actually quite beneficial because the bigger floods only get into those areas once every 10 to 20 years.

    The CHAIR: Were there any concurrent blackwater events for the fishery?

    Mr MASHIAH: Not that I can recall, and I think that is a result of the management measures that have been undertaken on the floodplain because most of the farmers now operate the floodgates and so only shut the floodgates when there is actually a flood coming and open them fairly soon afterwards.

    The CHAIR: So it is their responsibility to operate their own floodgates, is it?

    Mr MASHIAH: That has been passed on to them, yes.

    The CHAIR: Do you have any oversight of that?

    Mr ANDERSON: Yes, we do, and we work with those groups and undertake training et cetera . It is a two-way street of communication: they tell us what they need and, vice versa, we provide training associated with that and inductions and operate that through a number of committees et cetera as well.

    Evidence was also given by the NSW Professional Fishermen’s Association (commencing Page 38) the NSW Canegrowers Association (commencing Page 45) and the Clarence Environment Centre (commencing Page 56).


    One has to wonder why the committee members of this reformed Water Augmentation Inquiry didn't seek the views of those holding Native Title (See Yaegl People #1 Yaegl People #2) over the Clarence River from the waters approximately half-way between Ulmarra and Brushgrove right down to the eastern extremities of the northern and southern breakwater walls at the mouth of the river.

    After all they are significant stakeholders in any discussion of water policy and water management in the Clarence River catchment area.

    The other matter of note, arising from North Coast Voices somewhat belated discovery that the water raiders were back on the scene, is the suggestion that not all Clarence Valley councillors had forewarning that council staff were appearing before the inquiry on 1 August.

    If true this would be a disturbing indication that council administration has retained some of the bad habits it acquired under the former general manager who was handed his hat in March this year.


              TuneUp Utilities 2014 v14.0.1000 + Key        
    TuneUp Utilities 2014 v14
    TuneUp Utilities 2014 v14.0.1000 + Key | 28.97 MB

    Tune Up Utilities Pro is a powerful set of Tune-Up products which optimize Windows and improve its efficiency, design and supply. This software is able to optimize Windows, boost your PC's performance, fix problems and it helped you to customize Windows.
    Tune-Up Utilities package contains a complete set of software Saver System Optimization Configuration , Cleanup and maintenance to increase the efficiency of the system, keep it clean and helps solve the various problems.

    A key feature of the software TuneUp Utilities:
    - fix various common error in Windows
    - Configure and optimize Mozilla Firefox browser
    - Windows icon customization, style shift boot and welcome screens and windows
    - it automatically scans the system and prevent problems The speed reduction system
    - allows secure and permanent removal of your sensitive data from hard drive
    - Remove all unwanted and unnecessary files from the hard disk
    - Hard disk integrated powerful tool
    - great cleans registry
    - play Abbey random information that has been deleted by the user.
    - New features enhance the speed of your connection to the Internet
    - the free RAM to increase the speed and efficiency of operations
    - a program Uninstall Manager, to remove the installed applications in Windows and its management
    - a complete management system and the processor Running programs
    - Aid effectiveness in solving standard Windows problems
    - easy to customize the configuration of Windows
    - a program to manage the programs registered StartUp Manager StartUp in Windows
    - contains the System Information, for more information about your hardware and software system
    - reviews and bugs, hard disk drive
    - Find the plan that significant memory and CPU are unwarranted
    - Full compatibility with the new generation of applications such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Windows Media Player and They are optimized for Office
    - Full compatibility with Windows Vista
    - and ...

    System Requirements
    - Minimum: 800x600 screen resolution with 256 colors; recommended: 1024x768 screen resolution with 16.7 million colors
    - Minimum: 60 MB free disk space; recommended: 100 MB free disk space
    - CD-ROM or DVD-ROM-Drive
    - Internet Explorer 6 or 7
    - Internet access

    Install:
    1. Temporarily disconnect internet.
    2. Install program.
    3. Use given key to register
    4. Done. Enjoy.

    Download Link
              Everything We Know About Battlefield 4 Multiplayer        

    At the EA booth I jumped into a 64-player conquest battle in the Siege at Shanghai map. After playing through a couple rounds and speaking with executive producer Patrick Bach, here is what I learned.

    • The Xbox One, PlayStation 4, and PC versions eac h support 64-player maps and run at a solid 60 frames per second. The Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 versions, however, are still limited to 24-players per match and 30 frames per second. 
    • Squads can now include five soldiers instead of just four.
    • Given the larger squad size, Squad Deathmatch mode now includes more competitors. 
    • Like Battlefield 3, the soldier classes you can play as are assault, engineer, recon, and support. All classes now have more shared weapons so players have more versatility when selecting their loadout.
    • Each class and weapon has a deeper persistance tree than previous Battlefield games.
    • DICE is changing how specializations work. It won't go into the finer details, but the developer is creating a system where you and your squad can bump up your specializations as you play if you are doing well. 
    • Gun and player customization are being broadened. You can now have multiple sights on your weapons and add optical magnifiers on the fly.
    • Vehicle progression is deeper as well. 
    • DICE has two new game modes it plans to reveal in the near future, and it plans to drop a few modes that were featured in Battlefield 3. The confirmed modes thus far are squad deathmatch, conquest, rush, and team deathmatch. 
    • Hardcore mode is returning.
    • The crazy wave technology featured in the E3 single-player demo is also coming to multiplayer. All the wave data is being pushed over the network, which means that every player will have the same sea experience at the same time.
    • Given the increased focus on naval combat, DICE is making sure you aren't a sitting duck if you lose your sea vessel or parachute into a body of water. Soldiers can now swim sprint, use sidearms in the water, hit the crounch button to dive underneath the surface of the water, and even deploy C4 to take out boats.
    • Players can rent their own Battlefield 4 servers on consoles from day one, and DICE plans to give them more server modifiers than were available in Battlefield 4.   
    • DICE knows the destruction in BF3 was disappointing so destructibility is coming back in a major way. Expect to see the microdestruction introduced in the Close Quarters map pack, plus large-scale destruction like the crumbling skyscraper in the E3 demo. 
    • You won't be able to completely flatten urban areas, which is a design choice rather than a technical limitation. 
    • Like Titanfall, DICE is using a proprietary matchmaking service instead of using the Xbox One native service.
    • DICE is also incorporating a skill level system on top of your player rank to help match you with players of a similar ability. You can set your rented server to only accept players of a certain ability.
    • DICE learned its lesson with Battlefield 3, and plans to keep a healthy amount of DICE sponsored servers for people who don't want to deal with the quirky rented servers.
    • Rather than build its own battle recorder, however, DICE plans to use the Xbox One and PlayStation 4 recorders.
    • Battlefield 4 also includes a spectator mode.
    • Given the difficult learning curve for some of the more powerful vehicles like jets and helicopters, DICE is including a practice mode or tutorial system of sorts so you can learn the tricks of the trade without hurting your team in a ranked match.
    • Battlelog is being revamped to be more directly integrated into the game and to give console players the same experience as the PC version. DICE wants the console players to have the ALT-TAB experience just like PC players, so you can check your stats at any time.
    • You can alter your loadout directly from the Battlelog app so it will be ready for you when you jump into a match.

    (Please visit the site to view this media)

    Commander Mode

    • You can play as a commmander on consoles, PC, and tablets.
    • Right now commanders are featured in two modes - conquest and rush. DICE also has some new modes that it isn't talk about yet.
    • Commanders gain experience and have a persistant skill tree just like other classes.
    • Unlike Battlefield 2, commanders don't have a physical presence on the battelfield. 
    • The commander roles are not counted against the player count. This means 64 soldiers will be on the battlefield with two commanders overseeing the battle.
    • DICE is aware that given the small number of commanders per server, there could be a supply/demand issue. To address this issue, it has created a gating system that prevents everyone from being allowed to play as commander.
    • If you are having trouble getting a commander role, you can always rent a server yourself and assume the role.
    • Commanders can issue orders to squads and deploy UAVs to spot troops. When the squads follow directives, the commander and soldiers are rewarded with XP. 
    • As they gain XP, commanders can use it to drop in ammo, med packs, and vehicles to their troops.
    • The more flags a team captures in conquest, the more weapons a commander has at his or her disposal. These offensive capabilities include tomahawk missiles and artillery strikes.
    • DICE views the commander mode as a game of chess between the two commanders. They are scored against one another. 
    • You can keep an eye on what the rival commmander is doing and counter their moves. For instance, if they scan an area you can try to jam their signals. If they drop in specific gear you can counter that in different ways. 
    • The commander's eye in the sky view is also used for respawns and spectator mode. It works the same way on all platforms.
    • DICE has rulesets to help populate maps with two commanders, but if one of the two commanders drops out the developer doesn't believe it will be a big issue for the guys on the ground.

    Battlefield 4 is coming to PC, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3 on October 29. The Xbox One and PlayStation 4 release dates have yet to be announced.


              OWC Drive Dock With Thunderbolt 2 and USB 3.1 Gen 1 Unboxing Review @OWCsolutions        
    Owcdigital.com TECH SPECS INCLUDES OWC Drive Dock .6 meter (24″) USB 3.1 Gen 1 cable (Standard-A to Standard-B) 1 meter (39″) Thunderbolt cable Internal power supply and power cable User...
              Linbell The Wireless Doorbell Requires No Battery Unboxing Review @Ogadget3        
    http://bit.ly/2sMOOMV Wireless doorbells are quite common nowadays, but what makes Linbell stand out is the fact that it doesn’t need batteries or an external power supply. Linbell is easy to...
              Venezuela is Socialism's Last Nail in the Coffin        

    From a so-called “economic miracle” to a human rights disaster, Venezuela has followed in the footsteps of literally every single socialist or communist country ever with its country in complete collapse. Crime is on the rise, the people are starving, protests are going all throughout the country, and unconfirmed rumors are coming out that President Nicolas Maduro is considering leaving.

    In the never ending desire to achieve an impossible utopia, Venezuela is living in a nightmare that may serve as the best evidence against government mismanagement.

    To be blunt, the people are starving. Roughly 75 percent of the country lost 19 pounds in 2016. This actually coincides with reports that Venezuelans were looking for food in the trash.

    It is not just food that Venezuelans seem to be running out of at the moment. The country is lacking medicine, toilet paper, and even goods for religious sacraments as well. All sorts of goods are disappearing from the country faster and faster.

    Meanwhile, their economy is in complete shambles. At the start of the year, inflation had hit 800 percent while their GDP had shrunk by 19 percent. To make matters worse, 2016 marked its third year of recession.

    Of course, the elite of the country have not seemed to notice the problems their citizens are facing. Accusations fly of the leaders of Venezuela living luxurious lifestyles despite the recession. Unsurprisingly, reports have the daughter of Venezuela’s last President Hugo Chavez at a networth of $4.2 billion.

    So the big question is: why is Venezuela falling apart? The simplest answer is government mismanagement as it started taking over the economy. Under the watch of Socialists Hugo Chavez and his successor Nicolas Maduro, the socialist leadership in the country has greatly increased its influence in economic affairs, resulting in decreased investment, business failures, and scarcity.

    Over the past decade and a half, the Venezuelan government has nationalized multiple industries, including oil, agriculture, finance, steel, electricity, and telecommunications. Unsurprisingly, this led to significant ruin in the various industries it controlled, especially oil. Case in point, the Chavez regime largely underfunded the investment necessary to bring about increased oil production.

    Large portions of oil revenues were transferred to generous social programs but there was lackluster reinvestment to make sure that more oil was produced to keep revenue flowing. As a result, oil production starting dropping consistently after 2007 which saw a major decline in revenue (and helped lead to the debt that caused hyper inflation). Additionally, Chavez demanded more money from oil companies investing in the country and the ones that refused saw their assets seized. With such a clear lack of respect for human rights, it should come as no surprise that foreign investment has been on the decline recently in the country which is also hurting business and revenue.

    To make matters worse, many workers were fired and replaced with government loyalists. In one case, a company that had never created an oil well was hired to create several since it had ties to the government. The lack of experienced workers unsurprisingly has also added to the decline of the oil industry that was a huge part of the government’s revenue.

    Just about every industry the government has touched has fallen apart. Steel production was reduced by 70 percent after it was nationalized, food production has been on the decline while the government redistributed farmland for the production of food the land was not suited for, and the Venezuelan government is instituting blackouts to reduce consumption to reduce electricity use due to decreased supply. Overall, it seems Venezuela is in the process of running its economy into the ground.

    Venezuela has also added newer regulations and laws to improve the economic situation of its country that had the opposite effect. Case in point, the minimum wage was increased recently by 50 percent despite the fact overall wages still decreased by 17 percent. Other reports have increased labor protections actually hurting business while price controls that were implemented to reduce profits and keep prices low also helped to reduce food productions which also helped cause the food crisis. With all this in mind, it should come as no surprise that the number of businesses in Venezuela has gone down from 800,000 in 1998 to 230,000 in 2016, a decline of 570,000.

    It is important to remember though that none of this should even be looked at as being done as a love for the people from the state. As was noted by a former education minister, the goal of the people reforms is “‘not to take the people out of poverty so they become middle class and then turn into escuálidos’ (a derogatory term to denote opposition members).” Translation: it’s not for their benefit but to create a dependent class of supporters.

    For more evidence of how the government does not care about its people, look no further than its human rights records. The Maduro government has been seizing power by stacking the courts with supportive justices and then met the protests against that with violent crackdowns on dissenters. Meanwhile, accusations of sham elections are now flying in the wake of an election referendum to give him the power to rewrite the country’s constitution. In the end, the increase in power has come to the detriment of the people backed by phony promises.

    As is always the case, the promise of helping the people through government intervention completely falls apart. Just like with China and Russia, the result is always economic ruin with the well connected few reaping the benefits. Unfortunately, the US is not free from these mistakes as states like Connecticut or cities like Seattle implementing their own interventions in the economy that results in disaster. If the US wants to head down the path same economic path as Venezuela that leads to destruction and corruption, it will inevitably end there.


              How a poor labourer became a rich farmer        
    Teaser: 
    A video tells the story of a poor farmer who, through effective water conservation methods, became rich and a role model to other villagers.
    Vasantrao Parkale (Source: India Water Portal)

    Vasant Baburao Parkale, a 52-year-old farmer, has become a role model for many farmers in the drought-prone Marathwada region. His determination and the will to excel in life have helped him to transform his dreams into reality.

    In 1984, he was just another labourer working for Bhagwan Yashwantrao Shirsagar, a wealthy farmer in Kadwanchi village in Jalna district. In 2006, Shirsagar built three farm ponds in the village with the help of the government subsidy. Vasant aspired to become a farmer like Shirsagar and was interested in building a farm pond. When he informed Shirsagar about this, he was discouraged from doing it. Unperturbed by this, Vasant went ahead with his efforts and started meeting government officials for the farm pond subsidy. The officials supported his initiative and provided him with the subsidy.

    In 2006, he made his first 24x24-metres-farm pond. Through his two farm ponds, he harvests one crore 15 lakh litres of water annually. His grape production is flourishing with efficient water management practices. He owns 8.3 acres of land now and has properties worth Rs 1 crore. 

    The video tells his success story.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

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              Clean Kali: All eyes now on govt        
    Teaser: 
    The water of East Kali is heavily polluted. It would hopefully change with the NGT taking notice of it.
    The polluted Kali river. (Image source: Neer Foundation)

    Rampura, situated in Bulandshahr district in western Uttar Pradesh, is one of the 1,200 villages on the banks of the 300-km long East Kali, a tributary of the Ganges. The river is named after goddess Kali who, according to the Hindu mythology, is fierce and fights evil by ingesting it.

    Till the 1980s, the river was a symbol of purity. Things have changed now with the river turning into a nullah brimming with industrial effluents. “We used to drink its waters when young. Today, it's so toxic that forget drinking, I dread touching it,” says Devendra Kumar Sharma, a resident of Panwadi, a village in Meerut district. The river’s toxic water now symbolises death and not life.

    Foul flows in streams

    As per a study by Neer Foundation, a Meerut-based non-profit working on environmental issues, as the river is polluted, the groundwater of the area which gets replenished by the river too has turned into a receptacle for toxic waste. Unsuspecting people, however, continued to draw water through the handpumps till recent studies rang an alarm bell.

    The study conducted in 2015-16 reveals that in Rampura, the groundwater recorded a total dissolved solids of 1760 mg/litre, way above the permissible standard of a maximum of 500 mg/litre for drinking purposes. Soil stratum was harmed as iron and lead contamination spread from river water to aquifers (underground reservoirs that hold groundwater) that are recharged by it.

    A study by Neer Foundation reveals that the pollution load in the river is unmanageable. (Image source: Neer Foundation)

    Lead is recognised as highly toxic, and damages the nervous system in humans while iron is therapeutic in low doses but lethal when present in excessive quantities.“This toxic water gets distributed and is used for drinking and irrigation purposes in rural areas. This has a severe health impact on us and our animals. The outfall of water from nullahs to the river must stop,” says Satish Kumar, a farmer from Jalalpur village in Meerut district.

    The water from handpumps has shown iron concentration measuring up to 0.35 parts per million, which is enough to cause water to turn reddish brown in colour. Lead concentration too was high at  0.5 parts per million in Rampura. According to Indian standard drinking water specification 1991, the highest desirable limit of lead in drinking water is 0.05 parts per million. “The possibility of geogenic contamination i.e., naturally occurring contaminants in the water, too cannot be ruled out. The Central Ground Water Authority is studying these aspects,” says Atulesh Yadav, regional officer, Uttar Pradesh State Pollution Control Board, Meerut.

    Rampura is one of the several villages of the eight districts of western Uttar Pradesh where people’s lives at one time depended on the river water for everything--from drinking to irrigation. The village that once boasted of lush green guava orchards has no original water left in its river. The prime villains in this regretful story are the ceaseless discharge of industrial wastewater and municipal sewage into the river.

    “The three main cities of Meerut, Hapur and Bulandshahr through which the East Kali passes have several sugar mills, allied alcohol manufacturing distilleries, paper industries, dairies, tanneries and textile mills that discharge their effluents into the river,” says Raman Kant, director of Neer Foundation. The effluents from the sugar and paper mills are highly toxic and these two industries are enlisted among the 17 most toxic waste releasing industries by the standards provided under the Environment Protection Rules, 1986.

    The pollution load in the river is unmanageable and it can barely assimilate the pollutants. Dilution with freshwater isn't a viable treatment option any longer. In most villages--right from Antawada in Muzaffarpur where the river originates, to Kannauj, its confluence with the Ganga--the water, laced with industrial toxins, is lifted from both the river and under the ground for irrigation. “Water flows from the underground caverns in the forest adjacent to our village forming a river that used to collect rainwater. Once a life-giving force, the river is dry at its origin and gets polluted by industrial effluents a few kilometers downstream,” says Bilam Singh, a farmer from Antawada. “The effect of this on our food is mostly unknown. It is possible that some of the most toxic chemicals like cancer-causing dioxins and organochlorines released by factories are present in the water that is irrigating the farms,” says Raman Kant.

    Water flows from the underground caverns in the forest at the origin of the river. (Image source: Neer Foundation)

    In 2001, Neer Foundation tested the water quality in government accredited laboratories which showed the presence of persistent organic pollutants or PoPs in the two samples near Saini village, downstream of Nanglamal sugar factory. PoPs are known for their impacts on human health and the environment as they are resistant to environmental degradation. “Farmers knew of the contamination but continued to irrigate from the river,” adds Raman Kant.

    “It is only on the river’s downstream stretch as it crosses the city of Aligarh that its pollution level declines as freshwater is added to it from the upper Ganga canal. Besides this, industrial wastes are not added in the river’s stretch between Aligarh and Kannauj,” says Raman Kant.

    The green court takes note

    Many civil society groups have raised the issue of river clean-up. Come monsoon and stretches of the effluent-laden river turn red as it passes through industrial sites. An otherwise seasonal river has now turned into a perennial one, thanks to the discharge of industrial and municipal wastewater into it. For years, this has been a concern as villagers were left with no option but to drink this contaminated water. The union environment ministry had in 2012 directed the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to monitor the quality of the river water and the major wastewater outfalls. “The Uttar Pradesh State Pollution Control Board too does regular monitoring of the river waters,” says Yadav.

    Yet small pockets of industries are polluting the waters of the predominantly rural catchment that is largely dependent on the untreated water from the river as well as the ground. This is leading to the spread of cancer and various other life-threatening diseases. Seeing the impasse, Raman Kant put up a public interest litigation (PIL) which was heard by the principal bench headed by Justice Swatanter Kumar, chairperson, National Green Tribunal (NGT). Neer Foundation had two demands--the Environment Protection Rules, 1986 that prescribes the standards for effluent discharge is followed and municipal authorities who are responsible for managing municipal wastes adhere to the Municipal Solid Waste Rules, 2016.

    “The industries not only abstract large volumes of water during their manufacturing processes reducing dilution of pollutants present within the surface water bodies but also contaminate the river by draining their effluent wastes into it,” the PIL states.

    The NGT has, in an order dated May 24, 2017, asked the Uttar Pradesh State Pollution Control Board to test the groundwater along the course of the East Kali river. The order is applicable to districts of Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Hapur, Bulandshahr, Kasganj, Aligarh, Kannauj and Farrukhabad through which the river passes. The NGT has directed the authorities to test the water immediately and seal those handpumps that supply contaminated water. The PIL also says the Kali clean-up is a prerequisite to cleaning the Ganga. The green tribunal’s order has come as a temporary respite for thousands of villagers living along the river. They are nonetheless waiting for the government to establish long-term policies to resolve the crisis. This could be in the form of a comprehensive action plan for cleaning the East Kali river.

    “The Supreme Court had in 2014 transferred a public interest litigation by noted environmental activist M.C. Mehta, pending since 1985, to the green tribunal. It deals with issues of the river Ganga, especially those involving discharge of domestic sewage and other sources of pollution in the Ganga. This is the larger case which is being heard on a daily basis by the tribunal. As a result, some of the prayers of the petitioner in the case of Kali river were not heard separately,” says advocate Adarsh Srivastava, one of the applicants on behalf of the petitioner.

    “We hope to get an official assessment of the water quality in the riverside villages as per the present order on the East Kali river soon. However, since we have been working on the river’s revival, we look forward to the tribunal’s orders on the Ganga pollution case. The court is likely to give directions on strict measures and penalties to prevent hazardous materials and pollutants from being dumped into the rivers,” says Abhishek Tyagi, secretary of Neer Foundation.

    Without this, it is hard to tell whether the issue of pollution will be resolved in the near future.

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              By: E. Poole        
    <p>Nice well-argued piece.</p> <p>Expansive monetary and fiscal policies in the late 1960s/early 1970s appear to have contributed substantially to increases in real oil prices. The critical intermediate variable is the expected real interest rate which was low or negative for many years during that period.</p> <p>In Engel's explanation, the real interest rate represents the opportunity cost of oil inventories. In other models, lower real interest rates would increase output and the demand for oil through investment or increases in the labour supply, especially if the rate shocks are not fully anticipated.</p> <p>Those looking for a tight correspondance to current reality may not find one. The real costs of borrowing capital have gone up. (See the balloon that some US banker floated on the weekend about re-pricing the LBO/privatization of Canadian telecomm giant BCE lower than the C$42.75/share agreed to last summer.)</p> <p>If unexpected higher real energy costs are hinting at the increasing obsolescence of the current capital stock, increased expectations of slower growth could easily drive real borrowing costs higher.</p> <p>There is a more mundane explanation. Markets have generally been awful at forecasting oil price demand elasticities in this decade and have given up <i>over analyzing</i> demand on the assumption of significant inertia in global demand due to robust emerging economy demand. Anything else in the larger economy is treated as spurious noise in this radical decoupling view.</p> <p>FWIW, I'm betting that the price of oil declines between now and October 2008 and natural gas prices will increase in the same time period. Oil and gas stock markets look like they are just starting to heat up. Refineries will drag down integrated company earnings.</p>
              Charlie Worsham-Beginning of Things-2017-MTD        
    Description: Beginning of Things is Worsham’s second full-length album and follows 2013’s Rubberband, which received widespread acclaim. American Songwriter calls Worsham, “the sort of triple threat artist that seems in short supply on Music Row these days. He writes well, sings well, and is a skilled and tasteful guitarist to boot,” while Rolling Stone asserts, […]
              AARP Foundation Litigation Housing Initiatives-AARP        
    AFL endeavors to ensure a supply of safe, affordable and accessible housing and livable communities by challenging reductions in supply or restrictions ...
              Ghost tram        


    It's no secret that I love public transport. Trains. Trams. Even the occasional bus. They're part of my daily life and I wouldn't have it any other way. For me, one of the joys of going to another big city is getting to know the public transport system, and delighting in the fact that it's inevitably more efficient than our own (excluding the #96 tram line, the most speedy and wonderful tram line in Melbourne, which in my mind could not get more efficient if it tried). 
    But if there is something more exciting than discovering another city's public transport system, its discovering something new about your own. I'm not talking about where to stand at your favourite train station so the doors stop right in front of you, or which tram door to get on to maximise your chances of getting a seat, or even once on the tram, where to position yourself on a full tram so as to pounce on a newly vacated seat (if north of separation street, beside a girl in a Santa Maria College uniform). That's low hanging fruit.
    I'm talking about discovering how to catch a tram that isn't even there. 

    The PT scene really cranked up a notch with the arrival of Tram Tracker. That little pal in your pocket that can tell you the three next trams at a given stop, what time the tram you're on is due to arrive at a given location, when there is a delay due to some shit going down. It's fantastic. 

    The next three trams feature is my favourite, and essential when I'm trying to make a tram connection after going to the gym in the mornings. It's all a bit of a rush and I need to know how much I should hustle. 

    It looks like this, in case you're not a user. 




    As you can see, it even shows you what kind of tram is coming. Only sometimes, early in the mornings, there ain't no picture of a tram. Just a blank space and then the number of minutes. I found this weird, and several times hustled to catch those trams, but they never came. I gave up on them. They were ghost trams. 
    But one day, standing my designated stop, waiting for the tram after the ghost tram because I knew better, I heard the faint sound of trams gliding on tracks. I looked up, saw nothing, and then decided to walk down the street a bit, to the corner of Plenty road and high street and around the corner to miller street, where the tram depot is.
    And that's when I saw The ghost tram. You see, instead of starting its journey in Bundoora or wherever the heck the 86 goes, it starts at the Preston depot. I guess there are so many people on the 86 route that they have to keep the supply up. The first stop it goes past is the stop after my stop. It's a ghost tram until then.
    It was a real eureka moment. Now when Tram tracker tells me ghost tram is on it's way, I trot down to the next stop and intercept it. I'm the first passenger on ghost tram! I tell you, it's really something.
    We all like to feel special, right? Ghost tram makes me feel special. Because I cracked the code and just because I love being on a tram all by myself. 
              Annual Mormon Book Review        

    Carrying on from last year's review of David Robert's Devil's Gate: Brigham Young and the Great Mormon Handcart Tragedy, here is a second review of another Mormon-centered book. Enjoy!

    Jared Farmer. On Zion’s Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008. 455 pages. Cloth: Alkaline Paper. $29.95.


    From the early days of the inception of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints (LDS), the Mormons were concerned with place-making. Joseph Smith, the religion’s founder, initially identified Jackson County, Missouri as the “center place,” where the Garden of Eden had once stood. However, the devout were soon thrown out of the state by the governor, and moved on to Nauvoo, Illinois. Later, after Smith was assassinated, the new Mormon leader, Brigham Young, turned his gaze farther west and in 1846-1847 led a party of followers to Utah, which he claimed as “Deseret”—their Zion. There, the Saints found their “place apart” from the rest of the world.

    Jared Farmer’s 2008 book On Zion’s Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape adroitly traces Mormon place-making in Utah. His story is ostensibly about Mount Timpanogos, a landmark known as “Timp” that unites the skyline above Orem and Provo. But the history involves much more than the mountain. It is a microcosm of Angloamerican settlement in the west. Using a singular landmark, Farmer delves into the importance of creating place out of space. He asks why Mount Timpanogos usurped the importance of the historically and agriculturally significant Lake Utah, and how the Mormon settlers manipulated their turbulent history with the Ute Indians in order to make myths and claim places as their own. The book deals with two centuries of history, as well as the interaction between varied cultures and the sometimes contradictory dogma of the LDS Church. Though complex, On Zion’s Mount is a wonderfully executed book—well written, insightful, and an excellent example of how to use local history to illuminate greater historical narratives.

    The book is divided into three sections, each focusing on a different step in the climb to the veneration of “Timp.” The first, “Liquid Antecedents,” deals with the early history of the Ute Indians and the Mormons. It also concentrates on how bodies of water were significant to residents and settlers in the Utah Valley. This section is compelling, as Farmer explains just how distinct the freshwater Lake Utah was in the arid Great Basin. The lake was a natural landmark for the Utes, who relied heavily on its plentiful supply of fish. In the mid-1800s, it became a landmark for the Mormons, who arrived predisposed to seek out monuments in their new “holy land.”

    Despite the Mormons’ intention to find a locale that was disconnected from the rest of the world, the Utah Valley, where the first waves of Mormons settled, was not a “place apart.” It was populated with Ute Indians, who had lived in the area for centuries. The wellspring for many of these Utes was Utah Lake, a freshwater reservoir southeast of the Great Salt Lake. The Indians there called themselves Timpanogos Nuche—“Rocky River Fish Eaters.” They identified themselves in connection with the body of water. The Mormons entered into an unstable relationship with the Timpanogos; an association characterized by violent fits, uneasy alliances, and contradictory feelings. This fluctuating friendship came with a bond to Utah Lake.

    Both the Timpanogos and the Mormons emphasized the importance of place. The Utes classified bands by “geographic food names” like “Lake People” and “Fish-Eaters.” (25) The Saints were concerned with place as it related to Millenialism. While other religions affected by the Second Great Awakening believed in a prediction of when Christ would return, the Mormons were concerned with where. (36) When the Mormons arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, the hot springs, streams, and of course the Great Salt Lake all contributed to the Saints’ belief that they had found their promised land. In the waters they took healing baths, baptized their children, and fished. These same waters had been frequented by the Utes for decades, if not centuries.

    From their introduction onward, relations between the Mormons and the Timpanogos were rocky. In 1849, the former noticed that livestock was missing, and rallied a group to ride south and confront Little Chief, a Ute leader who lived on the shores of Utah Lake. The chief turned the Saints towards some “mean Ewtes,” who they subsequently slaughtered for stealing.(62) Three days afterward, a band of Mormon men decided to relocate their families to Utah Lake. The Saints settled in the midst of hostilities between bands of Utes. In order to secure their own safety, the settlers at Utah Lake as well as the LDS leadership engaged in unsteady diplomacy and occasional fights with different Indian contingents.

    To complicate the already problematic situation, Mormons arrived in Utah with preconceptions of Native Americans. In fact, Indians were integral to the burgeoning religion’s discourse. According to LDS dogma, Indians were descendants of the “Lamanites,” once followers of Christ who traveled to America before the Babylon captivity. In the New World, the hostile sect broke away from their brothers, the “Nephites.” For this, God cursed the Lamanites with dark skin. The ill-fated group waged war on the Nephites and erased any fragments of Christianity from the land. The last Nephite scribe, Moroni, was the impetus for the Mormon religion. He came to Joseph Smith in a dream and told him where to find the scriptural record of this lost history. With his revelation of the sanctity of the Lamanites, Smith incorporated proselytizing to Indians into the Book of Mormon. The descendants of the Lamanites who converted would be saved during the Second Coming. More importantly, they would assist Christ in destroying the earth as soldiers of the apocalypse. This created a contradictory idea of Native Americans: “They were cursed to be inferior yet promised to be superior. They were destined to save the world, yet they couldn’t save themselves.”(57) Furthermore, dealing with real-life Utes proved harder than the LDS leadership imagined.

    The tension in Saints’ beliefs between “Indian-as-brother and Indian-as-other” continued to influence their interactions with natives around Utah Lake.(61) Young was wary of the amicable relations between his followers and the Timpanogos and wished that the two groups not mix. In 1850, following the murder of an Indian man, the Mormons and the Utes engaged in the “Indian War.” Later, LDS leadership chastised natives for engaging in slave trade with a New Mexican. Though in Mormon thought there were some redeemable Indians, by 1860 Young was determined that the Utes ought to be displaced. He wrote to Washington, D.C.: “It is our wish that the Indian title should be extinguished, and the Indians removed from our Territory (Utah) and that for the best of reasons, because they are doing no good here to themselves or any body else.”(82) By the latter half of the 1860s most of the Timpanogos people moved to the Uinta Basin, estranged from the place upon which they based their identity.

    Following the removal of the Utes, Utah Lake experienced a surge and then a decline in popularity that mirrored the fate of other regional waterways. In the late 19th century, tourists came to the area to take in the healing waters of the hot springs, the Great Salt Lake, and Utah Lake. Additionally, the latter continued to be a distinguished fishery. However, this fame did not last. In the first half of the 20th century, fires destroyed a number of Salt Lake resorts. Overfishing and the introduction of nonnative species affected Utah Lake. The Great Depression and WWII furthered the destruction of water sport popularity. The federal government opened the Geneva Steel plant on Utah Lake; its smokestacks and pollution diminished the reservoir’s beauty and water quality. Even after the plant closed in 2001, the lake had lost its reputation. Residents considered it dirty, shallow, and full of undesirable fish. Furthermore, during the twentieth century Utahans rethought their sense of identity. Instead of revering the hydrological geography of Utah, its residents had turned their gaze upward to the peaks.

    The second section of the book, “Making a Mountain: Alpine Play,” discusses how Utahans built Mount Timpanogos into a landmark. Farmer makes great use of the exclusion of certain places as well as their later inclusion. Using topographical resources from the four western surveys, as well as mormon settler drawings and maps, Farmer shows how Timpanogos went from being an undefined ridge in the Wasatch Range to a distinct massif that overshadowed both the larger Mount Nebo to the south and the historically significant Lake Utah to the west.

    As in the first three chapters, Farmer employs LDS beliefs to form the basis of his argument. The Saints’ theological sense of place included an emphasis on mountains. Settlers viewed their new homeland through religion; mountains pervade world religions as the geographical pathway to God. Peaks were of special importance to Mormons, since Joseph Smith purportedly prophesied that they would “become a mighty people in the midst of the Rocky Mountains.”(150) When the Saints arrived in Deseret, they labeled many geographic sites with biblical names, including Mount Nebo, the highest peak in the Wasatch range. However, in the 1880s Mormons began to secularize their environment. This shift was motivated by the United States Congress, which outlawed theocracy and polygamy. During what Mormons call “The Great Accommodation,” the Saints rethought the peaks in a patriotic light.

    The King Survey was the first to identify “Tim-pan-o-gos Peak” in 1869.(164) However, no one considered it a defining aspect of the region, and many could not even see it; the massif was just a part of the jagged wall between Provo and American Fork Canyons. It wasn’t until the early decades of the 20th century that residents of Provo “began to visualize a mountain.”(167) The view of Timpanogos from Provo changed as the town relocated to the east of its original home at old Fort Utah. Spurred by the historic importance of mountains to the Mormons as well as the “European vogue of alpine aesthetics,” it was not unnatural for the residents of Provo to revere a nearby peak.(141) By 1910, the town described itself in relation to the mountain.

    The King Survey did more than just identify Mount Timpanogos—the survey also pronounced it (erroneously) the highest peak in the Wasatch Range. In reality, that title belongs to Mount Nebo. However, the claim persisted even after the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey corrected the record, and tourists began arriving to climb the “highest mountain in the Wasatch.”(175) With the boosterism of Eugene “Timpanogos” Roberts, Brigham Young University’s athletics director, and the national increase in the popularity of hiking, “Timp” became a recreational landmark. Roberts led yearly hikes to the top of the massif, and along with the claim that they were climbing the highest peak in the Wasatch, boosters “endlessly repeated claims that the Annual Timpanogos Hike ranked as the biggest hike in America, the greatest community hike in the world, and the largest ‘pilgrimage’ to any mountain over 10,000 feet.”(202) The peak, as well as its ascent were powerful symbols of community strength.

    Though the hike was discontinued in the 1970s, the peak remained emblematic of Provo. The Forest Service designated Timpanogos as wilderness. They banned the grazing of domestic animals and introduced mountain goats to the area in 1981. Meanwhile, Provo and Orem transformed from farming communities into suburbia and Robert Redford bought and built up Sundance. These changes emphasized the dichotomy between wilderness and urban areas. With the growth in population of the two cities and the ski resort, Timpanogos increased in importance. In 1996 the mountain’s significance was solidified in Mormon minds when the LDS Church built Mount Timpanogos Temple. Farmer ends this section with a rumination on environmentalism. Despite all the reverence for place, Mormons are not conservationists, and do not engage in preservation of their landmark. “Sense,” he concludes, “is not the same as sensibility.”(238)

    The final section of the book, “Making a Mountain: Indian Play,” investigates how “Timp” was marked with cultural meaning. Farmer examines the place name as well as the legends that surround it. In the nineteenth century, white Americans like Henry Schoolcraft and Lydia Sigourney advocated the use of Indian place-names, despite the usual miscommunication, misappropriation, or blatant invention of “native” words. The American government continued the trend by accepting Indianist names of states. In Utah, “Timpanogos” was a long-remembered name in the Provo region. The Indians themselves were displaced to the Uinta Band, and though the name had originally designated a river, the waterway had been renamed “Provo River.” For locals, associating the mountain with a Native word “gave the landmark a heightened semblance of antiquity and authenticity.”(281)

    Ironically, to further this authenticity, Eugene “Timpanogos” Roberts provided the mountain with a fake Indian legend. “The Story of Utahna and Red Eagle, an Indian Legend of Timpanogos” retold a familiar Angloamerican tale of the Indian Princess—the “dark-skinned Sappho” throwing herself from a precipice in response to a suitor.(287) These stories, all of which have suspect providence, used Native American tragedies to deepen American antiquity.(297) In a land without any ancient city walls or moldering castles, a sense of historic depth was created through legend. Additionally, the legends of leaping maidens alleviated whites’ guilt on displacing the Indians across the continent. The tales emphasized either brutish men that the women could only escape by committing suicide or savage societies that forced women to neglect her chosen lover. Either ended with the implicit message: the race of Indians is uncivilized. More importantly, the destruction of these Native maids was self-imposed. In an age when America was dealing with the morality of Indian Removal, it was more convenient for white storytellers that the natives to make the choice of self-destruction.(314)

    The Legend of Timpanogos gained further footing by its performance in Utah. People repeated the story of Utahna and Red Eagle, and the tale influenced an opera, a ballet, and an oratorio. Locals further promoted the fake history by dressing up in war paint and moccasins and climbing the mountain “as Indians.” The mountain was seen as the embodiment of a Native woman; like the “Sleeping Ute” in Colorado, “Timp’s” ridge resembles a slumbering Indian maid. The Mormon use of Indianist music, storytelling, and fashion to create the Legend of Timpanogos was paradoxical in that they paid homage to a romanticized version of the people that they had forced out of the Utah Valley—the Timpanogos’ ancestral home. These cultural performances replaced history with both fiction and selective memory. Modern residents of Utah formed their own heritage; no matter that their memory is based on a fallacy.

    But of course it does matter, which is Farmer’s point. Mormons produced a heritage that all but erased the Utes, just as it effaced the importance of Utah Lake. Instead of concentrating on their forebears’ efforts to colonize a “place apart,” which would necessitate emphasis on their interactions with the Indian inhabitants, Saints overwhelming focused their attention on the successive journeys westward. LDS theologians went so far as to modify the meaning of a Lamanite, so that Amerindians lost their scriptural status.(370) When they did incorporate Native Americans into their heritage, they did so with Indianist fictional stories that obscured history with romanticism. In this way, Farmer’s book acts as a historical monument, countering the heritage attached to Mount Timpanogos. Using “Timp” as a framework for his study, Farmer is able to resurrect the forgotten history of the Timpanogos Nuches and Lake Utah.

    On Zion’s Mount is an outstanding cultural, local, environmental, and religious history. Farmer engages readers with his lucid prose even as he presents the tangled story of Mormons, Utes, and the western landscape. Such excellent writing is especially important when one is reminded of some of the recently popular books on Mormon history: Jon Krakauer’s Under the Banner of Heaven and David Roberts’ Devil’s Gate: Brigham Young and the Great Mormon Handcart Tragedy.19 Krakauer and Roberts are both professional journalists and authors; their work is aimed at the populace rather than the academy. And yet Farmer rivals these works in its composition and surpasses them in its historic breadth and depth. More importantly for scholars, his argument illuminates the American inclination to transform its landscape and pinpoints those transformations in culture and historic memory. Overall, Timpanogos’ jagged ridge proved an excellent vantage point from which to view Utah’s past.
              Nov 2012 Daring Cooks' Challenge Brining & Roasting        

    Hello this Audax from Audax Artifex and I'm honoured to be your host this month. I have decided to concentrate on a couple of important cooking techniques that every good cook should have up his or her sleeve. The first technique is brining – which uses a brine (at its simplest, a combination of salt and water usually with some sugar) to infuse flavour and moisture into poultry, red- & white-meat, fish, seafood and most types of nuts and seeds. Brining guarantees moist succulent roast chickens and turkeys, fried steaks, steamed trout, BBQed prawns (shrimps), grilled seafood and toasted nuts and seeds. Brining is simple and only needs a few simple ingredients and really adds an extra dimension to your cooking. I will be providing a couple of different recipes and guidelines on how to brine which can be used with a whole array of meats, poultry, seafood, nuts and seeds.

    Then for the second technique (once you have brined your chosen cut of meat) I want you to roast (or BBQ) it. Again I will be giving you guidelines and rules on how to roast your cut of meat. The roasting guidelines can be used for meat, vegetables, nuts and seeds. For our non-meat eating cooks I want you to use the roasting guidelines to roast a selection of vegetables and/or nuts or seeds to perfection.
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    HOW IT WORKS (from http://www.cooksillustrated.com/images/document/howto/ND01_ISBriningbasics.pdf)

    Soaking in brine improves the taste and the moistness of all fowl (chicken, turkey, goose, duck and guinea fowl), also it works on lean red- and lean white-meats, fish, most seafood and most nuts and seeds. It is simple, cheap and effective and will ensure that your Christmas roast will be the tastiest you have ever made. All you do is brine your cut of meat and then proceed as normal, you will find that the roast is juicy and the skin has a lovely colour. The recipe for all-purpose brine is simple - for each cup (240 ml) of water use 1 tablespoon (18 gm) of table salt this makes a 8% brine solution which can be used for most foods. (This is equivalent to 1 cup of table salt for each gallon (4 litres) of water.)

    Brining works in accordance with two principles, called diffusion and osmosis, these two principles like to keep things in equilibrium (or in stable balance). When brining a fowl for example, there is a greater concentration of salt and sugar outside of the fowl (in the brine) than inside the fowl (in the cells that make up its flesh). The law of diffusion states that the salt and sugar will naturally flow from the area of greater concentration (the brine) to lesser concentration (the cells). There is also a greater concentration of water, so to speak, outside of the fowl than inside. Here, too, the water will naturally flow from the area of greater concentration (the brine) to lesser concentration (the cells). When water moves in this fashion, the process is called osmosis. Once inside the cells, the salt and, to a lesser extent, the sugar causes the cell proteins to unravel, or denature. As the individual proteins unravel, they become more likely to interact with one another. This interaction results in the formation of a sticky matrix that captures and holds moisture. Once exposed to heat, the matrix gels and forms a barrier that keeps much of the water from leaking out as the meat cooks. Thus you have a roast that is both better seasoned and much more moist than when you started.

    HANGING IT OUT TO DRY

    Brining does have one negative effect on poultry: Adding moisture to the skin as well as the flesh which can prevent the skin from crisping when cooked. This can be overcome by air-drying, a technique used in many Chinese recipes for roast duck and chicken. Letting brined chicken and turkey dry uncovered in the refrigerator allows surface moisture to evaporate, making the skin visibly more dry and taut and therefore promoting crispness when cooked. Although this step is optional, if crisp skin is a goal, it’s worth the extra time. For best results, air-dry whole brined birds overnight. Brined chicken parts can be air-dried for several hours. Transfer the brined bird to a heavy-duty cooling rack set over a rimmed baking sheet, pat the bird dry with paper towels, and refrigerate. The rack lifts the bird off the baking sheet, allowing air to circulate freely under the bird. If you are not air-drying your fowl it is best to pat dry the skin with paper towels before roasting in a hot oven.

    Surprisingly, brining has one large positive effect on fish fillets, a quick brine (only 10 mins) greatly improves the appearance of cooked fillets, because the brine reduces the unsightly white layer of albumin that coagulates on the surface during cooking, I highly recommend brining fish fillets when presentation is paramount. 

    ITEMS THAT BENEFIT FROM BRINING
    Lean cuts of meat with mild flavour tend to benefit most from flavour brining also most nuts and seeds can be brined with good affect. These include:

    Chicken: whole, butterflied, or pieces
    Cornish Hens: whole or butterflied
    Turkey: whole, butterflied, or pieces
    Pork: chops, loin, tenderloin, fresh ham
    Seafood: salmon, trout, shrimp
    Beef: use lean pieces of beef
    Nuts and Seeds: Most nuts and seeds are suitable i.e. pumpkin, peanuts, sesame, almonds etc.  

    Fatty meats such as duck, beef, and lamb do not benefit as much from brining (but still can be brined)—they're naturally moist and flavourful. They also tend to be cooked to lower internal temperatures and thus don't lose as much of their natural moisture.

    WHICH SALT TO USE
    Kosher salt (called rock salt outside North America) and table salt are the most common salts used in brining.

    Sea salt can be used for flavour brining, but it tends to be quite expensive. If you have a cheap supply available, go for it; otherwise, stick to kosher salt or table salt.
    Some people say that kosher salt tastes "cleaner" than table salt because it does not contain the anti-caking agents added to table salt. Some people prefer non-iodized table salt over iodized table salt, believing that potassium iodide creates an off-taste. However, these flavour differences melt away when salt is diluted in large quantities of water in a brine. In an article about salt in the September/October 2002 issue of Cook's Illustrated magazine, taste testers felt that "all nine salts tasted pretty much the same" when dissolved in spring water and chicken stock, whether it was 36¢/pound iodized table salt, 66¢/pound kosher salt, or $36/pound Fleur de Sel de Camargue sea salt from France.

    SALT EQUIVALENT MEASURES
    Table salt and kosher salt do not have the same saltiness in a flavour brine when measured by volume—but they do when measured by weight.

    Table salt weighs about 10 ounces (285 grams) per cup, while kosher salt weighs 5-8 ounces (140-225 grams) per cup, depending on the brand. If using kosher salt in a brine, you must use more than a cup to achieve the same salt flavour you would get from a cup of table salt.

    The chart below shows equivalent amounts of table salt and the two most popular brands of kosher salt.

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    Morton Kosher Salt weighs about 7.7 ounces (220 grams) per cup, making it three-fourths as strong as table salt. Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt weighs about 5 ounces (140 grams) per cup, making it half as strong as table salt.
    What if you're using something other than Morton Kosher or Diamond Crystal Kosher salt? Regardless of the type of salt—sea salt, pickling salt, and any other brand of kosher salt—just measure 10 ounces (285 grams) of it on a kitchen scale and you will have the equivalent of 1 cup of table salt.

    HOW LONG TO BRINE
    The length of time meat soaks in a flavour brine depends on the type of meat and its size, as well as the amount of salt used in the brine—the saltier the brine mixture, the shorter the soaking time. Here are common brining times found in recipes:

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    It is possible to end up with meat that's too salty for your taste, so you may want to brine on the low end of the time range to see how it turns out. You can always brine longer next time, but there's no way to salvage a piece of meat that's been brined too long.

    ROASTING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR POULTRY 
    When we roast brined cuts of meat (or whole birds) the procedure firstly is to brown the skin in a hot oven then to lower the temperature so we reduce the moisture loss in the roasted food. It is important to rest (loosely covered in foil) your roast so that the moisture can redistribute itself in the meat, it greatly adds to the final tenderness of the cooked product.

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    For other roasting times for red meat, fish, seafood, nuts and seeds see the additional information at the end of the challenge write-up.

    Recipe Source:  The brine and roast chicken used are traditional recipes used in my family for many generations. The roast vegetable recipe is from my own family cookbook.   

    Blog-checking lines:  Audax of Audax Artifax was our November 2012 Daring Cooks’ host.  Audax has brought us into the world of brining and roasting, where we brined meat and vegetables and roasted them afterwards for a delicious meal!

    Posting Date:  November 14th, 2012

    Download the printable .pdf file HERE


    Note:  Important Information – brining must be done in the refrigerator the salt water will not stop the growth of germs and bacteria. Also brine cannot be reused always discard it after first use.  Make sure that the brine goes into the cavity of large chickens and turkeys when brining.  

    Mandatory Items: If you eat meat you must brine a meat (or seafood) cut and then roast (or BBQ) it. For non-meat eaters please brine some nuts or seeds then roast them or just roast a load of vegetables. I have included an extensive listing of poultry, seafood, nut etc. recipes in the additional information section at the end of the challenge feel free to use any of these recipes. Of course you can use your own favourite recipe if you wish.

    Variations allowed:  Any meat/seafood (or nuts/seeds) can be used for brining. And any vegetable can be used by non-meat eaters. 

    Preparation time:  Generally brining takes from ½ hour to 2 days. Roasting can take up to 2 hours for most pieces of meat, for large poultry 6-7 hours.

    Equipment required:
    non-reactive container for the brine
    roasting pans or trays

    Challenge Recipes
    I have included one all-purpose brine recipe, a roast chicken recipe and a roast vegetable recipe.

    Recipe One – All-Purpose Brine:


    Makes 4 cups of brine enough for about one pound (½ kg) of meat

    This is the brine to use for most cuts of meat and poultry that will be roasted.

    Ingredients
    4 cups (1 litre) of cold water (see note 1)
    ¼ cup (70 gm) table salt or  ½ cup (70 gm) Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt
    optional 2 tablespoons (30 ml) (30 gm/1 oz) sugar (see note 2)
    optional 3-4 peppercorns, a few springs of herbs, a garlic clove or two, a knob of ginger etc. (see note 3)

    Instructions
    1. Heat 1 cup of water to boiling point add the salt and stir until all the salt has totally dissolved.
    2. Place in a non-reactive container (glass, plastic, stainless steel, zip-lock bags etc). Add the remaining water and stir. Make sure that all the salt has dissolved. Wait until the brine has reached room temperature.
    3. Add your cut of meat make sure that the meat is completely submerged (that is totally covered in the salty water) if need be you can weigh down the cut of meat with a clean plate (etc). If using plastic bags make sure that the meat is totally covered in brine and make sure that is bag is locked securely.
    4. Cover the container with plastic wrap to prevent odours contaminating the flavour brine or the brine leaking.
    5. Place the container into the refrigerator for the soaking time suggested by the guidelines above.
    6. If desired you can air-dry your poultry (usually over night) in the refrigerator if you wish to have crispy skin on your bird. It is best to pat dry your brined item (inside and out) with paper towels before cooking.
    7. Cook the brined item as directed by the roasting guidelines above.

    Notes
    1. You can replace all or some of the water with a combination of wine, cider, beer, tea, coffee, fruit juice, most sauces (tomato, soya, BBQ, chilli etc), chicken stock, beef stock or fish stock. Be careful with acidic liquids like wine, cider, fruit juices which can turn your meat to mush if brined too long.
    2. A little sugar can help overcome the saltiness of the brine and helps to give a nice sheen to your piece of meat when roasted. You can use up to ¼ cup of sugar (use the lesser amount (2 tablespoons) for high temperature roasting since the brine can burn at high heats if you use too much sugar). You can use brown sugar or honey or other sweeteners if you wish.
    3. Any combination of spices and herbs can be used to flavour the brine. Garlic powder, onion powder and ginger powder are excellent to use for brining.

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    Recipe Two – Roast Brined Chicken
    Serves four to six people

    Ingredients:
    1 whole chicken (organic is best) about 2 kg (4 ½ pounds)
    Enough brine (see recipe above) to cover the chicken in a large non-reactive container

    Directions:

    1. Brine the whole chicken in the flavoured brine in the refrigerator overnight about 6 hours can be overnight. (Make sure that every part of the chicken is covered in the brine you can weigh the bird down with a clean plate so it is completely submerged.
    2. Discard the brine and dry the skin and inside of the bird with paper towels.
    3. If you desire crispy skin then leave the bird on a rack for several hours or overnight in the refrigerator so the skin can dry.
    4. Preheat oven to moderately hot 220°C/425°F/gas 7.
    5. Roast for 15 minutes.
    6. Reduce oven to moderate 180°C/350°F/gas 4 and roast for a further 12-15 minutes per 450 grams/pound, You can check for done-ness the internal temperature should be 165°F/84°C, or the juices should run clear when you pierce the bird between the leg and thigh.  
    7. Rest for approximately 30 minutes covered loosely in foil.

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    Recipe Three – Roast Vegetables
    Serves six people

    For best results use the largest shallow heavy-weight roasting pan you have and make sure that the vegetable are well spaced out in the pan and only form one layer, use two trays if necessary. A very hot oven 475°F/240°C/gas mark 9 is the key to roasting vegetables. Only toss the vegetables once or twice during cooking. For lighter-weight vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli or cut corn add it to the pan 15 minutes later, so it doesn't get too brown. Greens like kale and mustard greens are done in only 15 minutes. Root vegetables should be cut into cubes of about one-inch (2½ cm). You can add a small amount of apricot fruit spread or honey in the last 10 minutes to enhance the caramelising process. Fresh basil, rosemary and thyme are best when used fresh. Curry, paprika and turmeric are also great. Grated ginger or crushed garlic can also be added.  

    Ingredients:
    1 small butternut squash (pumpkin), cubed
    2 red bell peppers (capsicums), seeded and sliced
    1 orange sweet potato, peeled and cubed OR 3 medium carrots, peeled and sliced lengthways
    3 Yukon Gold (or any baking) potatoes, cubed
    1 red onion, quartered
    optional 1 fat clove of garlic, crushed
    1 tablespoon chopped fresh thyme
    2 tablespoons chopped fresh rosemary
    2 tablespoon olive oil
    1 tablespoon balsamic vinegar or 1 tablespoon lemon juice
    Salt and pepper to taste

    Directions:
    1. Preheat oven to very hot 475°F/240°C/gas mark 9.
    2. In a large bowl, combine the squash, red bell peppers, sweet potato, red onion and Yukon Gold potatoes and the optional garlic if using.
    3. In a small bowl, stir together thyme, rosemary, olive oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper. Toss with vegetables until they are coated. Spread evenly on a large roasting pan.
    4. Roast for 35 to 40 minutes in the preheated oven, stirring one or twice, or until vegetables are cooked through and browned. If using a smaller tray the vegetables will take about 50-60 minutes.

    Roast Vegetables
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    Brined and BBQed “seven-bone” steak (notice the shape of the bone in the steak)
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    Brined and BBQed “wagyu” steak
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    Brined and Roasted Peppered Ribeye Roast
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    Additional Information:  Include links to videos or information that can be of assistance to members.
    Kosher salt versus table salt http://bbq.about.com/od/spicesseasonings/a/aa102007a.htm
    Everything you wanted to know about brining http://www.amazingribs.com/recipes/rubs_pastes_marinades_and_brines/zen_of_brines.html
    Brining Nuts and Seeds http://www.jwright44.com/recipes/BrinedNuts.htm
    How to brine pumpkin seeds http://www.ehow.com/how_8144233_brine-pumpkin-seeds.html
    How a quick brine improves the appearance of fish fillets http://www.cooksillustrated.com/howto/detail.asp?docid=36992
    Dry brining thick steaks (a great article) http://steamykitchen.com/163-how-to-turn-cheap-choice-steaks-into-gucci-prime-steaks.html
    Brining turkey a primer http://bbq.about.com/od/turkey/ss/aa110808a.htm
    Roast chicken ten ways http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/chickenturkeymore/tp/roastchixtenways.htm
    Cooking a turkey (many articles) http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/chickenturkeymore/tp/Cooking-A-Turkey.htm
    To roast a turkey http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/chickenturkeymore/r/Roast-Turkey-Recipe.htm
    Roasting guidelines for red meat roasts http://www.donaldrussell.com/game-technique?ms=tab5 Jamie Oliver's Roast Potato, parsnips and carrot recipe http://www.jamieoliver.com/recipes/vegetarian-recipes/roast-potatoes-parsnips-carrots 
    Jamie Oliver's Perfect Roast Potato recipe http://www.jamieoliver.com/recipes/vegetarian-recipes/perfect-roast-potatoes
    Delia Smith's Roast Potato recipe http://www.deliaonline.com/how-to-cook/fruit-and-vegetables/how-to-roast-potatoes.html
    How to brine fish http://www.ehow.com/how_5963061_brine-fish-before-cooking.html
    Vegetable Roasting Guide http://www.eatingwell.com/healthy_cooking/healthy_cooking_101/shopping_cooking_guides/vegetable_roasting_guide
    How to cook a steak to perfection http://howto.yellow.co.nz/food-drink/cooking-and-baking/how-to-cook-steak/
    How to cook a steak (using American cuts of meat) http://www.marksdailyapple.com/how-to-cook-the-perfect-steak/

    Disclaimer:
    The Daring Kitchen and its members in no way suggest we are medical professionals and therefore are NOT responsible for any error in reporting of “alternate baking/cooking”.  If you have issues with digesting gluten, then it is YOUR responsibility to research the ingredient before using it.  If you have allergies, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are lactose intolerant, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are vegetarian or vegan, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. The responsibility is YOURS regardless of what health issue you’re dealing with. Please consult your physician with any questions before using an ingredient you are not familiar with.  Thank you! :)
              February 2012 Daring Bakers’ Challenge - Quick Breads        
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    Blog-checking lines: The Daring Bakers’ February 2012 host was – Lis! Lis stepped in last minute and challenged us to create a quick bread we could call our own. She supplied us with a base recipe and shared some recipes she loves from various websites and encouraged us to build upon them and create new flavor profiles.

    Posting Date: February 27, 2012

    Recipe Source: The basic quick bread recipe is from Sara Schewe. The prune bread recipe was my Aunty Ann’s recipe. The Meyer Lemon Loaf and Green Onion, Cheddar & Asiago Beer Batter Bread were adapted from Recipe Girl (http://www.recipegirl.com/2008/08/13/meyer-lemon-loaf/ & http://www.recipegirl.com/2007/05/30/cheddar-chive-beer-bread/ ). The Pumpkin Bread with Maple Cream Cheese Filling was adapted from Dana Ramsey’s recipe located on Just a Pinch Recipe Club.


    Basic Quick Bread
    Makes one 9” x 5” (23×13 cm) loaf
    Recipe from Sara Schewe
    Ingredients
    2 cups (480 ml) (250 gm/9 oz) all-purpose (plain) flour
    1 cup (240 ml) (225 gm/8 oz) granulated sugar
    1 teaspoon (5 ml) (5 gm) baking soda
    1/2 teaspoon (2½ ml) (3 gm) fine sea salt or table salt
    1 cup (240 ml) buttermilk or soured milk*
    1 large egg
    1/4 cup (60 ml) mild- or non-flavored oil, like canola
    1 teaspoon (5 ml) flavored extract, such as vanilla or almond

    for the glaze
    1/3 cup (80 ml) (35 gm/1-1/3 oz) confectioners’ (icing) sugar
    1-2 teaspoons (5-10 ml) milk

    Directions:

    1. Preheat oven to moderate 350ºF/180ºC/gas mark 4. Grease a 9×5 inch (23×13 centimeter) loaf pan with butter and line with parchment paper cut to fit the length and width of the pan, with enough overhang to allow easy removal after baking. Grease the top sheet of parchment.
    2. In large bowl, whisk flour, sugar, baking soda and salt to combine. Make a well in the center and set aside.
    3. Lightly whisk (butter)milk, egg, oil, and extract to combine. Pour into well and stir until just mixed into a batter. The batter will be lumpy and may still show a few streaks of flour.
    4. Pour batter into prepared pan. Bake for 40-50 minutes, or until a cake tester comes out clean. Cool in pan on wire rack for 10 minutes, then remove from pan and cool completely before slicing. Drizzle with glaze, if desired.
    5. For the glaze: Slowly whisk confectioners’ (icing) sugar and half of the milk, adding more milk as needed to thin the glaze to the desired consistency.
    Note: To make soured milk, combine 1 cup milk (240 ml) with 1 tablespoon (15 ml) vinegar or lemon juice and let sit for 10 minutes.


    I really liked this challenge so many possibilities for the flavourings I made seven versions.


    Roasted banana and coconut cream bread
    I make banana bread at least once a week (an oversupply of bananas and it's super easy and quick to make and most of my friends and family love it) so I have developed a good feel for making it any way I want, below are some general guidelines on how to manipulate the ingredients and what techniques to use to obtain the banana loaf you want.

    For this challenge I made a brunt butter, brown sugar, coconut cream, roasted banana loaf. I roasted 4 bananas until they were like syrup I combined this with brunt (actually well browned) butter, brown sugar I used coconut cream for the liquid soured with some lime juice. I wanted a dense moist bread-like loaf, so I used the two bowl method to make the quick bread.
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    This is the set of general guidelines to get the texture, mouth feel and moisture levels I want for the final loaf

    Firstly about the texture of the interior (or crumb)
    1. the creaming method (i.e. use an electric mixer to beat the butter and sugar until pale and fluffy about 5 minutes then beat in the eggs and then fold in the dry ingredients) produces a light well-aerated loaf with a cake-like crumb
    2. the two bowl method (sift the dry ingredients in one bowl and combine the wet ingredients in another bowl then mix (usually) the dry into the wet) produces a “heavier and denser” loaf with a bread-like crumb

    Secondly about the mouth feel, for most quick mix recipes as a general rule – less butter and sugar in a recipe makes it more bread-like, while more butter and sugar produces something closer to cake. So it is best to use the two bowl method when doing low-fat versions and the creaming method for high fat versions
    1. Low fat version use the lowest amounts of sugar, butter (you can use apple sauce instead) and lite sour cream (no eggs), stir the sugar and butter together until well mixed but still grainy add the other wet ingredients, sift the dry ingredients in another bowl, combine gently.
    2. Medium fat version use the middle amount of sugar, butter, sour cream and one egg
    3. Extreme fat version use the highest amount of sugar, butter and use 2 eggs (no sour cream), cream the sugar and butter until pale and fluffy, add eggs one at time beating well until incorporated add all the other wet ingredients mix well, add the sifted dry ingredients, combine gently.

    Thirdly the ratio of dry to wet gives different levels of moistness versus denseness
    1. Equal ratio batter: This batter has a dry:liquid ratio of 1:1. Which gives a very moist and dense loaf.
    2. Bread ratio batter: This batter has a dry:liquid ratio of 3:1. Which gives a moist but fluffy loaf. (This is the same ratio of flour:water as in normal bread)
    3. Stiff ratio batter: This “batter” has a dry:liquid ratio of 7:1 This batter will result in a very light and fluffy baked good.

    Here a great link to a video of a chef making banana bread well worth watching http://foodwishes.blogspot.com/2012/01/banana-bread-thats-okay-to-make-early.html

    Ratios for banana bread (based on one cup of flour)
    1 cup flour (any sort or combination of flours is fine) (½ cake flour & ½ whole wheat is great)
    1½ teaspoons baking powder
    ½ teaspoon baking soda
    2 large bananas
    optional 1 tablespoon kecap manis (Indonesian sweet soya sauce) this really adds a wonderful depth of flavour & colour to the banana mash (if using do not add extra salt to the recipe)
    ¼ teaspoon of salt
    1/4 – 1/2 cup of sugar (for extreme flavour can use 1 cup sugar per cup of flour)
    2 – 4 tablespoons butter (or oil) (for extreme flavour can use ½ cup butter per cup of flour)
    1/4 – 1/2 cup sour cream (any sort full-fat or lite is fine) (for extreme moisture use 1 cup sour cream per cup of flour) (you can use buttermilk, coconut cream, almond milk, yoghurt etc if you want)
    1 large egg, lightly beaten (or use 2 eggs and don't use any sour cream) (you can use another 4 tablespoons of sour cream if you do not want to use eggs in the recipe)
    ½ teaspoon vanilla extract
    1 teaspoon cinnamon, ground
    optional ½ teaspoon instant coffee
    optional ¼ teaspoon cayenne pepper (really adds a lovely intensity to the banana and kecap manis mash)
    optional 1/8 teaspoon cloves, ground
    optional 10-12 banana sweets (lollies) for decoration

    Additions (add an extra ½ teaspoon of baking powder per addition to the recipe above if using)
    ½ cup chopped nuts (or chopped soaked dried fruit)
    ½ cup chopped chocolate chips
    ¼ cup cocoa powder, (not Dutch-processed) sifted
    ¼ cup bran (or crushed bran cereal or wheat germ flakes)
    ¼ cup coconut, desiccated or flakes (not sweetened)
    ¼ cup maraschino cherries, chopped

    Method
    1. Roast the bananas in their skins in a preheated moderate 350°F/180°C/gas mark 4 oven for 15-20 minutes until black. Carefully remove banana flesh from the skins then mash well with any liquid released from the banana. Add the kecap manis and/or cayenne pepper if using mix until well combined. Cool and reserve.
    2. If you are using browned butter gently heat the butter in a saucepan until it browns to desired colour. The darker the colour the deeper the flavour. Set aside until firm.
    3. In one bowl sift the flour, baking powder, baking soda and cinnamon (and if using the salt, cocoa powder, ground cloves or instant coffee).
    4. In another bowl using a wooden spoon or a plastic spatula lightly cream the sugar and butter together (about 1 minute) this will produce a bread-like loaf (if you use a mixer to cream [about 5 minutes] the sugar and butter until pale and fluffy the final loaf will be light textured and the crumb very cake-like), add the egg(s) one at time beating each time until well incorporated add the roasted banana mash, sour cream, vanilla extract and any additions. Mix until well combined.
    5. Add the dry ingredients to the wet ingredients mix until just combined there should be lumps and a few wisps of flour in the batter. (If you have used the creaming method then fold in the dry ingredients until just combined.)
    6. Spoon the batter into a greased large loaf [23cmx13cmx7cm (2litre)/9”x5”x3”(4.5 pints)] pan, carefully level the top. (The loaf pan should be a little under 3/4 full, it will rise to the top of the pan when baked). Decorate with banana sweets if desired.
    7. Bake in a preheated moderate oven 325°F/160°C/gas mark 3 for 60-70 minutes or until a skewer comes out clean. (Check at 50 minutes). Muffins take about 20-30 minutes (check at 15 minutes).
    8. Leave in pan until warm (about 15 minutes) remove to wire rack cool to room temperature, cover in foil then plastic, refrigerate overnight.
    9. This banana bread improves with age. The bread will store on the counter for three days if well covered and about ten days in the fridge.

    The roasted banana (the skin goes black when baked)
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    The mixed wet ingredients and the sifted dry ingredients
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    The mixed batter notice the lumps and the wisps of flour in it, the flour will be fully incorporated when the batter is spooned into the baking pan
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    Unbaked loaf decorated with banana sweets (lollies)
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    The finished loaf after one hour of baking
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    If you are a follower of the “ratio” cookbook the ratio by weight for baking quick bread is 2 parts flour: 2 parts liquid: 1 part egg: 1 part fat. To fill a 9” x 5” (23cm x 13cm) loaf pan, you will need 240 grams of flour, 240 grams of liquid of any kind, 120 grams egg (2 of them) or egg substitute & 120 grams of fats. This ratio also works for making muffins. By volume you will need 1¾ cup flour, 1 cup liquid, 2 eggs, ½ cup fat (plus 2 teaspoons baking powder and about 1/2 cup of sugar plus additions).

    Quick Italian pizza loaf
    Italian herb, sun-dried tomato, spicy sausage and blue cheese quick bread
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    I needed a really strongly flavoured quick bread, I followed the basic savoury recipe, 2 cups soft self-raising "OO" flour and 1/2 teaspoon baking soda with these additions 1/4 cup chopped sun-dried tomatoes (with 2 tablespoons of the oil in the jar), 2 tablespoons dried Italian herbs, 1/4 cup crumbled blue cheese, 3/4 cup sour cream, 1 egg, one small chopped onion fried with one chopped spicy sausage and 1/4 cup high quality olive oil, I used 3 tablespoons of the fried onion and spicy sausage as a topping. When I was mixing the batter I could see the dough expanding, I spooned it into the loaf pan and baked it at moderate 325F/165C/gas mark 3 for 40 minutes. The aroma from the loaf was so good it smelt like a pizza baking. I was really pleased with the look of the loaf. The cut loaf was so yummy it had a thin crisp crust with a soft tender crumb choke full of flavour!

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    Cherry Almond Semolina Syrup Cake
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    My favourite flavour profile for quick bread is cherry and almond, I used 1 cup almond meal, 1 cup of very fine semolina (soaked in some almond milk), 4 tablespoons gluten flour, 1 cup chopped cherries, 2 eggs, 1/4 cup vanilla sugar, 4 tablespoons rice bran oil, 1 cup sour cream, 2 teaspoons of natural almond extract, 1 teaspoon of cherry extract. I used 1 cup of sugar syrup to soak the cake after it was baked. This cake took almost two hours to bake at the recommend temperature! It is best to refrigerate the bread for a day before serving. The crust was thin, crisp and sweet while the crumb was soft tender and very tasty one of my better examples of my favourite cake. It is such a pretty cake and the tasty is luscious.

    I made this loaf a couple of days ago, I wanted to share how the crumb improves with some aging. After storing in the fridge cover in foil and plastic the loaf cuts cleanly and the density of the crumb is firm, so much better after a rest.

    Freshly sliced
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    Two days later rested in the fridge
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    Black cardamom bread
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    I thought that I would make a flavour profile that was based on spices, I dug around my spice box and came up with this spice mix

    1 tablespoon black cardamom
    1/2 star anise
    2 cloves
    1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
    1/4 teaspoon nutmeg
    1/4 teaspoon allspice
    1/8 teaspoon ginger

    I used 1 cup of roasted parsnips and 1/2 cup of pureed prunes as the moisture content of the loaf. A really tasty and unusual flavour combination.

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    Upside down blood plum loaf
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    The local gourmet fruit and veggie shop had cute little blood plums on special ($2/kg about $1/lb) so I thought I would make an upside down loaf with them. I sliced up four plums and laid them out decoratively on the base of a parchment paper lined loaf tin, then I made some boozy plum sugar syrup (¼ cup white sugar, 2 tablespoons plum brandy and 2 tablespoons blood plum juice simmered until thick and glossy) and poured that over the sliced plums then I made up the quick bread batter; the dry ingredients were 2 cups of soft “OO” flour sifted with 2 teaspoons of baking powder, ½ teaspoon baking soda and ½ teaspoon salt, the wet ingredients were ¾ cup lite sour cream, 2 eggs, 2 tablespoons non-flavoured oil. ½ cup vanilla sugar and 2 tablespoons of plum brandy. I used the two bowl method to combine the wet into the dry. I baked the loaf for 60 minutes at moderate 325ºF/165°C/gas mark 3. Then I cooled the loaf in the pan then I un-moulded the loaf. I was very very happy with the look of the topping it was so neon bright with a lovely red transparency. The loaf was superbly flavoursome the brandy taste was mellow and combined well with the blood plum flavour overall a nice looking treat for the afternoon and not much harder than the normal quick bread recipe (i.e. without the fruit topping).
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    A picture of blood plums (photo from the internet I forgot to take one)
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    Maximum Intensity Chocolate Quick Bread
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    You can intensify the flavour of chocolate in a recipe by using a combination of techniques. The easiest is to use a combination of melted unsweetened (not dark) chocolate and cocoa powder which has a much stronger chocolate flavour than each individual ingredient tasted separately. Using espresso coffee or vanilla or chilli or kecap manis (used separately or in combination) greatly enhances the taste of the flavour compounds found in chocolate. Also steeping the cocoa powder in boiling water intensifies the taste of chocolate.

    To obtain the intense chocolate flavour of this quick bread I combined
    1. melted semi-dark chocolate mixed with vanilla sugar, 2 tablespoons of kecap manis (sweet Indonesian soy sauce) and 1/4 teaspoon of chilli powder and
    2. cocoa powder which was steeped in 1/4 cup boiling hot espresso coffee and I used
    3. chocolate wafers to form an "upside down layer" (so when the bread is turned out the wafer layer becomes the base).

    I used the creaming method to make the bread.

    You can tell you have a strong chocolate taste when there is a "reddish" hue to the chocolate colour in the cake which shows that the flavour compounds have been fully extracted from the cocoa.

    I really like the simple elegant look of this treat.

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    Cherry coconut cream popovers
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    I thought I would do flavoured popovers as an experiment, I used the recipe that Renata linked to and substituted the cow's milk with coconut cream and used some home-made sour cherry extract also I accidentally used my 5% cake flour which I don't think was the correct choice for this recipe. They smelt wonderful while baking. I think I will have to do them again since the coconut cream made the batter too heavy for the popovers to rise correctly. Even if they sunk once out of the oven they tasted delicious. I think I will use coconut milk for my next batch and see if that will correct the heaviness of the batter.
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    Cherry coconut milk popovers
    I made another batch of popovers using coconut milk and less cherry extract they worked out beautifully they rose about three times in height and had one large central hole in the popover perfect for filling with some lovely flavoursome morsel. See this recipe but replace the milk with coconut milk and 1 tablespoon of cherry extract. Also I baked them in a preheated very hot oven 450F for 15 mins and then 400F for 20 mins. I used 1/2 cup aluminium baking pans filled about 3/4 with the rested (30 mins) batter.

    Popovers
    1 cup plain (AP)flour (bread flour is best, I used AP flour for the recipe)
    1 cup milk or coconut milk, room temperature
    2 large eggs, room temperature
    1 tablespoon non-flavoured oil
    extra oil, for the popover baking pans
    1/2 teaspoon salt
    1 teaspoon to 1 tablespoon sugar
    Optional 1 tablespoon extract; vanilla, cherry etc

    Directions
    1. Place a small amount of oil in each popover baking pan. Place pans onto a baking sheet.
    2. Preheat oven with the baking pans on a baking sheet to very hot 450F/230C.
    3. Mix the flour, salt and sugar together in a large bowl.
    4. Form a well in the flour pour in the milk and the eggs whisk together until just combined with no lumps. I usually transfer the mixed batter to a jug with a long narrow spout which makes pouring out the batter much easier
    5. Rest the batter on counter for at least 15 mins (an hour is best). Do not stir again. DO NOT refrigerate the batter.
    6. Quickly remove the baking sheet and pour the batter into each pan about 3/4 full. The batter should sputter in the oil. Return to oven.
    7. Bake in the preheated very hot 450F/230C oven for 15 min then lower the heat to hot 400F/200C and bake for a further 20-25 mins until risen and well coloured. DO NOT OPEN the oven during this time.
    8. Remove from the oven and pierce a small hole into the side of the popover this allows steam to escape return the popover to the cooling oven to dry out completely which stops the popover from collapsing.

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              Peace on the patio        
    Enjoying  a little moi time, which is in really short supply at the moment. I decided to sit quietly on the new Patio set from Chez Moi, out now at the latest round of Cosmopolitan. I’ve only set out one single chair but of course you can have more! deets: ♥ 28 single poses (male and female) ♥ 24 animations for couples in love (12 x 2)
    ♥ 48 hot sex animations (24 x 2)
    ♥ Automatic Rezzing Props – attaches when an animation is chosen. Texture change options: Tap the Chair to display the colour menu. There are 18 combinations to choose ♥ Chair: 2 LI | Copy | Modifiable
    ♥ Coffee Table: 1 LI | Copy | Modifiable
    ♥ Teapot: 1 LI | Copy | Modifiable
    ♥ Tea Cup: 1 LI | Copy | Modifiable 100% Original Mesh Available in Adult and PG version. My outfit is another promo at just $50L from Stars. Its called Kaitlyn, sweet mini skirt and tank with frilly bits – the Hud is ginormous so make sure to check it out! Cosmopolitan Chez Moi blog (for more info) Stars Fashion store Stars fashion market place La Bohemia sandals $120L (with massive colour hud) Beautiful Dirty Rich Plants & flowers by Dysfuntionality
    Filed under: Blogging SL, Uncategorized, Virtual Fashion Feed Tagged: chez moi, chezmoi, cosmopolitan, decor, dysfunctionality, Faithless Babii, furniture, home & garden, interior design, mesh fashion, Promo, promotion, Pure Eggs & Spam, second life, Second Life fashion, SecondLife, Stars, stars aichi

    View original post on (Read more...)
              Portugal: Juncker Plan: EUR 29 million EIB loan to finance the expansion of gas distribution        
    The European Investment Bank (EIB) is granting EUR 29 million loan to support the investment programme of Sonorgas aimed at expanding its natural gas distribution networks to new areas in northern Portugal. These investments will increase and improve the security of energy supply in the country and contribute to economic growth and job creation in an EU cohesion region. The agreement was made possible by support from the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI), the central pillar of the E...
              EUR 438 Million to Support Renewable Energy in Belgium        
    The European Investment Bank (EIB) will support the construction of the Norther wind farm off the Belgian coast with a loan of EUR 438 million. Half of this amount will be guaranteed under the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI), the heart of the Juncker Commission's Investment Plan for Europe . Norther is the third wind project off the Belgian coast to be supported under the EFSI. Upon completion, its 44 wind turbines will deliver an estimated 352 MW*, enough to supply renewably g...
              EIB Supports Construction of Kilpilahti Power Plant With Eur 175m Loan        
    The European Investment Bank (EIB) has provided a EUR 175m long-term loan for the construction of a new industrial combined heat and power (CHP) plant in Kilpilahti that will supply heat to the oil refinery and chemicals plant on the same site. Being built in accordance with the latest environmental regulations, including the European Industrial Emissions Directive, the new CHP plant is expected to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20% compared to the current situation. EIB Vice-President Ja...
              European Diesel Prices Hit 11-Year Lows        
    Diesel prices in Europe have fallen to an 11-year low amid falling crude prices and an oversupply of product. A sharp drop in crude prices since the start of this month has pushed outright prices for gasoline, jet fuel and fuel oil to levels last seen in 2008-2009. An acute oversupply of diesel has caused prices of the product to fall to levels seen even further back. French diesel prices in northwest Europe settled at $366.75/t yesterday. The last time prices settled lower was on 14 July ...
              Galloper Wind Farm First UK Project Backed by Eur 315 BN Investment Plan for Europe        
    The European Investment Bank, Europe's long-term investment institution, has agreed to provide GBP 225 million for the Galloper Wind Farm Ltd (GWFL) to be constructed 27 km off the Suffolk Coast. Once operational the offshore wind farm will be capable of providing enough clean energy to supply up to 336,000 homes from 56 of the world's largest wind turbines. The project also represents the UK's first pre-construction offshore wind project finance deal. This is the first UK project to be backe...
              European Support for Africa's Largest Wind Power Project Confirmed        
    Europe’s long-term lending institution, the European Investment Bank has agreed to provide EUR 200m (Ksh 23 billion) to support the Lake Turkana Wind Power project. The EUR 620 million (Ksh70 billion) scheme will transform supply of renewable energy in East Africa and benefit from additional financial support from the European Union, through the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund and a broad range of international investors. As the largest single wind farm in sub-Saharan Africa th...
              Wts : apple ipad 2 wi-fi + 3g 64gb , apple iphone 4 32ggb        
    We sell and supply original brand new product here in our company in factory sealed in the box with complete accessories. the phones can also be set to arabic language as default. apple ipad 2 wi-fi + 3g 32gb cost $600usd apple ipad 2 wi-fi + 3g 64gb cost $700usd apple iphone 4g 16gb (unlocked)......... $400usd apple iphone 4g 32gb (unlocked)......... $500usd apple iphone 3gs 32gb(unlocked)...... $340usd apple iphone 3gs 16gb (unlocked)......... $290usd msn :alhaji-mohd@live.com yahoo:alhaji_khalifa@yahoo.com gmail: alhajisaeed@gmail.com skype: alhaji.saeed
              NETTLE FABRIC - hand woven by WoolFinchStudio        

    1.25 EUR

    Fabric from nettle fibers; it used to be the linen for the poor. Cloisters and many other places devoted their time to the production of nettle yarn (2nd picture also available in the shop now) nowadays pretty much forgotten and replaced by linen and cotton.

    The nepalian nettle, Girardinia diversifolia, grows up to 3m tall. There, the Nepalese still harvest and peel the nettle by hand, then it is placed in a semi boiling wood ash bath over night, which is used later for fertilising the fields. The next day, the loosened fibers are beaten a cross a stone several times and rubbed with clay to loosen the remaining plant debris.

    like most things in nature, this fabric has no one colour. The colour of one piece can vary from straw yellow to grey brown and even dark brown. Each length of fabric is a unique handwoven piece, in its truest, cleanest and most ecological form.

    The fabric keeps and protects body warmth, can be boiled and becomes softer and more beautiful with time and wear.


    In a nutshell:

    100% sting nettle
    Approx. 65cm wide
    Hands pun and woven
    Each piece is unique and can vary to the picture shown
    Rinse in a light soap wash
    40-60degree wash
    Shrinkage 10%

    Suitable for making: Blazers, jackets, winter clothing, children's clothing, trousers, vests.
    Cushions, table cloth, curtains.
    Bags, upholstery, embroidery



    Because this cloth is produced by hand and in small amounts there isn't an endless supply of cloth. Please contact me, if you would like bigger quantities.


              We, Joe III, don't feel like getting emails from our subjects        
    Decided to contact my House Representative, Joe Kennedy. Haven't even written the actual email yet, but decided to find the contact info anyway.

    Found it. The first thing it says:

    "Regrettably, I am unable to reply to any email from constituents outside of the district. Please enter your zip code to verify residency and go to the next step:"

    Several questions:

    1. Does the guy mean that he only accepts email from his own constituents (I thought the word "constituent" already implied that), that he only accepts email from his constituents who really reside in his district, or only from his constituents who happen to be in his district physically at the moment?

    2. Considering that nobody has ever demanded a 9-digit zip code from me before, why do I have to supply it just in order to be given my representative's email address?

    3. Has the guy ever heard of an ancient technique called lying?

    Maybe I am overreacting, but somehow I get a feeling that addressing this guy with an expat issue will be like talking to a wall.


              baromètre 2010 CPV/Club Démèter Environnement et logistique        
    BAROMETRE 2010 CPV ASSOCIES / CLUB DEMETER ENVIRONNEMENT ET LOGISTIQUE

    « L'engagement des firmes dans le développement durable et dans les activités de la Supply Chain »


    2ème baromètre CPV Associés /Club Déméter Environnement et Logistique réalisé avec la participation des étudiants en Master 2 du CRET LOG (centre de recherche Aix Marseille II) et auprès des 35 entreprises membres du Club Déméter, dont 40% de prestataires logistiques – 35% industriels – 25% distributeurs.

    Ce baromètre, représentatif d'un ensemble d'acteurs de la chaîne logistique globale, illustre la vision d'une vingtaine d'entreprises « militantes » déjà fortement engagées dans une démarche de progrès.

    Leur responsabilité sociétale (45%) les motive à s'engager dans une politique de développement durable ; elles jugent (100%), indispensable l'implication de la Direction Générale dans la conduite de ces projets. Dans 1/3 des cas, une Direction du développement durable est porteuse de la démarche au sein de l'entreprise.
    Les entreprises ont impliqué à 80% leurs collaborateurs dans cette démarche, qu'elles développent également avec leurs fournisseurs, clients, transporteurs et filiales.

    En priorité les actions reposent sur la mise en place d'indicateurs (24%), la modélisation de la chaîne logistique (17%) et la mutualisation (12%).
    Les indicateurs les plus mis en place sont : le taux de remplissage (80%) – le nombre de palettes par véhicule (70%) – les émissions de CO2 (65%).
    Les émissions de CO2 arrivant en tête (35%) des actions envisagées en priorité.
    Elles sont 30% à avoir mis en place des indicateurs mensuels.

    74% d'entre elles ont intégré une clause développement durable dans leurs contrats de prestations logistiques et 88% sont prêtes à sanctionner les prestataires qui ne la respecteraient pas.

    La participation des salariés dans les projets « développement durable » est le premier critère d'implication (40%) ; la formation et les objectifs individuels ressortent comme étant essentiels (21%) dans les projets DD.

    Les entreprises cherchent avant tout à réaliser des économies sur les postes : électricité, papier, carburant, eau et kilomètres parcourus.
    Elles réalisent avant tout des investissements, en formation (80%), études et matériel (70%), qu'elles jugent d'ailleurs acceptables pour 55%, d'entre elles.
    A 56 %, elles jugent « faibles » les surcoûts engagés en faveur des actions liées au développement durable.
    Plus de la moitié d'entre elles revalorisent entre 50% et 100% de leurs déchets.
    68% des entreprises interrogées utilisent plusieurs modes de transport. Le ferroviaire est utilisé à 61%, contre 39% le fluvial.
    44% d'entre elles considèrent que leur implication dans le Club Déméter Environnement et Logistique les ont encouragées à utiliser des modes de transport moins polluants. Néanmoins, nous notons que les actions de transfert modal sont très complexes à mettre en œuvre.
    63% de ces entreprises ont engagés une démarche HQE sur un de leurs entrepôts. Et même si une entreprise sur 3 effectue cette démarche pour être en accord avec la future réglementation, elles sont tout de même 45% à revendique la volonté de l'entreprise, comme étant le moteur principal ce cette initiative. Elles pensent d'ailleurs à l'unanimité que la norme HQE deviendra un standard de référence dans leur activité.

    72% des entreprises se disent prêtes à réaliser des partenariats logistiques avec leurs concurrents directs.
    Globalement (88%) considèrent que la réglementation est une opportunité pour repenser ou faire évoluer leur modèle logistique.

    Enfin, par rapport au baromètre 2009, où l'implication de la Direction Générale était le facteur essentiel, nous constatons cette année la prise de conscience profonde de la mission DD avec la culture et la politique de l'entreprise (44% des réponses).
    Néanmoins le financement et le coût des projets liés au développement durable demeurent une préoccupation.

    ________________________________________
    Ainsi ces nouveaux résultats confirment l'intégration de plus en plus forte et structurante du développement durable dans les stratégies Supply Chain des firmes qui composent le Club Déméter. On note également une forte prise de conscience accordée aux aspects managériaux et sociaux des projets développement durable et une complète absence de sensibilité des projets encours à la suspension de certaines mesures issues du Grenelle de l'environnement. Ce panel illustre les engagements à long terme d'un ensemble d'entreprises militantes convaincues que par l'action et la concertation entre les acteurs de la chaine logistique, le développement durable est davantage une opportunité de progrès pour tous, qu'un ensemble de contraintes.

    ________________________________________
    A propos de :
    CPV Associés www.cpvassocies.com
    CPV Associés est un cabinet de conseil en optimisation de la chaîne logistique globale au service des performances des firmes industrielles, commerciales, de prestations logistiques et des organismes publics. L'expertise de CPV concerne, entre autre le conseil stratégique et l'accompagnement des projets « développement durable » (Gaz à effet de serre : modélisation, calcul et simulation des émissions sur un réseau logistique – l'assistance à la mise en place de projets logistiques liés au développement durable. CPV Associés est organisateur du Club Déméter, Environnement et Logistique.

    Le Club Déméter Environnement et Logistique www.club-demeter.fr


    Créée en 2004, l'association Club Déméter Environnement et Logistique réunit des membres permanents qui sont des entreprises leaders de l'industrie, de la distribution, de la prestation logistique et du secteur public,
    L'enjeu est de mettre en œuvre des solutions opérationnelles destinées à maîtriser les impacts environnementaux et particulièrement à réduire les émissions de CO2 dans la conception des stratégies logistiques des firmes et de favoriser le dialogue entre les différents partenaires impliqués.
    Les objectifs prioritaires étant de promouvoir, expérimenter et mettre en œuvre des actions concrètes, mesurables et respectueuses, dans les trois domaines de prédilection du Développement Durable : l'économie, le social et l'environnement.

    ________________________________________

    Les membres du Club Déméter Environnement et Logistique


    ADEME Port Autonome de Paris
    Auchan Région Ile-de-France
    Bel Seb
    Brasseries Kronenbourg Sogaris
    Carrefour SRS
    Casino Staci
    Coca Cola Entreprise STEF-TFE
    Colgate Palmolive Transalliance
    Danone Eaux France Université de la Méditerranée Aix Marseille II
    DHL
    Ecole des Mines
    Ferrero
    FM Logistic
    Geodis
    ID Logistics
    Kraft
    L'Oréal
    LR Services
    Mairie de Paris
    Ministère de l'écologie, de l'Energie, du Développement Durable et de l'Aménagement du Territoire
    Monoprix
    Nestlé waters
    Orangina Schweppes
    Paprec
    Pepsico
    Pomona
    Procter & Gamble

    Le baromètre complet est disponible sur simple demande

    Contact presse/ Terranuna Ericka Rolin - Tél. 01 60 34 68 72 ericka.rolin@terranuna.com

    --
    Contact Presse:
    Terranuna
    Ericka Rolin
    0160346872
    www.terranuna.com
    Profil du diffuseur : http://www.categorynet.com/reseaucategorynet/profile?userid=21850


    --

    Communiqué envoyé le 05.05.2010 11:22:59 via le site Categorynet.com dans la rubrique Environnement

    Diffuser votre communiqué de presse : http://www.diffuseruncommuniquedepresse.com/

              Yeast Infection - Natural Cures Your Doctor Doesn't Know About        
    Have you ever wondered about the fact your doctor only ever hands over products made by pharmaceutical companies when you visit him with a health problem? How did we ever survive before these multinational corporations existed to supply us with their chemical remedies? With so many of us suffering from yeast infections these days you have to wonder how the condition was dealt in days gone by. You would have to imagine that every woman on earth must have been constantly enduring a yeast infection.
              Integrity should be on the table in the boardroom 
- the role of culture and behaviour in corporate governance codes        

    Speech at conference of International Chamber of Commerce to address the importance of culture, integrity and behaviour as an essential feature of good corporate governance, and thus should be included in corporate governance codes.

    Integrity should be on the table in the boardroom 
    - the role of culture and behaviour in corporate governance codes

    Dear all

    Thank you for having me here to address the importance of culture, integrity and behaviour as an essential feature of good corporate governance, and thus should be included in corporate governance codes.

    After the corporate scandals in the 90s of Enron, WorldCom, Ahold and others, corporate governance codes were drafted and implemented in national laws and regulations. Unfortunately, these corporate governance codes did not result in a society where companies, directors and their relevant stakeholders lived happily ever after. On the contrary, due to an on-going supply of new financial scandals and societal deceptions, also with integrity issues, our society increasingly distrusts executive and non-executive directors, as they often appeared to play a significant role in these scandals. Directors are often accused of having overlooked the important issues or having failed to intervene in company decision-making. 

     

    Lees verder


              I have a Maytag 4000 series front loading washer that was run        
    Question : I have a Maytag 4000 series front loading washer that was run once without water the water supply was shut off due to being gone for vacation, and now it will not put water into the machine but there... <br /><br /> Answer : That is great news, glad it was an easy fix! :~) If you would be so kind, would you please remember to rate my service at the top of the page before you leave today? If you don't, I receive zero credit...
              Email address refuses to whitelist in MDaemon        

    Kelly Armitage wrote:

    Glad you got it figured out......

    Mdaemon was the very first mail server I pirated...... errrrrrr ran..... I remember erally liking it. Pressure from my "geek" buddies saying "You aren't running MS Exchange" eventually prompted me to change, and run Exchange 2000 (for about 10 years).... 10 years later, those same people were running Mdaemon!!!! (bastards!)

    Needless to say I eventually got tired of the overhead of Exhange to supply our < 10 users with email... and I changed again to SmarterMail... but considered Mdaemon again.

    With all that rambling is it a good product still?

    This is the only email server I have used (this is my first tech job) but it is solid. Owned by Research in Motion now, so Blackberry stuff is integrated (if you need it, we don't). We've been eyeing Exchange a little bit, but it would be an investment going in, so we havent justified any reason to switch. I'm hoping when...

    < 10 users with email... and I changed again to SmarterMail... but considered Mdaemon again.


              Email address refuses to whitelist in MDaemon        

    Glad you got it figured out......

    Mdaemon was the very first mail server I pirated...... errrrrrr ran..... I remember erally liking it.  Pressure from my "geek" buddies saying "You aren't running MS Exchange" eventually prompted me to change, and run Exchange 2000 (for about 10 years).... 10 years later, those same people were running Mdaemon!!!! (bastards!)

    Needless to say I eventually got tired of the overhead of Exhange to supply our < 10 users with email... and I changed again to SmarterMail... but considered Mdaemon again.

    With all that rambling is it a good product still?


              Introducing the New Thing That We Do Now (and will promptly forget to do ever again): BLOGROULETTE!        
    A kindred blogger introduced Rickey to the concept of the “next blog” button on the top of the website and recommended he click it. Apparently by doing so, you’re taken to a blog with similar interests as yours. Click a few more times and you’re taken further down the rabbit hole of randomness. It’s good wholesome fun that provides Rickey the opportunity to do what makes the internet such a special place: ridicule others. So we’re totally making a recurring practice out of this. The concept is similar to Chatroulette, but featuring even more self-aggrandizing pathos! The rules to this game are simple, you click on the “next blog” button thrice, see what comes up, and steep yourself in the awful blandness of it all. We kick off our inaugural installment with…
    At first, we thought that with a name like this, the blog would written by bank robbers from East Baltimore cataloging their hilarious yet socioeconomically tragic hiijinks, but sadly we were wrong. So very wrong.

    It’s a blog about two kids playing baseball (the sports element is what linked Rickey’s site to this one). For bonus internet awkwardness, the blog is written entirely by the DARRINGTON BOYZ’ proud mother and discussing their exploits on and off the baseball field. We’re pretty sure that the milk in Rickey’s coffee curdled while he was perusing this blog. Thank god Rickey’s exploits are a constant source of disappointment and embarrassment for his mother, otherwise he’d probably have to put up with a website very similar to this one…. But enough exposition, here’s what the bright future of America looks like! There are words to describe this photo. Rickey, however, is at a complete loss for them. You can practically see the one on the right just working things out in his head--figuring out the best place to open up a quiet little hotel with some nice stuffed animals on the walls and maybe moving his mom in there to live with him. Oh, and we’re pretty certain that the one on the left is Cthulhu hiding in corporeal form.

    The best part is that the mother is completely oblivious to the bottomless pits of terrifying nothingness dwelling in the eyes of her sons. Naturally, in the face of such alarming vapidity, she’s turned to Jesus. For those sorely in need of a deeply motivational quote to put up next to your “hang in there kitty!” poster, you’ll find the following pearls of wisdom on the blog:

    Live simply.
    Love generously.
    Care deeply.
    Speak kindly.
    Leave the rest to God.

    Well that’s all very touching and whatnot, but Rickey’s would prefer to file his own tax return next year rather than entrust it to the J-Man if that's copacetic with you, honey. It’s a little unsettling how much overt religiosity you’ll find on these family blogs. Rickey’s buddy similarly lamented that his site always leads directly to a never ending supply of Mormon blogs, (presumably because like most other Jews, he uses the phrase "Jesus Christ" a heckuva lot). But Rickey digresses... There are yet more inspirational quotes from Mater Darrington to guide you through your hectic modern life!

    Work as if it was your first day.
    Forgive as soon as possible.
    Love without boundaries.
    Laugh without control and never stop smiling.

    First off, if Rickey “worked as if it was his first day” he’d be queued up on a breadline by now. After seven years on the job, you think Rickey’s superiors would respond well to him suddenly asking where the bathroom was and what kind of 401K plan they offered? And “laugh without control”? Isn’t that what the Joker did to the fair citizens of Gotham? People died from that shit, lady. Not cool.

    But then Rickey saw a blog post entitled “First Snow and Cougar Hunting” we got much more excited. What sort of lurid mischief could the Darrington Boyz be getting up to, we wondered?

    Ah crap, she meant "cougar hunting" literally. Well that’s just not right at all. Apparently that whole “love without boundaries” thing stops short at large mountain cats whose natural habitats encroach upon the Darlington Boyz’ hunting grounds. We guess Rickey missed the section in the new testament in which Woodland Hunter Jesus lectures his apostles (his BOYZ, if you will) on the merits of snuffing out majestic felines for recreational fun. It’s probably hidden somewhere in the back.

    You know what, we’d love to see the Darrington Boyz go toe to toe with a more challenging critter. Rickey recommends THE HONEY BADGER, probably the most fearsome land mammal ever to roam the earth. Take a gander at nature’s version of Winnie the Pooh on crack cocaine:

    [h/t to “Badass of the Week." for making Rickey aware of this relentless beast. The video is all Rickey's doing--enjoy it before Jay-Z shuts us down]

    Honey badger don’t give a fuck. Honey badger will mess your shit up. Honey badger is all teeth, fur, and balls. Ain't no love in the heart of the jungle, baby. Now THAT’S your motivational quote of the day.

    Anyhow, we’d go on to post more about this blog , but it’s pretty much an amalgam of religious poems, insipid birthday parties at P.F. Changs, and the Boyz standing over various carcasses of recently slain wildlife. As for their baseball careers, it’s pretty much a lock that you’ll be seeing them on the Colorado Rockies in the not too distant future. Tune in next week to see what fresh hell Rickey stumbles upon in Blogroulette!
              Introducing FIU Master’s in Enterprise Logistics        

    FIU-enterprise-logistics-300x200Most logistics degrees currently offered nationwide focus on supply chain management. The master’s degree in enterprise logistics at FIU incorporates...

    The post Introducing FIU Master’s in Enterprise Logistics appeared first on FIU College of Engineering and Computing.


              Berkeley, CA Deputy City Manager William Rogers Joins Goodwill as Chief Operating Officer Accelerating Operational Efficiency and Innovation @ SF-based Social Enterprise        

    Leveraging his extensive experience driving service efficiencies in the public sector, William Rogers has joined Goodwill of San Francisco, San Mateo, and Marin Counties (SFGoodwill) as Chief Operating Officer. Rogers is responsible for streamlining the complex supply chain of the growing social enterprise, which includes 33 donation sites, 21 stores, 110k sq. ft of warehousing, and a burgeoning aftermarket salvage business.

    (PRWeb December 03, 2014)

    Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/12/prweb12364572.htm


              Tai Chi Union Philippines: Answering a call for authenticity, unity and harmony        
    " . . . the whole body should be light and agile, with all parts of the body linked as if threaded together." – Tai Chi Classics by Chang San-feng

    The early stages of tai chi in the Philippines was mainly characterized by the existence of various "traditional kung fu schools and associations" along with independent but also "traditional tai chi masters". This history was eventually punctuated by the entry and organization of the Wushu Federation of the Philippines which caused a polarization with the "traditionalists". Being witness to this and personally torn with equal fondness to both sides, it was certain to me that there were pros and cons on both sides. However, this brought about increased chi in the tai chi scene as express by greater visibility and expansion of activities. A growth period for tai chi in the Philippines, though very divisive. Another key development within this polarizing stage of tai chi history was the establishment of Rapid Journal which not only brought scholarly reference on internal and Filipino martial arts, but also underscored the Philippines in the international martial arts map.

    I believe, that now the history of tai chi in the Philippines has come to a new stage of development - unification. Perhaps this is concomitant to a still unapparent global phenomenon, - a need to bring the tai chi roots as the unifying force in the fragmentizing "tai chi body". In the Philippines, an indicator of this unifying emergence is the formation of the Philippine Tai Chi Network Blog, which aim to give free information for any interest in tai chi in the Philippines – instructors, events, supplies and other information supply links - a long overdue answer to a lingering need.

    This leads to a natural next step which is to put an appropriate body to this moving Filipino tai chi spirit – a non-partisan organization that would serve as a common vehicle to harmonize the inherent and apparent differences among participants. The common point of harmony and unity is authenticity or loyalty to the original concept of tai chi that we inherited from the Taichi Classics of Chang San-feng, Wang Tong-yueh and Wu Yu-hsiang. We believe this is very possible dream if we use the tai chi principles which is the same as in the idea of "win-win".

    The process of "linking as if threaded together" has started but for there to become a "whole body that is light and agile", we need to start the process of organizing. Every person whose heart resonates with the ideals of tai chi needs an opportunity to belong to a body where one’s talent could be contributed and where one’s endeavor to learn and participate could get nurturing support. By doing this we can give substance to the admonition of one of the Tai Chi Classics authors, Wu Yu-hsiang when he said, "Remember, when the body moves, there is no place in the body that does not move".

    Hence, this -

    Mission, Vision and Goals for the Tai Chi Union of the Philippines (TCUP):

    Mission :
    The Tai Chi Union of the Philippines (Union) is a non-profit organization geared towards the propagation, support and uplifting of internal martial arts and chi kung (qigong) in general, and tai chi chuan (taiqi quan) in particular. The Union is specifically committed to exemplify the tai chi qualities of harmony and unity among practicing groups, teachers and students towards the direction of mutual assistance and working toward common goal.

    Vision:
    The Union envisions itself as the organization that would bring into harmony the Wushu International's concept of Tai Chi propagation and the independent traditional tai chi and internal martial arts organizations while respecting and accepting intrinsic difference. With this, the Union sees the marshaling of the energy of many individual initiatives that would result in an exponential growth in the practice of tai chi.

    Philosophy:
    The Union is guided by the following beliefs:
    1. that tai chi chuan is essentially based on the "Tai Chi Classics" attributable to Chang Sanfeng, etc. and should be the main guidelines to adherence to the art
    2. that scientific findings and modern language and concepts can and should clarify the profound meaning of the Classics
    3. that creativity in the formation of the forms of practice and conduct of activities to develop and propagate the art should be encouraged for so long as they do not veer away from the essential meaning of the art based on the classics.

    General Goals:
    The Union shall therefore endeavor to:
    1. Bring practitioners into a bond of fellowship of members
    2. Provide access to information that would not be conveniently available
    3. Bring to affordability, expensive resources through sharing
    4. Hold periodic learning activities for common upgrading of teachers and students
    5. Accredit teachers/instructors for teaching competence to safeguard the interests of students and protect the good name of tai chi
    6. Provide a venue and organization where practitioners can have themselves evaluated for competency and level
    7. Participate in international events and activities that would redound to the member's benefits based on the above avowed goals
    8. To seek local and international funding to find support for these goals.

    Specific Goals/Tasks:
    1. Formalization of the Union as a non-profit corporation
    2. Organization of founding members
    3. Membership generation in the teachers/instructors' and practitioner's classifications
    4. Program for development of the 1st Philippine Tai Chi Competition (concept to implementation):
    >>> Judging concept and criteria
    >>> Judge selection criteria and training
    >>> Venue
    >>> Finance & Administration
    5. Target international events for participation
    >>> Strategy
    >>> Policies
    >>> Organization & implementation

    Conclusion:
    If upon reading this the "spirit of vitality rises up on top of your head", this only means that TCUP is answering your call for authenticity, unity and harmony. Let your "Shen/Spirit be firm", post your comment with your name and email as your own answer to this call.

    ~ESS / Manila, Philippines

    TCUP Forum link


              A Christian Response to Earth Day        
    Since today is Earth Day 2008, I felt compelled to post to post a response from a Christian worldview. After all, the original purpose of this blog was to respond to a post-Christian world with a uniquely Christian viewpoint. And it seems that nothing dominates this culture's attention these days than does the phenomenon of Green. Environmentalism has become a new religion, a new way for individuals to feel as though they are a part of something larger than themselves and thus inflict change upon a society that seems stagnant at times.

    I want to begin, however, not with how I believe Christians should respond to Earth Day, but rather how they should not. There are two extremes which clearly should be avoided.

    1) We must avoid becoming obsessed with environmental aims. Not long ago I saw an article praising a youth Disciple Now weekend in which the theme was "Go Green." The author (a speaker at the event) noted that "the curriculum allows students to explore why the environment is important and what they can (and should) do about it." Disciple Now events often have a huge impact on a youth group and many result in revivals in the lives of the youth who participate. Yet, this church chose to focus not on the Gospel, but on the environment. This is a tragedy and an inappropriate response to environmental concerns. We have to remember that this world we live in, while it is under our charge, is ultimately passing away. We should expect that it will deteriorate and ultimately be destroyed. Romans 8:19-23 speaks to this reality.
    For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.
    2) The opposite response, while not as dangerous, is also inappropriate. That response is apathy, or even contempt, for environmental issues. A friend recently told me of his mega-church pastor who declared before his congregation - in response to the idea of global warming - that because such was false, we should gleefully turn on every light in our household and to be as wasteful as we desire. He claimed that Jesus was coming back soon anyway, so why worry about the environment? After all, a new heaven and a new earth is soon to appear! There are many problems with this response. Besides the fact that it is built upon a false eschatological view, the greater problem is that it does not take seriously our God-given responsibility to rule and reign over the Earth. We are called to be good stewards of all that is within our realm of responsibility. And certainly the Earth is one of those things. Another problem is that our excesses often causes others' insufficiency. I believe we are beginning to see the fruit of that in current food shortages.

    So what should our response be?

    1) We should reject the cult of environmentalism and not be swayed by the so-called "science" that seems to change daily. We should not place our faith in charts, weather patterns, or biofuels. Our faith firmly rests on Jesus Christ. He is not surprised by what has happened in our world. In fact, He is sovereignly in control. He alone controls the weather, the amount of radiation emanating from the sun (which actually was determined thousands of years ago), and technologies which either alleviate or add to our sufferings. Additionally, we must remember that our stewardship of this earth is not our ultimate command, nor even our penultimate one. No, we are called to be like Christ, who said nothing of taking care of the earth. His concern was that we glorify Him by being holy, loving His children, and pointing others to Him. To the extent that caring for the environment does these things, we should be involved. When it distracts us from our central message we should refrain from emphasizing it.

    2) We should do what we can to insure we are indeed fulfilling our duty to attend to the creation placed in our care. That involves conservation by using our recycling bins and reducing our use of resources. We must be mindful that overuse causes a burden on others. I can't imagine that mega-church pastor preaching to the people of my congregation in Georgia that they should use as much water as they want and not worry - after all Jesus is coming soon! (For those who do not know, last year Georgia had a drought so severe that some places were forced to ration water so the supply did not completely run out.) In such cases, it is the poor who suffer the worst, since they have less resources from which to draw help. Imagine if this country experienced a famine, or energy crisis, or widespread water shortage. The impact would be massive on the poor. As the people of God we are charged to remember the poor - alleviate their suffering and prevent them from being burden.

    Thus, by watching our lifestyles and taking steps to protect our world, we can fulfill God's call without losing our focus and hindering the work of the Gospel. So here are five practical ways we can make an impact on the Earth while being fixated on Christ:

    1) Replace your incandescent bulbs with CFL's. This will not only lower your electricity bills, it will also lessen the load on your power grid. If whole churches did this, they could save thousands a year and make a huge impact on our energy needs.
    2) Recycle. This is an easy one for most of you. All it takes is placing your recyclable items in a specific bin and placing it outside of your home with the rest of your garbage. For others, it may mean driving a short distance. But, if more did this we could lower the cost of oil-based products, and possibly oil itself, which would lessen strain on families struggling with the current fuel costs.
    3) Adjust your water heater or replace it. Lowering your water heater setting to "warm" can save hundreds of dollars a year. Also, consider wrapping your heater with an insulated blanket. For more savings, replace your gas water heater with a tankless one. These cost upwards of $2000, but a federal tax credit is available for it. Finally, for the truly adventurous, you can build your own solar water heater for a few hundred dollars. Not only will you save money, but you may help alleviate the current oil shortage (which may last a long time).
    4) Weather-proof your home. This is a practical, inexpensive solution that can save you hundreds of dollars a year. Weather-stripping is relatively cheap and there are plenty of guides on the internet as to how and where to apply it.
    5) Purchase and use a programmable thermostat. Costs range from $40-200, but the Energy Star website claims that when properly used you can save up to $150 a year. And again, by using less energy you can lessen the burden on others.


    Hopefully, this was helpful and challenged you as a Christian to take care of creation and alleviate suffering without feeling as though you have to accept the theory of global warming (which I, by the way, do not), or worship at the altar of environmentalism.
              (HS9HUBGPRS) Evohome Hub        
    (HS9HUBGPRS) Evohome Hub

    (HS9HUBGPRS) Evohome Hub

    The evohome security hub is the main the part of the system. Installing the hub is quick and easy. Just log on to the Honeywell website to configure the system. Up to 32 system accessories Ethernet port for IP connection Power supply 230V~ to 6.5V/2A (in box) Rechargeable batteries 4 x AA (in box) 24 hour stand by (in case of main power loss) Low battery signalling  


              115604 Printer For Printing The Stored Results Of The Flusing And Test Programmes        
    115604 Printer For Printing The Stored Results Of The Flusing And Test Programmes

    115604 Printer For Printing The Stored Results Of The Flusing And Test Programmes

    Printer for printing the stored results of the flushing and test programs. Includes: - 1 roll of paper  - USB connecting cable - Power supply/ charger   Ni-Mh 100-240V, 50-60Hz, 3W


              115612 V-Jet H Cleaning And Preservation Unit For Heating Systems        
    115612 V-Jet H Cleaning And Preservation Unit For Heating Systems

    115612 V-Jet H Cleaning And Preservation Unit For Heating Systems

    Cleaning and preservation unit for heating systems, supply of cleaning and corrosion protector.  For REMS multi-push.


              Termografía para la detección de Cáncer de Seno.        

    Termografía para la detección de Cáncer de Seno.


    Esta también llamada ‘termografía de pecho', ó termomastografía tiene la habilidad de descubrir las primeras señales que indiquen que un cáncer puede estarse formando, incluso 10 años antes de que cualquier otro procedimiento pueda detectarlo.


    Desde 2006 el Centro de Estudios y Prevención del Cáncer A.C. (CEPREC), está evaluando esta novedosa e innovadora prueba. Este hecho, lo convierte en el único centro con ésta tecnología en el país: una cámara de rayos infrarrojos que al captar el calor de la mama permite detectar alteraciones tempranas.


    Su ventaja es que no produce radiaciones, no es dolorosa y su sensibilidad para detectar el cáncer de mama es hasta el 94%.


    "Este estudio, en combinación con la mastografía convencional de rayos X y la mastografía digital nos ayudará a diagnosticar el cáncer de mama en etapas más tempranas, aumentar la supervivencia y reducir la mortalidad por este tumor", aseguró a rotativo de Querétaro el Dr. Francisco Gutiérrez Delgado, director del CEPREC en Juchitán, Oaxaca.


    El Dr. José G. Vázquez Luna, profesor investigador de la BUAP empleó la tecnología militar e hizo transferencia a la medicina, diseñando un sistema capaz de registrar ondas que registran calor.

    El antecedente de ésta tecnología está en la investigación militar, durante la vigilancia nocturna de tropas. El calor de los cuerpos de los soldados enemigos, delata su posición a kilómetros de distancia. Con éste sistema se detecta, registra y produce imágenes de la superficie de la piel de los senos y es posible correlacionar los puntos de calor detectados con el tamaño del tumor. "El cáncer exige al cuerpo que lo alimente, existe un proceso de angiogénesis cuando se inicia el cáncer, es decir, se crean nuevos vasos sanguíneos que llevan alimento al tumor.


    Este fenómeno de formación de nuevos vasos sanguíneos resulta revelador porque incrementa localmente la temperatura. Con la termografía se pueden detectar estos pequeños incrementos locales de temperatura.


    La imagen térmica se convierte en un inmejorable coadyuvante, que el médico con otro grupo de pruebas determinará si es o no cáncer". "Es una prueba fisiológica que puede detectar cambios mínimos de temperatura, la termografía puede usarse como pesquisa o prueba discriminatoria, es decir, si una mujer pasa primero por esta prueba y no se localiza ningún riesgo no tendría caso exponerla a la masto grafía, y si se encuentra alguna anormalidad entonces con apoyo de la masto grafía y/o ultrasonido se lograra un certero diagnóstico" reveló el doctor en física.


    El Investigador de la Escuela Físico Matemáticas de la BUAP, expuso que el principio físico es sencillo: La energía térmica ó infrarroja, por su longitud de onda, no es visible por el ojo humano, pero la termografía, por medio de una cámara, "ve" y "mide" la energía infrarroja que está siendo emitida por un objeto.


    La capacidad de emisión de la piel humana es muy alta, por lo tanto, la radiación infrarroja emitida puede ser convertida a valores de temperatura. José G. Vázquez Luna, en entrevista para este medio, también explicó que existen más de 1200 estudios, incluidos en el Index Medicus que han evaluado su rol en la detección temprana del cáncer de mama. "En 1982, la FDA aprobó la termografía de pecho como un procedimiento válido para la detección de cáncer de mama, sin embargo, la termografía de pecho ha sido profusamente investigada desde 1950.


    En más de 30 años de investigación se han reunido mas de 800 estudios en el área y se encuentran en la literatura médica. En esta base de datos, más de 300,000 mujeres se han incluido como participantes del estudio, algunos estudios han seguido a los pacientes a lo largo más de 12 años y se sabe que se han establecido estrictos protocolos de interpretación estandarizados durante mas de 15 años.


    La termografía de pecho tiene una media sensibilidad y especificidad de 90%" argumenta Vázquez Luna. La literatura médica reporta que un termograma anormal es 10 veces más significativo, como un indicador de riesgo futuro de cáncer de mama, que un antecedente familiar de primer orden.


    Un termograma anormal persistente incrementa 22 veces el riesgo de desarrollar en el futuro un cáncer de mama. Una imagen infrarroja anormal es por sí sola, el marcador mas importante de riesgo de desarrollar cáncer del pecho.


    Cáncer de mama, un asunto nuestro: físico y oncólogo


    El físico José G. Vázquez Luna y el oncólogo Francisco Gutiérrez Delgado comparten la certeza: Diariamente se diagnostican 26 casos nuevos de cáncer de mama. Y es que el cáncer de mama ocupa el segundo lugar como causa de muerte por tumores en el sexo femenino.


    Esta situación es agravada por el insuficiente personal de salud entrenado para educar a la población femenina y el escaso equipo radiológico especializado (mastógrafos), el cual se concentra solamente en las grandes ciudades del país, el resultado es que 8 de 10 mujeres con cáncer de mama se diagnostican en etapa avanzada, prácticamente cuando cualquier tipo de tratamiento es ineficaz y 11 mujeres mueren diariamente por esta enfermedad.


    "Evaluamos el rol de la termomastografía de nueva generación en la detección temprana del cáncer de mama en población abierta del Istmo de Tehuantepec. Este estudio tiene una sensibilidad y especificidad alta para el diagnóstico de patología de la mama (85%) aseguró su director, el Dr. Francisco Gutiérrez Delgado, especialista Oncología y Doctor en Ciencias Médicas.


    "Cuando se utiliza con otros métodos Autoexploración, Ultrasonido y mastografía, se puede detectar hasta el 95% del cáncer.


    Diversas investigaciones ha mostrado que la termografía de pecho aumenta significativamente la tasa de supervivencia de las mujeres hasta en un 61%".

    Explicó también que las ventajas del termógrafo, es su elevada productividad ya que se pueden realizar mas de 10 termomastografías por hora con cada termógrafo, y como es un equipo ligero, puede ser desplazado a comunidades alejadas y municipios de todo el país, donde los servicios médicos no existen o son precarios.

    El Dr. Gutiérrez Delgado es Fellow del American Collage of Physicians (FACP), miembro de la American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), y American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) y sostiene que el objetivo del Centro, es educar a la población mexicana en una nueva cultura que incrementa el interés por la salud y que prioriza la prevención sobre la curación.





    Is Breast Thermography Safe?

    Breast thermography is very safe. There is no exposure to radiation or any compression of the breast tissue.

    Es la Termografía segura?

    La termografía de seno es muy segura. No hay exposición a radiaciones ó ningún tipo de compresión del tejido mamario.


    How is Breast Thermography different from a Mammogram?


    Both tests are looking for completely different signs of breast cancer. Thermography looks for changes that occur as a growing cancer alters the blood supply of the breast and changes the physiology and chemical environment of the tissue of the breast. Mammograms look for changes to the density of the breast that indicates the presence of a tumor. Mammography identifies the physical. The medical literature views both procedures as complimentary to each other.





    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:3312-4.

    González FJ.Infrared imager requirements for breast cancer detection.

    PMID: 18002704

    Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2006;52(1):35-9; discussion 39-40.

    Mikulska D.Contemporary applications of infrared imaging in medical diagnostics

    PMID 17131845

    Surg Technol Int. 2005;14:51-6.Agnese DM.Advances in breast imaging.

    PMID: 16525954

              15mm Service Valve with Remote Water Switch        
    15mm Service Valve with Remote Water Switch

    15mm Service Valve with Remote Water Switch

    SS/15/RPM. For use on normal water supplies with pressures between 0.5 bar and 10 bar. Can be fitted to tank fed systems (4 metre minimum head required). Cold water supply max 23°c at 10 bar. Hot water supply max 60°c at 3 bar. Approved by WRAS for connection to potable water supplies. Pushfit for 15mm pipework


              15mm Service Valve with Remote Water Switch        
    15mm Service Valve with Remote Water Switch

    15mm Service Valve with Remote Water Switch

    SS/15/RCM. For use on normal water supplies with pressures between 0.5 bar and 10 bar. Can be fitted to tank fed systems (4 metre minimum head required). Cold water supply max 23°c at 10 bar. Hot water supply max 60°c at 3 bar. Approved by WRAS for connection to potable water supplies. Pushfit for 15mm pipework


              175008 CamSys S-Color 10K Endoscope Camera Set        
    175008 CamSys S-Color 10K Endoscope Camera Set

    175008 CamSys S-Color 10K Endoscope Camera Set

    For pipes 40 - 150mm, drains, shafts, stacks and other cavities. Docuimentation of photos and videos on SD card with specification of date and time. Controller unit in microprocessor technology with 3.5" TFT-LCD colour display, SD card slot, USB port, integrated Li-ion battery 3.7v, 2.5Ah. In sturdy, impact-proof plastic housing, spray protected.  2m connecting cable from the controller unit to the camera cable set, voltage supply/ charger 100 - 240V, 50 - 60Hz, 13W, SD card 2GB, USB cable, video cable and sturdy case.


              180030 Picus S2/3.5 Set Titan Diamond Core Drilling Machine & Stand        
    180030 Picus S2/3.5 Set Titan Diamond Core Drilling Machine & Stand

    180030 Picus S2/3.5 Set Titan Diamond Core Drilling Machine & Stand

    Not supplied with Diamond Drilling Cores.  Heavy duty diamond core drill for wet and dry core drilling in masonary, concrete including reinforced concrete. Masonary, concrete and reinforced concrete core drilling up to 300mm.  Supplied as picus S2/3.5 drive unit in 240v, personal protection devise on lead, duplex drill stand, water supply device, core wrench in cardboard box. Can be used hand held or in a stand and is therefore suitable in confined areas or in different angles.


              Insurance Leads Get Them Free        
    Free insurance leads form a stable supply of prospects that you can make use of for that very vital client generating process for free. Telemarketed insurance leads are details of qualified prospects extracted through several minutes of conversations between a potential client and a call center agent. Exclusive leads may only come from telemarketed insurance […]
              291000 ROS P 42 PS Plastic Pipe Cutter         
    291000 ROS P 42 PS Plastic Pipe Cutter

    291000 ROS P 42 PS Plastic Pipe Cutter

    Suitable for plastic and multilayer pipe 0-42mm diameter. High quality pipe shear for fast clean cuts of plastic and multilayer pipes. Blade is guided on both sides to supply an accurate, right angled, burr free cut.


              Insurance Leads How to Get Them Free        
    The Establishment of an effective referral system is the best way of generating free insurance leads. With a referral system you can make the most and exploit the limits of the potentials of the exclusive telemarketed insurance leads you have purchased from outsource providers. This system allows you to have a continuous supply of leads […]
              291250 ROS P Plastic Pipe Cutter 0-42mm        
    291250 ROS P Plastic Pipe Cutter 0-42mm

    291250 ROS P Plastic Pipe Cutter 0-42mm

    Suitable for plastic and multilayer pipe 0-42mm diameter. High quality pipe shear for fast clean cuts of plastic and multilayer pipes. Sturdy aluminium design. Specially hardened. Rplaceable blade. Blade is guided on both sides to supply an accurate, right angled, burr free cut. Chipless cutting. Quick reverse saves time and effort.  


              291270 ROS P 63 PS Plastic Pipe Cutter        
    291270 ROS P 63 PS Plastic Pipe Cutter

    291270 ROS P 63 PS Plastic Pipe Cutter

    Suitable for plastic and multilayer pipe up to 63mm. High quality pipe shear for fast clean cuts of plastic and multi-layer pipes. Blade is guided on both sides to supply an accurate right angled, burr free cut. Chipless cutting.


              7010 Coupling        
    7010 Coupling

    7010 Coupling

    48 hours delivery Used for connecting water mains pipes and any water supply pipes in infrastructure, agriculture and horticulture. Mechanical compression fittings tested to withstand working pressures of up to 16 bar.  Hand tight only WRAS approved Captive O Ring seal provides lifetime protection against leaks Available for 2-3 days delivery


              7040 Equal Tee        
    7040 Equal Tee

    7040 Equal Tee

    48 hours delivery Used for connecting water mains pipes and any water supply pipes in infrastructure, agriculture and horticulture. Can withstand working pressures of up to 16 bar Hand tight only WRAS approved Captive O Ring seal provides lifetime protection against leaks


              7050 90° Elbow        
    7050 90° Elbow

    7050 90° Elbow

    48 hours delivery Used for connecting water mains pipes and any water supply pipes in infrastructure, agriculture and horticulture. Tested to withstand working pressure of up to 16 bar Hand tight only WRAS approved Captive O Ring seal provides lifetime protection against leaks


              7110 Reducing Coupling        
    7110 Reducing Coupling

    7110 Reducing Coupling

    48 hours delivery Used for connecting water mains pipes and any water supply pipes in infrastructure, agriculture and horticulture. Tested to withstand working pressures of up to 16 bar Hand tight only WRAS approved Captive O Ring seal provides lifetime protection against leaks


              Payon Forest        




    Character Level: 33
    Profession Level: 33
    Achievement: Virus, Moonlight and Guild


    Map Location:
    --------------------------
    Payon Forest

    Quest List:
    --------------------
    Mushrooms! - [Reward: 4 Red Potion (III) and 4 Blue Potion (III)]
    Search for the Friend
    Scary Mushroom
    Hurry Before the Posion Spreads - [Reward: Bear Embroidery III]
    Poison Herb Digger
    Things Needed to Make the Antidote (1)
    Things Needed to Make the Antidote (2)
    Antidote Making (1)
    How to Block The Poison
    Dangerous Mushroom - [Reward: Resistance Item]
    Antidote Making (2) - [Reward: Resistance Plated Gaiters]
    Find my Brother
    The Missing Hunter (1)
    The Missing Hunter (2) - [Reward: Refining Whetstone III]
    That Thing of Big Foot
    Legendary Bear - [Reward: Bear Embroidery III]
    Sacred Prayer
    Prelude of Destruction - [Reward: Resistance Plated Boots]
    To Chung-Lim-Sa
    Head Temple of Monks, Chung Lim Sa
    Tiger Chest Fur Plucking
    Evil Creature - [Reward: Tiger Embroidery III]
    Asceticism Master's Seal - [Reward: Resistance Plated Gauntlets]
    Fore the Resolution of the Issue at Hand
    People Without Destination
    Chung Lim Lake Villa
    For the Fighting Comrade (1)
    For the Fighting Comrade (2)
    The Snake Hunter
    Snake Catching
    Large Snake
    A Whole Sack - [Reward: Dragon Embroidery III]
    Fragrant Scent of Mushroom
    The Best Mushroom
    Sheep Cry Over the Lake - [Reware: Resistance Scaled Helm]
    Food for the Fatigued - [Reware: Resistance Plated Visor]
    Foul Mushroom - [Reward: Magic Oil III]
    To the Battlefield
    Missing Ballein
    Honey for Health
    Baccha Vitan Ingredients - [Reward: 5 Red Potion (III)]
    To Recover Enegry
    The Toad That Stands in our Way
    The One Who Watches Over the Forest - [Reward: Resistance Scaled Armguards]
    Finding Whi-Ryung
    Missing Child
    Lost Toy
    Valorous Child - [Reward: Cast Iron Rune Hole Puncher]
    Food Ingredients Collecting (1)
    Food Ingredients Collecting (2) - [Reward: Fairy Stone]
    The Observers
    The Spearhead - [Reward: 5 Purple Potion (III)]
    The Whereabouts of the Comrades
    Prisoner Rescue (1) - [Reward: Magic Oil III]
    Prisoner Rescue (1) - [Reward: Refining Whetstone III]
    Starting to Strike Back
    Unexpected Movement
    Hyo of Miho Tribe
    What the Forest Fairy Hates
    Find Whirimzu
    Battle for the Survival of the Forest
    End of the Battle - [Reward: Post Sword]
    Fortunate New - [Reward: Post Items]
    Return to Grand Master Jehon
    Chung LimSa Decided to Act
    Guillotine Fist!!
    Search for a Way
    A Way to Maintain the Barrier
    Another Hope - [Reward: Wind Elixir]
    Search for Holy Power
    Area Recon
    The Spirits Attack Again ... ... .
    Crusader in Front of the Ruins
    Rabbit of Terror - [Reward: Refining Whetstone IV]
    Old Fencing Collector - [Reward: Magic Oil IV]
    Tinder Delivery
    Supply Revocery - [Reward: Dragon Embroidery IV]
    Horont Hunt - [Reward: Post Items]
    Advent of the Blade of the Holiness - [Reward: Post Plated Gauntlets]
    Investigating Payon
    Evil Horong Hunt
    Wood Collecting
    Barricade Repair - [Reward: 4 Red Potion (IV) and 4 Blue Potion (IV)]
    The One with the Wounded Soul
    Herb to Awaken the Soul
    Potion Concoction (1) - [Reward: 4 Purple Potion (IV)]
    Potion Concoction (2)
    Potion Concoction (3)
    Potion Concoction (4)
    To Heal the Wounder - [Tiger Embroidery IV]
    A Saint Under a Curse
    Child of Ruin
    Village of Darkness
    Forgotten Memory (1)
    Forgotten Memory (2)
    [Dungeon] Forgotten Memory (3) - [Reward: Payon Forest Top Statue]
    The Suspicious Woman
    Fox Legend
    Ninetails Spirit
    [Dungeob] Master of the Secret Forest Tomb - [Reward: Payon Weapon Statue]
    Spirit Fire
    Herbs for the Son
    Wild Ginseng Delivery
    [Dungeon] Grave Blooming Mushroom
    Buddhahood
    End of the Situation - [Reward: Drill Runehole Puncher]
    A Break from the Endless Nightmare - [Reward: Dim Health Rune]
    Olivier's Help (1)
    Olivier's Help (2)
    Under the Banner of Courage
    Endless Combat
    Combined Attack with Kleindiana - [Reward: Refining Whetstone IV or Dragon Embroidery IV]
    Combined Attack with Hans - [Reward: Post Plated Visor]
    Combined Attack with Ballein - [Reward: Magic Oil IV or Tiger Embroidery IV]
    Combined Attack with Ivia - [Reward: Post Scaled Helm]
    Dimension Crack Destruction - [Reward: Bear Embroidery IV]
    Resolved Crisis (1)
    Resolved Crisis (2) - [Reward: Wind Elixir and Angel Ring]
    Another Threat
    Composition test (1)
    Composition test (2) - [Reward: 5 Blue Potion (III)]
    Conversation with Se-Ryu, Whi-Ryung's Brother
    Sister's News - [Reward: Ernium Powder]
    [Dungeon] Cursed Grave Flower - [Reward: Payon Forest Bottom Statue]
    Request: Collecting Miho Jade Ornaments
    Request: Snake Haven

    Quest Starter Items Found:
    -----------------------------------------------
    None Yet

    Items Found:
    -----------------------
    Split Piece 1 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - Poison Spore, Baby Venom Spore, Curse Nine Tail, Gajomart
    Split Piece 2 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - Poison Spore, Baby Venom Spore, Killer Crabbit, Sobbing Sohee, Curse Nine Tail, Punished Horong, Imp
    Split Piece 3 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - Poison Spore, Baby Venom Spore, Gajomart

    Materials Items:
    Earthly Trace (I) - Venom Spore, Miho Scout, Curse Nine Tail
    Firmament Essence (I) - Tasteless Truffle, Giant Big Foot, Poison Toad, Horong
    Root of Life (I) - Giant Big Foot, Poison Spore
    Spirit of Ruin (I) - Miho Scout, Imp
    Monster Fragment (I) - Venom Spore, Payon Tiger, Sobbing Sohee, Gajomart

    Other Items:
    Bear Paw - Big Foot, Little Big Foot, Giant Big Foot
    Carrot Hilt - Crabbit, Killer Crabbit
    Fox Mane - Miho Scout, Miho Guard, Miho Stormer, Miho Scattered Troops, Miho Warden
    Fox Tail - Nine Tail, Curse Nine Tail
    Hot Fur - Imp, Blazing Imp, Imp of Arrogance
    Large Firefly - Horong, Evil Horong, Punished Horong, Gajomart
    Lady's Cloth Piece - Sohee, Sobbing Sohee
    Mushroom Spore - Poison Spore, Baby Venom Spore, Truffle, Tasty Truffle, Tasteless Truffle, Truffle of Truffle
    Slippery Scale - Boa, Iron Boa, Poison Boa
    Tiger Skin - Payon Tiger, Black Tiger
    Toad Frontleg - Toad, Poison Toad
    Witch's Underwear - Arrogant Reina

    Bags Found:
    ----------------------
    Small Bag - None
    Medium Bag - Horong, Nine Tail

    Food and Drinks Found:
    -------------------------------------------
    Instant Bacon - Miho Guard
    Instant Honey Pie - Big Foot, Black Tiger
    Instant Lettuce Wrap - Miho Guard
    Instant Royal Jelly herb Tea - Venom Spore, Payon Tiger, Truffle, Boa
    Instant Smoldering Heart Skewer - Miho Guard, Killer Crabbit, Blazing Imp
    Instant Smoldering Heart Soup - Imp
    Instant Smoldering Heart Steak - Crabbit, Killer Crabbit, Sobbing Sohee
    Instant Steamed Hill Clam - Venom Spore, Big Foot

    Potions Found:
    ---------------------------
    Red Potion (III) - Big Foot, Giant Big Foot, Poison Boa
    Blue Potion (III) - Baby Venom Spore, Poison Boa
    Purple Potion (III) - Baby Venom Spore, Big Foot, Poison Boa
    Red Potion (IV) - Miho Stormer, Punished Horong, Gajomart
    Blue Potion (IV) - Miho Warden, Crabbit, Killer Crabbit, Sobbing Sohee, Punished Horong, Imp
    Purple Potion (IV) - Miho Scout, Miho Scattered Troops, Imp of Arrogance
    Dexterity Potion (III) - Poison Spore, Poison Boa
    Strenght Bost Potion (III) - Tasteless Truffle
    Will Boost Potion (IV) - Gajomart

    Cards Found:
    ------------------------
    Gajomart
    Horong
    Miho
    Poison Spore x2
    Toad
    Venom Spore x2

    Weapons and Armors Found:
    ----------------------------------------------------
    Ancient Breastplate - Poison Spore
    Ancient Leather Gloves - Baby Venom Spore
    Ancient Plated Boots - Big Foot
    Dense Virus Claw - Virus
    Leader's Breastplate - Truffle
    Leader's Leader Vest - Virus
    Leader's Plated Boots - Arrogant Reina
    Leader's Plated Gaiters - Miho Stormer, Nine Tail
    Leader's Plated Gauntlets - Truffle of Truffle
    Leader's Plated Visor - Chief Whirimzu
    Leader's Sword - Miho Scout, Arrogant Reina
    Wounded Wolyahwa's Claw - Illusion of Moonlight

    Khara Quest:
    ------------------------
    Secret to Gathering is a Secret!
    Causes of Confusion in Payon Forest
    Poison Diaper
    Angry Baby
    Combat Level Achieved (3)
    Profession Level 30 Achieved
    (Skill) Shield Charge! - [Reward: Title - Stun!]
    Baby Bear is Scary
    Father Bear is Scary Too
    Hungry Savage Beast
    Mystical Creature of Payon
    Way to Disassemble Equipment
    Code No.1 Junta!
    Safeguard of Whirimzu
    Immediate Death!
    Looks Like Poison
    Secret of Winning Organization
    You Are My Companion
    Cute Assassin
    Stop The Wrath of Miho Tribe - [Reward: Title - Miho Hunter]
    (Race: B) Illusion of Moonlight Flower (Party Recommended) - [Reward: Title - Nine Tailed]
    (Race: C) Virus (Party Recommended) - [Reward: Title - Virus Hunter]
    [Dungeon] Anorexigenic for Bug Eating Plant of Tomb Birim
    [Dungeon] Conqueror of Vanaheimr of Arrogance
    [Dungeon] Tomb Birim That Snows Even in May
    [Dungeon] Tracking Down the Thieves of Tomb Birim
    [Dungeon] Legend of Tomb Birim - [Reward: Title - Tomb Raider]
    [Dungeon] Sealing the Payon Dungeon - [Reward: Title - Moonlight Flower Slayer]
    (Selected) Grinder Special List
    Regret You Fault!
    Don't You Cry, My Baby
    I Hate the Curse

    Others:
    -------------
    Small Iron Ore
    Medium Iron Ore
    Large Iron Ore


    Blacksmithing:
    --------------------------
    None Yet





              Izrud Hill        




    Character Level: 26
    Profession Level: 26
    Achievement: Vespa, Vador and Knight Class


    Map Location:
    --------------------------
    Izrud Hill

    Quest List:
    --------------------
    To Izrude Town~
    Worm Delivery
    Warm Honey
    Bumblebee Royaljelly
    The Real Dutiful Child - [Reward: Refining Whestone II or Magic Oil II]
    Current Status of Izrude Hill - [Reward: Defender Boots]
    Treating a Meal
    Amazing Fish (1)
    Amazing Fish (2) - [Reward: Tiger Embroidery II or Dragon Embroidery II]
    That's a Merman
    Communicating with Merman (1)
    Communicating with Merman (2)
    Communicating with Merman (3) - [Reward: 4 Pueple Potion (II)]
    I Hid a Marvelous Thing There!
    Treasure Hidden Under the Windmill?
    Izrude Homewatchers - [Reward: Defender's Gaiters]
    Dirty Spider
    Cleaning the Spider Mess - [Reward: Wind Elixir]
    Stone Spider Hunt - [Reward: 6 Red Potion (II)]
    Wood Eating Spiders - [Reward: Bear Embroidery III]
    Disappearing Supplies
    Open Merman's Mouth (1)
    Open Merman's Mouth (2)
    Open Merman's Mouth (3)
    My Name Putaruta - [Reward: 4 Rep Potion (III) and 4 Blue Potion (III)]
    Undelivered Supplies
    Broken Supply Coach
    Revenge from Supply Wagon
    Report from Kraina
    To the Headquartes
    Capture Nakaruka Alive! - [Reward: Defender's Visor]
    Return to Homewatcher - [Reward: 6 Blue Potion (III)]
    Lets Try That Again - [Reward: 6 Red Potion (III)]
    What Merman Hates The Most?
    Purpose of Mermans
    Another Merman's Base? - [Reward: Homewatcher Sword]
    To Find Another Merman's Base
    How to Repair Stairway?
    The Way to Deal Broken Stairway
    A Criminal Who Broke Waterway
    Boss of Wildrose - [Reward: 4 Purple Potion (III)]
    Take Back the Scattered Baggage - [Reward: Refining Whetstone III]
    Very Delicious Meat
    In This Case, We Should Attack the Healer First
    Headquartes Burned to Ashes
    Pataruta Resistance
    Whether Help Pataruta or Not - [Reward: Magic Oil III]
    Give Mery to Syangtirote
    Test from Syangtirote (1)
    Test from Syangtirote (2)
    Recognize from Syangtirote - [Reward: Dragon Embroidery III]
    Finding Pearl Inside Clam - [Reward: Tiger Embroidery III]
    Finding Nisyutangka
    Nisyutangka's Favor
    [Dungeon] Very Good Armor Material - [Reward: Homewatcher Gauntlets]
    [Dungeon] I'm Going to Make a Scary Weapon - [Reward: Homewatcher Boots]
    Find Interpretation
    Find The Job Change NPC !
    Request of the Village Head
    Request: The Culprit Behind the Vanfalizing of the Wall
    Request: A Trend in Cooking
    Request: Rare Mushroom Extermination
    A Hillbilly Whose Whereabouts is Unknown
    Mushrooms! - [Reward: 4 Red Potion (III) or 4 Blue Potion (III)]
    Missing Sister
    Get Rid of Spores
    Pick Mushrooms - [Reward: Oredicon Powder]
    Find My Youngest Sister - [Reward: Resistance Spear]
    Giant Mushroom - [Reward: Resistance Sword]
    Tell My Sister
    Mission Complete Reporting
    Ambushed Rebel Bases
    Continous Attack of Merman - [Reward: Homewatcher Visor]
    Go to Temple of Sea God
    [Dungeon] Marinesphere Sinew - [Reward: Magic Oil III]
    [Dungeon] End of Nukaruka - [Reward: Refining Whetstone III]
    [Dungeon] Fear of Sea God - [Reward: Izrude Hill Top Statue]
    To the Harmony of Merman and Human - [Reward: Prontera Wrp Scroll]
    Reporting an Incident of Izrude
    Chasing a Runaway Freyjan - [Reward: Dim Strength Rune]
    The Freyjan Who Hid in the Forest (1)
    The Freyjan Who Hid in the Forest (2)
    Intelligence Corps in Payon Forest - [Reward: Dim Intelligence Rune]
    Behind Story - Disappearance of Putaruta
    Behind Story - Revenge of Higasi - [Reward: Beach Shade]

    Quest Starter Items Found:
    -----------------------------------------------
    Dark Shadow Unit Flare

    Items Found:
    -----------------------
    Split Piece 1 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - Bumblebee, Blazing Bumblebee, Bumblebee Worker, Stone Spider, Wood Stone Spider, Mermaid Trooper, Violent Wildrose
    Split Piece 2 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - Bumblebee, Blazing Bumblebee, Blazing Bumblebee, Wood Stone Spider, Merman Warrior
    Split Piece 3 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - Bumblebee, Wildrose, Mermaid Trooper

    Materials Items:
    Earthly Trace (I) - Bumblebee Worker, Stone Spider, Big Coraltus, Mermaid Special Warrior
    Firmament Essence (I) - Merman Warrior, Mermaid Trooper, Violent Wildrose, Spore
    Root of Life (I) - Blazing Bumblebe, Rabid Trancer, Wildrose, Merman Warrior, Sandistar, Sandihelistar
    Spirit of Ruin (I) - Mermaid Warrior, Mermaid Trooper, Violent Wildrose, Stellaria, Spore
    Hard Back Shell - Stone Spider, Wood Stone Spider
    Monster Fragment (I) - Bumblebee Worker, Wood Stone Spider, Merman Warrior, Rabid Trancer, Merman Temple Guard

    Other Items:
    Bee Wing - Bumblebee, Blazing Bumblebee, Bumblebee Worker
    Green Antenna - Trancer, Rabid Trancer, Bright Trancer
    Mermaid Fin - Mermaid Warrior, Brave Mermaid Warrior, Mermaid Trooper, Mermaid Healer, Mermaid Special Warrior, Mermaid Temple Guard
    Merman Fin - Merman Warrior, Merman Trooper, Merman Special Warrior, Merman Temple Guard
    Mushroom Spore - Spore, Baby Poison Spore, Baby Spore, Brother Spore
    Pincer - Vadon
    Shabby Ribbon - Wildrose, Violent Wildrose, Quick Wildrose, Stellaria
    Sticky Sucker - Sandistar, Sandihelistar
    Topshell - Coraltus, Big Coraltus

    Bags Found:
    ----------------------
    Small Bag - None
    Medium Bag - Wood Stone Spider, Merman Warrior, Merman Trooper, Mermaid Special Warrior

    Food and Drinks Found:
    -------------------------------------------
    Instant Boiled DHA Merman - Big Coraltus
    Instant Fresh Raw Merman - Mermaid Temple Guard
    Instant Honey Pie - Bumblebee Worker, Stone Spider, Wood Stone Spider, Merman Trooper,  Merman Warrior, Quick Wildrose, Mermaid Special Warrior, Poison Spore
    Instant Mushroom Risotto - Bright Trancer
    Instant Royaljelly Herb Tea - Bumblebee Worker, Merman Warrior, Mermaid Temple Guard
    Instant Spicy Merman Soup - Merman Warrior, Sandistar
    Instant Steamed Hill Clam - Bumblebee, Blazing Bumblebee, Bumblebee Worker, Stone Spider, Mermaid Trooper

    Potions Found:
    ---------------------------
    Red Potion (III) - Stone Spider, Wildrose, Merman Warrior, Stellaria, Mermaid Temple Guard, Mermaid Special Warrior
    Blue Potion (III) - Wood Stone Spider, Coraltus, Sandistar, Mermaid Temple Guard
    Purple Potion (III) - Wildrose, Wood Stone Spider, Merman Warrior, Violent Wildrose, Stellaria, Big Coraltus, Sandihelistar, Spore
    Dexterity Boost Potion (III) - Quick Wildrose
    Inteligence Potion (III) - Sandistar
    Strenght Potion (III) - Rabid Trancer
    Strenght Boost Potion (III) - Stone Spider
    Will Boost Potion (III) - Stone Spider

    Cards Found:
    ------------------------
    Bumblebee
    Cornutus
    Merman Follower
    Mermaid Warrior
    Poison Spore x2
    Spore
    Stone Spider x3
    Trancer x2

    Weapons and Armors Found:
    ----------------------------------------------------
    Ancient Coat Glove - Spore
    Ancient Plated Gauntlets - Baby Poison Spore
    Armor of Abundance - Bumblebee Worker
    Bandit Sword - Stone Spider
    Bandit Gaiters - Stone Spider, Big Coraltus
    Fierced Battle Leather Shirt - Merman Special Warrior
    Gauntlets of Abundance - Sandihelistar
    Helm of Abundance - Stone Spider
    Hill Boots - Merman Warrior
    Hill Gaiters - Merman Trooper
    Old Chainmail - Mermaid Special Warrior
    Will Mail - Brave Merman Warrior

    Khara Quest:
    ------------------------
    Burning Delivery Man of Honey
    Communication with the Guardian
    Card Collector of Iron Will - [Reward: Title - Card Mania]
    Master Repair Man (2)
    Make Up Fish
    Fishy Smell From Somewhere
    Cat Troublemake
    Faithful Cat
    Something is Coming?
    (Selected) Unlimited Spurt Instinct!
    (Rare:C) Vespa (Party Recommended) - [Reward: Title - Vespa Hunter]
    Lobster is Delicious
    Man Who Talks By Back
    Artist at the Hill
    Strong Woman (1)
    Strong Woman (2)
    Rebellion of Mushroom - [Reward: Title - Mushroom Hunter]
    Mushroom and Diaper
    Boss! Your Spore Looks So Good Today
    Invader of Izrude Hill - [Reward: Title - Hill Hunter]
    Before the War with the Leviathan Army
    [Dungeon] Chewy Hydra Tentacle That is Good for the Body
    [Dungeon] For Tribe of Mermen's Peace
    [Dungeon] Ruling The Sea God's Temple - [Reward: Title - Sea Master]
    [Dungeon] Resurrected Tyrant of the Sea - [Reward: Title - Leviathan Hunter]
    Material Encyclopedia!
    Harder Spider than Rock

    Others:
    -------------
    Small Iron Ore
    Medium Iron Ore
    Large Iron Ore

    Blacksmithing:
    --------------------------
    None





              Prontera        




    Character Level: 13
    Profession Level: 10
    Achievement: Guardian Vulcan, Peco Peco Ride


    Map Location:
    --------------------------
    Prontera

    Quest List:
    --------------------
    Time to Part
    Report Delivery
    Reunion with Hans
    A Day of the Saintess - [Reward: 2 Blessing of the Saintess]
    Knight Commander Zeras Hyperion
    Geonorg, The King of Reinhard
    Member of the Rune-Midgarts
    Question of the Freyajanity - [Reward: Wind Elixir]
    Resolute Position
    Issues of the Kingdom - [Reward: Investigator Armor]
    Marquiz Lissur Anailuj - [Reward: Prontera Knightage Will Potion]
    Top Secret Document
    To the South Plains
    Secret Mission - [Reward: Investigator Gaiters]
    Secret of Their Own - [Reward: Wind Elixir]
    Graham Circus (1)
    Graham Circus (2)
    Graham Circus (3) - [Reward: Secret of Provocation]
    Kafra Employee Test - [Reward: Tiger Embroidery II or Dragon Embroidery II]
    Merchant of Alberta
    Bandit Wildrose
    Knight Commander's Summon
    Knightage Test
    Wild Q-Pang (1)
    Wild Q-Pang (2)
    Wild Q-Pang (3)
    Qualifications of a Knight (2) - [Reward: Resistance Sword and Resistance Shield]
    An Audience with the King - [Reward: Resistance Breastplate]
    The Gap od Dimenion Widened - [Reward: Resistance Scaled Jacket]
    Prontera Knightage at the Front
    Guardian Vulcan: Growth
    Guardian Vulcan: Awakening
    Raid Dungeon - Arena
    Raid Dungeon - Garden of Baphomet

    Quest Starter Items Found:
    -----------------------------------------------
    N/A

    Items Found:
    -----------------------
    Split Piece 1 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - N/A
    Split Piece 2 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - N/A
    Split Piece 3 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - N/A


    Materials Items:
    Earthly Trace (I) - N/A
    Firmament Essence (I) - N/A
    Root of Life (I) - N/A
    Spirit of Ruin (I) - N/A
    Monster Fragment (I) - N/A

    Other Items:
    N/A

    Bags Found:
    ----------------------
    N/A

    Food and Drinks Found:
    -------------------------------------------
    N/A

    Potions Found:
    ---------------------------
    Red Potion (II) - N/A
    Blue Potion (II) - N/A
    Purple Potion (II) - N/A

    Cards Found:
    ------------------------
    N/A

    Weapons and Armors Found:
    ----------------------------------------------------
    N/A

    Khara Quest:
    ------------------------
    (Selected) Pain Relieving Drink!
    Preparation of Basic Supplies for Adventure (2)
    Existence of the Guardian
    Faster and Different!
    Master of Self-Supplying
    Return to Paradise - [Reward: Title - Alive]
    Falling to the Pit - [Reward: Title - Dead]
    (Selected) What Do You Need Now? Speed~

    Others:
    -------------
    N/A

    Blacksmithing:
    --------------------------
    N/A



              Ausimix Compact Thermostatic Mixing Valves        
    Ausimix Compact Thermostatic Mixing Valves

    Ausimix Compact Thermostatic Mixing Valves

    Usually 2-3 Working Days. Rapid fail safe on either hot and cold supply failure. Provides stable mixed water temperature. Unique temperature adjustment tool incorporated into the cap. Delivers 35 litres/min at 2.5 bar pressure. Part G and D08 compliant. Flat faced union connections for ease of mainenance.  


              Ausimix Thermostatic Mixing Valve Spares        
    Ausimix Thermostatic Mixing Valve Spares

    Ausimix Thermostatic Mixing Valve Spares

    Usually 2-3 Working Days. Spare parts for Ausimix Compact. Ausimix TMVs provide high performace accurate control and rapid failsafe on either hot and cold water supply failure for both domestic and commercial applications.


              Black/Teknigas Powerlink Thermal Fuse        
    Black/Teknigas Powerlink Thermal Fuse

    Black/Teknigas Powerlink Thermal Fuse

    Remote mounted thermally operated fuse in vented metal housing, suitable for wall or conduit mounting wired in series with the safety shut off valve, the fuse will open a circuit at a predetermined temp, interupting the supply to the valve which will then close. The single fuse is single pole  Screwed connections Fusing temp from 70°C 10°C reset differential 230v ac.


              Black/Teknigas Powerset Manual Reset Switch (Integral)        
    Black/Teknigas Powerset Manual Reset Switch (Integral)

    Black/Teknigas Powerset Manual Reset Switch (Integral)

    Manual reset switch. BC66RS integral is supplied with installation instructions. Voltage 240v. A push button operated switch which isolates the electrical supply to the valve in the event of power failure. When power is restored to the valve, the push button must be depressed before the valve will open. Cable entry 20mm diameter.


              Black/Teknigas Powerset Manual Reset Switch (Remote)        
    Black/Teknigas Powerset Manual Reset Switch (Remote)

    Black/Teknigas Powerset Manual Reset Switch (Remote)

    A push button operated switch which isolates the electric supply to the valve in the event of power failure. When power is restored to the valve, the push button must be depressed before the valve will open. Remots versions are suitable for screw fixing to a flat surface. Route electrical supply to the valve through unit. Electrical connection via screw terminals. Cable entry 20mm diameter.


              Blacks/Teknigas Powersev Emergency Stop Button (Die-Cast)        
    Blacks/Teknigas Powersev Emergency Stop Button (Die-Cast)

    Blacks/Teknigas Powersev Emergency Stop Button (Die-Cast)

    Remote mounted push to break contact/ twist to reset switches for emergency use. Plastic wall mounting box, with or without key switch operation. Screw fix to flat surface. Connect electrical supply through single pole switch block via screw terminals.


              Blacks/Teknigas Powersev Emergency Stop Button (Plastic)        
    Blacks/Teknigas Powersev Emergency Stop Button (Plastic)

    Blacks/Teknigas Powersev Emergency Stop Button (Plastic)

    Remote mounted push to break contact/ twist to reset switches for emergency use. Plastic wall mounting box, with or without key switch operation. Screw fix to flat surface. Connect electrical supply through single pole switch block via screw terminals.


              The Way To Reduce Using Water To Your Landscape        


    Learning how to properly landscape your yard is really a skill, allowing you turn your own home in the jewel in the neighborhood. Often times they don't know how to accomplish that, though people want their houses to appear great on their block. This article is a good choice for exactly that. Continue along for some advice on becoming great at landscaping.

    When building an outdoors kitchen, look for granite for the surfacing. Though granite is generally much more expensive than marble or another options, it is generally more durable and much easier to keep up.

    Use native plants when landscaping your yard. Native varieties require less attention as they are living in an environment that is naturally conducive for their growth. This too means they are low-maintenance. You can get details about plants that happen to be indigenous to your area by looking at your best gardening store.

    There's a lot more to landscaping then simply planting some grass and trees. You must also add other natural materials including wood, stone and even iron. Use decks, archways and pergolas to generate attractive looks which can be complex, beautiful and visually interesting. These components come in a number of prices despite your budget.

    By making a garden that incorporates all seasons, create your yard look beautiful all year. Seek out shrubs and plants that bloom at various times throughout the year. Also, pick trees which have unique foliage as well as evergreens to make your yard bright all year round.

    Many people don't think about online shopping regarding landscaping. You will find a larger selection of plants, including some that are not offered by your nearby stores. You will also save the trouble and gas of actually venturing out over a shopping trip.

    By buying them with the right times, save on materials. Buy lumber in the winter months or mulch in late season to save lots of funds. Wait a couple of years with regard to their prices to fall before purchasing them, when new plants are brought to the current market.

    Include different types of greenery within your landscaping plans for variety and different beauty. This can be factor to protecting the yard from disease or bacteria. They won't be vulnerable to a similar harmful agents when your plants are varied. Houston landscapers To help keep a landscape healthy, choosing numerous types of species is very important.

    It might be difficult to find out what sort of flowers is going to do well under a proven shade tree. Ground cover is a far greater choice. Ground covers are really easy to maintain and definately will add interest to your landscape. Consider hosta or sweet woodruff as ground covers for your trees.

    If you're thinking of hiring a pro landscaper to your project, ask for a few references. Price is extremely important, just before hiring any landscaper, make certain to take a look with the past work that she or he did.

    When you are assembling your own landscape plan, add a quote to the cost. Create the items you understand you need in writing. Then you definitely should discover the best locations to buy the products to acquire high quality items with a great price. Going to a home remodeling store or even a garden supply area can provide a sense of the costs, because they can vary greatly by season and site. Discover where the top deals are and don't forget to ask around for your lowest prices.

    Remember the possible impact that some landscaping could have on certain areas of your dwelling. When you are careless, you will probably find that this roots from the plants could interfere with any underground piping you possess. Before finalizing your landscaping design, always consider these sorts of practical problems.

    You've learned a little more about landscaping, so just why not get moving today? You'll enjoy the look of your home's outdoor areas along with the feeling of satisfaction you'll feel from creating your new garden. Coming home right after a long day of labor will certainly be a lot better when you drive as much as your renovated landscape. Houston landscapers The outcome you obtain from landscaping worth the investment of your respective time and expense.
              The Plot of my Next Game        
    In the year 30N, a child was born. His parents were hiding from the Institution, aliens who rule over the galaxy with an iron fist. Shortly after being born, their hiding place was discovered. The kid was teleported to the nearest moon base, and holographically disguised as one of the Institutionalized (colloquially abbreviated as the Ized). He was raised by them to be a fighter, not knowing the details of his human past, but programmed to learn at age 30.

    One day at age 30 he was going about his normal alien business when the holograph was deactivated, and he suddenly looked like a human pig. Knowing he would be killed if he was seen by the ized, he ran into hiding trying to figure out what was going on, when a video chip implanted in his brain suddenly explained everything to him. HE KNEW WHAT HAD TO BE DONE. He needed to avenge his fallen parents. Luckily there was a gun shop nearby. He wanted the awesomater, which shot laser bullets made of explosions, but he had no money so he was given the squeaker instead, which shot airsoft pellets. It was enough to protect him until he could afford a cooler gun, or upgrade his current gun.

    The first thing he needs to do is clear: get a better gun. So he decides to rob a bank, which involves a lot of stealth since he can't hurt people yet. It's an easy mission, the kung-fu training he was given as a child helped him find the safe. With a new supply of money he could finally afford a good gun that could make aliens bleed and die, and could always make money by robbing the corpses of the aliens he killed so he can upgrade and make more awesome the guns he has, or even get the awesomater.

    He realized he needed some defense, so he had to go get some space armor. The only armor shop in the galaxy was in a different space system though, so he had to find his way to the nearest wormhole generator instead. It was heavily guarded by ized troops, so he had to go shooting and kung fu on them to clear a path, before entering the wormhole (when an awesome cutscene plays). He gets the armor and is now ready to infiltrate the main ized base in the garkoblurger system. Along the way he meets a sexy alien chick named Bragana with 3 giant boobs, and they fall in love and fight together for a rest of the game.

    He enters the base and starts shooting, guns ablaze. Flashbacks of his mysterious childhood play as hes shooting the evil aliens. Was this right? He is faced with a tough moral decision, but decides to keep killing to avenge his real parents.

    Finally he reaches the control room. But what a twist! The chief ized leader is... the ALIEN WHO RAISED HIM AS A CHILD! He says "We may have killed your real parents... but I RAISED YOU. I may not be your real father, but I acted as a father to you. Surely that means something to you?" He replies "But but... you killed them!". He is faced with a moral dilemma, before deciding to kill him. He shoots and an awesome final boss battle begins. When the alien is dead, he hits the self destruct button and he needs to escape the galaxy before it implodes in on itself. On the way out, Bragana slips and falls down. Our hero catches her, but she says it's too late for her and falls into a pit and dies. He screams "NOOOOO" but continues escaping. He gets to a spaceship, and flies it away. As he watches the galaxy implode, a single tear streams down his eye, and the credits roll.
              Advertisement: Partitioning of CBT Centre and Supply of Equipment to CBT Centre        
    The Management of the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria, Ijanikin, Lagos hereby invites suitably qualified and reputable Contractors/Suppliers to submit tenders/quotations for the partitioning and supply of equipment to the College CBT Centre. Tenderers are to submit their bids into the Tender box in the College Registrar’s office within one week from the date […]
              re: Performance impact: What is the optimal payload for SqlBulkCopy.WriteToServer()?        

    I load from c# by setting batchsize supplying a datareader for WriteToServer. This makes sqlbulkcopy read and write efficiently in its own chunks.


              THE LAST WORD by Lisa Lutz        
    THE LAST WORD by Lisa Lutz: It should come as no surprise that I loved this book; this is one of my absolute favorite series, and Lutz seems to have an unending supply of laugh-out-loud humor, bittersweet insights, and convoluted (this is a good thing!) mysteries. Don't read this one first. Read THE SPELLMAN FILES first. Starting with book 6 would rob you of the satisfying experience of watching Izzy (and her family) evolve. Isabel Spellman was raised in a family of private investigators, so it's no surprise she has trust issues and an interesting approach to privacy. It's challenging to sum up the plot for THE LAST WORD without giving away major developments in the first five books. Let's see: Izzy is accused of embezzlement, she and her parents are engaged in open warfare, Rae is up to something that involves a truck full of tear gas, and Izzy's niece is a holy terror. All of this is wrapped up in a witty, sarcastic, plot-twisting package tied with a sentimental bow, and I loved every second of it.

    If you enjoy smart, snappy writing, tight mysteries with a witty twist, or complex, believable female protagonists, give THE SPELLMAN FILES a go. I was hooked from the first word.

    Source disclosure: I received an e-galley of this title courtesy of the publisher.
              [urls/news] The Global Grid: China's HPC Opportunity        
    Thursday, November 11, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    For this posting, I'm using an annotated urls format.  Let's begin.
     
    The Global Grid
     
    Grid computing.  HPC (high-performance computing).  Lots of trade press coverage.  Lots of academic papers.  Generally, this is a GREAT convergence.  Didn't hold with AI (artificial intelligence), but the coverage of grid computing is much more pervasive.  Also, it's an area where I believe that systems integrators (SIs) in China can play with the globals.  It's new enough that there are no clear leaders.  Okay, maybe IBM is a clear leader, but it's certainly not an established market.
     
    It's also a market where Chinese SIs can leverage work done for domestic applications for Western clients.  This is NOT true in areas such as banking applications; the apps used in China are very different from the apps used in the States.  Fundamentally different systems.  But a lot of grid work is more about infrastructure and custom development.  There's also a lot of open source in the grid sphere.
     
    I've selected some of the best papers and sites for review.  This is certainly not meant to be comprehensive, but simply follow the links for more info.
     
    One last note:  Clicking on any of the following links will likely lead you to an abstract and possibly to some personal commentary not included in this posting.  You may also find related links found by other Furl users.
     
    The "Bible" of the grid world.  The home page will lead to many other relevant papers and reports.  See also The Anatomy of the Grid (PDF).
     
    Hottest journal issue in town!!  Papers may be downloaded for free.  See also Grid computing: Conceptual flyover for developers.
     
    One of the better conferences; covers applications and provides links to several excellent papers and presentations.
     
    Well, the link has been replaced.  Try to get a hold of this paper.  It WAS available for free.  SOA meets the grid.  The lead author, Liang-Jie Zhang, is a researcher at IBM T.J.Watson Research Center and chair of the IEEE Computer Society Technical Steering Committee (technical community) for Services Computing. Contact him at zhanglj@us.ibm.com .  Ask for his related papers, too.
     
    Several excellent papers; recent conference.  Middleware:  Yes, middleware is the key to SI opportunities.
     
    Conference held earlier this month!!  See who is doing what in China.
     
    Want a competitive edge in the grid space?  This is it!!
     
    NOTE:  A search for "grid computing" in my Furl archive yields 164 hits (and most are publicly searchable).  See http://www.furl.net/members/goldentriangle .
     
    Other News
     
    Outsourcing & Offshoring:
     
    I don't agree with this, but it's worth reading, especially considering the source.  I agree that China shouldn't try to be a clone of India, but the arguments in support of the domestic market don't consider margins.
     
    I'll be writing a column for the AlwaysOn Network about the disconnect between China's foreign policy initiatives and the realities of the IT sector.  Suffice it to say that SIs in China should NOT chase after the EU.  Again, do NOT confuse foreign policy with corporate policy!!
     
    More of the same.  Read my comments about Romania by clicking the link ...
     
    Google is coming to China, too.  Think MS Research in Beijing.
     
    Another great move by IBM; they're clearly leading the pack.
     
    This article is a bit confusing.  I suspect that TCS is simply copying the IGS China strategy.  But it's worth noting that they're moving beyond servicing their American clients with a presence in China.
     
    Yes, yes and yes.  Expect a lot more of this.  I wouldn't be surprised to see China's SIs forced to move a bit lower on the U.S. SI food chain for partnerships.  Move up the chain by thinking verticals!!
     
    BPO:
     
    No need to click; it's all about security.
     
    No, not really a new model; more about a new certification!!  Just what the world needs ...
     
    Enterprise Software:
     
    The title says it all.
     
    Maybe the "P" in "LAMP" should stand for "Plone"?
     
    A strategy for USERS, i.e., SIs in China.
     
    Marketing & Management:
     
    Product Management 101, courtesy of the Harvard Business School.
     
    Spread this throughout your organization ... and then ramp up with some paid tools.
     
    SCM (supply chain management) meets marketing, but with a general management and strategy slant.
     
    G2 planning strategies.  A wee bit mathematical, but still fairly easy to follow.
     
    Expect the next original posting in two or three weeks; my next column for the AlwaysOn Network will be sent to this list.  Off to HK/SZ/ZH/GZ next week.
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
     
    http://www.itestrategies.com (current blog postings optimized for MSIE6.x)
    http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa (access to blog content archives in China)
    http://tinyurl.com/2azkh (current blog postings for viewing in other browsers and for access to blog content archives in the US & ROW)
    http://tinyurl.com/2hg2e (AvantGo channel)
     
     
    To automatically subscribe click on http://tinyurl.com/388yf .
     

              [urls] Measuring the ROI of Software Process Improvement        
    Saturday, September 18, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    The following is a sampling of my top ten "urls" for the past couple/few weeks.  By signing up with Furl (it's free), anyone can subscribe to an e-mail feed of ALL my urls (about 100-250 per week) -- AND limit by subject (e.g., ITO) and/or rating (e.g., articles rated "Very Good" or "Excellent").  It's also possible to receive new urls as an RSS feed.
     
    All of the top ten are PDFsClick on the link to read the abstract for each paper.
     
    Note: Off to California for a couple of weeks.  Probably no new, original postings until after the October national holiday in China.  (I get a three week break from writing for this blog, but I'll still be writing columns for the AlwaysOn Network.)
     
    Top Honors:
     
    Measuring the ROI of Software Process Improvement (relatively speaking, very popular among Furl viewers; highly accessible article with a lot of substance and pointers)
     
    Other best new selections (in order of popularity as determined by Furl views, then alphabetically):
     
    A Framework for Off-The-Shelf Software Component Development and Maintenance Processes (this was THE most popular paper, although I liked the ROI article better; superb info, good guidelines, lots of food for thought)
    Agent-Based e-Supply Chain Decision Support (not as geeky as it sounds; lead author is with Carnegie Mellon's e-Supply Chain Management Laboratory & Institute for e-Commerce)
    B2B E-Commerce Stages of Growth: the Strategic Imperatives (a look at some case studies; provides some insights into B2B adoption and diffusion)
    Creating an Open Agent Environment for Context-Aware M-Commerce (from the Mobile Commerce Laboratory at Carnegie Mellon <no, this isn't necessarily CMU week>; I have a lot of doubts about this stuff, but it's worth firing a few neurons and giving it a spin)
    Development and Evaluation of Software Process Improvement Methods (Dissertation, 190 pp.) (superb overviews sprinkled with case studies; it was tough to choose between this dissertation and the ROI paper for top honors)
    Deriving a Diffusion Framework for Web-Based Shopping Systems (a bit of a technical flavor, but not too technical; puts e-shopping in a broader perspective, e.g., relative to EDI)
    * Exploring Defect Causes in Products Developed by Virtual Teams (to all SIs developing a GDM - global delivery model - READ THIS!!; perhaps the most important paper among my top ten)
    * Intelligent Support for Software Release Planning (a corporate technical paper describing a very useful software development management tool; see also the Release Planner (tm) home page)
     
    And my PERSONAL favorite:
     
    > The Banality of Google (good for some laughs)
     
    and many, many more ...
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
     
    http://www.itestrategies.com (current blog postings optimized for MSIE6.x)
    http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa (access to blog content archives in China)
    http://tinyurl.com/2azkh (current blog postings for viewing in other browsers and for access to blog content archives in the US & ROW)
    http://tinyurl.com/2hg2e (AvantGo channel)
     
     
    To automatically subscribe click on http://tinyurl.com/388yf .
     

              [news] "2004 State of Application Development"        
    Friday, August 13, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    Special issues of journals and magazines are often quite good -- if you're into the subject matter.  But the current issue of VARBusiness is absolutely SUPERB!!  EVERY SYSTEMS INTEGRATOR SHOULD READ IT ASAP -- STOP WHAT YOU'RE DOING AND READ THIS ISSUE!!  (Or, at the very least, read the excerpts which follow.)  See http://tinyurl.com/6smzu .  They even have the survey results to 36 questions ranging from change in project scope to preferred verticals.  In this posting, I'm going to comment on excerpts from this issue.  My comments are in blue.  Bolded excerpted items are MY emphasis.
     
    The lead article and cover story is titled, "The App-Dev Revolution."  "Of the solution providers we surveyed, 72 percent say they currently develop custom applications or tailor packaged software for their customers. Nearly half (45 percent) of their 2003 revenues came from these app-dev projects, and nearly two-thirds of them expect the app-dev portion of total revenue to increase during the next 12 months."  I view this as good news for China's SIs; from what I've observed, many SIs in China would be a good fit for SIs in the U.S. looking for partners to help lower their development costs.  "By necessity, today's solution providers are becoming nimbler in the software work they do, designing and developing targeted projects like those that solve regulatory compliance demands, such as HIPAA, or crafting wireless applications that let doctors and nurses stay connected while they roam hospital halls."  Have a niche; don't try to be everything to everyone.  "Nine in 10 of survey respondents said their average app-dev projects are completed in less than a year now, with the smallest companies (those with less than $1 million in revenue) finishing up in the quickest time, three months, on average."  Need for speed.  "The need to get the job done faster for quick ROI might explain the growing popularity of Microsoft's .Net framework and tools.  In our survey, 53 percent of VARs said they had developed a .Net application in the past 12 months, and 66 percent of them expect to do so in the coming 12 months."  My Microsoft build-to-their-stack strategy.  "Some of the hottest project areas they report this year include application integration, which 69 percent of VARs with between $10 million or more in revenue pinned as their busiest area.  Other top development projects center around e-commerce applications, CRM, business-intelligence solutions, enterprisewide portals and ERP, ..."  How many times have I said this?    "At the same time, VARs in significant numbers are tapping open-source tools and exploiting Web services and XML to help cut down on expensive software-integration work; in effect, acknowledging that application development needs to be more cost-conscious and, thus, take advantage of open standards and reusable components.  Our survey found that 32 percent of VARs had developed applications on Linux in the past six months, while 46 percent of them said they plan to do so in the next six months.  The other open-source technologies they are using today run the gamut from databases and development tools to application servers."  I guess there's really an open source strategy.  I come down hard on open source for one simple reason:  I believe that SIs in China could get more sub-contracting business from a build-to-a-stack strategy.  And building to the open source stack isn't building to a stack at all!!  "As a business, it has many points of entry and areas of specialization.  Our survey participants first arrived in the world of app dev in a variety of ways, from bidding on app-dev projects (45 percent) to partnering with more experienced developers and VARs (28 percent) to hiring more development personnel (31 percent)."  For SIs in China, simply responding to end-user RFQs is kind of silly.  Better to partner on a sub-contracting basis.  "According to our State of Application Development survey, health care (36 percent), retail (31 percent) and manufacturing (30 percent) ranked as the most popular vertical industries for which respondents are building custom applications.  Broken down further, among VARs with less than $1 million in total sales, retail scored highest, while health care topped the list of midrange to large solution providers."  Because of regulatory issues, I'm not so keen on health care.  I'd go with manufacturing followed by retail.  My $ .02.  "When it comes to partnering with the major platform vendors, Microsoft comes out the hands-on winner among ISVs and other development shops.  A whopping 76 percent of developers in our survey favored the Microsoft camp.  Their level of devotion was evenly divided among small, midsize and large VARs who partner with Microsoft to develop and deliver their application solutions.  By contrast, the next closest vendor is IBM, with whom one in four VARs said they partner.  Perhaps unsurprisingly, the IBM percentages were higher among the large VAR category (those with sales of $10 million or more), with 42 percent of their partners coming from that corporate demographic.  Only 16 percent of smaller VARs partner with IBM, according to the survey.  The same goes for Oracle: One-quarter of survey respondents reported partnering with the Redwood Shores, Calif.-based company, with 47 percent of them falling in the large VAR category.  On the deployment side, half of the developers surveyed picked Windows Server 2003/.Net as the primary platform to deliver their applications, while IBM's WebSphere application server was the choice for 7 percent of respondents.  BEA's WebLogic grabbed 4 percent, and Oracle's 9i application server 3 percent of those VARs who said they use these app servers as their primary deployment vehicle."  Microsoft, Microsoft, Microsoft.  Need I say more?  See http://tinyurl.com/45z94 .
     
    The next article is on open source.  "Want a world-class database with all the bells and whistles for a fraction of what IBM or Oracle want?  There's MySQL.  How about a compelling alternative to WebSphere or WebLogic?  Think JBoss.  These are, obviously, the best-known examples of the second generation of open-source software companies following in the footsteps of Apache, Linux and other software initiatives, but there are far more alternatives than these.  Consider Zope, a content-management system downloaded tens of thousands of times per month free of charge, according to Zope CEO Rob Page.  Some believe Zope and applications built with Zope are better than the commercial alternative they threaten to put out of business, Documentum.  Zope is also often used to help build additional open-source applications.  One such example is Plone, an open-source information-management system.  What began as a fledgling movement at the end of the past decade and later became known as building around the "LAMP stack" (LAMP is an acronym that stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP or Perl) has exploded to virtually all categories of software.  That includes security, where SpamAssassin is battling spam and Symantec, too.  Popular?  Well, it has now become an Apache Software Foundation official project.  The use of open source is so widespread that the percentage of solution providers who say they partner with MySQL nearly equals the percentage who say they partner with Oracle"23 percent to 25 percent, respectively.There are plenty of choices for those SIs willing to play the open source game.  See http://tinyurl.com/4e3c7 .
     
    "It's all about integration" follows.  "There are many reasons for the surge in application-development projects (the recent slowdown in software spending notwithstanding).  For one, many projects that were put on hold when the downturn hit a few years ago are now back in play.  That includes enterprise-portal projects, supply-chain automation efforts, various e-commerce endeavors and the integration of disparate business systems."  Choose carefully, however.  Balance this data with other data.  Right now, I see a lot more play with portals and EAI.  "Indeed, the need for quality and timely information is a key driver of investments in application-integration initiatives and the implementation of database and business-intelligence software and portals.  A healthy majority of solution providers say application integration is a key component of the IT solutions they are deploying for customers.  According to our application-development survey, 60 percent say their projects involved integrating disparate applications and systems during the past 12 months."  "Some customers are moving beyond enterprise-application integration to more standards-based services-oriented architectures (SOAs).  SOAs are a key building block that CIOs are looking to build across their enterprises."  Anyone who regularly reads any one of my three IT-related blogs knows that I'm gung-ho on SOAs.  "Even if your customers are not looking for an SOA, integrating different systems is clearly the order of the day.  To wit, even those partners that say enterprise portals or e-business applications account for the bulk of their business note that the integration component is key."  Yes, integration, integration, integration.  I'll be saying this next year, too.  And the year after ...  "Another way to stay on top of the competition is to participate in beta programs."  Absolutely true -- and a good strategy, too.  See http://tinyurl.com/6x2gg .
     
    The next article is on utility computing versus packaged softwareAgain, if you read what I write, you know that I'm also gung-ho on utility computing.  "According to VARBusiness' survey of application developers, more than 66 percent of the applications created currently reside with the customer, while 22 percent of applications deployed are hosted by the VAR.  And a little more than 12 percent of applications developed are being hosted by a third party.   Where services have made their biggest inroads as an alternative to software is in applications that help companies manage their customer and sales information.The article goes on to state that apps that are not mission-critical have the best chance in the utility computing space.  Time will tell.  Take note, however, that these are often the apps that will most likely be outsourced to partners in China.  "Simply creating services from scratch and then shopping them around isn't the only way to break into this area.  NewView Consulting is expanding its services business by starting with the client and working backward.  The Porter, Ind.-based security consultant takes whatever technology clients have and develops services for them based on need."   And focus on services businesses and .NET, too.  "Most application developers agree that services revenue will continue to climb for the next year or two before they plateau, resulting in a 50-50 or 60-40 services-to-software mix for the typical developer.  The reason for this is that while applications such as CRM are ideally suited to services-based delivery, there are still plenty of other applications that companies would prefer to keep in-house and that are often dependent on the whims of a particular company."  Still, such a split shows a phenomenal rise in the importance of utility computing offerings.  See http://tinyurl.com/54blv .
     
    Next up:  Microsoft wants you!!  (Replace the image of Uncle Sam with the image of Bill Gates!!)  Actually, the article isn't specifically about Microsoft.  "Microsoft is rounding up as many partners as it can and is bolstering them with support to increase software sales.  The attitude is: Here's our platform; go write and prosper.  IBM's strategy, meanwhile, is strikingly different.  While it, too, has created relationships with tens of thousands of ISVs over recent years,  IBM prefers to handpick a relatively select group, numbering approximately 1,000, and develop a hand-holding sales and marketing approach with them in a follow-through, go-to-market strategy."  Both are viable strategies, but NOT both at the same time!!  "To be sure, the results of VARBusiness' 2004 State of Application Development survey indicates that Microsoft's strategy makes it the No. 1 go-to platform vendor among the 472 application developers participating in the survey.  In fact, more than seven out of 10 (76 percent) said they were partnering with Microsoft to deliver custom applications for their clients.  That number is nearly three times the percentage of application developers (26 percent) who said they were working with IBM ..."  Percentages as follows:  Microsoft, 76%; IBM, 26%; Oracle, 25%; MySQL, 23%; Red Hat, 17%; Sun, 16%; Novell, 11%; BEA, 9%.  I said BOTH, NOT ALL.  Think Microsoft and IBM.  However, a Java strategy could be BOTH a Sun AND IBM strategy (and even a BEA strategy).  See http://tinyurl.com/68grf .
     
    There was another article I liked called, "How to Team With A Vendor," although it's not part of the app-dev special section per se.  This posting is too long, so I'll either save it for later or now note that it has been urled.  See http://www.furl.net/item.jsp?id=680282 .  Also a kind of funny article on turning an Xbox into a Linux PC.  See http://tinyurl.com/4mhn6 .  See also http://www.xbox-linux.org .
     
    Quick note:  I'll be in SH and HZ most of next week, so I may not publish again until the week of the 23rd.
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
     
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              [news] IT Spending Trends        
    Tuesday, July 6, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    A quick recap on IT spending trends from three recently published Smith Barney surveys.  The three reports are the May and June editions of their CIO Vendor Preference Survey and the 6 June issue of softwareWEEK.  Tom Berquist, my favorite i-banking analyst, was the lead for all three reports.  I have a backlog of blogs to write, so I'll use as many quotes as possible and add context where necessary.  (I'm mostly extracting from my smartphone bookmarks for these reports.  Warning:  I may have coded the May and June issues incorrectly, but the quotes are correct.)  NOTE:  Highlighted items (e.g., items in bold, like this sentence) are MY emphasis.  Items in red are my commentary.
     
    Starting with the Survey editions, "(t)he strongest areas of spending appear to be software (apps, security, storage, and database) and network equipment/apps (Gigabit Ethernet, WLAN, VPNs)" and regarding software, "larger and more well known vendors continue to dominate the list in each category with vendors such as Microsoft, SAP, IBM, Veritas, Symantec and Computer Associates getting significantly more mentions in each of their groups than the remaining vendors did."  However, the report admits that their sample group might be biased.  Yes, vendors matter -- and so do vendor partnering strategies.  However, I'm a bit skeptical about CA and I don't particular care very much for Veritas or Symantec.  Not my part of the universe.
     
    "Applications again stand out as a clear area of strength."  "Within applications, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Business Intelligence (BI) all showed extremely well ..."  Well, this is the first sign that a recovery may be in the making for SCM.  However, I'd emphasize BI and ERP, followed by CRM; don't count on a lot happening in the SCM space just yet.  Some other key surveys do NOT validate that SCM is in recovery.  "In terms of specific vendors, Microsoft, Symantec, Veritas, SAP, and Adobe were the top beneficiaries of CIOs intentions to increase spending."  The report continues that only SAP showed statistically significant results, both in ERP and SCM.  "Results were more mixed for best-of-breed vendors in this area, suggesting that horizontal applications vendors are having a tough time competing with the large ERP vendors even as vertically-focused vendors continue to have some measure of success on this front."  For the more adventurous SIs in China, SAP presents a lot of opportunities.  Tread carefully, though.  And "Adobe's enterprise strategy appears to be gaining momentum.  Adobe was a clear standout in content management ..."  "Survey results were also positive (though somewhat less so) for other leading content management players, notably Microsoft and IBM."  Another "win" for Microsoft.  Funny that none of the traditionally leading content management players were mentioned.  A take on Linux:  "Linux continues to garner mind share, but large enterprises remain the main adopter.  Interestingly, nearly 83% of our respondents stated that they were not currently moving any applications to Linux.  Of the 17% that said they were moving applications to Linux, only one company under $1.0 billion in revenue was making the transition to Linux confirming our views that Linux is primarily being used by large companies to shift Unix applications to Linux on Intel."
     
    "Among CIOs who indicated a higher level of consulting spend, IBM was the clear winner, followed by Accenture as a distant second.  Unisys was also mentioned as a vendor being considered, but it was a distant third.  However, we note that Unisys being mentioned ahead of a pure-play consultant like BearingPoint (a low number of mentions, which included mentions of decreased spending) or EDS is positive, given that Unisys chooses to focus in 2 specific verticals, including one-public sector-that was not in the survey."  "Over two-thirds of CIOs indicated that they do not use IT outsourcers.  Most of the rest said they were unlikely to change the level of outsourcing spend.  IBM, ACS and CSC were the only vendors explicitly mentioned as likely to get more outsourcing business."  The "two-thirds" figure will likely change in favor of outsourcing.  This trend is fairly clear.  See a BCG report at http://tinyurl.com/2muy8 , although the report takes a relatively broad perspective.
     
    From softwareWEEK, "(t)he CIOs were also very focused on rapid 'time to market' with purchases.  None were interested in starting projects that would take greater than 2 quarters to complete."  "This requirement was not a 'payback' requirement, but rather an implementation time frame requirement.  The CIOs did recognize that payback times could be longer, though the payback times on IT utility spending were much shorter than on applications or emerging area spending."
     
    "In terms of spending, the CIOs all used a similar methodology for making decisions that essentially divides their IT spending into one of three categories: 1) sustained spending on their 'IT utility' (i.e., infrastructure such as network equipment, servers, storage, databases, etc.); 2) new project spending on applications (business intelligence, portals, CRM, etc.); and 3) investment spending on select emerging areas (grid/utility computing, identity management, collaboration, etc.)  It was pretty obvious that the CIOs recognized that business unit managers were more interested in spending on new applications/emerging areas than on the IT utility ..."  "(S)ome of the CIOs were experimenting with grid/utility computing initiatives to try to increase their utilization of storage/servers and reduce the amount of new equipment to be purchased.  In one example, a CIO showed their storage/server utilization around the world and many regions were in the 50% or worse bucket for average utilization.  Their goal was to use grid computing architectures and storage area networks (along with faster communication links) to better share the pool of resources."  Yes, this is it!!  Take this to heart!!  If you think grid and utility computing are Star Trek stuff, think again.
     
    "In terms of new projects, the CIOs mentioned they were spending on business intelligence, portal/self-service applications, CRM, and collaboration.  Collaboration was a heated discussion, with all CIOs commenting that this was a big problem for them and there was no clear solution on the market.  While it wasn't completely clear to the audience what the CIOs were looking for in a collaboration solution, the elements that were described included: more intelligent email, corporate instant messaging, web conferencing, integrated voice over IP with instant messaging (so that a conversation could quickly shift from typing to talking), and collaborative document editing (spreadsheets, presentations, publications, etc.).  Within the business intelligence arena, business activity monitoring was discussed as was building of enterprise data warehouses/data marts.  The portal/self-service applications being built or deployed were primarily for customer and employee self-service (remote access to email, applications, and files was a big deal for all of the companies).  On the CRM front, the discussion from one CIO was around their need to increase revenues and manage channel conflict better."  [I'll be posting to this blog a bit more about collaboration opportunities over the next week.]
     
    "While vendors were not discussed in any detail during the panel, the CIOs did say that they remain open to working with smaller vendors (public and private) as long as they have plenty of relevant references (in their industry, particularly with close competitors) and they offer a compelling value proposition versus larger vendors.  One CIO stated that they get called by 20 startups a week to sell products to them, but most of them cannot articulate the value proposition of their product.  Nonetheless, the CIO does take 5 meetings a month from startups because some of them are working on things that are interesting to the business."
     
    Whew ...  Lots of good materials.  To reiterate, all highlighted items are my emphasis.  Bottom line:  The market is heating up.  Get your ISV relationships in place.  Pick your verticals (see the "Tidbit on Microsoft" which follows).  Pick your apps -- and the apps I like the best are content management and BI, although ERP is looking good, too.  Collaboration can be a major source of revenue if the SI can provide a truly effective solution.
     
    Tidbits on Microsoft
     
    A quick update on some happenings in the Redmond universe.  (See http://tinyurl.com/36xgu ; the article is titled, "Microsoft focuses on its enterprise-applications business".)  First, app areas that are of particular interest to MS include those for manufacturing and life sciences.  So, how about a MS build-to-their-stack strategy focused on either of these two verticals?  Second, MS is moving beyond purely horizontal offerings to very specific functionality.  Their Encore acquisition is an example of MS moving in this direction.  Finally, new releases of all four of Microsoft's ERP product lines are due for this year.  Not surprisingly, MBS marketing is up 20% from FY04.  Hmmm ... ERP spending intentions are strong and MS is a key player in this space -- with several updated offerings scheduled for release this year.  Another opportunity?
     
    Tidbits on Infosys
     
    Infosys formally enters the IT strategy consulting biz.  (See http://tinyurl.com/2xxlo .)  Yes, it was inevitable.  In April Infosys Consulting, Inc. was formed and, "(i)t's no secret that the winning model will be high-end business consulting combined with high-quality, low-cost technology delivery done offshore," according to Stephen Pratt, the head of Infosys' consulting unit.  The Infosys Consulting unit now has 150 employees in the States and plans to expand to 500 within three years.  Note to SIs in China:  You need more -- a lot more -- IT strategy types  And you need people in the States (at least on an "as needed" basis) in order to capture -- and serve -- new accounts.
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
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    Job Description: The PDMS Clinical Supply Chain holds the global responsibility for all clinical supplies of the Janssen Research & Development portfolio and
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              Fungsi - Fungsi Komponen Pada Handphone         

    Fungsi SETIAP KOMPONEN PONSEL


    ANTENA

    Fungsinya sebagai Penangkap dan Pemancar Gelombang Signal yang diterima oleh Pesawat Telepon Selular


    SWITCH ANTENA

    Fungsinya sebagai Duplixer / Pemisah antara Signal RX (Penerimaan) dengan Signal TX (Pemancaran), dan bisa juga disebut sebagai Terminal pada Pesawat telepon Selular


    FILTER RX

    Fungsinya Sebagai penyaring / pembagi frekwensi yang diinginkan / yang akan diterima, agar sinyal menjadi lebih bersih yang akan diterima oleh Pesawat Telepon Selular


    PENGUAT RX (Transistor)

    Fungsinya Sebagai penguat frekwensi penerimaan yang telah disaring oleh Filter RX sebelum diproses lebih jauh oleh Pesawat Telepon Selular


    IC RF PROCESSOR

    Fungsinya Sebagai pengontrol sinyal RX (masuk) dan TX(keluar), agar setiap bagian dapat bekerja baik, Komponen ini terdiri dari beberapa bagian seperti : IF, MIXER, OSCILATOR, DETECTOR, ENCODER, DECODER, AFC, TONE FREQUENCY, SQUELCH


    VCO (Voltage Control Oscilator)

    Fungsinya : Sebagai Oscilator / Pembangkit frekwensi yang akan dikirim melalui bagian TX (Pemancaran) dan memeriksa Frekwensi yang masuk melalui bagian RX (Penerimaan) agar tetap sama dengan yang di pancarkan. Dan juga untuk mengatur tegangan pulsa dari RF Signal Processor.


    FILTER TX

    Fungsinya Sebagai penyaring / pembagi frekwensi yang diinginkan / yang akan diterima, agar sinyal menjadi lebih bersih yang akan diterima oleh Pesawat Telepon Selular


    IC P.A (Power Amplifier)

    Fungsinya Sebagai penguat Akhir signal yang akan di pancarkan melalui komponen switch antena yang terdapat didalam Pesawat Telepon Selular


    POWER DETECTOR

    Adalah transistor yang mendeteksi, kuat lemahnya Signal dan mengirimkan data kepada CPU untuk diolah dan kemudian memberikan data keseluruh komponen terkait, Khususnya dengan Hardware yang berkaitan dengan Signal


    IR T/R Dioda

    Sebagai pemancar dan penerimaan frequency data dengan menggunakan cahaya infra merah, digunakan untuk mengiring dan menerima data aplikasi software, tanpa perlu kabel data.


    Bluetooth

    Komponen ini pemancar dan penerimaan frekuensi data dengan menggunakan gelombang radio atau gelombang frekuensi dengan fungsi-fungsi yang sama dengan infra red


    SPEAKER

    Suatu alat untuk keluarnya suara yang sebelumnya hanyalah getaran listrik dan diubah menjadi suara dengan melalui IC Audio, yang diterima oleh CPU untuk mengeluarkan suara yang terdapat dalam Pesawat Telepon Selular


    MICROPHONE

    Suatu alat untuk berbicara dan cara kerjanya ialah mengubah getaran suara menjadi getaran listrik agar suara yang diterima bisa diproses oleh komponen Pesawat Telepon Selular lainnya


    SIM CARD

    Identitas diri dari setiap Pesawat Telepon Selular yang sedang aktif tergantung dari provider sim card yang digunakan, dengan cara diproses oleh CPU yang terdapat dalam Pesawat telepon Selular


    C.P.U

    Pusat pengolahan data yang terdapat pada seluruh elemen atau komponen yang bekerja didalam Pesawat Telepon Selular seperti memerintah komponen terkait untuk bekerja sesuai kebutuhan dan dapat menerima informasi dari masing – masing komponen Contoh : Memerintahkan IC Power Supply untuk mensupply Tegangan/ arus keseluruh bagian Pesawat Telepon Selular, memerintahkan LCD untuk menampilkan Aktifitas pada Pesawat Telepon Selular, memerintahkan IC Flash untuk menyimpan data dan mengeluarkannya pada saat dibutuhkan, memeriksa data dari Sim Card yang masuk melalui IC Power Supply, menerima perintah data dari Keypad untuk di proses.


    RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY)

    Menyimpan data sementara dan membantu kinerja CPU.semakin besar kapasitas RAM semakin baik kinerja CPU.


    IC FLASH

    Adalah tempat penyimpanan Data pada Pesawat Telepon Selular, yang sifatnya sementara karena datanya dapat dirubah ataupun ditambah


    EEPROM

    Tempat penyimpanan data utama yang permanent atau data pabrik, dan bekerja tidak dengan ada atau tidak adanya arus listrik pada ponsel, karena mempunyai daya listrik tersendiri. Sedangkan letaknya terdapat pada IC AUDIO


    IC REGULATOR

    Untuk mengatur tegangan, agar dapat diatur sesuai kebutuhan masing-masing komponen terkait, dan juga sebagai pengkontrol dari IC Charging yang dikendalikan oleh CPU.


    IC CHARGE

    Komponen yang bekerja secara otomais pada saat pengisian dan kerjanya hanya untuk mengisi tegangan battry yang dikendalikan oleh CPU melalui IC Regulator


    IC AUDIO

    Fungsinya Sebagai pengolah sinyal suara yang masuk dari IC RF, diperkuat dan diteruskan ke Speaker, memperkuat getaran suara yang telah dirubah Mic menjadi getaran listrik kemudian diteruskan ke IC RF, menjalankan perintah dari CPU dan Pada IC Audio juga terdapat PCM ( Pulse Code Module ) dan EEPROM yang berfungsi membaca kode sinyal yang datang dari operator untuk disesuaikan dengan Imei Ponsel juga menyimpan data-data yang bersifat permanen seperti : Imei, Phone Code, Sec.Code


    LCD (Liquit Cell Disply)

    Komponen ini berfungsi sebagai alat yanga akan menampilkan semua kegiatan / aktifitas dari pada Pesawat Telepon Selular


    Key Pad

    Komponen ini berfungsi sebagai alat yang memberikan perintah data kepada CPU untuk di proses dan akan dikirimkan kepada komponen lain yang terkait dalam Pesawat Telepon Selular


    IC Interface

    Fungsinya sebagai pengontrol data yang diperintahkan oleh CPU untuk Vibrator, Buzzer, lampu dan bersifat sebagai saklar otomatis dalam Pesawat Telepon Selular


    Battery

    Fungsinya sebagai Sumber Arus listrik / Tegangan yang diperlukan untuk memberikan arus listrik kepada Pesawat Telepon Selular


    FLEXIBLE

    Fungsinya sebagai penghubung atau terminal antara perangkat atau komponen yang terdapat pada Pesawat Telepon Selular


              Pengertian Hardware dan Software        

    1. Pengertian Hardware dan Software

    Hardware ( Perangkat Keras ) yaitu Peralatan atau perangkat yang dapat dilihat dan disentuh serta dapat dirasakan dengan sentuhan tangan. Dengan kata lain seluruh bagian yang terdapat pada perangkat elektronika baik dari mulai komputer, telepon selular atau perangkat elektronika lainnya yang akan selalu dijumpai yang namanya hardware. Dalam persiapan untuk memperbaiki atau mereparasi Pesawat Telepon Selular. Cara kerja dari hardware ini sangat tergantung pada software, karena perintah yang dijalankan berdasarkan atas perintah software

    Software ( Perangkat Lunak ) yaitu sesuatu yang dapat dilihat atau didengar tetapi tidak dapat dipegang atau diraba, tergantung posisi atau tempat dimana software itu sendiri berada. Sebagai gambarannya, software dapat dikelompokkan menjadi beberapa kelompok atau bentuk seperti tampilan atau gambar yang dapat kita lihat pada layar monitor atau LCD dan berupa suara baik suara yang keluar maupun suara yang masuk

    Hardware

    Peralatan atau perangkat yang dapat dilihat dan disentuh serta dapat dirasakan dengan sentuhan tangan. Dengan kata lain seluruh bagian yang terdapat pada perangkat elektronika baik dari mulai komputer, telepon selular atau perangkat elektronika lainnya yang akan selalu dijumpai yang namanya hardware. Dalam persiapan untuk memperbaiki atau mereparasi Pesawat Telepon Selular perangkat keras yang harus kita persiapkan antara lain :

    v Komputer yang akan digunakan untuk memprogram ulang Pesawat Telepon Selular, atau ketika ingin menambah aplikasi baik berupa gambar ataupun suara dari komputer kedalam Pesawat Telepon Selular ataupun sebaliknya

    v Kabel Data

    v Kabel Flasher

    v Dongle atau Socket

    v Infra Red

    v Bluetooth

    v Card Reader

    v Solder Uap

    v Solder Manual

    v B.G.A Tools

    v Obeng dan Tang

    v Timah Cair, Timah Lilitan, Pasta Solder, Cairan I.P.A, dan Cairan Ciongka

    v Multi Tester

    v Power Supply / Regulator

    v Lampu Service

    v Buku Panduan dan Skema Jalur

    Sistem Operasi yang dibutuhkan

    Sistem Operasi yang dibutuhkan dalam memperbaiki atau hanya sekedar menambah Applikasi kedalam Pesawat Telepon Selular harus disesuaikan dengan hardware yang tersedia baik dari perangkat komputer maupun alat-alat service lainnya. Untuk melakukan perbaikan anda bisa menggunakan sistem operasi Microsoft Windows 98, ataupun Microsoft Windows Xp untuk mengisi aplikasi.

    Software yang diBUTUHkan

    Untuk software anda bisa menggunakan beberapa software atau program aplikasi didalam komputer antara lain :

    v Program Flasher untuk setiap jenis Pesawat Telepon Selular

    v Program Aplikasi untuk setiap jenis Pesawat Telepon Selular

    v Program Multimedia ( Untuk melihat file Gambar ataupun Suara )

    Hardware dan software yang saya sebutkan diatas tidak mutlak, artinya anda bisa sesuaikan dengan kebutuhan dan dana yang ada untuk kebutuhan dari ini semua. Tergantung jenis-jenis dari Pesawat Telepon Selular yang akan anda perbaiki atau yang akan anda tambahkan aplikasinya, begitupun mengenai software yang akan anda program di dalam komputer haruslah sesuai dengan jenis-jenis dari setiap Pesawat Telepon Selular


              51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best? A. A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits. B. Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time. C. Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan. D. A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.         

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that: A. you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B. the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80. C. you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours. D.         

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel. A. physical, digital B. e-commerce, digital C. physical, financial D. digital, e-commerce E. digital, physical        

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________. A. Tracking cookies B. Web data C. Information D. Clickstream data E. Hyperlink data        

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units