The worst product ever marketed        
SUBHEAD: Eventually we learn what's the good way to do things. Too bad that it is almost always too late.

By Ugo Bardi on 30 July 2017 for Cassandra's Legacy -

(http://cassandralegacy.blogspot.com/2017/07/what-is-worst-product-ever-marketed.html)


Image above: Detail of Bic advertisement celebrating the 40th anniversary of the introduction of the Bic lighter.  From original article.

Greens often exaggerate in inviting people to save energy and be happier by staying in the dark and eating insects. However, it is also true that sometimes wastefulness goes a few notches higher and becomes truly a scandal. It is the case of the ordinary disposable lighter.

Bic alone produces almost a billion lighters per year and has produced some 20 billions of them in the past 30 years. The whole world production is probably of a few billion per year. A good example of a successful product, but is it a good product?

The disposable lighter is surely practical but also, if you think about it, a very bad deal. It contains some 5 cc of butane, that you pay, typically, more than $1. That means around $200 per liter, or $800/gallon.

You wouldn't be happy to pay that kind of money when you refill the tank of your car. And, being powered by a fossil fuel, butane, every time you light up one you add some CO2 to the atmosphere, some of which will stay there for tens of thousands of years.

Then, the disposable lighter doesn't contain just non-renewable fuel but plastics manufactured from fossil fuels and also polluting. Then, it contains metals such as cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, praeseodymium and more.

These metals are classified as "rare earths;" they are not so rare as the name seems to imply, but they are not so common, either. And the lighter is thrown away after use and it will never be recycled. The rare earths it contains will be lost forever.

Is all that enough to qualify disposable lighters as "the worst product ever marketed"? Well, everything can be questioned, but if you line up the characteristics of a bad product as;
  1. uses rare and non-renewable resources, 
  2. is not recycled and not supposed to be recyclable, 
  3. is manufactured on a large scale, 
  4. it has non-polluting and less expensive alternatives, there are few examples other than lighters for which you can tick all the four boxes.
I can hardly think of anything so wasteful to set something on fire, no matter whether you are a professional arsonist or simply an ordinary smoker.

After all, what was so wrong with using the old matches? Matches contain only recyclable materials: wood, paper, phosphorous, sulfur. I can't see anything that can be done with a lighter that cannot be done with a match, except that a lighter can burn steadily for a longer time.

But if your purpose is to light up a cigarette or a kitchen burner, it makes no difference. And, by all means, there is no way that a lighter would cost less than a match, at least if manufactured on a comparable scale.

So, disposable lighters are all an example of how a combination of financial factors and government regulations can push a bad product to dominate the market. It is, after all, what has happened with fossil fuels, still gathering large government subsidies, despite the damage they are doing to all of us.

In the case of lighter vs. matches, the playing field has been made unfavorable to matches from the beginning, because they have been traditionally taxed by governments (also lighters, in some cases, but not always).

Add to that the rapid expansion of the cigarette market during the past decades, with some six billion cigarettes sold worldwide every year, and growing, some large companies saw their chance.

They engaged in the large scale manufacturing of lighters and they crushed the match manufacturers, mainly small companies that couldn't match (indeed!) the financial power of large corporations.

The advertising power, too, played a big role, with the appeal of colored and fashionable items that could also be collected. And it was world domination for the disposable lighter.

Could we reverse this demonic trend? Maybe there are signs of an inversion of the tendency and, not long ago, I saw again courtesy matchboxes appearing in an Italian Hotel.

Maybe it was because finally (in 2015) the Italian government decided to abolish the tax on matches, a good idea that, unfortunately, arrived at least 50 years too late (the French Government did that in 1999).

Whatever the case, it is high time that someone realizes that some ideas, such as disposable lighters, are evil to the bone. And that the mythical "free market" cannot turn evil into good.

But maybe you think that the old matches are passé? In this case, we have technologies for getting rid of the obsolete propane lighters without having to get back to the somewhat primitive matches. For instance, we have spark lighters that use only electricity.

They are a solid state alternative to propane lighters in the same way as photovoltaic energy is a solid state alternative to fossil energy. In the picture, you see one of these super hi-tech lighters in the hands of my daughter, Donata.


Image above: Donata Bardi holds solid state spark lighter.  From original article.

So, eventually, we learn what's the good way to do things. Too bad that it is almost always too late.

.

          Largest Known Rare Earth Mineral Deposit Discovered — Mỏ đất hiếm trị giá hàng nghìn tá»· USD: Lý do để Triều Tiên “cứng” với Trung Quốc?        

SRE Minerals Limited announces the results of exploration and studies in collaboration with the Korea Natural Resources Trading Corporation of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. SRE Minerals Limited (“SRE” or “the company”) announced today their joint venture agreement with the Korea Natural Resources Trading Corporation for rights to develop all rare-earth-element deposits at Jongju, North […]

The post Largest Known Rare Earth Mineral Deposit Discovered — Mỏ đất hiếm trị giá hàng nghìn tá»· USD: Lý do để Triều Tiên “cứng” với Trung Quốc? appeared first on Viet Thuc.


          Superior Magnetics Announced Magnetic Bracelet for Pain Relief        

Superior Magnetics has released the strongest magnetic bracelet for relieving pain in seconds that is made entirely of Ion Neodymium rare earth barrel magnets

(PRWeb January 27, 2015)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/magnetic/bracelet/prweb12473155.htm


          Superior Magnetics has New Magnetic Bracelet for Faster Relief        

Superior Magnetics for Pain Free Living announced a new Magnetic Bracelet using neodymium rare earth magnets manufactured for the fastest relief

(PRWeb January 13, 2015)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/magnetic/bracelet/prweb12440132.htm


          New Superior Magnetic Necklace Relieves Migraine Headache        

Pain Free Living released a New Superior Magnetic Necklace with 5200 Gauss rare earth ion neodymium magnets that relieved pain for a migraine headache

(PRWeb December 19, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/magnetic/necklace/prweb12407104.htm


          Pain Free Living’s Releases a New Magnetic Bracelet for Affects in Seconds        

New magnetic bracelet released by Superior Magnetics for Pain Free Living designed to affect the body in seconds using the strongest Rare Earth Magnets N52.

(PRWeb November 18, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/magnetic/bracelet/prweb12333019.htm


          Superior Magnetics Has New Line of Faster Acting Magnetic Jewelry        

New line of Magnetic Jewelry announced by Superior Magnetics utilizing the strongest neodymium rare earth magnets manufactured for the fastest relief.

(PRWeb November 06, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/magnetic/jewelry/prweb12307012.htm


          New 5200 Gauss Magnetic Bracelet Released by Pain Free Living        

Superior Magnetics for Pain Free Living released a new magnetic bracelet using 5200 Gauss Neodymium N52 Rare Earth Magnets for the fastest relief.

(PRWeb July 15, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/magnetic/bracelets/prweb12017974.htm


          Pain Free Living Announced a New 5200 Gauss Magnetic Bracelet        

Superior Magnetics for Pain Free Living released a new ion neodymium magnetic bracelet with 5200 Gauss rare earth magnets for the strongest and fastest effect.

(PRWeb June 25, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/magnetic/bracelet/prweb11971817.htm


          Pain Free Living Announced a New 5200 Gauss Magnetic Bracelet        

A new Superior Magnetic bracelet with 5200 Gauss rare earth ion neodymium magnets for pain relief in seconds released by Pain Free Living.

(PRWeb April 15, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/magnetic/bracelets/prweb11762449.htm


          New 5200 Gauss Magnetic Bracelet for Pain Released By Superior Magnetics        

Superior Magnetics for Pain Free Living released a new 5200 Gauss rare earth magnetic bracelet for pain relief in seconds.

(PRWeb April 10, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/magnetic/bracelets/prweb11752334.htm


          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 04-15-2015 with DJ Deep Rawk        
Playlist:

- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
Masta Ace MF Doom- Nineteen Seventy Something - MADoom Son Of Yvonne
The Jimmy Castor Bunch- I Promise To Remember - 16 Slabs Of Funk
The Soul Survivors- Respect - When The Whistle Blows Anything Goes
Savages- Shut Up - Silence Yourself
- voicebreak -
Junkdrawer- Blank - 7
Roxy Music- Love Is The Drug - Heart Still Beating
Anthony Rocky Ellis- Double Minded Man - Studio One Sound
The Roots- Understand feat Dice Raw Greg Porn - And Then You Shoot Your Cousin
- voicebreak -
Wavves- Demon To Lean On - Afraid Of Heights
Jody Reynolds- Endless Sleep - The Legendary Jody Reynolds Endless
Johnny Johnson And The Bandwagon- Stone Soul Picnic - Soul Direction
Stanley Turrentine- Stoned Soul Picnic - Always Something There
YoungHolt Unlimited- Country Slicker Joe - The Definitive YoungHolt Unlimited
Pharoah Sanders- Astral Traveling - Thembi
Hi Fi Cuban Drums- Cha Cha Cha Cubana - Grupo Afro Cubano
Sheila E- A Love Bizarre Part 2 - 7
Large Professor- Key To The City - Professor Large
Rare Earth- Get Ready - In Concert Live In Concert US1971
Peter Gennaro- Shaft - A Dance Class With Peter Gennaro
Papa Reu Featuring YZ- Hold On - 12
Morgan Freeman And Lee Chamberlin- Easy Reader - The Electric Company Original Cast
Sunz Of Man- The Plan - 12 Single
Black Lips- Funny - Underneath The Rainbow
RZA Thea Van Seijen- Fight For You - Afro Samurai Resurrection
Stevie Wonder- Bang Bang My Baby Shot Me Down - Down To Earth
Miles Davis- I Fall In Love Too Easily - Seven Steps To Heaven
Zion I- Antenna - Juicy Juice EP
Mawglie- Sienna - 12
Loka- Beginningless - Fire Shepherds
Bennie Maupin- You Know The Deal - Slow Traffic To The Right
Deerhunter- Earthquake - Halcyon Digest
Prefuse 73- The Only Guitar To Die Alone feat Adron - The Only She Chapters
Petra Haden- This Is Not America from the Falcon And The Snowman - Petra Goes To The Movies
Portishead- Threads - Third
2Pac- So Many Tears - 2Pac Greatest Hits
Willie Hutch- Brothers Gonna Work It Out - The Mack
DJ AL- I Need A X Paid In Full DJ AL Taxday Blend - 12
Cannonball Adderley Quintet- Walk Tall - Country Preacher Live At Operation Breadbasket
MC Sugar Ray And Stranger D- If It Aint Rough It Aint Right - 12
Elaine And Ellen- Fill Me Up - 12
Johnny Hammond- Breakout - Breakout
Mongo Santamaria- Mongo Nova - Mongomania
Hugh Masekela- Grazing In The Grass - Soul Twist
The Marketts- Saturn - Out Of Limits


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2015-04-15
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 02-20-2015 with DJ Segue        
Playlist:

Monophonics- Theres A Riot Going On - Sustainable Sounds Ubiquity x Cuipo
Mophono- Be Human Part One - Cut Form Crush
Mophonos Halftone Society- Sinicism Natural Self Remix - The Sinicism EP
Douglas Davis- How To Make Love To A Sound - Revolutions Per Minute The Art Record
Ananda Shankar- Dancing Drums - Rough Guide to Psychedelic India
BADBADNOTGOOD- Vices - BBNG2
Observers- Organ Satta - Head Shot Reggae Instrumentals Dubs and Other Oddities
Karmelloz- Nighttime Silence - Silicon Forest
Jazz Chronicles- Black Bounce - Expansion Sound Vol2
MADHOP- Russ Liquid X Tigerfresh Ultra Duster - MadHop vol6
Rare Earth- Get Ready - Dreams Answers
Scrimshire- Saltwater feat Matthew Halsall - A Free EP Forgotten Songs Vol Two
Ramesh- Ghoroobaa Ghashangan - Zendooni Funk Psychedelia Pop from the Iranian PreRevolution Generation
Chrissy Zebby Tembo Ngozi Family- My Ancestors - My Ancestors
Eddie Palmieri- 09 My Spiritual Indian - Nu Yorica Roots
Frank Zappa The Mothers- The Return Of The Son Of Monster Magnet - Freak Out 2012 Remaster
Kill Money Presents- Crunchy - Keith Floyd
The Beatles Friends- 05 The Beginning Sunz Of Man - Pepperland Rhyme Space Part 2
Zodiac- Libra The Flower Child - Cosmic Sounds
Zodiac- Capricorn The Uncapricious Climber - Cosmic Sounds
Zodiac- Scorpio The Passionate Hero - Cosmic Sounds
Zodiac- Taurus The Voluptuary - Cosmic Sounds
Zodiac- Virgo The Perpetual Perfectionist - Cosmic Sounds
Zodiac- Pisces The Peace Piper - Cosmic Sounds
Zodiac- Aries The FireFighter - Cosmic Sounds
Zodiac- Leo The Lord Of Lights - Cosmic Sounds
Zodiac- Aquarius The Lover Of Life - Cosmic Sounds
BADBADNOTGOOD- Confessions - III
LOrange- The Heroine - Old Soul
Los Tainos- Amor Mio - Si Para Usted The Funky Beats Of Revolutionary Cuba
Alfonso Lovo- The Magic Mushroom World - Terremoto richter 625 managua
Hot Sugar- Sinkies - Gods Hand
GERGAZ- DJ derbystarr X Jeu A Kiss From Napoli - Beat Garden Compilation 4
mr carmack- Fire No Payroll - Bang Vol 3
Oddjob- The Mayor - Clint
R Buckminster Fuller- Critical Path - Revolutions Per Minute The Art Record
Black Merda- Foxy Lady instrumental as The Soul Agents - The Psyche Funk of Black Merda
Courtney John- Lucky Man - Chef Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Mute Speaker- Bokator - Radio Bokor
- Born To Dub -
Azizi Gibson x Jeremiah Jae- Jeremiah Jae Lover Instrumental - Ignorant prayers Instrumentals
Beats Antique- The Approach - A Thousand Faces Act I
Belleruche- Longer Days Longer Nights - Shapes Rectangles Compiled By Robert Luis
Broke For Free- Wash Out - Petal
Chinese Man- Once Upon a Time Hugo Kant Remix - Once Upon a Time
Cuttooth Hitomi SwamiMillion- Cuttooth Old Tape Machine feat Hitomi SwamiMillion Remix -
Mute Speaker- Monument - Radio Bokor
Omar Souleyman- Khattaba - Wenu Wenu
- 11 Misirlou The Devils Anvil -
The Beatles Friends- 04 Within Tomorrow Busta Rhymes - Pepperland Rhyme Space Part 2
Tommy McCook- Beirut CD bonus track - Reggae in Jazz
Cross My Heart Hope To Die- Wild Side - Cross My Heart Hope to Die EP
The Beatles Friends- 05 Taxman The Notorious BIG - Pepperland Rhyme Space Part 1
Junior Parker- 04Junior ParkerLove Aint Nothin ButTaxman - Love Aint Nothin But A Business Goin On
Ofo The Black Company- Allah Wakbarr - World Psychedelic Classics 3 Loves a Real Thing The Funky Fuzzy Sounds of West Africa
Kill Money Presents- Crazy Diamond District - Keith Floyd
Hot Sugar- Not Afraid to Die - Gods Hand
Super Numeri- When The Sun Dials - Great Aviaries
- Guts The Forgotten Dont Look Away Instrumental -
The Bombay Royale- Bombay Twist - Rough Guide to Psychedelic India
OOIOO- Atatawa - Gamel
Aby Ngana Diop- DieuleulDieuleul - Aby Ngana Diop Remixes
Satanicpornocultshop- Jerome - Snack ep
Sherwood Pinch- Bring Me Weed - Bring Me Weed
Fulgeance DJ Scientist- Tbilisi Sunset Skit - The Soviet Tape Vol 1
The Meters- Sophisticated Cissy - The Meters
- Kenny Barron Innocence 01 Sunshower -
Prince Far I- Throw Away Your Gun 12 Mix - Virgin Front Line Sounds of Reality
Bluechest- DripDry - We Got it in Nature vol2
Rainy Milo- Bankrobber feat Kossisko - Bankrobber Single
Hugh Mundell Augustus Pablo- Revolution Dub - Africa Must Be Free by 1983 africa dub
King Tubby- Shining Dub - The Fatman Tapes
Martin Campbell- Badmen Control Extended Version - Historical Tracks The Foundation
Sani- Golden - Genesis
Lord Newborn and the Magic Skulls- Dime Bag Conspiracy - Lord Newborn and the Magic Skulls


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2015-02-20
          Polymer Clay Trends: The Rainbow Cake Slice        
If you're wondering what all the rage is in the polymer clay world at the moment, one of the best places to check is all the arts and crafts sites to see exactly what is being submitted. This month, there has been something in particular that a lot of polymer clay artists and dabblers have been fixated on - the rainbow cake slice.

Cake slices have always been a very popular item to create, but lately rainbow has been all the rage!

So how do you accomplish a rainbow cake slice, exactly? Well. The process itse l f is a ctually pretty simple, but it is also rather time consuming. So if you have the patience and the time, making these dainty little things is certainly a labour of love.

You start with about 7 colours colours of clay all rolled out and flat - about 2-3mm thick. You can use any amount of colours that you want, but it's typical to use Red, Yellow, Pink, Green, Purple, Orange, & Blue. Cut them all into circles using a cookie cutter and then slice the circles 3 or 4 times through the middle to get the amount of cake layers that you want. Depending on how many times you cut, this will determine how many cake slices you can make. Three cuts will get you 6 slices of cake, whereas four cuts will get you 8 slices of cake.

Next, you will want to create the crumbly cake texture on the two long sides of the cake layers, because the round part at the back is generally covered in icing. This texture can be accomplished by a toothpick or pin by gently grabbing and pulling and swirling at the clay until you get the desired effect. Some people just leave it untouched with texture, but you can also use things like toothbrush bristles or sandpaper to make it more easy.

Of course you will want to make an icing as well. This is just a mixture of a tiny bit of kneaded clay and a bunch of liquid clay. Put it all into a cup or onto a tile and just mash and stir until it is smooth and is the thickness of icing. If it's too thin, add more kneaded clay and re-mix... if it's too thick, add more liquid clay.

As you can see from the photos, some people don't use any icing between the cake layers, and some even use solid clay for the layers of icing - it is entirely up to you! But you can use the icing to squeeze onto the top, and you can even use cake decorating tips and piping bags with the icing to get some lovely border effects. Your clay extruder can also be used for some cute border effects.

You can choose to leave it as is, or you can add things like eyepins to make them into charms or even add Rare Earth Magnets to the bottom for some awesome fridge magnets or locker magnets! You can also add little extras like tiny clay flowers, tiny clay cherries, sprinkles, glitter, drizzle, or other little garnishes. A great way to get some inspiration is to look through old cookbooks and google image search.

So, out of all the rainbow cakes you see - which is your favourite?

1. mynameisjade @ DeviantArt.com
2. mothermayijewelry @ DeviantArt.com
3. seaofcreations @ DeviantArt.com
4. bloodcross @ DeviantArt.com
          Epilogue to TREM '11 -- Global Macro Risks that Jeopardize Investors in Rare Earth Mining Companies        
The purpose of this article is to research and compile information related to the topic of global macro risks that jeopardize investors in rare earth mining companies and the development of rare earth mining companies outside China.
It was inspired by the memory of Thomas Jefferson’s reason and imagination, and by the main reading room of the Library of Congress, pictured below.

LOC Main Reading Room
The LOC Main Reading Room is encircled by bronze portrait statues paying tribute to great thinkers on various topics. Let’s call them the smartest guys in the room, who were very influential in their fields. This article is intended to serve as a virtual reading room that likewise seeks inspiration from great thinkers, but rather than relying upon statues with plaques known as pendentives, this virtual reading room will draw upon the knowledge of credible experts in fields related to the topic of this article.
Comments posted to this article should therefore include links or references to primary sources of information, and the comments themselves should consist only of brief descriptions of the source material or its author accompanied by a key quote or passage capturing the essence of the main point(s) deemed to be of greatest interest or importance. If it is believed that personal knowledge or interpretations might be helpful, they should be clearly identified as being your own thoughts or opinions, so that the integrity of information compiled in this virtual reading room is preserved to the greatest extent possible.

          Epilogue to TREM '11 -- Rare Earths in the Transportation Sector and the Electrification of Automobiles        
The purpose of this article is to research and compile information related to the topic of potential applications for rare earths in the transportation sector, and the outlook for electrification of automobiles.
It was inspired by the memory of Thomas Jefferson’s reason and imagination, and by the main reading room of the Library of Congress, pictured below.
 LOC Main Reading Room
The LOC Main Reading Room is encircled by bronze portrait statues paying tribute to great thinkers on various topics. Let’s call them the smartest guys in the room, who were very influential in their fields. This article is intended to serve as a virtual reading room that likewise seeks inspiration from great thinkers, but rather than relying upon statues with plaques known as pendentives, this virtual reading room will draw upon the knowledge of credible experts in fields related to the topic of this article.
Comments posted to this article should therefore include links or references to primary sources of information, and the comments themselves should consist only of brief descriptions of the source material or its author accompanied by a key quote or passage capturing the essence of the main point(s) deemed to be of greatest interest or importance. If it is believed that personal knowledge or interpretations might be helpful, they should be clearly identified as being your own thoughts or opinions, so that the integrity of information compiled in this virtual reading room is preserved to the greatest extent possible.

          Epilogue to TREM '11 -- Potential Applications for Rare Earths and Their Substitutes        
The purpose of this article is to research and compile information related to the topic of potential applications for rare earths in various industries, and an evaluation of potential substitutes.
 It was inspired by the memory of Thomas Jefferson’s reason and imagination, and by the main reading room of the Library of Congress, pictured below.
 LOC Main Reading Room
The LOC Main Reading Room is encircled by bronze portrait statues paying tribute to great thinkers on various topics. Let’s call them the smartest guys in the room, who were very influential in their fields. This article is intended to serve as a virtual reading room that likewise seeks inspiration from great thinkers, but rather than relying upon statues with plaques known as pendentives, this virtual reading room will draw upon the knowledge of credible experts in fields related to the topic of this article.
Comments posted to this article should therefore include links or references to primary sources of information, and the comments themselves should consist only of brief descriptions of the source material or its author accompanied by a key quote or passage capturing the essence of the main point(s) deemed to be of greatest interest or importance. If it is believed that personal knowledge or interpretations might be helpful, they should be clearly identified as being your own thoughts or opinions, so that the integrity of information compiled in this virtual reading room is preserved to the greatest extent possible.

          Epilogue to TREM '11 -- A Focus on Chinese Trade Restrictions and the WTO        
The purpose of this article is to research and compile information related to the topic of restrictions placed on China on foreign access to rare earth based materials and the potential implications this has for US national security, the health of the US economy, and the fates of high tech companies that rely upon access to rare earth based materials.
It was inspired by the memory of Thomas Jefferson’s reason and imagination, and by the main reading room of the Library of Congress, pictured below.
 LOC Main Reading Room
The LOC Main Reading Room is encircled by bronze portrait statues paying tribute to great thinkers on various topics. Let’s call them the smartest guys in the room, who were very influential in their fields. This article is intended to serve as a virtual reading room that likewise seeks inspiration from great thinkers, but rather than relying upon statues with plaques known as pendentives, this virtual reading room will draw upon the knowledge of credible experts in fields related to the topic of this article.
Comments posted to this article should therefore include links or references to primary sources of information, and the comments themselves should consist only of brief descriptions of the source material or its author accompanied by a key quote or passage capturing the essence of the main point(s) deemed to be of greatest interest or importance. If it is believed that personal knowledge or interpretations might be helpful, they should be clearly identified as being your own thoughts or opinions, so that the integrity of information compiled in this virtual reading room is preserved to the greatest extent possible.
 

          Sadam had oil - Kim Jong-un has $6 trillion in minerals        

Sadam had oil.  Kim Jong-un has $6 trillion in minerals, including a lion’s share of strategic rare earths.  Who cares?  http://thediplomat.com/2012/08/north-koreas-six-trillion-dollar-question/

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/north-korea-trillions-mineral-resources-nuclear-iron-ore-a7818651.html


          Email of the day on rare earth metals        

Back in 2010 China made sure everyone knew it is in command of the global rare earth metals market, when it restricted supply to Japan, in particular, but also to a number of other importers. The result was a surge in metal prices as supply was constrained and considerable investment in additional supply outside China.

Lynas was one of the companies that IPOED to secure capital to bring Australian supply to market. It is also one of the few that survived when the market crashed as China reversed course and flooded the market with supply.


          Keeping up with your glasses        

I have to use reading glasses for many tasks in the shop. I do not wear them except for close up stuff or if the area is a little dark, they were always somewhere out of reach as all my shirts do not have pockets. Now the idea. Use two rare earth magnets one inside and one out side located about where the pocket would be. These will hold your glasses very securely and will catch and hold them if you just get them close. Of course the stems or other parts must be metal which will attract a magnet. You have to check out this requirement when you buy new ones. I had five pairs around the house and shop and two of them had metal while the others did not. These are not expensive glasses usually less than 10.00. Make sure you ask your doctor about safety if you have some kind of an implant. Hope this helps make your day go a little smoother.


          China to become net importer of some rare earths         

Rare earth miners went through a crushing bear market and it is arguable whether it has ended. The growth of new sources of demand is a potential medium-term bullish catalyst. However it is unlikely China will surrender its dominance of the global supply chain not least because it wishes to attract and support advanced manufacturing companies.


          2014: The Year of Making, in Review (long)        
I apologize for the lapse in blogging. It's been a long time, hasn’t it?

For the past year or so my projects have mostly been long-term involving a ton of problem solving. Blogging before the problems were solved seemed counter-productive. By the time they were and the projects were completed, I was off and running with the next item on the agenda. So, here is a brief run-down of my making activities in 2014, in no particular order:

The home brewers out there will appreciate the stir plate I made for yeast propagation. I made it with instructions I found online. The case is a plexiglass memento box from Hobby Lobby, computer fan from Best Buy, electronics/rare earth magnets from my local independent hardware store and Radio Shack. Funky bits came from the Habitat for Humanity ReStore.



          Golf Ball Marker Plaques        

Golf Ball Marker Plaques

When my wife finally decided to take up golf four years ago, I was excited about the opportunity to play together not only in the area, but when we take vacations. She’s hooked and actually plays more than I do now!

At the time she started playing I started to collect golf ball markers from the courses we played together and these plaques are what I came up with to display these. The plaques are made up of laminated resawed planks, the top one is black walnut with cherry in the middle and the bottom one is mahagony with black walnut in the middle. The black walnut plaque is for us and the mahagony plaque we’ll raffle off at next year’s Cancer Rally at our club.

I also tried router inlaying for the first time. The kits for this are inexpensive and the results for a simple oval were impressive for a novice at doing this. I also wanted to make a real golf ball part of this, so I created a jig to safely cut a golf ball in half. I mounted some scrap 2×4 pieces onto my lathe and scooped out a depression to snuggly fit roughly half of a golf into each side. There is a small supporting strip of wood that I sandwiched between the two ball holders held together with a screw. After a couple of old used balls as practice, I was able to safely and accurately slice a golf ball in half on the bandsaw. I sanded down some wood tees in half lengthwise and then cut those into two pieces for each of the cross-hatched tee pattern.

I then laid out the hole pattern to drill some stop depth holes for the rare earth magnets to be set into. I was careful to make sure they stood proud a bit so you could more easily remove individual markers from the plaque when wanting to. I used two part epoxy to glue in the magnets, the golf ball and tees and the scroll cuts of our monogram letters. I used holly and black walnut for the letters.

I finished the plaques with a coating of pure Tung oil and then a half dozen coats of Deft satin spray with steel wool rub downs on the last several coats. I strung some picture hanging wire with the appropriate hardware on the backside for easy hanging.

This was a fun quick project that wound up using most of the machines in my shop at some point of its production.


          Spline cutting jig modified to fit Delta Unifence and question for you physics pros out there        

Spline cutting jig modified to fit Delta Unifence and question for you physics pros out there

After researching LJ and Youtube for spline jigs, I found a simple model from The Homestead Craftsman on Youtube and modified that version to fit the Delta Unifence weird profile.

I added some knobs, threaded inserts and threaded rods for functionality. Nothing too complicated or fancy about this jig, but it does the trick and works great. But something strange was happening…

I bought a new Freud flat top blade and set that up to the desired height into my jig. When I cut the splines for the cutting board in the first picture, this brand new blade began to spark as if I was cutting into some metal or a nail. I double checked all around the cut to make sure I didn’t have a bonehead design with a nail or screw in the path of the blade, and that was not an issue. I rotated the cutting board and made the next cut and the same sparks happened for that cut and the next two. I inspected the blade afterwards and it look fine to me, just some discoloring on the carbon tips, which you would expect from being used.

I called up Freud and explained the situation and they never heard of such a complaint. They sent me a new blade by returning the “problem” blade.

After the second new blade arrived it occurred to me what the issue possibly could be and was hoping that perhaps any of you Lumberjockers out there have had such an issue, or are versed well enough into physics to concur with my idea.

The little triangle block clamping wedge is loose in my design, so like many of my jigs, I countersunk a rare earth magnet into it and a corresponding rare earth magnet onto the face of the jig so I don’t lose it. As seen in the second to last picture above. Perhaps the proximity of the magnet when the clamping block is in use to the rapidly rotating saw blade (as seen in the last picture) when passing each other within an inch or less created some kind of eletro-magno thingy (you like my scientific terms?).

Am I delusional or could this be possible? Or could this be just a freak bad blade? I’d love to get some feedback from all of you MacGyvers or physics teachers out there.

I have since cut a different triangle clamping block out of some scrap particle board and didn’t attach any magnets and when testing that, the second blade didn’t spark. I had to send back the original blade that did spark in order to get the new one with no additional cost to me. So there is still a slight doubt in my mind as I couldn’t test one clamping block with magnet versus the other without all other things being the same.


          From Magma to Wildebeests to Smartphone        
Today's post is going to cover a wide range of topics, starting with magma rheology, and connecting to that wildebeests and smartphones. It might be too much for a Friday, so if you hold off reading this until Monday, that's just fine.

This rambling journey all started a post from Atlas Obscura (a really great site for wasting huge amounts of time on fascinating, relatively unknown items from around the world). It mentions a unique volcano in northern Tanzania, Ol Doinyo Lengai, which spews carbonatite lava instead of the usual silicate magma.

Magma is still magma - hot, molten rocks, but the lack of silica in the magma is very unusual. This is the only active volcano in the world that has carbonatite magma (more on the inactive volcanoes in a minute). Silica, as you may know, is capable of forming long chains thereby increasing the viscosity of normal magma. It also increases the temperature at which the magma needs to be heated in order to flow. Carbonatite magmas cannot form such long chains, so their magmas can be of lower temperature (500 oC vs. 1100 oC) and viscosity. (At 500 oC, the stuff isn't even glowing red!) And it appears to freeze pretty quickly, leading to some exotic formations:
This is not your father's lava

The Atlas Obscura article is pretty short, but some more digging turned up some further fascinating connections. The Wikipedia page for the volcano states that
"The carbonatite ash spread over the surrounding grasslands leads to a uniquely succulent, enriched pasture. This makes the area a vital stage on the annual wildebeest beast migration, where it becomes the nursery for the birth of several thousand calves."
And further digging led me to this article by a Dennsion University Professor. The whole basis for some volcanoes being silicic and others being carbonic is still unresolved. Weirder yet is that Ol Doinyo Lengai used to be silicic and only recently has become carbonic. And still weirder yet is that carbonic magmas are associated with deposits of rare earths elements. The largest rare earth mine in China as well as the rare earth mine in the US are both located in carbonic deposits, and rare earths are crucial components for smartphones, supermagnets and other items of modern technology.

Prior to this, I never new that there were such variations in magma, let alone that they would have such profound impacts for those of us living on the surface of the planet.

          a fireplace mantel ... with ducks        



fun one here !! we made this mantel for a client's rustic retreat on 
a tributary of the mississippi river .... on the central flyway
the masonry was going to be finished before the mantel, so we
sent a drawing to thebuilder, which he and the mason executed flawlessly.
 jon slid it right into place when it got there ..
click the photos to enlarge them ...
 essentially, the builder gave the mason several 2 x 8s cut exactly to the
size of the mantel (6" x 84") we were making to install  in the masonry. 
the topp one was removable and that allowed the mantel box to be
recessed into the stone work
we sent an installation template for installing the backing block

it was commissioned by the folks we made this bed for in 2010,
one of our all time favorite projects .. lots of words and photos at that link .. 
 


we started with a mockup and full size drawing, mounted to the front outside wall of the shop


beautiful walnut from irion lumber (naturally), and trevor made some sample
pockets in mdf to fit the inlays into for the patinas.  there is a flush, no hardware, 'secret compartment'
on the right end that you open with a piece of steel that is attracted by some
rare earth magnets inlaid into the inside face of the drawer ... fun!!
all the ducks, with almost all their patinas on them

the central inlay on the bed headboard mentioned above ...
these two photos show how the inlays that are cut on a local waterjet
arrive for us to work with ... all the parts have little 'bridges' that keep the parts from flying around as they are cut.  those have to be sanded off before the pieces will fit together.
it's basically a high tech jigsaw puzzle
tah dah!


          Double Dumb IKEA 2016 LED Bulb Policy        



short version (11 secs)



full version (1 minute 1 second)




IKEA, as some may know, made a big noise about not selling incandescent light bulbs a while back, pushing fluorescent bulb replacements - ahead of any government ban.

Fluorescent bulbs have come under increasing criticism, with LED bulbs becoming the new rage:
So IKEA then make a big noise about how they are not going to sell either incandescent or fluorescent bulbs, only selling LED bulbs from 2016 - again ahead of any government ban.
The above video arises from a commercial currently running in Europe, though the policy was announced in 2012 (LEDs magazine article)

IKEA are of course perfectly free to sell what they want:
But normally stores don't promote sales based on excluding alternatives.
IKEA effectively say that people are too stupid to choose themselves - so IKEA will choose for them!


Unfortunately LED bulbs themselves are increasingly being shown to have several problems,
as per official studies.
Hence the acknowledging of problems in an 11 point rundown in recent weeks, just as the IKEA ad is running...
LEDs Magazine article March 2014, point title extracts quoted below.
LEDs magazine, as linked before, is obviously in favor of LED technology, so the media source is interesting of itself.
As is the author: "James Broderick is the lighting program manager at the US Department of Energy." Of course he believes the problems will be solved, he could hardly keep his job otherwise in the ban-promoting Department...

Lesson 1:....testing requirements necessary to counter exaggerated claims of performance by some manufacturers ...led to high testing costs.

Lesson 2: Despite the promise of long life, there’s no standard way to rate the lifetime and reliability of LED lighting products.

Lesson 3: Although specifiers prefer complete families of products, the rapid evolution of LED technology presents a challenge to manufacturers in creating and maintaining complete product lines.

Lesson 4: The range of color quality available with LED lighting products, and the limitations of existing color metrics, may confuse users.

Lesson 5: The color delivered by some LEDs shifts enough over time to negatively impact adoption in some applications.

Lesson 6: Some LEDs flicker noticeably, which may negatively impact adoption in some applications.

Lesson 7: LEDs can cause glare, which may negatively impact adoption in some applications.

Lesson 8: Achieving high-quality dimming performance with LED lamps is difficult....

Lesson 9: Greater interoperability of lighting control components and more sensible specifications of lighting control systems are required to maximize the energy savings from LED lighting

Lesson 10: Lack of LED lighting product serviceability and interchangeability has created market adoption barriers in certain sectors.

Lesson 11: Existing lighting infrastructure limits the full potential of SSL; more effort is needed to open the doors to new lighting systems and form factors.

That follows on from several other LED issues highlighted,
eg French official Health Agency ANSES that keep complaining that EU have not acted appropriately regarding point source glare, blue light and other possible problems...
"Effets sanitaires des systèmes d’éclairage utilisant des diodes électroluminescentes" arising from a large cross-disciplinary study.

Given the IKEA "green" tone, LED environmental issues should particularly be noted.
Thereby another large cross-disciplinary and cross-institutional study, this time by UC Davis (California USA) and others, showing LED problems from another angle, their great complexity using up rare earth mineral resources, and their toxic mineral content.
As per Scientific American article and references, "The Dark Side of LED Lightbulbs""

This is only the beginning, because the life cycle energy use and emissions of LEDs, (beyond the usually only considered assembly stage), includes raw material mining, component manufacture, assembly, recycling (as recommended per studies) and, not least, transport in all stages.
Much CFL/LED manufacture is outsourced to China, so considerable transport in the distributive phase alone - on bunker oil fueled ships. More on these issues via end link below.

So much for "IKEA green policy"



The overall point is of course that all lighting has advantages and disadvantages, also environmentally.

Yes, incandescents use more energy on side-by-side comparisons.
But they also have limited life cycle energy use (also from being patent expired and simple, so more easily made locally by small firms - sustainably!).
The energy use is mainly off peak night time anyway when surplus electricity capacity available and same coal (the main "culprit") usually burned with effectively same emissions regardless of bulb used at such main times, since turning coal plants down and up again to daytime levels is operatively slow and expensive (wear and tear etc) as amply referenced in the 14 point rundown linked at the bottom of this post.

Again,
fluorescents have been castigated on well known mercury and radiation issues, but have their useful and far greater energy saving application as long tubes rather than bulbs, in situations where light left on for relatively large areas for long periods (office areas, also some kitchens)

Again,
LED technology, while having the environmental and other issues mentioned, is mainly useful as sheets, as originally applied, rather than incandescent-clone-bulbs, that IKEA are now happy to solely promote.

On an IKEA petty pointless ban-happy attitude, presumably they should soon turn to selling candles.
But then candles, apparently, have a relatively high CO2 related index and their own environmental issues, taking in any use of animal fats (stearin) and paraffin wax.



IKEA unsurprisingly want good publicity given multiple investigations into cheap labour, child labour, political prisoner labour etc they have apparently used...

The irony of using a green forest in the video:
Given all the wood IKEA uses for furniture and the issues from that, with The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Feb 2014 just as the ad is being shown, withdrawing certification for the IKEA forestry company (Swedwood) on grounds of malpractice.
Also earlier alleged illegal logging from Chinese suppliers, as covered in the first labour link above.
Also more on using old forests in Finland and Russia.... etc as per online search.

In fairness, nearly all big multinationals come in for criticism one way or another, as per Nike and other scandals, given the difficulty there may be of following the supply chain and everybody involved.

But trying to score some sort of compensating environmental "brownie points" by jumping on the bulb ban bandwagon can and should backfire on the basis of what is, and is not, relevant and true.



How Regulations are Wrongly Justified
14 points, referenced:
Includes why the overall society savings aren't there, and even if they were, why alternative policies are better, including alternative policies that target light bulbs.
 
          Canada Light Bulb Ban: A Summary of How it is Wrong        
Update, additions Jan 1 2014






There are particular reasons to have focused on the Canada light bulb ban in the past several posts.
Firstly, because unlike USA or EU there is some sort of chance of avoiding or at least overturning it later, given a simpler lawmaking procedure in a smaller jurisdiction.
Secondly, because it is particularly odd to ban them in such a country.


Strange to ban a popular safe product:

It's not like banning lead paint, and some of the suggested replacements are arguably less safe to use.
CFLs have known light quality and safety issues, while expensive and subsidised LED clones for many rarely used bulbs in a 36 bulb Canada household hardly saves money and is hardly progress, LEDs use up many rare earth minerals and with several health and environmental issues themselves (eg ANSES France, UC Davis California investigations).



Incandescents have many specific advantages for Canadians:

Canadians live in relatively large homes where much time is spent with varied lighting conditions, and where incandescent light quality, reaction time, brightness, sensor/dimming and other versatility is welcome, along with bulb heat on most dark nights.
Incandescent advantages for Canadians are covered at length in section 3 of the analysis as listed below.
Also see "Why ban in Canada particularly wrong" (http://ceolas.net/#li11x)



Major manufacturers Philips, Osram and GE have oddly welcomed being told what they can or can't make:

They have lobbied in different countries including Canada for a ban on patent expired simple generic cheap and relatively unprofitable products - and the proposal makes repeated mention of justifying a ban on their behalf.
The invitation to sympathy for not having competition banned can be compared with real sympathy if what they were preparing to make had been banned!
There is nothing wrong in manufacturer lobbying for profits on behalf of shareholders - it is arguably wrong of them not to. However, that does not require Government acquiescence on behalf of the public.
Besides, the manufacturers could of course just stop making the bulbs themselves in the name of the "progress" that they like to talk about in all their PR handouts regurgitated by politicians and media. After all, the very same manufacturers stopped making much else in the name of "progress". This had a natural market flow, in that the public could see the advantages of the new products, with little demand for the old ones, although always with niche uses (vinyl records, audio tubes, etc).
Therefore the irony and the idiocy that apples here:
If incandescents were not so popular, there would be no "need" for Government to ban them.



Local Canadian industry and jobs:

Adoption of US law as planned for more products and services carries implications of Canadian industry satisfying any specific local demand.
Not least in terms of ordinary incandescent light bulbs. The loss of jobs in USA and Europe was admitted by policy makers (EU over 5000 in final stage, adding to the thousands in ban anticipation). Complex CFL/LED manufacture is largely outsourced to China.
Local outfits with small overheads could easily make the simple generic patent-free products without licensing obligations, giving local Canadian jobs and local sustainability from using few components with little transport and no recycling needed, and no competition from the USA and little from elsewhere.
Compare with being blown over by Chinese imports and major American distributors who - in addition - have already known about their own American standard for 7 years and implemented it for 2, while, if anything, smaller Canadian counterparts have been preparing for the wrong original MEPS 2008 Canadian standard.



The ban is justified as lowering electricity consumption:

As it is a proposed ban for electricity consumption reasons, not because of unsafe bulbs, logically one would first look at the overall question of electricity consumption, looking at if and when a lowering is needed, and in turn the effects of various measures in relation to the penalty caused in terms of product choice or otherwise.
Renewables wind wave hydro and nuclear (Canadian uranium) hardly have Canadian shortage issues albeit that new plants or extensions could be avoided - hardly an issue with light bulbs for reasons soon explained.
The main issue is usually fossil fuel, especially coal, and its greater emissions (not just CO2) than other sources.

Light bulbs don't burn coal or release CO2 gas.
Power plants might - and might not.
If there's a problem - deal with the problem.
In Canada, hardly a problem, given Canada 86% emission-free electricity, and of course coal itself can be treated in various ways.

The usual "10% of domestic electricity is used for lighting" type statements,
ignore that around half of domestic lighting is not incandescent anyway, especially the mainly used kitchen lighting, also that replacements use electricity, also the heat replacement of incandescents and power factor (PF) issues of CFLs and LEDs (effectively energy use not recorded by the meters), also that domestic electricity is a small part of overall grid demand (industrial, commercial, municipal, transport - with hardly any incandescent use in any of those sectors).
On a general level, also the life cycle energy use of more complex replacement lighting, including transport in all stages from mineral mining to recycling (when not dumped, leeching mercury etc) and bunker oil powered shipping from China by major manufacturers, compared to easier local Canada manufacture by small/new manufacturers of patent-free simple incandescent bulbs.
Incandescent electricity use is just fractional amounts of mostly off-peak evening-night surplus electricity, as per usage and grid data references, effectively smaller still given the bulb heat supplied as per Ontario/BC institutional studies, and with the Canadian Center for Housing Technology also confirming that 83% to 100% of lighting energy contributes to heat demand reduction.

The total reduction [in energy use] would be 0.54 x 0.8 x 0.76% = 0.33%,
This figure is almost certainly an overestimate,
particularly as the inefficiency of conventional bulbs generates heat which supplements other forms of heating in winter.

Which begs the question: is it really worth it?
Politicians are forcing a change to a particular technology which is fine for some applications but not universally liked, and which has disadvantages.
The problem is that legislators are unable to tackle the big issues of energy use effectively, so go for the soft target of a high profile domestic use of energy...
...This is gesture politics."
Using comparable European Commission VITO data to similarly cut down even greater "15% of domestic electricity use" type statements, this came from the Cambridge University Scientific Alliance, UK Government advisers from several institutions normally supportive of energy and emission measures, similarly with other referenced science institution communications from different countries.



Alternative policies:

Again, as it is a proposed ban for electricity consumption reasons, not because of unsafe bulbs,
then electricity consumption reduction policies should be looked at in an overall sense.
That means, if required, say coal tax or emission tax or regulations, or a general electricity tax with payback subsidies for house insulation etc - ideally conceived within an overall electricity distribution policy that increases supplier competition and ease of switching between those suppliers, itself made more easy with eventual smart metering systems. Smart meter systems will also shift people from peak time use to other times of electricity surplus availability, by time-basd pricing.
Compare with the pedantic bureaucratic exercise of telling Canadian folks what light bulbs they can or can't use in their bedrooms, and repeating the process for a plethora of other products.

Of course, if light bulbs really needed policy targeting, it could be done by information, taxation, or market stimulation measures, as also described, rather than clumsy once-off standards that permanently bans also any future invention that might have been made with its own specific advantages.



The "Hey don't worry everybody" message:

Instead, Canadians worried about future choice may soon hear the on-song message from Government spokespeople:
"Hey, don't worry everybody, similar Halogen incandescent light bulbs will still be allowed!".
Except that they won't.
Adoption of USA law is the main stated justification for the proposal, defended as standard harmonisation to facilitate future trade on the North American market, and planned for more products and services.
This of itself should worry those concerned about specific Canadian service for Canadians.
It also means abiding by future decisions in Washington.
As it happens, USA EISA 2007 law tier 2 2014-2017 regulation on light bulbs will ban all incandescents for general service, including Halogens, based on the 45 lumen per Watt final rule requirement that equates to fluorescent bulb standard.
Presumably the Ottawa Government know this:
"it is anticipated that the proposed standards would help to increase the level of acceptability for MEPS [minimum energy perfomance standards] for many Canadians, thus facilitating the adoption of further MEPS for these and other products in the future."
A little more upfront honesty would perhaps not go amiss...

One might in passing note that the Halogen type replacements anyway have some light qualitative differences, also being more complex and expensive with marginal savings and therefore less popular in a free choice either with consumers or politicians (no Halogen switchover programs!).



For details of why the regulations are wrong for Canada, see the introductory post
"Canada to adopt more US Laws beginning with Light Bulbs:
Losing Industry, Jobs and Choice, with Hardly any Savings
"

Full version   As Doc    As PDF

Content List

1. Why Alignment to USA will also ban Halogens
The supposedly allowed Halogens banned on USA EISA tier 2 2014-2017 backstop final rule equating to CFL standard. Following Washington means following any other change they make. Proposal already envisages further restrictions.
2. What is good for Canadian Industry, Jobs and Consumers?
Light bulbs stated as the first of more US laws in manufacture and service to harmonise NAFTA standards. Allowing US based corporate access does not mean having to legislate against local production to local desire.
3. How Incandescents have particular Advantages for Canadians
Beyond heat, also brightness, and situational advantages in large homes where much time spent
4. Simple Incandescent Advantages versus Halogens
Halogens more complex and expensive for little savings advantage, hence unpopular in free choice either with consumers or politicians.
5. On Energy saving for the Nation
Fractional overall and on comparative policies, and a main off-peak time use avails of surplus production capacity anyway.
6. On Emission saving for the Planet
Ditto, with the addition that Canada has 86% emission-free electricity and that emissions may increase on heat replacement effect
7. On Money saving for the People
Ditto, with the addition that free choice is not always about money saving, that many bulbs are not often used, and that subsidies plus utility compensation may mean higher bulb and electricity payments anyway via tax or electricity bills.
8. Worldwide Policy and Major Manufacturers
Cooperation to enforce low lifespan on incandescent bulbs followed by cooperation to altogether ban such now patent-expired generic cheap competition. Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose.
9. Alternative Policies targeting Light Bulbs
Information, taxation/subsidy and market competitive alternatives could and should be considered before bans.
10. Incandescents - the Real Green Bulbs?
Efficient, earth saving, long lasting and sustainable.
The simplest way to produce bright light from electricity banned for being too popular, by the stupidity that passes for global governance.




How Regulations are Wrongly Justified
14 points, referenced:
Includes why the overall society savings aren't there, and even if they were, why alternative policies are better, including alternative policies that target light bulbs.
 
          Canada and Nordic Countries: Incandescent Light Bulb Usage Advantages        

... it's about a lot more than the heat of incandescent bulbs!

Update info: Campaign against the ban by Ontario MP Cheryl Gallant:
stop the ban page (with petition), facebook page

See the last post.
It focuses on policy aspects of the Canada Government proposal to switch to USA standards.
A main claim is that Halogens "similar to traditional bulbs" will still be allowed, but they will be banned under US law as referenced, and the Government proposal itself speaks of further standard restrictions being facilitated.
While section 3 will remain there, having already linked to it in correspondence etc, it and some other sections have a general informative aspect so may be further highlighted separately.

To recap:
This is part of a reply to the Canadian Natural Resources Government Ministry, Office of Energy Efficiency, concerning the Canada Gazette Vol. 147, No. 40 — October 5, 2013 published proposal on Light Bulb Regulations to be effective as from Jan 1 2014,
and the invitation to comment by December 19th.


Below is seen section 3 of the following:

1. Why Alignment to USA will also ban Halogens
2. What is good for Canadian Industry, Jobs and Consumers?
3. How Incandescents have particular Advantages for Canadians
4. Simple Incandescent Advantages versus Halogens
5. On Energy saving for the Nation
6. On Emission saving for the Planet
7. On Money saving for the People
8. Worldwide Policy and Major Manufacturers
9. Alternative Policies targeting Light Bulbs
10.Incandescents - the Real Green Bulbs?


Full version:  As Doc    As PDF



3. How Incandescents have particular advantages for Canadians

First, a summary of general advantages of Incandescents, then particular advantages to Canadians.


General incandescent advantages

A high quality 100% CRI (color rendering index) light with a warm characteristic: Incandescent lights have a smooth broad light spectrum, which in ordinary light bulbs rises more towards the red end, giving the characteristic warm glow, increased on dimming (fluorescent and LED lights give out different types of light...LEDs also in car headlamps, bicycle lights, flashlights/torches, sees an often bluey omnidirectionally weaker but point source glare type of lighting taking over in society).

The light bulbs have for many a pleasing simple appearance, and the transparency sparkle effect makes their use in some lamps, lanterns, and chandeliers attractive.
They are versatile with dimmers and sensors, advantageous where vibration or rough use is expected, and in very hot or cold conditions when they are also quick to come on. Moreover, the heat of the light bulbs (of itself often useful) finds direct applications in space heating applications, greenhouses, hatcheries, pet keeping etc.
Converse arguments note the situational disadvantages in particular of CFLs, for example in recessed and enclosed fixtures or humid (bathroom) situations



The brightness issue


Small and standard size incandescent lights are particularly useful, since CFL or LED equivalents usually can't be made as bright, and when they can they are even more expensive than usual.

The early ban on small/standard 100 Watt bulbs is therefore particularly ironic, added to by any future absence of halogens.
Such bulbs have especially good and cheap brightness as well as heat benefit, with 100W bulbs being at the same low price as other bulbs (and yes, that is also a reason they "must" be banned quickly based on what people might otherwise want to buy, such that big "savings" can be announced instead).

Fluorescent and LED lights, often dim to start with, also dim more with age, shortening lab quoted lifespans.
Fluorescent encapsulation (with pear shaped outer envelope, recommended for close use) further reduces brightness, similarly the phosphorescent covering of LEDs to spread the point-source lighting reduces brightness in any direction.
Cheap Chinese imports, directly or for assembly and rebranding, also mean that brightness retention, lifespan and other issues remain with these lights.
Any older reader might like (or not like) to note that not only do older eyes need brighter light, but ageing also means yellowing eye lenses so that they absorb the greater blue light component of fluorescents and LEDs, making them appear still dimmer.
Je vous souhaite la retraite agréable.



Safety issues

Normally products are banned for being unsafe to use.
The irony here is that old and thereby well known bulbs in their safety are forcibly, albeit gradually, replaced by CFL and LED bulbs with several health, safety, and environmental concerns.
There is little point in going through the concerns here which can easily be found in online discussion and documentation -
especially regarding fluorescent lighting mercury and radiation concerns, which after all also influenced the 2 year regulatory delay in Canada. Those issues have of course not simply gone away, including accidental breakage of CFLs and their recycling as alternative to being dumped (and with some calls for LED recycling too, see below).
A point of irony is the light bulb heat issue.
Irony, because politicians and journalists and indeed the info sheets from the OEE (Canada Gov office of energy efficiency) love to say how incandescents "waste 90-95% of their energy as heat", never a word that CFLs also waste 70-80% and current LEDs 50-70% of their energy this way.
Irony, because while much incandescent heat is radiated externally to potential use, CFL and LED is internalized, with unpredictable fire risk, especially of CFLs (incandescent heat being more noticeable in burning lampshades and the like, to warn users).

Not only do incandescents often usefully release around 95% of their energy as heat:
Proponents conveniently "forget" to add that CFLs and LEDs really waste energy as heat, CFLs 80% and LEDs 70%.
That is because the CFL/LED heat is internalized, to give a greater, unseen, unpredictable fire risk, particularly with CFLs (incandescent heat being more noticeable, to warn users).

A brief further word on LEDs, as the touted catch-all replacement product.
Just to mention 2 aspects and 2 institutional references.
The official French health agency ANSES in a 2010 multi-disciplinary study highlighted point source glare and blue light radiation issues and various side-effects, echoed by several other studies, and unusually in a repeat call 2013 complained to the Commission that nothing was being done.
Similarly the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, USA has been involved in several multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional and international (Korea) studies concerning the toxicity and environmental effects of LEDs, including depletetion of rare earth minerals, and calling for recycling as with CFLs.



Certainly, new technology should be welcomed for its advantages.
But it does not necessitate banning the old - it seems remarkably hard for politicians to understand that manufacturers themselves can and do move on the new products, without the necessity of bans, and that there are many other ways both of reducing energy consumption in general and of enhancing energy saving product purchase in particular.

Progress is welcomed - not feared.
True progressive politics brings more choice and more advantages, a progress helped - not hindered - by allowing competition against that which already exists.

Politicians love to keep saying how "energy saving products are getting better and cheaper all the time".
Good.
Then presumably people might actually buy them - voluntarily - while still allowing niche special use of "old" varieties.
We've witnessed an incandescent to solid state switchover before - and with the same GE, Philips etc companies.
The audio version. Incandescent audio tubes to solid state (LED-like) transistors.
Now then: If that had been today, then worldwide the call would have been to ban the "energy guzzling" audio tubes.
Which in turn would have prevented rock era tube amps and other niche audio processing developments.
Politicians set energy cut-off standards thinking they just ban existing products. But they also ban what might have existed, and never will.

Ergo:
New lighting is better - why ban old lighting, no point
New lighting is not better - why ban old lighting, no point




Incandescent advantages for Canadians


(i) Canadian homes tend to be big in international comparison, with more light bulbs:

Canadian around 35 light points per home, EU average 20-25 (less in Southern Europe), USA 40-45

Thereby:
• Increased variety of conditions where different lights are useful, so a ban on any lighting type is felt more.
• More individual rooms and lamps with lights that are not often used - reducing supposed running cost savings after buying expensive "energy saving" lighting



(ii) Canadians have a higher need and usage of lighting itself:

• Increased time indoors, including at home, because the homes are bigger, better and more comfortable, related both to the cooler climate and to a greater household wealth, compared with most other countries.
• Increased time indoors, including at home or other situations where the lighting can be chosen, because of colder climate and also because the dark winter season is only partially offset by summer brightness for working Canadians outside vacation times, when some rooms will likely still need to be lit up fairly early



(iii) Canadians more often have cold conditions that can affect the lighting used:

• Incandescent lights come on quickly in the cold. While nowadays CFLs have little delay in ordinary conditions, that does not apply in cold conditions.
LEDs also are more sensitive to ambient temperatures (both hot and cold performance deterioration).
• Cool or cold conditions can combine with other usage factors unsuitable to other lighting, like incompatibility with sensor systems and/or frequent on-off switching, as with hallway and passage areas, bathrooms, outdoor porch and garage lights.
On a more curious note, replacing incandescents with other lighting has reportedly seen Canadian traffic lights being obscured by snow in wintertime, whereas beforehand the incandescent heat would keep the lights clear.



(iv) Canadians particularly benefit from the light bulb heat effect:

• The heat effect, of which more later, gives an overall reduction of energy use to maintain room temperature.
That is not just from being used more than air-conditioning cooling through the year. Even in the summer, when it is dark, it may be cold enough to turn on room heating. Besides incandescents can be changed as desired if conflicting with air conditioning - and may of course be preferred anyway for their other advantages.
• The house insulation factor: Well built Canadian houses that are well insulated, giving a greater light bulb heat benefit compared to more poorly insulated ones elsewhere, as in the UK. The heat from bulbs stays in the room, not escaping through the ceiling.
A point of irony is therefore how governments are increasing home insulation schemes to save on heating, while banning bulbs which, proportionate to small energy use of course, would thereby contribute more to such heating.



(v) Canadians are more likely to enjoy the psychologically warm effect:

Incandescents tend towards the red end of the spectrum, while unmodified fluorescents and LED lighting have more blue light, cooler in effect.
Also, when dimmed, the warm effect of incandescents increases: and people in northern countries like Canada or Nordic Europe are more likely to entertain others in their homes for say dinner parties, possibly also for cultural reasons.
Compare with warmer regions where people go out more to socialize, have no control over such lighting used, and barely use their own home lighting that they can control.



(vi) Canadians are more likely to enjoy bright light:

Having longer darker winters, and generally with less bright conditions than more tropical locations.
100W+ bright equivalent lighting is less easy to make in fluorescent or LED bulb form, is not often available for general household use, and is particularly expensive when it is (and is still not widely possible omnidirectionally with LED bulbs).
The importance is also seen from the existence of SAD, Seasonal Affective Disorder in Northern countries generally, where the lack of light during winter months plays a role as seen from the bright light phototherapy treatment that is involved.

[ Sections 4 to 10 can be seen via doc or pdf download, see top of this page]



How Regulations are Wrongly Justified
14 points, referenced:
Includes why the overall society savings aren't there, and even if they were, why alternative policies are better, including alternative policies that target light bulbs.
 
          Canada to adopt more US Laws beginning with Light Bulbs: Losing Industry, Jobs and Choice, with Hardly any Savings        

Last updated December 23
Update info: Campaign against the ban by Federal MP (Government Conservative party) Cheryl Gallant of Ontario, blog post about it (December 23).
Also Section 1 of the Document revised, consequent (P7 version) updates also done to Doc and PDF links below.


The below constitutes a reply to the Canadian Natural Resources Government Ministry, Office of Energy Efficiency, concerning the Canada Gazette Vol. 147, No. 40 — October 5, 2013 published proposal on Light Bulb Regulations to be effective as from Jan 1 2014,
and the invitation to comment

Email: equipment@nrcan.gc.ca Telephone: 613-996-4359
John Cockburn, Director Equipment Division Office of Energy Efficiency Natural Resources Canada CEF, Building 3, Observatory Crescent, 1st Floor
Ottawa, Ontario Fax: 613-947-5286
But best to also contact local media etc. Media very quiet on this.


What Canadians are not being told about January 1 2014 Light Bulb Regulations

Enforcing US Law:
Losing Independence, Industry, Jobs and Choice,
with Hardly any Savings and Hardly any Halogens.



In a seemingly hastily written October proposal, just in time to invite standard 75 day comment by December 19
(leaving little time for any subsequent serious analysis, should perchance the Cabinet be interested in doing so),
Canadians are told that by aligning to USA standards Halogen bulbs, similar to regular incandescent bulbs, will not be banned.

They will.
And that's just the start.


1. Why Alignment to USA will also ban Halogens
The supposedly allowed Halogens banned on USA EISA tier 2 2014-2017 backstop final rule equating to CFL standard. Following Washington means following any other change they make. Proposal already envisages further restrictions.
2. What is good for Canadian Industry, Jobs and Consumers?
Light bulbs stated as the first of more US laws in manufacture and service to harmonise NAFTA standards. Allowing US based corporate access does not mean having to legislate against local production to local desire.
3. How Incandescents have particular Advantages for Canadians
Beyond heat, also brightness, and situational advantages in large homes where much time spent
4. Simple Incandescent Advantages versus Halogens
Halogens more complex and expensive for little savings advantage, hence unpopular in free choice either with consumers or politicians.
5. On Energy saving for the Nation
Fractional overall and on comparative policies, and a main off-peak time use avails of surplus production capacity anyway.
6. On Emission saving for the Planet
Ditto, with the addition that Canada has 86% emission-free electricity and that emissions may increase on heat replacement effect
7. On Money saving for the People
Ditto, with the addition that free choice is not always about money saving, that many bulbs are not often used, and that subsidies plus utility compensation may mean higher bulb and electricity payments anyway via tax or electricity bills.
8. Worldwide Policy and Major Manufacturers
Cooperation to enforce low lifespan on incandescent bulbs followed by cooperation to altogether ban such now patent-expired generic cheap competition. Plus ça change, plus c'est la même chose.
9. Alternative Policies targeting Light Bulbs
Information, taxation/subsidy and market competitive alternatives could and should be considered before bans.
10. Incandescents - the Real Green Bulbs?
Efficient, earth saving, long lasting and sustainable.
The simplest way to produce bright light from electricity banned for being too popular, by the stupidity that passes for global governance.

Full version:  As Doc    As PDF
Parts 1-3 reproduced below



1. Why Alignment to USA will also ban Halogens

USA Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007/Title III/Subtitle B/Section 321

"The Secretary of Energy shall report to Congress on the time frame for commercialization of lighting to replace incandescent and halogen incandescent lamp technology"

A backstop final rule relates to a cycle of rulemaking that will start in 2014.

" BACKSTOP REQUIREMENT— if the final rule [not later than January 1, 2017] does not produce savings that are greater than or equal to the savings from a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt"

As the Energy Information Administration at the Department of Energy puts it, the second tier of energy efficiency improvements “at the latest becomes effective by 2020, essentially requiring general service bulbs to be as efficient as today's CFLs"


The stated main purpose of the current light bulb proposal is to align with US legislation.
Comparatively, the original MEPS legislation can be seen at SOR/94-651 part 1 Items 136-139 with luminous flux based definitions (unfortunately not shown or linked in the proposal). The US wattage based regulations were previously deliberately avoided, citing several disadvantages with the US system including less bright bulbs being allowed in place of brighter ones, usage of higher wattage class defeating the purpose etc. This is not mentioned now in changing standards.

The proposed adoption of USA law is justified as facilitating company product development and distribution to a bigger market, now and in the future, and is to be followed by similar adoption of US law for other products for the same reasons.
With light bulbs a further highlighted beneficial effect is said to be that American standards will allow incandescents in the form of Halogens, albeit still with differences to simple incandescents and a lot more expensive.
However, not only would some higher energy efficiency halogen types not have been banned anyway under the originally proposed legislation, but as seen current USA legislation bans all incandescent technology including touted halogen replacements for general service lighting, EISA tier 2 2014-2017 45 lumen per Watt final rule which equates to fluorescent bulb standard. Replacement Halogens at 18 lumen per Watt, 20-22 at best, are way below that.
The notion that manufacturers would improve halogens falls on commercial consideration (as they at length explained in the November 25 EU meeting and documentation), and for example Philips already quietly dropped promised EcoVantage development once the 2009 EU ban had been achieved.

Aligning with US legislation of course means that guarantees about what will or won't be allowed can no longer be given.

To reply that
"Canada will just adopt the first (USA Tier 1) levels and won't ban Halogens even if the USA does",
is not in keeping with proposal's purpose and argumentation of aligning with USA standards in the first place, including the specifically stated supposed advantages of suppliers not having to deal with two standards for products.

Notice also that 45 lumen per watt is a minimum standard and is set to be followed by others (USA background documentation talks of Tier 3 in 2020).
Notice also that these are and would be technology-neutral standards.
So the splitting up of different products for distribution becomes more difficult anyway, and of course all the more so should further USA rules not be to Canadian taste.

45 lumen per watt is as said based on fluorescent lamps that are going out of political favour, and the hitherto mercury-exception of fluorescent lamps may come to be abolished, if they don't disappear from markets beforehand given recent decreases of allowable mercury levels in some jurisdictions like the EU, which make them less commercially viable to sell.
Of course those who criticise bans on incandescent bulbs might be pleased, should the CFL (fluorescent, "energy saving") bulbs disappear. But that would be on top of banning incandescents, and would hardly happen until other replacements have found political (if not popular) replacement favor.

The big noise in the world of lighting regulation is "Ledification", Japan aiming for a total switch by 2020 and the European Commission in current talks with manufacturer representatives in dealing with the timing of banning halogens and pushing a LED switchover.
[LEDs certainly have energy efficiency advantages, but are also very difficult to make as bright omnidirectional incandescent bulb replacements at low prices, along with having a number of health and environmental concerns of their own as covered later. The simple fact is that all lighting types have advantages and disadvantages, and bans of any should surely be approached with caution. The main distinctive technology advantages are of incandescents as bulbs, fluorescents as long tubes and LEDs as sheets - which is also how the latter 2 were first developed]

Notice how all this is applicable to any aligning to allow Washington to dictate what Canadians can or can't buy, and which may or may not be to Canadian taste, not just with light bulbs, and not just with energy efficiency regulations, given the stated ambition to expand such regulatory alignment and favour multinationals in their North American product development and future distribution of products (see section 2 on industry policy below).

Alternatively, the Canada Government knows about and plans a future ban on halogens.
It is after all true to say that "halogens will still be allowed" - for now.
They would also be doing exactly what USA, EU, and Australia ruling officials did before them:
Wave funny bulbs around to visibly show they were "doing something" about global warming, while "assuring" everybody that "lookalike halogens" to traditional bulbs would still be allowed

It would also seem strange if Canadian lawmakers did not know US law before shifting to it.


The proposal finishes, perhaps with admirable openness:
"...over time, it is anticipated that the proposed standards would help to increase the level of acceptability for MEPS [Minimum Energy Performance Standards] for many Canadians, thus facilitating the adoption of further MEPS for these and other products in the future."

Put the frog into boiling water - it jumps out.
Put the frog into cold water and keep heating it - the frog is cooked
"How to Cook our Canadians"

So, Canadian Cabinet...how about the Canadian public not being duped about "what is allowed"?


In this regard, one should also be aware of how regulations are coordinated and arranged to achieve a desired purpose (read, ban completion).
Jurisdictions like Canada, EU, USA and Australia are in close contact as seen from background documentation to legislation and international meetings between energy agency officials and major manufacturer representatives.

Regulations are therefore divided into Tier 1 and Tier 2 processes.
The original 2012 Canada plans also had a Tier 2 2015 phase-out intention.
Staggered implementation is of course understandable in cushioning the effect both for manufacturers and consumers as new technology is introduced.
However that also allows - or should allow - unbiased monitoring of the effects on consumers of lighting availability and quality, and that supposed energy saving actually takes place.
But follow-ups are no fun for politicians - promises are. The typically and suitably long-term savings projections also apply for Canada (2025, see the proposal annex) allowing catchy quotable big savings figures, and then to say "Well, buddy, we'll check on that in 2025"! Brilliant - the decision makers long since having retired.
Suggested evaluation based on just measuring assumed savings from how products have been adopted (handy for the backing companies, who don't have to pay for that research themselves!) is hardly the same - and misses the overall consumer impact.
In BureaucratSpeak, "stakeholders" aren't any guys and gals strolling around Queen Street in Toronto.

Both the EU and the USA have 2014 review processes:
These should therefore have meant a neutral assessment of Tier 1.But as the continued bans are already written into legislation, the reviews are mainly about alternative lamps and possible change in the timing of Tier 2 implementation. Talk about a 1-way street.

As for the USA, it's not just that halogens are legislated to disappear sometime before 2020. The Obama administration in cooperation with the Democrat controlled Senate Energy Committee already tried to tighten lamp and other energy efficiency regulations in 2011. But as with many bills, it did not make it through Congress. Lowering the standards requires Congress passage, and the President's signature. Hardly anytime soon.

A further possible reason why the officials writing the laws want Tier 2 bans already legislated in place, is the difficulty and nuisance of having to revisit the issue in public or parliamentary debate.
US law is of course already difficult to alter as just noted, and this applies also in the 28 nation and multi-institutional EU.

Canada is different, and could be different, in openly considering what is right or wrong, and not just for multinational corporations.


The proposal here does commendably invite public comment....
but why is it kept away from Canadian Parliament for debate, all the more so since proposal comment finishes Dec 19, with MPs already being off looking for turkeys and tourtières on the 13th and not back until Jan 27?
The government cabinet rubberstamping American legislation into place over the holiday period surely sets a bad precedent if it hasn't done so already, given the mentioned ramifications.


The bigger picture about the light bulb regulations is not any guarantee about halogens.
The bigger picture is about why light bulb ban regulation is necessary in the first place - and particularly in Canada.

Canada has no obligation to ban either halogens or simple incandescents.
This was shown in already delaying ban implementation.
Canada is - still - an independent country.
If it is not in the interest of Canada, Canadian business, Canadian jobs, or Canadian consumers to ban lighting products on other than safety grounds, then it should not be done.

And it isn't...




2. What is good for Canadian Industry, Jobs and Consumers?

"This proposed amendment would support the Government’s regulatory policy of aligning with American standards, where feasible"
"it is anticipated that the proposed standards would help to increase the level of acceptability for MEPS for many Canadians, thus facilitating the adoption of further MEPS for these and other products in the future."
"compliance risks are much less than they would be if Canada had unique standards. Canada would benefit from the compliance regime that is in place to support U.S. standards."

Adoption of US standards for many more products - not just concerning energy efficiency - is set to continue.
The US dominance on the North American market hardly means Washington adopting Ottawa standards.

This does not just sideline Canadian autonomy for its own sake.
It means no longer making products to specific Canadian demands, should they conflict with American desire.

So, should the border just be shut, to only have "Canadian products for Canadians"?
No, the point is not the protectionism angle.
The point is that allowing American standard products in Canada, does not mean having to ban products made to specific Canadian demand and desire.
Manufacturers can still make American standard products both for internal market or export, as they wish.

Presumably if the American standard is so attractive for the major multinationals for market reasons, then they'll make to that standard, and leave the smaller specific Canada demand to Canadian suppliers.
They don't "have to suffer regulatory burden by making products to 2 standards", as the proposal basically puts it.


This is therefore about a lot more than light bulbs, it is about any product that because of climate, geography, culture, or other reason might be of value to Canadian consumers.

Legally, in a case of regulatory conflict between the Canada and USA standards,
if a Canadian requirement is deemed less stringent, that is obviously not a problem - the point here.
If a Canadian requirement is more stringent, perhaps on environmental or safety grounds, that is still justified on Canadian rights as a sovereign country.

The Government proposal at hand is overly focused on helping major manufacturers sell in both countries, repeatedly stating so.
Maybe some more widespread consideration is justified.

Yet even on such narrowly defined market-minded economic justification for bowing to Washington, the question is if it's a good policy.

To keep adopting US standards will likely cost Canadian supply and distribution jobs,
especially of already existing standards as supply and distribution to those standards is already well established on the bigger US market, but also of simultaneously applied standards, as larger US based suppliers simply extend the reach for their products.

Conversely, while still allowing such free trade movement of goods,
the freedom of manufacture to local needs gives local jobs and locally satisfied consumers.
Also if Americans are not making or distributing such products then clearly all the better for Canadian jobs.


Turning now specifically to energy efficiency regulations, such as on light bulbs,
the relevance of what has been said is even greater, on several counts.

Firstly, by adopting US legislation, USA based control becomes even more likely - after all, their manufacturers and distributors have had regulatory knowledge and established implementation for several years on any such regulatory shift. With the light bulbs, that's 7 years knowledge and 2 years implementation for the US rivals.
After all, the proposal makes much of how manufacturers prepare for standards in advance (and, conversely, if anything, Canadian suppliers prepared for the wrong MEPS standard).

Secondly, how big is current and assumed future Canadian light bulb production anyway?
While I have been unable to find figures (and, again, the proposal could have supplied them!) it presumably mirrors the USA and EU in dominant Chinese CFL/LED imports and dwindling local incandescent/halogen manufacture.
Maybe it's great to help the Chinese (as also outsourced by Philips. GE or Osram-Sylvania) but surely not of utmost importance, and on the distribution side that again comes down to likely American control on a unified market for reasons given.

Thirdly, with energy efficiency regulations it need not be USA versus Canada standards.
Not having energy efficiency regulations in the first place opens up to true manufacturer freedom without the "regulatory burden" that the proposal worries so much about.
That obviously need defending of itself, and will be done for light bulbs, but one should also be well aware of what it would mean for industrial policy and jobs, given the industry focus in the proposal.

The tone of the proposal is of abandoning regulations with threatened chaos.
But it is just to continue without implementation, and with manufacturer and consumer freedom.
A freedom that allows the start up of making popular bulbs, that hasn't hitherto happened given threatened regulation.


The popularity of bulbs to be banned (phased out, regulated..) is hardly in doubt.
If they were not popular, there would be no "need" to ban them and celebrate the supposed savings.
There are in fact many reasons why it is both easy and attractive to set up local small/new Canadian manufacture and sale with associated jobs of traditional light bulbs.
Firstly in being popular, as mentioned.
Secondly in being simple and easy to make.
Thirdly in being generic patent-free bulbs without licensing requirement from major manufacturers (now guess why GE/Philips/Osram-Sylvania want those bulbs banned).
Finally, in being without competition from America, and with likely little competition from anywhere else - while always allowing alternative "energy saving" bulb manufacture and sale as desired on the market.
Canada could have a considerable domestic light bulb industry of incandescent lighting.
Can the same be said about CFLs or LEDs?



Responding to the idea that regulations might actually not be imposed, the proposal suggests:

"Canada could become susceptible to product dumping from manufacturers from other countries seeking to sell traditional incandescent light bulbs no longer permitted in their own country."

This repeats what they said 2008 in defending the first MEPS regulations.
But bans have now already been legislated in many other jurisdictions (rationale later) and the proposal itself emphasizes how manufacturers prepare for them.
So the notion that those guys have been stockpiling incandescents on-the-side, just to dump on Canada in case Canada does not implement a ban, hardly holds.
Besides, Canadians would get more choice, and would have to want to buy them in the first place - "terrible" if they can buy what they want?
Finally, any dumping problem can always be met by import controls - it does not necessitate, nor does it justify, banning what people want to buy.


Two further justifications are given for not abandoning regulations:
"Suppliers to the Canadian light bulb market have already made considerable investments in research, development and retooling to meet the MEPS as written in 2008.
Canadian retailers have begun selling, promoting, and educating consumers about more efficient bulbs."

As for Canadian retailers,
I am sure they would be delighted to sell whatever Canadians want to buy.
Educating about "efficient bulbs" - that presumably means bulbs efficient in producing bright light using few components?
No? Well, that just shows how politically correct language is defined - handily substituting "efficient" for "energy efficient"
(as with calling fluorescent bulbs "energy saving" bulbs:
Hello Mr Retailer, can I have one of those Energy Wasting bulbs please? Ah, gosh, thanks very much!)

As for suppliers to the market,
the odd notion is this invitation to cry for them when they now instead have full freedom to make and supply what they want - including the bulbs they prepared for.
Compare with if they had been busy preparing to sell a bulb that was then made illegal!

The manufacturers were perfectly free themselves to stop selling incandescents if "they are so bad for the planet", as their press releases keep saying, and the media keeps swallowing. After all - the same GE/Philips and other companies stopped making record players, cassettes, 8-tracks and much else in the name of "progress".
But "unfortunately", others would make the popular bulbs if they stopped!
No manufacturer/distributor should rely on bans on competition to shift product they presumably have some sort of confidence and ability to sell.
Besides, the big American market would still have the limited competition they want.

Moreover, if the suppliers were preparing for the Canadian standard, "MEPS as written in 2008" and it "is a burden to make and distribute to both American and Canadian standard", well, then the suppliers have been preparing for the wrong standard, with Canada Gov now pulling the rug from under their feet!
Also, the fact that simple traditional light bulbs are easy to make means those guys can easily "retool" and make them too, and have the limited competition from USA on that score as already described.
Don't cry for me, Argentina.


For deeper discussion of industrial policy and manufacturers, see section 8

Meanwhile, do these bulbs really have any value for Canadians?.....



3. How Incandescents have particular advantages for Canadians

First, a summary of general advantages of Incandescents, then particular advantages to Canadians, and afterwards, a look at simple incandescent advantages vis-à-vis Halogens.

General incandescent advantages

A high quality 100% CRI (color rendering index) light with a warm characteristic: Incandescent lights have a smooth broad light spectrum, which in ordinary light bulbs rises more towards the red end, giving the characteristic warm glow, increased on dimming (fluorescent and LED lights give out different types of light...LEDs also in car headlamps, bicycle lights, flashlights/torches, sees an often bluey omnidirectionally weaker but point source glare type of lighting taking over in society).

The light bulbs have for many a pleasing simple appearance, and the transparency sparkle effect makes their use in some lamps, lanterns, and chandeliers attractive.
They are versatile with dimmers and sensors, advantageous where vibration or rough use is expected, and in very hot or cold conditions when they are also quick to come on. Moreover, the heat of the light bulbs (of itself often useful) finds direct applications in space heating applications, greenhouses, hatcheries, pet keeping etc.
Converse arguments note the situational disadvantages in particular of CFLs, for example in recessed and enclosed fixtures or humid (bathroom) situations



The brightness issue


Small and standard size incandescent lights are particularly useful, since CFL or LED equivalents usually can't be made as bright, and when they can they are even more expensive than usual.

The early ban on small/standard 100 Watt bulbs is therefore particularly ironic, added to by any future absence of halogens.
Such bulbs have especially good and cheap brightness as well as heat benefit, with 100W bulbs being at the same low price as other bulbs (and yes, that is also a reason they "must" be banned quickly based on what people might otherwise want to buy, such that big "savings" can be announced instead).

Fluorescent and LED lights, often dim to start with, also dim more with age, shortening lab quoted lifespans.
Fluorescent encapsulation (with pear shaped outer envelope, recommended for close use) further reduces brightness, similarly the phosphorescent covering of LEDs to spread the point-source lighting reduces brightness in any direction.
Cheap Chinese imports, directly or for assembly and rebranding, also mean that brightness retention, lifespan and other issues remain with these lights.
Any older reader might like (or not like) to note that not only do older eyes need brighter light, but ageing also means yellowing eye lenses so that they absorb the greater blue light component of fluorescents and LEDs, making them appear still dimmer.
Je vous souhaite la retraite agréable.



Safety issues

Normally products are banned for being unsafe to use.
The irony here is that old and thereby well known bulbs in their safety are forcibly, albeit gradually, replaced by CFL and LED bulbs with several health, safety, and environmental concerns.
There is little point in going through the concerns here which can easily be found in online discussion and documentation -
especially regarding fluorescent lighting mercury and radiation concerns, which after all also influenced the 2 year regulatory delay in Canada. Those issues have of course not simply gone away, including accidental breakage of CFLs and their recycling as alternative to being dumped (and with some calls for LED recycling too, see below).
A point of irony is the light bulb heat issue.
Irony, because politicians and journalists and indeed the info sheets from the OEE (Canada Gov office of energy efficiency) love to say how incandescents "waste 90-95% of their energy as heat", never a word that CFLs also waste 70-80% and current LEDs 50-70% of their energy this way.
Irony, because while much incandescent heat is radiated externally to potential use, CFL and LED is internalized, with unpredictable fire risk, especially of CFLs (incandescent heat being more noticeable in burning lampshades and the like, to warn users).

Not only do incandescents often usefully release around 95% of their energy as heat:
Proponents conveniently "forget" to add that CFLs and LEDs really waste energy as heat, CFLs 80% and LEDs 70%.
That is because the CFL/LED heat is internalized, to give a greater, unseen, unpredictable fire risk, particularly with CFLs (incandescent heat being more noticeable, to warn users).

A brief further word on LEDs, as the touted catch-all replacement product.
Just to mention 2 aspects and 2 institutional references.
The official French health agency ANSES in a 2010 multi-disciplinary study highlighted point source glare and blue light radiation issues and various side-effects, echoed by several other studies, and unusually in a repeat call 2013 complained to the Commission that nothing was being done.
Similarly the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, USA has been involved in several multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional and international (Korea) studies concerning the toxicity and environmental effects of LEDs, including depletetion of rare earth minerals, and calling for recycling as with CFLs.



Certainly, new technology should be welcomed for its advantages.
But it does not necessitate banning the old - it seems remarkably hard for politicians to understand that manufacturers themselves can and do move on the new products, without the necessity of bans, and that there are many other ways both of reducing energy consumption in general and of enhancing energy saving product purchase in particular.

Progress is welcomed - not feared.
True progressive politics brings more choice and more advantages, a progress helped - not hindered - by allowing competition against that which already exists.

Politicians love to keep saying how "energy saving products are getting better and cheaper all the time".
Good.
Then presumably people might actually buy them - voluntarily - while still allowing niche special use of "old" varieties.
We've witnessed an incandescent to solid state switchover before - and with the same GE, Philips etc companies.
The audio version. Incandescent audio tubes to solid state (LED-like) transistors.
Now then: If that had been today, then worldwide the call would have been to ban the "energy guzzling" audio tubes.
Which in turn would have prevented rock era tube amps and other niche audio processing developments.
Politicians set energy cut-off standards thinking they just ban existing products. But they also ban what might have existed, and never will.

Ergo:
New lighting is better - why ban old lighting, no point
New lighting is not better - why ban old lighting, no point




Incandescent advantages for Canadians


(i) Canadian homes tend to be big in international comparison, with more light bulbs:

Canadian around 35 light points per home, EU average 20-25 (less in Southern Europe), USA 40-45

Thereby:
• Increased variety of conditions where different lights are useful, so a ban on any lighting type is felt more.
• More individual rooms and lamps with lights that are not often used - reducing supposed running cost savings after buying expensive "energy saving" lighting



(ii) Canadians have a higher need and usage of lighting itself:

• Increased time indoors, including at home, because the homes are bigger, better and more comfortable, related both to the cooler climate and to a greater household wealth, compared with most other countries.
• Increased time indoors, including at home or other situations where the lighting can be chosen, because of colder climate and also because the dark winter season is only partially offset by summer brightness for working Canadians outside vacation times, when some rooms will likely still need to be lit up fairly early



(iii) Canadians more often have cold conditions that can affect the lighting used:

• Incandescent lights come on quickly in the cold. While nowadays CFLs have little delay in ordinary conditions, that does not apply in cold conditions.
LEDs also are more sensitive to ambient temperatures (both hot and cold performance deterioration).
• Cool or cold conditions can combine with other usage factors unsuitable to other lighting, like incompatibility with sensor systems and/or frequent on-off switching, as with hallway and passage areas, bathrooms, outdoor porch and garage lights.
On a more curious note, replacing incandescents with other lighting has reportedly seen Canadian traffic lights being obscured by snow in wintertime, whereas beforehand the incandescent heat would keep the lights clear.



(iv) Canadians particularly benefit from the light bulb heat effect:

• The heat effect, of which more later, gives an overall reduction of energy use to maintain room temperature.
That is not just from being used more than air-conditioning cooling through the year. Even in the summer, when it is dark, it may be cold enough to turn on room heating. Besides incandescents can be changed as desired if conflicting with air conditioning - and may of course be preferred anyway for their other advantages.
• The house insulation factor: Well built Canadian houses that are well insulated, giving a greater light bulb heat benefit compared to more poorly insulated ones elsewhere, as in the UK. The heat from bulbs stays in the room, not escaping through the ceiling.
A point of irony is therefore how governments are increasing home insulation schemes to save on heating, while banning bulbs which, proportionate to small energy use of course, would thereby contribute more to such heating.



(v) Canadians are more likely to enjoy the psychologically warm effect:

Incandescents tend towards the red end of the spectrum, while unmodified fluorescents and LED lighting have more blue light, cooler in effect.
Also, when dimmed, the warm effect of incandescents increases: and people in northern countries like Canada or Nordic Europe are more likely to entertain others in their homes for say dinner parties, possibly also for cultural reasons.
Compare with warmer regions where people go out more to socialize, have no control over such lighting used, and barely use their own home lighting that they can control.



(vi) Canadians are more likely to enjoy bright light:

Having longer darker winters, and generally with less bright conditions than more tropical locations.
100W+ bright equivalent lighting is less easy to make in fluorescent or LED bulb form, is not often available for general household use, and is particularly expensive when it is (and is still not widely possible omnidirectionally with LED bulbs).
The importance is also seen from the existence of SAD, Seasonal Affective Disorder in Northern countries generally, where the lack of light during winter months plays a role as seen from the bright light phototherapy treatment that is involved.

[ Sections 4 to 10 can be seen via doc or pdf download, see top of this page]



How Regulations are Wrongly Justified
14 points, referenced:
Includes why the overall society savings aren't there, and even if they were, why alternative policies are better, including alternative policies that target light bulbs.
 
          Comment on Work of Critical Materials Institute could help lessen US dependence on China for rare earths by Faye Oney        
Thanks so much for your comment Alan! I found that information in the Sept. 2014 NCPA report (link is in the post), on page 11, Table VI at the top. The original source is page 5 of this report: http://threeconsulting.com/pdfs/China-rare-earth-strategyin-wHighlights-.pdf I will definitely check out your website! Thanks again for reading my article.
          Comment on Work of Critical Materials Institute could help lessen US dependence on China for rare earths by Alan Jones        
Hi Faye. We have done some interesting work on mobile phones, see www.whatsinmystuff.org I'd be interested in your source of the" 9 rare earths in a smart phone" statistic so we can keep our own work up to date.
           Sources of dust in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, during the last Glacial and the deglaciation derived by Rare Earth Element measurements in the EPICA-DML ice core         
Conference -Poster Wegner, A. , Barbante, C. , Cozzi, G. , Delmonte, B. , Dick, D. , Fischer, H. , Gabrielli, P. , Gaspari, V. , Kriews, M. , Ruth, U. and Stölting, I. (2008) Sources of dust in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, during the last Glacial and the deglaciation derived by Rare Earth Element measurements in the EPICA-DML ice core , EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria. April 2008. . hdl:10013/epic.30539
           Identification of sources of mineral dust in Antarctica using Rare Earth Elements         
Conference -Poster Wegner, A. , Ruth, U. , Fischer, H. , Dietrich, S. , Kriews, M. , Dick, D. , Stölting, I. , Schmitt, J. , Bory, A. and Delmonte, B. (2006) Identification of sources of mineral dust in Antarctica using Rare Earth Elements , EPICA science meeting, 16-19 October 2006, Il Ciocco, Italy. . hdl:10013/epic.26141
           A major glacial-interglacial change in aeolian dust composition inferred from Rare Earth Elements in Antarctic ice         
Article Gabrielli, P. , Wegner, A. , Petit, J. R. , Delmonte, B. , De Deckker, P. , Gaspari, V. , Fischer, H. , Ruth, U. , Kriews, M. , Boutron, C. , Cescon, P. and Barbante, C. (2010) A major glacial-interglacial change in aeolian dust composition inferred from Rare Earth Elements in Antarctic ice , Quaternary Science Reviews, 29 , pp. 265-273 . hdl:10013/epic.33976
           Rare earth elements determined in Antarctic ice by inductively coupled plasmaTime of flight, quadrupole and sector field-mass spectrometry: An inter-comparison study         
Article Dick, D. , Wegner, A. , Gabrielli, P. , Ruth, U. , Barbante, C. and Kriews, M. (2008) Rare earth elements determined in Antarctic ice by inductively coupled plasmaTime of flight, quadrupole and sector field-mass spectrometry: An inter-comparison study , Analytica Chimica Acta, 621 (2), pp. 140-147 . doi:10.1016/j.aca.2008.05.026 , hdl:10013/epic.30733
          Crucible and extrinsic facecoat compositions        
Crucible compositions and methods of using the crucible compositions to melt titanium and titanium alloys. More specifically, crucible compositions having extrinsic facecoats comprising a rare earth oxide that are effective for melting titanium and titanium alloys for use in casting titanium-containing articles. Further embodiments are titanium-containing articles made from the titanium and titanium alloys melted in the crucible compositions. Another embodiment is a crucible curing device and methods of use thereof.
          5/14/2017 — Nightly Earthquake Update + Forecast — Ontario Canada Fracking operation struck        
A very rare earthquake has occurred at a fracking operation located at the Ontario Canada / USA border near Detroit Michigan. This location in Ontario just so happens to also be a location which had a giant methane burst come out of the ground two years ago (2015). It would appear that the location in … Continue reading 5/14/2017 — Nightly Earthquake Update + Forecast — Ontario Canada Fracking operation struck
          Control of rare earths gives China a fresh economic advantage        
In October 1973, the world shuddered when the Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries imposed an oil embargo on the United States and other nations that provided military aid to Israel in the Yom Kippur war. At the same time, they ramped up prices. ...
          Audio-Technica ATH-M50x Professional Monitor Headphones        
Audio-Technica ATH-M50x Professional Monitor Headphones

Audio-Technica ATH-M50x Professional Monitor Headphones

Audio-Technica ATH-M50x Professional Monitor Headphones As the most critically acclaimed model in the M-Series line, the ATH-M50 is praised by top audio engineers and pro audio reviewers year after year. Now, the ATH-M50x professional monitor headphones feature the same coveted sonic signature, with the added feature of detachable cables. From the large aperture drivers, sound isolating earcups and robust construction, the M50x provides an unmatched experience for the most critical audio professionals.  Critically acclaimed sonic performance praised by top audio engineers and pro audio reviewers Proprietary 45 mm large-aperture drivers with rare earth magnets and copper-clad aluminum wire voice coils Exceptional clarity throughout an extended frequency range, with deep, accurate bass response Circumaural design contours around the ears for excellent sound isolation in loud environments 90° swiveling earcups for easy, one-ear monitoring Professional-grade earpad and headband material delivers more durability and comfort Collapsible for space-saving portability Detachable cables (includes 1.2 m - 3.0 m coiled cable, 3.0 m straight cable and 1.2 m straight cable) Top choice for studio tracking and mixing, as well as DJ monitoring and personal listening Also available in white (ATH-M50xWH) and limited edition matte gray (ATH-M50xMG)


          SEEKING VIKHANASA/IYENGAR BRIDES        
THE PROFILE IS CREATED FOR MY SON. HE IS WORKING IN INDIAN RARE EARTHS LIMITE(GOVT OUBKIC SECTOR COMPANY).WE ARE FROM VIK
          Swish Birdhouse        

Swish Birdhouse

Curved poplar front birdhouse with cherry roof and sides. The arched bottom is made from walnut. The left side opens for easy cleaning and is held shut by rare earth magnets.


          Crossed Birdhouse        

Crossed Birdhouse

Walnut hickory birdhouse with a little cherry on top. I layered the walnut over the hickory and deep routed the front and back. The clean out is hidden on the side. The burled walnut panel lifts up and out for easy cleaning. It is held securely in place with a few rare earth magnets. I put rubbed 6+ coats of Spar poly for protection. Thanks for looking.


          Ashram metallurgy progresses as Commerce Resources confirms high-grade TREO        
Ashram metallurgy progresses as Commerce Resources confirms high-grade TREO

If metallurgy is crucial to rare earths, Commerce Resources TSXV:CCE has positive news as it moves its Ashram deposit towards pre-feasibility....

          Ashram advances        
Favourable mineralogy helps Commerce Resources move its Quebec rare earth project towards pre-feasibility
Favourable mineralogy helps Commerce Resources move its Quebec rare earth project towards pre-feasibility by Greg Klein

On schedule and under budget, winter-spring drilling at Commerce Resources’ (TSXV:CCE) Ashram deposit in northern Quebec wrapped up last week, bringing one of the world’s largest rare earth projects closer to pre-feasibility. Ashram advances at a time when China’s “costs of producing ‘cheap’ rare earths are becoming increasingly unsustainable in terms of the environment, the availability of reserves, the health of its communities and the political ramifications,” according to a 28-page report by Secutor Capital Management. The study adds that China “is beginning to worry about its own domestic supply, as China is its own biggest customer.”


          Effect of Solidification Rate and Rare Earth Metal Addition on the Microstructural Characteristics and Porosity Formation in A356 Alloy        
The present study was performed on A356 alloy with the main aim of investigating the effects of La and Ce additions to 356 alloys (with and without 100 ppm Sr) on the microstructure and porosity formation in these alloys. Measured amounts of La, Ce, and Sr were added to the molten alloy. The results showed that, in the absence of Sr, addition of La and Ce leads to an increase in the nucleation temperature of the α-Al dendritic network with a decrease in the temperature of the eutectic Si precipitation, resulting in increasing the freezing range. Addition of 100 ppm Sr results in neutralizing these effects. The presence of La or Ce in the casting has a minor effect on eutectic Si modification, in spite of the observed depression in the eutectic temperature. It should be noted that Ce is more effective than La as an alternate modifying agent. According to the atomic radius ratio, is 1.604 and is 1.559, theoretically, which shows that Ce is relatively more effective than La. The present findings confirm that Sr is the most dominating modification agent. Interaction between rare earth (RE) metals and Sr would reduce the effectiveness of Sr. Although modification with Sr causes the formation of shrinkage porosity, it also reacts with RE-rich intermetallics, resulting in their fragmentation.
          Magnetie - Reversible Magnetic Neckties        
Magnetie - Reversible Magnetic Neckties
Reversible, 100% silk necktie with rare Earth magnets embedded inside to keep the tie tail behind the tie no matter the remaining length.

Click Here For Complete Details

          tabung televici        

SEKILAS TENTANG CRT
Cathode ray tube (tabung sinar katoda), berprinsip dasar menembakkan elektron menuju anoda (plat yang ada di depan layar). Dibutuhkan besar tegangan yang cukup agar elektron dapat berpindah (tertembakkan). Elektron yang berpindah akhirnya mendarat pada lapisan fluor/phospor pada bagian depan CRT. Fluor/phospor ini akan berpendar/berpijar/menyala bila menangkap elektron dan akhirnya akan timbul bintik/gambar pada bagian lain kaca (depan/bagian sisi pengamat).
Pada TV hitam putih, hanya dibutuhkan 1 set penembak elektron (heater, grid1, grid2, dan katoda/video in). Fluktuasi/perubahan/modulasi tegangan pada grid video ini akan mengatur jumlah/kuantitas elektron yang diperbolehkan untuk menuju ke bagian depan layar. Pada TV warna, terdapat 3 set (R, G dab B) dengan cara kerja masing-masing sama dengan cara kerja pada CRT hitam putih. Secara teknis dan cara kerjanya, CRT cembung dengan flat adalah sama.

1.                  Katoda (R, G dan B)
Elemen/plat katoda merupakan sumber elektron utama. Tegangan pada plat ini diatur oleh transistor output RGB. Semakin tinggi tegangan pada elemen ini, semakin sedikit jumlah elektron yang ditembakkan. 3 buah plat ini masing-masing mengeluarkan elektron R (merah), green (hijau) dan blue (biru).
Dalam pemrosesan sinyal video oleh IC chroma menghasilkan 3 sinyal warna RGB, sinyal RGB ini kemudian dikuatkan oleh blok penguat RGB untuk menggerakkan plat RGB pada CRT. Besar elektron yang berpindah/tertembak menimbulkan arus katoda. Arus katoda ini disensor dan diproteksi untuk menghindari terjadinya overshoot yang dapat memperpendek umur CRT sekaligus memproteksi kuantitas emisi sinar X yang dikeluarkan oleh CRT.

2.                   Anoda (HV)
Plat katoda merupakan negatifnya CRT dan elektron mengalir dari katoda menuju anoda. Tegangan/beda potensial pada plat anoda harus mencukupi supaya plat katoda mengemisikan elektron menuju ke plat anoda. Tegangan pada plat anoda disupply dari sekunder FBT dengan melalui kabel HV yang oleh para bengkel sering disebut sebagai kop anoda (kabel dari FBT yang terbesar dengan ujung karet silikon).

3.                   Heater
Selain beda potensial yang cukup, plat katoda juga perlu dipanaskan. Tujuan pemanasan ini agar plat katoda dapat menembakkan elektron meski dengan HV yang rendah. Semakin panas heater, semakin mudah bagi elektron untuk berpindah, juga semakin sedikit tegangan HV yang dibutuhkan.

4.                   Screen (G2)
Elektron yang keluar dari plat katoda dikumpulkan bersama-sama dengan elektron dari G1 (ingat, G1 juga negatif). Beda tegangan antara G1 dan G2 (screen) secara praktis dapat mengatur kuantitas elektron yang menuju ke anoda (bagian depan CRT). Semakin tinggi tegangan pada plat G2, semakin besar elektron dari G1 yang akan diteruskan. Perbedaan utama plat G1 dengan plat katoda (RGB) adalah pada tegangannya, bila tegangan RGB besarnya tergantung video, maka tegangan pada G1 adalah tetap (dan dijaga selalu negatif). Begitu juga elektron yang keluar dari G1 juga tetap.

Focus (G3)
Kuantitas elektron yang keluar dari G1 dan katoda perlu diperuncing, tegangan pada plat G3 mengatur tingkat focus dari elektron yang keluar. Tegangan focus ini bernilai tertentu tergantung kondisi CRT. Plat focus bekerja mirip dengan kaca pembesar (lup) yang mempunyai jarak focus tertentu.



Prinsip Kerja CRT TV dan Cara memperbaiki CRT

1 Votes
QuantcastSeperti yang kita ketahui tabung gambar merupakan salah satu komponen TV yang sangat vital, Banyak kerusakan kerusakan pada TV salah satunya yaitu kerusakan tabung.
Ketika saya sedang mencari cari sedikit tentang tabung tv ini saya sempat mengunjungi salah satu blog teman saya yang kebetulan membahas tentang tabung CRT pada TV dan karena menurut saya itu adalah artikel yang sangat bagus maka saya akan kembali mengulas juga di posting Prinsip Kerja CRT TV dan Cara memperbaiki CRT menurut pemahaman saya dan menggunakan bahasa saya sendiri.
Rekan rekan teknisi mungkin sering menghadapi kerusakan pada Televisi seperti ini:

Hal tersebut diatas diakibatkan oleh salah satu atau 2 komponen warna yang tidak seimbang atau tidak ada sama sekali ,Karena tabung gambar terdiri atas 3 komponen warna dasar yaitu RGB (Red= merah  Green=Hijau Blue=biru) .
Gambar no.1 adalah gambar dengan komponen tanpa warna merah .No2 tanpa Hijau dan gambar 3 tanpa biru .
Gambar No.4 tanpa merah dan hijau ,Gambar No.5 Tanpa warna Biru dan Merah Gambar No.6Tanpa warna Hijau dan biru .
Gejala kerusakan seperti gambar di atas bisa diakibatkan karena tabung gambar nya atau bisa juga karena ada kerusakan di rangkaian chroma atau pemroses warna atau kerusakan di rangkaian   pcb crt socket
Gambar normalnya adalah seperti gambar di bawah ini :

Bagaimanakah Cara mengetahui kesehatan Atau cara mengukur tabung gambar ,dan bagaimana juga cara nya agar tabung yang sudah lemah bisa disegarkan kembali , berikut ini akan saya sodorkan triks dan tips nya yang sederhana
Sekilas tentang tabung gambar / CRT
Tabung sinar katoda (bahasa Inggris: cathode ray tube atau CRT), ditemukan oleh Karl Ferdinand Braun, merupakan sebuah tabung penampilan yang banyak digunakan dalam layar komputer, monitor video, televisi dan osiloskop. CRT dikembangkan dari hasil kerja Philo Farnsworth yang dipakai dalam seluruh pesawat televisi sampai akhir abad 20, dan merupakan dasar perkembangan dari layar plasma, LCD dan bentuk teknologi TV lainnya.
Tabung sinar katoda pada pesawat televisi 14 inch

Versi paling awal CRT adalah sebuah dioda katoda-dingin, sebuah modifikasi dari tabung Crookes (sinar-X) dengan layar dilapisi fosfor, kadang kala dipanggil tabung Braun.
Versi pertama yang menggunakan kathoda panas dikembangkan oleh J.B. Johnson (yang merupakan asal istilah noise Johnson) dan H.W. Weinhart dari Western Electric dan menjadi produk komersial pada 1922.
“Sinar katoda adalah aliran elektron kecepatan tinggi yang dipancarkan dari katoda yang dipanaskan dari sebuah tabung vakum.”
Dalam tabung sinar katoda, elektron-elektron secara hati-hati diarahkan menjadi pancaran, dan pancaran ini di”defleksi” oleh medan magnetik untuk men”scan” permukaan di ujung pandan (anode), yang sebaris dengan bahan berfosfor (biasanya berdasar atas logam transisi atau rare earth. Ketika elektron menyentuh material pada layar ini, maka elektron akan menyebabkan timbulnya cahaya. Untuk lebih jelasnya kita bisa melihat pada salah satu contoh gambar berikut :

Cara kerjanya adalah mula mula katoda tabung dipanaskan oleh pin heater ( sekitar 6VAC) hingga elektron mudah ditembakkan, elektron ini diarahkan oleh magnetik D-Y yoke ke arah permukaan tabung yg dilapisi oleh fosfor (RGB: Red Green Blue) Elektron elektron ini akan ditembakkan sesuai dengan input pada kaki kaki katoda Tabung gambar dalam hal ini yang berhubungan langsung dengan bagian ini adalah IC Video Amp / Transistor penguat akhir pada PCB CRT.
Apabila lapisan katoda dipanasi ,maka permukaan katoda akan dengan mudah melepaskan elektron elektronnya (atom yang bermuatan negatif ) dalam teori listrik yang bisa berpindah atau bergerak adalah elektron ! Lihat pada gambar dibawah untuk lebih jelasnya :


Bagian Electron Guns akan menembakkan elektron sesuai inputan dan apabila Elektron ini bertabrakan dengan lapisan fosfor yang berada dibagian depan CRT ( screen) Fosfor yg tertembak elektron akan berpendar maka kita melihat warna di depan TV tabung. Elektron elektron  ini tentu saja tidak asal asalan ditembakkan begitu saja namun terlebih dahulu didefleksikan oleh Deflection yoke.Itulah proses dasar pembentukan gambar pada TV.
Secara teori, CRT dan LCD memiliki perbedaan di mana CRT menggunakan elektron yang ditembakkan ke layar sehingga mewarnai menjadi suatu gambar. LCD memiliki cahaya di belakang yang konstan di mana intensitas kecerahan menjadi berbeda karena adanya penutupan/penghalangan dari molekul untuk sinar yang melewati panel.

Sekilas tentang LCD
(Liquid Crystal Display) juga dikenal sebagai LCD adalah suatu jenis media tampilan yang menggunakan kristal cair sebagai penampil utama. LCD sudah digunakan di berbagai bidang misalnya dalam alat-alat elektronik seperti televisi, kalkulator ataupun layar komputer.
Pada LCD berwarna semacam monitor terdapat banyak sekali titik cahaya (pixel) yang terdiri dari satu buah kristal cair sebagai sebuah titik cahaya. Walau disebut sebagai titik cahaya, namun kristal cair ini tidak memancarkan cahaya sendiri. Sumber cahaya di dalam sebuah perangkat LCD adalah lampu neon berwarna putih di bagian belakang susunan kristal cair tadi.
Titik cahaya yang jumlahnya puluhan ribu bahkan jutaan inilah yang membentuk tampilan citra. Kutub kristal cair yang dilewati arus listrik akan berubah karena pengaruh polarisasi medan magnetik yang timbul dan oleh karenanya akan hanya membiarkan beberapa warna diteruskan sedangkan warna lainnya tersaring.
Khusus untuk pembahasan tentang LCD akan saya sampaikan pada artikel lainnya.
Kembali ke Laptop Tabung TV, lalu bagaimana cara mengukur baik tidaknya sebuah tabung, untuk pertanyaan ini sudah pernah saya bahas di artikel sebelumnya tentang Analisa CRT TV , Tips mengukur CRT dan Trik layar CRT namun tidak ada salahnya kita mencoba trik lain bukan. Berikut saya paparkan 2 cara lain yang saya ketahui.

Namun berhubung kedua cara ini menurut saya terlalu berbahaya untuk dilakukan khususnya untuk pemula maka saya tidak menyarankan bagi anda yang baru mengenal Service Televisi……DONT TRY THIS AT HOME…. hehe. :sialTerkecuali jika memang anda sudah mengenal betul pin pin pada tabung TV tentu tidak ada masalah.
Cara Pertama
Ok untuk cara pertama, coba lihat kedua gambar dibawah ini :
Gambar pertama kurang lebih menggambarkan hubungan antara grid-katoda-heater pada CRT dalam keadaan mati , sedangkan gambar kedua menggambarkan hubungan ketika CRT menyala yaitu heater memanaskan lapisan katoda sehingga elektron mudah ditembakkan.
Nah antara ketiga pin ini tentu memiliki resistansi tertentu bukan!
Apabila kita ukur dengan AVO meter menggunakan skala Ohm Meter dengan skala  X 1K , kabel merah kita hubungkan ke katoda dan kabel Hitam dihubungkan dengan Grid ,Bila tabungnya dalam kondisi bagus , jarum avo meter akan bergerak  menunjukan angka resistansi sekitar 10k ,namun apabila tabung gambar mengalami kerusakan  atau soak atau loyo maka nilai resistansi nya akan besar atau bahkan jarum meter tidak bergerak sama sekali meskipun skala sudah dinaikan jadi x 10k.
Alat yang harus kita siapkan untuk pengujian tabung ini adalah :
1. Power supply atau trafo yang ada output 6volt
2. Multymeter atau AVO meter

Bingung……..!!!!!!! makanya belajar, coba lihat gambar dibawah ini : :payah

Pin heater diberi tegangan 6 Volt dan kita ukur berapa resistansi antara grid dan Katoda apakah sesuai dengan nilai tadi. Ingat, kabel meter warna merah di hubungkan ke katoda dan kabel warna hitam ke grid.

Cara Ke Dua
Cara yang kedua adalah mengukur tanpa melepaskan CRT socket ,artinya mengukur secara langsung dalam keadan hidup atau TV dalam keadaan menyala .
Caranya adalah dengan cara Mengukur tegangan yang keluar dari masing masing katoda ,apabila CRT dalam kondisi bagus tegangan nya akan berkisar 100 volt DC ,tapi kalau yang sudah lemah berkisar 10 volt bahkan kurang ,jadi kalau di hitung secara prosentase apabila keluar 50 volt biasanya kita menyebut kondisi crt  50 persen.
Bagaimana cara mengukurnya ? caranya adalah dengan terlebih dahulu melepaskan resistor yang terhubung ke katoda dari masing masing katoda RGB.
Gambar yang disilang warna merah adalah lokasi untuk memutuskan hubungan nya seperti gambar dibawah ini .


Lalu bagaimana untuk memperbaiki tabung TV atau lebih tepatnya me-refresh tabung yang rusak
Gambar di bawah ini adalah rangkaian untuk mendoubler tegangan ac , gunanya untuk membersihkan permukaan katoda yang terkena korosi karena pemakaian dalam jangka waktu lama
Komponennya adalah 3 buah IN4007  4 buah elco 4,7uf400v.
Satu lagi saya tambahkan trik untuk merefresh tabung TV, yaitu dengan men-shortkan Screen pada CRT dengan GND!!!! apakah cara ini saya sarankan, Ya dan Tidak. Sedikit Flashback ke kasus dulu, saya pernah menemukan TV Samsung CS7271 ( teknisi kawakan pasti tau TV ini ) CRT buram / hampir tidak ada gambar malah, suara normal. Dengan asumsi tegangan yang mengalir ke Screen CRT normal. Dengan kata lain CRT sudah benar benar rusak. :cry:
Saya coba trik ini pada TV Samsung CS7271 ini, lalu ternyata Gambar kembali muncul normal……tapi ternyata 6 bulan kemudian CRT kembali mati dan pada saat saya mencoba trik ini untuk kedua kalinya ternyata tidak berhasil. Saya sendiri tidak tahu apa penyebabnya, saya menduga emisi di dalam tabung sudah benar benar berkurang.
Terus terang saya sendiri tidak berani melakukan trik ini pada CRT TV yang termasuk baru.
Kecuali jika memang menurut anda CRT tersebut sudah benar benar mati total. Jika memang hendak melakukan trik ini anda harus berhati hati karena mungkin akan ada percikan yang disebabkan short kaki2 ini.
Yup demikian posting saya kali ini tentang Prinsip Kerja CRT TV dan Cara memperbaiki CRT, Oiya mohon maaf jika saya akhir akhir ini jarang memposting atau menjawab komentar dari rekan rekan, maklum sedang sibuk kuliah dan sibuk mengurus
Mohon maaf jika ada penjelasan saya yang kurang tepat. Semoga bermanfaat…..amien.

TCL 21276S GAMBAR GETAR
Ditulis dalam Uncategorized oleh rahmatjaya di/pada Februari 13, 2010

Kali ini dapat servisan TV merk TCL model 21276S milik mas Rubiman manisrenggo klaten, dengan kerusakan gambar getar2. Tv ini biasanya dipakai untuk tampilan game dari PS2.
Setelah diberi penjelasan dari yang punya, mulai ku buka casingnya dan dibersihkan, solder ulang di semua bagian, dari pengamatan mata ditemukan 2 elco yang gundul.
Ganti kedua elco tersebut, 1 di c308 1000uF/25V di bag vertikal, satu lagi elco 33uF/50V di primer switching power supply. saatnya mencoba…….dan cratttt gambar tampil tampa getar2 tetapi kok disertai kilatan2, waduh… kok jadi begini….
teryata yang jadi biang adalah elco 33uF yang tadi aku ganti di power supply, setelah ganti lagi tv dapat nyala normal tanpa getaran dan kilatan, alhamdulillah……..
Info dari rekan2 kemungkinan elco tsb nilai ESRnya tinggi tidak cocok untuk power supply switching. Sayang sekali aku blm punya alat untuk ngukur nilai ESR…
sekian terima kasih…
Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar
TV TCL model 1497AT MATI TOTAL
Dapat lagi servisan tv TCL 14 inch, milik mbak Sipon, kecemen, manisrenggo.
Dengan kerusakan mati total.
Tv ini memakai IC program M87160m8-063FP, dan IC chroma M61266.
Setelah dibuka tutup belakangnya, didapati sekering putus/terbakar, tentunya ada yang short/konslet ini….dalam benakku. Saat kuukur pada kaki2 elco besar 220uF/400v didapati hasil simpangan jarum mentok posisi multi X1.

Ternyata ditemukan transistor regulator dalam kondisi short, aku periksa typenya C5855 ???? yang teryata merupakan type TR untuk horizontal. Kenapa bisa terpasang disitu??

Jadi khusus untuk PEMULA perlu diperhatikan beda antara type TR untuk regulator dan type TR untuk horizontal, dimana untuk tr Horizontal ada tambahan resistor dan dioda dumper. perhatikan gambar berikut: contoh type D2499:

Semoga bermanfaat. terimakasih
Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar
MENGATASI PROBLEM TEGANGAN BOCOR KOP ANODA TABUNG
Ditulis dalam Uncategorized oleh rahmatjaya di/pada Februari 13, 2010

Saat melakukan perbaikan televisi sering kali kita menemukan kerusakan berupa kebocoran tegangan pada kop anoda tabung. Ditandai dengan tampak/samar adanya lidah api listrik keluar dari batas karet kop. Hal ini dimungkinkan karena pada titik ini terdapat tegangan tinggi sekitar 25 Kv.

Penyebabnya sering kali karena kondisi karet kop yang sudah berubah elastisitasnya, kerusakan konduktor plat di dalamya, juga karena terkikisnya lapisan isolator biasanya berwarna merah pada permukaan kaca tabung sekitar anoda.

Kerusakan seperti ini bila dibiarkan dalam waktu lama kemungkinan dapat menyebabkan kerusakan merembet ke bagian yang lain pada board TV.

Dari berbagai eksperimen dilapangan ditemui ide2 untuk mengatasi permasalahan ini, ada yang pakai paslin, lem castol, ganti lapisan dengan cat pilox, dll. Namun kadang belum mampu atasi dengan tuntas.

Menurut pengalaman penulis langkah perbaikan yang diperlukan antara lain:

1. Ganti karet kop anoda tabung beserta plat dalamnya.
2. Kop dilepas dulu dari tabung lalu bersihkan “area berwarna merah” disekitar posisi kop, dengan kain dibasahi dengan THINNER ND yang cepat kering.

Bila lapisan warna merah masih ada dan susah dibersihkan tidak perlu dipaksakan, karena nanti akan bersatu juga dengan lapisan baru.

Jangan lupa plat lubang anoda juga dibersihkan.

3. Siapkan cat “MENI BESI” (berguna sebagai lapisan dasar sebelum cat pada permukaan besi) dengan kekentalan yang cukup, tidak perlu terlalu encer. Bahan ini digunakan untuk melapisi ulang permukaan berwarna merah disekitar anoda tabung. Bias diaplikasikan dengan kuas kecil atau ujung obeng min yang agak besar. Lapisan nantinya mungkin sedikit tebal namun tidak apa2.
4. Pasang kembali kop, dan siap ditest. Semoga bermanfaat

Terimakasih
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Selamat Datang di BENGKEL ELEKTONIK…,
Ditulis dalam Uncategorized oleh rahmatjaya di/pada Februari 13, 2010

Salam kenal bagi anda semua dan terima kasih anda telah membuka blok ini.

Sebelumnya saya mohon maaf jika ada kesalahan dalam penulisan kata atau kalimat dan penjelasan yang kurang tepat mengenai pembahasan diblok ini.Karena saya hanya orang biasa bukanlah orang pinter atau jenius dan saya juga sama-sama belajar seperti anda,manusia diciptakan dengan derajat yang sama,tidak ada yang bodoh tidak ada yang pinter.Mungkin orang sering mengatakan pinter karena dia belajar lebih dahulu dan orang dikatakan bodoh karena kita belum belajar.Jadi janganlah kita mennyebut orang pinter atau bodoh.Semoga blok saya ini bermanfaat bagi anda.

Saya akan membantu anda dalam mengatasi masalah reparasi elektronika khususnya televisi berwarna dan cara merakit komputer sendiri serta cara menginstal software komputer.Bagi anda yang suka otak atik elektronika dan ingin belajar reparasi televisi dan merakit komputer sendiri,anda tak perlu kursus dengan biaya yang sangat mahal.Mungkin blok saya sangat membantu bagi anda yang ingin belajar reparasi televisi,mengatasi berbagai masalah televisi serta cara merakit komputer sendiri.Anda pasti bisa dan tak perlu memanggil bengkel yang profesional.Sebenarnya televisi dan merakit komputer tidaklah sulit seperti yang dibayangkan apabila anda mau belajar dengan teliti dan sabar kuncinya.Saya akan menerangkan langkah demi langkah dan disertai dengan gambar yang jelas dan mudah dipahami,andapun bisa langsung praktek sendiri.Mungkin kalau anda kursus terlalu bertele-tele teorinya dan anda belum tentu jelas apa yang diterangkan apalagi prakteknya sangat kurang.Untuk menjadi teknisi elektronika yang profesional haruslah berani otak atik sendiri.Dengan demikian anda akan mendapatkan banyak pengalaman.Nah..,bagi anda yang pemula, setelah membaca blok saya ini anda harus mempraktekkannya sendiri,mencoba sendiri.Mungkin anda belum berani langsung menangani televisi punya orang,takut akan tambah rusak.Anda tak perlu takut karena dengan berani mencoba berarti anda akan tambah pinter.Karena pengalaman anda sangatlah berharga dan bila anda ingin belajar lebih maju,anda korbankan satu televisi buat praktek sendiri untuk diotak atik sambil membaca petunjuk yang saya berikan dan pasti anda bisa karena langkah yang saya berikan adalah cara tepat dan praktis mereparasi seperti teknisi-teknisi yang lain.Kalau anda bertanya kepada bengkel-bengkel profesional yang lain belum tentu anda dikasih tau apalagi bertanya sampai mendetail kukira itu tidak mungkin karena ilmu dia sangat berharga.Kecuali anda membayar mahal pada bengkel tersebut atau kursus dengan biaya cukup tinggi.Blok saya ini akan menjelaskan cara mereparasi televisi dengan langkah-langkah praktis tepat pada sasarannya,karena berdasarkan pengalaman yang terjadi,mulai dari mati total sampai pada masalah gambar.
Dibawah ini adalah sekilas tentang blok saya:
Blok saya membahas tentang masalah televisi dan cara merakit komputer sendiri yang disertai dengan gambar-gambar yang jelas.Total halaman ada 100 halaman.Pada bab pembahasan televisi,saya terangkan cara praktis mereparasi televisi dengan langkah-langkah yang jelas dan tepat pada sasaran.Dan saya memberi sedikit teori agar anda bisa memahami betul bagaimana cara mereparasi televisi dengan cepat dan tepat.Anda tidak perlu menghafalkan secara bertele-tele semua teori televisi,tetapi poin-poin penting saja yang perlu anda mengerti.Apabila rangkaian televisi anda pelajari teorinya secara mendetail sangatlah banyak dan anda belum tentu paham.Maka saya membuat sebuah rangkuman dengan poin-poin penting dan berguna.Rangkuman saya ini mungkin sangat cocok bagi pemula yang baru mempelajari bidang elektronika khususnya televisi berwarna.Langkah demi langkah saya jelaskan.Tidak hanya bagi orang yang suka elektronik saja,tetapi bagi kalangan umum yang ingin belajarpun juga bisa.Rangkuman saya ini berguna juga bagi siapapun,karena semua televisi sekarang memakai servis mode untuk kontrol gambarnya.Servis mode adalah kode-kode tertentu untuk membuka menu servis mode dengan menggunakan remot originalnya.Menu servis mode ini berguna untuk setting gambar yang diinginkan.Jadi apabila televisi anda bermasalah pada gambarnya belum tentu rangkaian elektroniknya yang rusak,bisa programnya yang error.Atau televisi anda mati tetapi lampu stanby menyala,maka anda cek dahulu dengan menggunakan remot dan kode servis modenya.Apabila tidak berhasil baru dibawa ke tempat servis televisi,kemungkinan memang rangkaian elektroniknya yang rusak.Selain membahas masalah televisi,bagi anda yang ingin belajar merakit komputer sendiri dan cara menginstal windowsnya,maka blok saya ini juga membahas bagaimana merakit komputer.Langkah demi langkah saya jelaskan dengan disertai gambarnya.
Berikut ini adalah daftar isi dari blok saya :
Diagram blok diatas (Gambar 1 & 2) adalah diagram blok televisi berwarna dan hitam putih.Diantara kedua gambar tsb pada dasarnya sama,bagian-bagiannya,fungsinya,serta cara kerjanya semua sama.Untuk televisi berwarna (perhatikan diagramnya) hanya ada tambahan bagian warna saja (Gambar 1B).Bagian yang lainnya sama persis tak ada bedanya,jadi anda tidak perlu bingung kalau memperbaiki televisi berwarna.Oleh karena itu diagram tersebut penting untuk di ingat-ingat sebagai pedoman anda.Karena diagram tersebut adalah proses / urutan cara kerja televisi mulai dari tuner sampai munculnya gambar pada layar.Maka diagram ini sangat penting untuk dasar dan menjadi petunjuk anda mereparasi televisi.Berarti anda mengerti betul proses kerjanya televisi dari bagian ke bagian.Jadi kalau anda mereparasi televisi tidak asal asalan tetapi tepat pada sasarannya.Kalau anda tidak mengerti urutan bagian dan fungsinya,maka anda akan mengalami kesulitan dan tidak tepat pada bagian yang rusak.Dan blok ini penting anda hafal serta fungsinya walaupun tidak secara mendetail.
Untuk televisi berwarna hanya ada tambahan warna saja.Pada gambar 1B adalah skema blok bagian warna.Untuk proses terjadinya warna bagaimana,anda tak perlu menghafalkan skemanya dan teorinya,karena kalau dihafalkan sangat banyak sekali dan membuat anda tambah pusing.Yang penting adalah skema dasarnya saja dan fungsi masing-masing bagian (berulang kali saya sebutkan).Intinya anda bisa cara mereparasi televisi berwarna dengan langkah-langkah yang tepat dan cepat tak perlu bertele-tele menghafalkan proses pewarnaan.Karena kalau dipelajari secara mendetail mengenai proses terjadinya warna mungkin bisa satu buku sendiri dan anda belum tentu paham.Oleh karena itu anda pelajari praktisnya saja,teorinya diambil yang inti-intinya dan yang penting langkahnya mereparasi dengan cepat dan tepat.
Berikut ini penjelasan mengenai fungsi dari masing-masing bagian :
Antena : berfungsi untuk menangkap sinyal RF dari pemancar televisi.
Tuner : berfungsi untuk memilih gelombang pemancar yang akan diterima.
Didalam tuner terdapat rangkaian penguat RF,mixer dan osilator.
Penguat RF bertugas memilih pemancar yang akan diterima kemudian diberikan ke mixer.
Mixer akhirnya menghasilkan frekuensi baru,kemudian difilter menjadi 2 frekuensi saja yang keluar yaitu 38,9 MHZ dan 33,4 MHZ.
Frekuensi 38,9 MHZ adalh frekuensi pembawa gambar
Frekuensi 33,4 MHZ adalah frekuensi pembawa suara.
Kedua frekuensi tersebut kemudian diteruskan ke penguat video IF.

Video IF : berfungsi menguatkan sinyal-sinyal yang diterima dari mixer,kemudin diteruskan ke video detektor.

Video detektor :berfungsi mendeteksi sinyal gambar dan suara kemudian diteruskan ke video driver.Sinyal pembawa gambar dideteksi hingga keluar sinyal gambar yang frekuensinya 15 KHZ-5 MHZ,sinyal pembawa suara dideteksi hingga keluar sinyal pembawa suara baru 5,5 MHZ (FM).

Video driver berfungsi memisahkan sinyal pembawa suara,sinyal gambar dan sinyal sincronisasi.
Sinyal gambar diteruskan ke video output.
Sinyal suara diteruskan ke sound IF amplifier.
Sinyal sinkronisasi diteruskan ke sinkronisasi separator.

Video output berungsi menguatkan sinyal gambar lalu diteruskan ke katoda tabung.

Sound IF amplifier berfungsi menguatkan sinyal suara kemudian diteruskan ke detektoe FM,detektor FM mendeteksi sinyal 5,5 MHZ hingga tinggal frekuensi audio,kemudian ke penguat audio terus ke loudspeaker.Untuk bagian sound IF sampai penguat audio ini seperti penguat amplifier biasa.

Syncronisasi separator berfungsi untuk menyesuaikan gambar yang dipancarkan dari pemancar.

Osilator vertikal berfungsi membangkitkan frekuensi 50 Hz kemudian diteruskan driver vertikal lalu ke output vertikal,selanjutnya ke defleksi vertikal dan defleksi vertikal ini membuka gambar secara vertikal (atas bawah).

AFC berfungsi mengoreksi frekuensi horizontal 15,625 Khz dan diteruskan ke osilator horizontal.

Osilator horizontal berfungsi untuk membangkitkan frekuensi 15,625 Khz kemudian diteruskan ke driver horizontal lalu ke output horizontal selanjutnya ke defleksi horizontal dan defleksi horizontal ini membuka gambar secara horizontal (kanan kiri).

Horizontal output juga membangkitkan tegangan tinggi sekitar 10-20 kv untuk anoda tabungnya.

Bab 2 : LANGKAH-LANGKAH MEREPARASI TELEVISI

Dalam mereparasi televisi,ada baiknya anda harus melalui langkah-langkah yang benar,agar anda tidak salah dalam menentukan blok atau bagian mana yang rusak.Kalau terjadi kesalahan didalam menentukan sasaran bagian mana yang rusak,maka akibatnya fatal dan kerusakan televisi akan bertambah parah,andapun bertambah pusing juga.Maka perhatikan langkah-langkah yang benar dan tepat,saya mulai dari cara mereparasi televisi dalam kondisi MATI TOTAL :

Langkah ini saya ketik secara urut,mulai dari buka box sampai selesai mereparasi.Tujuannya agar bagi teknisi pemula yang baru mulai mempelajari reparasi televisi bisa lebih memahami.Jadi harap maklum bagi teknisi yang sudah senior.terimakasih.

Langkah-langkah :

1. Pertama,buka box tutup belakang.Apabila memperbaiki televisi keadaan mati total seperti ini,lebih baik mesin televisi dilepas saja dari tabungnya.Agar lebih leluasa jika membolak-balik mesin televisi tsb.Disamping itu,akan lebih mudah dalam pengecekan komponen dan pengukuran tegangan.Tabungnya juga aman tidak resiko kena benda-benda keras yang tidak sengaja selama reparasi,misalnya obeng,tang atau alat-alat lain.Hati-hati melepas mesin,kabel yang berhubungan dengan tabung harus dilepas dahulu seperti kop flyback (jangan dipegang kopnya sebelum dibuang tegangannya).Dan jangan langsung dilepas,buang dahulu tegangan yang masih tersimpan pada kop flyback,biasanya masih ada.Caranya yaitu ambil kabel multitester salah satu, kemudian hubungkan colok multi tsb ke ground tabung.Dan colok yang lancip untuk menusukkan ke dalam kop flyback.Maka akan terbuang tegangan yang masih tersisa dalam kop dan tabung tersebut.Setelah terbuang kemudian lepas kop tsb dari tabung dengan menggunakan tespen.Kenapa menggunakan tespen? Tujuannya apabila masih sedikit tegangan yang ada,maka akan terbuang pada lampu tespen,andapun lebih aman.Setelah kop terlepas,kemudian melepas rangkaian blok RGB yang menancap pada leher tabung,hati-hati sekali dalam melepas soketnya,karena kalau kaki katoda tabung ada yang sampai patah atau kaca leher tabung pecah,maka anda menggantinya tabung.
2. Langkah kedua yaitu membersihkan debu-debu yang ada sampai bersih dan bersihkan juga kotoran yang menempel pada jalur-jalur pcb dengan menggunakan bekas sikat gigi dan tiner yang cepat menguap atau bisa juga alkohol.Caranya,teteskan tiner atau alkohol pada sikat gigi dan pcb yang akan dibersihkan,lalu gosok dengan sikat sampai bersih dari kotoran.Mengapa kotoran yang menempel pcb harus dibersihkan? Tujuannya adalah agar solderan yang retak-retak kelihatan dan memudahkan pengecekan atau penyolderan.Selanjutnya adalah melepas dahulu Transistor panel horizontal yang ada pendinginnya didekat flyback.Untuk menghindari kelalaian anda jika mesin televisi hidup.Karena jika mesin televisi hidup,maka flyback akan menyemprotkan tegangan tinggi sebesar 20-25KV.Coba anda bayangkan kalau terkena tegangan sebesar itu.Tetapi jika Transistor panel sudah dilepas maka anda sudah aman.Karena hal ini penting,saya mengingatkan saja.Tapi anda jangan terus takut,entar setelah membaca petunjuk ini anda takut.Jadi seorang teknisi jangan takut yang penting anda hati-hati dan selalu perhatikan letak kop flyback setiap akan mencoba menghidupkan mesin televisi,jangan sampai terletak diatas/dibawah mesin.Kop flyback tsb harus letakkan jauh sepanjang kabel kop dan menghadap keatas atau dimasukkan dalam gelas saja lebih amannya(posisi ini jika Tr panel horizontal sudah terpasang,jika tidak terpasang tidak apa-apa).
3. Langkah ketiga adalah mengecek tegangan listrik 220V dan sekringnya.Apabila tegangan 220V normal & sekring normal,maka cek tegangan pada elko 400VDC,jika tidak ada tegangannya maka cek dioda bridg_nya atau 4 dioda penyearahnya,mungkin ada yang rusak.
4. Langkah empat,jika tegangan pada elko 400V sudah ada (tegangannya hanya sekitar 250-300VDC saja,bukan 400VDC persis) kemudian ukur tegangan sekundernya 110-115 VDC.
5. Apabila tegangan 110VDC tidak ada,maka kita cek satu persatu daerah sekunder power supply saja.Atau anda lakukan penyolderan ulang dahulu pada bagian yang dicurigai,lalu coba hidupkan.Jika belum keluar tegangan B+ 110V,maka lakukan pengecekan komponen satu persatu didaerah sekunder power supply.
6. Demi keamanan jika anda memperbaiki power supply,biasakan transistor panel horizontal dilepas dahulu,diatas sudah dijelaskan.Hal ini penting untuk menghindari kelalaian anda,karena kalau power supply sudah hidup,dan osilator sampai output horizontal juga hidup maka flyback akan menyemprotkan tegangan tinggi 20-25KV.
7. Cabut/sedot dahulu solderan B+ pada kaki flyback yang ada hubungannya dengan elko B+ 160V agar tidak terbeban oleh flyback dalam memperbaiki power supply.Apabila tidak dilepas solderannya juga tidak apa-apa,flyback tidak akan menyemprotkan tegangan selama transistor panel horizontal belum terpasang.Namun hal tersebut penting juga,karena apa? Untuk mengetahui kaki B+ flyback tsb konslet atau tidak.Jika konslet,maka tegangan B+ dari power supply akan mati setelah dihubungkan dengan kaki B+ flyback.Maka secara langsung anda mengetahui bahwa flyback sudah konslet.
8. Apabila tegangan B+ belum keluar,maka langkah selanjutnya mengukur komponen aktiv dahulu,seperti transistor{Tr},semua diukur satu persatu,jika menemukan ada yang rusak maka gantilah yang baru.
9. Langkah kesembilan,jika B+ power supply belum keluar juga tetapi Transistor semua normal,maka cek dioda Zener 110V.Dioda Zener tersebut bentuknya besar,seperti dioda 3A.Nah..,biasanya zener ini putus,karena dioda ini adalah zener pembatas B+ 110 VDC.
10. Langkah kesepuluh,misalnya B+ belum keluar juga,padahal komponen aktiv seperti Transistor,dioda semua sudah dicek normal.Maka cek Resistor{R},biasanya R yang menuju Basis Transistor Panel power supply dari elko 400V putus,nilainya sekitar 100k-150k ada 2 buah,ganti kedua Resistornya.
11. Pada Power supply televisi untuk panelnya/transistor output tidak semua memakai Transistor,ada yang memakai STR atau SMR.STR adalah IC {Integrated Circuit} tapi didalamnya juga transistor 2 buah dan ada Resistor.Jika STR ini rusak maka R disekitar biasanya rusak,putus atau mulur,kalau kita mengganti STR,maka sekalian R_nya diganti agar kerja STR sempurna.Nah,jika ada televisi dihidupkan langsung listrik konslet atau jeglek maka power supply pasti rusak,bisa STR konslet atau Transistor panelnya rusak/konslet atau dari dioda bridg_nya konslet,bisa juga kapasitor milar 400V konslet.
12. Jika tegangan sekunder sudah ada,lalu anda ukur dan atur trimpot B+,tegangan rata-rata 110-115 Vdc.Dan ukurlah tegangan keluaran B+ yang lain sesuai standard.
13. Syarat agar mesin televisi bisa hidup harus ada tegangan pwr supply,osilator horizontal,driver horiz,output horiz,B+vertikal dan output vertical,lalu tegangan heater,tegangan screen(G2),teg video output dan tegangan RGB.Diantara bagian-bagian tersebut peran paling penting adalah bagian power supply dan Horizontal,kedua bagian ini adalah ibarat orang jantungnya,harus hidup duluan,nanti baru yang lainnya.Berapa saja tegangan diantara bagian-bagian tsb,berikut ini penjelasannya :

-power supply : 110V-115Vdc
-osilator horizontal : 8-12Vdc {Teg untuk IC osc}
-driver horizontal : 50Vdc {pada kaki collector Tr driver horz}
-output horizontal : 0,2Vdc {dari IC osc ke Basis Tr driver Ho}
-Basis TR output horizontal : 0,5 VAC
-IC vertical : 24Vdc {teg B+ IC vertikal tsb}
-output vertical : 12V-16Vdc {dari IC vert menuju defleksi vert}

-heater : 6VAC
-screen (G2) : 250V-450Vdc
-RGB {katoda} : 90V-125Vdc
-video output : 180Vdc {dari flyback}
-program : 5Vdc {teg B+ untuk IC program}
14.Jika tegangan dari power supply semua normal,selanjutnya yang penting adalah harus menghidupkan bagian
          Donald Meets Vladimer (satire)        

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/satire

(written for Saturday Night Live but not submitted)

Donald:  (extending hand)  “We meet at last!  Thanks for helping me get elected!”

Vladimir:  (friendly dismissive gesture)  “Don’t mention it.”  (smiles)  “Your supporters never suspected!”

Donald:  (finally releases Vladimer’s hand)  “Actually, I would have won anyway.  By a landslide!”

Vladimir:  (touches Donald’s shoulder)  “Of course you would.  It helped, though, that we got so many Democrats to hate Hillary.”

Donald:  “Crooked Hillary!  Lock her up!  Those were my ideas, not yours Vlad.”

Vladimir:  “Naturally we didn’t want to be obvious.  That KGB of yours, what’s their name?  They were on to us though.  Clever bunch!”

Donald:  “No they’re not.  Bunch of jackanapes!  Like Comey!  You saw what I did with him didn’t you?  Gave him the bum’s rush!”

Vladimir:  “But you and I . . . we understand each other.”

Donald:  “Right!  To the victor belong the spoils!  Which brings us to North Korea.  Are we going to let that little fart with a bird’s nest on his head sit on all those minerals?”

Vladimir:  “Six trillion dollars is what I hear.  Maybe twelve trillion!  Makes us look like paupers.”  (slouches forward, scouling, rubbing palms together)  http://nypost.com/2017/07/03/north-korea-is-sitting-on-6-trillion-in-mineral-resources/

Donald:  “So what’s the game plan?  We don’t want him nuking Seoul or Tokyo.

Vladimir:  (chuckles)  “Or Fairbanks or Seattle.  No, we don’t want that!”  (chuckles again)

Donald:  “So what are we going to do?  Wait until he can reach Moscow?”

Vladimir:  “We put the squeeze on China.  No other way.  As it is, China’s making out like a bandit.  They’re the one getting all the mining permits; they’re the one making off with all the loot.  https://www.forbes.com/forbes/welcome/?toURL=https://www.forbes.com/sites/larrybell/2012/04/15/chinas-rare-earth-metals-monopoly-neednt-put-an-electronics-stranglehold-on-america/&refURL=https://www.google.com/&referrer=https://www.google.com/  Do you realize that Kim Jong-jang is sitting on 95% of the planet’s rare earths?”

Donald:  “Right.  Our heat-seeking missiles need that stuff.  How else are we going to bring down your Stealth T50’s?”

Vladimir:  (sitting up straight)  “Excuse me, what?”  (looks at translator)

Donald:  “Kidding!  Kidding!  (touches Vladimir’s arm)  American jokes.  Kidding!”

Vladimir:  (brushing off sleeve where Donald touched him)  “Anyway, next time you rattle your . . . “

Donald:  “Lighten up Vlad!  Geez!  Back to Jing-jong jam . . . so how are we going to put the squeeze on China to put the squeeze on Jing?  Come on!  How long are we going to let Ho-tai sit on his twelve trillion dollars worth of minerals, sneering at us with our little billion dollar tax loopholes and gambling joints?”

Vladimir:  (leans over and puts arm around Donald’s shoulder, whispers in his ear and uses free hand to hide lips from news cameras)

http://redlotusletter.com/ho-tai-happiness-feng-shuis-buddha-of-wealth-and-joy/


          Arctic Melt: The New Cold War        


                                        This article was first published in King's Tribune.








   There isn't going to be a shooting war for Arctic resources just yet.


  Major powers like the the US, China and Russia are still waiting for the Arctic ice to hurry up and melt away. And that process is moving along at a pace that makes the average environmentalist want to sign yet another petition during Nat Geo Channel commercial breaks and bong hits. The Arctic is said to have up to 25% of the world’s oil and gas sitting like Inca gold under all that pesky ice and, with current global oil production maxed out and prices rising fast, the North Pole sure has the potential to be proxy resource war central in the increasingly tense 21st century.

  In 2007, the Russians planted a titanium flag on the seabed under the polar ice which was a pretty ballsy move ripped straight out of the 16th century when European powers had a habit of sailing to foreign shores and planting flags on valuable shit they didn’t own. That flag move was designed by Putin to tell Canada, the US, Denmark and Norway (who all claim a piece of the Arctic action) that the Russian claim theoretically extends all the way to the Pole. Naturally, this pissed off everyone and sets the stage for a Cold War Part II later on this century.

  Another fun thing about the melting ice is the profitable new shipping routes that are opening up. The famed “Northeast Passage” is a handy shortcut from Europe to Asia that bypasses the Suez Canal and becomes ice-free every summer. Lately, that shipping lane along the northern Russian coast is becoming increasingly viable even in winter. The Russians like this because it would mean cheaper export routes for Russian oil tankers to burgeoning energy hungry soon-to-be superpower, China. The Russians recently exported 60,000 tons of oil products to China via northern Siberia on the vessel, Perseverance. A trial voyage for sure, but a whole lot cheaper than building a pipeline to China.

  Meanwhile, the US is engaged in proxy resource war in Middle East deserts and sniffing at regime change in Iran and the opening of the third largest oil field on the planet to sleazy Western oil companies. The Russians and Chinese are playing a longer game here on the global energy chessboard. While blocking concerted action at the UN against Iran and Syria (stymying Western attempts at energy field access in Persia), they see a future multi polar world of more balanced rival powers (as the US loses it singular super power perch) and the ending of US hegemony on global energy supply.

  This sure is an interesting time if you’re interested in how the 21st century will play out.





  The retreating Arctic ice shelf is putting a smaller and much ignored part of the planet into the global spotlight. Ground zero for global resource scrambles in the Arctic right now is Greenland. Nominally a Danish ‘protectorate’ (code speak for Copenhagen owns all your shit), the US has been floating the idea of ‘independence’ for that Euro centric island. This would be handy for US oil and mining corporations to skirt pesky European environmental laws that say you have to clean up the mess after you’re done strip mining. Preliminary reports from the soggy permafrost in Greenland reveal uranium, diamonds, gold and rare earth metals packed under the retreating glaciers and those rare earths are in high demand too since 90% of existing supply comes from a single mine in China. Those rare earths get crammed into plasma TVs and i-Pads and the Chinese have been restricting exports, which are subtle opening salvos in the proxy resource wars that will dominate the 21st century.

  The Greenlanders recently retracted laws governing the digging up of radioactive elements on their soil and decided spilling gamma waves into igloos for cash was a deal they could live with. This has attracted the usual swarm of sleazy corporations looking for mining rights. Fun thing is, these corps represent US, Russian and Chinese mining interests with a host of smaller countries like Canada, Australia, Norway and Finland looking for a piece of the action too. Everyone wants access to the last  non-raped piece of real estate on the planet. Sure, the polar bears won’t like it but let’s face it; polar bears are assholes. They'll just have to make do with shitty zoo swimming pools and dancing for fat fucks on cellphone vids.

   Will there be shooting over these resources anytime soon?

   Nope.

   Climate change still has some work to do to melt away those last bits of polar habitat that'll make the region viable for free-for-all energy and commodity extraction. But if we fast-forward to say 2020, shit starts to get interesting. By then, it'll have fully sunken in to us dumb upright apes that economic growth on a planet is finite and tied to energy supply. Nobody's going to be particularly happy about this. Especially in rich countries where we will get to learn the hard way that the plastic bottle that contains the Coca Cola is actually worth more in real terms than the shitty sugar water inside. When that truth comes down the pipe, along with $200 barrel oil, food price increases and shittier lives, it's going to be somebody's fault. In Western countries, that'll probably mean the Chinese and Russians.

   That's where the seeds of future resource wars will get sown.

   Wars always start with angry people. People who get angry blowing their paychecks on fuel and food and not having enough left over for a new plasma screen. This has been going on ever since some hunter-gatherer tribe killed the last mammoth in the valley and pissed off all the other tribes who also needed new fur coats too. Truth is, despite the dystopian sci fi consumertopia we're all living in today, not too much has changed. We've got satellites and i-phones but we're still dumb upright apes when it comes to killing people who try to take our shit. Killing each other for resources is a proven strategy and civilization is just a thin veneer pasted on top of four million years of naked raw survival. When lower living standards peel that veneer away, shit will get interesting fast. And by interesting I mean war. Thing is, future resource wars are going to go global fast because every tribe is going to want a piece of the last mammoth left in the valley.

   Will the Arctic be worth fighting over?

   Sure.

   The Russians have already started beefing up their Northern Fleet and, I shit you not, have begun building a prototype floating nuclear power station to power undersea drilling. That’s sure to make environmentalists shit bricks. The Norwegians just inked a deal with the US for 52 new F-35 multi role stealth fighters which is a $10.5 billion order and gigantic when you consider Norway’s tiny population. It reeks of a ballsy ambition to stake a claim for some Polar resources but then that’s typical of the Nordics. If the shooting ever starts they’ll be looking at a Finn style rerun of the Winter War in 1939 when the tiny Finns bloodied the Red Army’s nose.

   The Canadians too are gearing up for some possible pew-pew.

   In October, the Canadian Navy announced a $25 billion order for 23 new combat vessels of various types aimed at patrolling the Northwest passage, shipping lanes in the Canadian Arctic that are opening up to maritime trade again due to melting ice. Canada has been running Arctic military exercises every year since 2006 (Operation Nanook) designed to warn the Russkis to keep their filthy titanium flags off Canada’s sea floor.






   The US of course is well positioned to defend any Arctic claim. In addition to a defense budget larger than the next ten countries combined, the US has 50 nuclear attack subs that have been lurking under the Arctic ice for decades and it’s hard to see them being over whelmed in any future resource war.

   But here’s where we come to the fun part.

   In an increasingly nuclear-armed world, are limited resource wars even possible without escalating to full on WWIII take-us-back-to-the-Stone Age action? That sure is an interesting question for the 21st century and the fun thing about nukes themselves. They're really only useful when they never get used. In fact, nukes are the greatest peace keeping weapons ever invented.

   Global power since WWII has been primarily economic and “soft”. Having aircraft carriers and stealth bombers is useful but not game winning when you consider that once a nuclear armed power starts losing a conventional war it’s time to press the big red button of win and sort out WWIV with sticks and stones. Nukes were the mutually assured destruction glue that kept the Cold War from ever turning into a shooting contest. The US and Russia fought through proxies and kept warfare on the down low. But will this paradigm endure once oil production peaks and prices increase to the point where the era of cheap energy ends?

   Right now nukes mean there can be no winner and that has made leaders realize that it is better to trade than conquer. Global communication means there are no ideological divisions right now; every nation is money grabbing capitalist pig and that works pretty well for everything but the planet. As planet conditions change and make human populations more costly to sustain, it sure raises some interesting questions.

  Do we get to stage where desperation creeps in?

  Sometime later this century, a major power may have to make a move on some energy, water, or sea lane because failing to do so would result in a collapse of the state anyway; so war and nuke escalation events further down the road are not impossible the way they are now. Resource shortages later this century are the type of things that result in paradigm shifts. Sure, China right now is happy exporting plastic shit, Russia is having a lulz fest squeezing European natural gas supply and the Americans are having a field day running around ME deserts securing future oil supply. But this kind of status quo has a sell by date and that's coming pretty damn soon.

   It's a scary recipe for the future. In fact, it’s so scary I think I’ll go sign some useless petitions and take a bong hit.

  


          625: Chris Hadfield | Rare Earthling        

Chris Hadfield (@Cmdr_Hadfield) is an engineer, former Royal Canadian Air Force fighter pilot, retired astronaut, the first Canadian to walk in space, and author of An Astronaut's Guide to Life on Earth and The Darkest Dark.

"The big decisions are the easy ones." -Commander Chris Hadfield

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          EU, U.S., Japan launch rare earth WTO case against China | Reuters        
The European Union, United States and Japan formally asked the World Trade Organization on Tuesday to settle a dispute with China over Beijing's restriction on exports of raw materials, including rare earth elements critical to major industries.
          Syrian Refugee And German Scientist Make An Unlikely Team        
German scientist Matthias Schmidt wants to extract rare earth metals from abandoned mines using bacteria. He has an unlikely partner — Nedal Said, a Syrian refugee scientist who escaped Aleppo . Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit ARI SHAPIRO, HOST: Now for a story about an unusual partnership - two scientists trying to find a way to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines. It's happening in Leipzig. NPR's Joe Palca went to Germany to learn more. JOE PALCA, BYLINE: In the lower level of a building on the campus of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, there's a modern, well-equipped laboratory. MATTHIAS SCHMIDT: We've got a number of different microscopes. Then we've got a laser microdissection system here. PALCA: Matthias Schmidt is giving me a tour of the lab. Microscopes and laser microdissection systems are useful if you happen to be studying single cells or bacteria. So what are they doing in a lab that's trying to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines?
           The rare earth elements and uranium in garnets from the Beinn an Dubhaich Aureole, Skye, Scotland, UK: constraints on processes in a dynamic hydrothermal system         
Smith, Martin, Henderson, P., Jeffries, T.E., Long, J. and Williams, C.T. (2004) The rare earth elements and uranium in garnets from the Beinn an Dubhaich Aureole, Skye, Scotland, UK: constraints on processes in a dynamic hydrothermal system Journal of Petrology, 45 (3). pp. 457-484. ISSN 1460-2415
          Mari kita mengenal tentang logam yang bukan besi        
Logam Non-Ferro (Non-Ferrous Metal) ialah jenis logam yang secara kimiawi tidak memiliki unsur besi atau Ferro (Fe), oleh karena itu logam jenis ini disebut sebagai logam bukan Besi (non Ferro).
Beberapa dari jenis logam ini telah disebutkan dimana termasuk logam yang banyak dan umum digunakan baik secara murni maupun sebagai unsur paduan.

Dengan semakin berkembangnya ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi terutama dalam pengolahan bahan logam, menjadikan semua jenis logam digunakan secara luas dengan berbagai alasan, mutu produk yang semakin ditingkatkan, kebutuhan berbagai peralatan pendukung teknologi serta keterbatasan dari ketersediaan bahan-bahan yang secara umum digunakan dan lain-lain.
Logam non Ferro ini terdapat dalam berbagai jenis dan masing-masing memiliki sifat dan karakteristik yang berbeda secara spesifik antara logam yang satu dengan logam yang lainnya.
Keberagaman sifat dan karakteristik dari logam Non Ferro ini memungkinkan pemakaian secara luas baik digunakan secara murni atau pun dipadukan antara logam non ferro bahkan dengan logam Ferro untuk mendapatkan suatu sifat yang baru yang berbeda dari sifat asalnya. Untuk mengetahui macam-macam logam non ferro ini dapat disebutkan sebagai berikut :

Lead, Timbal, Timah hitam, Plumbum (Pb)

Timah hitam sangat sangat lunak, lembek tetapi ulet, memiliki warna putih terang yang sangat jelas terlihat pada patahan atau pecahannya.
Timah Hitam memiliki berat jenis (ρ) yang sangat tinggi yaitu =11,3 kg/dm³ dengan titik cair 327ºC, digunakan sebagai isolator anti radiasi Nuclear.
Timah hitam diperoleh dari senyawa Plumbum-Sulphur (PbS) yang disebut "Gelena" dengan kadar yang sangat kecil.
Proses pemurniannya dilakukan dengan memanaskannya didalam dapur tinggi, proses pencairan untuk menghilangkan oxides serta unsur lainnya.
Selain untuk pemakaian sebagai isolator radiasi, Timah hitam digunakan juga sebagai bahan pelapis pada bantalan luncur, bahan timah pateri serta sebagai unsur paduan dengan baja atau logam Non Ferro lainnya yang menghasilkan logam dengan sifat Free Cutting atau yang disebut sebagai baja Otomat.

Titanium (Ti)
Titanium (Ti) memiliki warna putih kelabu, sifatnya yang kuat seperti baja dan stabil hingga temperature 400ºC, tahan korosi dan memiliki berat jenis (ρ) = 4,5 kg/dm³.
Titanium (Ti) digunakan sebagai unsur pemurni pada baja serta sebagai bahan paduan dengan Aluminium dan logam lainnya.
Titanium (Ti) memiliki titik cair 1660ºC dan kekuatan tarik 470 N/mm2 serta densitas 56 %.
Titanium (Ti) tidak termasuk logam baru walaupun pengembangannya baru dilakukan pada tahun 1949, karena sebenarnya Titanium (Ti) telah terdeteksi sejak tahun 1789 dalam bentuk Oxide Silicon, karena pengaruh oxygen maka pada saat itu tidak memungkinkan untuk dilakukan extraction, dimana Titanium (Ti) merupakan bagian penting dari Oxygen, namun pada akhirnya ditemukan metoda pemurnian Titanium (Ti) ini melalui pemanasan dengan Carbon dan Clorine, kemudian dengan Magnesium dan denganSodium pada suhu pemanasan antara 800ºC hingga 900ºC yang menghasilkan Titanium Tetraclorite sebagai produk awal dari Titanium (Ti) yang selanjutnya menggunakan Magnesiumcloride atau Sodiumcloride.

Nickel, Nickolium (Ni)
Nickel, Nickolium merupakan unsur penting yang terdapat pada endapan terak bumi yang biasanya tercampur dengan bijih tembaga.
Oleh karena itu diperlukan proses pemisahan dan pemurnian dari berbagai unsur yang akan merugikan sifat Nickel tersebut.

Bijih Nickel mengandung 2,5 % Nickel yang bercampur bersama-sama unsur lain yang sebagian besar terdiri atas besi dan silica serta hampir 4 % Tembaga dan sedikit Cobalt, Selenium, Tellurium, Silver, Platinum dan Aurum. Sedangkan Tembaga, besi dan Nicel berada pada bijih itu sebagai Sulfida.
Setelah proses penambangan bijih itu dipecah dan dilakukan pemisahan dari berbagai unsur yang mengandung batuan yang mengapung.
Kemudian sulfide Nickel dan Sulfide Tembaga dipisahkan melalui proses pengapungan.
Proses berikutnya ialah pemanggangan Sulfide Nicel untuk menggerakan Sulphur, selanjutnya dituangkan kedalam bejana, untuk selnjutnya dilakukan pemurnian melalui proses oxidasi sebagaimana dalam proses Bessemer dalam pemurnian baja.
Dari proses ini akan diperoleh 48 % Nickel dan 27 % Tembaga.
Selanjutnya dipanaskan bersama Sodium Sulfat dengan pemanasan kokas untuk memperoleh larutan Tembaga Nickel dan Sulfide Besi, kemudian dituangkan kedalam ladle untuk dilakukan pemadatan, Selama pendinginan Tembaga dan Sodium mengapung keatas dan ketika terjadi pemadatan Nickel dan Tembaga akan terpisah oleh tiupan atau pemukulan.
Proses pemurnian lanjut dilakukan dengan electrolisa dengan terlebih dahulu disinter sehingga berbentuk Briket, atau dapat juga dengan proses 'carbonil' jika tresedia cukup daya listrik dimana serbuk Nickel dipanggang untuk menhilangkan sisa-sisa Sulphur dan Besi kemudian direduksi oleh Hydrogen.
Dengan demikian maka oxide logam akan keluar dan membentuk uap, akan terbang dan membentuk gas Nickel carbonil yang kemudian mencair karena pengaruk Carbonmonoxide serta akan mengalir melalui kulit endapan Nickel.

Pemakaian Nickel
Secara komersial Nickel banyak digunakan secara murni terutama untuk peralatan-peralatan yang menuntut ketahanan korosi yang tinggi, seperti peralatan dalam industri makanan , industri kimia, obat-obatan serta peralatan kesehatan, industri petroleum dan lain-lain.
Nickel dapat dibentuk melalui proses panas maupun dingin, memiliki sifat mampu tempa, mampu mesin dengan pemotong HSS. Dapat dikerjakan dengan Cupping, Drawing, Spining, Swaging, Bending, dan Forming. Penyambungan dapat dilakukan dengan pengelasan, penyolderan, Brazing dan Welding.

Timah putih, Tin, Stannum (Sn)
Timah putih, Tin, Stannum (Sn) ialah logam yang berwarna putih mengkilap, sangat lembek dengan titik cair yang rendah yakni 232ºC.
Logam ini memiliki sifat ketahanan korosi yang tinggi sehingga banyak digunakan sebagai bahan pelapis pada plat baja, digunakan sebagai kemasan pada berbagai produk makanan karena Timah putih ini sangat tahan terhadap asam buah dan Juice.
Fungsi kegunaan yang lain ialah sebagai bahan pelapis pada bantalan luncur serta sebagai unsur paduan pada bahan-bahan yang memiliki titik cair rendah.
Timah putih, Tin, Stannum (Sn) paling banyak digunakan sebagai timah pateri serta paduan pada logam-logam bantalan seperti Bronzes dan gunmetal atau ditambahkan sedikit pada paduan Tembaga Seng (Kuningan, Brasses) untuk memperoleh ketahanan korosi.
Timah putih, Tin, Stannum (Sn) diproses dari bijih timah (Tinstone), extracsinya dilakukan melalui pencairan dengan temperature tinggi sehingga timah dapat mengalir keluar dari berbagai unsur pengikatnya.

Seng, Zincum (Zn)

Seng, Zincum (Zn) ialah logam yang berwarna putih kebiruan memiliki titik cair 419ºC, sangat lunak dan lembek tetapi akan menjadi rapuh ketika dilakukan pembentukan dengan temperature pengerjaan antara 100ºC sampai 150ºC tetapi sampai temperature ini masih baik dan mudah untuk dikerjakan.
Seng memiliki sifat tahan terhadap korosi sehingga banyak digunakan dalam pelapisan plat baja sebagai pelindung baja tersebut dari pengaruh gangguan korosi, selain itu Seng juga digunakan sebagai unsur paduan dan sebagai bahan dasar paduan logam yang dibentuk melalui pengecoran.
Sekalipun Seng merupakan bahan yang lembek akan tetapi peranannya sangat penting sekali sebagai salah satu bahan Teknik yang memilki berbagai keunggulan, baik digunakan sebagai bahan pelapis pada baja yang tahan terhadap korosi, misalnya untuk atap bangunan, dinding serta container yang juga harus tahan terhadap pengaruh air dan udara serta serangga dan binatang.
Seng juga merupakan unsur paduan untuk bahan pengecoran. Bahan baku Seng adalah Sulfida Carbonate, biasanya berada berdekatan dengan Lead atau Timah Hitam atau kadang-kadang juga dengan Silver.
Konsentrat biasanya dilakukan dengan Grafitasi atau pengapungan.
Proses produksi awal dilakukan dengan mengurangi kadar Asam sulfat yang terkandung pada Oxide Seng melalui penggarangan.
Langkah selanjutnya ialah menggunakan satu Thermal untuk menghasilkan penguapan serta kondensat, dari proses ini akan diperolah 1 hingga 2 % Lead yang diketahui sebagai Spelter atau Seng kasar dengan 99,99 % yang akan diproses lanjut dengan cara elektrolisa serta proses penggarangan, dan melalui proses ini bijih Seng akan melarut didalam Asam Sulphuric sesuai dengan kebutuhannya. Proses berikutnya ialah penggarangan agar unsur Carbon bercampur didalam Briket sebelum pemanasan melalui pengolperasian didalam retor Vertical secara Continyu.

Manganese (Mn)
Manganese (Mn) logam yang memiliki titik cair 1260ºC Unsur Manganese (Mn) ini diperoleh melalui proses reduksi pada bijih Manganese sebagaimana proses yang dilakukan dalam pembuatan baja.
Manganese digunakan pada hampir semua jenis baja dan besi tuang sebagai unsur paduan kendati tidak menghasilkan pengaruh yang signifikan dalam memperbaiki sifat baja tetapi tidak berpengaruh buruk karena didalam baja memiliki kandungan unsur Sulphur.
Disamping itu Manganese (Mn) merupakan unsur paduan pada Aluminium, Magnesium, Titanium dan Kuningan.

Chromium (Cr)
Chromium ialah logam berwarna kelabu, sangat keras dengan titik cair yang tinggi yakni 1890ºC , Chromium diperoleh dari unsur Chromite, yaitu senyawa FeO.Cr2. Unsur Chromite (Fe2 Cr2 06 ) serta Crocoisite (PbCrO4).
Chromium memiliki sifat yang keras serta tahan terhadap korosi jika digunakan sebagai unsur paduan pada baja dan besi tuang dan dengan penambahan unsur Nickel maka akan diperoleh sifat baja yang keras dan tahan panas (Heat resistance- Alloy).

Aluminium (Al)
Aluminium ialah logam yang berwarna putih terang dan sangat mengkilap dengan titik cair 660ºC sangat tahan terhadap pengaruh Atmosphere juga bersifat electrical dan Thermal Conductor dengan koefisien yang sangat tinggi.
Secara komersial Aluminium memiliki tingkat kemurnian hingga 99,9 % , dan Aluminium non paduan kekuatan tariknya ialah 60 N/mm2 dan dikembangkan melalui proses pengerjaan dingin dapat ditingkatkan sesuai dengan kebutuhannya hingga 140 N/mm2.

Tembaga, Copper, Cuprum (Cu)

Tembaga memilki kekuatan Tarik 150 N/mm2 sebagai Tembaga Cor dan dengan proses pengerjaan dingin kekuatan tarik Tembaga dapat ditingkatkan hingga 390 N/mm2 demikian pula dengan angka kekerasannya dimana Tembaga Cor memiliki angka kekerasan 45 HB dan meningkat hingga 90 HB melalui proses pengerjaan dingin, dengan demikian juga akan diperoleh sifat Tembaga yang ulet serta dapat dipertahankan walaupun dilakukan proses perlakuan panas misalnya dengan Tempering.
Sifat listrik dan sebagai penghantar panas yang baik dari Tembaga (Electrical and Thermal Conductor) Tembaga dan menduduki urutan kedua setelah Silver namun untuk ini Tembaga dipersyaratkan memiliki kemurnian hingga 99,9 %. Salah satu sifat yang baik dari tembaga ini juga adalah ketahanannya terhadap korosi atmospheric bahkan jenis korosi yang lainnya.

Magnesium (Mg)
Magnesium ialah logam yang berwarna putih perak dan sangat mengkilap dengan titik cair 651ºC yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan paduan ringan, sifat dan karakteristiknya sama dengan Aluminium.
Oxid film yang melapisi permukaan Magnesium hanya cukup melindunginya dari pengaruh udara kering, sedangkan udara lembab dengan Magnesium memiliki kekuatan tarik hingga 110 N/mm2 dan dapat ditingkatkan melalui proses pembentukan hingga 200 N/mm2.
Magnesium memilki sifat yang lembut walaupun dengan elastisitas yang rendah.

Antimony, Stibium (Sb)

Antimony, Stibium (Sb) ialah logam yang berwarna putih kelabu terang, Antimony, Stibium memiliki titik cair 630ºC.
Logam ini diperoleh dari mineral Stibnite (Sb2S3), Tetrahednite (Cu3SbS3) dan Famantinite (Cu3SbS4) dan dari kedua bahan mineral inilah Antimony, Stibium (Sb) dibuat melalui penguapan, akan tetapi karena tidak mencukupi maka terpaksa dilakukan extracsi pada Stibinite.
Antimony, Stibium (Sb) digunakan dalam pemenuhan kebutuhan bahan yang digunakan pada temperature rendah, sebagai logam-logam bantalan yang dipadu dengan lead (timah hitam) dan akan mempengaruhi kekerasan dari Timah hitam itu sendiri.

Bismuth (Bi)
Bismuth ialah logam berwarna putih kelabu kemilau, sifat Bismuth sangat keras dan rapuh dan tidak dapat ditempa.
Titik Cairnya 271ºC dan keadaannya relative murni.
Bismuth diperoleh dari campuran berbagai unsur dalam kondisi alami. Proses Pemisahannya dilakukan dengan pembersihan terlebih dahulu dimana Bismuth ini terdapat dalam keadaan kurang bersih, sehingga diperlukan berbagai perlakuan.
Bismuth digunakan sebagai unsur paduan dengan logam lain yang memiliki titik cair rendah.

Boron (B)
Boron (B) memiliki titik cair 2300ºC dan Boron-Carbide sangat keras dan tahan terhadap pengaruh kimia.
Proses pemurnian Boron termasuk sangat sulit akan tetapi kerap kali Boron ditemukan dalam keadaan murni sehingga disebut sebagai logam Murni atau logam langka (rare-metal).
Boron tidak digunakan sebagai element akan tetapi Boron digunakan sebagai bahan pembuatan Dies, Nozle untuk Injection moulding, pivot serta permukaan bearing. Boron dibuat dalam bentuk bubukan sehingga pembentukannya dilakukan dengan proses Sintering.

Cadmium (Cd)
Cadmium (Cd) ialah logam yang berwarna putih kebiruan sifatnya sangat lunak dan lembek dengan titik cair hanya 321ºC.
sebagai bahan dasar dari Cadmium ini ialah endapan Seng. Endapan pekat dari Cadmium terdapat dibagian tertentu dari instalasi pengolahan Seng (Zn), Cadmium digunakan dalam paduan yang memiliki titik cair rendah serta bahan tambah pada Tembaga.
Yang penting dalam pemakaian Cadmium ini ialah sebagai lapisan pelindung pada Baja atau Kuningan (Brasses).

Cerium (Ce)

Cerium (Ce) disebut sebagai logam langka (rare earth-metal), memiliki titik cair 640ºC dapat ditambahkan kedalam besi tuang untuk pembuatan electrode, pembuatan busur listrik atau sebagai bahan batu pemantik (lighter flints).

Cobalt (Co)

Cobalt (Co) ialah LOgam yang brwarna putih silver ini memilki titik cair 1490ºC dan bersifat magnetic tinggi.
Cobalt diperoleh bersama unsur Nickel serta element-element mineral tertentu dan dipisahkan selama proses pemurnian pada unsur Nickel.
Cobalt digunakan sebagai unsur paduan pada baja paduan sebagai alat potong (Tool Steel) dan sebagai unsur paduan dengan unsur Nickel sebagai baja paduan yang tahan terhadap temperature tinggi.

Iridium (Ir)
Iridium (Ir) ini disebut sebagai baja putih ini adalah logam dari kelompok Platinum yang memiliki titik cair 2454ºC.
Penggunaannya sebagai bahan paduan dengan unsur Platinum-Alloy yang kuat dan keras serta meningkatkan titik cairnya.

Germanium (Ge)

Germanium (Ge) merupakan logam dengan sifat kelistrikan yang spesifik sehingga digunakan sebagai komponen dalam Teknik Kelistrikan.

Mercury, Hydragirum (Hg)
Mercury, Hydragirum (Hg) ialah salah satu jenis logam murni yang diperoleh dalam skala kecil dengan logam murni lainnya serta Sulphide (HgS) yang dapat dilakukan extraksi melalui pemanasan sederhana yang kemudian diproses secara destilasi, jika perlu dilakukan penegrjaan lanjut untuk menghilangkan kadar Seng dan Cadmium.
Mercury digunakan dalam Thermometer dan Barrometer serta saklar atau electrical Switches.

Molybdenum (Mo)

Molybdenum (Mo) ialah Logam yang berwarna putih Silver dengan titik Cair 2620ºC. Terdapat dalam bentuk Sulphide serta berbagai Oxid pada berbagai jenis Logam.
Molybdenum (Mo) digunakan sebagai unsur paduan pada baja dan Besi Tuang (Cast Iron).

Platinum (Pt)

Platinum (Pt) adalah salah satu jenis logam berat yang berwarna putih kelabu dan sangat mengkilap dengan titik cair 1773ºC
dan memiliki sifat yang mudah dibentuk, ulet dan tidak mengandung Oxide atau tar dalam udara bebas.
Platinum (Pt) sangat cocok digunakan dalam paduan dengan Iridium yang dapat meningkatkan kekerasannya. Platinum (Pt) terdapat dalam paduan logam mulia serta endapan Tembaga-Nickel.
Platinum (Pt) dapat pula diperoleh melalui proses extraksi pada mas (gold) dan Nickel.
Platinum (Pt) digunakan sebgai bahan pembuatan Contact point pada system kelistrikan motor bakar, kabel tahanan polymeter serta kawat Thermocouple.

Palladium (Pd)

Palladium (Pd) termasuk dalam kelompok Platinum yakni logam yang berwarna putih dan sangat ulet, mudah dibentuk dan tahan terhadap oxidasi.
Palladium (Pd) memiliki titik cair 1555ºC. Palladium (Pd) sering dipadukan dengan Silver yang dapat menggantikan Platinum dalam pembuatan Contact Point dan akan memiliki sifat kekerasan yang tinggi dengan ketahanan korosi yang berbeda dengan Silver.

Rhodium (Rh)

Rhodium (Rh) juga merupakan salah satu dari logam dalam kelompok Platinum, Rhodium (Rh) memiliki titik cair 1985ºC sangat tahan terhadap berbagai bentuk pengaruh asam. Digunakan sebagai bahan pelapis logam lain serta sebagai unsur paduan pada Platinum dalam pembuatan kawat tahanan (Resisitor) pada Thermocouple.

Silver, Argentum (Ag)
Silver, Argentum (Ag) adalah salah satu logam mulia yang memiliki titik cair 960ºC terdapat dalam skala kecil dan terpadu pada Tembaga dan mas. Silver memiliki conduktifitas listrik yang paling tinggi dibanding dengan logam lainnya dan digunakan dalam kontak listrik juga dalam "Siver solders" serta bahan pelapis logam lain.

Selenium (Se)
Selenium (Se) memiliki titik cair 220ºC dan dapat diperoleh melalui proses extraksi dari logam lain termasuk pada Tembaga.
Sifat yang lain dari Selenium ialah memiliki sifat hantaran listrik yang baik dan menjadi alternative pilihan dalam pemakaian ringan serta digunakan pula dalam photoscell serta digunakan sebagai unsur paduan pada Tembaga untuk meningkatkan sifat mampu mesin dari tembaga tersebut.

Tantalum (Ta)

Tantalum (Ta) logam yang berwarna putih dan dapat dibentuk melalui proses pengerjaan dingin. Proses pengerjaan panas dapat meningkatkan angka kekerasannya secara drastic.
Tantalum (Ta) memiliki titik cair 3207ºC dan digunakan dalam perkakas Cementite Carbide dan sebagai tambahan unsur paduan pada logam non-Ferro.

Tellurium (Te)

Tellurium (Te) memiliki titik cair 452ºC sedikit ditambahkan pada Timah Hitam akan meningkatkan kekerasannya, dan jika ditambahkan pada Tembaga akan memberikan sifat free-Cutting.

Thorium (Th)

Thorium (Th) sangat lunak seperti timah hitam (Lead) dan dapat mencair pada temperature 1827ºC. Thorium (Th) digunakan sebagai unsur paduan pada Tungsten dalam pembuatan kawat filament serta digunakan pula dalam paduan Magnesium untuk menghasilkan sifat Creep resistance.

Tungsten, Wolfram (W)


Tungten, Wolfram (W) memiliki titik cair 3410ºC berwarna kelabu, sangat keras dan rapuh pada temperature ruangan, tetapi ulet dan liat pada Temperatur tinggi. Bahan dasar dari Tungten, Wolfram (W) ini ialah Oxide mineral dan diperoleh melalui proses reduksi. Tungten, Wolfram (W) digunakan sebagai bahan pembuatan filament, untuk kawat radio dan lampu serta digunakan pula sebagai unsur paduan pada alat potong (Tool Steel) yakni sebagai bahan High Speed Steel (HSS) atau baja kecepatan tinggi, baja Magnet serta dibentuk melalui proses sintering untuk bahan perkakas.

Vanadium (V)

Vanadium (V) akan mencair pada Temperatur diatas 1900ºC, logam yang berwarna putih ini sangat keras, jika ditambahkan pada baja sebagai unsur paduan akan menambah kekenyalan dari baja tersebut.

Beryllium (Be)

Beryllium (Be) Logam yang berwarna kelabu ini memiliki sifat yang sangat keras dengan titik cair 1285ºC tetapi lebih ringan dari pada Aluminium. Beryllium memiliki sifat yang rendah dalam peredaman
Neutronnya pada arah memotong sehingga tidak bereaksi terhadap berbagai bentuk dan derajat Neutron yang dilaluinya. Beryllium (Be) merupakan logam yang memiliki sifat thermal konduktor serta tegangan yang baik dan stabil pada Temperatur tinggi namun keuletannya rendah. Oleh karena itu proses metallurgy bubukan (Powder metallurgy) bukan metoda yang baik dalam pembentukan dengan bahan Beryllium ini.

Beryllium didapat dari Aluminium Beryllium Silikat "Beryl' dengan hanya menghasilkan 3,5 % Beryllium. Proses extraksi pada bahan Berylium memerlukan biaya proses dan Teknik yang terpaksa melebihi penghasilan Karen proses yang sangat sulit terutama dalam proses menetralisir unsur zat beracun. Beryllium kadang-kadang digunakan sebagai unsur paduan
pada Tembaga paduan, namun karena kebutuhan Beryllium meningkat dalam bentuk Beryllium murni Tempa untuk industri pesawat terbang dan laras senapan (Guided Missiles), maka fungsiTembaga paduan dengan unsur Beryllium sedikit berkurang. Beryllium dapat dibentuk dengan pengecoran kedalam bentuk ingot, bentuk-betuk batangan dirol panas (Hot-rolling processes), extrusion dan kemudian pemesinan.
Beryllium dengan pembentukan melalui powder metallurgy dipecah menjadi serbuk yang kemudian disinter menjadi bentuk-bentuk balok. Balok-balok Beryllium ini memiliki kekuatan tarik 310 N/mm2 , perpanjangannya dapat ditingkatkan hingga 10% jika dibentuk ulang melalui pengerolan.
Beryllium yang dibentuk melalui proses Sintering ini dapat dikerjakan mesin (Machining) dengan alat potong Carbide dengan hasil yang halus seperti Grey Cast Iron. Beryllium disambung dengan menggunakan metoda las busur dan spot-welding antar Beryllium dan dengan logam lain.

Hafnium (Hf)

Hafnium (Hf) memiliki sifat yang sama dengan Zirconium dan termasuk logam berat, memiliki kekuatan tarik 340 N/mm², angka kekerasannya 180 HV serta titik cairnya 2130ºC. Hafnium (Hf) dapat dibentuk dengan mesin pada putaran rendah. Penyambungan Hafnium akan sangat cocok dengan memberikan arus tinggi, Hafnium digunakan sebagai bahan pembuatan pengatur tekanan, water cooler reaktror dan lain-lain. Hal ini karena sifat Hafnium yang dapat meredam Neutron serta bebas pengaruh radiasi yang merugikan.

Zirconium (Zr)

Zirconium (Zr) ialah logam yang berwarna putih-silver memiliki titik cair 1852ºC dengan kekuatan tarik 420 N/mm2 dan angka kekerasannya 140 HV.
Zirconium memiliki sifat yang sama dengan Titanium terutama dalam proses pembentukannya.
Pemotongan dengan mesin dilakukan dengan puitaran yang sangat rendah sebagaimana pemotongan pada Aluminium. Proses fabrikasi Zirconium harus dilakukan secara hati-hati
terhadap kemungkinan terjadinya kontaminasi dengan oxygen, Nitrogen serta Hydrogen akibat pemanasan.
Zirconium kadang-kadang digunakan sebagai unsur paduan padan Magnesium dalam memenuhi kebutuhan dalam Teknologi Nuclear dimana Zirconium dapat meredam unsur Neutron secara melintang dengan kekuatan tarik yang stabil didalam suhu ruangan,
tahan terhadap korosi air, uap serta berbagai media pendingin.
Pemakaian Zirconium juga sebagai unsur paduan dengan bahan-bahan lain seperti timah putih (Tin), Besi, Chromium, Nickel, Tembaga dan Molybdenum.

Niobium (Nb)

Niobium ialah logam yang sangat ulet (ductile) dan lunak dengan kekuatan tarik 280 N/mm2 dan titik cairnya 2469ºC.
Keuletan dari sifat Niobium ini ialah karena pengaruh Oxygen dan Carbon, pengerjaan panas serta udara.
Niobium yang dibentuk menjadi plat tipis dapat dilas dengan resistance-Welding, sedangkan untuk bahan yang tebal diatas 0.5 mm harus dilas.


http://www.kaskus.us/showthread.php?t=11006205

          Gram-counter Gear Mini Firesteel        
Gram-counter Gear Mini Firesteel

Gram-counter Gear Mini Firesteel

Generates hot sparks for lighting fires and stoves. For lighting stoves instead of carrying matches we think the Mini Firesteel is a winner - at 14g its as light as matches anyway and will produce a spark in any weather. Ferrocium provides the sparks Ferrocerium is a man made mix of 20 different metals fused together into a rod. Ferro rods consist of 20% iron with small amounts of zinc magnesium cerium lanthanum neodymium plus small amounts of other rare earth elements.  


          Control of rare earths gives China a fresh economic advantage        
In October 1973, the world shuddered when the Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries imposed an oil embargo on the United States and other nations that provided military aid ... - Source: lasvegassun.com
          Researchers say Treasure Worth Billions is Buried in North Dakota        
By Valley News Live
UND researchers are hunting for buried treasure in western North Dakota they say, is far more valuable than oil, coal and natural gas.

UND’s College of Engineering and Mines has received a federal grant, to retrieve Rare Earth Elements. Rare Earth Elements are found in western North Dakota coal and the ground that surrounds it.

Elements with names like Scandium metal and Terbium oxide can be worth hundreds of dollars a teaspoon, because they’re critical components in things we use every day.

Steve Benson, UND Engineering & Mines: “They’re used in a wide range of applications, ranging from the new batteries that are out, to components in wind turbines, to material in your cell phone.”

UND researchers now have a 900-thousand dollar grant to develop a method to commercially mine Rare Earth Elements.

The first step in the project will be trying to extract them from the stream of coal used to fire North Dakota power plants.

Steve Benson, UND Engineering & Mines: “Once we identify the best laboratory method, then we’ll build a skid mounted system we can take to a plant and test there.”

It’s research that has the potential to unlock billions of extra dollars into the State’s energy economy.

The United States currently needs to import Rare Earth Elements from China, despite the fact we have them in our own backyard.

Researchers say Treasure Worth Billions is Buried in North Dakota - Valley News Live

read more


          Wizard PK Ring Original (FLAT, SILVER, 24mm) by World Magic Shop - Trick        
Wizard PK Ring Original (FLAT, SILVER, 24mm) by World Magic Shop - TrickOnce worn NEVER taken off!!!
Possibilities - Endless

The first fully magnetic ring designed by Magicians for Magicians!

The Wizard PK Ring is a complete, 100% Neodymium Rare Earth Magnet fashioned into a 'wedding band' style ring. It will give you a host of unique opportunities to amaze and impress, limited only by the extent of your imagination. To get you started we have set out two basic routines for you to try.

The beauty of the ring lies not only in how it looks, a 'wedding band' on your finger looks completely natural to any spectator, but also in the fact that the ring does all the work for you. There is no need for you to conceal anything - a rare treat.
  • Stop time on a person's watch using the power of 'suggestion'.
  • Make items such as cutlery or stationery move, using the power of a person's mind.
  • Chopless chop-cup.
  • Coin vanishes and appearances.
Limited only by the extent of your imagination.

Routines Included

Routine 1 - Stopping Time
Routine 2 - Kinetic Kultery
Routine 3 - Coin Through Glass

What people are saying:

"Had mine for 5 weeks, never taken it off!"
- Mike (Lancashire)

"It's about flippin' time someone came up with a totally innocent looking band ANYONE could use. No more HUGE skull, gem or pentagram encrusted beasts. No having to wear it in any odd way to get to work with it. This is the proper job."
- Tom Lauten

"My opinion, this is the best product of its type on the market, and I cannot see a product that will surpass it. If you are interested in the type of effects that this kind of product can produce, buy this ring."
- TonyEye (Magicaffe forum)

"I am becoming more and more attracted to this ring. Could it be the plate in my head?"
- E-Man (Magicaffe forum)

"This is a nice classy looking ring. It has a good amount of strength and has made a nice addition to my impromptu arsenal."
- Scott Alexander (Magicaffe Forum)

"I received mine a few days ago and I am really satisfied with it! Nicely designed (simple & pure), comfortable to wear and the magnetic strength is well ok! This item won't see my magic drawer with 'items bought and never used'; this ring will be used."
- Bernd Maucksch

US Ring Size 15 1/4 (Approximately 24mm Diameter)

Buy Now
          Syrian Refugee And German Scientist Make An Unlikely Team        
German scientist Matthias Schmidt wants to extract rare earth metals from abandoned mines using bacteria. He has an unlikely partner — Nedal Said, a Syrian refugee scientist who escaped Aleppo . Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit ARI SHAPIRO, HOST: Now for a story about an unusual partnership - two scientists trying to find a way to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines. It's happening in Leipzig. NPR's Joe Palca went to Germany to learn more. JOE PALCA, BYLINE: In the lower level of a building on the campus of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, there's a modern, well-equipped laboratory. MATTHIAS SCHMIDT: We've got a number of different microscopes. Then we've got a laser microdissection system here. PALCA: Matthias Schmidt is giving me a tour of the lab. Microscopes and laser microdissection systems are useful if you happen to be studying single cells or bacteria. So what are they doing in a lab that's trying to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines?
          Magnet        
A magnet (from Greek Î¼Î±Î³Î½Î®Ï„ις Î»Î¯Î¸Î¿Ï‚ magnḗtis líthos, "Magnesian stone") is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets.
A permanent magnet is an object made from a material that is magnetized and creates its own persistent magnetic field. An everyday example is arefrigerator magnet used to hold notes on a refrigerator door. Materials that can be magnetized, which are also the ones that are strongly attracted to a magnet, are called ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic). These include iron, nickel, cobalt, some alloys of rare earth metals, and some naturally occurring minerals such as lodestone. Although ferromagnetic (and ferrimagnetic) materials are the only ones attracted to a magnet strongly enough to be commonly considered magnetic, all other substances respond weakly to a magnetic field, by one of several other types of magnetism.
Ferromagnetic materials can be divided into magnetically "soft" materials like annealed iron, which can be magnetized but do not tend to stay magnetized, and magnetically "hard" materials, which do. Permanent magnets are made from "hard" ferromagnetic materials such as alnico and ferrite that are subjected to special processing in a powerful magnetic field during manufacture, to align their internal microcrystalline structure, making them very hard to demagnetize. To demagnetize a saturated magnet, a certain magnetic field must be applied, and this threshold depends on coercivity of the respective material. "Hard" materials have high coercivity, whereas "soft" materials have low coercivity.
An electromagnet is made from a coil of wire that acts as a magnet when an electric current passes through it but stops being a magnet when the current stops. Often, the coil is wrapped around a core of ferromagnetic material like steel, which enhances the magnetic field produced by the coil.
The overall strength of a magnet is measured by its magnetic moment or, alternatively, the total magnetic flux it produces. The local strength of magnetism in a material is measured by its magnetization.


          Death Toll Climbs in Indonesia; Strikes Continue in France        

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KWAME HOLMAN: First-time claims for unemployment benefits fell last week to the lowest point since July. It was due partly to fewer layoffs in construction.

But, on Wall Street, the focus was on weak corporate earnings. The Dow Jones industrial average lost 12 points to close below 11114. The Nasdaq rose four points to close at 2,507.

Rescuers in Indonesia found more bodies today from Monday’s tsunami. The death toll grew to 370, with hundreds still missing. We have a report narrated by James Mates of Independent Television News.

JAMES MATES: As another victim is hastily put into a body bag and buried in a shallow grave before disease can spread, no one will be surprised if the death toll here were to double.

Rio, tsunami survivor: Yes. What can I say? You know, everybody is sad, you know?

JAMES MATES: It’s not immediately clear if these villages were destroyed by the 7.5-magnitude earthquake or the tsunami that followed it. To those whose homes now give shelter from the sun, but nothing else, it probably matters little.

A few days ago, they were desperately poor. Now they have nothing. From the air, you can see what the waves did to these remote islands that lie in one of the most geologically unstable places on Earth. It’s hard to see what was here before, though, judging by the search effort going on, it was inhabited. There is, though, nothing here now.

Just six years ago, another tsunami killed almost a quarter-of-a-million people a few hundred miles up this coast. An early warning system has since been installed. But, even if it did work, eyewitnesses speak of an enormous wave coming just minutes after the quake.

Limited aid and medical help are reaching the survivors, but, with their homes gone and many with relatives missing, the thing these families may be shortest of is hope.

KWAME HOLMAN: Eight hundred miles to the east, the Indonesian volcano Mount Merapi erupted again today, but there were no injuries. An eruption earlier this week killed 33 people.

Strikes in France disrupted air travel today. They were aimed at new pension reforms approved by Parliament. In the streets, thousands of demonstrators waved union flags and signs, vowing to fight the reforms until President Nicolas Sarkozy signs them into law. Still, the rallies appeared smaller than in recent weeks.

For the first time, the U.S. government has announced what it spends on intelligence. The total for 2010 released today was just more than $80 billion. The new director of national intelligence, James Clapper, had promised to publish the figure. He said it’s time the public knows the cost of intelligence.

The head of Britain’s spy agency gave an unprecedented public address today. Sir John Sawers heads the secret intelligence service widely known as MI6. None of his predecessors ever spoke publicly. Sawers defended the need for secrecy to counter growing terror threats, like Iran’s nuclear ambitions.

JOHN SAWERS, chief of MI6: Secret organizations need to stay secret, even if we present an occasional public face, as I am doing today. If our operations and methods become public, they won’t work. Agents take risks. They will not work with SIS, will not pass us the secrets they hold, unless they can trust us not to expose them.

KWAME HOLMAN: MI6 is being investigated for allegations it went along with abuse of terror suspects. Sawers said his agents are obligated to stop any torture, even if it means letting a terror plot go forward.

The presidential commission investigating the Gulf oil spill is pointing a finger at cement supplied by Halliburton. Investigators reported today the mixture failed three out of four tests. But they said Halliburton and BP decided to use it anyway. Halliburton maintains the cement mix wasn’t at fault. It blames BP’s well design and operations.

The U.S. urged China today to spell out its policy on exporting rare earth minerals. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton made the appeal in Hawaii, beginning an Asia-Pacific tour. She said the world got a wakeup call recently when China cut exports of exotic metals. The metals are critical to making computers and other high-tech soft — hardware.

Those are some of the day’s main stories — now back to Judy.

The post Death Toll Climbs in Indonesia; Strikes Continue in France appeared first on PBS NewsHour.


          IREL Recruitment 2017 Manager, Officer, Sr Officer, Dy Manager Posts        
Indian Rare Earths Ltd IREL Recruitment 2017 Manager, Officer, Sr Officer, Dy Manager Posts : Indian Rare Earths Ltd Jobs 2017 Details : Candidates, Indian Rare Earths Ltd has release a notification for recruitment of 19 Manager, Officer, Sr Officer, Read More ...
          Govt supports Northern Minerals training plan        
The federal government has awarded ASX-listed Northern Minerals some A$4.8-million in funding as part of its Building Better Regions fund, to develop an Aboriginal training-to-work (T2W) programme at the Browns Range heavy rare earth pilot plant project, in Western Australia. Northern Minerals said on Monday that the government funding would contribute towards the total A$8.1-million project costs for the T2W project, which would include the establishment of economic infrastructure at Browns Range.
          Kiehl's Since 1851 Nature-Powered Masque Collection - $36 + FS @ Saks Fifth Avenue        

Rating: 0 Posted By: fl0werp0wer
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Kiehl's Since 1851 Nature-Powered Masque Collection - $36.00 (was $48.00) at Saks Fifth Avenue. Shipping is free!


A sized-to-try masque set for all skin types to Target multiple skin concerns. Set includes:

  • Rare Earth Deep Pore Cleansing Masque (5 oz.): A customer favorite formulated with Amazonian white clay to minimize pores
  • NEW! Turmeric & Cranberry Seed Energizing Radiance (0.95 oz.): The instant facial to restore rosy appearance, formulated with skin brightening turmeric and exfoliating cranberry seeds
  • NEW! Cilantro & Orange Extract Pollutant Defending Masque (0.95 oz.): Purify and replenish skin overnight with antioxidant-rich orange and replenishing cilantro

          Roll Around Tool Cabinet #25: Sprayed on First Finish Coat        

I began spraying finish on my tool cabinet today. I was undecided whether i should spray polyurethane or lacquer over the seal coat of aerosol clear Zinsser’s Shellac. i decided to give both a test. i sprayed MinWax polyurethane to the insides of this cabinet including the four shelves, but i also sprayed it on the backside of this cabinet.

So for all other surfaces on this cabinet I sprayed Deft lacquer. Those surfaces were the panel top, both sides of the cabinet plus the cabinet’s face frame parts plus both sides of all four doors.

In about four hours i sprayed on two liberal coats of finish.

Tomorrow , maybe, I will spray two or three more finish coats. Then I will mount the seven drawers with the 18 inch full-extension metal drawers slides. After the drawers I will screw on the rare earth magnetic door catches. That should complete the build of this project.

You can tell from the photo below that I used a Rust Oleum Comfort Grip handle to spray their finish from these cans. It did make it easier for me to operate the spray cans.

Temperatures was in the mid-60s. I opened my garage door plus the back door so I would have clean air pushing through the shop. I used my 3M respirator to protect my lungs and breathing. Things went well, but I did sweat today.

i am letting these coats dry overnight before I do anything else.

The images above were taken after spraying the last of the finish coats for the day. To show the contrast of using finish on this cabinet compare the photos above where the finish coat is still wet and last photo shown below that was taken just prior to spraying finish coats. There is a huge difference, isn’t there? I believe it also enhances the color of my dye mix.


          Essential        

Radio One’s Essential Mix is always going to hold fond memories for me. Back in what some call ‘the day’ it was the only place to go for decent dj mixes, tunes didnt have to be licenced like on a mix cd. You could buy rave tapes from record shops in ghastly packaging, normally a huge plastic box that seemed to always fall to pieces and would have some kind of Mandelbrot design on it, with 'live' normally meaning poor quality or there was trading tapes with your mates which meant whichever tunes the local record shop said Sasha was currently playing mixed together on a pair of beltdrives by a friends older brother. Then there was a third option - the Essential Mix. ‘saturday night through to Sunday morning’ the comforting tones of good ol’ Pete Tong introducing the nights entertainment.

The essential mix soundtracked the drive home or the after party, a night in with mates or on making a morning commute seem more bearable. I have tapes that were played to destruction, copies of copies of copies, favourite sets - from the trance of Oakenfold and Sasha, to Daft Punk playing Chicago house and David Holmes mix of funk, soul and sixties psyc to Unklesounds and the Psyconauts mixtapes. In fact away from the Essential Mix live sets from Ibiza or Creamfields etc. the more obscure mixes by the like of David Holmes, digging the crates and introducing a new audience to the likes of Marlana Shaw, Anandra Shankar or Nancy Wilson could almost be seen as upholding the BBC’s Reithian model of informing, educating and entertaining, but I digress - there were some banging tunes an all!

Of course the Essential Mix is still going with an international listenership and mp3’s of each show almost immediately available. Once in a while there might be a more interesting mix, Diplo put out a decent one last year, but it mostly seems to be pretty boring trance or electro house stuff. They still select the Essential mix of the year which brings me to the reason of this post. It didn’t win but you will hard pressed to find a better two hour selection from last year than this mix. For anyone who didn’t get it at the time, here is the excellent Lindstrom and Prins Thomas Essential Mix. We continue….

Lindstrom and Prins Thomas - Essential Mix 05/05/07

Al Usher ‘Her Today’ (Misericord)
Aeroplane ‘Aeroplane’ (Eskimo)
Lindstrøm & Solale ‘Let It Happen’ (Azuli)
In Flagranti ‘Bipolar’ (Codek)
No Theory ‘Devils Dance’ (Sin&Soul)
Lindstrøm ‘Musikal Overtones’ (Feedelity)
Sneak Thief G-String Orchestra ‘My Sullen Mistress’ (Klakson)
Ytre Rymden Dansskola ‘Kjappfot(PT Edit)’ (Full Pupp)
Runaway ‘Shadows’ (Wurst)
Max Mohr ‘Assonja Swynja’ (Playhouse)
Dettman Vs.Moroder ‘Quicksand/Utopia Mash’ (White Label)
Faze Action ‘Stratus Energy’ (White Label)
M-D-Emm ‘Get Acidic’ (Transmat)
Centrific ‘Somebody Went To Detroit And All I Got Was The Itchy Hawtins’ (Drop Bass Network)
Fleetwood Mac ‘You Make Lovin' Fun (Trailmix)’ (White Label)
M E ‘Rnb Drunkie’ (Golf Channel)
Wild Rumpus ‘Musical Blaze Up (Rub & Tug Bitches Remix)’ (Bitches Brew)
Chairmen Of The Board ‘Party’ (Invictus)
(Interlude) Rare Earth ‘Get Ready(Live Version)’ (EMI/Motown)
Niagara ‘Sangandongo Part 1’ (White Label)
Solomun & Stimming ‘Eiszauber(Diynamic’ (White Label)
Still Going ‘Still Going Theme’ (DFA)
Lindstrøm ‘Contemporary Fix (Bjørn Torske Remix)’ (Smalltown Supersound)
Nick Chacona ‘Mariacha’ (Internasjonal)
Lindstrøm & Prins Thomas ‘Nummer Fire En’ (Short Edit)



Lindstrom and Prins Thomas - Essential Mix

David Holmes 1997 Essential Mix from newmixes.com

Dipplo Essential Mix from filter27.com

          Rare Metals Producer Molycorp Files for Protection against Bankruptcy        
Decline in the prices of rare metals used in advanced electronics has led Molycorp, the biggest non-Chinese producer of obscure metals to file protection against bankruptcy. The company, based in Colorado, had registered a peak in its shares in 2011 with price at US$79, which provided it a market capitalization of over US$6 billion. However, with the Chinese government’s failed efforts to maintain the exclusivity of the market, the rare metals got easily sourced than before and this resulted to the company’s decline. The average selling price of the rare earth metals such as Ytterbium, Lanthanum, and Praseodymium produced at the company’s manufacturing site in Mountain Pass, California, has dropped to US$9.64 per kilogram in the first quarter of this year. This is in stark comparison to the price of the rare metals in the second quarter of 2011 at US$72.80 per kilogram. According to Geoff Bedford, the chief executive of Molycorp, the filing for protection against bankruptcy and an agreement on financing during the phase are important to restructure the company’s debt worth US$1.7 billion. The good news is that the company has received the support of the creditors in form of financing worth US$225 million which has let the company to continue its operations. Bedford is hopeful that Molycorp would exit bankruptcy before the end of 2015. This is the latest development in the rare earth metals industry. Rare metals such as dysprosium are used in advanced technologies in various sectors such as car exhaust catalysers, wind turbines, mobile phones, and guidance systems for cruise missiles. China accounted for 97 percent production of the rare metals till 2010. However, in an attempt to boost the domestic electronics producers, the Chinese government imposed export controls which led the price levels increase by 20 to 30 times.  This resulted to the investment in the sector in countries such as the U.S., and Australia. The affidavit filed by Molycorp blames illegal mining of the rare metals in China as well as the ruling of WTO which compelled China to drop its export controls.

Original Post Rare Metals Producer Molycorp Files for Protection against Bankruptcy source Twease
          Rare Earths - Where Are They?        
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          Rare Earth Elements and Their Uses        
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          Audio-Technica ATH-M50x Professional Studio Monitor Headphones - Black at a reduced price of: $111.75        

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          Procedures to Ensure Sufficient Rare Earth Elements for the Defense Industrial Base Need Improvement        

Previously labeled "for official use only" and released in response to a Freedom of Information Act request -- assessed Defense Department planning for the sustainment of rare earth elements for the defense industrial base.
          Global demand for rare earths        

Global drivers for rare earth demand by Suzanne Shaw & Judith Chegwidden Roskill Information Services August 2012
          Canada's Rare Earth Deposits Can Offer a Substantial Competitive Advantage        


          Strategy Metals Bulletin (52)        

Terrence van der Hout , of Gold & Discovery Fund provides his thoughts on the 7th Hong Kong Rare Earth Conference.
          USGS The Future of Rare Earth Elements        

Will these high-tech industry elements continue in short supply? presented by Keith R. Long, Mineral Resource Analyst, USGS. August 23, 2011
          Rare Earths: Global End-User Outlook        

Alexis Assimacopoulos of Core Consultants provides an overview of the global end use of rare earths and projects for the rare earth market at Metal Pages’ Rare Earths Conference in Beijing September 2011
          Xenotime, a Proven Source of Heavy Rare Earths        

George Bauck, Managing Director of Northern Minerals presents an over view of processing heavy rare earth elements from Xenotime mineralization at the Metal Pages’ Rare Earth Conference in Beijing September 2011
          Weekend reading links        
1. Metro rail projects on the rise in India, with 8 metro projects 370 km already operational, and over two dozen lined up or approved and under construction. Bar a handful, all of the rest are being executed by government owned entities. PPPs have proved a false dawn,
Interestingly, PPP for metro projects has been limited to five in India. Out of these five, one project (Mumbai Metro Phase 2) was terminated before it started, while another (Delhi Airport Line) was terminated after becoming operational. Currently, there are three operational PPP-based metro projects (one in Mumbai, and two in Gurugram) while one project is under implementation (Hyderabad Metro).
Mumbai and Gurugram are very small ones, and the former has already suffered several rounds of acrimony between the government and the operator. Much the same applies to the tortuous process of construction of the Hyderabad metro, despite the very generous land leverage subsidy for the project. This is unlikely to change given the inevitable need for public subsidy for metro rail systems.

2. Property prices in the most liveable cities have been rocketing in recent years on the back of cross-border purchasers, a significant share of whom are Chinese. London has been at the forefront of the froth. The Economist has this nice graphic of iconic London properties which are currently owned by foreigners.
3. Economist has this about India's push to improve transportation,
Local governments are paving and widening rural roads at a rate of 117km a day.
4. Even as expectations are of petrol prices staying low for a long time, oil and gas producers are turning on on their investment spigots on the face of falling development costs.
More new oil and gasfields were given the go-ahead in the first half of this year than in the whole of 2016 as companies such as ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell and BP re-engineer projects to lower costs and accelerate speed of development. Average development costs have fallen 40 per cent since 2014, according to Wood Mackenzie, the energy consultancy, encouraging companies to revive investment despite continued weakness in the oil market. But they are doing so on a highly selective basis, with only the most attractive projects going ahead... the most risky or economically marginal projects are being cancelled, leaving billions of barrels of untapped resources “stranded” as long as weak prices persist. Producers are instead trying to mimic the “short cycle” model of US shale companies by focusing on resources that can be developed at the lowest cost in the shortest time. Almost three-quarters of conventional projects approved this year have been “brownfield” expansions of existing fields, or satellite developments connected to existing platforms and pipelines through so-called tie-backs... Conventional producers are trying to narrow shale’s cost advantage further by adopting a “no frills” approach to development. The “big is better” mentality of the $100-oil era has given way to smaller, simplified projects, often involving fewer wells than originally planned and advanced in phases rather than all at once.
This investment rush in turn only amplifies the prospects of lower prices for the foreseeable future.

5. The Economist points to the work of Michael Sances and Hye Young You who find racism at work in police jurisdictions in the US. They examined 9000 US cities and found, 
Those with more black residents consistently collected unusually high amounts of fines and fees—even after controlling for differences in income, education and crime levels. Cities with the largest shares (98%) of black residents collected an average of $12-$19 more per person than those with the smallest (0%) did. However, there was one subgroup of cities that bucked the trend: the relationship between race and fines was only half as strong in places whose city councils included at least one black member. This may be because black politicians are likelier than white ones are to respond to complaints from black constituents. Black councillors might also intervene to stop certain policies, like increasing court fees, from going into effect to begin with.
The attraction of fines as a valuable source of revenues for cash strapped local governments may amplify the problem,
Part of the problem is that fines are a very effective method for cash-strapped governments to shore up their budgets without having to raise taxes or cut spending. As a result, the temptation to tell police departments to dredge up violations, no matter how petty, can be hard to resist. City judges tend to rubber-stamp these penalties. For example, in Peoria, Arizona, two people were jailed for not trimming weeds more than six inches tall. In Ferguson, a black man resting in his car after playing basketball in the public park was stopped by police and charged with, among other things, not wearing a seat belt in his (parked) car and making a false declaration after giving the officer a shortened name (like “Bob” instead of “Robert”). Such fines may fall disproportionately on the backs of black citizens, because they tend to be poorer and lack the resources to contest the penalties.
6.  A team of analysts from UBS took apart the mass-market electric vehicle (EV), Chevrolet Bolt, which retails for $37000 and can do 238 miles on a single charge. They found compelling evidence that EVs could become mainstream far earlier than being anticipated, with the likelihood of achieving cost parity with internal combustion engine vehicles by early part of next decade. They found EV vehicles to have far less mechanical complexity - Bolt had just 24 moving parts compared to 149 for VW Golf, which means less wear and tear, and less number of workers in production line.

The report has several other interesting findings, including the fact that 56% of Bolt EV content comes from outside the traditional auto-supply chain, thereby indicating the possibility of significant disruption on the supply-chain side.
Further, with far less, almost negligible, maintenance costs, and no engine oil like consumables, the EV could hurt dealerships, who generate almost 40% of their revenues from after-sales maintenance.
As to its impact on the global market for minerals, the demand for cobalt, lithium, and graphite for batteries and rare earths for e-motor magnets would rise,


7. Two contrasting interpretations of Chinese historical perspective. Howard French talks in his new book about a Chinese neighbourhood policy motivated by its historically predominant position and the concept of tianxia, or "everything under heaven",
“Tianxia emerges as a paradigm for China’s geopolitics from a correct sense that it is vastly larger and, for most of its history, vastly richer than any neighbouring state,” French explains during our conversation. “Out of this flows an ideal, from the Chinese perspective, that order can best be established in our neighbourhood by a situation whereby the neighbours defer to us.” In the most technical sense, deference is expressed through a highly ritualised series of ceremonies: embassies dispatched to pay obeisance to the emperor; the adoption of the Chinese calendar and language. In broader policy terms, tianxia combines carefully deployed “sticks” and “carrots”. French points to historical evidence to argue that China uses inducements first and force only as a last resort: the Sino-Vietnamese war of 1979 is an example. Carrots include access to Chinese trade, to its potentially vast market, and to what French describes as “patents of authority. China essentially legitimates local leaders by endorsing them”. On this basis, “a harmonious pattern of coexistence can endure in the region. One could say only on this basis”.
Former Indian Foreign Secretary, Shyam Saran, refutes this interpretation of historic predominance
China uses templates of the past as instruments of legitimisation, to construct a modern narrative of power. One key element of the narrative is that China’s role as Asia’s dominant power restores a ­position the nation occupied through most of history. The period from the mid-18th century until China’s liberation in 1949, when the country was reduced to semi-colonial status, subjected to invasions by imperialist powers and Japan, is characterised as an aberration. The tributary system is presented as artful statecraft evolved by China to manage interstate ­relationships in an asymmetrical world. What is rarely acknowledged is that China was a frequent tributary to keep marauding tribes at bay. The Tang emperor paid tribute to the Tibetans as well as to the fierce Xiongnu tribes to keep the peace. History shows a few periods when its periphery was occupied by relatively weaker states. China itself was occupied and ruled by non-Han invaders, ­including the Mongols, from the 12th to 15th centuries, and the Manchus, from the 15th to 20th centuries. Far from considering these empires as oppressive, modern Chinese political discourse seeks to project itself as a successor state entitled to territorial acquisitions of those empires, including vast non-Han areas such as Xinjiang and Tibet.


Thus, an imagined history is put forward to legitimise China’s claim to Asian hegemony, and remarkably, much of this is increasingly considered as self-evident in Western and even Indian discourse. Little in history supports the proposition that China was the centre of the Asian universe commanding deference among less civilised states... recasting a complex history to reflect a ­Chinese centrality that never existed is part of China’s current narrative of power.
8. Ananthanageswaran and Praveen Chakravarthy provides these very sensible suggestions in response to this SEBI discussion paper to address the disproportionate skew towards derivatives in India's equity market. They find that investors in India's derivatives markets are primarily speculators and not hedgers, and have been encouraged by the lower Securities Transaction Tax (STT) on derivatives over stocks. The scale of distortion is not to be glossed over,
Indian equity investors have an inexplicable fetish for complex derivative products. In FY2017, just 700,000 individuals bought and sold nearly $4 trillion notional worth of derivatives. This is twice as much as all foreign institutional investors in India combined. India’s stock exchanges trade eight times more equity derivatives than the Hong Kong (HK) stock exchange, even though the value of all companies listed in HK is double that of India. Indian retail investors also seem to prefer the riskier of the two categories of derivatives products between stock futures and options. The potential gain or loss in futures is unlimited, while it is limited in options. Retail investors in India bet on a notional value of $800 billion of stock futures in 2016, more than the value of stock futures traded in all of Europe, Hong Kong and Singapore combined. Retail investors account for half of all the stock futures trading in India, while sophisticated institutional investors account for just one-tenth and prefer stock options instead. Not only do Indian retail investors have a puzzling fascination for high-risk derivative products, they seem addicted to the riskiest category.
In contrast, Ajay Shah takes an ideological view on the issues raised in the SEBI discussion paper and claims that India's equity markets "largely work well". I don't have the energy to litigate, but it is amazing that views like "objective of financial markets policy is to achieve liquid and efficient financial markets" persist. 

9. The latest in the search for fancy financing instruments to address development challenges comes with the world's first issuance of Pandemic Bonds by the World Bank. The details,
The World Bank says the probability of another pandemic in the next 10 to 15 years is high. That is why it has issued $425m in pandemic bonds to support its new Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility (PEF), which is intended to channel funding to countries facing a deadly disease. The bonds cover six viruses likely to spark outbreaks: new influenza viruses, coronaviruses (like SARS and MERS), filoviruses (like Ebola), Lassa fever, Rift Valley fever and Crimean Congo fever. Investors forgo their principal when a virus reaches a predetermined contagion level, based on rate of growth, number of deaths and whether it crosses international borders. The facility covers 77 of the world’s poorest countries.
This will raise probably a few millions over the next many years. Is it really worth the effort?

10. Finally, as India refused to enforce the follow-on despite having a lead of 304 over Sri Lanka, one cannot but help think that the follow-on requirement of 200 runs has to be changed. It should be made at least 300 runs, maybe 400 runs. In the age of modern batting (fast scoring and weakness on worn-out wickets), teams realise that a lead of 200 can be made to look very small even with just one session of batting. So, enforcing the follow-on is just inconceivable. 

          Chemical equilibria of rare earth oxides in glow discharge mass spectrometry        
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          Syrian Refugee And German Scientist Make An Unlikely Team        
German scientist Matthias Schmidt wants to extract rare earth metals from abandoned mines using bacteria. He has an unlikely partner — Nedal Said, a Syrian refugee scientist who escaped Aleppo . Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit ARI SHAPIRO, HOST: Now for a story about an unusual partnership - two scientists trying to find a way to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines. It's happening in Leipzig. NPR's Joe Palca went to Germany to learn more. JOE PALCA, BYLINE: In the lower level of a building on the campus of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, there's a modern, well-equipped laboratory. MATTHIAS SCHMIDT: We've got a number of different microscopes. Then we've got a laser microdissection system here. PALCA: Matthias Schmidt is giving me a tour of the lab. Microscopes and laser microdissection systems are useful if you happen to be studying single cells or bacteria. So what are they doing in a lab that's trying to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines?
          Visible and near infrared emitting thin film electroluminescent gallium nitride doped with rare earths        
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          Rare earth silicides as solar cell contact materials        
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          Rare Earth, Lynas & What are We Expecting (Updated)        
UPDATE: Added new infographic. who doesnt love infographic? What is Rare Earth? To understand rare earth, here is a great awesome easy to understand video by Hank Green in SciShow. Useful infographic about the Lynas case. Click for large picture When I first know about Malaysia is having a rare earth refining facility in Kuantan, […]
          KHRT ND NEWS - TUESDAY - 07/25/17 - MORNING EDITION        
Geologists are searching for rare earth elements in North Dakota in an attempt to end foreign dependence on the valuable materials used in several forms of modern technology....
          Magnetic Half Dollar by Royal Magic        
Magnetic Half Dollar by Royal Magic

A precision machined US Half Dollar with a "rare earth" magnet embedded in its core. Perfect for ditching, switching, vanishing and stealing coins. Precision made by Royal Magic in the USA. Packed in a polybag with instructions.



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          Multi-Knife Display        

Multi-Knife Display

After 7 months of working on this project (the past 5 of which, I’ve touched this thing maybe 5 minutes every other week), I’m finally done! I kept track of this somewhat here: http://lumberjocks.com/superstretch/blog/series/4846

A coworker of mine wanted a custom stand for his knives (the five straight blades can be seen in the fifth picture). I was given the dimensions for the hutch that would hold this display and told that the hutch was cherry—but also that he wanted woods other than cherry. I used spalted maple for the majority of it, walnut for the shelves (for the folding knives) and bocote for the miter splines.

The biggest challenge for me was precision. I’m a big dude with fat fingers and didn’t inherit my grandpa’s finesse. I did what I could to use my mathematical, calculating side to make the machinery do the work. The shelves are held in by very small dadoed slots (about 1.5 kerf-widths). The tricky bit was the placement and creation of stands for the knives themselves. I ended up having to hand-shape the stands for the handles and then epoxied rare earth magnets to hold the blades. Since these are high dollar knives, I couldn’t risk holding the blades in any way that would impact the blade edge or mar the blade.

At one point, I even polled the audience for what angle I should set the middle piece at. My original plan was to follow the angle of the side pieces, but laying the middle down a few degrees made it look much better.

Finish is rattle-can clear shellac. With so many bits and pieces, it was really the only logical way to do it. I wanted to let the wood speak for itself but not overshadow the knives.


          Making a Small Wooden Box #7: The Fiddly Bits        

When I get to this stage of a project, I have to work hard at not becoming impatient and rushing the final details. If one is not very careful, it’s here where everything can go pear-shaped.

In this episode, I have finished the wood with a three coat shellac base and a light sanding with very fine wet & dry between each coat, and then four coats of sprayed clear lacquer, again rubbing out each coat including the final coat. (I should also mention that I had previously pre-finished the body and lid of the box using burnishing oil and a ROS as per Rob's instructions.)

Even though the instructions with the lacquer state that I should wait 20 minutes between each coat, I like to wait more like three hours in a 72 degree room. I find it gives each coat more time to cure and makes the rubbing out process more effective. If you do this too soon, it’s possible to cut through the hard surface skin and dig into the softer uncured finish making a real mess. I didn’t take any pictures of applying the finish, I thought it would be like watching grass grow.

The pictures here show the box with the final coat of spray before rubbing out and applying a coat of traditional wax polish. When I post this in my projects page, you will see the effect of applying the wax.

Now for the fiddly details.

This picture shows how I lay out the material for a padded interior insert which will sit under the lower dividers. I’m using a faux suede with a thin layer of padding mounted to a cardboard backing. The padding gives the suede a plush feel. The backing board is cut 1mm shorter than the inside dimensions of the base to allow for the material, yet making a snug fit.

I spray a coat of adhesive to the backing board and press the material against the sticky surface which holds it in place.

The finished padded insert.

This shot shows the lower divider with a ring-role. The ring role is made from a piece of high density foam cut exactly to the size of the compartment. This is then slotted (cut almost all the way through with an X-acto knife. I spray this with an adhesive then stuff the suede into the slots. If you try this, remember to cut the material to more than twice the surface dimensions of the foam. The excess material is folded and stuffed into a cavity below the ring-roll. I added a retainer in the bottom of this compartment to hide the untidy look of the underside of the ring-roll (not that anyone would see it).

The following one shows how this is retained in place. You will also note that I have applied two felt pads to the back rail of the lower dividers to keep it snuggly in place.

Here’s the box with the padded insert and the lower dividers in place. If you look closely, you will notice four rare earth magnets have been installed; two in the outer corners of the lid and two in the corresponding surface in the front corners of the box.

[I took some pictures of the hinge installation, but somehow these failed to record to my flash card, so a brief description.] The hinges are Brusso, 11/4” x 7/16” from Lee Valley. Brusso make the finest box ‘jewelry’ available. It makes little sense to me to spend hours on a box only to spoil it with cheap big-box hardware.

I used a router set-up for my Dremel. I first scribed the outline of the hinge with a sharp knife after carefully measuring the location on the box walls. The Dremel was hand held as I cut out the hinge mortise gently easing the bit up to the scribed line. The scribing reduces any chip-out. Then I cleaned out the mortises with a sharp chisel. Next, I inserted the hinges into the mortise and positioned and clamped the lid in place. I then scored a nick with the tip of my knife where the hinges met the lid and repeated the above steps using the ‘nicks’ as a reference point.

Here’s a hint; when you install hinges, it looks tidier to have all the screws lined up with the slots pointing in the same direction. Always drill a pilot hole. Because brass screws are relatively soft, it’s all too easy to twist the head off the shaft. To prevent this happening, I pre-thread the hole using a steel screw of the same size and thread. I wax the screw which makes it easier to drive home, and lubricates the thread being cut into the wood. Then I remove the steel screw and drive in the brass screw, also with some wax applied. When lining up the screw head, use care not to turn the screw too far into the hole for the sake of alignment. You will run the risk of snapping the head off. It’s better to go just tight enough and back off a quarter turn to align the slots, rather than too far and breaking the screw.

You will notice that the screw in the lower left is not perfectly centered. This is not easy to correct, but can be by drilling out the hole and inserting a hardwood dowel glued in place, then re-drilled. The problem with this is you are drilling into end-grain. Perhaps a better but more difficult fix is to cut a mortise and insert a piece of wood so you are drilling into face grain. Or you can do what I did; nothing.

This shows one of the upper trays sitting on the lower divider rails.

And still another with both trays in place. The second tray doesn’t have the padded insert installed. You can see that I decided to cover the 3mm MDF base of the trays with more American Maple veneer to keep the forces the same on both sides of the bottom of the trays. (The trays started to warp a little and I put this down to the fact that I had originally applied the Maple veneer to only the underside surface.)

Almost finished.


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          Determination of rare earth elements in uranium compounds        
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          Parker Guitars - Ken Parker        
Ken Parker and Parker Fly



Ken Parker built his first archtop guitar in 1974. This was long before he rose to fame with his well known electric guitar; The Parker Fly.






Ken Parker

In regard to the origin of the Parker Fly, Parker, in his own words states, "Larry Fishman and I met in 1984 and began a playful but productive design partnership.


Larry Fishman
We shared techniques and technologies, and tried to envision some new tools for guitar players. Long story short, we founded Parker Guitars in 1991 in order to realize the Fly Guitar project. We created tools to build the guitars, and established our factory in Massachusetts, where we produced about 30,000 guitars and basses."

1993 Parker Fly Guitar


In doing so, Ken created a modern ultra-light guitar, and made use of some unusual materials. Official sales of the Parker Fly began around 1993.






1992 Parker Fly
The Parker Fly was made from a variety of woods, including poplar, basswood, and spruce. Once the unique shape of the body and neck were carved the instrument was coated with a composite of resin and carbon glass to reinforce the structure.

Parker Fly - custom marbled colour

The fretboard was also made of a composite material and the frets were made of stainless steel. The design process has given Parker Fly guitars the reputation of having the “fastest neck in the business”.

Due to their durability, these materials will pretty much last for the lifetime of the owner.

The electronics used in the instruments were very unique as well. The guitar used either coil split humbucking pickups or single coil pickups. Both had active circuitry. The Fly also had a piezo pickup for acoustic sounds.

Original Parker backside



The structure of the neck was unique since it used multiple finger joints for stability.








Parker Vibrato
The guitars vibrato was unique as well. Instead of using wound springs, The Fly utilizes a shaped flat steel spring that returns the guitar to pitch. It could be set for bend down down mode, balanced mode (full floating), or fixed mode.

Adjustment Wheel

The tension is controlled by a balance wheel. (The guitars manual cautions not to set it too tight as this could cause the spring to break). The vibrato was engineered in a way to bring the strings back to pitch. Sperzel locking tuners aided in maintaining the instruments pitch and eliminated the need for string trees.


Ken Parker and Larry Fisher set up their business and manufacturing facility in Wilmington, Massachusetts.

2002 Parker Fly Bass
In October 2002, Parker began offering the Fly Bass guitar in both 4 and 5 string versions. These basses were well received for their ease of use. They came with both magnetic and piezo pickup and the player could blend the two sounds together. The basses were also manufactured in the Massachusetts factory.

In 2003 Ken Parker sold his stake in the company to the U.S. Music Corporation.



2003 Redesigned Parker Mojo Flame
As he states, "In 2003, U.S. Music purchased Parker Guitars, and moved the production facilities to the greater Chicago area. Since that time, all of the new models produced by Parker Guitars, including any acoustic or semi hollow instruments, have been designed solely by Parker Guitars' design engineers. I have had no involvement with any of these new design projects.

Creating the Parker Fly, Nightfly, and the Fly Bass was a labor of love. I had a lot of fun designing them and then devising and building the production tooling to make them. These instruments have worn well,  and now the product line has been expanded by the new owners."

U.S. Music Corporation Home Page


The U.S. Music Corporation is a distributor of multiple products, including Parker guitars. This organization manufactured the guitars from their Illinois based factory. They developed the line and changed up a few things.




2003 Parker Fly Classic

U.S. Music took a different approach to Parker Guitars. Some Parker guitars were no longer made with the original composite finish, but were now made of wooden bodies. To be fair, by 2001, Ken Parker had offered some models with wooden bodies.

Also some of the new models appeared to be Parker guitars that had morphed with other popular guitar designs.

For instance, the Single Cutaway Fly Mojo may have been a wonderful guitar, but the Les Paul influence is obvious.

Parker Single Cutawy Fly Mojo Flame
This was a single cutaway guitar with twin Seymour Duncan humbucking pickups. The body and neck were made of mahogany and were joined by using Ken Parker’s multi-finger neck joint. This guitar featured a tune-o-matic style bridge and a stop tail piece. The neck was topped with an ebony fretboard that had no position markers and the unique Parker 6 on-a-side headstock.

Tuners were still made by Sperzel.

Fly Mojo Flame
The Fly Mojo Flame did have the body shape of a Parker Fly guitar. The literature suggests it was made of mahogany with a “unique AAA flame maple skin over a solid mahogany body allowing the sound of mahogany to fully resonate through.” I cannot determine if this means the body had a maple veneer or a maple photo-flame finish.

This guitar came with a mahogany neck topped with the Parker headstock and included one Duncan Jazz and one Duncan JB humbucking pickup. Once again the fretboard was ebony with no position markers.

The Fly Mojo Flame also had the Parker Fly vibrato, sans the adjustment wheel. U.S. Music eliminated the vibrato adjustment wheel on all models that they produced.

2006 Fly Mojo


The Fly Mojo was similar in all aspects of the previous guitar, but the body was made of natural unstained mahogany.

U.S. Music continued to build The Parker Fly guitar, but changes were made from the original design to correspond with their vision of this instrument.




2005 Parker Fly Classic
The body was now made of mahogany with a basswood neck. The Fly Classic weighed in at 5 pounds and had the features of the original Fly, except for the choice of body wood and composite finish.

The U.S. Music Parker Fly came with two Seymour Duncan humbucking pickups and included the Parker vibrato. The guitar was available with three colour options.

2005 Parker Fly Deluxe Ice Blue Burst

The Fly Deluxe was a similar instrument that apparently was voiced differently than the original. It came in different six different colour schemes.


The Parker Nitefly Series included two guitars with features in the same shape as the original Parker Fly model. However these both had solid mahogany bodies and bolt on mahogany necks.

NiteFly Mojo Flame
The NiteFly Mojo Flame guitar had the same style neck, with a plain ebony fretboard, topped with the Parker style headstock. The thing that stood out on this guitar was the two humbucking pickups that were topped with chrome covers. One pickup was a Seymour Duncan Jazz pickup and the other was a Seymour Duncan JB pickup. This guitar featured the Parker vibrato. The mahogany body came with what the literature called, “a flame with a traditional AAA flame maple top over the solid mahogany body.”This guitar was offered in cherry sunburst or transparent blue-burst.

NiteFly Mojo



The NiteFly Mojo guitar had the same accouterments however the pickups lacked the chrome covers and there was not a flame veneer topping the mahogany body. It was bare wood and available in a natural finish, a transparent cherry finish, or a dusky black finish.




Southern NiteFly
The Parker Southern NiteFly was Parker’s answer to the Fender Telecaster. The body on this guitar was made of swamp ash and the bolt on neck was maple. The guitar even had black plastic pickguard. The neck pickup was a single coil with a chrome cover that could have been right off of a Tele. The Powerbridge™, looked like the rectangular chrome plate on a Telecaster. It contained a second single coil, slanted pickup and the adjustable bridge saddles contained the Fishman™ piezo elements. There was no vibrato on this model.

What set this apart from a Telecaster was the Parker Fly body, and the Parker headstock. The chrome control plate featured a third knob for the piezo volume. Above it was a second toggle switch to activate the piezo pickup. It was available with blonde, butterscotch, or transparent red finish options.

There were other variants that U.S. Music came up with for their Parker guitars.

NiteFly M


The Parker Nite Fly was one of the models designed by Ken Parker in the late 1990’s. The U.S. Music version of this guitar, called the NiteFly M, had a solid mahogany body and was topped with two humbucking pickups. The bolt-on neck was also made of mahogany. This instrument was offered with a natural oil and wax finish or a similar finish in black. It had the Parker vibrato.



NiteFly Alder
The Nite Fly Alder was Parker’s version of the Fender Stratocaster. This time the body was, of course, made of alder wood, while the neck was maple topped with an ebony fretboard. The pickup layout was similar to that on a strat, but the bridge pickup was a Seymour Duncan humbucking model. The controls were the same as those on a Stratocaster; a master volume, and two tone controls. It too came with the Parker vibrato. It was offered in cream white, Indigo blue,and cherry red.



NiteFly SA


The NiteFly SA was based on the original Parker model. It had the typical Parker shape, but was topped with a white plastic pickguard that contained the electronics, including two single coil pickups and a humbucking pickup in the bridge position. A slider switch acted as a pickup selector. The guitars body was made of swamp ash and the neck was maple. It came complete with the Parker vibrato and was available in transparent red or blue.


Parker PM and Parker P Series
The Parker PM Series and P Series were similar to all of the previous versions, but are noted by the company as having significant upgrades.

U.S. Music Parker guitars included in its line up a series four solid body Parker Fly basses, in addition to their hollow-body PAB 40.

PB61SP



The PB61SP featured neck-thru construction of a spalted maple top and mahogany neck with an ebony fretboard and a spalted maple headstock veneer. The tuners and adjustable bridge/saddle were gold-plated. The body was in the Parker Fly Bass shape. This bass, like all Parker basses, featured twin EMG 35CS active bass pickups.




PB51TR



The PB51TR (Transparent Red) was very similar, except the body and neck were made of mahogany and it was finished in transparent red. The tuners and adjustable tailpiece were in a black gun metal finish.






PB41



The PB41 series offered the same great features, such as EMG pickups, however the body was made of Sitka spruce with a Urethan finish, and the bolt-on the neck was maple. It was available in Silverburst, Black Matte, and Gold Matte. The hardware was also done in a black finish. These basses were available in four or five string models.



In 2006 the company added a line of acoustic-electric and jazz guitars under the Parker brand name. These were manufactured off-shore by Washburn guitars.  At that time U.S, Music owned the US distribution rights to the Washburn brand as well.

Bronze Fly



These acoustic models included the 24 fret Bronze Fly, which was a solid body guitar in the shape of the Parker Fly. It had no magnetic pickup, only a Fishman piezo pickup in the Parker style bridge, however there was no vibrato. Ken Parker had offered this guitar when he owned the company under the name The Fly Concert.




Nylon Fly


The Nylon Fly was a similar guitar. This model came with the Fishman piezo placed under a handcrafted ebony bridge.  Both models were topped with gold-plated Sperzel locking tuner. During the years Ken owned the company this guitar was called The Spanish Fly.


The PJ14N and PJ12 SB were true archtop hollow-body guitars. Both of these guitars had the most unusual body designs as well as unique f-holes.


PJ14N
The body of the PJ14N was made of natural spruce and the guitar featured a single Egnater floating Humbucker pickup with pickguard mounted controls and a 5-ply Rock Maple neck with Gold Grover Titan Tuners. The inlaid trapeze tailpiece appears to be made of ebony and the headstock was highly inlaid. This jazz box had only one sound hole. The bound ebony fretboard was inlaid with mother-of-pearl block fret markers. This guitar came with a 3-on-a-side headstock and it was simply awesome!



PJ12SB


The PJ12 SB (sunburst) featured two Egnater Humbucker pickups mounted on the guitars body with individual volume and tone controls, a stunning brass tailpiece, and a 5-ply Rock Maple neck with Gold Grover Titan Tuners. This guitar featured a bound ebony fretboard with block position markers. The 3-on-a-side headstock had a large split-diamond inlay and above it the Parker logo all in mother-of-pearl. The PJ12 was the same guitar with a natural finish.


Parker Event Series
Another development in 2006 was the introduction of a line of acoustic-electric guitars under the Parker brand.  These models all had ovular sound holes. The guitars were actually made by the Washburn guitar company under the Parker logo and were given the designation of Parker Event Series guitars. These included three wide bodied models and five thinner body instruments. All had the same unique Parker body shape as the Jazz series. The line up included three non-electric acoustic models.

Parker P8E

The P8E guitar was designed with a solid cedar top, with a flamed maple back and sides. The unbound fretboard was made of ebony and had small dot inlaid position markers on the boards bass side The electronics were designed by Larry Fishman and included a piezo unit in the bridge and a Fishman magnetic pickup just under the neck. The master volume control is on the guitars top and on the upper side bout are the controls for treble, bass, and pickup balance.


Parker P9E


The P9E was very similar, except for the choice of wood. For this guitar, the top was solid cedar, but the back and sides were made of Indian rosewood The neck was made of mahogany.






Parker P10E



The P10E came with all the features of the P9E, however the neck had an ivoroid fretboard with dark dot position markers. The bridge was made of this same material.






Parker P6E Event Series
The Parker P6E models featured a thinner body than the aforementioned instruments. This guitar was available in various styles.

This guitar had a solid Sitka spruce top with single ply binding. The accouterments were similar to th aforementioned mode,  with biggest difference being the depth of the body.

The other difference was the necks which were made of 5-ply mahogany and maple. The body on the P6E models were made with mahogany back and sides. Once again the fretboard Is made of ebony with microdot inlays, The electronics were designed by Larry Fisher. These guitars were available in white, black, and transparent red.

Parker P7EQS



The P7EQS had the same accouterments, but had a fancy quilted sapele top.








Parker Intrique Series acoustic



The Parker Intrigue Series, were acoustic guitar, with no electronic features. The unique body shape on these instruments was much different as there is no cutaway section.





Parker Intrique Series acoustic
The PA28 came with a solid cedar top and solid Indian rosewood back and sides. The neck was 5 ply mahogany/maple topped with gold-plated Grover Stay-Tite open back tuners. These instrument had a zero fret to help with intonation.

Also it 2006 Parker also came out with a unique acoustic bass guitar to match up with their Event Series guitars.


Parker PAB 40
The PAB 40 bass guitar featured the same shape as the Event Series guitars. It included nine feedback suppressing slots routed into the bodies upper bout. The piezo and electronics were the customized Fishman Matrix Bass system and installed on the upper side. The bound body was made of American black walnut and included a thumb rest. The ebony fretboard had only dot inlays at the 12th fret. The 2 on a side headstock was topped with gold-plated tuners. The pin bridge was uniquely designed of ebony wood.


JAM Industries 
In 2009, the brand was acquired by JAM Industries of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Production remained in Illinois. JAM is a multi-national distributor of musical instruments, pro audio and lighting and consumer electronic.

This company has acquired many smaller distribution companies and owns the distribution rights to quite a few well know brands including Digitech, Washburn, Marshall, Hagstrom, Randall, Oscar Schmidt, and Korg.

2010 Parker Maxxfly
In 2010 the MaxxFly model was introduced. This model was based on the Fly guitar, but featured a refined headstock which allowed it to be hung on a wall guitar hanger. The top horn was reshaped to be more traditional and ergonomic.

Standardized pickup cavities were set up to aid in manufacturing. The frets were reduced from 24 to 22, and the body became slightly thicker and heavier.

In 2015 the JAM Corporation announced that Parker's US production had ceased and a search for a new off-shore facility was underway.

Fly Mojo Snakeskin


Parker did create several special edition models after the 2015 announcement including the Fly Mojo Snakeskin model, the Koa Fly Mojo model, and the Four Season Fly Mojo guitar, which was offered in differing finishes corresponding to the seasons.





Parker Guitars  US Music page
The Parker Fly brand was being manufactured until November of 2016 when the factory in Buffalo Grove, Illinois was shut down. The U.S. Music website states, “The Parker Guitar line-up is currently being updated for re-release in 2017.


Ken in 2013 Holding his archtop


So what is Ken Parker doing these days? He has returned to his first love, which is building archtop guitars. He started doing this in the 1970’s, long before he became preoccupied with the Parker Fly guitar. During these years he was able to strike up a friendship and get advice from Jimmy D’Aquisto.


1991 model
much different Parker
Ken says on his webpage that he has been busy creating and selling his own archtop guitars. And these are very unique instruments, like no other guitars on the market. Each guitar is handmade and though they share the same outline, each is a one-of-a-kind piece. Ken has experimented with different woods that exhibit different tonal variations.

After selling his stake in Parker Fly Guitars in 2003, Ken began experimenting with the archtop guitar neck attachment. He felt that one of the pitfalls of the archtop acoustic was the bridge.

Parker Archtop "Grace"
On most models this involves a bridge with a saddle that is adjusted by means of some knurled knobs to raise and lower the action of the strings. He feels the bridge is such an important element in transferring the string vibrations to the guitars body and the standard method needed to be improved upon.

The bridges on his instruments need no adjusting.

Parker archtop neck and post
To solve this, Ken has created a unique adjustable and removable neck. The neck sets above the guitars body on a post made of carbon fiber.

This allows the player to not only adjust the neck, but to play in upper registers without being impeded by the instruments body or neck heel, as there is no neck heel. Another advantage to the removable neck is that the instrument can be dismantled and placed in travel size containers for safe travel on airlines. Parker can even build an instrument available with a variety of differing necks for the same body, such as a 25.5” scale or a 30” baritone scale, even six or seven string necks that would fit the same body.

Parker neck, bridge, fretboard

Parker’s fretboard design involves an altered conical parabolic curve that is based on the players preference for string gauge and action. He suggests using 12 gauge string sets for his instrument, preferably made of phosphor bronze material, since he uses Fishman Rare Earth SA220 humbucking pickups on his instruments.



Fishman Rare Earth pickup
top and side view
          BezuBallz, 125 Glow in the Dark Green Balls        
BezuBallz, 125 Glow in the Dark Green Balls

BezuBallz, 125 Glow in the Dark Green Balls

Super addictive Hours of fun 125 balls in pack Glow in the Dark Powerful rare earth magnets 


          Troubled firm aims to mine Madagascar forest for rare earth elements        
The Mittermeier sportive lemur (Lepilemur mittermeieri) is found only on the Ampasindava peninsula. Researchers warn that its population could be harmed if TREM moves ahead. Photo by Leslie Wilmet.AMPASINDAVA PENINSULA, Madagascar — Solondraza, a 63-year-old farmer in northwestern Madagascar, has led a mostly conflict-free life. He and his wife live in a small house made of ravinala, a type of palm tree that fans out across the hilly landscape. They earn a living on cash crops like vanilla and cacao that grow well […]
          Laser-excited ionic fluorescence of the rare earths in the inductively coupled plasma        
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          MBC News: 7-12-11        
The News of the World closes and the Murdochs arrive in the UK to eat crow. Google Plus opens though SL folks get the boot; Monoclegate at "Eve Online"; LulzSec disbands. There's still money for virtual worlds, which is why $2 million went to Roblox; and is LL thinking of a new name for Second Life?

MBC News July 12th, 2011 from Metaverse TV on Vimeo.



SLCC is still looking for business presentations - hurry up!

Mal talks about rare earth, London Fashion Week, Intel partners with OpenSim, and more. Dousa drolls over the Mr. Virtual World competition.
           Vibrational and optical properties of rare earth metaphosphate glasses         
Saunders, G.A. and Carini, Giuseppe (1994) Vibrational and optical properties of rare earth metaphosphate glasses. Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti, Classe di Scienze FF. MM. NN., LXXII. pp. 55-86.
          Troubled firm aims to mine Madagascar forest for rare earth elements        
The Mittermeier sportive lemur (Lepilemur mittermeieri) is found only on the Ampasindava peninsula. Researchers warn that its population could be harmed if TREM moves ahead. Photo by Leslie Wilmet.AMPASINDAVA PENINSULA, Madagascar — Solondraza, a 63-year-old farmer in northwestern Madagascar, has led a mostly conflict-free life. He and his wife live in a small house made of ravinala, a type of palm tree that fans out across the hilly landscape. They earn a living on cash crops like vanilla and cacao that grow well […]
           Electrical Properties of Rare Earth-Doped Barium Titanate         
Alshoaibi, Adil (2017) Electrical Properties of Rare Earth-Doped Barium Titanate. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
           Structure-property relations in rare earth doped BiFeO3.         
Karimi, Sarah (2012) Structure-property relations in rare earth doped BiFeO3. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
          The dangers of a rising China        

China and America are bound to be rivals, but they do not have to be antagonists

Dec 2nd 2010 | from PRINT EDITION

TOWARDS the end of 2003 and early in 2004 China’s most senior leaders put aside the routine of governing 1.3 billion people to spend a couple of afternoons studying the rise of great powers. You can imagine history’s grim inventory of war and destruction being laid out before them as they examined how, from the 15th century, empires and upstarts had often fought for supremacy. And you can imagine them moving on to the real subject of their inquiry: whether China will be able to take its place at the top without anyone resorting to arms.

In many ways China has made efforts to try to reassure an anxious world. It has repeatedly promised that it means only peace. It has spent freely on aid and investment, settled border disputes with its neighbours and rolled up its sleeves in UN peacekeeping forces and international organisations. When North Korea shelled a South Korean island last month China did at least try to create a framework to rein in its neighbour.

But reasonable China sometimes gives way to aggressive China. In March, when the North sank a South Korean warship, killing 46 sailors, China failed to issue any condemnation. A few months later it fell out with Japan over some Chinese fishermen, arrested for ramming Japanese coastguard vessels around some disputed islands—and then it locked up some Japanese businessmen and withheld exports of rare earths vital for Japanese industry. And it has forcefully reasserted its claim to the Spratly and Paracel Islands and to sovereignty over virtually the entire South China Sea.

As the Chinese leaders’ history lesson will have told them, the relationship that determines whether the world is at peace or at war is that between pairs of great powers. Sometimes, as with Britain and America, it goes well. Sometimes, as between Britain and Germany, it does not.

So far, things have gone remarkably well between America and China. While China has devoted itself to economic growth, American security has focused on Islamic terrorism and war in Iraq and Afghanistan. But the two mistrust each other. China sees America as a waning power that will eventually seek to block its own rise. And America worries about how Chinese nationalism, fuelled by rediscovered economic and military might, will express itself (see our special report).


The Peloponnesian pessimists

Pessimists believe China and America are condemned to be rivals. The countries’ visions of the good society are very different. And, as China’s power grows, so will its determination to get its way and to do things in the world. America, by contrast, will inevitably balk at surrendering its pre-eminence.

They are probably right about Chinese ambitions. Yet China need not be an enemy. Unlike the Soviet Union, it is no longer in the business of exporting its ideology. Unlike the 19th-century European powers, it is not looking to amass new colonies. And China and America have a lot in common. Both benefit from globalisation and from open markets where they buy raw materials and sell their exports. Both want a broadly stable world in which nuclear weapons do not spread and rogue states, like Iran and North Korea, have little scope to cause mayhem. Both would lose incalculably from war.

The best way to turn China into an opponent is to treat it as one. The danger is that spats and rows will sour relations between China and America, just as the friendship between Germany and Britain crumbled in the decades before the first world war. It is already happening in defence. Feeling threatened by American naval power, China has been modernising its missiles, submarines, radar, cyber-warfare and anti-satellite weapons. Now America feels on its mettle. Recent Pentagon assessments of China’s military strength warn of the threat to Taiwan and American bases and to aircraft-carriers near the Chinese coast. The US Navy has begun to deploy more forces in the Pacific. Feeling threatened anew, China may respond. Even if neither America nor China intended harm—if they wanted only to ensure their own security—each could nevertheless see the other as a growing threat.

Some would say the solution is for America to turn its back on military rivalry. But a weaker America would lead to chronic insecurity in East Asia and thus threaten the peaceful conduct of trade and commerce on which America’s prosperity depends. America therefore needs to be strong enough to guarantee the seas and protect Taiwan from Chinese attack.


How to take down the Great Wall

History shows that superpowers can coexist peacefully when the rising power believes it can rise unhindered and the incumbent power believes that the way it runs the world is not fundamentally threatened. So a military build-up needs to be accompanied by a build-up of trust.

There are lots of ways to build trust in Asia. One would be to help ensure that disputes and misunderstandings do not get out of hand. China should thus be more open about its military doctrine—about its nuclear posture, its aircraft-carriers and missile programme. Likewise, America and China need rules for disputes including North Korea (see article), Taiwan, space and cyber-warfare. And Asia as a whole needs agreements to help prevent every collision at sea from becoming a trial of strength.

America and China should try to work multilaterally. Instead of today’s confusion of competing venues, Asia needs a single regional security forum, such as the East Asia Summit, where it can do business. Asian countries could also collaborate more in confidence-boosting non-traditional security, such as health, environmental protection, anti-piracy and counter-terrorism, where threats by their nature cross borders.

If America wants to bind China into the rules-based liberal order it promotes, it needs to stick to the rules itself. Every time America breaks them—by, for instance, protectionism—it feeds China’s suspicions and undermines the very order it seeks.

China and America have one advantage over history’s great-power pairings: they saw the 20th century go disastrously wrong. It is up to them to ensure that the 21st is different.




          Evolution of a Shop #33: Bandsaw dust collection        

My Shop Fox bandsaw has a dust port at the bottom of the lower wheel. It does a decent job of getting the dust that stays in the cabinet, but like most bandsaws mine sends a lot of dust under the table. I had a few dust collection parts laying around and decided to try and add some dust collection just below the blade. Here’s what I came up with:

Overall shot

Detail of 2 1/2” port under the table

I epoxied a couple of rare earth magnets to the dust port. It rests on part of the base and the magnets hold it to the cast iron table

When I first connected my DC hose, the Y connection sagged down and almost came off the port on the saw. I cut a little bock of wood to support it.

A few more magnets hold it in place.

The improvement in dust collection is remarkable. It took about a half hour and some parts laying around. Wish I would have done this sooner.

Thanks for looking.

Cory


           Stabila Stabila 81 S REM Magnetic Rare Earth Torpedo Levels        

The Stabila 81 S REM Magnetic Rare Earth Torpedo Levels from Stabila.

Extremely sturdy cast light alloy bodied level, withstands knocks and drops and is conveniently sized to be easily carried and handled. Additional magnets mounted in the milled measuring surface securely hold this level to scaffolding or beams. 1 horizontal and 1 vertical vial.
Measurement accuracy: 0.029 degree = 0.5mm/m.

£24.24


           Stabila Stabila 81 SV Magnetic Rare Earth Torpedo Levels        

The Stabila 81 SV Magnetic Rare Earth Torpedo Levels from Stabila.

Stabila 81 SV Magnetic Rare Earth torpedo levels as with Type 81S or 81SM but with additional angle vial either pre-set or adjustable to report an angle. The model with V-grooved base also includes the special 6 ring vial for marking 1% and 2% slopes for soil or waste pipe installation.

V grooved base and rare earth magnets.
Measurement accuracy: 0.029 degree = 0.5mm/m.
For overhead measurements: 0.043 degree = 0.75mm/m.

£36.49


          Dysprosium, an element for the future, the focus of $56 million rare earths mine in WA        
Australia's first ''heavy rare-earths mine'' is open in Western Australia and has an eye on the electric-car industry.
          First sod turned on a rare earth mine        
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          Rare earth mine officially opened        
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          Construction to begin on Australia's first heavy rare earths mine near Halls Creek        
In the remote Kimberley region of Western Australia, construction is about to start on a $56 million pilot processing plant for Australia's first heavy rare earths mine.
          It's a Freaking Miracle!        
Talk about a miracle, out of nowhere over a trillion dollars worth of minerals and raw materials are popping up all over Afghanistan. And if we believe government spokesfolk, the Pentagon has just now stumbled onto them.

There’s iron, copper, niobium, cobalt, gold, molybdenum, silver, potash, lapis lazuli and rare earth elements such as lithium without which laptops and Blackberries would be so much scrap metal.

According to Tuesday’s New York Times, these deposits could “transform Afghanistan into one of the important mining centers in the world.” And most tellingly, “…it could alter the Afghan war itself.” Of course there is one caveat to these statements. Both express the earnest faith of Pentagon officials, who “believe” this could be so, somewhere, over the rainbow.

As with any article that appears in the Times, the real story is buried 20,000 paragraphs under the lead. The Soviets figured this out in the 1980s when they conducted their own geological surveys. The surveys were discarded when the Afghans drove them out of the country. A Pentagon team looking for some sort of economic justification for our eternal war of the empty policy came across the survey and put together a small team of Pentagon officials and American geologists to expand on the study. This was in 2006.

The story does point out that, “American and Afghan officials agreed to discuss the mineral discoveries at a difficult moment in the war in Afghanistan,” as in they need all the good news they can get no matter how chimerical it is.

James Joyner deconstructs the hype surrounding this “breakthrough discovery.” He quotes Foreign Policy managing editor Blake Hounshell who suggests that the $1 trillion estimate was pulled out of thin air. Let’s face it, the Pentagon has a vested interest in inflating the estimate in an effort to provide a commercial rationale for the Afghan enterprise.

One commentator calls it a “massive information operation,” though it might be more accurate to call it a “disinformation” operation.

Political scientists refer to the “Resource Curse” to describe the fate of third-world countries in which large deposits of minerals are discovered. The bottom line is that the poor remain poor while the corrupt and the connected prosper. Already, there’s talk of brining in multinational mining companies to exploit these mineral deposits at pennies on the dollar.

What we have here is a feeble attempt by the Pentagon to justify its existence. A trillion dollars, that’s the new buzz word that officials hope will garner support for a dying policy. How can we leave Afghanistan with all those minerals that will lift the Afghan people out of their stone-age poverty and bring them into the modern world? It won’t happen, but that makes little differences. Justifications for war rarely have any relationship to reality.

Then, of course, there’s the threat of China muscling in and exploiting the minerals for their own selfish commercial ends. God knows they’ve been inking contracts all over Africa and the Middle East. They’ve already tied up the copper franchise in Afghanistan.

However, the Chinese have one advantage over the United States—drones and hellfire missiles are not a component of their foreign policy.

But, hey! The Pentagon says all those minerals are just begging to be developed and when has our Pentagon ever lied to us? Nothing brings democracy to a country like raw materials waiting to be exploited. We can’t leave now and leave all those minerals to a bunch of foreigners. If we found them we own them. It doesn’t make a damn bit of difference who they actually belong to.
          Trusting the Trustees to Lease Trust Oil and Gas        

While thanks are due to the Wyoming Board of Land Commissioners for approving revisions to lease terms for oil and gas on school trust lands, a few observations are in order.

This new lease form tightens up the process of setting the value of oil and gas for computing royalties, to prevent the liberal deductions producers have taken to reduce the royalties paid to the trust’s permanent land fund. Just to remind everyone, these are trust lands held by the state to be managed for the beneficiaries, our school children.*

The vote by the Land Board last week wasn’t a big surprise. The lease revisions had been in the works for a year and were overdue by a decade. The lease had been in negotiations for several months between the board staff and the oil and gas producers, particularly the Petroleum Association of Wyoming. But four things deserve comment.

Image of Trustee
One is the way some commissioners bristled at the suggestion they weren’t living up to their fiduciary duty as trustees of the school lands, as assigned in Wyoming’s Act of Admission and Constitution. Lori Brand speaking for the Equality State Policy Center and attorney Greg Hacker speaking for the Wyoming Education Association scolded the commission for failing to consider and approve a royalty rate increase and a “Pugh Clause” that is standard in mineral leases to ensure a lease is used.

Gov. Matt Mead and Treasurer Joe Meyer objected to the accusation of foot-dragging or caving in to the powerful mineral lobby. To his credit, Meyer has been a reliable voice for the trust over the years, turning aside requests to put other interests before the school children of this state. One correction, however. He said the Land Commission has been a conscientious trustee since he was elected to statewide office 12 years ago. My memory is that 12 years ago, politics seemed to have equal footing with the beneficiaries, public schools.

The commissioners are justifiably sensitive about their image as good trustees. This is good.

What Did He Say?
The second thing is the confused statements by Bruce Hinchey, director of the Petroleum Association of Wyoming, to deflect arguments for the higher royalty rate and Pugh Clause. He tried to argue that schools didn’t need the money, so we didn’t need to be talking about royalty rates. Anyone with an elementary understanding of trust knows about the fiduciary duty to beneficiaries, which doesn’t change according to their perceived need. If Hinchey wants to argue about school funding, he should take it to the Legislature.

PAW’s spokesman also seemed to forget on this occasion that ad valorem, royalties and severance fees are not just added one on top of the other. Oil and gas producers in Wyoming do not pay severance tax on the amount they pay in mineral royalties.

What the Market Will Bear
Thirdly -- One good way to determine what royalties the market will bear is to see what the market is bearing right now for owners of similar mineral rights in Wyoming and elsewhere. Will the trust lose out with a royalty rate higher than the current 16.66 percent? Other mineral owners are getting 18.75 percent or higher. What are the school trust leases worth? Let’s find out.

Also, this new lease includes many “show cause” provisions so producers can come to the state to ask for exceptions to rules, based on their particular difficulties.

Yes, our state seems to have enough money to cover the school funding formula. That is not relevant to the discussion of a trust obligation, and it completely ignores the reality that royalties will go into the permanent school fund to produce income that will finance our public schools when the minerals are gone.

Hinchey is confused. The commissioners must stay clear-headed, their eyes firmly on their fiduciary duty to current and future school children who will be educated with income from the permanent land fund.  

Now We’re Ready to Talk about Royalties, Pugh Clause
The original lease revisions proposed by the Land Board’s staff at the Office State Lands and Investments (OSLI) a year ago included the higher royalty rate and the Pugh Clause. In response to the outcry from producers, the Land Board took those off the table in order to settle the valuation questions. Now they should go back on the table.

The OSLI staff is a solid, professional crew, and the Board of Land Commissioners can rely on their analyses and recommendations. We are reminded by oil and gas producers that their operations are complicated, but I am confident OSLI has the expertise to sort out the variables and ensure everyone is treated fairly.

I look forward to the discussion, made robust by the land commissioners’ concern that the public recognize their undivided loyalty to the trust beneficiaries, the school children.

And when the oil and gas lease form is finalized, I look forward to a discussion of the outdated lease forms for rare earth minerals and uranium.



*This concept is very fuzzy for legislators and other policy makers. These are trust lands, not state lands. The act of Congress that created the State of Wyoming in 1890 set aside two sections per township for the support of public schools, and Wyoming accepted the role of trustee. The surface and subsurface minerals produce revenue for the trust, not for the state. The trustee has a duty to beneficiaries to make as much money as it can, while preserving the trust assets for current and future generations. 




          Alaska Strategic and Critical Minerals Summit        
The State of Alaska is pleased to invite you to the Alaska Strategic and Critical Minerals Summit on September 30, 2011, at the Fairbanks Princess Riverside Lodge. This one-day event is being sponsored by the State of Alaska and the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will highlight Alaska’s exploration and production potential for strategic and critical minerals—including Rare Earth Elements.

The agenda for the summit will include discussions concerning: global resources and demand; Alaska’s efforts to facilitate responsible resource development and economic growth; and Alaska’s mineral potential, research fronts, and industry activity.

Presentations will be made by Governor Sean Parnell, Senator Lisa Murkowski, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Department of Natural Resources, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and industry representatives. The summit will also include a moderated roundtable discussion with federal, state, Alaska Native, and industry officials to discuss ways Alaska can move forward on strategic mineral exploration, development and processing. The summit will conclude with a reception at the Museum of the North on the UAF campus.

Date: Friday, September 30, 2011

Time: 8:30 a.m. - 5:15 p.m., with reception and investor networking at 6:00 p.m.

More information and Registration located here


          Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Publication Notice        
Szumigala, D.J., and Werdon, M.B., 2011, Rare Earth Elements: A brief overview including uses, worldwide resources, and known occurrences in Alaska: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Information Circular 61, 16 p.

          Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys        
Rare earth elements and the supply and demand of these resources have been major news items. The global mining industry has ramped up exploration for mineral deposits containing rare earth elements to meet the perceived future demand. High prices for rare earth elements continue to drive exploration.

As part of our mission of evaluating the mineral resources of Alaska, DGGS is proposing to study the potential of rare earth element mineralization in Alaska. The proposed study is aligned with the other projects and programs focused on Alaska's mineral resources. The report posted below provides a brief overview of rare earth elements, their uses, current worldwide sources of production, and the need to assess the potential of rare earth element resources in Alaska.

A brief introduction and proposed study of rare earth element mineral deposit potential in Alaska.


          Analyses of rare earth element and uranium mineralization        
New Publication: ActLabs, Ltd., 2010, Analyses of rare earth element and uranium mineralization in Bokan Mountain archive sample splits: Reevaluation of older data (1984-1987) with newer analytical techniques: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Geologic Materials Center Data Report 370, 1 p.

          Samson Sr850 5 Meses De Uso        
Se Vende

vendo estos samson con 5 meses de uso en el pc, con su caja, adaptador y manuales
razon de la venta : me compre unos beyerdinamic para usar al pc >-<
 
Consultas al wasaaaa: +56 9 52576079
 

  • Ideal for professional recording and hi-fi monitoring
  • Transparent response with airy highs and pronounced depth
  • Over-ear, semi-open-back design with velour cushioning
  • Large 50mm drivers with rare earth magnets
  • Adjustable headband
  • 10Hz–30kHz frequency response
  • 32Ω impedance
 



$ 20.000,00
          Country Hour for Friday 28 July, 2017        
Australia's first heavy rare earths mine was officially opened yesterday, at a remote site near Halls Creek and just six kilometres from the Western Australia/Northern Territory border. Australia's Trade Minister has announced a small breakthrough with China on the suspension of meat trade with six processors. Japan's Ministry of Agriculture is poised to announce it will significantly increase tariffs on US frozen beef. Chairman of the Australian Meat Industry Council Lachie Hart says an increased tariff on frozen US beef into Japan would be great news for Australia. The economic viability of the Ord River irrigation scheme has been called into question in a new report conducted by The Australia Institute. Mingenew farmer James Dempster has just returned from his overseas Nuffield scholarship research trip which focused on finding examples of innovative ways people are expanding family farms without buying more land. Experienced agricultural consultant Ken Sevenson offers his advice to aspiring farmers. Warakirri CEO says corporate farming is a great way for young people to get into the industry without having to save for decades for their own farm. Investment manager Australian Agribusiness Group plans to significantly increase milk production on their Western Australian Lactanz Dairies they acquired last year.
          Doctor Strange Costume - The Right Sexy Halloween Costume        

Do you know about Doctors strange costumes? Well, assuming you are a mad scientist owning a time machine, and you have simply decided to go back two decades or during Halloween season, of course, you are going to see something strange. Instead of some skimpy costumes such as a nurse, cheerleader, sexy French maid, firefighter and others. You are going to realize many women are putting on costumes to dress as a favorite movie character or more traditional fare such as zombies or vampires.

Things are changing, more so for the last three decades. Nowadays, Halloween is the time of a year when women are feeling more comfortable when they go out in equivalent lingerie in a theme. The options are limitless and quite ridiculous. While shopping online or offline, you are going to see an influx of costumes which are sexy whereas others are not sexy. On the appealing side of things, an individual has the aforementioned costumes along with cleavage, revealing enhancing like vampires, maidens, tigers, bunnies, doctors, superheroes such as super girl and wonder woman and many others.

Doctor Strange Costume

A Dr. Strange costume was brought to life with spells by use of LEDs, microcontrollers and sensors. We can say the costume beholds the sorcerer supreme. Many want to see Doctor Strange Costume to be their next costume as the film circulates in the market. However, much, taking the costume right from scratch of Sorcerer Supreme may seem like a critical challenge to handle, so naturally, many decide to make it

A little back history, while the character is rather esoteric (heck was the psychedelic pulp icon of the past 6 to 7 decades). Heck has been by some amazing cosplays. With the bar set forever a high, there was a need to include amazing facts. Microcontrollers are the best way to bring costume cosplay to life. Like the new version, the costume is meant to refine over a period. Coincidentally, this can be the first cosplay of the season.

Materials used in Doctor Strange Costume

The following are the key material used to make costume for costume;

Tunic material

• Blue microfiber (Cotton is a better version)

• Satin light blue microfiber

• Blue thread

• One yd of elastic

Cloak of Levitation includes the following;

• Black fabric paint

• Red thread

• Button

• Gold satin

• Red fabric

• Masking tape (optional)

• Armature wire (12 gauge and 14 gauge)

• Florist wire (this is meant to secure the armature wire)

Gloves necessary include the following

• Yellow opera gloves

• Yellow silicon wire

• Yellow thread

• Black semi-stretchy fabric nine (this is optional)

• Two rare earth magnets

• Black Permanent Marker

• Compass sensor

You are in a position of obtaining the items from a fabric store. Remember for the tunic; there is need of getting fabric with some little stretch to it. Microfiber, on the other hand, is a sort of classification of fabrics. It is not a type, a store that one visits may not necessarily elaborate many people yet are not familiar enough with the fabrics to establish a clear difference. It is not recommendable to use microfiber for the project as it is boorishly harder to work on

If you are out in the market on the look for a costume, it is vital to decide how you want to know how revealing you want the costume to look like. It you are planning for a private party with significant others and no one else then it I recommendable for you to look at local lingerie specialty shop so as to see what the store offers.

If you feel too risky and to not want to show off that much then you are lucky. The sheer amount of costume ideas means you can easily add appeal to as many outfits as possible without coming off as you go overboard with your costume. You need to be careful with the setting you are going to be in. Remember there exists a big difference between a company party and a bedroom party. How you carry yourself during the cosplays determines a lot of things related to your career. For those who are more oriented with the internet, there is a need to do a quick search, and you are going to be amazed at the hundreds of merchants who sell sexy costumes in various fashions. Whatever the choice of Halloween costume, one need to keep in mind that the point of the night is to get fun and above all to enjoy. Doctor Strange costumes are the best for this summer and the coming Halloween season for all.


          Kiehl's Since 1851 Nature-Powered Masque Collection - $36 + FS @ Saks Fifth Avenue        

Rating: 0 Posted By: fl0werp0wer
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Kiehl's Since 1851 Nature-Powered Masque Collection - $36.00 (was $48.00) at Saks Fifth Avenue. Shipping is free!


A sized-to-try masque set for all skin types to Target multiple skin concerns. Set includes:

  • Rare Earth Deep Pore Cleansing Masque (5 oz.): A customer favorite formulated with Amazonian white clay to minimize pores
  • NEW! Turmeric & Cranberry Seed Energizing Radiance (0.95 oz.): The instant facial to restore rosy appearance, formulated with skin brightening turmeric and exfoliating cranberry seeds
  • NEW! Cilantro & Orange Extract Pollutant Defending Masque (0.95 oz.): Purify and replenish skin overnight with antioxidant-rich orange and replenishing cilantro

          Dust Collection For My Veritas Router Table        

A while back I grabbed a great deal on a complete Veritas steel plate router table setup…complete with the stand, the fence, the fence sled, and a Bosch 2 1/2 HP variable speed router. I built a cabinet for it to sit on with a draw for the bits/router stuff and a couple adjustable shelves and a Kreg router safety switch located at knee height.. The Veritas router stand is open and made of Baltic Birch ply..so I pondered for a while on how to do the dust collection..I was making huge messes whenever I used it! I was going to buy their fence dust fitting that has magnets in it and then maybe try and mount a cone style collector near the back of the router. After some thought and sketching..and many minutes standing at Woodcraft staring at dust collection fittings, I came up with this..I decided to enclose the table and put a 4” fitting on the back..I used Baltic Birch 1/2” ply for the back piece.

I used clear 4” & 2 1/2” to connect everything to the Y I mounted to make the connection to my dust collector. I have a longer hose I use to connect my D/C to my table saw, and jointer with a quick connect sleeve..

I used some hose mounting clamps to mount the Y..but they didn’t fit too good…I have to modify them so they fit a little tighter.. I silver taped all the seams and cracks where I thought I might have air leaks..some pictures don’t show it all..I did everything once I was done ….this is a look inside the base..

Instead of paying 45.00 for the Veritas magnetic fence dust fitting, I bought the Woodcraft router fence D/C fitting for 7.00 and drilled and glued cups and installed rare earth magnets I had left over from another job..works perfect..sticks it down to the top almost too good!


Here is what it looks like when I use it.. I have limited space in my shop so I stow this against the wall and roll it into position when I use it ..

For the front I cut a piece of 1/4” and made it slightly smaller than the opening so I can get proper flow..the suction holds it in place perfectly! I have experimented with using a small block to wedge in at the top..sort of like a hopper window..to let a little more air flow through..

Overall it works well..I still get a little dust flying, but it gets almost all of it. The corners on the inside of the base get filled with sawdust, but I was thinking of fitting some angled pieces to keep that from happening…Or maybe a slanted bottom…


          Barron Chiropractic & Rehabilitation, PC        
We have extensive diagnostic facilities. We can conduct comprehensive evaluations including: - Nerve conduction studies - Somato-sensory testing - Dynamic surface EMG. - Electro-cardiograms (heart) - Spirometry (lung capacity/body fat composition) - Work capacity strength testing - Blood pressure testing - Grip strength measurement - Digital X-Ray-Mattapan Office. Rare earth-low dose X-ray in Malden. After your initial examinations, we suggest ways to address your problems and make you healthier than before. We offer nutritional advice and supplements, braces, shoe orthotics, back care classes, ultra-sound, hot or cold packs, Interferential, Galvanic, Russian and Micro-electrical stimulation, VAX-D type traction, Cold laser therapy (Low level laser) and more. See brief explanation of Cold Laser Therapy. You can buy Dr. Barron's full color children's bedtime book: "Daddy Can't Play Now". A great way to put your child to sleep at night. If you have been suffering from ailments like lower back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, Scoliosis or fibromyalgia, you may have been told that nothing can be done about them. This is not true. Please contact Barron Chiropractic and speak to a member of our staff. We can help you feel better. We accept car crash accidents and worker's compensation cases.
          Barron Chiropractic & Rehabilitation, PC        
We have extensive diagnostic facilities. We can conduct comprehensive evaluations including: - Nerve conduction studies - Somato-sensory testing - Dynamic surface EMG. - Electro-cardiograms (heart) - Spirometry (lung capacity/body fat composition) - Work capacity strength testing - Blood pressure testing - Grip strength measurement - Digital X-Ray-Mattapan Office. Rare earth-low dose X-ray in Malden. After your initial examinations, we suggest ways to address your problems and make you healthier than before. We offer nutritional advice and supplements, braces, shoe orthotics, back care classes, ultra-sound, hot or cold packs, Interferential, Galvanic, Russian and Micro-electrical stimulation, VAX-D type traction, Cold laser therapy (Low level laser) and more. See brief explanation of Cold Laser Therapy. You can buy Dr. Barron's full color children's bedtime book: "Daddy Can't Play Now". A great way to put your child to sleep at night. If you have been suffering from ailments like lower back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, Scoliosis or fibromyalgia, you may have been told that nothing can be done about them. This is not true. Please contact Barron Chiropractic and speak to a member of our staff. We can help you feel better. We accept car crash accidents and worker's compensation cases.
          Barron Chiropractic & Rehabilitation, PC        
We have extensive diagnostic facilities. We can conduct comprehensive evaluations including: - Nerve conduction studies - Somato-sensory testing - Dynamic surface EMG. - Electro-cardiograms (heart) - Spirometry (lung capacity/body fat composition) - Work capacity strength testing - Blood pressure testing - Grip strength measurement - Digital X-Ray-Mattapan Office. Rare earth-low dose X-ray in Malden. After your initial examinations, we suggest ways to address your problems and make you healthier than before. We offer nutritional advice and supplements, braces, shoe orthotics, back care classes, ultra-sound, hot or cold packs, Interferential, Galvanic, Russian and Micro-electrical stimulation, VAX-D type traction, Cold laser therapy (Low level laser) and more. See brief explanation of Cold Laser Therapy. You can buy Dr. Barron's full color children's bedtime book: "Daddy Can't Play Now". A great way to put your child to sleep at night. If you have been suffering from ailments like lower back pain, neck pain, shoulder pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, Scoliosis or fibromyalgia, you may have been told that nothing can be done about them. This is not true. Please contact Barron Chiropractic and speak to a member of our staff. We can help you feel better. We accept car crash accidents and worker's compensation cases.
          Week in review        
A mining and exploration retrospect
A mining and exploration retrospect for October 27 to November 2, 2012 by Greg Klein

A Chinese gang leader has been sentenced to death for illegal mining and a number of assaults. A story covered by China Daily and Industrial Minerals on Wednesday reported that Pan Guangjuan and his gang had been running a rare earths operation in Guangdong province from November 2011 to February 2012. On conviction he was also fined $24,000 and deprived of his political rights for life. The death sentence comes with a two-year reprieve.


          Reuters urges Caution on Graphite        
Resource Clips - essential news on junior gold mining and junior silver miningAsking “Will graphite go the way of rare earth?”a May 6 Reuters story states that shares of companies involved in graphite “have soared, probably to unsustainable highs.”
          The Eliott Effect        

One of the major problem I have in discussing the nature of the ongoing crisis and the fate of the industrial society is dispelling the myth of the "immaterial economy". It is, I must say, particularly widespread among French elites, perhaps because, as a nation, we tend to despise manual work. Not so long ago we had a debate in the Municipal Council about the digital economy in Nantes and only my boss raised the tantalium supply issue (as I said, he is myboss), as for our resident Greens, they push for the replacement of paper by computers and tablets.

The idea is that since work done and transmitted by a computer is not tangible, it is entirely the product of the human brain and therefore free. Digital economy could therefore fuel a limitless growth even in an era of widespread energy and raw material shortages.

Nothing could be further removed from the truth, as I was taught in a rather dramatic way.

I happen to be owned by a four-legged black-furred monster called Eliott who enjoys stealing chicken escalopes and leaping on tables at the most inconvenient moment. So that day, I was reading my mails while enjoying an excellent Iranian tea, when the little monster decided it was the right time to run across the table, toppling the mug in the process. The tea poured down on my laptop, which proved to have little taste for even light flavored Iranian blends. It fizzled then went dark, causing the collapse of my personal section of the global network and the loss of a considerable number of digital book, including a highly valuable Chukchi grammar.

To make things worse, I was barely recovering from a nasty and costly break up and the state of my finances was far from optimum, so to replace my computer I had to have an interesting, if somewhat tiring, talk with my banker – I needed a laptop for my political activities so doing without was not an option.

The first lesson of this story is that having a mug of tea too close to your computer when your cat is chasing an imaginary mouse is a bad idea. The second lesson is that the so-called immaterial economy is highly dependent upon very material devices and infrastructures and is very likely to crumble when those devices and infrastructures can no longer be built or maintained.

It is possible to build a computer with XVIIIth century technology, even if it will be costly. The concept was first described in 1795 by J. H. Müller, an engineer in the Hessian army and in 1822 Charles Babbage tried to build a mechanical computer – the difference engine - on behalf of the British government. The stated goal was to produce cheap tables, a time consuming and expensive job then. Unfortunately, the standards were so exacting that Babbage ended up spending twice the price of a ship of the line without producing a working prototype and the government finally killed the project.

Babbage then moved on to another, more complex, project : the analytical engine. The analytical engine, albeit entirely mechanical, was more advanced than the computers of the late forties. It had a “memory” of 16,7 kb and used a programming language akin to assembly language, which allowed for loops and conditional branching. The analytical engine was never built but recent experiments have shown that it could have been with the technology of the time.

The idea may have been even older. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a kind of small-sized mechanical computer, was discovered in the wreck of of a Greek ship from the fourth century BC. It was apparently designed to make astronomical calculations. It seems not to have been the only one of its kind.

Mechanical computers of various kind have been used up to the sixties, mostly for research, military or navigation purposes. Thus, the physicist Henry Fermi used a mechanical computer to model neutron transport and the economist William Phillips designed an hydraulic computer (the Moniac computer) to simulate a national economy.

Mechanical or hydraulic computers have their limitation and I seriously doubt you could play Europa Universalis III on one of them or store your collection of paleo-asiatic grammars in their memory. It is quite possible, however, to perform complex computations with them and that beats doing them by hand.

Mechanical computers are definitely one of those technology we should get through the coming Dark Age. They will be of great use to an ecotechnic society and relatively easy to manufacture in a resource-poor world.

As for build a world-wide-web with them, however... well, it could be possible to build a continent spanning network of canals carrying information for a collection of hydraulic computers, but I feel it would be somehow impractical on a planet where water tends to pour down the sky with very inconvenient regularity.

Digital computer are far more convenient in that matter. The problem is that they require a lot of rare material to be build. Silicium is arguably very common but to purify it to the level it can be seeded with germanium, you need a relatively high technology and a lot of resources. Should you manage to preserve that, you will still need tantalium for condensators and rare earth metals for screens and hard disks, and of course a lot of copper for an awful lot of wires.

To make things worse, your networks have to be maintained and your computer powered. Unlike, for instance, a hydraulic computer, digital computers need continuous inflow of high grade energy to remain useful. In a world where brownouts, then blackouts will become more and more common, this will make their use quite problematic and even outright impossible in some areas.

As the core limits, then withdraws, power availability in peripheral regions to preserve itself, computer use is bound to decline and the digital economy to retreats, until it becomes restricted to a few industrial and political centers. The rest of us will have to do with pens and paper and get the boardgame version of Europa Universalis out of its shelf yes, it was a boardgame at the beginning.)

Besides, neither satellites nor cables are eternal. They are bound to break down at some point and will need to be replaced or repaired. This will become increasingly difficult as the pool of resource and the energy supply available to the society shrinks. When the Soviet Union collapsed, for instance, the Soviet equivalent of the Global Positioning System, Glonass, was neglected by a government, which struggled to pay for its own survival. It quickly fell in disrepair and in 2001 only 6 satellites out of 24 were still in working order. The system has since recovered, has Russia has done, but, but the fate of Glonass shows what happens to complex infrastructure once the society, which has built it can no longer maintain it.

You can expect a similar evolution with the internet. First, the network will become unable to keep up with the rising demand, and price measures will be implemented to limit said demand – there already has been attempts to do so, but governments, afraid of the impact upon the public opinion, have managed to thwart them, so far.

Then, as our ability to maintain our infrastructures declines, accidents will happen and the Eliott effect will fragment the Internet, one cable at the time. My opinion is that the transoceanic cables will be the first to go, isolating whole regions and forcing them to go off-line indefinitely or to organize their own continental version of the Internet; Those localized Internets will then fragment further, due to economic or political crisis, war or accident, losing usefulness at every step of the process. At the end, the Internet will become a collection of unconnected regional networks, with little added value compared to a standard library, and will morph into a mere administrative tool for whatever remains of the local governments.

At some points, most such network fill fall in disrepair and be terminated, as the Minitel (a French precursor of the Internet) will be in a few days from now. Others may linger on, in particularly stable and rich areas until the last digital computers die. Those networks will, however, very different from those we are accustomed to, text-rich rather than pictures rich, and you will be quite unlikely to find your favorite movie on them – yes, even that kind of favorite movie.

For my French readers, it will be reminiscent of the Minitel (and yes, it may include that kind of service) and of the text-based network featured in Avalon. Needless to say, such shrunken networks won't provide the “immaterial” economy with the market it needs to thrive. It is bound to decline along with the Internet, probably specializing in niche activities.

By the way, the Dark Net won't fare any better. The Tor Network, Freenet or the parallel networks used by mafias may be secretive , they rely upon the same highly material infrastructures as the the rest of the web and will fragment as they do, which will incidentally make them far easier to monitor and control.

Then the local equivalent of Eliott will spot a mouse on the other side of the table and begin to leap around... and the rest of us will have to learn to compute with cranks, valves and pumps.

          Donald Meets Vladimer (satire)        

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/satire

(written for Saturday Night Live but not submitted)

Donald:  (extending hand)  “We meet at last!  Thanks for helping me get elected!”

Vladimir:  (friendly dismissive gesture)  “Don’t mention it.”  (smiles)  “Your supporters never suspected!”

Donald:  (finally releases Vladimer’s hand)  “Actually, I would have won anyway.  By a landslide!”

Vladimir:  (touches Donald’s shoulder)  “Of course you would.  It helped, though, that we got so many Democrats to hate Hillary.”

Donald:  “Crooked Hillary!  Lock her up!  Those were my ideas, not yours Vlad.”

Vladimir:  “Naturally we didn’t want to be obvious.  That KGB of yours, what’s their name?  They were on to us though.  Clever bunch!”

Donald:  “No they’re not.  Bunch of jackanapes!  Like Comey!  You saw what I did with him didn’t you?  Gave him the bum’s rush!”

Vladimir:  “But you and I . . . we understand each other.”

Donald:  “Right!  To the victor belong the spoils!  Which brings us to North Korea.  Are we going to let that little fart with a bird’s nest on his head sit on all those minerals?”

Vladimir:  “Six trillion dollars is what I hear.  Maybe twelve trillion!  Makes us look like paupers.”  (slouches forward, scouling, rubbing palms together)  http://nypost.com/2017/07/03/north-korea-is-sitting-on-6-trillion-in-mineral-resources/

Donald:  “So what’s the game plan?  We don’t want him nuking Seoul or Tokyo.

Vladimir:  (chuckles)  “Or Fairbanks or Seattle.  No, we don’t want that!”  (chuckles again)

Donald:  “So what are we going to do?  Wait until he can reach Moscow?”

Vladimir:  “We put the squeeze on China.  No other way.  As it is, China’s making out like a bandit.  They’re the one getting all the mining permits; they’re the one making off with all the loot.  https://www.forbes.com/forbes/welcome/?toURL=https://www.forbes.com/sites/larrybell/2012/04/15/chinas-rare-earth-metals-monopoly-neednt-put-an-electronics-stranglehold-on-america/&refURL=https://www.google.com/&referrer=https://www.google.com/  Do you realize that Kim Jong-jang is sitting on 95% of the planet’s rare earths?”

Donald:  “Right.  Our heat-seeking missiles need that stuff.  How else are we going to bring down your Stealth T50’s?”

Vladimir:  (sitting up straight)  “Excuse me, what?”  (looks at translator)

Donald:  “Kidding!  Kidding!  (touches Vladimir’s arm)  American jokes.  Kidding!”

Vladimir:  (brushing off sleeve where Donald touched him)  “Anyway, next time you rattle your . . . “

Donald:  “Lighten up Vlad!  Geez!  Back to Jing-jong jam . . . so how are we going to put the squeeze on China to put the squeeze on Jing?  Come on!  How long are we going to let Ho-tai sit on his twelve trillion dollars worth of minerals, sneering at us with our little billion dollar tax loopholes and gambling joints?”

Vladimir:  (leans over and puts arm around Donald’s shoulder, whispers in his ear and uses free hand to hide lips from news cameras)

http://redlotusletter.com/ho-tai-happiness-feng-shuis-buddha-of-wealth-and-joy/


          chocolate ice cream magnet kawaii polymer clay charms miniature food jewelry polymer clay food magnet ice cream cone magnet ice cream charm by CMYKlays        

10.00 USD

this handmade polymer clay ice cream cone has realistic texture that looks good enough to eat! an incredibly strong rare earth magnet is attached to the back, so you will have no problem sticking this onto your fridge, or wherever you want!

⁺✧. for size, please look at the photo with the ruler.

⁺✧. if you want to see more of my creations, please visit my shop! i'd love to help you find something. i can create anything custom for you, too! just send me a message :)
https://www.etsy.com/shop/cmyklays

⁺✧. this item is made to order, so please click on the shipping tab for up-to-date processing time since it changes throughout the year (holidays!). your item will look very, very similar to the photos in this listing, but because all my items are handmade with care, slight variations could occur.

⁺✧. this item is not a toy, so please be sure to be careful with it around children.


          Lecture 21: Mean Field Approach to Ferromagnetism        
We started off today with a demonstration of Barkhausen Noise in ferromagnets.
(Your refrigerator magnets are ferromagnets.) If you've ever used a permanent magnet to magnetize a paperclip, you know that not all magnetic materials have a discernible north and south pole. Rather, as with paperclips, many ferromagnets have instead a "domain structure" -- there are many regions in the paperclip which are magnetized, but the many domains point in different directions, and the paperclip doesn't act like a permanent magnet. But you can magnetize it, by rubbing it with a permanent magnet. As you do so, you align domains. We used the Barkhausen experiment to hear the domains flip! We wound a pickup coil (lots of wire loops) around the object to be magnetized, and hooked the wire up to a speaker. You can find out more about this setup at www.simscience.org.

We also passed around magnets of various strengths. The weakest magnets were transition metal based (like iron), because the individual magnetic moments are weak. The strongest moment was neodymium-based. Neodymium (Nd) has a large magnetic moment, because it has unfilled f-shells. These and other "rare earth" magnets are surprisingly strong, and pinch your finders if you're not careful! You can buy your own rare earth magnets to play with at Edmund Scientifics.

Then we discussed the mean field theory of ferromagnetism. Mean fields aren't cruel.
What we mean is "average", in the sense that each spin in the system feels an average, effective field due to its neighboring spins. This modifies our equations for magnetization, and we're able to show using this "mean field theory" that when ferromagnets form as temperature is lowered from the disordered paramagnetic phase, the magnetization rises continuously.


Lecture Audio
           Light rare earth elements (LREE) in perovskite from kimberlites of Andhra Pradesh, India         
Rao, Chalapathi N. V. (1998) Light rare earth elements (LREE) in perovskite from kimberlites of Andhra Pradesh, India Journal of the Geological Society of India, 51 (6). pp. 741-746. ISSN 0016-7622
           A lithospheric mantle source for the Proterozoic kimberlites and lamproites from the eastern Dharwar craton, India: evidence from rare earth element inversion modelling         
Rao, Chalapathi N. V. (1998) A lithospheric mantle source for the Proterozoic kimberlites and lamproites from the eastern Dharwar craton, India: evidence from rare earth element inversion modelling Current Science, 74 (9). pp. 777-781. ISSN 0011-3891
           Effect of internal pressure on charge-ordered rare earth manganates         
Rao, C. N. R. ; Santhosh, P. N. ; Singh, R. S. ; Arulraj, A. (1998) Effect of internal pressure on charge-ordered rare earth manganates Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 135 (1). pp. 169-173. ISSN 0022-4596
           Colossal magnetoresistance in rare earth manganates         
Rao, C. N. R. (1998) Colossal magnetoresistance in rare earth manganates Materials Today, 1 (3). pp. 9-13. ISSN 1369-7021
           Effect of substitution of Mn3+ by Ni3+ and Co3+ on the charge-ordered states of the rare earth manganates, Ln0.5A0.5MnO3         
Vanitha, P. V. ; Singh, R. S. ; Natarajan, S. ; Rao, C. N. R. (1998) Effect of substitution of Mn3+ by Ni3+ and Co3+ on the charge-ordered states of the rare earth manganates, Ln0.5A0.5MnO3 Solid State Communications, 109 (3). pp. 135-140. ISSN 0038-1098
           Pattern of cardiac fibrosis in rabbits periodically fed a magnesium-restricted diet and administered rare earth chloride through drinking water         
Kartha, C. C. ; Eapen, J. T. ; Radhakumary, C. ; Raman Kutty, V. ; Ramani, K. ; Lal, A. V. (1998) Pattern of cardiac fibrosis in rabbits periodically fed a magnesium-restricted diet and administered rare earth chloride through drinking water Biological Trace Element Research, 63 (1). pp. 19-30. ISSN 0163-4984
           Oxidative coupling of methane and oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over strontium-promoted rare earth oxide catalysts         
Choudhary, Vasant R. ; Mulla, Shafeek A. R. ; Rane, Vilas H. (1998) Oxidative coupling of methane and oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over strontium-promoted rare earth oxide catalysts Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 71 (2). pp. 167-172. ISSN 0268-2575
           Oxidative conversion of methane to CO and H2 over Pt or Pd containing alkaline and rare earth oxide catalysts         
Choudhary, Vasant Ramchandra ; Prabhakar, Bathula ; Rajput, Amarjeet M. ; Mamman, Ajit S. (1998) Oxidative conversion of methane to CO and H2 over Pt or Pd containing alkaline and rare earth oxide catalysts Fuel, 77 (13). pp. 1477-1481. ISSN 0016-2361
          Using LGB Track Contacts & RR Concepts Controls        
The following is based on information by Curtis Roecks of RR-Concepts.com

QUESTION: Can the LGB 1701 Track Contact (reed switch) be used with the Railroad Concepts units.
  • Yes, you can use the LGB Track Contacts to operate the Railroad Concepts units with no problem as long as you are using AC current for the controls. LGB designed these to be used with AC current.
  • If you're using DC for the control current, there's an additional complication. You need to make sure you use the correct 2 terminals. LGB designed them to be used with AC; so there are diodes to rectify the AC to DC; i.e. they performed what is referred to as a "half-wave rectification" to convert AC input to DC output to drive the 1203 switch motors. If you try to run DC through the diode the wrong way, the diode will stop the current -- so you need to make sure you use the correct pair of terminals on the Track Contact.
  • Note that ANYTHING that connects the 2 sensor terminals on the Roecks unit will work. This can be a Roecks-supplied reed switch, any other reed switch, a doorbell switch, or a paperclip or wire manually touched to the 2 terminals.
Finding Magnets For Use With LGB Track Contacts

At 1:45 AM -0500 11/20/08, Ingram-James1-Private wrote:
  • SUBJECT: Using round RR Concepts magnets with LGB track contacts
    Curtis -
  • This past Sunday, we were trying to use RR Concepts magnets (the large ones), with LGB track contacts (since we cannot find LGB magnets anymore).
  • Even though the magnet you supply seems about 10 times stronger than the LGB magnet, the round RR Concepts magnet did not seem to reliably actuate the one LGB contact in our LooseTies.com system.
  • When we used the rectangular LGB magnet instead of the round RRC magnet, that particular track contact then seemed to work reliably .
  • THUS: It appears at first glance, that the rectangular shape of the LGB magnet may better activate the the LGB track contact ???
At 6:15 AM -0800 11/20/08, Curtis Roecks wrote:
  • Another interesting fact about the LGB turnout switching system is that they use the reed switch as a direct switch to throw the turnout. This means that fast moving trains have less time to power the turnout. Slower trains would work more reliably since the reed switch would be closed for a longer time.

  • My system uses sensors which just trigger an electronic circuit. The smallest blip would work just fine for me. I'm looking for sensing distance (strong magnets and hidden sensors) while LGB needs longer sensing time. (rectangular magnets very close to the sensor)

  • For my sensors, I've noticed that I will get a better sensing when the magnet passes over the ends of the sensor instead of directly over the center. Maybe you can play with that too by offsetting your magnets. With my sensors and 2 additional diodes it is also possible to emulate the LGB 17000 if that's what you wanted to do.
At 8:35 AM +0000 11/20/08, Gary Lane wrote:
  • First test the problem switch with a magnet held in your hand. If the magnet fails to activate the switch try another magnet. If only an LGB engine type magnet works, and you do not have any, buy a thin rare earth magnet, or place two RR-Concepts magnets under the engine along the centerline. Move the metal LGB magnet holder with two RR-Concepts magnets over the LGB reed switch/track contact to see if it works now. Install the magnets in the pattern that you proved worked.

  • If no magnet activates the switch, look for loose wire connection, or incorrectly wired track contact or power supply for train operation is the same unit that supplies the power for EPL or automatic operation. It is best to use a separate power supply for all switching and semaphore motors from track power supply. If current draw from engines is high enough, switches may not properly activate.

  • LGB magnet fills the width of the track, thus assuring the track contact/reed switch is activated.
  • If the RR Concepts magnet is mounted to the side then the contact may not fully activate the reed switch. Placing a magnet on the centerline may improve activation using one magnet under the engine. I have mounted magnets with silicone adhesive, rubber cement, and double sided foam tape like is used to mount radio control plane reciever and battery pack.

  • Place the magnets on both sides of the LGB metal magnet holder/clip or try one one the centerline. Now the magnets should activate any track contact/reed switch.
  • - Gary Lane, Eugene, OR

          NADA Headlines September 14, 2012        

This Issue's Headlines:

Last Chance for Convention Early-Bird Discount
Mulally Could Stay at Ford as Nonexecutive Chairman, Report Says
Canadian Auto Workers Union Proposes Lower Starting Wages
Midsize Cars, CUVs to Lead Product Turnover Through 2015
Ford Lays Off the Rare Earths
Cars Won't Fly, But They'll Amaze
San Francisco Auto Dealers Team on New Trade Group to Promote Economic Growth in City
 
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          NADA Headlines April 23, 2012        

This Issue's Headlines:

Dealers Urged to Participate in Workforce Study by Submitting Data, Taking Online Survey by May 2
GM, Honda Rebound Expected to Bolster April U.S. Sales
Detroit Hopes Smaller Cars Can Give it More Horsepower
Used Prices 'Pretty Close' to Record
U.S. Regulators to Examine Electric-Car Battery Safety
A Push to Make Motors With Fewer Rare Earths
 
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          Hand tool cabinet #7: Adding tool holders to the insides of the doors.        

A couple of MAFE inspired chisel racks seem to fit nicely on the inside of the left door. Made from cherry, walnut and spalted oak cutoffs.

The top rack is not completely filled, so a few spacers on the left side.

Rules and misc, layout tools on the right. made use of some rare earth magnets.

My workbench has not been this clean in a while. :)

My workbench has not been this clean in a while. :)


          Dusty Grooves 01-15-2016 with DJ Deep Rawk        
Playlist:

The Cecil Holmes Soulful Sounds- Also Sprach Zarathrusta 2001 - The Black Motion Picture Experience
Babe Ruth- The Mexican - First Base Remastered 2007
Visioneers- Shaft In Africa Addis Album - Hipology
The Jimmy Castor Bunch- Its Just Begun - 16 Slabs Of Funk
Barry Devorzon And Perry Botkin Jr- The Riot - Rpm Revolutions Per Minute
Music De Wolfe- Hard Hitter - Hard Hitter
Baby Huey The Baby Sitters- Listen To Me - The Baby Huey Story The Living Legend
The Budos Band- The Volcano Song - The Budos Band
Rare Earth- Get Ready - Get Ready
- voicebreak -
Billy Paul- East - Going East
Ramsey Lewis- Them Changes - Them Changes
Little Anthony And The Imperials- Easy To Be Hard - Out Of Sight Out Of Mind
Sharon Jones The DapKings- Youll Be Lonely - Give The People What They Want Deluxe Version
Isaac Hayes- Lets Stay Together - Isaac Hayes Greatest Hits
James Brown- Why Am I Treated So Bad - The Popcorn
- voicebreak -
Le Pamplemousse- Monkey See Monkey Do - Le Spank
Clarence Wheeler The Enforcers- Right On - Doin What We Wanna
The Doctor Exx Band- Theme From Close Encounters - Superman And Other Disco Hits
- voicebreak -
Sing Into 1985- Rhythm Of The Night - Sing Into 1985 With Columbia Pictures Publications
Georgiana Stewart- Billie Jean - A Thriller For Kids
NYC Peech Boys- Dont Make Me Wait - Maw Presents West End Records The 25th Anniversary Edition Mastermix
Yam Who- Wrap You Up - Music Is My Art
Mel Sheppard- Can I Take You Home - A 1 Hour Funky Countdown To Midnight
Bobby Byrd- I Know You Got Soul - James Browns Funky People Pt 2
Big Man And The Night People- Night Creeper - The Rustler Presents Because Youre Funky
- voicebreak -
The Fatback Band- Goin To See My Baby - Best Of Perception Today Records Compiled By DJ Spinna And BBE Soundsystem
The Temptations- I Need You - 1990
Charles Bradley- Strictly Reserved For You feat Menahan Street Band - Victim Of Love
The Generation Gap- Rock Steady - Theme From Shaft And Other Hits
- voicebreak -
Breakestra- Show You The Way - Dusk Till Dawn Bonus Track Version
Funk Inc- Give Me Your Love - Hangin Out
Syl Johnson- Im Talkin Bout Freedom - Is It Because Im Black
Donald Byrd- Stepping Into Tomorrow - Stepping Into Tomorrow


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/68/playlistDate/2016-01-15
          Dusty Grooves 04-03-2015 with DJ Deep Rawk        
Playlist:

- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
Willie Hutch- Brothers Gonna Work It Out - The Mack
Babe Ruth- The Mexican - Grand Slam The Best Of Babe Ruth Remastered
Fania AllStars- Picadillo - Qu Pasa The Best Of The Fania AllStars
James Brown- Hot Pants Pts 1 2 - Make It Funky The Big Payback 19711975
Art Heatlie And His Soulful Men- Soulfinger - Soul Hits Sax Style
The Soul Searchers- Ashleys Roachclip - Salt Of The Earth
Roy Buchanan- Green Onions - 7
Skull Snaps- Its A New Day - Skull Snaps Remastered
Kings Road- Theme From SWAT - Todays Tv Hits
The Jimmy Castor Bunch- Its Just Begun - 16 Slabs Of Funk
Rare Earth- Get Ready - Get Ready
Curtis Mayfield- Right On For Darkness - Dead Presidents Vol II Music From The Motion Picture
Tower Of Power- What Is Hip Live - Live And In Living Color EP
Quincy Jones And His Orchestra- I Got You I Feel Good - Quincys Got A Brand New Bag
Phil Collins- Against All Odds - Hits
RZA Thea Van Seijen- Fight For You - Afro Samurai Resurrection
Dusty Springfield- You Dont Own Me - A Girl Called Dusty
Clarence Frog Man Henry- Troubles Troubles - 7
Bill Blacks Combo- Soul Man - Bill Blacks Beat Goes On
Diana Ross The Supremes- Love Child - Love Child Performed Live On The Ed Sullivan Show 1968 Single
Archie Shepp- Attica Blues - Attica Blues
Black Joe Lewis The Honeybears- Master Sold My Baby - Tell Em What Your Name Is
Gene Chandler- Duke Of Earl - Original Solid Gold Hits Volume 2
YoungHolt Unlimited- Country Slicker Joe - The Definitive YoungHolt Unlimited
Cannonball Adderley Quintet- Walk Tall - Country Preacher Live At Operation Breadbasket
Wes Montgomery- Goin On To Detroit - Down Here On The Ground
Dennis Coffey- Our Love Goes On Forever - Live Wire
Sheila E- A Love Bizarre Part 2 - 7
Patrice Rushen- Forget Me Nots - Pure Funk
Side Effect- Georgy Porgy - After The Rain
DONALD BYRD- Spaces And Places - Live At The Roxy


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/68/playlistDate/2015-04-03
          Dusty Grooves 09-20-2013 with DJ Deep Rawk        
Playlist:

Warren Haynes And Don Lewis- In Denver One More Time - In Denver One More Time
Roy Ayers- Everybody Loves The Sunshine - Everybody Loves The Sunshine
Willie Mitchell- Sunshine Of Your Love - On Top
- voicebreak -
Groten High School Band- House Of The Rising Sun - Groten High School Band
Jack McDuff- Hold It For A Minute - Getting Our Thing Together
Rare Earth- I Just Want To Celebrate - 20th Century Masters The Millennium Collection The Best Of Rare Earth
Average White Band- Pick Up The Pieces - Awb
Ultimate Breaks Beats- Papa Was Too - Instrumentals Vol 2
- voicebreak -
Cannonball Adderley Quintet- Walk Tall - Country Preacher Live At Operation Breadbasket
George And Gwen McCrae- The Rub - Miami Funk Volume 4
Fread And The New Jbs- Makin Love - Breakin Bread
Slave- Just A Touch Of Love - Just A Touch Of Love
- voicebreak -
Time To Run- Time To Run - Time To Run
EArth Wind And Fire- Everything Is Everything - Another Time
Mongo Santamaria- Shotgun - Hey Lets Party
Dyke The Blazers- Funky Broadway - Oldies But Goodies Golden Anniversary
James Brown- Say It Load Im Black And Im Proud - Say It Load
Lou Donaldson- Alligator Bogaloo - Alligator Bogaloo
The Undisputed Truth- With A Little Help From My Friends - Law Of The Land
Cymande- To You - Second Time Round
Compilation- Harlem Shuffle - Sweet Soul Music
David T Walker- The Real T - David T Walker
Erykah Badu- Think Twice - Worldwide Underground
Compilation- Riding High - What It Is Funky Soul And Rare Grooves 19671977
Various Artists- The Mystic Moods Cosmic Sea - What It Is Funky Soul Rare Grooves Disc 4
- voicebreak -
Jamo Thomas- I Spy For The FBI - Soul Cargo Volume 1
Dennis Coffey The Detroit Guitar Band- Scorpio - Evolution
Kool The Gang- Lucky For Me - Live At PJs
Willie Hutch- Lifes No Fun Livin In The Ghetto - Mark Of The Beast
James Brown- Dont Be A Dropout - James Brown Sings Raw Soul
The Emotions- Blind Alley - So I Can Love You Untouched
- voicebreak -
Sharon Jones The DapKings- What If We All Stopped Paying Taxes - Soul Time
Ike Tina Turner- Proud Mary - The Ike Tina Turner Story
Little Eva- The LocoMotion - The LocoMotion
Ruby Velle The Soulphonics- Soul Of The Earth - Its About Time


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/68/playlistDate/2013-09-20
          Syrian Refugee And German Scientist Make An Unlikely Team        
German scientist Matthias Schmidt wants to extract rare earth metals from abandoned mines using bacteria. He has an unlikely partner — Nedal Said, a Syrian refugee scientist who escaped Aleppo . Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit ARI SHAPIRO, HOST: Now for a story about an unusual partnership - two scientists trying to find a way to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines. It's happening in Leipzig. NPR's Joe Palca went to Germany to learn more. JOE PALCA, BYLINE: In the lower level of a building on the campus of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, there's a modern, well-equipped laboratory. MATTHIAS SCHMIDT: We've got a number of different microscopes. Then we've got a laser microdissection system here. PALCA: Matthias Schmidt is giving me a tour of the lab. Microscopes and laser microdissection systems are useful if you happen to be studying single cells or bacteria. So what are they doing in a lab that's trying to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines?
          Syrian Refugee And German Scientist Make An Unlikely Team        
German scientist Matthias Schmidt wants to extract rare earth metals from abandoned mines using bacteria. He has an unlikely partner — Nedal Said, a Syrian refugee scientist who escaped Aleppo . Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit ARI SHAPIRO, HOST: Now for a story about an unusual partnership - two scientists trying to find a way to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines. It's happening in Leipzig. NPR's Joe Palca went to Germany to learn more. JOE PALCA, BYLINE: In the lower level of a building on the campus of the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, there's a modern, well-equipped laboratory. MATTHIAS SCHMIDT: We've got a number of different microscopes. Then we've got a laser microdissection system here. PALCA: Matthias Schmidt is giving me a tour of the lab. Microscopes and laser microdissection systems are useful if you happen to be studying single cells or bacteria. So what are they doing in a lab that's trying to recover valuable metals from abandoned mines?
          Guest Mix from Sam Flanagan        
1. Elektrons: Get Up 2. Krafty Kuts: Keep Movin 3. Mark Ronson: Just 4. Happy Mondays: Step On 5. Ol' Dirty Bastard: Got Your Money 6. Kasabian: LSF 7. Mark Ronson: LSF 8. Krafty Kuts: Tricka Technology 9. Pharrell vs Tribe Called Quest: Can I Kick It Like That? (Dopplebangin mix) 10. Jurassic 5: Jayou 11. A Kid Named Miles: Ring Of Fire 12. Dizze Rascal: Fix Up Look Sharp 13. Ugly Duckling: Yudee 14. Sunshine Underground: Put You In Your Place 15. Ugly Duckling: Bang For The Buck 16. Jimi Hendrix: Crosstown Traffic 17. Breeders: Cannonball 18. Charlatans: NYC 19. Ram Jam: Black Betty 20. Rage Against The Machine: Killing In The Name Of 21. DJ Vadim: Terrorist 22. Nostalgia 77: 7 Nation Army 23. High Contrast: Everythings Different 24. Rare Earth: I Just Want To Celebrate 25. Blackalicious: Alphabet Aerobics 26. Kanye West VS Peter Bjorn & John: Young Folks 27. Peter Bjorn & John: Young Folks 28. Rapture: Whoo! Alright-Yeah 29. DJ Shadow: GDMFSOB (UNKLE remix feat. Roots Manuva) 30. The Stranglers: Peaches
          La Discothèque du 20e siècle #223        
En 1970 débarque un groupe (Rare Earth) signé par la célèbre Motown, et qui va faire un carton avec ce titre.

Rare Earth: Get Ready (1970)





C'est au printemps 1970 que les pistes de danse du monde entier sont secouées par la déflagration Rare Earth, un groupe de musiciens blancs signés par Motown, la plus célèbre maison de disques noire de l'histoire de la musique. Formé à Détroit au début des années 60, leur idée de génie est double; d'abord remettre au goût du jour, à la sauve rock, un vieux tube des Temptations. Ensuite, ils l'étirent sur toute une face de leur premier album: idéal pour les surprises parties, il suffit de programmer ce morceau pour permettre aux danseurs de s'éclater pendant 20 minutes non stop. ([je] vous [propose] ici la version courte, bien entendu). (Source: Fascicule "La Discothèque du 20e siècle: 1970", Polygram Direct)

Bonne écoute!



           Rare earth doping of III-nitride alloys by ion implantation         
Lorenz, K. and Alves, E. and Roqan, I.S. and Martin, R.W. and Trager-Cowan, C. and O'Donnell, K.P. and Watson, I.M. (2008) Rare earth doping of III-nitride alloys by ion implantation. Physica Status Solidi A , 205 (1). pp. 34-37. ISSN 1862-6300
           Rare earth doped III-nitrides for optoelectronics         
O'Donnell, K.P. and Hourahine, B. (2006) Rare earth doped III-nitrides for optoelectronics. European Physical Journal: Applied Physics , 36 (2). pp. 91-103. ISSN 1286-0042
           High temperature annealing of rare earth implanted GaN films : structural and optical properties         
Lorenz, K. and Wahl, U. and Alves, E. and Nogales, E and Dalmasso, S and Martin, R W and O'Donnell, K P and Wojdak, M and Braud, A and Monteiro, T and Wojtowicz, T and Ruterana, P and Ruffenach, S and Briot, O (2006) High temperature annealing of rare earth implanted GaN films : structural and optical properties. Optical Materials , 28 (6-7). pp. 750-758.
           Cathodoluminescence of rare earth implanted AlInN         
Wang, K. and Martin, R.W. and Nogales, E. and Edwards, P.R. and O'Donnell, K.P. and Lorenz, K. and Alves, E. and Watson, I.M. (2006) Cathodoluminescence of rare earth implanted AlInN. Applied Physics Letters , 89 (13). ISSN 0003-6951
           Site multiplicity of rare earth ions in III-nitrides         
O'Donnell, K.P. and Katchkanov, V. and Wang, K. and Martin, R.W. and Hourahine, B. and Edwards, P.R. and Nogales, E. and Mosselmans, J.F.W. and De-Vries, B. (2004) Site multiplicity of rare earth ions in III-nitrides. MRS Online Proceedings Library , 831. pp. 527-535. ISSN 0272-9172
           Electron probe microanalysis of rare earth doped gallium nitride light emitters         
Dalmasso, S and Martin, R W and Edwards, P R and O'Donnell, K P and Pipeleers, B and Vantomme, A and Nakanishi, Y and Wakahara, A and Yoshida, A, RENiBEI Network (2003) Electron probe microanalysis of rare earth doped gallium nitride light emitters. Journal of Physics: Conference Series , 180. pp. 555-558. ISSN 1742-6596
          Olson Kundig to present the Tom Kundig Collection Update        
The collection of cut-and-folded steel cabinets, lighting and accessories

03/07/2017 - Olson Kundig presents six new products in the Tom Kundig Collection. Introduced alongside favorites from the collection like the Earless Cabinet Pulls and tKnocker series, these new products include two furniture items and several new door pulls. A highlight for 2017 is Jack Box, the first closed casework piece in the collection.   Available in a freestanding and wall-mounted version, Jack Box can function as a sideboard or a media console piece. A new blackened steel desk will also be introduced, along with Roo, a leather storage pouch that attaches via rare earth magnets to any steel furniture piece in the collection.   The Tom Kundig Collection is a steel accessories $Lee la noticia
          M2 Tatonka        

The men’s anon. M2 goggle features Magna-TechTM Quick Lens Change Technology, using 16 rare earth magnets to make lens changes easier than ever. Outlast® Fog Management Face Fleece eliminates moisture before it clouds up the lens. Magnetic Facemask Integration (MFI) seals your anon. MFI facemask to the goggle in a snap.

The post M2 Tatonka appeared first on POWDER Magazine.


          Europium        
Europium (chemical symbol Eu, atomic number 63) is the most reactive of the rare earth elements.
           Reusable thermal history sensing via oxidation of a divalent rare earth ion-based phosphor synthesized by the Sol-Gel process         
Yáñez-González, Álvaro and Skinner, Stephen and Beyrau, Frank and Heyes, Andrew L. (2015) Reusable thermal history sensing via oxidation of a divalent rare earth ion-based phosphor synthesized by the Sol-Gel process. Heat Transfer Engineering , 36 (14-15). pp. 1275-1281. ISSN 0145-7632
          What is the worst product ever marketed?        


The worst product ever marketed: the disposable butane lighter. Wasteful, expensive, non-recyclable, using non-renewable materials, having benign alternatives (matches). In short, evil. And yet, it was hugely successful. Image from Wikipedia 


Greens often exaggerate in inviting people to save energy and be happier by staying in the dark and eating insects. However, it is also true that sometimes wastefulness goes a few notches higher and becomes truly a scandal. It is the case of the ordinary disposable lighter. Bic alone produces almost a billion lighters per year and has produced some 20 billions of them in the past 30 years. The whole world production is probably of a few billion per year. A good example of a successful product, but is it a good product?

The disposable lighter is surely practical but also, if you think about it, a very bad deal. It contains some 5 cc of butane, that you pay, typically, more than $1. That means around $200 per liter, or $800/gallon. You wouldn't be happy to pay that kind of money when you refill the tank of your car. And, being powered by a fossil fuel, butane, every time you light up one you add some CO2 to the atmosphere, some of which will stay there for tens of thousands of years.

Then, the disposable lighter doesn't contain just non-renewable fuel but plastics manufactured from fossil fuels and also polluting. Then, it contains metals such as cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, praeseodymium and more. These metals are classified as "rare earths;" they are not so rare as the name seems to imply, but they are not so common, either. And the lighter is thrown away after use and it will never be recycled. The rare earths it contains will be lost forever.

Is all that enough to qualify disposable lighters as "the worst product ever marketed"? Well, everything can be questioned, but if you line up the characteristics of a bad product as 1) uses rare and non-renewable resources, 2) is not recycled and not supposed to be recyclable, 3) is manufactured on a large scale, 4) it has non-polluting and less expensive alternatives, there are few examples other than lighters for which you can tick all the four boxes. I can hardly think of anything so wasteful to set something on fire, no matter whether you are a professional arsonist or simply an ordinary smoker.

After all, what was so wrong with using the old matches? Matches contain only recyclable materials: wood, paper, phosphorous, sulfur. I can't see anything that can be done with a lighter that cannot be done with a match, except that a lighter can burn steadily for a longer time. But if your purpose is to light up a cigarette or a kitchen burner, it makes no difference. And, by all means, there is no way that a lighter would cost less than a match, at least if manufactured on a comparable scale.

So, disposable lighters are all an example of how a combination of financial factors and government regulations can push a bad product to dominate the market. It is, after all, what has happened with fossil fuels, still gathering large government subsidies, despite the damage they are doing to all of us.

In the case of lighter vs. matches, the playing field has been made unfavorable to matches from the beginning, because they have been traditionally taxed by governments (also lighters, in some cases, but not always). Add to that the rapid expansion of the cigarette market during the past decades, with some six billion cigarettes sold worldwide every year, and growing, some large companies saw their chance. They engaged in the large scale manufacturing of lighters and they crushed the match manufacturers, mainly small companies that couldn't match (indeed!) the financial power of large corporations. The advertising power, too,  played a big role, with the appeal of colored and fashionable items that could also be collected. And it was world domination for the disposable lighter.

Could we reverse this demonic trend? Maybe there are signs of an inversion of the tendency and, not long ago, I saw again courtesy matchboxes appearing in an Italian Hotel. Maybe it was because finally (in 2015) the Italian government decided to abolish the tax on matches, a good idea that, unfortunately, arrived at least 50 years too late (the French Government did that in 1999). Whatever the case, it is high time that someone realizes that some ideas, such as disposable lighters, are evil to the bone. And that the mythical "free market" cannot turn evil into good.

But maybe you think that the old matches are passé? In this case, we have technologies for getting rid of the obsolete propane lighters without having to get back to the somewhat primitive matches. For instance, we have spark lighters that use only electricity. They are a solid state alternative to propane lighters in the same way as photovoltaic energy is a solid state alternative to fossil energy. In the picture, you see one of these super hi-tech lighters in the hands of my daughter, Donata.


So, eventually, we learn what's the good way to do things. Too bad that it is almost always too late.







          China’s Rare Earth Exchange Begins Trading Following WTO Ruling        
In March, a dispute-settlement panel at the WTO sided with the U.S., Japan and EU in their complain...
[阅读全文]
[财经网]

           Cathodoluminescence characterization of rare earth doped composite materials based on porous GaP         
Sánchez, B y Méndez Martín, Bianchi y Piqueras de Noriega, Javier y Sirbu, L. y Tiginyanu, I. y M., I. y Ursaki, V.V. (2008) Cathodoluminescence characterization of rare earth doped composite materials based on porous GaP. Journal of Materials Science, 43 (2). pp. 680-683. ISSN 0022-2461
          Queen Victoria's Robot Wars        
I've posted before about my very talented friend Tom & his new Wooden Wars venture. He recently ran a Kickstater to help him buy a laser cutter & has started making large scale wooden figure flats. You can find his ongoing efforts at his Skull and Crown blog.

His intial efforts were to make Napoleonic soldiers, but he quickly expanded into Victorian colonials of the science fiction variety. I have just completed painting up the human infantry that were the backers rewards for his Kickstarter.

Here are the 4 regular infantry I have, all armed with the latest Tesla rifles.

Unfortunately because I dont know how to properly use my camera phone, I either use no flash & get slightly blurry pictures that show the colors correctly...

...or I use the flash & get pictures in focus that are over exposed & make the colors look too light.

Here are the Steel Dragoons, mounted on mechanical dinosaur-like mounts.

The dragoons carry the carbine version of the Tesla rifle.