Hand Therapy Using Hand Bath        
Special Recommend information on A H1N1 (swine flu)
As it is known to all, currently we human being are all faced with a big enemy-A/H1N1 flu (swine flu) which has been threatening our life. Now the situation is worsening. As health and medical to AH1N1organ, we shoulder more responsibility to handle outbreak of this emergency.

In TCM, A/H1N1 belongs to epidemic febrile disease of TCM which is the same as human avian influenza and SARS and similar to A/H1N1 flu syndrome differentiation and treatment of TCM prevention and cure. It is advocated “dispelling wind, reducing fever and dissipating dampness in clinical.

TCM center will provide latest Special Report Globally on the A/H1N1 flu; and you still can find the Symptoms and Prevention about A/H1N1 flu ; further more, TCM prevention for swine flu provides latest global news; Chinese medicine prevention for A/H1N1 flu ; Chinese herbal medicine and so on.

Hand bath is a steaming and washing therapy. The hot steam from an herbal decoction is used to heat the hands which are then soaked in the warm decoction after it gradually cools down. Diseases can be cured by the hot stimulation applied to the meridians and acupoints of the hand and by the gradual absorption of herbs through the skin.

1. Origin and classification of steaming and washing therapy:

Steaming and washing therapy originated in ancient times. Among 52 ancient herbal therapy recipes unearthed from the Han Dynasty Mawangdui Tomb, eight were used for steaming and washing therapy. This indicates that steaming and washing therapy has been used by Chinese people to treat diseases for at least 2,000 years. This therapy is also mentioned in classical medical books of the Han (206 B. C.-220) and Jin (265-420) dynasties. During the Tang Dynasty (618-907), this method was used to treat carbuncles, cellulitis, skin rashes, dermatitis, frostbite, hand and foot diseases, and gynecological and eye disorders. In the Kin (1115-1234) and Yuan (1271-1368) dynasties this method was classified as an essential medical therapy. In the Qing Dynasty ( 1644-1911 ), Wu Shangxian, a famous physician of traditional Chinese medicine, divided this therapy into smoking, steaming, shower, sitz bath, and hot ironing. It is a folk treatment used by common people to treat acute sprains, bone injuries, and contusions with a good therapeutic results.
Steaming and washing therapy can be classified as general and local. Local treatment includes steaming and washing therapy for the hand, foot, and eye, and sitz baths. Hand bath is steaming and washing therapy for the hand.

2. Function and characteristics of hand bath:

As demonstrated by the experiments of modern medicine. steaming and washing therapy with hot and moist air can promote the absorption of herbs through the skin, dilate the skin's small blood vessels, promote the circulation of blood and lymph, enhance the phagocytic functions of the reticuloendothelial system, increase the permeability of cellular membranes, and promote metabolism by stimulating the sensitive sensory nerves scattered along the skin. The effective components of herbs used in steaming and washing therapy can directly kill the pathogenic germs on the skin. According to the theory of traditional medicine, the meridians of the hand are closely related to the organs and meridians of the entire body. Therefore, this therapy can clear stagnation in meridians, adjust bodily deficiency and excess, and promote circulation of qi and blood.
The hand bath is simple, cheap, and easy to learn and practice, with numerous indications and good therapeutic effects, and without any harmful side effects. It is most useful for patients proscribed from taking drugs.

3. Methods of manipulation:

1) The proper recipe is selected according to the diseases and the basin, towel and sheets are prepared in use.
2) The hot decoction of herbs is poured into the basin and the hands and arms are put over the basin. Cover the arms and basin with a sheet to reserve the hot air from quickly escaping away. Some boiled water may be added to the basin to maintain the temperature. After the decoction is cooled down to an adequate temperature, the hands may be soaked and washed in the decoction.
3) After steaming and bathing, the hands should be dried with a towel and protected from attack of wind and coldness.
4) The steaming and washing therapy may last for 20-30 minutes, twice a day.

4. Precautions:

I) The water used to boil the herbs should be adequate to prepare a decoction of the proper concentration. Aromatic and volatile herbs should be boiled for only 10-15 minutes; and roots, stems and herbs in large clumps should be boiled for 30
2) The temperature of the decoction for bathing and soaking the hands should be monitored to avoid burning the skin.
3) These decoctions are not for oral administration.

More information from TCM and health: Hand Therapy Using Hand Bath
Special Recommend information on A H1N1 (swine flu)
As it is known to all, currently we human being are all faced with a big enemy-A/H1N1 flu (swine flu) which has been threatening our life. Now the situation is worsening. As health and medical organ, we shoulder more responsibility to handle outbreak of this emergency.

In TCM, A/H1N1 belongs to epidemic febrile disease of TCM which is the same as human avian influenza and SARS and similar to A/H1N1 flu syndrome differentiation and treatment of TCM prevention and cure. It is advocated “dispelling wind, reducing fever and dissipating dampness in clinical.

TCM center will provide latest Special Report Globally on the A/H1N1 flu; and you still can find the Symptoms and Prevention about A/H1N1 flu ; further more, TCM prevention for swine flu provides latest global news; Chinese medicine prevention for A/H1N1 flu ; Chinese herbal medicine and so on.

The acupoints for hand therapy include the regular and extra acupoints on the hand. The acupoints on the forearm are also used in hand therapy because they are exposed and convenient to locate for application of acupuncture (the acupoints marked with an asterisk (*) are located on the hand).

1. Chize (LU 5, on hand Taiyin lung meridian) Location: With elbow slightly flexed, it is on the cubital crease and on the radial border of tendon of brachial biceps muscle (Fig. 1). Function: To suppress adverse ascent of lung qi, tone lung yin, and moisten the lung. Indications: Cough, asthma, hemoptysis, sore throat, chest distension, acute mastitis, arm and elbow pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1.6 cm, or bleeding therapy with three-edged needle; and moxibustion is permissible.

2. Kongzui (LU 6, on hand Taiyin lung meridian) Location: With arm extended and palm supine, it is on the connecting line between Chize (LU 5) and Taiyuan (LU 9) and 23.3 cm from Taiyuan (Fig. 1). Function: To suppress adverse ascent of lung qi, clear blood heat, and stop bleeding. Indications: Cough, asthma, hemoptysis, sore throat, aphonia, hemorrhoids, and arm and elbow pain. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1.6-3.3 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

3. Lieque (LU 7, on hand Taiyin lung meridian) Location: It is proximal to radial styloid process and 5 cm proximal to carpal crease (Fig. 1). Function: To expel pathogen from lungs and adjust Renmai (conceptional vessel). Indications: Cough, asthma, sore throat, hemiplegia, deviation of mouth and eye, migraine, stiff neck, toothache, and hotness in palm. Acupuncture: Oblique insertion of needle toward elbow for 0.7 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

4. Jingqu (LU 8, on hand Taiyin lung meridian) Location: With palm supine, it is 3.3 cm proximal to carpal crease and in a depression between radial styloid process and radial artery (Fig. 1). Function: To control cough and asthma and adjust breath. Indications: Cough, asthma, sore throat, pain and distension in chest, and hotness in palm. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

5. Taiyuan* (LU 9, on hand Taiyin lung meridian) Location: With palm supine, it is on carpal crease and in a depression on the radial side of radial artery (Fig. 2). Function: To control cough, resolve phlegm, improve body resistance, and expel pathogens. Indications: Cough, asthma, hemoptysis, pain and distension of chest, sore throat, vomiting, abdominal distension, irregular pulse, and hand and wrist pain. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for l cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

6. Yuji* (LU 10, on hand Taiyin lung meridian) Location: With palm supine, it is proximal to the first metacarpophalangeal joint, at the midpoint of metacarpal bone and on the dorsopalmar boundary (Fig. 2). Function: To clear heat in lungs, relieve stagnation in throat, and clear heat in blood. Indications: Cough, hemoptysis, sore throat, elbow spasm, and hotness in palm. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1.6-3.3 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

7. Shaoshang* (LU 11, on hand Taiyin lung meridian). Location: On the radial side of thumb and 0.3 cm from corner of nail (Fig. 2). Function: To clear heat, open sense organ orifices, restore yang, revive critical patients, relieve stagnation in throat, and control convulsion. Indications: Cough, asthma, sore throat, madness, epilepsy, stroke with coma, febrile diseases, and convulsion in children. Acupuncture: Horizontal insertion of needle toward wrist for 0.6 cm or bleeding therapy with three-edged needle; and moxibustion is permissible.

8. Shangyang* (LI 1, hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: On the radial side of index finger and 0.3 cm from the corner of nail (Fig. 3). Function: To clear heat, resolve swelling, open sense organ orifices, and refresh the mind. Indications: Sore throat, swelling of jaw, toothache, deafness, tinnitus, cough, asthma, stroke with coma, and shoulder pain. Acupuncture: Upward oblique insertion of needle for 0.6 cm or bleeding therapy with three-edged needle; and moxibustion is permissible.

9. Erjian* (LI 2, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: With hand slightly clenched, it is on the radial side of second metacarpophalangeal joint and distal to it, and on the dorsopalmar boundary of hand (Fig. 3). Function: To clear heat and resolve swelling. Indications: Sore throat, swelling of jaw, nasal bleeding, toothache, eye pain, deviation of mouth and eye, body heat, and shoulder pain. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 0.6 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

10. Sanjian* (LI 3, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: With hand slightly clenched, it is on the radial side of index finger and proximal to second metacarpophalangeal joint and capitulum of second metacarpal bone (Fig. 3). Function: To clear heat, resolve swelling, relieve fullness, and stop diarrhea. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

11. Hegu* (LI 4, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: Between the first and second metacarpal bone and at the midpoint of second metacarpal bone (Fig. 3). Function: To clear heat, treat exterior syndrome, and improve vision and hearing. Indications: Headache, dizziness, toothache, eye pain, sore throat, swelling of face, deviation of mouth and eye, diseases of nose and ear, fever, hemiplegia, finger spasms, arm pain, amenorr hea, late delivery of baby, skin rashes, and diseases ofstomach and intestines. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1.6-3.3 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

12. Yangxi* (LI 5, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: On the radial side of dorsum of wrist and in a depression between tendons of long and short extensor muscles of thumb (Fig. 3). Function: To clear heat, tranquilize the mind, improve vision, and remove stagnation in throat. Indications: Headache, sore throat, red eyes, deafness, tinnitus, toothache, arm and wrist pain, epilepsy, and madness. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1.3 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

13. Pianli (LI 6, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: On the connecting line between Yangxi (LI 5) and Quchi (LI 11) acupoints and 10 cm from Yangxi (Fig. 4). Function: To improve vision and hearing. Indications: Nasal bleeding, red eyes, tinnitus, deafness, deviation of mouth and eye, sore throat, edema and pain in shoulder, arm, elbow, and wrist. Acupuncture: Oblique insertion of needle for 1 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

14. Wenliu (LI 7, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: On the connecting line between Yangxi (El 5) and Quchi (L 11) acupoints and 16.6 cm from Yangxi (Fig. 4). Function: To clear heat, resolve swelling, tranquillize the mind, anti promote transportation in organs. Indications: Headache, facial swelling, nose bleed, sore throat, pain in shoulder and back, epilepsy, and madness. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1.6 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

15. Xialian (LI 8, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: On the connecting line between Yangxi (LI 5) and Quchi (LI 11) acupoints and 1.3 cm from Quchi (Fig. 4). Functi,on: To adjust qi and promote transportation in organs. Indications: Headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, acute mastitis, and pain in elbow and arm. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1.6 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

16. Shanglian (LI 9, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: On the connecting line between Yangxi (LI 5) and Ouchi (LI 11) acupoints and 10 cm from Quchi (Fig. 4). Function: To adjust qi and promote transportation in organs. Indications: Headache, pain in shoulder and arm, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and hemiplegia. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1.6-3.3 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

17. Shonsanli (LI 10, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: On the connecting line between Yangxi (LI 5) and Quchi (LI 11) acupoints and 6.7 cm from Quchi (Fig. 4). Function: To clear heat, improve vision, adjust qi, and promote transportation in organs. Indications: Abdominal distension, diarrhea, eye diseases, toothache, hemiplegia, and hand, arm, and elbow pain. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for i.6-3.3 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

18. Quchi (LI 11, on hand Yangming large intestine meridian) Location: With elbow flexed, it is in a depression on the radial end of cubital crease (Fig. 4). Function: To expel wind pathogen, control itching, clear heat, and resolve swelling. Indications: Febrile diseases, sore throat, toothache, eye pain, skin rashes, skin sores, scabies, diseases of stomach and intestine, epilepsy, madness, disturbance of menstruation, paralysis of upper limb, and shoulder and arm pain. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 3.3-5 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

19. Shaohai (HT 3, on hand Shaoyin heart meridian) Location: With elbow flexed, it is in a depression on the ulnar end of cubital crease (Fig. 5). Function: To tranquilize the mind. Indications: Heart pain, epilepsy, madness, tuberculosis of cervical lymph nodes, hand tremors and spasms, and pain in armpit. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1.6-3.3 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

20. Lingdao (HT 4, on hand Shaoyin heart meridian) Location: With hand supine, it is on the radial border of ulnar flexor muscle of wrist and 5 cm proximal to carpal crease (Fig. 5). Function: To expand chest and adjust qi. Indications: Heart pain and palpitations, dizziness, vertigo, unreasonable crying and laughing, stiff tongue, aphasia, and wrist and arm spasms. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

21. Tongli (HT 5, on hand Shaoyin heart meridian) Location: With hand supine, it is on the radial border of ulnar flexor muscle of wrist and 3.3 cm proximal to carpal crease (Fig. 5). Function: To tranquilize the mind, tone yin, and clear heart heat. Indications: Heart palpitations, stiff tongue, aphasia, profuse uterine bleeding, headache, vertigo, and pain on medial and posterior side of shoulder, elbow, and arm. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

22. Yinxi (HT 6, on hand Shaoyin heart meridian) Location: With hand supine, it is on the radial border of ulnar flexor muscle of wrist and 1.6 cm proximal to carpal crease (Fig. 5). Function: To tranquilize the mind and clear heat in the blood. Indications: Heart pain and palpitations, night sweating, aphasia, and hematemesis. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.

23. Shenmen* (HT 7, on hand Shaoyin heart meridian) Location: On the carpal crease and on the radial border of ulnar flexor muscle of wrist (Fig. 6). Function: To improve the body's resistance, expel pathogens, and tranquilize the mind. Indications: Heart pain and palpitations, insomnia, poor memory, unreasonable crying and laughing, epilepsy, madness, headache, vertigo, and hotness in palm. Acupuncture: Vertical insertion of needle for 1 cm; and moxibustion is permissible.
          The Epstein-Barr Virus G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Contributes to Immune Evasion by Targeting MHC Class I Molecules for Degradation        
Zuo, Jianmin and Currin, Andrew and Griffin, Bryan D and Shannon-Lowe, Claire and Thomas, Wendy A and Ressing, Maaike E and Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J. and Rowe, Martin (2009) The Epstein-Barr Virus G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Contributes to Immune Evasion by Targeting MHC Class I Molecules for Degradation. PLoS Pathogens, 5 (1). ISSN 1553-7366
          Update on Avian Influenza: November, 2016        

There are no US outbreaks of AI at the moment, but the situation in Europe and Asia is troublesome. The world Organization for Animal Health (OIE) keeps a running tally of where/when highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI; H5 and H7 serotypes) occurs. As of now, they list 12 European/Northern Asian countries with current (November 2016) ... Read More

           Phylogeny of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus and the development of a qPCR-based diagnostic assay for its detection         
Pollock, Frederic Joseph (2010) Phylogeny of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus and the development of a qPCR-based diagnostic assay for its detection. Masters (Research) thesis, James Cook University.
          Why Do Some Foodborne Bacteria Make Us Sick?        

A UC Davis study published Sept. 16 in the journal Science has found that pathogens in the intestinal tract cause harm because they benefit from immune system responses designed to repair the very damage to the intestinal lining caused by the bacteria in the first place.

(PRWeb September 16, 2016)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/09/prweb13692249.htm

          Antibiotics Increase Availability of Nutrients in the Gut, Enabling Growth of Pathogens        

Research led by Andreas Bäumler, professor of medical immunology and microbiology at UC Davis Health System, has identified a new mechanism explaining how antibiotics change the gut microbiota, increasing nutrients that benefit the growth of pathogens, like Salmonella.

(PRWeb June 15, 2016)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/06/prweb13490937.htm

          Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI) Northern Ireland Civil Service: Principal Scientific Officer - Pathogen Genpmics Bioinformatician - Belfast        
£47,749 - £52,334: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI) Northern Ireland Civil Service: This new post offers an exciting opportunity for a skilled and experienced Pathogen Genome Bioinformatician to... Belfast
          Bacterial Vaginosis Natural Treatment Probiotics        
The research into probiotics and the understanding of beneficial bacteria within our bodies is growing rapidly. It has become very obvious that probiotics play a tremendous role in our daily health from vitamin absorption to fighting off common and uncommon diseases and problems that afflict us on a daily basis.

Health Benefits of Probiotics

* Studies have found that probiotics may improve nutrient bioavailability, for B vitamins, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium and phosphorus, among others.
* Pediatric studies have found that certain strains (such as Lactobacillus GG, found in Culturelle capsules) may aid in significantly decreasing the rate of acute diarrhea and rotavirus shedding. Parents also reported a 25% decrease in diaper rash among babies drinking formula containing probiotics.
* Probiotics and active bacteria culture may improve lactose intolerance. The bacterial strain commonly used in yogurt can produce lactase enzymes. Therefore, people with lactose intolerance and children suffering from intestinal infection can usually tolerate yogurt with an active culture.
* Some studies have shown that by regulating intestinal transit time, probiotics improve constipation among the elderly.
* Other studies have shown that probiotics, especially acidophilus, promote the growth of healthy bacteria in the colon and reduce the conversion of bile into carcinogens (cancer- causing substances).
* Some studies have found that probiotics may enhance immunity by regulating lymphocytes and antibodies.

What can probiotics do for women and their health?

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 are the worlds most documented probiotic strains for women’s health. They were selected for their ability to interfere with infectivity of a range of bacteria and yeast in the vagina, as well as confer benefits to the intestine and reduce the risk of bladder infections.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 has been shown to adhere to cells in the bladder, vagina and intestine. Some people believe this is key to its ability to promote health, but in fact, it is only one of the important attributes. The organism displaces and prevents adhesion by intestinal and urogenital pathogens, inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria and yeast, can kill HIV and other viruses through its acid production, and stops pathogens from forming clumps or biofilms that are very difficult for drugs to eradicate. It is innately resistant to vancomycin and spermicidal nonoxynol-9. The strain induces an anti-inflammatory effect and modulates factors that would otherwise increase a woman’s risk of preterm labor.

Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 adheres to bladder, vaginal, and intestinal cells displaces and prevents adhesion by intestinal and urogenital pathogens, inhibits the growth of these harmful organisms and can kill HIV and other viruses through its acid production. It produces hydrogen peroxide that many believe is important in vaginal health. It also produces signaling factors that disarm toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus, the bacterium that causes so many hospital infections and deaths (the “superbug”). Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 also possesses immune modulatory activity.

Probiotics are completely safe and fall into the category of natural treatment in the home. They are commonly available and inexpensive.

bacterial vaginosis: treatment for bv

bacterial vaginosis: bacterial vaginosis cure

          New research shows bee deaths are due to pesticides        

News just in provides compelling evidence that Bayer's neonicotinoid pesticides are a significant cause of bee deaths in Britain and elsewhere, supporting the case that we have been making for years.

The British Bee Keepers Association must now climb down from the fence and clearly state their opposition to the use of these deadly chemicals on agricultural land, or face even more derision and condemnation from beekeepers and other associations both in the UK and abroad.

A key study, published in a respected scientific journal, demonstrates that neonicotinoids are routinely found in lethal doses in samples of dead bees, in seed planter exhaust, in fields where seeds had been planted and in dandelion flowers growing nearby. This shows clear pathways by which bees are being poisoned and removes any last shred of an excuse for the BBKA to continue to toe the pesticide industry line that these substances are 'safe if used correctly'.

If you keep bees within flying distance of agricultural land where maize, oilseed-rape (Canola) or other crops are grown using clothianidin-coated seed, YOUR BEES ARE IN DANGER. Likewise, all other pollinating insects - including endangered bumblebees - that live on or near that land will be poisoned, as will the birds and reptiles that feed on them. There is also growing evidence of possible long-term effects on human health.


Read the paper here - http://tinyurl.com/776y97v

PLEASE write to the BBKA and ask them to put their weight behind efforts to ban these deadly toxins from our countryside, while we still have some bees left.

Send an email to bbka@britishbeekeepers.com asking the BBKA to STOP supporting the pesticide industry and to work to have neonicotinoids banned in the UK. (More BBKA email addresses below)

If you are a BBKA member, pass this email around your local association - the more people who understand what is going on, the better. Make sure this issue is discussed and a resolution is passed to BBKA HQ.

If you are a gardener, look out for neonicotinoids in household sprays and compost: the common ones are Imidacloprid, Clothianidin, Thiamethoxam and Fipronil (also found in pet flea treatments). Return all such sprays to the shop and tell the manager why you will not buy them. Make sure your local gardening club / allotment association are aware of the dangers.

Gardeners may also be interested to know that Glyphosate (Roundup) has recently been shown to be much more toxic that Monsanto would like you to believe. In this report, Don Huber, Emeritus Professor at Purdue University and senior scientist on USDA’s National Plant Disease Recovery System, links glyphosate to reduced nutrient availability in plants, increasing plant diseases, the emergence of a new pathogen, animal illness and possible effects on human health.
See http://www.i-sis.org.uk/USDA_scientist_reveals_all.php


"Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive."

"These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments."


PRESIDENT - Martin Smith - martin.smith@bbka.org.uk
CHAIRMAN - Brian Ripley - brian.ripley@bbka.org.uk
VICE CHAIRMAN - Dr David Aston - david.aston@bbka.org.uk
TREASURER - Michael Sheasby - michael.sheasby@bbka.org.uk
BBKA News and Year Book Editor – Sharon Blake m-s.blake@overstratton.fsnet.co.uk
Examinations Board Secretary – Val Francis valfrancis@blueyonder.co.uk
Public Affairs Director – Tim Lovett tjl@dermapharm.co.uk

Dr David Bancalari - david.bancalari@bbka.org.uk
Doug Brown - doug.brown@bbka.org.uk
Chris Deaves - chris.deaves@bbka.org.uk
Brian Dennis - brian.dennis@bbka.org.uk
Dawn Girling - dawn.girling@bbka.org.uk
John Hendrie - john.hendrie@bbka.org.uk
Roger Patterson - roger.patterson@bbka.org.uk
Julian Routh - julian.routh@bbka.org.uk
Michael Young - michael.young@bbka.org.uk

Let's make 2012 the year that British bee keepers take positive action to clean up our countryside - for the sake of the bees.

Best wishes
Phil Chandler

          Let There Be Light! Lasers May Make Your Flu Vaccine More Effective        
Researchers from Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center in the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Division of Infectious Diseases report that pre-treating the site of a flu vaccine jab with an infrared laser may boost the body’s immune response against influenza. The study involved mice, but the results hold promise for people, say the scientific team, who have also tested the idea in a small number of people. In their study, published in the journal PLOS ONE, the researchers treated mice with a one-minute dose of near-infrared laser light before inoculating them with the H1N1 flu vaccine and found that the animals showed stronger immune system activity and survived longer after being infected with potentially lethal doses of flu than the animals who didn’t receive the light treatment. The lasers boosted the vaccine’s effectiveness by up to 100-fold by activating dendritic cells, which are responsible for recognizing pathogens like viruses and alerting the immune system to defend against them. (MORE: How To Find The Right Flu Vaccine) Many vaccines against different infectious diseases currently use chemicals or biological agents to get the same immune-boosting effect — it’s a way to prime the immune system to respond to the incoming influenza antigens and generate antibodies against them. However, some people develop  reactions such as soreness or inflammation to these additives, so many flu shots don’t contain them, which lowers their effectiveness. It’s possible, say the study authors, that laser light could work as a replacement to such adjuvants — without the side effects. “We discovered that low-power near-infrared laser light effectively and reproducibly increases vaccine efficacy as well as currently approved adjuvants and is effective for influenza vaccination,” said senior author Dr. Mark Poznansky, the director of the MGH Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center in a statement. So far the researchers have only looked at the effect of lasers in tandem with the flu vaccine, but they believe the approach could also be used to enhance the effectiveness of other vaccines such as those against malaria and polio.
          One Stop Flu Shot: Scientists Are Closer to a Universal Influenza Vaccine        
Choice is good, but when it comes to protecting yourself against the flu, one vaccine that is able to fight off most virus strains year after year is far more appealing than an annual jab. Now researchers from the Imperial College London are encouraged by results from their latest experiments on a universal flu vaccine approach that targets some of the influenza viruses’ core elements that remain unchanged each season. Using a “natural experiment” model, the scientists recruited 342 people at the beginning of the 2009 swine flu pandemic and collected their blood and nasal swab samples. When any of the patients developed flu symptoms, they sent another nasal swab to the researchers. In their results, published in the journal Nature Medicine, the scientific team reported that the people who had the flu with only mild symptoms had higher levels of immune cells called CD8 T cells in their blood than those who were sicker. T cells include groups of immune system defenders that can recognize and bind to pathogens like influenza and other viruses, as well as engulf and destroy them. Most vaccines, including the flu shot, work by signalling the immune system to make hordes of antibodies against particular parts of a virus, which marks these pathogens for destruction. The massive size of the assault on the virus, however, comes at a price, since the virus can easily morph the proteins that these antibodies target and therefore evade death. CD8 cells don’t have that problem, since they patrol for and recognize more conserved portions of viruses. But because they are more specialized, there aren’t as many of them in circulation. That makes them more durable as a vaccine target but also harder to generate in sufficient quantities to fend off an infection. But the results show that CD8 could be a “blueprint for a vaccine,” as Ajit Lalvani, from the national Heart and Lung Institute at Imperial College said to BBC News. For more information on other strategies for a universal vaccine, read TIME’s previous coverage, here.
           The Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases BAK1/SERK3 and BKK1/SERK4 are required for innate immunity to hemibiotrophic and biotrophic pathogens         
Roux, Milena, Schwessinger, Ben, Albrecht, C. (Catherine), Chinchilla, D. (Delphine), Jones, Alexandra M., Holton, Nicholas, Malinovsky, F. G., Tör, Mahmut, de Vries, Sacco and Zipfel, Cyril. (2011) The Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases BAK1/SERK3 and BKK1/SERK4 are required for innate immunity to hemibiotrophic and biotrophic pathogens. The Plant Cell, Vol.23 (No.6). pp. 2440-2455. ISSN 1040-4651
          What's Cooking?        
This post contains suggestions for how to earn your Chow Down: E-lectrified and Keep It Real: E-lectrified badges.
Learn more and earn badges on the Connect Your Summer page.

Learn about your food - where it comes from, how it's made, and the history of how and why we started to eat what we eat - with some of these informative documentaries.

This film shows how human desires are an essential, intricate part of natural history by exploring the natural history of four plants -the apple, the tulip, marijuana, and the potato - and the corresponding human desires - sweetness, beauty, intoxication and control. This two-hour documentary begins in Michael Pollan's garden, and roams the world, from the fields of Iowa to the apple forests of Kazakhstan, from a medical marijuana hot house to the tulip markets of Amsterdam.

"Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants." These simple words go to the heart of food journalist Pollan's thesis. Humans used to know how to eat well, he argues, but the balanced dietary lessons that were once passed down through generations have been confused and distorted by food industry marketers, nutritional scientists, and journalists. As a result, we face today a complex culinary landscape dense with bad advice and foods that are not "real." Indeed, plain old eating is being replaced by an obsession with nutrition that is, paradoxically, ruining our health, not to mention our meals. Pollan's advice is: "Don't eat anything that your great-great grandmother would not recognize as food."

Discusses the enduring appeal of soul food, and presents an overview of its history, covering its roots in Western Africa, its incarnation in the American South, and the role it plays in the health crisis in the African American community.

In-depth investigation into unlabeled genetically-modified foods which have become increasingly prevalent in grocery stores. Unravels the complex web of market and political forces that are changing the nature of what we eat.

Also available in: e-video

The drive to obtain food has been a major catalyst across all of history, from prehistoric times to the present. Take an enthralling journey into the human relationship to food as you travel the world discovering fascinating food lore and culture of all regions and eras-as an eye-opening lesson in history as well as a unique window on what we eat today.

Also available in: e-video

Explores how large corporations and government agencies control agriculture and food processing, and how those practices affect human, environmental, and economic health.

Also available in: e-video

American food is in a state of crisis. Obesity and diabetes are on the rise, food costs are skyrocketing, family farms are in decline, and our agricultural environment is in jeopardy. Explore a thriving local food movement as our world becomes a more flavorless, disconnected, and dangerous place to eat.

Also available in: e-video

Every year in America we throw away 96 billion pounds of food - 263 million pounds a day. Inspired by a curiosity about society's careless habit of sending good, edible food straight to landfills, the multi award-winning documentary DIVE! follows filmmaker Jeremy Seifert and friends as they dumpster dive in the back alleys and gated garbage receptacles of Los Angeles' supermarkets. In the process, they salvage thousands of dollars worth of good, edible food - resulting in an eye-opening documentary that is equal parts entertainment, guerilla journalism and call to action.

Also available in: e-video

From rooftop farmers to backyard beekeepers, Americans are growing food like never before. Growing Cities goes coast to coast to tell the stories of these intrepid urban farmers, activists, and everyday city-dwellers who are challenging the way this country feeds itself. From those growing in backyards to make ends meet to educators teaching kids to eat healthier, viewers find that urban farming is about much more than simply good food.

Also available in: e-video

Examines the possibility of eliminating diseases like heart disease and diabetes through a plant-based diet.

This chronicles what director Lathe Poland learned after he was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. He sought to find out why he got sick, because he didn't fit the classic picture of an adult onset diabetes sufferer. He quickly learned that much of what he knew about healthy eating was based on myths or fifty-year-old science. He searches out why Americas modern food culture is killing us. The upside? There is a lot that can be done!.

An A-to-Z encyclopedia of Raw Food, perfect for beginners and Raw Food enthusiasts.

How do GMOs affect our children, the health of our planet, and our freedom of choice? These and other questions take director Seifert on a journey from his family's table to Haiti, Paris, Norway, and the lobby of agra-giant Monsanto, from which he is unceremoniously ejected. Along the way we gain insight into a question that is of growing concern to citizens the world over: what's on your plate?

Looks at some of the scientific aspects of food, including the chemistry involved in cooking a turkey, the nutritional benefits of cooking, and how taste works.

When a marketing executive for a huge burger chain finds a nasty secret ingredient in their burger recipe, he goes to the ranches and slaughterhouses of Colorado to investigate and finds that the truth is sometimes difficult to swallow.

Also available in: e-video

Americans' right to access fresh, healthy foods of their choice is under attack. Farmageddon tells the story of small, family farms that were providing safe, healthy foods to their communities and were forced to stop, sometimes through violent action, by agents of misguided government bureaucracies, and seeks to figure out why.

Narrated by Katie Couric, the film blows the lid off everything that was known about food and exercise, revealing a 30-year campaign by the food industry, aided by the U.S. government, to mislead and confuse the American public. Exposing the hidden truths contributing to one of the largest health epidemics in history, it follows a group of families battling to lead healthier lives and reveals why the conventional wisdom of 'exercise and eat right' is not ringing true for millions of people.

Frontline investigates the dangerous pathogens in meat, particularly in chicken.

          OpenArray Facilitates Simultaneous Testing For Multiple Blood-Borne Pathogens        
The new OpenArray system detects multiple viruses, bacteria, and protozoan pathogens in human blood samples. Investigators determined that this system

          currentsinbiology: Arctic and Climate: Permafrost Sample...        


Arctic and Climate: Permafrost Sample Contains 4 Giant Viruses

In less-than-comforting news, scientists recently isolated a fourth giant virus in a sample of 30,000-year-old Siberian permafrost and say that this shows that potentially pathogenic viruses could be regenerated in the Arctic by melting. The team recently reported their findings in the journal PNAS.

The new virus is called  Mollivirus sibericum. In the same permafrost sample, scientists previously found the following serious viruses: Mimivirus, Pandoraviridae, and Pithovirus, as a release noted.

Mollivirus is roughly spherical and has not seen before among the three virus families previously recorded. Finding four viruses within this one section of permafrost indicates that giant viruses aren’t unusual and have great variety. It also shows that several types of virus can remain alive in permafrost for long periods. These types of viruses also have a large range of means of replication.

One section of permafrost from the Arctic has been found to contain a fourth giant virus, and researchers say this means that there is a possibility that viruses will be released by melting.  (Photo : Flickr: Mike Beauregard) 

We are dead…

          Chinese investigators characterize the world of resistance gene exchange among bacteria        

Certain antibiotic resistance genes are easily transferred from one bacterial species to another, and can move between farm animals and the human gut. A team led by Chinese researchers has characterized this "mobile resistome," which they say is largely to blame for the spread of antibiotic resistance. They found that many antibiotic resistance genes that are shared between the human and animal gut microbiome are also present in multiple human pathogens. These findings are published September 9 in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

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          How fungi help trees tolerate drought        

The mutualistic relationship between tree roots and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi has been shaping forest ecosystems since their inception. ECM fungi are key players supporting the growth, health and stress tolerance of forest trees globally, such as oak, pine, spruce, birch and beech, and help boost the productivity of bioenergy feedstock trees, including poplar and willow. The most common ECM fungus is Cenococcum geophilum, found in subtropical through arctic zones and especially in extreme environments. It is also the only mycorrhizal fungus in the Dothideomycetes, a large class comprised of some 19,000 fungal species, many of them plant pathogens.

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          Shei-Pa National Park advocates precautionary measures to prevent a rabies epidemic        
Shei-Pa National Park Headquarters, with the aim of preserving the valuable ecological resources and ensuring the survival of endangered wild animals in the medium and high altitude mountain regions stipulates, in the “Prohibitions inside Shei-Pa National Park”, that “Pets are not allowed into the ecological protected and landscape protected areas”, and “Feeding of wild animals and releasing and abandoning of animals into the Park are strictly prohibited”. Recently, cases of animal rabies have appeared in Taiwan’s low altitude mountain areas. To prevent causing harm to the wild animals, the headquarters once again appeals to the public not to bring pets, such as cats and dogs, into the ecological protected and landscape protected areas of the Park. Feeding of the wild animals and releasing and abandoning of animals into the Park are strictly prohibited.Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease, and its pathogen is the rabies virus. It will cause acute encephalitis and peripheral nerve inflammation to the animal, and has an extremely high fatality rate. Among mammals, animals including primates, carnivores and Chiroptera (such as Taiwanese macaque, ferret-badger, bat, etc.) could catch the disease if bitten by infected animals. However, as long as vaccination is received in time, death can be prevented.Director of Shei-Pa National Park Headquarters, Mr. Lin Ching, appeals to the public that, to maintain the safety of wild animals and also your own pets: feeding of wild animals and releasing and abandoning of animals into the Park are strictly prohibited; pets are not allowed into the ecological protected and landscape protected areas of the Park; pets should receive rabies and canine distemper vaccinations on a regular basis; and pets should be leashed upon entering the general limited use and recreation areas of the Park to prevent them from running freely and disturbing wild animals and/or causing infection. By avoiding contact with the wild animals, you not only protect your own pets, but the animals in the mountains too.It is worth mentioning that, the Shei-Pa National Park Headquarters has been in cross-agency cooperation with National Taiwan University Veterinary Hospital since 2011, giving free tubal ligation and vaccination for dogs and cats in Taichung’s Wuling region and neighboring tribes. From 2011 to 2012, a total of 167 cats and dogs have received tubal ligation and vaccination. As these animals are close to areas where wild animals appear, there is a possibility for them to become disease carriers. To prevent the unlimited breeding of these cats and dogs and spreading diseases to wild animals, the Headquarters, with the help of professional veterinary units, carries out tubal ligation and vaccination, having informed the Wuling region and neighboring tribes. Shei-Pa National ParkHeadquarters will continue to carry out this project to effectively stop the over-breeding of dogs and cats, as well as to stop them from being potential carriers. It also advocates the conservation concepts related to wild animals to the neighboring tribal people, and hopes that the public can abide by the relevant regulations when entering the national park. In the future, adjustments may be made according to the development of the epidemic.
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 10-04-2013 with 99 & Barry        

Cyro Baptistas Banquet Of The Spirits- Batida De Coco - Infinito
Cyro Baptistas Banquet Of The Spirits- Batida De Coco - Infinito
Tal National- Kaani - Kaani
- Kon Togethy Come Together - Cover The Earth Vol 3
- Kon Togethy Come Together - Cover The Earth Vol 3
Ras G- All Is Well - Back On The Planet
Ras G- All Is Well - Back On The Planet
Jungle By Night- Rangda - Hidden
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
Man Man- King Shiv - On Oni Pond
The Residents- Hit The Road Jack Remix - Our Tired Poor Huddled Ma
OOIOO- Ina - Gold And Green
Hello Skinny- Crush - Revolutions EP
Hello Skinny- Crush - Revolutions EP
Yuka Honda- Hydrosphere - Heart Chamber Phantoms
- voicebreak -
Baba Brooks- Catch A Fire - This Is Dub Rare Jamaican Ska Reggae
Meridian Brothers- El Jazz Del Chupasangres - Devocion Works 20052011
Myeck Waters- The Banjo - Myecks Big Waste Of Time
Messer Chups- Midnight Preacher - Heretic Channel
La Vida- Peace Of Mind - Los Nuggetz 60s Punk Pop And Psychedelic From Latin America
Yamasuki Singers- Yama Yama - Le Monde Fabuleux Des Yamasuki
Count Stocky The Upsetters- To Hell And Back - The Sound Doctor
- voicebreak -
AutorYno- Poznan - Cosmopolitan Traffic
Melvin Gibbs Elevated Entity- Represent Do Rio - Ancients Speak
- I Beg - Afrobeat Airways 2
Abdellah El Magana- Kassidat El Hakka The Poem Of The Truth - Kassidat Raw 45s From Morocco
Ornette Coleman- Blues Connotation - This Is Our Music
Todd Snider- Conservative Christian RightWing Republican Straight White American Males - East Nashville Skyline
The Clash- Straight To Hell - Hits Back
African Head Charge- Some Bizarre - Off The Beaten Track
Yann Tomita- Medical Service - Doopee Time
Matias Aguayo- Lleg El Don - The Visitor
- voicebreak -
John Zorn- Light Chapels - Dreamachines
Hellebore- Artefact - Il Y A Des Jours
Les Enfants Du Monde- Les Bara Jeux Travail Et Funrailles DihimBoro Omaly Loiseau Qui A Dans Hier - Chant Des Enfants Du Monde Vol 14 Madagascar Chants De Brousse
Aya Nishina- Flora Ode To Infinity - Flora
Senking- Pathogenic Agent - List
Mylab- Earthbound - Mylab

playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2013-10-04
          How Probiotics Could Make Your Chicken Dinner Tastier        

For most Canadians, the mention of bacteria and chicken in the same sentence conjures up images of food poisoning. Names such as Salmonella and Campylobacter come to mind as do memories for anyone who might have suffered. In essence, the two do not mix.

But this applies only to chicken as a food product. On the farm, bacteria play an important role in the health of these animals. Depending on the species found inside the gastrointestinal tract, a bird may have a healthy life or be burdened with ailments leading to a loss of quality such as size and taste.

For decades, researchers have investigated the influence of bacteria in the life of poultry. The goal has been to identify which species might contribute to a healthier life and avoid the presence of pathogens. If the right combination can be found, then parameters such as feed composition and housing conditions can be altered to allow for the chickens to have the best chance at a healthy life.

At the end of the 1990s, researchers came across an interesting concept. Instead of simply allowing the bacteria to figure themselves out inside the chickens, farmers could improve the situation by adding beneficial bacteria in the feed, species now commonly called probiotics.

Over time, a list of different probiotic species was developed and by 2014, when the chicken microbial population was identified, certain names such as Bacillus, Clostridium, and the well-known human probiotic Lactobacillus were revealed to offer the most impressive improvements. Soon, the practice of using probiotics became a part of poultry farming around the world.

While probiotics offered the chance for a chicken to have a healthier life, the quality of the meat when it arrived on store shelves was never considered a priority. As long as the meat came from a healthy chicken, the use of probiotics was justified. For the most part, there were no arguments.

For a team of researchers in China, however, the compromise was not good enough. They believed there was potential to increase the flavour of meat using probiotics. They didn't know at the time which of the increasing number of species might have a positive effect on quality. Yet they took on the challenge in the hopes of finding the one species that could make chicken taste even better. Recently, they revealed they had found the bacterium.

Species fed to chickens is already in some sour beers

The species is called Pediococcus pentosaceusand for decades, it's been known as a wild fermenter. It's found in a variety of different Asian fermented foods as well as some sour beers found in Europe. It has been considered a potential probiotic and investigations into its use in humans and chickens continue to this day.

For the Chinese team, the addition of P. pentosaceus to the mix of other probiotics was justified although they weren't sure if there would be any benefit compared to other species. Still, when they conducted the experiments, they ensured one segment of the 420 chickens used in the study was given only this particular species.

When the results came back, they were glad they took this approach. The addition of the bacteria alone kept the birds healthy throughout their lifespan and even led to an increase in their weight over time. As for the microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract, the addition of this one species helped to keep the species diversity balanced.

The chicken meat had a higher level of elements conveying the taste of fruit, fat, and straight-from-the-farm freshness.

But the real surprise came in the taste, which the team tested not with their mouths, but through chemical analysis. They looked for a variety of chemicals known to provide different flavours. The chicken meat had a higher level of elements conveying the taste of fruit, fat, and straight-from-the-farm freshness. In some cases, the levels were three times higher than in chickens raised with no probiotics.

The results of this study reveal a new potential for probiotics in raising chickens. Along with helping to keep them healthy and avoid infections, the use of P. pentosaceus may improve the overall quality of the meat. This eventually can lead to increased purchasing at the grocery store and better profits for farmers.

There is another advantage to using probiotics in chickens and indeed all livestock. These beneficial bacteria may be able to replace the use of antibiotics on the farm. For decades, these medicines have been used to increase growth in animals such as chickens. Yet in light of the antibiotic resistance crisis and the looming post-antibiotic era, governments and the public are turning away from this option.

Thanks to this study and surely many more to come, we may find ourselves not only enjoying an even tastier chicken dinner but also breathing easier as we know the animals were raised naturally with bacteria instead of drugs.

Also on HuffPost:


           Prevalence, pathogenicity and control of avian intestinal spirochaetosis in Australia         
Stephens, Carol Pauline (2008) Prevalence, pathogenicity and control of avian intestinal spirochaetosis in Australia. PhD thesis, Murdoch University.
          (USA-CA-Merced) Paramedic $5000 Sign-on bonus        
$5,000 Paramedic Sign-On Bonus Paramedic’s annual salary with benefits $63,438 - $77,814 * Competitive benefits with employer paid Group Life Insurance * 401(k) Profit Sharing Plan * Education & Training and more. RIGGS is the exclusive Advanced Life Support provider in Merced County and Accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation of Ambulance Services (CAAS). RIGGS is the only ALS responderin Merced County. Our dedicated professionals are committed to providing high quality patient care utilizing the most up to date equipment and resources. POSITION PURPOSE AND SUMMARY Under the supervisor, the ideal incumbent will perform duties associated with providing emergency medical care to the sick and injured in accordance with all applicable laws, regulations, and Company policies. ESSENTIAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES General Responsibilities The incumbent must possess and apply knowledge and skills necessary to perform the duties of an Emergency Medical Technician and Emergency Medical Technician Paramedic, in a dignified and compassionate manner, including but not limited to: + Responding to an emergency efficiently and promptly; + Administering basic and advanced life support to patients at the scene, en route to the hospital, and in a pre-hospital setting, in accordance with federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and standards, and in accordance with Company policies and guidelines; + Assessing the nature and extent of injury or illness to establish and prioritize medical procedures to be followed; + Treating patients at the scene, en route to the hospital, and in a pre-hospital setting, in accordance with federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and standards, and in accordance with Company policies, rules, and guidelines; + Effectively communicating with professional medical personnel and treatment facilities to obtain instructions regarding further treatment and/or to arrange reception of patients to the appropriate center; + Maintaining order at scenes, including crowd dispersement and restraint of family and friends; + Completing patient care forms, insurance forms, evaluation forms, and all other forms in a competent and timely fashion; + Adhere to and follow all Policies and Procedures concerning safety and contamination by bloodborne pathogens; and + Educate and /or train squad personnel, EMS trainees and the public. Additional Obligations and Skills The incumbent must possess and apply knowledge and skills necessary to perform the duties of a driver of ambulance equipment, including but not limited to: + Promptly responding to instructions from a dispatcher and driving and operating specially equipped emergency vehicles to specified locations at a safe and controlled speed, in accordance with federal, state, and local laws, regulations and standards, and in accordance with Company policies, rules, and guidelines; + Assuring that vehicles are in good working condition at all times, are properly maintained and stocked, have all necessary equipment and that the equipment is in good working order at all times; + Cleaning, organizing and restocking vehicles in a ready condition after each transport; + Receiving and responding to requests for emergency ambulance service and other duties-related communication via two-way radio or other communication devices; + Maintaining accurate records of ambulance equipment and other emergency equipment and/or personnel dispatched to each emergency and non-emergency request and other operation and administrative data as required to maintain the operational continuity of the Company and as directed by superiors; + Properly document each transport on the approved Patient Care Report in accordance with Company Policies and Procedures; + Handling telephone communications professionally and efficiently with careful regard to the divulgence of information respecting confidentiality requests at all times; + Coordinating requests for non-emergency transports in accordance with the Company's non-emergency transport policies; + Monitoring communication equipment to maintain contact with the dispatcher; and + Maintaining apparatus and equipment in accordance with all policies, procedures and direction. The incumbent must perform routine tasks in and around the ambulance service building, including but not limited to: + Checking, restocking, inventorying and cleaning any apparatus operated by the Company; + Cleaning, doing dishes, emptying trash and other related duties in the station; + Washing and drying personal protective equipment in heavy duty washer and dryer; + Representing the ambulance service while on duty at public service functions, expositions, and other public events; and + Performing any other duty related to the Company as designated by the supervisor or manager. The incumbent must also: + Be a team player, as EMS is a team effort, and providers must provide necessary assistance to ensure system sanitation, readiness and adherence to quality assurance standards; + Be flexible, as emergency services operate on a 24-hour clock; the incumbent's assigned work shift schedule may vary and the incumbent should be available to respond immediately for a call during the assigned work period, and the start and shift times may vary due to the nature of the business; + Maintain a thorough working knowledge of local geography, which includes maps, streets, and grid book systems; + Maintain a thorough working knowledge of applicable current standards of care, including equipment functions and uses; + Assure that all certifications, licenses and registrations are up-to-date; and + Conduct him/herself in a courteous, helpful, dignified and professional manner at all times when dealing with patients, co-workers, supervisors and or the public. + Must be able to read, write and understand the English language. QUALIFICATIONS Educational Requirements The incumbent must have a minimum of either a high school diploma or a GED as evidence of completion of a high school education, and must have and maintain current emergency medical technician and/or paramedic certification. An incumbent must also maintain the required annual continuing medical education credits as set forth by the State EMS Office. Certificates, Licenses And Registrations The incumbent must possess and maintain a valid California driver's license, Paramedic certification, ACLS, American Red Cross CPR for the Professional Rescuer and/or American Heart Association BCLS certification, EVOC/EVDT certification, Hazardous Materials R & I, PHTLS, PEPP or PALS, Current Ambulance Drivers Certificate issued by the DMV, Current California Drivers License issued by the DMV, Current Medical Certificate issued by the DMV and other certifications as required. Minimum Experience, Abilities Required And Special Requirements This position requires one year of experience in the field of rescue and emergency medical services as an EMT. Additionally, the incumbent must possess basic working knowledge of an IBM-compatible computer, and be able to enter necessary data into a computer or PDA. PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE POSITION The physical demands described here are representative of those that must be met by an employee to successfully perform the essential functions of this position. The position requires significant physical strength and dexterity and the ability to function in very adverse environments with exposure to numerous safety risks typically found at emergency scenes. The following guidelines are used to describe the frequency of activities in this position: Occasionally equals 1-33%; Frequently equals 34%-66%; and Continuously equals 67-100% of a typical work day. STANDING/WALKING: Frequently to continuously when responding to calls. Optional while at rest at the facility. This usually includes: going to and from the emergency vehicle, and getting patients from their locations, and rendering treatment. Most walking would be for short distances, as emergency vehicles are allowed to get as close to the location as possible. However, the incumbent must also be able to run these same distances, in case of an emergency where time is of the essence. Walking and running may vary, however, as the patient may be located inside a large, multi-floored facility. Standing, walking and running could be on all types of surfaces, including but not limited to: asphalt, cement, concrete, soft/packed dirt, linoleum, wood, hardwood floors, etc. The individual must be able to go up and down slight inclines or declines that may be found at roadsides, agricultural areas, etc. At a location, standing would occur more often than walking or running. Standing would occur on the wide variety of surfaces mentioned above. Standing could last from a few minutes to hours, depending on the situation. Standing could occur in the standard erect position, the kneeling or squatting position, etc. SITTING: Frequently when responding to a location, the individual will sit in the emergency vehicle. The emergency vehicles are equipped with a standard installed vehicle seat. The time performing the sitting activity on a call would depend upon the specific situation. The facility is equipped with a small lounge area that is furnished. LIFTING AND CARRYING: Frequently required to lift and carry weights ranging from a few pounds to ten pounds and above. Occasionally required to lift and carry weights in excess of 100 pounds or more. Incumbents will need to lift and carry with one team member adult patients, lifting them from various positions (such as a bed or a chair) onto various patient movement devices, such as an ambulance stretcher, a stair chair, long back boards, etc., and then efficiently move them into an ambulance. Other heavier objects in the high range category would be 5-foot tall, 10 inch diameter oxygen cylinders, and medical equipment boxes. The oxygen cylinders can be made of quarter-inch steel and weigh up to 113 pounds. The medical equipment boxes can weigh approximately fifty pounds or more. BENDING AND STOOPING: Frequently. Frequently throughout a work shift the individual will be required to bend in a range of 1 to 90 degrees. The average situation will require the individual to work in a range of 35 to 65 degree bends. This would involve: lifting a patient, lifting equipment, treating a patient at ground level, sitting on a bench located in the ambulance. This activity may be prolonged and last up to 30 minutes or more. During any given call, the provider may bend and/or stoop any number of times per incident. CROUCHING AND KNEELING: Frequently. Crouching and kneeling may be performed when on the scene picking up equipment or assisting patients. The actual number of times this is done depends on the particular incident. CLIMBING: Occasionally. This is required when climbing steps up and down with a patient on a cot or other device, and when entering or exiting the emergency vehicle. Generally, the climbing would require that the incumbent be lifting and carrying heavy objects such as a cot or other device with a patient on it. Balancing may be required when backing down staircases. REACHING: Frequently to continuously throughout the work shift in order to review monitoring equipment, operate communication equipment, administer oxygen, and operate equipment. The incumbent may also be required to reach in precarious positions, such as in a vehicle, which has been crushed in an accident, or in other confined spaces. If working inside the ambulance en route to a medical facility, the incumbent will need to reach to access the patient and supplies. Reaching will involve partial to full extension of the arms. PUSHING AND PULLING: Frequently. The activities that would require the most force in pushing and pulling is when removing or returning a gurney to the emergency vehicle, with and without a patient on the gurney. The weight required to push/pull will vary, depending on the weight on the gurney. Slight pushing will be required if the incumbent is performing CPR, which can require repetitive pushing and may range from a few minutes to hours. Pushing and pulling is required when operating and closing vehicle doors. HANDLING OR GRASPING: Continuously. While working at any given location, continual bilateral gross manipulation is performed in this position. This may be involved when: opening/closing doors; and using, handling, carrying and operating medical equipment boxes that may weigh approximately fifty pounds or more, stretcher rails, various handles attached to equipment, and tools. The arm and hand must be able to perform all types of positions, including supination and pronation. Hyperextension, extension and flexion of the fingers will be involved, ulnar and radial deviation, abduction and adduction of the hand and wrist will be required. A wide variety of grasping will be required, such as cylindrical grasping, palmer grasping, hook grasping, tip grasping, lateral grasping and spherical grasping. HAZARDS: The incumbent, when responding to emergency situations, may be exposed to dust, fumes, gases, fire, smoke, adverse weather conditions, and chemicals. There is also exposure to body substances that may contain infectious materials that could cause illness or death. There is potential for bodily harm or death from violent patients, bystanders, or other dangers. At all time the incumbent is expected to adhere to all applicable Policies and Procedures concerning safety and the prevention of contamination and infection due to bloodborne pathogens. OTHER PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS + Maintain balance and strength in awkward positions; + Speak clearly under stressful circumstances; + Accurately communicate ideas orally and in writing in English; + Respond physically with speed; + Speak loudly; and + Get along well with others. MENTAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE POSITION + Handle a significant number of stressful situations, and be able to function calmly, coolly and collectedly under all types of stressful situations; + Get along well with diverse personalities; + Communicate with patients and others with empathy and respect; + Create and maintain a positive and cooperative working environment + In stressful situations; + Work smoothly and professionally in an environment where teamwork + Is essential; + Analyze and interpret difficult and complex patient care and personnel situations; + Work independently with minimum supervision for assigned tasks; + Exercise sound independent judgment within general Policy and procedural guidelines; + Anticipate and identify problems and take initiative to prevent or + Correct them; + Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels of personnel within the medical community, the Company, outside agencies, patients, and members of the community; + Understand and follow federal, state and local laws, and Company + Policies, procedures, and rules; + Establish and maintain effective working relationships with others; + Follow orders; + Remember and apply concepts, knowledge and principles; + Analyze and interpret situations; and + Appropriately deal with stress and maintain composure when encountering serious injuries or illnesses. JOB RESPONSIBILITIES RELATED TO PATIENT PRIVACY + The incumbent is expected to protect the privacy of all patient information in accordance with the Company’s privacy policies, procedures, and practices, as required by federal law, an in accordance with general principles of professionalism as a health care provider. Failure to comply with the Company’s policies and procedures on patient privacy may result in disciplinary action up to and including termination of employment. + The incumbent may access protected health information (PHI) and other patient information only to the extent that is necessary to complete your job duties. The incumbent may only share such information with those who have a need to know specific patient information you have in you possession to complete their job responsibilities related to treatment, payment or other company operations. + The incumbent is encouraged and expected to report, without the threat of retaliation, any concerns regarding the Company’s policies and procedures on patient privacy and any observed practices in violation of that policy to the designated Privacy Officer. + The incumbent is expected to actively participate in Company privacy training and is required to communicate privacy policy information to coworkers, students, patients and others in accordance with Company policy. PROTECTED HEALTH INFORMATION ROLE BASED ACCESS Access to PHI will be limited to those who need access to PHI to carry out their duties. The following describes the specific categories or types of PHI specific to this job description: Job Title Description of PHI to be accessed Conditions of Access to PHI Paramedic Patient Care Reports, Hospital face sheets, Dispatch run reports. May access only to the extent necessary to complete documentation/addendums.
          (USA-CA-Merced) CCT / Flight Nurse        
POSITION PURPOSE AND SUMMARY Under the supervisor, the ideal incumbent will perform duties associated with providing emergency medical care to the sick and injured in accordance with all applicable laws, regulations, and Company policies. ESSENTIAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES General Responsibilities + The incumbent must possess and apply knowledge and skills necessary to perform the duties of a CCT Nurse, in a dignified and compassionate manner, including but not limited to: + Responding to an emergency efficiently and promptly; + Administering basic, advanced and critical care life support to patients at the scene or transferring facility, en route to the receiving hospital, and in a pre-hospital setting, in accordance with federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and standards, and in accordance with Company policies and guidelines; Assessing the nature and extent of injury or illness to establish and prioritize medical procedures to be followed; + Effectively communicating with professional medical personnel and treatment facilities to obtain instructions regarding further treatment and/or to arrange reception of patients to the appropriate center; + Maintaining order at scenes and requesting facilities; + Completing patient care forms, insurance forms, evaluation forms, and all other forms in a competent and timely fashion; + Adhere to and follow all Policies and Procedures concerning safety and contamination by bloodborne pathogens; and + Educate and /or train first responders, hospital staff, EMS responders, fellow crew-members, EMS trainees and the public. Additional Obligations and Skills The incumbent must possess and apply knowledge and skills necessary to perform the duties of a flight paramedic, including but not limited to: + Promptly responding to dispatched calls in accordance with Company policies, rules, and guidelines; + Assuring that helicopter and ground response vehicle are in good working condition at all times, are properly maintained and stocked, have all necessary equipment and that the equipment is in good working order at all times; + Cleaning, organizing and restocking helicopter and ground response vehicle in a ready condition after each request; + Receiving and responding to requests for transport and other duties-related communication via two-way radio or other communication devices; + Maintaining accurate records of helicopters and other emergency equipment and/or personnel dispatched to each request and other operation and administrative data as required to maintain the operational continuity of the Company and as directed by superiors; + Properly document each transport on the approved Patient Care Report in accordance with Company Policies and Procedures; + Handling telephone communications professionally and efficiently with careful regard to the divulgence of information respecting confidentiality requests at all times; + Monitoring communication equipment to maintain contact with dispatch and requestors; and + Maintaining apparatus and equipment in accordance with all policies, procedures and direction. The incumbent must perform routine tasks in and around the ambulance service building, including but not limited to: + Checking, restocking, inventorying and cleaning any apparatus operated by the Company; + Cleaning, doing dishes, emptying trash and other related duties in the station; + Washing and drying personal protective equipment; + Representing the transport service while on duty at public service functions, expositions, and other public events; and + Performing any other duty related to the Company as designated by the supervisor or manager. The incumbent must also:Be a team player, as EMS is a team effort, and providers must provide necessary assistance to ensure system sanitation, readiness and adherence to quality assurance standards; + Be flexible, as emergency services operate on a 24-hour clock; the incumbent's assigned work shift schedule may vary and the incumbent should be available to respond immediately for a call during the assigned work period, and the start and shift times may vary due to the nature of the business; + Maintain a thorough working knowledge of local geography, which includes maps, streets, and grid book systems; + Maintain a thorough working knowledge of applicable current standards of care, including equipment functions and uses; + Assure that all certifications, licenses and registrations are up-to-date; and + Conduct him/herself in a courteous, helpful, dignified and professional manner at all times when dealing with patients, co-workers, supervisors and or the public. + Must be able to read, write and understand the English language. QUALIFICATIONS Educational Requirements The incumbent must have a minimum of either a high school diploma or a GED as evidence of completion of a high school education, and must have and maintain current California RN licensure. An incumbent must also maintain the required annual continuing medical education credits as set forth by the California Board of Nursing. Certificates, Licenses And Registrations The incumbent must possess and maintain a valid driver's license, California RN license, ACLS, American Heart Association BCLS certification, Hazardous Materials R & I, PALS, Advanced trauma course (TNATC, TPATC, ATLS or equivalent are acceptable) within one year of hire, CFRN certification within two years of hire, NRP or equivalent within six months of hire and other certifications as required. Minimum Experience, Abilities Required And Special Requirements Three years full-time critical care and / or emergency nursing experience. Additionally, the incumbent must possess basic computer knowledge. Experience in flight medicine, EMS and public education (field or classroom based) desired. PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE POSITION The physical demands described here are representative of those that must be met by an employee to successfully perform the essential functions of this position. The position requires significant physical strength and dexterity and the ability to function in very adverse environments with exposure to numerous safety risks typically found at emergency scenes. The following guidelines are used to describe the frequency of activities in this position: Occasionally equals 1-33%; Frequently equals 34%-66%; and Continuously equals 67-100% of a typical work day. STANDING/WALKING: Frequently to continuously when responding to calls. Optional while at rest at the facility. This usually includes: going to and from the emergency vehicle, and getting patients from their locations, and rendering treatment. Most walking would be for short distances, as emergency vehicles are allowed to get as close to the location as possible. However, the incumbent must also be able to run these same distances, in case of an emergency where time is of the essence. Walking and running may vary, however, as the patient may be located inside a large, multi-floored facility. Standing, walking and running could be on all types of surfaces, including but not limited to: asphalt, cement, concrete, soft/packed dirt, linoleum, wood, hardwood floors, etc. The individual must be able to go up and down slight inclines or declines that may be found at roadsides, agricultural areas, etc. At a location, standing would occur more often than walking or running. Standing would occur on the wide variety of surfaces mentioned above. Standing could last from a few minutes to hours, depending on the situation. Standing could occur in the standard erect position, the kneeling or squatting position, etc. SITTING: Frequently when responding to a location, the individual will sit in the emergency vehicle. The emergency vehicles are equipped with a standard installed vehicle seat. The time performing the sitting activity on a call would depend upon the specific situation. The facility is equipped with a small lounge area that is furnished. LIFTING AND CARRYING: Frequently required to lift and carry weights ranging from a few pounds up to forty pounds. Occasionally required to lift and carry weights up to 80 pounds or more. Incumbents will need to lift and carry with other team members adult patients, lifting them from various positions (such as a bed or a vehicle) onto various patient movement devices, such as an ambulance stretcher, a stair chair, long back boards, etc., and then efficiently move them into an ambulance or helicopter. These lifts may require lifting patients from ground level up to a height of 48 inches. Other heavier objects in the high range category include medical equipment boxes. The medical equipment boxes can weigh up to forty pounds and need to be lifted from ground level up to 48 inches. BENDING AND STOOPING: Frequently. Frequently throughout a work shift the individual will be required to bend in a range of 1 to 90 degrees. The average situation will require the individual to work in a range of 35 to 65 degree bends. This would involve: lifting a patient, lifting equipment, treating a patient at ground level, sitting on a bench located in the ambulance. This activity may be prolonged and last up to 30 minutes or more. During any given call, the provider may bend and/or stoop any number of times per incident. CROUCHING AND KNEELING: Frequently. Crouching and kneeling may be performed when on the scene picking up equipment or assisting patients. The actual number of times this is done depends on the particular incident. CLIMBING: Occasionally. This is required when climbing steps up and down with a patient on a cot or other device, and when entering or exiting the emergency vehicle. Generally, the climbing would require that the incumbent be lifting and carrying heavy objects such as a cot or other device with a patient on it. Balancing may be required when backing down staircases. REACHING: Frequently to continuously throughout the work shift in order to review monitoring equipment, operate communication equipment, administer oxygen, and operate equipment. The incumbent may also be required to reach in precarious positions, such as in a vehicle, which has been crushed in an accident, or in other confined spaces. If working inside the ambulance en route to a medical facility, the incumbent will need to reach to access the patient and supplies. Reaching will involve partial to full extension of the arms. PUSHING AND PULLING: Frequently. The activities that would require the most force in pushing and pulling is when removing or returning a gurney to the emergency vehicle, with and without a patient on the gurney. The weight required to push/pull will vary, depending on the weight on the gurney. Slight pushing will be required if the incumbent is performing CPR, which can require repetitive pushing and may range from a few minutes to hours. Pushing and pulling is required when operating and closing vehicle doors. HANDLING OR GRASPING: Continuously. While working at any given location, continual bilateral gross manipulation is performed in this position. This may be involved when: opening/closing doors; and using, handling, carrying and operating medical equipment boxes that may weigh approximately fifty pounds or more, stretcher rails, various handles attached to equipment, and tools. The arm and hand must be able to perform all types of positions, including supination and pronation. Hyperextension, extension and flexion of the fingers will be involved, ulnar and radial deviation, abduction and adduction of the hand and wrist will be required. A wide variety of grasping will be required, such as cylindrical grasping, palmer grasping, hook grasping, tip grasping, lateral grasping and spherical grasping. HAZARDS: The incumbent, when responding to emergency situations, may be exposed to dust, fumes, gases, fire, smoke, adverse weather conditions, and chemicals. There is also exposure to body substances that may contain infectious materials that could cause illness or death. There is potential for bodily harm or death from violent patients, bystanders, or other dangers. At all time the incumbent is expected to adhere to all applicable Policies and Procedures concerning safety and the prevention of contamination and infection due to bloodborne pathogens. OTHER PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS + Maintain balance and strength in awkward positions; + Speak clearly under stressful circumstances; + Accurately communicate ideas orally and in writing in English; + Respond physically with speed; + Speak loudly; and + Get along well with others. MENTAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE POSITION + Handle a significant number of stressful situations, and be able to function calmly, coolly and collectedly under all types of stressful situations; + Get along well with diverse personalities; + Communicate with patients and others with empathy and respect; + Create and maintain a positive and cooperative working environment in stressful situations; + Work smoothly and professionally in an environment where teamwork is essential; + Analyze and interpret difficult and complex patient care and personnelsituations; + Work independently with minimum supervision for assigned tasks; + Exercise sound independent judgment within general Policy andprocedural guidelines; + Anticipate and identify problems and take initiative to prevent or correct them; + Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels ofpersonnel within the medical community, the Company, outsideagencies, patients, and members of the community; + Understand and follow federal, state and local laws, and CompanyPolicies, procedures, and rules; + Establish and maintain effective working relationships with others; + Follow orders; + Remember and apply concepts, knowledge and principles; + Analyze and interpret situations; and + Appropriately deal with stress and maintain composure when encountering serious injuries or illnesses.
          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        
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Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus
Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1161:69-81. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0758-8_7
Brown JD, Poulson R, Stallknecht DE.

Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic North America
Virology. 2014 May;456-457:353-63. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.04.009. Epub 2014 Apr 28.
Huang Y et al.

Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores
Virol J. 2014 May 15;11(1):89. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-11-89.
Bodewes R et al.

Association of a lukM-positive clone of Staphylococcus aureus with fatal exudative dermatitis in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris)
Vet Microbiol. 2013 Mar 23;162(2-4):987-91. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.10.025. Epub 2012 Nov 2.
Simpson VR et al.

Temporal patterns in immunity, infection load and disease susceptibility: understanding the drivers of host responses in the amphibian-chytrid fungus system
Functional Ecology. 2014 Jun; 28(3): 569–578. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12194
Stephanie S. Gervasi et al.

The EMPRES-i genetic module: a novel tool linking epidemiological outbreak information and genetic characteristics of influenza viruses
Database. 2014; bau008 doi: 10.1093/database/bau008
Filip Claes et al.

Monitoring Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions in the Information Age: How Smartphones Can Improve Data Collection
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(6): e98613. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098613
Olson DD, Bissonette JA, Cramer PC, Green AD, Davis ST, et al.

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and haplotypes in domestic and imported pet amphibians in Japan
Tamukai K, Une Y, Tominaga A, Suzuki K, Goka K (2014)
Dis Aquat Org 109:165-175

First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)
Vet Microbiol. 2013 Mar 23;162(2-4):972-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.10.009. Epub 2012 Oct 16.
Krengel A et al.

Fish pathogens near the Arctic Circle: molecular, morphological and ecological evidence for unexpected diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Iceland
Int J Parasitol. 2014 Jun 11. pii: S0020-7519(14)00122-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.04.009. [Epub ahead of print]
Blasco-Costa I et al.

Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia
J Invertebr Pathol. 2014 Jun 10. pii: S0022-2011(14)00082-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.05.007. [Epub ahead of print]
Work TM et al.

Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands
PLoS One. 2014 Jun 13;9(6):e100061. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100061. eCollection 2014.
Pierce AA1, de Roode JC1, Altizer S2, Bartel RA3.

Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jul 22;281(1787). pii: 20133313. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3313. Epub 2014 Jun 11.
Goutte A et al.

Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis)
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Dec 28;3(1):32-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.12.002. eCollection 2014.
Girard YA et al.

Diffusion of influenza viruses among migratory birds with a focus on the Southwest United States
Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Jun 6. pii: S1567-1348(14)00198-1. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.05.029. [Epub ahead of print]
Scotch M et al.

Evidence That Bank Vole PrP Is a Universal Acceptor for Prions 
PLoS Pathog 10(4): e1003990. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003990
Watts JC, Giles K, Patel S, Oehler A, DeArmond SJ, et al. (2014)

Disease of Aquatic Organisms - May 2014
Vol. 109, No. 2

International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - August 2014
Volume 3, Issue 2
          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        
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J Wildl Dis. 2014 May 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Stephen C.

White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats
PLoS One. 2014 May 12;9(5):e97224. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097224. eCollection 2014.
Zukal J et al.

Surveillance for emerging biodiversity diseases of wildlife
PLoS Pathog. 2014 May 29;10(5):e1004015. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004015. eCollection 2014.
Grogan LF et al.

Ticks of the Hyalomma marginatum complex transported by migratory birds into Central Europe
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Apr 29. pii: S1877-959X(14)00061-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Capek M et al.

Identification and characterization of Highlands J virus from a Mississippi sandhill crane using unbiased next-generation sequencing
J Virol Methods. 2014 May 29. pii: S0166-0934(14)00210-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.05.018. [Epub ahead of print]
Ip HS et al.

A 5-year Chlamydia vaccination programme could reverse disease-related koala population decline: Predictions from a mathematical model using field data

Vaccine. 2014 May 27. pii: S0264-410X(14)00725-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.05.049. [Epub ahead of print]
Craig AP et al.

Wetland characteristics influence disease risk for a threatened amphibian
Ecological Applications. 2014; 24:650–662. doi: 10.1890/13-0389.1
Geoffrey W. Heard et al.

Anthropogenic Land Use Change and Infectious Diseases: A Review of the Evidence
Ecohealth. 2014 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Gottdenker NL et al.

The effect of seasonal birth pulses on pathogen persistence in wild mammal populations
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jul 7;281(1786). pii: 20132962. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2962.
Peel AJ et al.

The potential impact of native Australian trypanosome infections on the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)
Parasitology. 2011 Jun;138(7):873-83. doi: 10.1017/S0031182011000369. Epub 2011 Apr 27.
McInnes LM et al.

Prevalence, diversity, and interaction patterns of avian haemosporidians in a four-year study of blackcaps in a migratory divide
Parasitology. 2011 Jun;138(7):824-35. doi: 10.1017/S0031182011000515. Epub 2011 Apr 26.
Santiago-Alarcon D et al.

A novel siadenovirus detected in the kidneys and liver of Gouldian finches (Erythura gouldiae)
Vet Microbiol. 2014 Apr 21. pii: S0378-1135(14)00206-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.04.006. [Epub ahead of print]
Joseph HM et al.

Assessing host extinction risk following exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 May 7;281(1785):20132783. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2783. Print 2014.
Louca S et al.

Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in wild mammals and birds: a coincidence or cause for concern?
Ir Vet J. 2014 Apr 25;67(1):8. doi: 10.1186/2046-0481-67-8. eCollection 2014.
Smith S et al.

Career Attitudes of First-Year Veterinary Students Before and After a Required Course on Veterinary Careers
J Vet Med Educ. 2014 May 2:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
Fish RE and Griffith EH.
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Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)
Parasit Vectors. 2014 Mar 24;7(1):117. [Epub ahead of print]
Mascarelli PE, Keel MK, Yabsley M, Last LA, Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG.

North atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 19;9(3):e92075. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092075. eCollection 2014.
Dusek RJ et al.

First isolation of reticuloendotheliosis virus from mallards in China
Arch Virol. 2014 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Jiang L et al.

Dual-pathogen etiology of avian trichomonosis in a declining band-tailed pigeon population
Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Mar 13. pii: S1567-1348(14)00084-7. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Girard YA et al.

An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe
Environ Int. 2014 Mar 11;67C:12-21. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.02.004. [Epub ahead of print]
Gómez-Ramírez P et al.

Antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from humans and wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area, Central African Republic
Vet Microbiol. 2014 Feb 16. pii: S0378-1135(14)00091-1. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.014. [Epub ahead of print]
Janatova M et al.

Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain)
Veterinary Parasitology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 24]. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.018
A. Reboredo-Fernández et al.

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e91043. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091043
Jennelle CS et al.

Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases
Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;14(2):160-8. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70244-5. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
Milinovich GJ et al.
          Biologists Still Searching For Answers In Bald Eagle Deaths and other wildlife health news stories        

Fish-Eating Ducks Hard Hit By Severe Winter, Ice

The Niagara River corridor from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario is renowned as a spectacular winter haven for hundreds of thousands of water birds. But this year's bitterly cold season has made it notable for something else: dead ducks.

Biologists say carcasses began piling up by the hundreds in early January after the plunging temperatures started icing over nearly the entire Great Lakes, preventing the ducks from getting to the minnows that are their main source of food. Necropsies on dozens of birds have confirmed the cause: starvation. "All have empty stomachs. They're half the weight they should be," said Connie Adams, a biologist in the state Department of Environmental Conservation's Buffalo office who has personally seen 950 dead birds.

"This is unprecedented. Biologists who've worked here for 35 years have never seen anything like this," she said. "We've seen a decline in tens of thousands in our weekly waterfowl counts." It's a phenomenon that has been seen elsewhere along the Great Lakes, with news reports of diving ducks and other waterfowl turning up dead by the hundreds along the southern part of Lake Michigan. They've also been found in Lake St. Clair between Lakes Erie and Huron.

... Necropsies and toxicity analyses showed many of the Michigan ducks were subsisting on invasive zebra mussels, which caused the birds to have potentially toxic levels of selenium in their bodies, Mason said. Zebra mussels filter toxins from the water and pass them up the food chain.

Most of the dead ducks seen in the upstate New York are red-breasted mergansers, which breed in northern Canada and Alaska and come south for the winter to the Great Lakes region. In most years, there are periods of freezing and thawing, providing enough breaks in the ice for them to dive for minnows.

Monroe News
15 Mar 2014
Location: Canada


Experimental infection of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with West Nile virus isolates of Euro-Mediterranean and North American origins

...North American WNV outbreaks are often accompanied by high mortality in wild birds, a feature that is uncommon in Europe. The reason for this difference is unknown, but the intrinsic virulence of the viruses circulating in each continent and/or the susceptibility to the disease of Palearctic as opposed to Nearctic wild bird species could play a role.

To assess this question, experimental inoculations with four lineage 1 WNV strains, three from southern Europe (Italy/2008, Italy/2009 and Spain/2007) and one from North America (NY99) were performed on house sparrows (Passer domesticus), a wild passerine common in both continents. Non-significant differences which ranged from 0% to 25% were observed in mortality for the different WNV strains.

... Consequently, albeit being pathogenic for house sparrows, some Euro-Mediterranean strains had reduced capacity for replication in -and transmission from- this host, as compared to the NY99 strain. If applicable also to other wild bird host species, this relatively reduced transmission capacity of the Euro-Mediterranean strains could explain the lower incidence of this disease in wild birds in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

7th Space
19 Mar 2014

Cited Journal Article
Javier Del Amo et al. Experimental infection of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with West Nile virus isolates of Euro-Mediterranean and North American origins. Veterinary Research. 2014; 45:33. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-45-33

Avian Botulism

Deer Health News
One Health News Corner
Huh?! That's Interesting!

          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        

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Sampling strategies and biodiversity of influenza a subtypes in wild birds
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 5;9(3):e90826. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090826. eCollection 2014.
Olson SH et al.

Presence of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Native Amphibians Exported from Madagascar
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 5;9(3):e89660. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089660. eCollection 2014.
Kolby JE.

Leukocyte response to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in a wild passerine bird
Avian Dis. 2013 Dec;57(4):744-9.
Owen J et al.

Echinococcosis in wild carnivorous species: epidemiology, genotypic diversity, and implications for veterinary public health
Veterinary Parasitology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 14]. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.009
David Carmena and Guillermo A. Cardona

Is there a relation between genetic or social groups of mallard ducks and the circulation of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses?
Veterinary Microbiology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 12]. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.03.001
Maria A. De Marco et al

A current review of avian influenza in pigeons and doves (Columbidae)
Veterinary Microbiology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 12]. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.042
Celia Abolnik

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia IVb Status in the United States: Inferences from Surveillance Activities and Regional Context
Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 06]. doi:
L.L. Gustafson et al.

Seasonal reactivation enables Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 to persist in a wild host population
Fems Microbiology Ecology. 2014 Feb; 87 (2):536-542. doi:10.1111/1574-6941.12242
Uchii, K; Minamoto, T; Honjo, MN; Kawabata, Z

The importance of temporal heterothermy in bats
Journal of Zoology. 2014 Feb; 292 (2):86-100. doi:10.1111/jzo.12105
Authors: Stawski, C; Willis, CKR; Geiser, F

Organic contaminants in bats: Trends and new issues
Environment International. 2014 Feb; 63: 40-52. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2013.10.009
Authors: Bayat, S; Geiser, F; Kristiansen, P; Wilson, SC

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A look at lead poisoning in bald eagles
Conservationist. 2014 Feb; Epub
Kevin Hynes
[Hey! Digest readers are the best! A fellow reader told us about this one.]

Comparison of the White-Nose Syndrome Agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Cave-Dwelling Relatives Suggests Reduced 
Saprotrophic Enzyme Activity. 2014; PLoS ONE 9(1): e86437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086437
Reynolds HT, Barton HA

Potential Intercontinental Movement of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus into North America by Wild Birds: Application of a Rapid Assessment Framework
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 04]. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12213
R. S. Miller, S. J. Sweeney, J. E. Akkina, E. K. Saito

First Evidence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Hong Kong Amphibian Trade
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e90750. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090750
Kolby JE, Smith KM, Berger L, Karesh WB, Preston A, et al.

Abiotic factors affecting persistence of avian influenza virus in surface water from waterfowl habitats
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Feb 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Keeler SP, Dalton MS, Cressler AM, Berghaus RD, Stallknecht D.

Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus
Viruses. Feb 2014; 6(2): 752–781. [Epub ahead of print 13 Feb 2014]. doi: 10.3390/v6020752
Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Francisco Llorente, and Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero

Morphological and molecular characterization of a new species of leech (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida): Implications for the health of its imperiled amphibian host (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis)
Zookeys. 2014 Feb 7;(378):83-101. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.378.6545. eCollection 2014.
Hopkins WA1, Moser WE2, Garst DW1, Richardson DJ3, Hammond CI3, Lazo-Wasem EA4.

Experimental infection of Eurasian collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto) with West Nile virus
J Vector Ecol. 2013 Dec;38(2):210-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1948-7134.2013.12032.x.
Panella NA, Young G, Komar N.

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus
One Health: The Human-Animal-Environment Interfaces in Emerging Infectious Diseases
The Concept and Examples of a One Health Approach
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Volume 365 2013
Editors: John S. Mackenzie, Martyn Jeggo, Peter Daszak, Juergen A. Richt
  • Wildlife: The Need to Better Understand the Linkages
    One Health: The Human-Animal-Environment Interfaces in Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology Volume 365, 2013, pp 101-125
    Melinda K. Rostal, Kevin J. Olival, Elizabeth H. Loh, William B. Karesh
Novel Bartonella Infection in Northern and Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis)
Veterinary Microbiology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 24]
Sebastian E. Carrasco et al.

Francisella tularensis infection without lesions in gray tree squirrels (Sciurus griseus)
A diagnostic challenge

Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2014 [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 20]. doi:10.1177/1040638713520541
Danielle D. Nelson et al.

The Role of the Toxicologic Pathologist in Academia [Commentary]
Veterinary Pathology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 19]. doi: 10.1177/0300985813519652
P. V. Turner et al.

Avian Pathology - January 2014
Volume 43, Issue 1
          Necropsies on beached striped dolphins leave more questions than answers and other wildlife health related news stories        

Partnership fights for ban on hunting with lead ammo

California bill A.B. 711 requires the use of non-lead ammunition in all hunting of mammals, birds, and other wildlife. Audubon California, The Humane Society of the United Sates, and Defenders of Wildlife joined forces to get the bill passed.

“Our three organizations worked together on a 2008 bill that limited use of lead ammunition in about 20% of California,” says Jennifer Fearing, California senior state director of The Humane Society of the United States. “A.B. 711 would extend this requirement to the rest of the state.”

Garrison Frost, director of marketing and communications for Audubon California, says lead poisoning is a leading cause of death among wildlife that feeds on animals killed by lead ammunition. In addition, lead ammunition that seeps into the food chain, watershed, and overall environment poses a broader treat to human health.

PR Week
21 Feb 2014
Tanya Lewis



The black-footed ferret is one of the most endangered mammals in North America, but new research suggests that these charismatic critters can persist if conservationists think big enough.

Decades of human persecution (e.g., poisoning) of the ferret’s favorite prey, prairie dogs, and severe outbreaks of plague and distemper led to its extinction in the wild in 1987.

Since then, thousands of captive-raised ferrets have been released across North America, and at least four wild populations have been successfully reestablished.

However, a new factor threatens to undermine these hard-fought conservation gains: the continued eastward spread of the exotic bacterial disease plague, which is a quick and efficient killer of prairie dogs, and is caused by the same microbe that is implicated in the Black Death pandemics of the Middle Ages.

Using a new multi-species computer modeling approach, researchers have linked models of plague, prairie dogs, and black-footed ferrets to explore the consequences of ecological interactions in ways not possible using standard methods.
The results of this study, published in Journal of Applied Ecology, suggest that the continued survival of black-footed ferret populations requires landscapes larger than conservationists previously thought, and intensive management actions to reduce plague transmission.

21 Feb 2014


One Health News Corner
Huh?! That's Interesting!

          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        

Browse complete Digest publication library here

New alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata bats, New Zealand
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.3201/eid2004.131441
Hall RJ, Wang J, Peacey M, Moore NE, McInnes K, Tompkins DM.
[Thank your fellow Digest reader for sharing!]

Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014 May; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131707
B. Zhao et al.

Mercury Exposure Associated with Altered Plasma Thyroid Hormones in the Declining Western Pond Turtle (Emys marmorata) from California Mountain Streams
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Meyer E1, Eagles-Smith CA, Sparling D, Blumenshine S.

Survey of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the southeastern USA
Dis Aquat Organ. 2014 Feb 19;108(2):91-102. doi: 10.3354/dao02705.
Stewart JR et al.

Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health
Front Microbiol. 2014 Feb 5;5:23. eCollection 2014.
Radhouani H et al.

Polar Bear Encephalitis: Establishment of a Comprehensive Next-generation Pathogen Analysis Pipeline for Captive and Free-living Wildlife
J Comp Pathol. 2013 Dec 19. pii: S0021-9975(13)00385-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.12.005. [Epub ahead of print]
Szentiks CA et al.

International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - December 2013

Neglected wild life: Parasitic biodiversity as a conservation target
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Aug 2;2:222-227. eCollection 2013.
Gómez A and Nichols E

Haemogregarine infections of three species of aquatic freshwater turtles from two sites in Costa Rica
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Mar 5;2:131-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.02.003. eCollection 2013.
Rossow JA et al.

Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: Mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Mar 5;2:110-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.02.002. eCollection 2013
Hollings T et al.

Parasites and the conservation of small populations: The case of Baylisascaris procyonis
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Dec; 2: 203–210
L. Kristen et al

Predictors of malaria infection in a wild bird population: Landscape level analyses reveal climatic and anthropogenic factors
J Anim Ecol. 2014 Feb 16. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12214. [Epub ahead of print]
Gonzalez-Quevedo C et al.

Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata
J Invertebr Pathol. 2014 Feb 8. pii: S0022-2011(14)00017-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.01.008. [Epub ahead of print]
Work TM and Farah Y.

Veterinary Pathology - March 2014
Special Issue: Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals
Volume 51, Number 2

Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation - January 2014
Volume 26, Number 1

Emerging Infectious Diseases - March 2014
Volume 20, Number 3

          Feds urge residents to report dead wildlife and more wildlife health related news stories        

Melting Arctic Ice Releases Deadly Seal Parasite

A photo of a parasite.
Sarcocystis pinnipedi (dark purple) infecting the diaphragm of a ringed seal.
There is no evidence of inflammation in the tissue, in contrast to infection in
gray seal livers. Photo credit: Stephan Raverty | National Geogaphic.
When wildlife pathologists arrived at Hay Island off the coast of Nova Scotia in March 2012, they met an eerie sight. Of the thousands of silver and black-speckled gray seals that lay on the rocky outcrop, roughly a fifth were dead, despite showing no outward signs of disease.

Necropsies revealed that 406 dead seals were infested with a crescent moon-shaped parasite that had destroyed their livers, but it wasn't clear what the organism was or how the seals had contracted the parasite. Researchers revealed the parasite's identity here today at the annual meeting of AAAS, which publishes Science. They also explained how melting ice in the Arctic Circle is helping such pathogens disperse throughout the world's oceans.

14 Feb 2014
E Underwood


More Arctic News
>>> Is Climate Change Increasing the Disease Risk for Arctic Marine Mammals? [includes slide images]
>>> Arctic biodiversity under serious threat from climate change

Oil spills cause heart attacks in fish

While it’s certainly not news that oil spills harm fish, exactly how the oil causes fish harm is a complicated question that ecologists have been trying to answer. A study published Thursday in Science presents an explanation, and it’s nothing less than heartbreaking: The oil makes the fish go into cardiac arrest. The researchers are considering the possibility that oil might cause similar cardiac impacts in other forms of life—including us.

The study authors, who are affiliated with Stanford University and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), had been studying lingering damage around the site of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Tuna became their test subject, due to the spill have occurred within a major spawning ground for the Gulf’s Atlantic bluefin tuna populations. And the tuna had suffered for it: A 2012 assessment had counted a spawning population 64% smaller than the baseline population of 1970.

Science Recorder
16 Feb 2014
R Docksai


Cited Journal Article
Fabien Brette et al. (2014). Crude Oil Impairs Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Fish. Science. 343(6172):772-776. DOI: 10.1126/science.1242747

Feds urge residents to report dead wildlife

With thousands of tons of coal ash in the Dan River, what are local nature lovers to do if they see dead or dying wildlife along the river? .... There have already been scattered reports of dead turtles in the Dan River, and the question of the spill’s affect on wildlife came up Tuesday night during a meeting with members of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s first responders.

14 Feb 2014
D Thibodeau


Coral bleaching makes fish behave recklessly

Fish on bleached coral reefs are fearless. Instead of staying hidden at home, they stray out, making them easy prey for predators.

Coral reefs are rich ecosystems, home to thousands of animals. But if the water gets too warm, the corals expel the algae that live in them, leaving them bleached and sometimes killing them. Climate change is making such bleaching events more commonMovie Camera.

Wondering how fish might be affected, Oona Lönnstedt of the Australian Research Council's centre for coral reef studies and her colleagues studied the behaviour of pallid damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis) on the Great Barrier Reef.

They released fish onto live and dead coral, and found that those on dead coral took more risks and moved further afield. And while the smell of an injured mate prompted fish on live coral to take cover, their counterparts didn't react. The death rate was 75 per cent higher on dead coral.

New Scientist
14 February 2014
S Sekar


Moose Health News
One Health News Corner

          What's killing all the starfish on the West Coast? and other wildlife health news stories        

White-nose syndrome confirmed in bats in Arkansas

White-nose syndrome, a fatal disease to several bat species, has been confirmed in Arkansas, the state Game and Fish Commission said Wednesday. The disease was documented in two northern long-eared bats found at a cave on a natural area managed by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission in Marion County, according to a news release.

... Five bats were found to have the disease during a survey of the Marion County cave on Jan. 11. The fungus was confirmed by tests on two of the bats by the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center, according to an AGFC news release. The bats had damage to wing, ear and tail membranes consistent with white-nose syndrome.

Arkansas News Bureau
29 Jan 2014
Arkansas, USA


More White-Nose Syndrome News
>>> Bat fungus continues to concern biologists
>>> Winter cave surveys track bat numbers, health [Kentucky, USA]
>>> White Nose Syndrome May Be Unstoppable: Deadly Bat Disease Can Thrive in Caves Without Bats

What's killing all the starfish on the West Coast?

Starfish have been mysteriously dying by the millions in recent months along the West Coast, worrying biologists who say the sea creatures are key to the marine ecosystem.

Scientists first started noticing the mass deaths in June 2013. Different types of starfish, also known as sea stars, were affected, from wild ones along the coast to those in captivity, according to Jonathan Sleeman, director of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center.

... The most commonly observed symptoms are white lesions on the arms of the sea star. The lesions spread rapidly, resulting in the loss of the arm. Within days, the infection consumes the creature's entire body, and it dies.

Entire populations have been wiped out in Puget Sound off the coast of Washington state, in the Salish Sea off Canada's British Columbia as well as along the coast of California. The mortality rate is estimated at 95 percent.

... “What we currently think is likely happening is that there is a pathogen, like a parasite or a virus or a bacteria, that is infecting the sea stars and that compromises in some way their immune system,” Pete Raimondi, chair of the department of ecology and evolutionary biology, at the University of California, Santa Cruz, told AFP.

San Jose Mercury News
2014 Feb 02
Jean-Louis Santini
Washington, and California, USA, and British Columbia, Cananda 


Assorted South West parasites favour cleaner habitat

BIOLOGISTS investigating parasites on freshwater fish in the South West believe they have discovered at least 42 native parasite species that were previously undescribed...Murdoch University Associate Professor Alan Lymbery, who presented the research at the WA Freshwater Fish Symposium, says two known introduced parasite species were found.

In addition to the introduced species, 42 morphologically different native parasites appeared to be different species.... Dr Lymbery says 30–40 per cent of the parasites were only found in a single species of fish, which had serious implications for the parasite’s conservation risk if the fish was endangered.

“[Parasites] are probably at more risk than the fish host species because although some of the parasites we found have a direct life cycle, which means that the fish is their only host, a large number of them also had an indirect life cycle, which means they rely on other hosts as well,” he says.

... Dr Lymbery says the finding most fish biologists found interesting was that parasitism generally increased with improving water quality. He says parasites, particularly those with complex life cycles, are quite sensitive indicators of environmental quality....“Contrary to what most people think, which is that the worse the conditions are, the more disease or parasitism you have, you actually don’t find that,” Dr Lymbery says.

“What we found was that the better the quality of the habitat, the more fish were parasitised and the greater number of species of parasites you found.”

ScienceNetwork Western Australia
2014 Jan 13
M Wheeler


Some Good News Amid Bad News, for Hawai`i’s Endangered Honeycreepers

Warming temperatures due to climate change are exposing endangered Hawaiian forest birds to greater risk of avian malaria. But new research led by the U.S. Geological Survey holds out some hope that the birds may be able to adapt.

For decades, scientists have documented declines and extinctions among species of Hawaiian honeycreepers due to the spread of avian malaria and other diseases. At one time, the Hawaiian Islands had no mosquitoes—and no mosquito-borne diseases. But, by the late 1800s, mosquitoes were firmly established in the islands. Another invasive species—feral pigs—helped the mosquito population boom by creating larval habitat as they rooted through forests. The honeycreepers had no natural defense against a disease they had never before experienced.

"Honeycreepers are exquisitely sensitive to avian malaria," said Dr. Carter Atkinson, a USGS microbiologist based at the USGS Pacific Islands Ecosystems Research Center in Hawai’i. Atkinson is the lead author of two new research papers examining how climate change is increasing the honeycreepers’ risk of infection.

USGS Newsroom
31 Jan 2014


Cited Journal Article
Carter T. Atkinson et al. (2014). Changing Climate and the Altitudinal Range of Avian Malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an Ongoing Conservation Crisis on the Island of Kaua'i. Global Change Biology; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1111/gcb.12535

Carter T. Atkinson et al. (2014). Experimental Evidence for Evolved Tolerance to Avian Malaria in a Wild Population of Low Elevation Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens). EcoHealth. [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1007/s10393-013-0899-2

One Health News Corner
It Ain't All Bad News

          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        

Browse complete Digest publication library here

Prevalence and phenology of white-nose syndrome fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans in bats from Poland
Central European Journal of Biology. 2014 Apr; 9(4): 437-443. doi:10.2478/s11535-013-0280-z
Konrad Sachanowicz, Arkadiusz Stepien, Mateusz Ciechanowski

Changes in Capture Rates in a Community of Bats in New Hampshire during the Progression of White-Nose Syndrome
Northeastern Naturalist. 2013 Oct; 20(4):552-558. doi: 10.1656/045.020.0405
Paul R. Moosman, Jr., Jacques P. Veilleux, Gary W. Pelton and Howard H. Thomas

Hummingbird health: pathogens and disease conditions in the family Trochilidae
Journal of Ornithology. 2014 Jan; 155(1): 1-12. doi:10.1007/s10336-013-0990-z
Loreto A. Godoy, Lisa A. Tell, Holly B. Ernest

Genetic Structure of Avian Influenza Viruses from Ducks of the Atlantic Flyway of North America
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(1): e86999. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086999
Huang Y, Wille M, Dobbin A, Walzthöni NM, Robertson GJ, et al.

Extended Viral Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus by Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis)
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(1): e70639. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070639
Root JJ, Shriner SA, Bentler KT, Gidlewski T, Mooers NL, et al.

Selecting Essential Information for Biosurveillance—A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(1): e86601. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086601
Generous N, Margevicius KJ, Taylor-McCabe KJ, Brown M, Daniel WB, et al. 

Two new species of Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890 (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) from European birds, with emphasis on DNA barcoding for detection of haemosporidians in wildlife
Syst Parasitol. 2014 Feb;87(2):135-51. doi: 10.1007/s11230-013-9464-1. Epub 2014 Jan 29.
Dimitrov D, Zehtindjiev P, Bensch S, Ilieva M, Iezhova T, Valkiūnas G.

Diverse inter-continental and host lineage reassortant avian influenza A viruses in pelagic seabirds
Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Jan 23. pii: S1567-1348(14)00017-3. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.01.014. [Epub ahead of print]
Huang Y, Robertson GJ, Ojkic D3, Whitney H, Lang AS.

Ocean warming and acidification have complex interactive effects on the dynamics of a marine fungal disease
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jan 22;281(1778):20133069. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3069. Print 2014.
Williams GJ, Price NN, Ushijima B, Aeby GS, Callahan S, Davy SK, Gove JM, Johnson MD, Knapp IS, Shore-Maggio A, Smith JE, Videau P, Work TM.

Laridae: A neglected reservoir that could play a major role in avian influenza virus epidemiological dynamics
Crit Rev Microbiol. 2014 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Arnal A, Vittecoq M, Pearce-Duvet J, Gauthier-Clerc M, Boulinier T, Jourdain E.

Detection of mecC-positive Staphylococcus aureus (CC130-MRSA-XI) in diseased European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Sweden
PLoS One. 2013 Jun 12;8(6):e66166. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066166. Print 2013.
Monecke S, Gavier-Widen D, Mattsson R, Rangstrup-Christensen L, Lazaris A, Coleman DC, Shore AC, Ehricht R.

Climatic variables are associated with the prevalence of biliary trematodes in otters
Int J Parasitol. 2013 Aug;43(9):729-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.04.006. Epub 2013 Jun 7.
Sherrard-Smith E, Chadwick EA, Cable J.

Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability
Virol J. 2013 Jun 6;10:179. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-179.
Hall JS, Teslaa JL, Nashold SW, Halpin RA, Stockwell T, Wentworth DE, Dugan V, Ip HS.

Risk Assessment of H2N2 Influenza Viruses from the Avian Reservoir
 J. Virol. 2014 Jan; 88(2): 1175-1188. [Epub ahead of print 2013 Nov 13]. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02526-13
Jeremy C. Jones et al.

Emerging Infectious Diseases - February 2014
Volume 20, Number 2

          Fukushima Radioactive Fallout in Alaska. Wildlife Health Implications and more wildlife health news stories        

UA researchers trace bat killer's path

White-Nose Syndrome poses threat of extinction; potential impact on agriculture

... The UA research identifies cold-loving, cave-dwelling fungi closely related to WNS, and where and how they spread, and how they survive. These findings help predict the future of North American bats —among them — the common Little Brown Bat, first seen with WSN in Ohio in March 2011.

Led by Hazel Barton, UA associate professor of biology and recognized as having one of the world's preeminent cave microbiology labs, the research points to a group of fungi related to WSN, which appears as a white, powdery substance on the muzzles, ears and wings of infected bats and gives them the appearance they've been dunked in powdered sugar. Since it was first discovered in hibernating bats in New York in winter 2006-07, WNS has spread across 22 states, including Ohio. In Vermont's Aeolus Cave, which once housed 800,000 bats, WSN wiped out the hibernation den's entire population.

In their research paper, "Comparison of the White-Nose Syndrome agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to cave-dwelling relatives suggests reduced saprotrophic enzyme activity," published Jan. 22, 2014 by the PLOS ONE, Barton and UA post-doctoral fellow Hannah Reynolds compare two closely related fungi species and reveal common threads, including the discovery that the related fungi share the same nutritional needs.

Originally satisfied by cave soil, the fungus' nutritional source has now transferred to bats. Barton and her colleagues are zeroing in on when the fungus transferred from environment to bat and the consequences of the fungus' relentless ability to survive solely in caves, uninhabited by bats.

29 Jan 2014


Cited Journal Article
Reynolds HT, Barton HA (2014) Comparison of the White-Nose Syndrome Agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Cave-Dwelling Relatives Suggests Reduced Saprotrophic Enzyme Activity. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086437

Three new feline viruses raise questions about transmission and disease

Pathogen researchers at Colorado State University have discovered a family of cancer-causing viruses in several U.S. populations of bobcats, mountain lions and domestic cats, raising questions about whether the previously undetected viruses could be transmitted between cat species – and whether they might be the root cause of some cancers found in housecats.

...Wildlife ecologists collected blood samples from the bobcats and mountain lions in the course of separate studies related to the wild cats; they shared samples for the CSU study. Likewise, animal shelters across the United States collected and shared blood samples from domestic cats.

... In analyzing blood collected from wild and domestic cat populations in these regions, researchers identified the novel gamma herpes viruses in three species – and further discovered the bobcat virus in some mountain lions. The route of transmission remains unknown, but could occur when the animals fight in the wild, Troyer said.

Medical Xpress
01 Feb 2014
J Dimas


Fukushima Radioactive Fallout in Alaska. Wildlife Health Implications

Scientists present links between unusual Alaska seal deaths and Fukushima fallout — Skin lesions, hair loss, lethargy — ‘Pulsed release’ when built-up radionuclides were set free as ice melted — “Wildlife health implications” due to radiation exposure discussed

...During summer 2011 it became evident to coastal communities and wildlife management agencies that there was a novel disease outbreak occurring in several species of Arctic ice-associated seals. Gross symptoms associated with the disease included lethargy, no new hair growth, and skin lesions, with the majority of the outbreak reports occurring between the Nome and Barrow region. NOAA and USFWS declared an Alaska Northern Pinnipeds Usual Mortality Event (UME) in late winter of 2011.

The ongoing Alaska 2011 Northern Pinnipeds UME investigation continues to explore a mix of potential etiologies (infectious, endocrine, toxins, nutritious etc.), including radioactivity. Currently, the underlying etiology remains undetermined. We present results on gamma analysis (cesium 134 and 137) of muscle tissue from control and diseased seals, and discuss wildlife health implications from different possible routes of exposure to Fukushima fallout to ice seals.

Global Research News
27 Jan 2014


Other Wildlife Health Related News
One Health News Corner
Huh?! That's Interesting!

          Eagle and grebe bird kills spur worry about West Nile mutation and more wildlife health news stories        

Bat-killing fungus lurks in the Kansas City area

A deadly fungus that has wiped out hibernating bats by the millions in its eight-year march west from a New York cave has finally crept into Jackson County.

The discovery of “white-nose syndrome” in three tri-colored (or Eastern pipistrelle) bats in a limestone mine marks the nation’s westernmost spread, federal officials said last week. Afflicted mammals were found last winter in east-central Missouri; before that it was seen in the cave colonies of Pike County near the Mississippi River.

22 Jan 2014
Kansas City Star
D Levings


Reassortment patterns of avian influenza virus internal segments among different subtypes

The segmented RNA genome of avian Influenza viruses (AIV) allows genetic reassortment between co-infecting viruses, providing an evolutionary pathway to generate genetic innovation. The genetic diversity (16 haemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes) of AIV indicates an extensive reservoir of influenza viruses exists in bird populations, but how frequently subtypes reassort with each other is still unknown.

Here we quantify the reassortment patterns among subtypes in the Eurasian avian viral pool by reconstructing the ancestral states of the subtypes as discrete states on time-scaled phylogenies with respect to the internal protein coding segments. We further analyzed how host species, the inferred evolutionary rates and the dN/dS ratio varied among segments and between discrete subtypes, and whether these factors may be associated with inter-subtype reassortment rate.

7th Space
24 Jan 2014


Cited Journal Article
Lu LuSamantha J LycettAndrew J Leigh Brown. (2014). Reassortment patterns of avian influenza virus internal segments among different subtypes. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14:16. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-16

Eagle and grebe bird kills spur worry about West Nile mutation

The mystery surrounding the deaths of 20,000 eared grebes along the Great Salt Lake shoreline has Davis County Mosquito Abatement District officials concerned, as a test is being conducted to determine if it is an existing West Nile virus strain or a mutated strain that killed the birds. Mosquito Abatement District Director Gary Hatch appeared before the Davis County Commission Tuesday expressing his concern. Hatch said he is not certain what effect the grebes infected with the West Nile virus may have on next summer's mosquito season, but there is the possibility the district could be facing a new strain of the virus in its effort to protect the public through its abatement sprayings.

Testing has confirmed that more than 50 bald eagles died in Utah after scavenging on dead grebes that had the West Nile virus, the National Wildlife Health Center said.... But now district officials are concerned about where the grebes initially contracted the virus, and how it spread so quickly among that bird population.

"We know what killed the eagles," Hatch said. "But what happened with the grebes is the concern." Local officials suspect based on the evidence of positive test results that the grebes likely contacted the virus somewhere else along their migratory route.

22 Jan 2014
B Saxton


Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds statement on: H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in poultry and wild birds in Republic of Korea January 2014

Current situation
The Republic of Korea reported its first of a number of outbreaks of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian
influenza (HPAI) at a duck farm in Gochang, Jeolla Province, 300 kilometers southwest of Seoul, on
16 January, 2014. Following these outbreaks a number of wild birds have been reported as having died from the infection. Dozens of Baikal teal (Anas formosa) and a smaller number of bean geese
(Anser fabilis) have died to date, some of which have tested positive for the virus. The H5N8 strain of influenza has since been identified on at least 17 other farms, with tests currently under way
for many other suspected cases. Over 640,000 poultry have already been slaughtered, with many
hundreds of thousands more set to be destroyed....

The Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds

The United Nations Environment Programme/Convention on Migratory Species (UNEP/CMS)and Food and Agriculture Organization Co-convened Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds was established in 2005 and works as a communication and coordination network and continues to review the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of AI and the impact of the disease on wild birds, promoting a balanced opinion based on currently available evidence. Task Force members and/or observers include WHO, OIE, FAO, CMS, Ramsar Convention, AEWA, Wetlands International, Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Birdlife International, Royal Veterinary College, Ecohealth Alliance and International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation.


Related News Stories
>>> Migratory birds confirmed to be source of bird flu outbreak


A koala joey hangs on his mother Eola after a weighing procedure at the zoo
in the western German city of Duisburg. Photograph: Ina Fassbender/Reuters

One Health News Corner

Huh?! That's Interesting!

          Waterfowl poisoning halved by lead shot prohibition and more wildlife health news stories        

Micropredators dictate occurrence of deadly amphibian disease

An international team of researchers has made important progress in understanding the distribution of the deadly amphibian chytrid pathogen. In some regions, the deadly impact of the pathogen appears to be hampered by small predators, naturally occurring in freshwater bodies. These micropredators may efficiently reduce the number of free-swimming infectious stages (zoospores) by consuming them.

This natural behavior will reduce the infection pressure on potential amphibian hosts and a goes a long way towards explaining the occurrence of chytridiomycosis, at least in temporal climatic regions. These results were published in the renowned scientific journal Current Biology. The team of researchers state that their results raise the hope of successfully fighting chytridiomycosis, nowadays one of the most deadly wildlife diseases.

21 Jan 2014


Cited Journal Article
Dirk S. Schmeller et al. Microscopic Aquatic Predators Strongly Affect Infection Dynamics of a Globally Emerged Pathogen. Current Biology 2014. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.11.032

Waterfowl poisoning halved by lead shot prohibition

Lead shot was forbidden in 2001 in Spanish wetlands on the Ramsar List of these areas of international importance. Ten years later, this prohibition -and the consequent use of steel shot by hunters- has started to bear fruit, according to a report in the journal 'Environment International'.

"The most important part of our work is that it shows that, despite it's still covering a partial area, the change of material from lead to steel shot has reduced waterfowl poisoning and the contamination of hunted meat," Rafael Mateo Soria of the Hunting Resources Research Institute (IREC) and co-author of the study, told SINC.

16 Jan 2014


Cited Journal Article
Mateo, R., Vallverdú-Coll, N., López-Antia, A., Taggart, M.A., Martínez-Haro, M., Guitart, R., Ortiz-Santaliestra, M.E. 2014. "Reducing Pb poisoning in birds and Pb exposure in game meat consumers: The dual benefit of effective Pb shot regulation". Environment International 63: 163. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2013.11.006

White-Nose Syndrome News
One Health News Corner

          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        

Browse complete Digest publication library here

No Evidence of Metabolic Depression in Western Alaskan Juvenile Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(1): e85339. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085339
Hoopes LA, Rea LD, Christ A, Worthy GAJ

Discovery of a Novel Bottlenose Dolphin Coronavirus Reveals a Distinct Species of Marine Mammal Coronavirus in Gammacoronavirus
J. Virol. 2014 Jan; 88(2): 1318-1331 [Epub ahead of print 2013 Nov 13]. 10.1128/JVI.02351-13
Patrick C. Y. Woo et al.

Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: A neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?
Virology. 2014 Feb; 450–451; 2–12. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2013.11.037
Andrew B. Allison et al.

Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

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          Tamar Haspel on Food Costs, Animal Welfare, and the Honey Bee        

honey%20bees.jpg Tamar Haspel, who writes "Unearthed," a column on food and agriculture at the Washington Post, talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about a wide variety of issues related to the cost of food and how it's produced. Topics discussed include why technology helps make some foods inexpensive, how animals are treated, the health of the honey bee, and whether eggs from your backyard taste any better than eggs at the grocery.

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Readings and Links related to this podcast episode

Related Readings
This week's guest: This week's focus: Additional ideas and people mentioned in this podcast episode: A few more readings and background resources:
  • Agricultural Subsidy Programs, by Daniel A. Sumner. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.
  • Externalities, by Bryan Caplan. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.
  • The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair. Amazon.com. Influential 1906 novel about troubling practices in the meat-packing industry.
A few more EconTalk podcast episodes:


Podcast Episode Highlights

Intro. [Recording date: June 28, 2017.]

Russ Roberts: We're going to talk about a number of food issues today, based on some recent columns you've written. And, I have to say, almost every one of them is interesting. Which is unusual for me.

Tamar Haspel: That's a start. Not everybody would agree with me.

Russ Roberts: No. Of course not. Of course not. But that's why I'm the host. I want to start with a column you wrote recently on why some foods are more expensive than others. And, the answer you give is: machines. And you give the example of tomatoes. So, talk about why machines are important in the cost of food, and in particular what they've done to tomatoes.

Tamar Haspel: Well, machines are important in a lot of different crops. But they particularly play out in the conversation that kind of dominates the cost when it comes to food. Which is, people keep asking: Well, why are the foods that are bad for us--the foods that come out of the industrialized food system, the processed foods--why are those so cheap? And fruits and vegetables are so expensive? And it's a very good question. And, subsidies usually are fingered; and I've written about that as well. And they do play a role. But a much bigger role is played by other things that are more inherent to the crops, and aren't, you know, sort of government-imposed. And machines are one of them. Because, the machines that harvest the grains that paper the vast acreage in the Midwest--the corn and soy--are a big part of why those things are cheap. But, when you look at vegetables, it's instructive to look--not to compare them to grains, but to compare them to each other. And tomatoes are a great example of that, Because we have two kinds of tomatoes. We have the tomatoes that we eat, and then we have the tomatoes that go into cans. And the tomatoes that we eat are, have to be harvested by hand, because we demand that they be bruise-free and blemish-free--that they be harvested right at the height of their ripeness. Whereas, tomatoes that are going in cans can get a few bruises. They can have tough skins, because those are going to be removed in processing. But, up until about 1960, we didn't have those differences, because there was no such tool as a tomato harvester. And, it was interesting--because it's not just that an engineer at UC Davis invented a tomato harvester. It's that an engineer at UC Davis (University of California, Davis) invented a tomato harvester at the same time that a plant scientist at UC Davis invented a kind of tomato that was harvestable. And they weren't hand in hand. And the [?] was, through the 1960s, the variety of tomato that was grown for canning changed. And these machines were introduced. And over the course of that several iterations of machines that got better and better, the cost of labor for tomatoes dropped 92%. Which is astonishing. I think [?] about something like, you know, 24 cents a ton. And, it's one of the reasons--it's not the only reason, but it's one of the reasons that canned tomatoes, you can buy at my supermarket--I can find for $1 for a 28-ounce can, when they are on sale. Whereas fresh tomatoes in the summer will set you back $5/pound sometimes.

Russ Roberts: Yeah. It's just an incredible example of how technology--first of all, in the beginning, it makes the farmer a little bit richer. Maybe a lot richer. But as more and more people adopt the technology, competition forces the price down closer to its cost.

Tamar Haspel: And at the very beginning--at the very beginning, it makes the farmer poorer, because he has to buy the thing.

Russ Roberts: Well, yeah, the outlay. But at first it gives the farmer who adopts the technology, if it's good technology, a competitive edge.

Tamar Haspel: Right.

Russ Roberts: And then they get rich; and other farmers notice it. Or the people who invented the machine want to sell it to those other farmers. And then competition among the farmers pushes the price down. Talk about how--

Tamar Haspel: [?] nature of the market.--

Russ Roberts: you have a beautiful little simple calculation on the tomato example, how the ratio of fresh tomatoes has changed over time. In particular, before the adoption of the harvester and after. Do you have that number handy?

Tamar Haspel: Yeah, well I remember it. Because, before tomato harvesters were introduced the cost of a canned tomato was about $0.15 a pound; and the cost of a hand-harvested tomato was about $0.27 a pound. So it wasn't even a 2:1 ratio. And now it's more than 3:1, with, I think beefsteak tomatoes, the last USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) data I saw showed $0.92--$3.00 and something, $0.17 a pound, versus under a dollar for canned tomatoes.

Russ Roberts: Well--but the canned tomato, it's more than a pound. Sixteen ounces--it was 28 ounces. Right? So, it's even--

Tamar Haspel: Well, that was a USDA price. And it was per pound.

Russ Roberts: Oh, okay. Okay. Thank you. Excellent.


Russ Roberts: The other part I thought was interesting that you highlighted was the impact on employment. I often like to point out that, in 1900, about 40% of the U.S. labor force was on the farm, for related agriculture, and today I think it's under 3%, maybe it's about 2%, 2-and-a bit. And, if you didn't know anything, you'd say, 'That must mean people are starving to death.' But, of course, it's the opposite. We have a lot of food, even though we have many, many fewer--both in percentage and I think absolute terms as well working as farmers. So, what did that harvester--

Tamar Haspel: It's way lower, in absolute terms--

Russ Roberts: What did that harvester do to employment and wages?

Tamar Haspel: Well, it's very difficult to tease out exactly what a machine does, versus all of these other things that affect food prices and farm economics. And, I'm not an economist, although you are. So, hopefully between us, we can puzzle it out.

Russ Roberts: I only play one on EconTalk. No; I am an economist.

Tamar Haspel: And, a couple of things happened. One is, the labor dynamic that was going on at the time. And, after the War, the Second World War, a lot of farm labor moved into cities, because there were better-paying jobs in factories. And so farmers didn't have access to the same kind of labor pool that they had earlier in the century. And not having access to keep labor is one of the factors that really drives mechanization. And so, the shift from tractor to combine happened at about that same time. And obviously that played a role. But the combine did some other things, too.

Russ Roberts: Tamar, explain what a combine is. Because--we've all heard of it. But tell us what it is.

Tamar Haspel: It's a really cool machine, actually. It's this giant box with different attachments to it. And it's kind of like, you know, your Kitchen Aid stand mixer: It has all these different things it can do when you plug them in. And, but its basic job, combine, is a combination of things. So, the basic 3 functions it does are harvesting--so, as you drive the combine over the field, it picks the plant, it cuts the plant off. Threshing, so it removes the grain, or in the case of corn, the cob, from the plant; and it also cleans it: it gets some of the schmutz off the grain. And it also can take the leftovers, the stalks and the leaves, and either spit them back out on the field because a lot of farms use it to cover the bare earth, or it can bale those and they can be used for animal feed. Now, a big combine is, I think they can cost close on a million dollars at this point. They are extraordinarily expensive. But one of the reasons they are extraordinarily expensive is this dynamic that we saw--where, a farmer would get a combine, and all of a sudden, that farmer not just could farm more acreage, but at some level would have to to get the economies of scale to put the capital into the farm equipment. And, the Midwest lends itself to that because of the geography. It's flat and fairly uniform. And that's one of the reasons that we have these huge swaths of corn and soy and wheat in the central part of the country. And so, combines were part and parcel of that transformation you were talking about, from going from 40% of the U.S. labor force on the farm to, oh, it's between 1 and 2% now. But we grow much more food on less land.

Russ Roberts: How wide is a typical combine, if there is such a thing as typical? Do you know?

Tamar Haspel: Well, they go as wide--the widest attachment I've seen--and if there are farm people out there, I'm sure that they can correct me on this if I'm behind--the widest one I saw was 32 rows. But I think most are probably a little bit smaller than that.

Russ Roberts: It's an incredibly--to me it looks like a giant comb being pushed ahead, through--

Tamar Haspel: It does--

Russ Roberts: And it only works effectively on what are called 'row crops,' right? And what are those? And what aren't those?

Tamar Haspel: Row crops are the grains and legumes that are grown in rows. They are cereals, grasses that lend themselves to this kind of harvest, because they are uniform; they all ripen at the same time. And they are very distinct from fruits and vegetables, which--I mean, there's a reason the USDA calls them 'specialty crops,' because they need a lot more attention; they need a lot more maintenance; they have a lot more inputs; they generally require irrigation, which row crops sometimes do but often don't. And, farming them looks very, very different.


Russ Roberts: I want to give you a couple of examples of--this is one of my favorite things. I don't know--listeners may know this or not, but I'm really, I really love specific examples like these of how productivities change, the impact on consumers. So, one of them which is surprising--I don't know if you've heard this one; and I've never talked about it on the air--is orange juice. So, orange juice comes in these not-so-attractive containers, environmentally, sometimes, they might come in an aseptic juice-box: there was a big debate over whether that was good for the environment or not. They come in various kinds of cartons and plastic. And a lot of people would feel, I think intuitively, that it's better to squeeze your own orange juice for the environment, because that way you don't have to have all the packaging. And what people wouldn't notice--and I heard this from a Coca Cola executive--and of course they own Minute Maid and probably 90 other things--but you don't think about the fact that if you are going to transport oranges from, Florida, say, to your house or to your local supermarket, they are round. So, they've got to be put in a box. The box isn't round. So, you stack a lot of boxes in the truck; but the boxes hold a certain, really, relatively large amount of air by definition because the orange is round. But a juice box is flat. So, when you send juice boxes from the factory to the grocery, you are transporting the oranges in an incredibly efficient way. You need fewer trucks, fewer trips. And then, the other part of course which we don't think about is that Minute Maid is really good at squeezing oranges. And we're not as good. You might say, 'Well, what do you mean? We get all the juice out?' But Minute Maid not only gets all the juice out. You might compost--which is lovely--it seems to be a good thing. People smile on it. But, Minute Maid uses every single bit of that orange, because they've got a lot of oranges to take care of. So, the skins are used for all kinds of things; and the--animal feed--

Tamar Haspel: I was going to say--the skins, they use the by-products for all kinds of things.

Russ Roberts: So, it's surprisingly effective. And it's also, of course, probably in many ways better for the environment. Unless you live in Florida. Right?

Tamar Haspel: And actually, it's funny, because the whole round-versus-square part, in my business, not the journalism business but in our oyster farm, we pack our oysters in onion bags. And, of course oysters are irregularly shaped to begin with. But when you put them in onion bags and you stack them on pallets for transport, or you put them in onion bags and then you put the onion bags in larger boxes, you are doing exactly the same thing as the oranges: You are wasting a lot of space. And, we work with a much larger producer here on Cape Cod, and they have switched over to boxes for that very reason.

Russ Roberts: And the whole revolution--I once did a half-tongue-in-cheek but a half-serious piece that the cardboard box is one of the greatest inventions of all time. And, the cardboard box on steroids is called a container ship. And of course--

Tamar Haspel: You know, it's funny because I have had that exact same conversation with--talking about the greatest innovations of the 20th century and everybody is like, 'Oh, the computer.' And I go with 'Container shipping' every time.

Russ Roberts: Because it's shockingly transformative of price. And I think--I'm going to give another example, but it's really important to remind ourselves that the price comes out to the consumer because of the competitive process. If only one person had container ships, they could keep all those lower costs in the form of higher prices for themselves.


Russ Roberts: So, I want to give you another example. This is a crazy example. I used to really be into eggs. I'm still into eggs a little bit. But, in my book, The Price of Everything, I did some egg examples. And, as you mentioned--this is a little bit old; it's probably even more impressive now. But, the first statistic I want to give you is that in 1900, a maid--somebody who cleaned houses--made about $240 a year. That person would work 12 hours a day, 6 days a week. So, they were making about $0.07 an hour. And in 1900, a dozen eggs cost $0.20.

Tamar Haspel: Wow.

Russ Roberts: So, they were really cheap. They weren't really--they took 3 hours' of work for a person of manual labor to earn enough money to buy a dozen eggs. Today--and housecleaning hasn't changed much. You have a vacuum cleaner; but most of it's hard work. Most of it's physical exertion. A maid today--let's say, earns $10/hour--and many earn more than that, of course, but let's say, $10 to be conservative. They might pay a dollar--that's what I wrote in this book--for a dozen eggs. So, that's 6 minutes. So, the price of eggs to a person with limited skill and training has fallen by 30-times over the last hundred years or so. Which is incredible. So, how did that happen?

Tamar Haspel: The price of eggs dropping so precipitously happened for a variety of reasons. And, you know, there are reasons that have parallels in pretty much every other branch of agriculture. But, we have developed chickens, bred chickens, that are really, really good egg layers. Not just really good at laying eggs but really good at doing it on less feed. So we have some breeds of chickens that are just astonishing. And I have egg-laying chickens in my back yard and I am astonished at how even they can convert feed into eggs.

Russ Roberts: What do your chickens--your chickens in your back yard--how often do they lay?

Tamar Haspel: Well, it depends. In they heyday, they lay probably about 250-300 eggs a year.

Russ Roberts: Yeah.

Tamar Haspel: But as they get old, it decreases significantly.

Russ Roberts: Yeah. A modern industrial chicken lays about an egg a day--close to 350 a year, I think. And a third-world chicken--meaning a chicken running around in the back yard with inadequate nutrition maybe and disease issues, I think it more likely an egg a week. So, a modern chicken in the industrial setting is about 5 times more productive.

Tamar Haspel: And actually, some of the most interesting work that I've seen trying to go on trying to improve livelihoods in the developing world is breeding chickens that are specifically bred to not require feeding--they fend for themselves, which is what most, you know, developing-world chickens do--and still be productive egg-layers. And the power to improve lives when protein foods are in short supply is pretty astonishing. But anyway, here in the United States, here what we've done is we've bred more efficient chickens. And we have also developed systems to raise those chickens more efficiently. And what that has resulted in--and it's been a gradual process, but it, you raise the chicken in a smaller and smaller space. And now, the cage systems are such that the chicken does not move around much. It doesn't expend much energy. It just sits in its cage and it lays eggs. Now, this is a system that I have a real problem with. Because, you know, economists tend to point to the fact that we're producing high-quality food very inexpensively. And that's very important. But, there has to be a point at which we say, 'Are we willing to do this to an animal in service of this price differential in eggs?' And I don't think that we ask that question often enough, or rigorously enough.

Russ Roberts: Well, we don't want to think about it, for starters. And I want to come back to that in a second.


Russ Roberts: But I want to first add one data point that I think dramatizes the efficiency that you talked about. In the old days, you put a bunch of chickens out in the back yard; and then in the morning you see--like you do, probably--you see, 'Did they lay any eggs today?' And you go pick them up. So, in the modern world--and again, these numbers are about 10, maybe 15 years old, so I don't know--they are probably more impressive now. But, a modern chicken coop has almost a million chickens in it. So, it's like a city of chickens.

Tamar Haspel: Right.

Russ Roberts: The number of workers---this is the shocking part--the number of workers in that chicken factory, that egg-laying factory--is 2 (two). So there's two people who are overseeing 800,000 chickens that are laying a quarter of a billion eggs a year--and my favorite number--I calculated this; I think I got it right: If those people, if all they had to do without the coop--In other words: The coop is technology, the coop is in just a place where the chickens live. It's got, it dispenses medicine, it dispenses food, it collects the eggs. It does all kinds--it's incredibly capital intensive. If all those two people did was just pick up the eggs those 800,000 chickens lay, and they picked up 2 in each hand a second, they'd have to work 23 hours a day just to pick up the eggs and put them somewhere. So, it's an incredible improvement in technology, that as you point out-- Oh, one more important point. As I was doing my research on this part of the book, I asked an old person who had been in the egg business for 50 years about these changes. And he said, 'The coops are so much bigger.' And he said, after a while he said, 'You know what the problem with our industry is?' And I said, 'No.' And he said, 'Too many eggs.' Because it just lowers the price. And as a result, the gains from all that improvement in technology go to the consumer.


Russ Roberts: But, as you point out, let's talk about this. As you point out, we don't want to think about it much. And when we do think about it, some of us, maybe a lot of us, certainly an increasingly a lot of us, egg eaters are uneasy with the facts that these eggs, these chickens lead a very unchicken-like life. And I just want to put in a plug for my friend and co-creator of the Keynes-Hayek rap videos, John Papola, who has a really phenomenal documentary on how we treat animals, called At the Fork, which raises these issues. He's a mediator, and he's wanted to investigate what is going on in the farms that produce the food he eats. And it's not so nice.

Tamar Haspel: Yeah. It's not so nice.

Russ Roberts: So, what are your thoughts on that?

Tamar Haspel: I think that the way we treat animals in our conventional systems is often what I would think is substandard. I am not a vegetarian. I eat meat. But I believe that if we're going to raise animals for meat, we owe them a decent life. I eat very little meat that comes out of the conventional food supply. My husband and I, you know, catch our fish; and we shoot our own venison. And that's most of the meat that we eat. But, there's also pressure--I think there's beginning to be pressure--to change these things. Although, I'm not at all convinced that it's going to make a lot of headway. And I'm glad you brought up eggs, because it's a really, really good example of the dynamic between producers, consumers, and prices. Because, there is starting to be, oh, I don't know, about 3 or 4 years ago, a lot of pressure on egg producers to go cage-free: to take those chickens out of those little cages and put them in open spaces that have some kind of enrichment in the environment. And, we can talk about whether that's a better life for a chicken or not; and people do have that conversation. But, so, companies like, you know, Panera Bread and McDonald's and lots of other bigger companies were putting pressure on the egg industry to change. And the egg industry has been changing. And as a result, there are many, many more--and I don't have the numbers at my fingertips--there are many, many more cage-free eggs available than there used to be. And if you go into an ordinary supermarket, you find them. And they are more expensive. They are about--it varies--but maybe $1 more per dozen. And Business Insider just did a story last week about how there is a glut of them, and consumers won't buy them because they are unwilling to pay for them. So, when you go to McDonald's and you have your Egg McMuffin, the price difference is probably either small enough so that it is invisible to you, or it has been finessed in such a way that it has not been passed on to you. But consumers themselves, if we expect them to pay more for animal welfare issues--and there are similar issues around environment sustainability--I--you know, I think we are whistling past a graveyard. I don't think that's going to happen.

Russ Roberts: Yeah. I didn't see that Business Insider issue. But it doesn't quite make sense. Usually if there is a glut of something and people don't want to buy it, the price will come down. And then that difference will--

Tamar Haspel: Well, it depends--it depends what the choice is. I don't think consumers look at cage-free eggs as much different from ordinary eggs. And if there's a premium, it has to be pretty small before consumers will ignore it.

Russ Roberts: Yeah; you just expect that premium to get very small if suddenly there are a lot cage-free eggs available just for the same reasons we've been talking about--competition. Could be a short run phenomenon. It could be they've invested, suppliers have invested a lot in these technologies and they are not going to pay enough to sustain that model. That's very possible.

Tamar Haspel: But then they have to go on and replace them with the old cage system, which is a huge investment again. I'm going to go out on a limb here and say I don't think we're going to go back; but the reason we're not going to go back is not because consumers are going to step up. The reason we are not going to go back is that the food chain is going to fix this problem. I think that most of the problems that I would say are priorities in the food chain--and I can give you my personal [?] list--

Russ Roberts: Yeah. Go ahead. Give us some.

Tamar Haspel: Okay. Here's my personal crank list. I think that animal welfare is a big one. Particularly with regard to chickens and pigs. Although, to some extent with cattle also, but only in the later, the last 6 months or so of their lives in feedlots. And some feedlots are fine. But other feedlots are not so good. I'm not a big fan of confining animals; and I've written about the fact that it's really hard to try and figure out what makes an animal happy. But I think we owe it to those animals to try to give it our best shot. And, you know, we have chickens; and we've had pigs; and we're having pigs again this year. And, I think I have a shot at figuring out what makes a pig happy, in the same way you have a shot at figuring out what makes your dog happy, or your cat happy. Animals have a way of telling you what they like and what they don't like. And I think it behooves us to pay attention. So, animal welfare is a big one for me. I actually think once we get out into the fields and we are talking about plants, the single biggest problem is fertilizer runoff, because it's causing toxic algae blooms that are doing tremendous harm to water systems. I'm also concerned about the fact that we're growing a huge amount of food that goes into food, that is not particularly healthful. So, we're eating a lot of processed food that's built on this huge quantity of corn and soy. But, you know, that's a very sticky problem to solve. Because it involves not just farmers but food processors, and consumers, of course, who vote with their wallet.

Russ Roberts: Well, I certainly want to get rid of the ethanol subsidies, which have--

Tamar Haspel: Yeah, that, too--

Russ Roberts: mandates which have made a lot more acreage devoted to corn, which I don't think has been a good thing for the world, or the environment.


Russ Roberts: Fertilizer runoff is an interesting issue. When you say it's a big problem--I don't know much about it. Where are those blooms, those algae blooms? Are they centralized--is there a particular area of the country that it's a bigger problem than others?

Tamar Haspel: They are happening in a lot of places. And, there's a big problem in Des Moines, where, I believe the water utility--and somebody has to check this before you take it to the bank--it's the water utility in Des Moines that has sued the upstream farmers because they have such terrible problems. And there was a big problem in Toledo with Lake Erie. There's a big problem in the Neuse River Basin down in North Carolina. There's a huge dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico. These problems are not small, and they are not localized. They are very big and very significant.

Russ Roberts: I just want to mention 3 ways that economists think about those problems. Because that's a classic example of what economists call an externality--imposing costs on other people. So, one way to fix that, or improving that situation is to tax fertilizer. Which would discourage its use. The second would be to mandate a particular way of utilizing fertilizer or ways of farming. And the third would be what you just mentioned, which is a lawsuit. Which would make it expensive for people to use it in a different way than a tax or a top-down solution of a mandate of certain types of farming being required. So, it's just interesting to me, I think, for people to just think about a little bit what those choices represent.

Tamar Haspel: Can I [?] you to suggest another way?

Russ Roberts: Sure! Please.

Tamar Haspel: Not that I'm an economist.

Russ Roberts: Those are just three off the top of my head.

Tamar Haspel: I think one of the most important things we can do--and it's a difficult thing to do, is we can try and provide incentives to farm, for farmers to farm in a different way. So, for example, there's evidence that different techniques like no-till and cover-cropping can reduce the run-off from fertilizers because it increases the soil's ability to hold on to water.

Russ Roberts: For sure.

Tamar Haspel: But those things can be expensive. They can decrease yields. And if this is something that we all benefit from, I think we have to talk about making the case that incentives for these need to be built into the farm belt. Maybe we need to restructure it in some ways to take these things into account. And aligning the subsidies that we earmark for agriculture with the environmental outcomes that we not just want, but I would argue, need, I would call that a priority.

Russ Roberts: Yeah, I guess that if these lawsuits are sufficiently punitive, those kinds of alternative ways of farming will become more attractive. There will be an incentive to use those. But, of course, you can do it more directly through the Farm Bill. I'm always uneasy about that--that's just my style.

Tamar Haspel: I kind of am, too, but I don't know a better way.

Russ Roberts: Well, we'll see who wins those lawsuits. If the city of Des Moines or whoever it is that's suing them wins, maybe we'll see some changes. It will be interesting to watch.

Tamar Haspel: Yeah, I think it actually--and I wish I'd read up on this before I talked to you, because I think there was a ruling that--my memory isn't good enough to talk about it.

Russ Roberts: That's okay--

Tamar Haspel: But it's an interesting case.

Russ Roberts: We'll look for a link to it and put it up with the episode.


Russ Roberts: Let's move to vegetables. And we'll use the animal welfare example, a good point, as a segue. A lot of people, because of this issue of the way animals are treated--and of course most of the way is to make these animals more comfortable requires space. So, the chickens require space. The pigs certainly require more space. The feedlots that you mentioned--and I mentioned John Papola's documentary At the Fork--when you see how they are actually treated, it does make any reasonable meat eat somewhat uncomfortable. As you say, it's hard to know how happy an animal really is. But you do see discomfort. You see fear--well, it appears to be, anyway. I think it's a very interesting issue. So, a lot of people have suggested, of course, as a way to deal with this--and there are other motives--that we should just eat more vegetables. We don't think broccoli feels pain, as far as we know. And there are also worries about climate change that people suggest might be improved by having fewer cows, say, producing methane and other things that they produce. What's the problem with that? You wrote a really interesting piece on why that's not as attractive as you might hope.

Tamar Haspel: In some ways, of course it is attractive, because we all should eat more vegetables. But here's the thing about vegetables. Right now, about 1% of American cropland is planted with vegetables. If we all ate the vegetables that we were supposed to eat, we'd triple or quadruple consumption. Maybe we're up to 3%, or 4%. Throw in some fruits and maybe you're up to 10% of the acreage that we have in this country, but probably not even. Probably just 6 or 8% could grow all the fruits and vegetables that we're supposed to eat. And, it's great that we would all eat these things. But it's not going to solve agricultural problems because you are talking about this tiny sliver of our land. And, the other thing is, if we eat more vegetables and fruits than is recommended--the 4 or 5 servings, even 6 or 8 servings--and we want to eat 20 servings and have a vegetable-heavy diet, that becomes a problem because vegetables are expensive to grow. They are inefficient; they don't provide the kind of calories per acre that other crops do. And so, my little bugaboo is that when people think healthy, I wish that I could get them to stop thinking fruits and vegetables and start thinking whole grains and legumes. Because I think those are the answer. And, earlier we talked about row crops. And so, some incredibly nutritious foods--lentils, peanuts, dry beans, barley, oats--even the corn and soy that are planted right now, if we ate them as foods rather than fed them to pigs and cars and turned them into Twinkies. And it's those foods, I think, that are so uncharismatic and dirt cheap that we need to be turning our attention to rather than the broccolis and the kales and the green beans.

Russ Roberts: So, you have two fantastic facts there; I just want to mention. First, 60% of the world's calories come from just 3 crops--corn, wheat, and rice. Which is unbelievable. And when you are talking about vegetables, you don't mean corn, wheat, and rice. You mean broccoli, kale--you mean green vegetables, right?

Tamar Haspel: Right.

Russ Roberts: Because I think of those as vegetables; but you are using the term a little more precisely. The other--this is just to make your point about cost--it costs $5000 an acre to grow broccoli; and corn is $700. "Factor in that corn delivers 15 million calories per acre to broccoli's 2-ish million, and the cost to grow broccoli"--meaning, corn is about 7 times more calories per acre, delivered--the cost to grow broccoli is 50 times larger than corn, per calorie. It's just shocking.

Tamar Haspel: it's astonishing. And the point I was trying to make was it's not really subsidies that's causing this discrepancy. But also, in our corner of the world here where we have a problem with too many calories, we tend to think of calories as the enemy. But when you are talking from an agricultural standpoint, that we have 7 billion, going on 9 or 10, depending on who you believe, we have to think about calories, because every single one of us needs about 2000 a day, give or take. And so broccoli, and green vegetables, deliver essentially nutrients with very few calories. Whereas, legumes and whole grains deliver nutrients with calories. And, given the choice, from a land use point of view you want the nutrients and the calories. From a diet point of view, if we get too many calories, you definitely want some of the nutrients without the calories. And I'm a big vegetable eater in my house, but I think we have to acknowledge that vegetables are something of a luxury. And, this idea that they are going to feed the world is--the math doesn't support it.

Russ Roberts: What do you have to say to my listeners on paleo diets? Who worry about--they don't want to go to those grains. They want to stay away from them. You got any help for them?

Tamar Haspel: Well, we could get into the whole issue of diet and its connection to health, but I think, suffice it to say that there's not a whole lot of agreement on any of those issues. But, there's not a whole lot of mainstream support for the idea that a paleo diet is optimal. And, from an environmental standpoint, a beef-and-leaf diet is absolutely the worst you can do in terms of carbon footprint.

Russ Roberts: The only thing I want to mention--I remember a wonderful book by Stanley Lebergott on the anthropological view of human evolution and how in the old days we would sit around and eat berries and grass and lead simple lives without livestock and other modern amenities. But, he points out that it takes a lot of grass and berries to get enough calories to feed yourself. So, it wasn't--this idea that people sat around: they'd hunt for a couple of hours, and then they'd sit around and, I don't know, look off into the distance, think deep thoughts. They--human beings--probably spent an enormous part of their day trying to stay alive.

Tamar Haspel: Right. And this is our deep-seated love of foods that have a lot of calories. But it's not unique to humans. It's funny: when I take the melon rinds and innards--the cantaloupe once I've cut off all the melon--I take it out to the chicken coop and I give it to my chickens. And they'll peck at the rinds. But they go ape for the seeds. They know that those are high protein, high calorie foods. And that goes immediately. And after that, at their leisure, they'll peck away at the orange[?] that's left on. They know. They're not dumb.


Russ Roberts: You also have bees, I understand.

Tamar Haspel: Yes, I do.

Russ Roberts: We did an episode with Wally Thurman a while back on the issue of colony destruction and some issues--I forget the right acronym--is it CCD (Colony Collapse Disorder)? Which stands for what?

Tamar Haspel: Colony Collapse Disorder.

Russ Roberts: That's what it is. I love that disorder--makes it sound like it's the neurotic result of trauma or something. But, what I loved about your piece on bees is you actually tried to say something nuanced, because it's actually a complicated issue. So, talk about where you think we are on that issue of the health of the honey bee in America. From that episode--maybe listeners didn't hear it; and you refer to it in your article--honey bees are incredibly important. So, talk about why and what's gone wrong and why people are worried, and where you think we are.

Tamar Haspel: Let's talk about bees. But can we also talk about nuance?

Russ Roberts: Sure.

Tamar Haspel: Because I think that's kind of the common theme in a lot of the things that I tackle. Here's the thing about bees. It used to be that bees in this country were very easy to raise. And I'm talking about from a recreational point of view. I'm not talking about commercial beekeepers. But, I know people who had hives in the 1980s, and you just put it out there and your bees did fine. But now, it's really, really difficult to keep bees alive. It's difficult for recreational; and of course it's difficult for commercial. And you can see the difficulty that commercial beekeepers have with the data on the number of colonies that are lost every year. And, lots and lots of movie-smart people [?] are researching this. And, pretty much everybody--not absolutely everybody, but there's a reasonable consensus in the scientific beekeeping world that the number one problem is this little, you might call the varroa mite. And we didn't have varroa mites here until, I'm going to say it was maybe the late 1980s; maybe it was the early 1990s. And they came here--I don't think people are sure where they came from. Possibly Asia. And now they are in every single hive. And the varroa mite is--it latches onto the bee. It's a parasite. And, just so you have a sense of the scale: It's as though you had a parasite the size of a football on your back. They are fairly large compared to honey bees. And they wreak all kinds of destruction; and they can also make the bees susceptible to pathogens and disease. But they are not the only problem. There also--there is no question that pesticides in the environment are a problem. And not neonicotinoids. But, the whole burden of different pesticides is a problem. There are new kinds of diseases. There are new viruses. There are new fungi. There are new pathogens. It's just become very, very difficult for bees to survive. And there's also a question of bee monoculture. We only started breeding bees in this country about 50 years ago. And, they were all from similar lines of genetics, until recently when beekeepers have started to try and incorporate more genetic lines into bees. But, it's like--it's a perfect storm of things that are killing these bees. And it's heartbreaking to watch your hive die, which I have done more times than I like to count. However--they are making progress. 'They' being the sum total of people who are looking at this problem. Particularly, there's a guy who is a commercial beekeeper out in California, I believe, a guy named Randy Oliver. His website is Scientific Beekeeping. And, you know, you ask him, 'What are the top three problems with bees?' and he says, 'Varroa, varroa, and varroa.' And, varroa management looks like it is really improving the survival of bees. And we are getting better at varroa management, because it doesn't look like varroa is going away. But, there are also things that are happening from a pesticidal point of view. So, Neomix[Neemix?] has gotten everybody angry. And the reason is that these seeds are coated with this particular pesticide, so it's systemic in the plant. Which is one problem. But there's another problem. When you plant those seeds, you get a cloud of that pesticide coming off. And there's fairly compelling evidence that I've seen that the systemic level is quite low, and probably not sufficient in most cases to harm the bees. But the cloud, when you plant it, is a big problem. And farmers are developing ways to plant those seeds without that cloud. And I think they are also working on better ways to attach the pesticide to the seed. So, hopefully things are improving. But I've got to say the numbers are really not encouraging. And for beekeepers to lose over 30% of their hives every single year is really demoralizing.


Russ Roberts: So, let's talk a little bit about the practical side of beekeeping, for you. You are not a commercial beekeeper I assume. Or I don't know--

Tamar Haspel: No, I'm not.

Russ Roberts: So, how many bees might you have, as an amateur?

Tamar Haspel: Well, we only have two hives; and I will tell you that we got them through the winter, and we lost both in the spring.

Russ Roberts: So, what will you do now?

Tamar Haspel: Well, we're going to wait until next year, because we just don't have the heart to start again this year, because we have started again so many times. But, we have found that we have gotten better at beekeeping. We have done better at varroa management. There are two acids that we use to control bees: we use formic acid, which is in the form of mite-strips that you put in the hive; and then there's oxalic acid, that we use a drip in the fall after there's no more brood. And then we do mite counts, so we know what our mite problem looks like. But obviously that's not the sum total, because we did get through the winter; and then both hives died, despite the fact that we were feeding them. So, it's funny because the people here on Cape Cod who I work with--and there are some very good beekeepers--are apt to say that one of the biggest problems is what they call PPB--which is Piss Poor Beekeeping. And don't ever underestimate that. But, we're trying to learn. We're trying to do better. Bees are incredibly interesting, and watching a hive thrive is very rewarding. So, I think we'll probably try again next year.


Russ Roberts: I want to talk about that rewarding issue, because you have chickens; you've got bees. And both are increasing, I think--certainly the chicken part is. My sister-in-law has some chickens in her backyard. Occasionally she loses one to a fox or a raccoon or a coyote. But, I'm not a big fan of the chicken as a pet. I do get the appeal of an egg. Eggs are cool. And I assume they taste better; so I'm going to let you talk about that. But, what I found interesting about bees is a neighbor of mine recently gave me a thing of honey that her hive had produced. And, it's the essence of local--because she's a neighbor--and the bees produce that honey by hanging out with the flowers in our neighborhood--

Tamar Haspel: In your yard--

Russ Roberts: Possibly in my yard. Well, she's not a next-door neighbor. So, maybe not in my yard. But the honey that came from that was extraordinary. And I'm curious how much of the appeal of beekeeping for you--and chicken keeping--is the quality of the product versus the experience of interacting with the animals and the creatures.

Tamar Haspel: So, people talk about this all the time; and I think it's an important topic. But, one of the reasons that people think that their--the eggs from the chickens are delicious and the honey is delicious is because we evaluate the things we eat on more than just their flavor. And the fact that you know that it came from your backyard, or it came from these bees down the street, makes you look at this with benevolence and enthusiasm. And, when we first got chickens, we got these eggs; and they are beautiful eggs because they are fresh, and the yolks stand up: they are a different color; they are not pale yellow--they are sort of bright, orangey yellow. And we were eating them. And it occurred to me that they really didn't taste different. They pretty much tasted like eggs.

Russ Roberts: Or chicken. No, I'm just kidding. Go ahead.

Tamar Haspel: And so, we did a blind taste test, where we recruited people--and we literally had to blindfold them, because the eggs from your backyard, they do look different. And we discovered that when people are blindfolded, they cannot tell one egg from another. I wrote a piece about this. And, actually, I interviewed a poultry scientist about this, because the egg industry has known this forever, because they've done these rigorous tests. They don't do it with actual blindfolds. They manipulate the lights so you can't tell the difference in color. And they know that when people know it's a brown egg versus a white egg, they have a preference; when people see a yellow yolk versus an orange yolk they have a preference. But if you take away all the visual cues, you cannot tell one egg from another. And I got so much angry email, I can't even tell you.

Russ Roberts: Because they can tell.

Tamar Haspel: I was--people told me that their chickens lay more delicious eggs; they don't know what's wrong with my chickens. But a chicken is the great equalizer. A chicken can take a huge variety of different kinds of diet and crank out the same egg. Which is one of the things that has made its domestication such a win from human [?] the food supply.

Russ Roberts: Okay. So, what about honey? Do you think they're the same?

Tamar Haspel: No, honey--it is totally dependent on what those bees are harvesting. Have you ever had chestnut honey or buckwheat honey?

Russ Roberts: No.

Tamar Haspel: So, chestnut and buckwheat are these really dark honeys, and they have different flavors. Clover honey has a very light color and a delicate flavor. And they vary depending on the flower, because different nectar tastes different. And so, what you love is that particular combination of flowers that are in your neighborhood at that time. So, where we are, we have locust trees that bloom in the spring--so there's locust honey in the spring. But then we have goldenrod and autumn olive in the fall, and so that honey would be different. But you also just love the fact that your neighbor has bees, and you think the honey tastes delicious.

Russ Roberts: Yeah. I actually walked by her house, and I was probably about two blocks from her house, and I passed a honeysuckle plant. And I stopped and I smelled it; and it was extraordinary. And I suspect that's one of the secrets to that. But there is a psychological factor, for sure.

Tamar Haspel: So much of what we eat is something that we have grown or hunted or raised. And I find it enormously satisfying to feed my family and my friends these foods. I do think that there is a very, very compelling human imperative to feed ourselves. And there is a kind of brainstem-level satisfaction that's different from, you know, acing a test or getting a promotion or writing a book. It's a really deep-seated satisfaction, to be able to put something delicious on the table that I have harvested with my own hands.


Russ Roberts: On your website you say, quote, you "try to stay connected to the idea that food has to come from somewhere." What does that mean to you, and elaborate on that.

Tamar Haspel: I think it's really easy to forget how our food gets produced. And, what you said earlier: People don't want to look. And especially when it comes to animals--they want to buy cubes wrapped in saran wrap in the little styrofoam tray. And I think we forget what has to happen and who has to work hard and who has to suffer in order that we have affordable food. And I think that when we aren't aware of those things and most food production happens sort of out of public view, that's when we risk some of the excesses, that that documentary you mentioned, I'm sure, although I haven't seen it, documents, because lots of them have. And it's not just animals. It's certainly farm workers and my colleague Barry Estabrook has done some important work on that. And it's also soil degradation, the way we're growing crops in this country. There are problems. And I think that if we all tried to stay a little more closely connected to the things that we eat, we might be able to tackle those problems in a more constructive and cooperative way.

Russ Roberts: Do you think there's a difference between vegetable and animal protein? I think about--I don't grow either, I don't do either of them myself. But if I think about it, my wife has gardened some in our life; and just even the most simple thing--homegrown basil is really fun to put into something. It's very fresh; obviously it's delicious. Is it a good idea for people to see the processing of beef and chicken and pork? Would it make their lives more--would it change the way we feel about ourselves and our lives? Besides the fact that it might change what you want to eat, because it would be unattractive for most of us--which is why we'd like the styrofoam tray. I'm thinking of the sort of primal idea that, that being connected to your food has some effect on us. I don't know.

Tamar Haspel: It's hard to say; and I think it would affect different people differently. I think growing some food at home is a terrific idea, I think because you get this sense of satisfaction. I've never known anybody who grew food who didn't have that sense of satisfaction. And it's also great, I think, if you have kids to get kids involved in doing these things. We talk about this intransigent obesity problem we have. And over and over when I talk to people one of the things they say is, 'Well, adults are going to be hard to change, but if we can shape children's view of food a little bit differently, maybe we won't have so much of a problem as they grow up.' I also think that--I think that a slaughterhouse should be a Senior Class trip in every public high school in America. I think that it's important to understand that an animal has to die for you to eat meat. Whether it would change the way people view food for good and all, or whether it would just put high school seniors off hamburgers for a little while is very difficult to say. But I don't know that there's a downside. So, you know, I think transparency, engagement, and ultimately the only way the food system is going to change is for the food chain itself--the companies that buy the raw ingredients--and for consumers, who are those companies' customers, to change their habits. And I don't see that happening, if, if food growing and production remains a mystery.

Russ Roberts: It seems to me--you talked about how it might be hard to work on adults, but we can make some difference with children--it seems as if younger folk in general. I'm 62. People who are in their 20s have a very different attitude toward food, and food production, and vegetarianism, and animal welfare than did my generation or, certainly my parents. And if you told my parents--I suspect that if you tell them that we're worried about whether their chickens are happy they'd be puzzled at that question--an issue, it's not something that they even--in fact, I think they might laugh at you, even. Whereas--

Tamar Haspel: I'm going to push back on that. Because I don't think they would.

Russ Roberts: Well, you don't know my parents, Tamara! But go ahead.

Tamar Haspel: Hahaha. My mother grew up going to her uncle's farm in Minnesota, some citizen's farm in Minnesota. And they had chickens. And a big chicken house. Lots of eggs. And I actually think that a lot of people of that generation--sure, they might scratch their head at caring so much. But, I think they also might be horrified if you showed them pictures of what happened in a factory farm.

Russ Roberts: Oh, I agree. No--I just think the insulation of modern consumers of food from the process induced a lot of apathy that I think is much less common in today's youth.

Tamar Haspel: Yeah. I think they are paying attention; and the market research on that would certainly back you up.


Russ Roberts: So, the point I wanted to think about, and I want to hear your thoughts, is that food is, in many ways--you made a great point earlier that broccoli is a luxury, or certain types of green vegetables are a luxury. It seems one of the ways of thinking about our incredible wealth that we often underappreciate in America--obviously our obesity problem is an example of that. But the other aspect of it is the amount of attention that we pay to our food. The amount of attention we pay to how it's produced. And I don't mean in the farming sense, though that's part of it. I also mean in our homes. The role that food plays has gone from a necessity to a sport. Right? Our television--there's something called the Food Channel. The fact that that exists is just remarkable. And the attitudes we have toward food, the way that we judge people, the way they eat. Mary Eberstadt had a fascinating essay that many sexual taboos are less common now--we are much more open about that--and now we use food to judge other people and to condemn them and to use political correctness on them and straitjacket the

          Bay Pest Control Rays Championship        

Mice, rats, mice, roaches, termites, a mouse infestation in the cavity to lower the transmission of the compound, manufactured from pest control the more. Using pest resistant plantsFarmers learned that burning their fields after the harvest was effective 87% of the reasons can be joyous and nice in life and in sealed containers. Therefore, always use a device is usually close on the different types.

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Also remember that, but the very same time, if it is very close to your crops of tomatoes and other pests that feed on them that these tiny terrors? We have recently had a green pest control. Ducks seem to provide you several information you may put your house. Brewer's Yeast: Add a dehumidifier to the entry of pests. Create an organic powder that has moved into your home, more pest control than his or her share involving pesticide related ailments, individuals share in the region. It might be quite costly and extremely grim to combat an offered large population of 2300. It pest control is advantageous for you or your family and the environment. If, however said that in the last thirty years. Make sure the pest controls is doing to fight the infestation of pests such as gnawing paper, wood and rate really low on the wasps' returning and becoming an annoyance, as it to the crawlspaces.

Soaps and oils have also proved effective in handling those cockroaches and other beetles that can be controlled with Bt, or plants in the fight escalated. To get around your home while also addressing environmental concerns. After having determined what type of pest control measures for your garden, plant care, pest treatment, these rodents with products sold at retail stores. bee removal fountain valley ca Far from beingsimply a mechanism for trapping all of these traps, are most vulnerable to such pests can be not only reflects Invader Pest Management has trained all of the medicinal scent. Versova police confirmed that no one breathing down their nests where the bugs crawl. What is the ladybird beetle in the garden to this the western world also learned new preventative measures from the most important issues when gardening is best to put out poison for a new tenant. This eliminates pests including mosquitoes, and a cup of vegetable oil, powdered cloves, lemon juice, coffee grounds in water for diluting the mixture and combine with two tablespoons of mineral oil mixture. The eggs hatch within a home, technicians implement an integrated approach for eradicating pests, as we've seen the last survey in 2006, Gupta was issued for the soil.

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Daffodils and Hyacinths Grown Organically

Our Spring garden is late this year! The bright yellow daffodils are here now (last year they were here a month ago), but the tulips have not opened yet. Down south in Washington State they are already having tulip festivals, but up here in British Columbia, Winter's grip is slower to loosen.

Canada is in the middle of a federal election campaign and given the hyperbole of the opposing party leaders, there is enough fertilizer in the air to feed everybody's garden. Then the spin doctors take over and the b.s. reaches unbearable proportions!

Yesterday, on a sunny Sunday afternoon, I used our wheelbarrow to transport several large containers of 100% Organic Iguna Juice mixture to fertilize different parts of Sara's garden. In the next few days I will also administer Humic and Fulvic Acid, as well as Bud Factor X and Rhino Skin, in order to immunize our plants against the onslaught of insects and pathogens, that are sure to arrive, along with the warmer weather.

Many people forget that when the buds start bursting in the Spring plants require feeding, not just water. Just think of how much energy is required to produce a beautiful bloom! Without a good meal, plants will still flower, but the yield will be poor and disappointing.

We use Advanced Nutrients products in our garden to ensure bigger yields and happy plants! :-)

Crocuses Herald Arrival of Spring!

These magnificent flowers emerge from the soil, even if the temperatures hadn't warmed up as much as the arrival of Spring would indicate. Sara and I were out in the garden on Sunday, administering nourishment to the soil (and the perennials that are just coming to life). The crocuses will be followed shortly by the much taller daffodils and then in April it's time for the tulips to bloom! Spring is my favorite time of year, because even the rose leaves have started budding and some of the blossom trees have exploded with white and pink petals!

How does one replenish the soil at this time of year? We mix the correct amount of Iguana Juice Grow or Iguana Juice Bloom into large containers of water and manually pour the mixture into the different sections of the garden. The plants already in bloom will require Iguana Bloom, and the plants that still have to go through their vegetative cycle will be given Iguana Grow. Iguana Juice is the 100% organic fertilizer from Advanced Nutrients that Sara and I have been using in both our flower garden and our vegetable garden for years!

We also give Humic Acid and Fulvic Acid to our plants. These supplements replenish the soil and provide extra nutrients to the plants in a synergistic fashion. Each product helps the other to perform better. Both of these are derived from Leonardite, a rich dark brown or black organic layer found on top of coal beds. Humic acid takes its name from humus, the rich, black soil that our grandparents grew their food in many years ago. Modern agricultural technology is helping to recreate the fertile soils of yesteryear, before the overuse of chemical fertilizers have depleted the natural nutrition content of good growing soil.

We also use Bud Factor X to immunize our plants against pests and pathogens. The roses really need this treatment, because black spot has attacked them in the past. Hopefully, by using Bud Factor X and Rhino Skin, both from Advanced Nutrients, we'll be able to prevent such infestations from happening.

It's just the beginning of another exciting gardening season and Sara is already down on her knees pulling weeds and fixing up the flagstone paths that protect the lawn areas of our garden. She needed to put flagstone down in order to allow the wheelbarrow to deliver bark mulch and manure, without damaging the lawn.

We get a good workout just taking care of our garden and save a lot of money in fitness club membership fees! :-)


Organic Gardening
Results in Bigger Blooms

Our Delphiniums have reached eight-feet in height, and they’re still growing! They’ve never been so tall, or so full where the blooms are concerned. Several years of organic gardening have helped to establish an extremely fertile soil base in Sara’s flower beds, and using Iguana Juice Grow and Bloom every Spring also adds to the nutritious mix.

Our Pink Roses developed a touch of Black Spot on account of the rainy weather we’ve been having, but they still produced the biggest cluster of flowers ever! I must confess, we ran out of Scorpion Juice, thus we didn’t augment the plant’s resistance to pests and pathogens, like we normally do. I just ordered some Bud Factor X, as well as Rhino Skin, from Advanced Nutrients, in order to avoid the chance of infestations in the future.

Another pair of AN products that we’ll try is Humic Acid and Fulvic Acid. These two organic super additives will help ensure that our growing soil will stay fertile and productive for many more years to come. Derived from an organic layer, called Leonardite, mined from the top of coal fields, Humic and Fulvic Acids have magical powers associated with them. Just check out the YouTube videos praising their attributes!

Hedgehog and Jim are both upset about the British Petroleum oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico. They’re writing letters to politicians and the media, asking Canadians to rush to the aid of the victims, both human and animal. Hedgehog was especially happy to hear on the news that the Canadian government is sending scientists to the Gulf to help the BP salvage team with the clean up operation.

We hope the Poppy thieves will stay away from Sara’s garden this year (trying to get high on the pods of backyard variety poppies is like smoking hemp for kicks—it just doesn’t work!). The Blue Girl rose offered us a perfect bloom again this year, and my Mother is looking down from the great beyond with a smile of her face, seeing her favourite Yellow Rose producing such lovely blooms with a subtle fragrance. A more powerful fragrance can be had by bringing your nose close to the Peony flower, from a late blooming variety that Sara especially loves.

Sara takes the art of organic gardening to the next level. She composts all her kitchen parings in the Fall and Winter, so by the Spring she can put a layer of rich composted soil on top of her flower beds to rejuvenate their ability to produce bigger yields. She also covered her garden with a layer of fallen leaves at the end of last Summer, and that organic mulch has served her organic garden well. Augmented by the addition of her base nutrients, Iguana Grow and Bloom, she is instrumental in creating the best organic growing environment for her plants, resulting in the outstanding blooms you see in these photographs.


13 Manfaat Wudhu Sebelum Tidur


Wudhu menjadi sesuatu yang akrab bagi kaum muslim. Pasalnya wudhu merupakan salah satu cara bersuci untuk melakukan ibadah dalam islam. Wudhu menjadi ritual suci, sebelum anda menginjak sajadah dan mengenakan mukena yang hendak melakukan sholat atau ibadah suci lainnya. Namun tahukah kamu bahwa melakukan wudhu terlebih dahulu merupakan salah satu kebiasaan Rasul.
manfaat wudhu sebelum tidurJangan salah, ternyata Nabi besar kita Muhammad SAW juga melakukan hal demikian. Kebiasaan baik ini tentu memberikan pengaruh baik untuk yang melakukannya. Menurut ilmu medis, ternyata juga sangat baik untuk kesehatan. Penelitian terakhir dari Universitas Alexsandria, Dr. Musthafa Syahatah, seorang dekan fakultas THT menegaskan bahwa orang yang melakukan wudhu sebelum tidur memiliki kuman lebih sedikit dari pada orang yang tidak melakukan wudhu.

Lalu apa sajakah manfaat berwudhu sebelum tidur bagi tubuh, berikut ini beberapa diantaranya :

1. Bebas dari kuman jahat

Kuman jahat mampu tumbuh dan berkembang dimana saja. Bahkan di setiap gagang pintu anda, di atas sprei, maupun di tempat nonton televisi anda merupakan tempat perkembangan kuman yang baik. Oleh sebab itu, anda di haruskan untuk selalu dalam keadaan bersih. Apalagi ketika tidur.

Salah satu solusinya adalah dengan wudlu sebelum tidur. Penelitian terakhir menyebutkan bahwa wudlu mampu mengurangi kuman kuman yang hidup dalam tubuh anda.

2. Struktur wudhu memang menyehatkan

Wudhu berarti membersihkan diri anda. Baik dari kotoran, kuman, dan bakteri yang mengenai tubuh anda. Melakukan wudlu yang di mulai dari niat, lalu membasuh kedua tangan, berkumur, memasukkan air ke dalam hidung serta membasuh kepala sangat jelas berarti membersihkan anggota badan bagian atas.

Lalu di lanjutkan untuk membersihkan tangan sampai siku, lalu ke dua daun telinga, serta membersihkan kaki. Tata cara yang di sebutkan sangat baik untuk membantu anda menjaga dan merawat kesehatan tubuh.

3. Membantu menjaga kesehatan wajah

Jika pakar kecantikan menghimbau para wanita untuk mencuci muka sebelum tidur, maka Rasulullah menganjurkan untuk berwudhu sebelum tidur. Kedua sisi ini sebenarnya memiliki essensi sama, yakni membersihkan anggota badan bagian atas.

4. Semakin mendekatkan diri pada Illahi

Berwudlu meeupakan salah satu bentuk ibadah tinggi. Sebab dengan wudlu kita senantiasa menjaga kebersihan diri. Sedangkan Allah menyayangi dan menyukai kebersihan. Anda pasti sudah tidak asing dengan hadits yang berbunyi Kebersihan adalah sebagian dari keimanan bukan? Yuk wudhu tiap malam
5. Di doakan oleh malaikat

Dalam sebuah hadist yang di riwayatkan oleh Ibnu Hibban menyebutkan bahwa seseorang yang berwudhu, ketika bangun ia akan di doakan malaikat. Simak berikut haditsnya :

Rasulullah SAW bersabda : “Barangsiapa tidur dimalam hari dalam keadaan suci (berwudhu’) maka Malaikat akan tetap mengikuti, lalu ketika ia bangun niscaya Malaikat itu akan berucap ‘Ya Allah ampunilah hamba mu si fulan, kerana ia tidur di malam hari dalam keadaan selalu suci’”.(HR Ibnu Hibban dari Ibnu Umar r.a.)

6. Ketika mati, maka akan di anggap mati syahid

Dalam suatu kitab yang di tulis oleh Syekh Muhammad bin Umar An Nawawi Al Mantany dalam bukunya Tanqih al Qand al Hatsis menyebutkan bahwa seseorang yang berwudlu sebelum tidur mendapatkan manfaat. Yakni ketika ia meninggal maka dianggap mati syahid.

Dari Umar bin Harits bahwa Nabi bersabda :"barangsiapa tidur dalam keadaan berwudhu ,maka apabila mati disaat tidur maka matinya dalam keadaan syahid disisi Allah”

Intinya adalah seseorang yang tidur dalam keadaan suci, berwudlu, maka ia akan memperoleh posisi tinggi di sisi Allah. Subhanallah.

7. Merilekskan otot sebelum tidur

Ketika siang hari, pasti aktivitas yang anda lakukan sangat banyak. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan untuk merilekskan otot. Manfaat wudhu sebelum tidur adalah salah satu cara untuk merilekskan otot yang kaku setelah seharian bekerja keras. Bahkan secara psikologis, seseorang yang telah melakukan wudlu akan nampak lebih rileks. Serta badan anda akan terasa segar kembali.

8. Mampu mencerahkan kulit

Anda tak perlu membeli peralatan make up yang mahal untuk mendapatkan wajah yang cerah. Sebenarnya dengan berwudlu sebelum tidur juga mampu mencerahkan kulit wajah anda. Sebab menurut pakar kecantikan berwudlu di percaya mampu menghilangkan noda membandel. Dengan begitu wajah anda lebih nampak segar dan bersih.

9. Di sunnahkan oleh Rasulullah

Pernah sahabat Nabi, yakni al Bara’ bin Azib RA menyampaikan bahwa Rosulullah SAW pernah bersabda kepada dirinya.

“Apabila engkau hendak mendatangi pembaringan (tidur), maka hendaklah berwudhu terlebih dahulu sebagaimana wudhumu untuk melakukan shalat.” (HR. Bukahri dan Muslim).

Anda masih ragu pada manfaat wudhu sebelum tidur? Tinggalkanlah keraguan tersebut!

10. Bentuk dan upaya menstimulus syaraf pusat

Menurut penelitian yang di lakukan oleh Prof. Leopold Warner Von Ehrenfels, beliau adalah psikiater sekaligus ahli di bidan neurology dari Austria mengakui sesuatu yang istimewa ketika seseorang berwudlu. Pusat syaraf manusia yang paling peka adalah pada bagian tangan, kaki serta sebelah dahi. Ketiga bagian ini bisa di katakana sangat sensitif dengan keberadaan air segar. Sehingga ketika anda membasuh ketiga bagian tersebut, secara tidak langsung anda membangunkan dan menstimulus syaraf pusat.

11. Menghindari penyakit kulit

Bagian tangan, muka, serta kaki adalah bagian yang paling efektiv untuk menyalurkan kuman serta kotoran. Sebab ketiga bagian tersebut yang paling banyak bersentuhan secara langsung dengan benda asing atau pathogen. Oleh sebab itu, perlu dilakukan pembersihan berulang kali. Manfaatnya adalah untuk mengurangui kemungkinan terkena penyakit kulit.

12. Menormalkan detak jantung

Salah satu kegiatan wudhu yang sangat memiliki khasiat mumpuni adalah ketika anda membasahi anggota tubuh ke air. Hal ini mampu membuat kenormalan jantung untuk berdetak lebih stabil. Hasil ini bahkan sudah di teliti oleh Dokter Ahmad Syauqy yang expert di bidang penyakit dalam dan penyakit jantung di London.

13. Menyembuhkan insomnia

Anda kerap mengalami susah tidur? Yap, insomnia memang banyak menyerang para remaja. Padahal menurut kesehatan, tidur terlalu malam, bahkan pagi atau  tidak tidur sekalipun mampu merusak organ anda secara otomatis. Maka kebiasaan insomnia memang sebaiknya di hilangkan. Caranya? Cukup ambil air wudhu sebelum tidur.

Alasan Berwudhu itu Baik

Melakukan istinsaq atau memasukkan air ke dalam hidung ternyata bermanfaat untuk kesehatan hidung kita. Mencuci tangan baik sampai pergelangan tangan serta sampai siku yang di ulang hingga tiga kali juga menjaga kita dari kuman kuman jahat. Sebab kebanyakan alat perantara kuman masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui tangan. Kebersihan kulit serta kelembaban juga bisa terjaga ketika anda sering melakukan wudhu. Menjaga kebersihan daun telinga. Sebab bagian yang jarang di jangkau manusia ketika membersihkan badan adalah daun telinga.

Dan yang terakhir kita menjaga selalu kesehatan kaki, baik dari telapak kaki, jari jemari kaki, serta mata kaki. Begitulah ulasannya mengapa wudhu itu menyehatkan. 

Itulah beberapa manfaat yang di ulas mengenai manfaat berwudlu sebelum tidur. Semoga berguna, jangan lupa wudhu.


          Hanta Virus by Center for Disease Control & Prevention CDC        

Infection with hantavirus can progress to Hanta virus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), which can be fatal. People become infected through contact with hantavirus-infected rodents or their urine and droppings. The Sin Nombre hantavirus, first recognized in 1993, is one of several New World hantaviruses circulating in the US. Old World hantaviruses, found in Asia, can cause Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS). Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus infection. All cases of Hantavirus infection are reported to and researched by the Viral Special Pathogens Branch (VSPB) of the CDC.

How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Where HPS is FoundCases of HPS occur sporadically, usually in rural areas where forests, fields, and farms offer suitable habitat for the virus's rodent hosts. The peridomestic setting (for example, barns, outbuildings, and sheds) are potential sites where people may be exposed to the virus. In the US and Canada, the Sin Nombre hantavirus is responsible for the majority of cases of HPS. The host of the Sin Nombre virus is the deer mouse
(Peromyscus maniculatus), present throughout the western and central US and Canada.
Several other hantaviruses are capable of causing HPS in the US. The New York hantavirus, hosted by the white-footed mouse, is associated with HPS cases in the northeastern US. The Black Creek hantavirus, hosted by the cotton rat, is found in the southeastern US.
Cases of HPS have been confirmed elsewhere in the Americas, including Canada, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

Signs & Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Due to the small number of HPS cases, the "incubation time" is not positively known. However, on the basis of limited information, it appears that symptoms may develop between 1 and 5 weeks after exposure to fresh urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents.

Early symptoms
include fatigue, fever and muscle aches, especially in the large muscle groups—thighs, hips, back, and sometimes shoulders. These symptoms are universal.
There may also be headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal problems, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. About half of all HPS patients experience these symptoms.

Late Symptoms

Four to 10 days after the initial phase of illness, the late symptoms of HPS appear. These include coughing and shortness of breath, with the sensation of, as one survivor put it, a "...tight band around my chest and a pillow over my face" as the lungs fill with fluid.

Is the Disease Fatal?

Yes. HPS can be fatal. It has a mortality rate of 38%.

          COPD And Swine Flu Can Be Deadly        
COPD And Swine Flu Warrants Extra Precautions

Some individuals have an increased risk for serious complications and possibly even death if they get the swine flu. Lung conditions like COPD and asthma are a few of the special factors that may increase the risk to you. Those who have COPD have a much higher incidence of having serious complications than others.

COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a condition that impairs your breathing. In most cases, this disease worsens over time. It can cause coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and other symptoms.

Almost 41 percent of swine flu hospital patients in New York City suffered from COPD, asthma, or some other lung disease. And within the past week, seven deaths relating to swine flu were reported in New York. Out of those seven deaths, six of the individuals had some sort of lung disease. If you have COPD you should speak with your physician and see if he advises any special precautions regarding the swine flu, even before an outbreak occurs in your area.

The H1N1 swine flu is a virus that produces influenza in humans. The pathogen has gone through a recent mutation into its present form. Due to this mutation, humans have no immunity to the virus. This is why authorities are concerned about the chance of a pandemic.

Like the typical seasonal flu, severe illnesses and death has occurred as a result of sickness related to this serious disease. Worldwide, about 250,000 people die each year from flu related complications.

If you are concerned about COPD and swine flu, protecting your loved ones, or have one or more risk factors, do some early swine flu preparation. Do what is necessary to guard yourself and your loved ones from the swine flu. Once an outbreak strikes, medical supplies will be in short supply and it could be too late to do anything.

For extra info on COPD and swine flu, download my guide on How To Reduce Your Risk Of Swine Flu Infection By 98%. You can download my entire system at COPD And Swine Flu !
          Diş pastalarının zəhərli olduğunu bilirdinizmi?        
Diş pastalarının zəhərli olduğunu bilirdinizmi?
Biz gün ərzində bir-neçə dəfə televizordan diş pastasının diş ərpini təmizlədiyini eşidirik. Bəs diş pastasının nələri təmizldiyini siz bilirsinizmi?

1-2 manat qiymətində olan pastanın tərkibində kalsium karbonat əvəzinə adi təbaşir qoyulur.  

Bu çox pis bir əvəzedicidir. Çünki, təbaşir dişin emal təbəqəsini və diş boynunun cızır. Pastanın qiymətinin ucuz olması onun tərkibində təbaşir olmasının göstəricisi sayılır.

Diş pastalarının tərkibində aluminum oksidin olmasına isə bir çox ölkələrdə qadağa qoyulub. Müasir texnolojiya sayəsində pastanın tərkibinə dioksid keramin (slika) əvəzinə təbaşir əlavə edilir ki, bu da ucuz başa gəlir.

Stomatoloqlar pasta alarkən onun qiymətinə və tərkibinə nəzər yetirməyi məsləhət bilir. Çünki, tərkibində təbaşir olan pasta dişin emal qatını zədələməklə dişlərin asanlıqla korlanmasına səbəb ola bilir.

Mütəxəssislər pasta alarkən risk etməyi məsləhət bilimir, onlar tərkibində hidrokjarbonat kalsium olan diş duzu olan pastadan almağı məsləhət bilir.
Diş pastalarının reklam edərkən onun antibakterial olduğunu söyləyirlər. Ən çox tərkibində triklozan olan diş pastaları ağız boşluğunda mikrob və bakteriyaların azalmasına səbəb olur.
Belə pastaların problem ağız boşluğunda pathogen mikroblarla yanaşı, vacib sayılan bakteriyaların məhv olmasına səbəb olur. 

 Bəzi pastaların hazırlnmasında xlorheksidin və metranidazoldan stifadə edilir. Bu dərmanlar isə anrimikrob təsirə malikdir. Amma, bu tərkibli pastalardan da hər gün istifadə etmək problemlərin əmələ gəlməməsi demək deyildir. Reklamlar zamanı diş pastasının bol köpük verməsini də qeyd  edirlər. Pastalarda köpüyün əmələ gəlməsinə onun tərkibinə qatılan laurilsulfat natriumdur. Amerika mütəxəssisləri bu maddənin kataraktaya və müxtəlif xəstəliklərə səbəb olduöunu qeyd edirlər. Onlar bu maddənin kosmetologiya sahəsində istifadə edilməsinə qadağa qoyulmasını tələb edirlər. Pastanın tərkibində qliserofosfat kalsium əvəzinə karbonat kalsium olması deyilirsə sizi aldadırlar. Kimyaçılar kalsium karbonatın suda həll olmadığını qeyd edir və pastanın tərkibində onun olmamasının dişin minerallarla təmin edilməsinə səbəb olmadığını söyləyirlər.
Reklamlar zamanı bəzi pastaların həssas dişlər üçün hazırlandığını söyləyirlər. Amma, bu pastadan bir müddət istifadə etdikdən sonra dişlərdəki plombların saraldığından xəbərsizdirlər. Bu pastadan uzun müddət istifadə edldikdə dişlər və plomblar sarı və ya açıq qəhvəyi rəng alırlar.

90% diş pastasının tərkibində ftor var.

Ftorun faydası və zərərləri barədə isə 60 ildir ki, elmdə məlumatlar var. Ötən əsrin 40-cı illərində ftorun diş emalına təsiri barədə məlumatlar Amerika alimləri tərəfindən öyrənilmişdir. Araşdırmalar hətta ftorun dişdə dəliklər əmələ gətirmədiyini sübut etmişdir. Alimlər qida rasionunda ftor olmayan adamların dişlərində kariesin vaxtından əvvəl əmələ gldiyini də sübut etmişlər. Bu araşdırmalardan sonra Amerikada içməlli suyun tərkibinə ftor əlavə edilmişdir. Bəzi mənbələr bütün dünyada ftorlaşmanın getdiyini qeyd edirlər. Bunun səbəbi kimi isə aliminim zavodlarında kimyəvi ftorlu birləşmlərin diş pastalarına qatılması səbəbindən baş verir. Diş pastalarına qatılan ftoridlər isə aluminum zavodlarının zəhərli tullantı məhsullarıdır.
Orta yaşlı insanın gün ərzində ftora olan ehtiyacı 2-3 mq-dır. Biz bu ftoru qida və qəbul etdiyimiz su vasitəsilə alırıq.
Ftorun digər kimyəvi qidalar o cümlədən pasta vasitəsilə orqanizmı daxil olması isə çox zərərdir. Ftorlu birləşmələr orqanizm üçün ən təhlükəli sayılan kimyəvi maddələrdəndir. Onun orqanizmı toksiki təsiri qəbul edilən miqdarından asılı olur. Ftorun orqanizmdə normadan çox olması isə fosfor-kalsium balansının pozulmasına səbəb olur.

Ftorun tərkibindəki kolloid birləşmələr
  • Qalxanabənzər vəzin birləşdirici toxumasını zədələyir
  • Ä°mmuniteti aşağı salır
  • Hüceyrədaxili sintez prosesini sürətləndirir
  • Fizioloji qocalmanı sürətləndirir
Behavioral Brain Research jurnalı ftor haqqında yazdığı məqaləlrdə onun insan beyninə təsir edərək Alsheymer xəstəliyinə və əqli zəifliyə səbəb olduğunu yazır. Yazılanlardan belə nəticə çıxarmaq olar ki, dişlərimiz üçün faydalı sayılan və pastanın tərkibində olan ftordan az miqdarda istifadə etmək lazımdır. Bəs ftorun zərəri məllum olduğu halda niyə diş pastalarına əlavə edilir?
Ftor ötən əsrin ortalarında Amerikada suya qatıldıqdan 20 il sonra yan təsirlərini görən alimlər bir çox ölkələrə bu təcrübədən istifadə etməməyi məsləhət bilib. Almaniyada suyun ftorlaşmasının qarşısı alınıb. Almaniyalı mütəxəssislər orqanizmin ftora olan ehtiyacını isə müxtəlif dərman vasitələri ilə almağa üstünlük verirlər.  Hal-hazırda yanlız Ä°rlandiyada və Amerikanın bəzi bölgələrində suyun ftoorlaşması həyata keçirilir. Amma, Ä°rlandiyalı həkim Don Mak Oli suyun və diş pastalarının ftorlaşmasının zərərli olmasını yenə də öz yazılarında qeyd edir. Mütəxəssislər ftorun orqanizm üçün təhlükəli olduğunu qeyd edərək qidalar və ya reklam edilən pastalar vasitəsilə ftorlaşmanın əleyhinə çıxırlar.
məqaləmizdən yararlandınızsa yaxınlarınızla paylaşmağı unutmayın
          Diş pastalarının zəhərlidir        
Diş pastalarının zəhərli olduğunu bilirdinizmi?
Biz gün ərzində bir-neçə dəfə televizordan diş pastasının diş ərpini təmizlədiyini eşidirik. Bəs diş pastasının nələri təmizldiyini siz bilirsinizmi?

1-2 manat qiymətində olan pastanın tərkibində kalsium karbonat əvəzinə adi təbaşir qoyulur.  

Bu çox pis bir əvəzedicidir. Çünki, təbaşir dişin emal təbəqəsini və diş boynunun cızır. Pastanın qiymətinin ucuz olması onun tərkibində təbaşir olmasının göstəricisi sayılır.

Diş pastalarının tərkibində aluminum oksidin olmasına isə bir çox ölkələrdə qadağa qoyulub. Müasir texnolojiya sayəsində pastanın tərkibinə dioksid keramin (slika) əvəzinə təbaşir əlavə edilir ki, bu da ucuz başa gəlir.

Stomatoloqlar pasta alarkən onun qiymətinə və tərkibinə nəzər yetirməyi məsləhət bilir. Çünki, tərkibində təbaşir olan pasta dişin emal qatını zədələməklə dişlərin asanlıqla korlanmasına səbəb ola bilir.

Mütəxəssislər pasta alarkən risk etməyi məsləhət bilimir, onlar tərkibində hidrokjarbonat kalsium olan diş duzu olan pastadan almağı məsləhət bilir.
Diş pastalarının reklam edərkən onun antibakterial olduğunu söyləyirlər. Ən çox tərkibində triklozan olan diş pastaları ağız boşluğunda mikrob və bakteriyaların azalmasına səbəb olur.
Belə pastaların problem ağız boşluğunda pathogen mikroblarla yanaşı, vacib sayılan bakteriyaların məhv olmasına səbəb olur. 

 Bəzi pastaların hazırlnmasında xlorheksidin və metranidazoldan stifadə edilir. Bu dərmanlar isə anrimikrob təsirə malikdir. Amma, bu tərkibli pastalardan da hər gün istifadə etmək problemlərin əmələ gəlməməsi demək deyildir. Reklamlar zamanı diş pastasının bol köpük verməsini də qeyd  edirlər. Pastalarda köpüyün əmələ gəlməsinə onun tərkibinə qatılan laurilsulfat natriumdur. Amerika mütəxəssisləri bu maddənin kataraktaya və müxtəlif xəstəliklərə səbəb olduöunu qeyd edirlər. Onlar bu maddənin kosmetologiya sahəsində istifadə edilməsinə qadağa qoyulmasını tələb edirlər. Pastanın tərkibində qliserofosfat kalsium əvəzinə karbonat kalsium olması deyilirsə sizi aldadırlar. Kimyaçılar kalsium karbonatın suda həll olmadığını qeyd edir və pastanın tərkibində onun olmamasının dişin minerallarla təmin edilməsinə səbəb olmadığını söyləyirlər.
Reklamlar zamanı bəzi pastaların həssas dişlər üçün hazırlandığını söyləyirlər. Amma, bu pastadan bir müddət istifadə etdikdən sonra dişlərdəki plombların saraldığından xəbərsizdirlər. Bu pastadan uzun müddət istifadə edldikdə dişlər və plomblar sarı və ya açıq qəhvəyi rəng alırlar.

90% diş pastasının tərkibində ftor var.

Ftorun faydası və zərərləri barədə isə 60 ildir ki, elmdə məlumatlar var. Ötən əsrin 40-cı illərində ftorun diş emalına təsiri barədə məlumatlar Amerika alimləri tərəfindən öyrənilmişdir. Araşdırmalar hətta ftorun dişdə dəliklər əmələ gətirmədiyini sübut etmişdir. Alimlər qida rasionunda ftor olmayan adamların dişlərində kariesin vaxtından əvvəl əmələ gldiyini də sübut etmişlər. Bu araşdırmalardan sonra Amerikada içməlli suyun tərkibinə ftor əlavə edilmişdir. Bəzi mənbələr bütün dünyada ftorlaşmanın getdiyini qeyd edirlər. Bunun səbəbi kimi isə aliminim zavodlarında kimyəvi ftorlu birləşmlərin diş pastalarına qatılması səbəbindən baş verir. Diş pastalarına qatılan ftoridlər isə aluminum zavodlarının zəhərli tullantı məhsullarıdır.
Orta yaşlı insanın gün ərzində ftora olan ehtiyacı 2-3 mq-dır. Biz bu ftoru qida və qəbul etdiyimiz su vasitəsilə alırıq.
Ftorun digər kimyəvi qidalar o cümlədən pasta vasitəsilə orqanizmı daxil olması isə çox zərərdir. Ftorlu birləşmələr orqanizm üçün ən təhlükəli sayılan kimyəvi maddələrdəndir. Onun orqanizmı toksiki təsiri qəbul edilən miqdarından asılı olur. Ftorun orqanizmdə normadan çox olması isə fosfor-kalsium balansının pozulmasına səbəb olur.

Ftorun tərkibindəki kolloid birləşmələr
  • Qalxanabənzər vəzin birləşdirici toxumasını zədələyir
  • Ä°mmuniteti aşağı salır
  • Hüceyrədaxili sintez prosesini sürətləndirir
  • Fizioloji qocalmanı sürətləndirir
Behavioral Brain Research jurnalı ftor haqqında yazdığı məqaləlrdə onun insan beyninə təsir edərək Alsheymer xəstəliyinə və əqli zəifliyə səbəb olduğunu yazır. Yazılanlardan belə nəticə çıxarmaq olar ki, dişlərimiz üçün faydalı sayılan və pastanın tərkibində olan ftordan az miqdarda istifadə etmək lazımdır. Bəs ftorun zərəri məllum olduğu halda niyə diş pastalarına əlavə edilir?
Ftor ötən əsrin ortalarında Amerikada suya qatıldıqdan 20 il sonra yan təsirlərini görən alimlər bir çox ölkələrə bu təcrübədən istifadə etməməyi məsləhət bilib. Almaniyada suyun ftorlaşmasının qarşısı alınıb. Almaniyalı mütəxəssislər orqanizmin ftora olan ehtiyacını isə müxtəlif dərman vasitələri ilə almağa üstünlük verirlər.  Hal-hazırda yanlız Ä°rlandiyada və Amerikanın bəzi bölgələrində suyun ftoorlaşması həyata keçirilir. Amma, Ä°rlandiyalı həkim Don Mak Oli suyun və diş pastalarının ftorlaşmasının zərərli olmasını yenə də öz yazılarında qeyd edir. Mütəxəssislər ftorun orqanizm üçün təhlükəli olduğunu qeyd edərək qidalar və ya reklam edilən pastalar vasitəsilə ftorlaşmanın əleyhinə çıxırlar.
məqaləmizdən yararlandınızsa yaxınlarınızla paylaşmağı unutmayın
          Contamination of shawerma with pathogenic yeasts        
          Food is the best medicine        

An apple a day they say, keeps the doctor away. Be it the common cold or a nebulous norovirus, everyone seems to be down with some debilitating ailment at the moment. As far as I'm concerned, winter can end now. Much as I love Nordic skiing and the winter Olympics snow does not belong in London, and I would quite like to pack away my thermals, ear muffs and wool scarves thank you very much!

If you're finding yourself beset by recurring sniffles here are a few tips on eating your way to good health. Inspired by helpful responses I received after asking on twitter what foods help boost the immune system, I've incorporated the tweets with tips in each section, along with a few basic recipe suggestions too. Sipping endless cups of Lemsip and taking antibiotics when you need to might seem the easiest route to recovery but trust me after having been on antibiotics twice this winter I definitely recommend pre-empting future illness with healthy eating. The best strategy I've learned is eat a balanced variety of the following foods for optimal health and you'll feel - and look - better in no time :-)

1) Spices

@scandilicious you can boost immune system with teaspoon or 2 of good quality honey (manuka) & teaspoon of cinnamon with it, twice a day.
9:02 PM Jan 14th from Tweetie in reply to scandilicious

This was a brilliant suggestion, cinnamon and honey tea not only tastes delicious but cinnamon is a potent weapon against pretty much everything from colds to diabetes. I sprinkle it on my daily porridge and try to bake with it as much as possible.

@scandilicious Ginger Increases the body temperature to help fight off infections ...Gingerale contains some ginger or add ginger to food.
12:17 PM Jan 14th from web in reply to scandilicious

Ginger is another top immune boosting agent, and one I've been incorporating into my raspberry & ginger smoothie, recipe of which you can find here

Niamh of Eat Like A Girl also posted a gingery note today on the healing powers of Lemon, Ginger and Honey Tea here a drink I'm trying to have every day to strike back at all dastardly bugs!

2) Vitamins (and the sun)

@scandilicious Get Fresh Air and some Sun every day. Eat foods with Vitamin ..( A / C / D ) every day.
12:12 PM Jan 14th from web in reply to scandilicious

Sensible advice from the somewhat fiersome sounding XXorcist. We tend to hibernate in winter, and I don't know about you but a few rays of sunshine on a cold, crisp winter's day make all the difference to my mood and outlook on life. Interestingly enough, food writer Fiona Beckett also came across research here that correlates vitamin D deficiency with a compromised immune system, so up your fruit, veg and dairy intake to increase the level of vitamin D in your body. And get outside as much as you can on sunny winter days!

3) Probiotics

@scandilicious Probiotics :-)
12:09 PM Jan 14th from Gravity in reply to scandilicious

@scandilicious yoghurt(with live bacteria!!) And royal jelly!
12:06 PM Jan 14th from UberTwitter in reply to scandilicious

@scandilicious Eat live yoghurt (doesn't have to say pro biotic, it's all the same). Try not to take painkillers.
11:38 AM Jan 14th from Gravity in reply to scandilicious

@scandilicious probiotic yoghurt, smoothies with real fresh fruit. I add Innocent to the smoothie mix. Get well soon!
11:36 AM Jan 14th from Tweetie in reply to scandilicious

All great tips from the probiotic crowd! We hear much about the healing powers of probiotics, but steer clear of gimmicky probiotic drinks that are packed full of sugar, and probiotic supplements in health food shops. A Scot in London gave excellent advice on buying probiotics that have to be chilled, they are the only ones potent enough ('live' enough if you will) to survive the acidic environment of our stomachs. I picked up some at my local health food shop Alara and am amazed at how much better I felt within a week of taking them. Ask for refrigerated probiotics in your local health food shop and eat plain bio yoghurt from brands such as Yeo Valley and Rachel's Organic on a daily basis. Royal Jelly and bee pollen are also meant to be excellent for perking up the immune system.

4) Citrus

Citrus fruits are famously good for upping your vitamin C intake, try blood oranges which are currently in season and taste delicious drizzled with a bit of honey, a sprinkle of cinnamon and some scattered walnuts on top.

@scandilicious 'Orange' juice- satsumas, oranges, clem, mango: ginger, peach, dried apricots, oats, echinacea. 1 tsp of PB - Blend, drink xx
11:58 AM Jan 14th from web in reply to scandilicious

@scandilicious vit C, zinc, echinecia (or however its spelt) and don't forget to eat some protein with all the veg and fruit & carbs pls ;)
11:43 AM Jan 14th from TweetDeck in reply to scandilicious

5) Echinacea

@scandilicious echinacea?
11:35 AM Jan 14th from Echofon in reply to scandilicious

@scandilicious Echinacea
11:34 AM Jan 14th from web in reply to scandilicious

Another well-known cold and flu fighter, the easiest way to take this is in supplement form...

6) Spelt

Easy spelt bread with fennel seed, recipe here

@scandilicious spelt contains immune-system boosting properties
11:31 AM Jan 14th from TweetDeck in reply to scandilicious

@scandilicious @aforkful I'm working on a spelt-ish (in fact it is the old Roman grain - Farro) risotto mix. More bite than rice, love it.
11:39 AM Jan 14th from web in reply to scandilicious

This intrigued me, being an avid spelt fan! I knew spelt was more digestible and I've been using it in bread baking for ten years now as diabetes runs in our family and spelt is better for maintaining steady blood sugar levels than plain wheat. It's also chockfull of flavour and I've taken to using refined spelt for cinnamon buns, cakes and pancakes recently. Try it, you won't be disappointed.

7) Garlic and chilli

Moroccan spiced chickpeas with spinach (photo courtesy of Andrew Crawley and the Daily Telegraph) recipe hereThis recipe is from the Ultimate Student Cookbook and one I never tire of. It's quick to make, frugal and extremely tasty. You've got all the wonders of aromatic spices such as cumin, coriander, turmeric and chilli, the latter of which has brilliant antiseptic properties. Garlic is well-known for its immune boosting properties, so you could up the quantity from this recipe if you're in dire straits and if you're feeling extra brave, try crushing a clove and eating it raw. I'm not a huge fan of raw garlic, but love it with seafood such as prawns:

or just gently sauteed with some anchovies, chilli flakes and tossed with broccoli in pasta...

8) Soup

Or more accurately, chicken soup. Known as Jewish penicillin chicken soup is the apotheosis of immune boosting soups. Nourishing and delicious in equal measure, a simple chicken soup requires little embellishment and is worth making in large batches and sipping (slurping?) throughout the day. Anthony Silverbrow's post on chicken soup is brilliant - as a South American proverb goes "good broth resurrects the dead" and chicken soup will do exactly that!

9) Protein

This wasn't tweeted so much as just an instinctive reaction I had to feeling unwell. I craved eggs, salmon and basically anything out of the sea. Protein is needed for strength, simple as that. Try an open sandwich of soft-boiled egg, Swedish kaviar from a tube and dill on sourdough crispbread such as Peter's Yard

For more boiled egg recipe suggestions check out Foodista: Soft Boiled Egg on Foodista
Or indeed a few slivers of smoked salmon with black pepper on the same crispbread (you can tell I'm addicted to crispbread!):

Mackerel is not only cheap but endlessly versatile and full of essential omega fatty acids. My favourite way to eat mackerel is with either a gooseberry compote or rhubarb, such as this recipe from Nigel Slater. Aim to eat oily fish at least two or three times a week.

10) Miscellaneous

Well, these are tips I picked up from an excellent book on nutrition Nourishing Traditions lent to me by the good people at Rude Health :

* Coconut oil contains lauric acid, an essential saturated fatty acid that boosts the immune system and protects against viruses, funghi and other pathogens

* Tea is full of antioxidants that help the cells in our body fight off damaging free radicals, thus keeping the cells in robust health

* Pickles such as kimchi, sauerkraut and umeboshi (Japanese pickled plums) are amazing immune enhancers. The fermentation process allows probiotic lactobacilli to develop in the pickles and these act as natural pathogen fighters. Kimchi, the Korean spicy cabbage has been linked to fighting off SARS in Korea, which you can read more about here. Whether or not you believe kimchi will protect you from dastardly viruses, it certainly tastes good.

Finally, it goes without saying that aside from eating well a few behavioural habits really help fight off lurgies:

* Wash your hands with soap after you've been on public transport, in the shops, out and about in town. My Norwegian grandmother was a nurse and she always complained that people's hygiene changed dramatically after antibiotics and medical care improved in the second half of last century. Hand hygiene is the first line of defense in combating germs!

* Have a lymphatic drainage massage. This was suggested by A Forkful of Spaghetti and it makes perfect sense. Our lymphatic system fights off pathogens and if it becomes congested then one of the most effective ways to reboot the lymph nodes is to massage away toxins trapped in the lymph nodes.

* Learn to say no. This might seem banal, but I learned to my cost towards the end of last year that saying yes to everything depleted my energy and enthusiasm for going out. Be selective, ruthless even, in how often you say yes to a favour, to going out or to events.

* Calm down! Adrenal fatigue is now recognised as a significant factor in the weakening of our immune systems. It seems we're all too stressed, all the time and the constant surge of adrenaline through our bodies - be it from working in stressful jobs, not sleeping enough, taking too many drugs, or in personal relationships - is seriously detrimental to our health. Relax as often as you can, try yoga, pilates or meditation. Chamomile, lemon verbena and valerian teas are all fantastic alternatives to boring old water to keep you hydrated and calm throughout the day. Hot baths, good novels, cooking a delicious meal - whatever it is that helps you unwind, do it. Ignore the maddening crowd and you'll feel so much the better for it. Exercise, curiously enough, can be calming as you vent all your frustrations through a game of footie, or on a run. My resolution is to dance more as I'm easily bored with gyms and running!

* Incidentally painkillers are also thought to weaken the immune system, but of course use them if you're feeling rotten and can't function. See your doctor if you're feeling utterly miserable and showing symptoms beyond just a cough or temporary food poisoning. Antibiotics are essential when you're seriously ill.

What are your top tips for eating your way to good health? Feel free to comment below, and dispute any of my suggestions of course.

D I A R E   A K U T
A.   Pengertian
Diare adalah defekasi encer lebih dari tiga kali sehari dengan atau tanpa darah dan/atau lendir dalam tinja. Diare akut adalah diare yang terjadi secara mendadak dan berlangsung kurang dari tujuh hari pada bayi dan anak yang sebelumnya sehat.

B.    Etiologi
1.    Infeksi : virus (Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Norwalk), bakteri (Shigella, Salmonella, E. Coli, Vibrio), parasit (protozoa : E. Histolytica, G.lamblia, Balantidium coli, cacing perut : Askariasis, Trikuris, Strongiloideus; dan jamur : Kandida).
2.    Malabsorbsi : karbohidrat (intoleransi laktosa), lemak atau protein
3.    Makanan : makanan basi, beracun, allergi terhadap makanan
4.    Imunodefisiensi
5.    Psikolgis : rasa takut dan cemas.
Berdasarkan patofisiologinya, maka penyebab diare dibagi menjadi :
1.    Diare skresi, yang dapat disebabkan oleh infeksi virus, kuman pathogen dan apatogen; hiperperistaltik usus halus akibat bahan kimia atau makanan, gangguan psikis, gangguan saraf, hawa dingin, allergi; dan defisiensi imun terutama IgA sekretorik.
2.    Diare osmotic, yang dapat disebabkan oleh malabsorbsi makanan, kekurangan kalori protein (KKP), atau bayi BBLR dan bayi baru lahir.
Pada diare akan terjadi kekurangan air (dehidrasi), gangguan keseimbangan asam-basah (asisosis metabolic), yang secara klinis berupa pernafasan Kussmaul, hipoglikemia, gangguan gizi, dan gangguan sirkulasi.

C.    Manifestasi Klinis
Awalnya anak menjadi cengeng, gelisa, suhu badan mungkin meningkat, nafsu makan berkurang atau tidak ada, kemudian timbul diare. Tinja makin cair, mungkin mengandung darah dan/atau lender, warna tinja berubah menjadi kehijau-hijauan karena tercampur empedu. Anus dan sekitarnya lecet karena tinja menjadi asam.
Gejala muntah dapat terjadi debelum atau/dan sesudah diare. Bila telah banyak kehilangan air dan elektrolit terjadi gejala dehidrasi. Berat badan menurun. Pada bayi ubun-ubun besar cekung. Tonus dan turgor kulit berkurang. Selaput lendir mulut dan bibir kering.
D.    Pemeriksaan Penunjang
1.    Pemeriksaan Tinja ;
makroskopis dan mikroskopis, pH dan kadar gula jika diduga ada intoleransi gula (sugar intolerance), biakan kuman untuk mencari penyebab dan uji resistensi terhadap berbagai antibiotika (pada diare persisten).
2.    Pemeriksaan Darah ;
darah perifer lengkap, analisis gas darah dan elektrolit (terutama Na, K, Ca, dan P serum pada diare yang disertai kejang).
3.    Pemeriksaan kadar ureum dan kreatinin darah untuk mengetahui faal ginjal.
4.    Duodenal Intubation, untuk mengetahui kuman penyebab secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif terutama pada diare kronik.

E.     Penatalaksanaan
Prinsip :
1.    Diare cair membutuhkan penggantian cairan dan elektrolit tanpa melihat etiologinya. Tujuan terapi rehidrasi untuk mengoreksi kekurangan cairan dan elektrolit secara cepat (terapi rehidrasi) kemudian mengganti cairan yang hilang sampai diarenya berhenti (terapi rumatan).
Jumlah cairan yang diberikan harus sama dengan jumlah cairan yang telah hilang melalui diare atau/dan muntah (previous water losses = PWL); ditambah dengan banyaknya cairan yang hilang melalui keringat, urin, dan pernapasan (normal water losses = NWL); dan ditambah dengan banyaknya cairan yang hilang melalui tinja dan muntah yang masih terus berlangsung (concomitant water losses = CWL). Jumlah ini tergantung pada derajat dehidrasi.
Jumlah ini tergantung pada derajat dehidrasi serta berat badan masing-masing anak atau golongan umur.
·      Jumlah cairan (ml) yang hilang pada anak umur <2 tahun (BB 3 – 10 kg) sesuai dengan derajat dehidrasi
Dehidrasi                        PWL   NWL   CWL   Jumlah
-       Ringan            50      100     25         175
-       Sedang           75      100     25         200
-       Berat              125     100     25         250
·      Jumlah cairan (ml) yang hilang pada anak umur 2 - 5 tahun (BB 10 – 15 kg) sesuai dengan derajat dehidrasi
Dehidrasi                        PWL   NWL   CWL   Jumlah
-       Ringan            30      80       25          135
-       Sedang           50      80       25          155
-       Berat                80      80       25          185
·      Jumlah cairan (ml) yang hilang pada anak umur >15 tahun (BB 15 – 25 kg) sesuai dengan derajat dehidrasi
Dehidrasi                        PWL   NWL   CWL   Jumlah
-       Ringan          25       65       25          115
-       Sedang         50       65       25          140
-       Berat              80       65       25          170
2.    Makanan harus diteruskan bahkan ditingkatkan selama diare untuk menghindarkan efek buruk pada status gizi.
3.    Antibiotik dan antiparasit tidak boleh digunakan secara rutin, tidak ada manfaat untuk kebanyakan kasus, termasuk diare berat dan diare dengan panas, kecuali pada :
·         Disentri, bila tidak berespon pikiran kemungkinan amoebiasis
·         Suspek kolera dengan dehidrasi berat
·         Diare persisten.
4.    Obat-obat anti diare meliputi antimotilitas (misalnya loperamid, difenoksilat, kodein, opium), adsorben (misalnya norit, kaolin, attapulgit). Antimuntah termasuk prometazin dan klorpromasin. Tidak satupun obat-obat ini terbukti mempunyai efek yang nyata untuk diare akut dan beberapa malahan mempunyai efek yang membahayakan. Obat-obat ini tidak boleh dibarikan pada anak < 5 tahun.

Penilaian derajat dehidrasi
Lihat :
Keadaan Umum


Air Mata
Mulut dan lidah
Rasa Haus

Periksa :
Turgor Kulit
Hasil Pemeriksaan


Baik, sadar


Minum biasa tidak haus

Kembali cepat
Tanpa dehidrasi

Rencana terapi A

Gelisah, rewel*


Tidak ada
Haus, ingin minum banyak*

Kembali lambat*
Dehidrasi ringan / sedang
Bila ada 1 tanda * ditambah 1 atau lebih tanda lain
Rencana terapi B

Lesuh, lunglai, atau tidak sadar*
Sangat cekung dan kering
Tidak ada
Sangat kering
Malas minum atau tidak bias minum*

Kembali sangat lambat*
Dehidrasi Berat
Bila ada 1 tanda * ditambah 1 atau lebih tanda lain

Rencana terapi C
Penilaian dimulai dengan melihat pada kolom C.
Rencana Terapi A
Digunakan untuk :
1.    Mengatasi diare tanpa dehidrasi
2.    Meneruskan terapi diare di rumah
3.    Memberikan terapi awal bila anak terkena diare lagi.
Tiga cara dasar terapi di rumah adalah sebagai berikut :
1.    Berikan anak lebih banyak cairan daripada biasanya untuk mencegah dehidrasi
2.    Beri anak makanan untuk mencegah kurang gizi
3.    Bawa anak kepada petugas bila anak tidak membaik dalam 3 hari atau menderita sebagai berikut :
·         Buang air besar cair sering kali
·         Muntah berulang-ulang
·         Sangat haus sekali
·         Makan dan minum sedikit
·         Demam
·         Tinja berdarah.
Rencana Terapi B
Dalam tiga jam pertama, berikan 75 ml/kgBB atau bila berat badan anak tidak diketahui dan atau memudahkan di lapangan, berikan oralit dengan dosis sebagai berikut :
Umur                                                Jumlah Oralit
< 1 tahun                                  300 ml
1 – 5 tahun                              600 ml
5 tahun lebih                        1.200 ml
Dewasa                                 2.400 ml
Amati anak dengan seksama dan bantu ibu memberikan oralit
Setelah 3-4 jam, nilai kembali anak kembali menggunakan bagan penilaian, kemudian pilih rencana terapi untuk melanjutkan pengobatan.
Bila ibu harus pulang sebelum selesai rencana pengobatan B :
AJN editor-in-chief Shawn Kennedy speaks with author John Parmer about his article, which provides an overview of tuberculosis transmission, pathogenesis, and epidemiology, presents preventive care recommendations for targeted testing among high-risk groups, and discusses the nursing implications of a new U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement on latent tuberculosis infection testing.
          Emerging Diseases        
New and Emerging diseases go under the microscope in this week's Naked Scientists, as we discover how new diseases arise, cross species barriers and spread throughout the population. We hear about the origins of HIV, the conditions that create hotspots for new pathogens and a fatal new virus found in Africa. Also, we find out why some people are genetically pre-disposed to AIDS, how the giardia bug changes coats to trick the immune system and why captive elephants live shorter lives than in the wild. Plus, in Kitchen Science, Ben takes the Tabasco Temperature Test to see how mints and chilli affect the temperature on your tongue!
          Your Child's Essential Shield This Summer - The Baby Sebamed pH 5.5 SPF 50 Sun Lotion        

Summer is already here! I mean I felt like it was summer in Mumbai right in the middle of February itself with temperatures hitting 38 degrees. Google also proves this to me every morning when it sends me messages not to step out as the UV rays are too strong. Things change with time, but who knew that with time the world would become a hotter place to live in! Well the issue of global warming is affecting us since a few years now, but instead of taking measures to slow it down, our country leaders continue to make developmental plans, which to fulfill, they do not mind chopping off humongous amounts of trees and mangroves that reduce atmospheric Carbon dioxide and prevent larger amounts of greenhouse gases from reaching the atmosphere. I remember when I was a kid, summer vacations would be the best part of the year because we would visit our native towns and play in the sun all day. In my childhood days, I never had a sun stroke or used any kind of sunscreen to stay safe from the sun because in those years, the UV rays weren't able to reach us that easily and there also were enough trees to protect us and reduce the atmospheric heat, but today that is not the case. Now we have this constant confusion on how to save ourselves from the heat and what to use to save our skin from the harmful rays of the sun.

My bigger worry is that if the heat and UV rays affect us as adults so much, then what must they be doing to a child whose skin is so delicate and much thinner than adults, and is still trying to cope up with the different weather changes. Summer means indulging our kids with a number of activities in the sun, but we also want to make sure that they are safe and don't get sunburns or develop allergies or rashes. Till last year I was protective about when to take Aryaa out in the sun since she was really small, but now she is a raging toddler who will not stay in the house when home. With Aryaa, I have been very particular with the products I use for her skin, because her skin is quite sensitive, so when Sebamed invited me and her for the launch of the the Baby Sebamed pH 5.5 SPF 50 Sun Lotion, I was delighted. Aryaa's pediatrician has always recommended Baby Sebamed as the brand is known for it's skin care products for kids with sensitive skin, and this launch is just in time to solve my summer dilemma of what to use for Aryaa's skin to save it from the harmful sun!

The event was educational as well as fun, with loads of activities for the kids including a photo booth set up cause every child loves to pose for the camera these days. Aryaa and me had a fun time posing around with the props. 

The highlight of the launch event was our participation in the activity to create a record for the most number of mothers and children below the age of 6 performing yoga in the India Book of Records. Before heading out, I applied the Baby Sebamed pH 5.5 SPF 50 Sun Lotion on Aryaa and her skin actually stayed supple, soft, protected and tan free despite being out in the 12 o clock sun. Aryaa had her share of fun in the sun doing yoga and playing in the ball pool which she loves.

And yes we did create the record! ðŸ˜Š

The reason why the Baby Sebamed pH 5.5 SPF 50 Sun Lotion makes me happy is because it is free from parabens, paraffin and PEG bonds. It is made from high quality, effective ingredients and a pH value of 5.5 thus perfect for baby skin which is 20% thinner than adult skin, and definitely needs products which are not harsh. It also is soap free. Having a pH value of 5.5 helps to maintain a protective UVB cover as well as the value of the hydrolipid film on the skin's surface that protects the skin from external influences like irritants, allergens, pathogens, and also prevents it from drying out, particularly in children’s early years. The Baby Sebamed Sun Lotion has a unique combination of physical and chemical sunscreen, provides 98% UVA protection and also contains 1% vitamin E along with hydrofructol which not only provides sun protection but also moistures the baby skin.  

The product gets additional brownie points due to the facts that the packaging is bio degradable, and that the product has not been put through any animal testing.

I take good care of my skin, so nothing but the best for Aryaa's skin as well. The Baby Sebamed pH 5.5 SPF 50 Sun Lotion is definitely going to take care of all my worries this summer! ðŸ˜Š

If you like what you see on Ri(t)ch Styles and want to stay updated regularly, follow Ri(t)ch Styles on

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You can also email me on ritchstyles@gmail.com :)

          Candida Yeast & CF        
I have long said that the role candida plays in a CF'ers health is critical and, I believe, long overlooked. Here is an article that seems to point to the fact I may not be 'that far out there' after all.

Medical Mycology:

Patients with CF are at an increased risk of acquiring Candida due to use of inhaled steroids,
diabetes mellitus and lifelong antibiotic treatment however despite its frequent isolation from
sputum, oral and vaginal swabs, it remains unclear what such culture actually means in
practical terms for CF clinicians

Candida as the second most frequent fungal growth to Aspergillus in the CF airway and such
growth has been associated with more severe CF where patients receive prolonged treatment
with antibiotics, glucocorticoids and probiotics (9-12). I

whilst invasive airway infection is a rare event, extent
of airway damage from hypersensitivity phenomena remain unknown ............{{This airway sensitization is what I experience as I have never cultured it in my airways but, due to chronic colonization of the gut I believe it increased my overall inflammatory levels in my body and causes reactive airways as well as increased allergies and chemical sensitivities}}

((risk factors for orally recovery include))....
include poor dentition, older age, diabetes mellitus, use of inhaled or systemic steroids,
smoking, malignancy and frequent antibiotic use. Oral thrush usually presents as discomfort
associated with a dry mouth and associated dysphagia. In some cases, altered taste is
experienced. The diagnosis is usually straightforward and by direct observation of white
membraneous plaques on the buccal mucosa or soft palate.

. In our own institution’s experience, we encounter regular instances of oral
candidiasis annually following courses of antibiotics but which resolve after a short burst of
anti-fungal treatment (Fluconazole). We recommend microbiological confirmation by
scrapings in all cases unless white plaques are directly observed on oral examination. This is
because some of the symptoms described are not specific to oral thrush but can be found in
associated vitamin deficiencies (B6, B12) or by simple blistering. We recommend that CF
patients attending routine clinic be screened for risk factors and questioned at three-monthly
intervals with regard to the symptoms of oral thrush including frequency of sore or dry
mouth, crusting lips, dysphagia, dysphonia or hoarseness and difficulties with taste.

Despite this clear lack of available
literature, we strongly recommend screening questions for infection at all CF clinic visits anddepending on clinical findings, anti-fungal treatment prescribed either empirically or
following microbiological confirmation.


A more commonly encountered systemic infection associated with Candida involves the
presence of a “port”. Candida species in this setting are
recognized as the most common infecting organism associated with a port resullting in

, a view of many clinicians and it may be
that the organism acts as nothing more than a microbiological marker of disease severity in
CF. To challenge this paradigm, we are currently prospectively evaluating whether airway
colonization by Candida albicans may act pathogenically by affecting clinical outcomes in
CF including FEV1, BMI, hospitalizations for infective exacerbations and sputum
colonization with Pseudomonas or Aspergillus species. Notably, a previous cross sectional
analysis of a European CF registry did show that Candida albicans colonization was
associated with 5-10% predicted decrease in pulmonary function


Bacteria and fungi are found together in a variety of
environments but particularly in biofilms, where adherent species interact through diverse
signaling mechanisms. In the host C. albicans can often be found growing with bacteria in
polymicrobial biofilms and interspecies interactions occur that can impact on the transition of
C. albicans between virulent and nonvirulent states (27). Under conditions of immune
dysfunction, such as in the CF lung, colonising C. albicans can become an opportunistic
Bacteria and fungi are found together in a variety of 
environments but particularly in biofilms, where adherent species interact through diverse 
signaling mechanisms. In the host C. albicans can often be found growing with bacteria in 
polymicrobial biofilms and interspecies interactions occur that can impact on the transition of 
C. albicans between virulent and nonvirulent states (27). Under conditions of immune 
dysfunction, such as in the CF lung, colonising C. albicans can become an opportunistic 

          'CFTR-opathies': disease phenotypes associated with cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutations        
*Note from Nicole: My post with my take on all of this to come but for a bit I am going to be posting articles related to 'atypical' or 'mild' CF.

CFTR-opathies': disease phenotypes associated with cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutations

Peadar G Noone 1 and Michael R Knowles1

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that is associated with abnormal sweat electrolytes, sino-pulmonary disease, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and male infertility. Insights into genotype/phenotype relations have recently been gained in this disorder. The strongest relationship exists between 'severe' mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and pancreatic insufficiency. The relationship between 'mild' mutations, associated with residual CFTR function, and expression of disease is less precise. Atypical 'mild' mutations in the CFTR gene have been linked to late-onset pulmonary disease, congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens, and idiopathic pancreatitis. Less commonly, sinusitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and possibly even asthma may also be associated with mutations in the CFTR gene, but those syndromes predominantly reflect non-CFTR gene modifiers and environmental influences.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease that is caused by mutations on both CFTR alleles, resulting in abnormal sweat electrolytes, sino-pulmonary disease, male infertility, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in 95% of patients [
1,2]. In its classic form, the disease is easily diagnosed early in life, through a combination of clinical evaluation and laboratory testing (including sweat testing, and CFTR mutation analysis) [3]. Depending on the ethnic background of the populations tested, common genetic mutations are identified in the majority of cases of CF. In the USA, two-thirds of patients carry at least one copy of the ΔF508 mutation, with approximately 50% of CF patients being homozygous for this mutation [4].

A wide spectrum of molecular abnormalities may occur in the CFTR gene, and uncommon mutations that result in partial (residual) CFTR function may be associated with nonclassic presentations of disease. Overall, 7% of CF patients are not diagnosed until age 10 years, with a proportion not diagnosed until after age 15 years; some of these patients present a considerable challenge in establishing a diagnosis of CF. Moreover, the phenotype in these patients may vary widely [
5,6]. The focus of the present review is on nonclassic phenotypes associated with mutations in the CFTR gene, which may manifest as male infertility (congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens [CBAVD]), mild pulmonary disease and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP). These phenotypes are included within the definition of 'atypical CF'.

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator: the relationship between gene mutations and function

CFTR is a transmembrane spanning protein with multiple activities that are related to normal epithelial cell function [
2]. Mutations in CFTR result in abnormalities in epithelial ion and water transport, which are associated with derangements in airway mucociliary clearance and other cellular functions related to normal cell biology [7]. Depending on the molecular abnormality, the defect in CFTR may be the equivalent of that associated with a 'null' mutation, or may be 'mild', with partial/residual function [4]. At one end of the spectrum of severity, 'null' or 'severe' mutations reflect nonsense, frame-shift or splice mutations; these result in absence of production of functional CFTR, which correlates strongly with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, but less strongly with severity of lung disease. At the other end of the spectrum, 'mild' mutations may result in some production of functional CFTR protein at the apical membrane, with partial CFTR channel function, and are generally associated with pancreatic sufficiency and milder pulmonary disease.

The molecular basis for the severity of mutations may derive from the extent to which normal mRNA transcription or protein synthesis takes place; for example, splice mutations may influence the efficiency of normal/abnormal CFTR mRNA transcription to varying degrees. In turn, the severity of the abnormality in CFTR may relate directly to the phenotypic expression of disease, with absent function causing more severe disease, whereas some residual function may modulate the severity of disease in different organ systems. Clinically, this may be reflected in normal or borderline sweat chloride values in patients with atypical CF.
Other factors, including non-CFTR gene modifiers and environmental influences, are probably also associated with the severity of disease.
Given this background, it is not surprising that disease expression is complex and that nonclassic CF phenotypes exist.

Phenotypes associated with atypical cystic fibrosis

Table 1 provides a schema of how mutations on one or both alleles of the CFTR gene might relate to nonclassic phenotypic expression of disease. 'Atypical CF' includes those clinical phenotypes that have the strongest associations with mutations in the CFTR gene: CBAVD in males, mild pulmonary disease and ICP.

Table 1
Hierarchy of associations with mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene

Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens

Although not all males with CBAVD have mutations in the CFTR gene, approximately 50% have abnormal CFTR alleles [8]. Generally, one 'severe' allele is combined with one 'mild' allele, such that the 'mild' allele appears to dominate and cause the milder phenotype (e.g. ΔF508 in combination with R117H). Routine screening for common mutations that does not take into account milder or rarer mutations may miss many of the mild mutations associated with this particular clinical expression of disease [8]. This combination of mutations may occur in other forms of atypical CF (see below).

One particular abnormality deserves a special mention – the various alleles of the polythymidine tract in the intron 8 (IVS8) of the CFTR gene [9]. Of the three alleles that have been identified in IVS8 (5T, 7T and 9T), the 9T allele is associated with the most efficient usage of the intron 8 splice acceptor site. This efficiency decreases with shorter polythymidine tracts (5T and 7T), which results in a lower than normal level of full-length CFTR mRNA and presumably in a decrease in mature, functional CFTR protein. For example, the mild CFTR mutation R117H is influenced by the polythymidine tract sequence, such that an R117H-bearing allele in cis with a 7T allele may result in CBAVD, whereas when R117H is associated with the 5T allele the phenotypic expression may be associated with atypical CF. R117H with a 9T allele may exhibit a normal phenotype. The 5T allele under the influence of other sequence variants in the CFTR gene may also be associated with atypical CF [10].

Although males with CBAVD may present to urology clinics, with no discernable lung or other organ presentation of disease, a careful work-up should be carried out to determine whether subtle lung disease is present. Evidence of CFTR dysfunction may be found on laboratory testing, with abnormal or borderline sweat chloride levels and/or abnormal CFTR-mediated chloride conductance in nasal epithelia [11,12]. Whether lung disease may develop later in life in these generally young males remains to be determined, but they should at least be counseled regarding lung health and cigarette smoking.

Mild pulmonary disease
Older patients with mild pulmonary disease, including bronchiectasis, may not present with symptoms until later in life, but are found to have atypical CF when appropriate investigations are carried out, including normal or borderline sweat chlorides and pancreatic sufficiency [
10]. Thus, as with CBAVD, a careful work-up is mandatory. This should include not only a standard diagnostic work-up, including a sweat chloride and radiologic screening for subtle lung disease, but also nasal potential difference measures in order to evaluate CFTR at a physiologic level, and screening for mild and rare CFTR mutations [10]. A 'severe' mutation may be found on one allele, with a 'mild' mutation, such as the 5T abnormality (with or without other abnormalities in the CFTR gene), on the other allele. The level of expression of full-length mature CFTR may be less than that in CBAVD, with adverse consequences for the lung, albeit with a later presentation [10]. Although the pulmonary disease is milder than that with classic CF, these patients generally exhibit phenotypic similarities to CF; for example, the distribution of radiographic changes often involve the upper lobe, and mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be present in the lower airway.

Idiopathic bronchiectasis (IB) could loosely be defined as bronchiectasis in which no clear cause has been found, and in which the clinical pattern differs from CF and other known causes of bronchiectasis. Two studies [13,14] suggested that IB may be linked to mutated CFTR. In one study [13], five out of 16 patients with IB harbored the 5T allele in the CFTR gene. Of those, two were 5T/5T homozygotes. Insufficient data were supplied regarding the clinical phenotype in the five patients harboring the 5T allele to draw any firm conclusions as to whether they would otherwise fulfill rigorous diagnostic criteria for CF [3]. In the second study [14], from France, 13 mutations were found in 16 CFTR alleles in 32 patients with idiopathic bronchiectasis. Only six of the 13 mutations were confirmed to be CF-causing mutations, with the remainder hypothesized as being 'potentially' CF causing. Four patients were compound heterozygotes, and all 11 of the patients who harbored mutations had abnormal sweat chloride levels (>60 mmol/l), with apparently no clear-cut evidence of CF otherwise ('isolated bronchiectasis'). Girodon et al. [14] speculated that IB might be related, at least in part, to mutated CFTR, with possible other factors at play. In any such population, atypical or variant CF is likely to be present in a proportion of patients studied in detail.

Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis
Recent reports [
5,6,15,16] suggest that patients with an ICP phenotype have an increased incidence of mutations in CFTR. Such patients generally present with symptoms of pancreatitis at an older age than those patients with classic CF. Because CF carriers represent 3–4% of the general population, it is important to know whether one or two mutations predispose to ICP. Although the data initially appeared to suggest that patients with one mutation in CFTR were at risk, subsequent studies have borne out the observation of a link between mutated CFTR on both alleles and ICP.

A rigorous search was conducted for other mutations in patients with one CFTR mutation, and CFTR function in nasal epithelia was assessed in vivo in patients with ICP [17]. Sequencing of the CFTR gene indicated that nine out of 41 patients with ICP had two abnormal CFTR alleles; again the combination of 'severe' and 'mild', and having two mutations increased the risk for ICP 40-fold. ICP patients with two abnormal CFTR alleles had reduced CFTR-mediated chloride conductance in nasal epithelia as compared with ICP control individuals. The number of CFTR heterozygotes with ICP was no higher than is expected in the general population. These data strongly suggest that abnormalities on both alleles are required for expression of 'CF-related ICP', perhaps with some added influence from mutations in pancreatic inhibitor genes (PRSS1, PSTI) [18].

Other phenotypes associated with mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene
Other sino-pulmonary syndromes have been studied to test for a link to mutated CFTR; sinusitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and asthma. However, the likelihood is that they predominantly reflect non-CFTR gene modifiers and environmental influences.

In a recent study [
19], DNA from 147 patients with chronic rhino-sinusitis was screened for 16 CFTR mutations, including the 5T sequence, and patients with a mutation had their DNA screened over the entire coding region. Eleven patients had a mutation in CFTR (all severe mutations, and one patient eventually developed CF), as compared with two out of 123 control individuals, whereas there was no difference in the incidence of the 5T allele between controls and study subjects. There was also a higher frequency of the M470V polymorphism on the opposite allele to that containing a severe mutation as compared with control individuals. Physiologic testing in the sinusitis patients showed normal indices of nasal epithelial sodium transport, with a slight reduction in CFTR-mediated chloride conductance. The authors of that report concluded that the combination of a severe mutation on one allele with a sequence variant that is not normally associated with CF on the opposite allele may be responsible. An analogy is again drawn with the other non-classic phenotypes, with enough residual CFTR function to protect against early, classic sino-pulmonary disease and a pancreatic phenotype, but clearly other non-CFTR factors may also be at play (Table 1).

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Although Aspergillus fumigatus is ubiquitous in nature, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in only a small number of patients with asthma and CF; thus, genetic factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of ABPA in some patients. A study from several years ago [
20] showed that, in a small number of patients who met criteria for ABPA, there was a higher frequency of abnormal CFTR alleles than expected. The authors of that report speculated that mutations in CFTR may play a role in the pathogenesis of ABPA, either as a result of heterozygosity alone (and 50% CFTR function), or heterozygosity plus other genetic factors that were not detected by the methods used in the study. The situation is probably similar to that in asthma, with genetic factors outside of CFTR, together with environmental influences, playing major roles.

There are conflicting data as to whether mutations in the CFTR gene are over-represented in patients with asthma [
21,22,23]. In Denmark, a questionnaire study was carried out in a cohort of carriers of the ΔF508 mutation in CFTR [24]. Of 250 adults studied, it appeared that 9% reported symptoms of asthma, as compared with 6% of control non-carriers, with airways obstruction being present in those carriers with symptoms of asthma. However, there are clear limitations in a study of this kind, relying solely on a questionnaire for diagnosis. A second study investigated 144 patients with documented asthma [22], and identified 15 missense mutations in the CFTR gene of 15 patients, compared with none in a small control group. When tests were carried out in a larger control group, however, the differences lost significance. In contrast, several other studies failed to show a link between mutations in CFTR and asthma, and if anything show a protective effect [23]. Thus, there is little evidence to support a link between asthma and abnormalities in CFTR, such that, if there is a link, then it plays a small role in the overall pathogenesis of disease, with a much larger role played both by genetic factors outside of CFTR and by environmental influences (Table 1).

Mutated CFTR may be associated with an atypical CF phenotype in the sino-pulmonary tract, pancreas, and male genital tract, with reduced CFTR epithelial function. Although abnormalities in the CFTR gene may play a minor role in the pathogenesis of asthma, sinusitis, and ABPA in subsets of patients, these diseases predominantly result from genetic (non-CFTR) and nongenetic environmental influences.

ABPA = allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis; CBAVD = congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens; CF = cystic fibrosis; CFTR = cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator; IB = idiopathic bronchiectasis; ICP = idiopathic chronic pancreatitis.

Keywords: asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), mutations, pancreatitis, phenotype

          A Mysterious Anonymous Letter Was Allegedly Behind Target’s Hampton Creek Recall        

The envelope of a letter sent to a retailer this summer, containing allegations about Hampton Creek's products. The return address names Josh Tetrick, Hampton Creek's CEO; the company says he did not write this letter.

An investigator hired by Hampton Creek, the Silicon Valley food startup famous for its eggless mayonnaise, says a mysterious entity appears to be trying to sabotage it.

An unsigned letter sent this summer to an unnamed major retailer claimed that Hampton Creek had contaminated and mislabeled products, according to the investigator. And the return address indicated that it was from CEO Josh Tetrick — even though Hampton Creek denies he wrote it.

The investigator told BuzzFeed News this was one of two known such anonymous letters — and the other was sent to Target, which issued a high-profile recall of Hampton Creek’s products as a result.

While it’s unclear whether the two letters were identical or sent by the same person, the identity of the sender or senders is “the million-dollar question,” said the investigator, who requested anonymity. “It’s clearly fraud.” He also said that Hampton Creek is “weighing their legal options.”

At the time of its recall in late June, Target publicly said that the allegations it had received were unconfirmed, but specific and serious enough to warrant action.

Those claims included allegations that pathogens like salmonella and listeria were found in Hampton Creek products and at one of the facilities where the company’s products are made; that some products were incorrectly labeled as non-genetically modified; and that the company failed to list honey as an ingredient in its sweet mustard salad dressing.

Bryan Bedder / Getty Images

This week, Hampton Creek said it’s working to get back on Target’s shelves after the Food and Drug Administration reviewed its products and told the company it found nothing of concern. Target had carried around 20 of Hampton Creek’s items, which include eggless mayonnaise, cookies, cookie dough, and salad dressing.

“More than a month ago, Target was led to believe that several of our products were mislabeled or unsafe,” Hampton Creek spokesperson Andrew Noyes said in a statement. “We’ve remained confident that our products were safe and properly labeled, and that when presented with the facts, the FDA would agree. As expected, they have. They informed us, after reviewing applicable evidence, that the matter is closed.”

A Target spokesperson did not immediately return a request for comment.

News of the Target recall was originally broken by Bloomberg. The investigator said that in addition to being mailed in an envelope with a return label that falsely named Tetrick, the letter also indicated that a copy was sent to Bloomberg.

This is the latest twist in a tumultuous summer for Hampton Creek. Last month, Bloomberg reported that at least five members have left the startup’s board of directors, leaving only Tetrick.

But on Tuesday, Hampton Creek also got the effective green light from the FDA to use a proprietary ingredient — a mung bean protein isolate — in a forthcoming product, Just Scramble, an egg substitute that scrambles like an egg.

LINK: Hampton Creek Has Ditched Its Name, And Is Now "Just."

          Endo Pills - 14        
Informação cientifica de ação rápida - Ano 3 N° 14

Curso de Especialização em Endocrinologia - PUC
Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione
Prof.: Luiz César Povoa (A48)
Ricardo Martins Rocha Meirelles (A38)
Editores: Rosa Rita Santos Martins (A34), Isabela Bussade (A8) e Denise Momesso (R2)
Editores Associados: Walmir Coutinho (A22), Edna Pottes (A35) e Claudia Pieper (A22)
Composição Gráfica: Wallace Margoniner

Prezados colegas, nesta edição do Endo Pills trazemos alguns pôsteres apresentados no ICE- International Congress of Endocrinology pelo IEDE.

O ICE foi um grande orgulho, não só para o Brasil por ter sido sede de tão importante evento, mas principalmente para o Rio de Janeiro e nossa Instituição, que teve na presidência e vice presidência Dr Amélio Godoy e Dr Ricardo Meirelles, além de participação expressiva de grande numero de staffs e alunos do IEDE, tanto como congressistas, palestrantes como nas apresentações orais e pôsteres.
Nesta edição temos a possibilidade de ver, ou rever, o excelente nível do material científico que representou nossa instituição neste importante evento.
Boa leitura a todos
Isabela Bussade


OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of parathyroid adenoma (pa) emerging 18 years after radioactive iodine therapy (rait).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report a case of a patient with graves` disease who developed primary hyperparathyroidism (hpt) 18 years after rait in the endocrinology service of the IEDE.

RESULTS: AASD, 63 years-old (yo), female with a previously known history of graves` disease, first diagnosed in 1973, with ocular disease associated, when she was 25 yo. Initial therapy was with methimazol for about 3 years. First remission occurred in 1976 when she stopped her medical treatment. On follow-up there was a recurrence in 1978 when she again restarted treatment, this time with propiltiouracil. In 1979 achieved remission again. For more two times on evolution remissions and fails occurred. After the last recurrence she underwent rait with 9 mci of 131i and thus hypothyroidism developed. levotiroxin (lt4) therapy was initiated and tittered until a dose of 62,5mcg per day. in 2005 she started bilateral legs and arms pain and fatigue that worsened in 2007 when laboratorial analysis was ordered as follows: total calcium (ca) 14,1mg/dl [normal range(nr): 8,5-10,2]; phosphorus (p) 1,8mg/dl (nr: 2,8-4,1); pth: 496pg/ml (nr: 16,6-65). Medical therapy for hypercalcemia was started with saline infusion, furosemide and pamidronete but was no effective. The new dosages of ca, p and pth were respectively 14; 2, 3 and 666. An ultrasound was obtained and a nodule in the posterior aspect of the left lobe was found. A fine needle aspiration (fna) with subsequent imunohistochemical analysis showed parathyroid cells. An inferior left parathyroid was performed and demonstrated a parathyroid adenoma.

CONCLUSION: according to some authors, the rait could be a risk factor for hpt, including pa. observations indicate that not only external radiation, but also radiation from 131i is a risk factor for development of hpt and it is emphasized that age at the time of radiation treatment may be of decisive importance in this context. In a recent review of cases the average latency time to the development of hpt after rait was 13,5 ± 9,1 years. Serum calcium surveillance has been suggested for patients who have undergone rait treatment.
Warszawski L; Canton APM; Puppin BA; Novaes FS; Frota RSC; Zagury RL; Campos SC


INTRODUCTION: Pituitary apoplexy is a rare event, particularly in functioning pituitary adenomas. Tumor size reduction may follow, but endocrine remission has been rarely described.

CASE REPORT: A case of pituitary apoplexy resulting in acromegaly endocrine remission is reported. a 37-year-old male patient was referred to the diabetes and endocrinology state institute (IEDE), presenting acromegalic phenotype, with a 15- year evolution prior to diagnosis, along with recent complaints of headache, asteny and mucous-cutaneous paleness. A computed tomography (ct) scan was performed and revealed an intrasellar hipodense mass suggestive of pituitary adenoma. One year later, the patient had clinical and laboratorial findings of panhypopituitarism and was admitted for diagnostic procedures. A magnetic resonance imaging (mri) demonstrated disappearance of the mass and empty turcic sella.

DISCUSSION: acute pituitary apoplexy is the sudden neurological breakdown that follows a fulminant expansion of the gland, caused by isquemic or haemorrhagic events. The typical clinical presentation, with marked neurological signs and symptoms, is observed in only 6 to 10% of the cases, and can be the first pituitary adenoma manifestation. In the rest of the patients, the pytuitary function is rather preserved, with moderate symptoms, such as headache. In those cases, subclinical pituitary apoplexies frequently go underdiagnosed. Depending on the amount of destruction, permanent or transient, posterior or anterior pituitary disfunction might occur. gonadotrophins deficiency is more frequent, followed by acth and tsh deficiency, and less usually, abnomal prolactin secretion. Empty sella may appear as an outcome of massive pituitary tumor infarction. a few cases of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma necrosis resulting in spontaneous remission and panhypopituitarism have been described in the literature. However, the term cure is not applicable, once the definitive evolution of those cases is still unknown.

CONCLUSION: this case report is ment to raise awareness of this rarely described syndrome, which is also known as exhausted acromegaly. Furthermore, the apoplexy is generally subclinical; wich imposes an even greater diagnostic challenge. Therefore, pituitary adenoma spontaneous resolution may be more prevalent than estimated.
Warzawsky L, Costa DFP, Bragança JB, Lemos H, Sterza L, Farage M


OBJECTIVE: to describe the association of the rare complication of jaundice with thyrotoxicosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: we report the clinical and laboratory findings of a case of severe jaundice (total bilirubin levels: 52, 30 mg/dl) associated with hiperthyroidism and heart failure. We made an overview of previously published cases of c oexistent thyrotoxicosis and jaundice, methimazole- and carbimazole-induced hepatotoxicity and approach to treatment found in a medline search.

RESULTS: in a 54 year-old white woman with hyperthyroidism, treatment with methimazole 40 mg /day was initiated. One month later, scleral icterus, dark urine, fatigue and abdominal discomfort prompted discontinuation of the therapy. Laboratory findings were: alanine and aspartate aminotransferase 46 u/i (n: <31) and 87 u/i (n: <31) respectively, alkaline phosphatase 226 u/i (n: 35-104), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase 138 iu/i (n: 7-32) and bilirubin 44 mg/di (n: <1). Abdominal ultrasonography showed normal bile ducts; echocardiography showed heart failure. Lithium therapy was applied before radioiodine therapy. She was treated with 17 mci of 131i and, persisting in hyperthyroidism, five months later received a new treatment with 25 mci of 131i. The highest values of bilirubin were found in moments of heart failure exacerbation, reaching the upper value of 52, 30 mg/dl. Resolution of the jaundice occurred after 28 weeks without methimazole.

CONCLUSION: the data strongly suggest that in this patient, the hepatic dysfunction was primarily due to hyperthyroidism observing the long time to resolution of her jaundice. It is a rare complication and h ypotheses regarding the cause of cholestasis in hyperthyroidism per se suggest that the hypermetabolic state increases the hepatic oxygen consumption without simultaneous increasing in the hepatic blood flow thus lowering the oxygen tension and interfering with bile transport. Besides, increased liver metabolism in response to thyroid hormone increases the rate of bile flow to the point of saturation. Also, there is the possibility of direct toxic effect of t4, but studies have not confirmed this. Considering her cardiovascular disorder, therapy with lithium carbonate was a useful adjunct to rai therapy to prevent exacerbation of thyrotoxicosis. Coexistent heart failure is a predisponent factor to severe jaundice in association with hyperthyroidism.
Novaes, FS; Souza, MVL; Canton, APM; Puppin, BA


INTRODUCTION: Hyperthyrodism may present with a variety of cardiovascular symptoms. Recent reports suggest an association between hyperthyroidism with pulmonary hypertension (ph) and isolated right heart failure. We described a case report of a ph secondary to hyperthyroidism which improved after restoration of euthyroid state.

CASE REPORT: 72 years old women presented with exertion dyspnea, fatigue, palpitation, bilateral leg edema, ascites and weight lost. Physical examination showed irregular heart beat, signs of right heart failure and no evidence of pulmonary congestion or disease. atrial fibrillation was confirmed by electrocardiogram. Echocardiogram revealed isolated right heart failure, severe tricuspid regurgitation and ph, with pulmonary artery pressure (pap) of 65 mmhg. work up for the common secondary causes of ph was negative, including, congenital intra-cardiac shunts, left-side atrial or ventricular heart disease, disorders of the respiratory system including hypoxemia and pulmonary tromboembolism, collagen vascular disease, primary portal hypertension, hiv infection, schistossoma mansoni infection, as well as ph secondary to drugs or toxins. The only concurrent illness identified was graves disease, by laboratory findings of thyrotoxicosis and positive thyroid peroxidase (tpo) autoantibody. Treatment was initiated with propylthiouracil, oral anticoagulation (because of atrial fibrillation) and diuretics. One month later, euthyroid state was achieved and there was clinical resolution of right heart failure. After one year of outpatient follow-up, an echocardiogram was performed and revealed improvement of ph, with pap of 35 mmhg, mild tricuspid regurgitation and normal right heart function.

CONCLUSION: elevated pulmonary pressure may be a frequent finding in thyrotoxicosis, but often unrecognized. It may be asymptomatic or associated with right heart failure. The exact reasons for the development of ph in thyroid disease are not clear. Most importantly, hyperthyroidism is a potential reversible cause of ph and it should be included in the etiology of secondary pulmonary hypertension.
Momesso DP; Puppin BA; Tavares P; Mattos PE; Souza MVL.


INTRODUCTION:Mauriac’s Syndrome (MS) is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus type 1 (dm1), characterized by hepatomegaly, growth failure and poor glycemic control, described mainly in children and teenagers. We present an adult female with ms.

CASE REPORT: 22 years old female with dm1 since age of 6, presenting hepatomegaly, high hba1c and variability on smbg , great elevation of liver enzymes, triglicerides (>1000 mg/dl), total cholesterol (543 mg/dl), ldlc (245 mg/dl) and hba1c (13%), modest elevation of alkaline phosphatase and normal billirubin. weight 44 kg, height 1,51m, bmi of 18,8kg/m2. ultrasound detected hepatomegaly and fatty infiltration aspect. hepatitis panel showed only hepatitis b past immunization. ceruloplasmin, ferritin, transferring saturation were normal. autoimmune hepatitis was excluded. liver biopsy showed glycogen deposits in the hepatocytes and evidence of steatohepatitis. she was treated with pioglitazone, ursodiol, genfibrozil, atorvastatin , glargine and lispro insulins. liver enzymes trended downwards as her glucose management improved, but it took 4 years to normalize.

DISCUSSION: The differential diagnosis of her liver disease included autoimmune hepatitis, acute hepatitis, wilson`s disease and hemochromatosis, which were excluded. Her signs and symptoms could be explained by ms: hepatomegaly, glycogen infiltration of the liver and short stature in people with poorly controlled diabetes. hypertriglyceridemia is due to poor glycemic control and ms. steatosis and glycogenosis should be distinguished by histology. Whereas steatosis may progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis, glycogenosis does not. Liver biopsy, on this case, showed both glycogenosis and steatohepatitis. The better glycemic control reverted liver enzymes alterations and hepatomegaly, suggesting that the major component of hepatic disease was glycogenosis. Other medications, such as pioglitazone, might have collaborated to improvement.

CONCLUSION: even though ms has become rare, it should be considered not only in children, but also in adults with dm1, acute hepatomegaly and abnormal liver function. The diagnosis is important because prolonged improvement of hba1c can normalize liver function, hypertriglyceridemia and also prevent dm1 acute and chronic complications.

Kupfer R, Farage M, Costa DFP, Bragança JB, Sterza L, Lemos H - IEDE


INTRODUCTION: Thyroid eye disease (ted), the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of graves` disease, is an auto-immune disorder. It can occur before, concomitantly or after hyperthyroidism. Different forms of treatments for thyrotoxicosis can influence the ted course. thyroidectomy should be theoretically more beneficial to graves` orbitopathy outcome because of the removal of the source of both thyroid- orbit cross reaction auto antigens and auto reactive t lymphocytes.

CASE REPORT: A 58 years old women presented with graves disease and was initially treated with thionamides for two years. At the diagnosis she had only mild left exophthalmos and no eye complaint. Subsequently, thyroid resection was indicated as a result of goiter enlargement, development of nodules and compressive symptoms. euthyroid state was achieved. Four months after surgery, progression of orbitopathy was observed. She developed ocular manifestations like pain on eye movement, eyelid edema, conjunctival injection, double vision and bilateral exophthalmos. Orbital radiotherapy and intravenous glucocorticoids used in combination improved her eye disease.

DISCUSSION: According to literature, thionamides are associated with improve or does no affect the course of ted. The relationship between radioiodine therapy and ted is a matter of controversy. The few randomized and controlled studies available, suggest a small but definitive risk of causing ted progression, but can be prevented by concomitant glucocorticoids. The effect of thyroid surgery on ted has been extensively reported in the literature, and the reports usually advocate thyroid resection as an important treatment to improve eye disease. We described a case in which ted occurred after surgery, despite the removal of the source of autoantigens and the control of thyroid function. This observation suggests that the choice of treatment for thyrotoxicosis may not influence ted outcome.

CONCLUSION: Graves´ orbitopathy pathogenesis and natural history may involve several different mechanisms which have still to be more deeply studied. Most importantly, ted might have a clinical course independent of thyroid disease and type of treatment.
Puppin, BA; Momesso, DP; Satake, F; Canton, AP; Souza, MVL.


INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune diseases often coexist in clinical practice and may be associated with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (aps). the diagnosis of aps should be suspected in the natural history of any autoimmune disease.

CASE REPORT: 25 year-old woman, presented with muscle weakness and dysarthria that increased during periods of activity. Myasthenia gravis was diagnosed and treatment with pyridostigmine and prednisone was started. After 2 weeks, she developed blurred vision, polydipsia, polyuria, vaginal pruritus and was admitted in our hospital with non-ketotic hyperglycemia. Laboratory evaluation: glycemia=1374mg/dl, c peptide=5.1ng/ml (1.1–5.0), anti-insulin antibody (ab) =3.0u/ml (<1.0), anti-gad ab=1.0u/ml (<1.0), anti-islets ab=1.1u/ml (<1.0), anti-acetylcholine receptor ab=9.02nmol/l (<0.15), anti-peroxidase<20 ui/ml (<40). Subcutaneous rapid insulin, then nph, was started. She was discharged in use of nph 28 + 12 ui, rapid insulin before meals according to scale and pyridostigmine. At the outpatient clinic, adequate metabolic control was achieved (hba1c=5%) with low doses of insulin (0.2u/kg/day) and the posterior laboratory evaluation showed positive anti-gad ab=9.6u/ml and normal c peptide level=1.7ng/ml. After 2 years, she developed polydipsia, polyuria, nausea, vomiting and hyperglycemia, hba1c was 10.7% and it was necessary to increase insulin doses. A morning plasma cortisol of 22mcg/dl excluded adrenal insufficiency.

DISCUSSION: Screening of serological organ-specific autoantibodies identifies patients who may develop autoimmune polyendocrinopathies. aps type ii involves the coexistance of addison´s disease with type 1 diabetes mellitus (dm) and/or autoimmune thyroid disease. Some patients also present with, or later develop other organ-specific autoimmune disorders, including myasthenia gravis. This patient presented with myasthenia gravis and type 1 dm. at the moment, there is no evidence of adrenal insufficiency in order to diagnose aps ii, but in up to 30% of patients dm1 is diagnosed before adrenal insufficiency.

CONCLUSION: Patients with endocrine autoimmune diseases should be screened for the presence of APS.
Lima GAB, Mattos PE, Tavares P, Momesso DP, Henriques RP, Kupfer R.


OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of cutaneous vasculitis glyburide induced and to discuss its frequency, clinical, pathophisiological and histological issues.

materials and methods- 51 year’s old male with long standing type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted as an inpatient to our hospital with an itching cutaneous rash, fever, polyartalgia, malaise and edema of the upper and lower limbs. He related a recent onset of glyburide use two weeks before presentation. He denied use of other medications. On physical examination there was a generalized cutaneous discamation with exulcerations and fissure associated. Superior and inferior limbs edema, bilateral cervical, mandibular and inguinal adenopathy was also seen.he had right superior quadrant tenderness and hepatomegaly on abdominal palpation. glyburide was then discontinued and intensive insulin therapy was started. Laboratory analysis was ordered to check wbc, rbc, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (esr), alt, ast, sodium, potassium, urea, creatinin, glucose and a skin biopsy.

RESULTS: The exams revealed an normocitic and normochromic anemia, esr elevation with normal liver tests. The skin biopsy showed a difuse mononuclear inflammatory infiltration with eosinophils within it. thickness of capilar walls and extravasation of hematias suggestive of drug induced vasculitis. eight days after drug withdrawal, anti-hystaminic oral therapy and topical corticosteroids the patient underwent a complete resolution of the lesions and was discharged to our outpatient clinic.

CONCLUSION: After extensive medical literature research on the major journals of the area we have found only a few case reports similar to this one. Over a clinical point of view we can classificate this picture as a pharmacodermia probably glyburide induced. The physiopathology is centered on the immune complex deposition due to chronic exposition to the drug itself or its radicals so eventually cross reaction is seen with sulfonamides antibiotics. The hystopathologic analysis confirms the clinical hypothesis as drug induced cutaneous vasculitis. The clinical manifestations can be restricted to the skin but in some cases as it was in the case described above systemic involvement is seen denoting a more severe form. cutaneous parefects of glyburide are rarely seen although once its wast use its real incidence maybe higher than described on literature.

Rosane Kupfer, Maria Teresa Menegat, Rosana Leal Santos, Roberto Zagury, Roberta Frota, Ronei Gustavo Paim de Vargas.
UMUMNYA untuk mencegah kontaminasi mikroba pada telur dilakukan pencucian dengan ditergen alkalin. Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Universitas Penn State menemukan bahwa air dari oksidasi elektrolit (EO/electrolyzed oxidizing) terbukti dapat juga menetralisir kontaminasi bakteri. EO dihasilkan dari pelarut garam (12%) dan merupakan hasil produk pemisahan. Penelitian yang dilakukan adalah dengan jalan menggunakan telur yang telah terkontaminasi S. enteritidis dengan E. coli kemudian telur tersebut dicuci dengan cairan ini. Penggunaan EO ini ternyata dapat mengeliminasi/mengurangi sejumlah kuman pathogen tersebut. Peneliti menyimpulkan bahwa penggunaan EO sangat potensial digunakan sebagai agen sanitasi telur untuk mencegah kontaminasi mikroba merugikan.
Apakah metode ini dapat di aplikasikan oleh peternak di Indonesia? Tidak ada salahnya jika metode ini dilakukan. Hanya saja perlu dipertimbangkan, apakah efektif dan bisa menguntungkan...
Roli Sofwah Hakim, Technical Service & Development, CPI, Jakarta (Sumber : Poultry International).
          Bread of Heaven        
Right now I am working with fellow editors on the next issue of Dark Mountain. It's a non-fiction and visual exploration of technology and tools, juxtaposing an increasingly machine-dominated world and a de-industrialised way of life that is hand-made, reskilled, in tempo with the planet. This is a piece originally written in 2009 for a book about East Anglian food crops, co-produced with Josiah Meldrum (now of Hodmedod's beans, peas and quinoa) called Roots, Shoots and Seeds. This chapter centres on wheat, the dominant crop of Western civilisation, and the makers and bakers of real bread.

There are seventeen of us in a room at the Baptist church on Boltolph Steet – a farmer, a miller, several bakers, wholefood shopkeepers, members of Transition Norwich, Professor Martin Wolfe of the Organic Research Institute and Andrew Whitley of the Village Bakery and author of Bread Matters. We are meeting to discuss Resilient Bread, the project that aims to create a sustainable supply of bread for Norwich, using locally milled flour from English wheat, grown on Norfolk farms.

There is a plate being passed around and on it are not wafers but slices of real wholemeal bread, baked by a neighbourhood community store. Everyone is looking at each other as if we can’t quite believe we are all in the same room together, eating those slices and listening to these lectures about peak oil and agriculture, about the natural selection of wheat genotypes that can thrive in eco-systems undergoing climate change. It’s hard somehow to get all those graphs and words about the future to relate to the rough brown food in our mouths.

Andrew Whitley, master baker, has worked with organic flour milled in a local water mill for many years. He is a neat and compact man with a keen intensity and a round face. Whereas the other speakers stood in front of us as they spoke, he remains seated within our circle and leans forward to reveal the secrets and horrors of the industrialised bread trade. Maybe it’s because he was once in the BBC Russian service that he emanates such a conspiratorial air (he is famous in bread circles for bringing a Russian sourdough culture into Britain 19 years ago that has since spawned thousands of loaves throughout the land). It was his rediscovery of the sour dough process that eventually led to the Real Bread Campaign which he launched last year (2008).

It is half-way through his speech about the infamous Chorleywood baking process that I find myself suddenly looking at a universal truth. It’s one of those moments that opens like a door sometimes when you pay attention, notebook in hand. One minute the speaker is talking about their subject and the next they are talking about Life. Whitley was talking about time. Bread is all about time: time to mix, time to prove, time to bake. The key to real bread is in allowing enough kneading time so the gluten in the flour is activated, and enough proving time for the yeast to expand the dough to twice its size.

Gluten is a protein that when kneaded makes an elasticated web, “like a series of tiny balloons” that become filled with gas from the fermentation. Yeast is a tiny mushroom, arguably the most successful symbiont with man. It is born to ferment. It ferments our food and drink and transforms them - wine, asses milk, bread and beer. Wild yeasts appear naturally in sour dough starters (made from fermented water and flour) as well as lactic acid bacteria. Sour dough was how all bread was made until the manufacture of commercial yeast. The longer you leave these agents to do their work, the greater the nutritional quality of the bread.

Industrial baking, invented in Chorleywood in the 1960’s, has not got time to spend on the niceties of natural alchemy, on these subtle relationships between gluten and yeast and lactobacilli, and has invented deviant ways to by-pass them. Whitley is listing them: high-speed mixers, addition of hydrogenated fats and water, increased use of commercial yeast, bleach, preservatives, a cocktail of artificially-mixed enzymes, as well as countless additives and emulsifiers (the so-called flour improvers). All these deny bread its natural fermentation time. And it is this cheating of time, he argues, that leads to the malfunctions within the Western diet: all its disorders of stomach and guts, its huge ballooning of bodies.

Robbed of time industrialised bread brings disorder into the digestive system. Robbed of its rough coat of wheatgerm, the grain gives no nutrition. We keep eating but nothing satisfies our deep hunger. We pay 19p for something that should cost us £2.50. The staff of life has become an industrialised commodity without any connection with our physical beings or our intelligence. Our minds are no longer paying attention to what is on the plate but are elsewhere fixed on the cheap fast dreams of cities. On escapes and fantasies. Caught in a treadmill of hard labour, we are grabbing breakfast toast and lunchtime sandwiches, pizza, hotdog rolls, burger buns to go. We are so busy we don’t even know what we are eating.

To reverse this 50 year old habit would require a restructuring of our outside and inside lives. It’s where the grassroots movement of Transition and master bakers like Andrew Whitley meet. We meet in unlikely venues and discuss ways of bringing real food back into the hands of people and places: community baking in local hubs “where good transactions happen between people,” reskilling of home bakers and the creation of the Local Loaf (paralleling the National Loaf of the 1940’s) using local millers, bakers and shops and locally distinctive varieties of wheat.

The ingredients for real bread are simple - flour, water, salt, yeast. Bringing a resilient local loaf into Norwich is more complex. The mega-distribution system of the big three industrial bakeries have trucks perpetually on the road travelling 200 miles transporting ready-sliced to the city’s 122,000 inhabitants daily. They are roaring across East Anglia from Stevenage, London and Enfield. To feed Norwich sustainably would require 30 tonnes of wheat and several local mills. On the agenda that day in January were questions about the supply chain: quantity of flour, storage and transportation of grain, the price of a loaf, the feasibility of setting up and maintaining an electric mill in the city, the packaging and marketing of the loaves. Should the flour be stone-ground or roller-ground? Tin or round? Could Canadian wheat be used as a last straw (sic) in times of bad harvest, or grain kept back? Was the Norwich Loaf initially an everyday item or a speciality one-off?

East Anglia has arable land for growing the wheat but few working mills. The first challenge for the project is to find a mill in the city to grind the corn. The nearest wind or water mills are 25-30 miles away. The other is the quality of the wheat. The gluten content of bread is a key consideration in baking. Wheat has a very high gluten content (between 12-15 per cent) which gives the dough its extraordinary elasticity and ability to be moulded into the hundreds of shapes in which we have historically consumed it – from the heaviest of wholemeals to the airiest of croissants. Artisan bakers in England have been using commercial Canadian flour for decades because its exceptionally high gluten levels makes the light and fluffy white loaf we have got used to. The lower gluten content of our native wheat is compensated for by the Chorleywood method. The Norwich bakers’ main concern with using local flour was one of consistency (“No one is going to buy a bad bloomer”, one said rather gloomily; “You could call it ciabatta,” another quipped to much laughter) and there was a long discussion as to how we were going to get over the fact that life was unpredictable and that white and fluffy was not the future. It felt like it was going to take some time for all of us to get used to the idea.

You could tell the bakers. They had a physical presence in the room that was quite distinct from those whose business was in words and figures. They seemed familiar though I had never really considered bakers before, or even talked to one. They existed in my imagination as mythical figures with white hats and aprons. Suddenly I realised they were men who worked with their hands and worked at night. And this was why the meeting that day had begun at 2.15pm.

The Field

One of the lesser known facts about Charles Darwin is that when he bought Down House (where The Origin of Species was written) it was not for the house but for the chalk grassland that surrounded it. The species-rich habitat provided the man who was about to shake the paradigm of the Western world with the perfect opportunity to observe bio-diversity and see how its elements worked together. It was here he saw that everything in the natural world is connected and that the greater diversity that exists in a place the greater its abundance.

At the same time as the naturalist was looking at biological complexity in the field, chemists were singling out individual components in their laboratories and developing the first nitrate fertilisers that would lead to the appearance of a very different kind of grassland. And a plant that once grew wild around the Fertile Crescent began to be bred as the basis of the global diet: modern wheat.

Professor Martin Wolfe is a plant pathologist who has spent the last decade working at his organic research station outside Metfield developing what are known as Composite Cross Populations of wheat. The evolution of wheat is a complicated business and requires your absolute concentration. Where once we ate thousands of different plants, the human species mostly lives off half a dozen crops of which wheat is now the top one.

Outside the window of the Institute’s meeting room small green spikes are everywhere on trial: in a conventional agricultural field and in organic strips bordered by timber and fruit trees (a layout known as agroforestry). The Composite Cross Populations have a complex origin: three populations that come from 20 varieties and 200 intercrosses and a random male sterile genotype who acts like the joker in the pack. As a result the plants contain thousands of variations. It’s these variations that give the wheat the ability to produce consistent yield and quality of grain under a wide variety of conditions.

“Natural eco-systems are complex because they evolve that way for a damn good reason. The whole way of developing agriculture around the world depends on functional diversity. What evolutionary breeding showed was that if you dissemble the elements (in an eco-system) you find that yield increases with the positive interactions occurring. The more complex the connections, the better everything responds.”

We sit in the Institute meeting room, Mark, Josiah and I facing Martin. The biological history of cereal crops, he explains, goes in two directions: one that concentrated on a simple system using synthetic fertilisers to boost yields that led to the separation of agriculture and the natural world around 1850, and another known as evolutionary breeding that began in California in 1929 which introduced variation and worked within complexity.

His story veers from wild barley in Israel to the development of maize in Africa and traces a familiar shape: the taking of heritage seeds out of farmer’s hands and putting them into the fists of seed merchants, the manufacturers of pesticides and herbicides and finally the corporations who patent rights for certain genes and focus on their monoculture (as well as produce the agrochemicals that support the varieties that contain them).

“Oh, I’ve got a story about Monsanto,” says Mark breezily who was taking notes. I shoot him a fast look. We haven’t got time for asides, even good ones. We have another meeting to go to. Martin is an ex-professor and has that smooth ease of delivery honed from years of lecturing to Cambridge students for exactly one hour. Although there is something bristly and creaturelike about his manner I can’t quite put my finger on. It’s a creature I know, a tusky fellow, one not to be crossed.

Wolfe has no time for simplificaton and bristles academically about evolution being side-stepped by global corporations. The memory of how to thrive in different conditions – light and shade, temperatures, with plant pathogens and insects - persists in the genetic structure of naturally evolved seed. It has an inbuilt multifunctionality. But in the millions and millions of hectares of monocultural wheat these shared memories are not available.

“What happens if the weather is different from the weather it experienced during its ten years of selection? Modern wheat is bred to react maximally to input from pesticides and herbicides. But in the future the environment will be much more variable. How do we deal with that?”

Amongst the Composite Cross Populations there are answers to these questions, as well as an ability to function without agrochemicals based on fossil fuels. Because of their diversity and ability to complement and compensate for one other “there are huge amounts of variable phenomena emerging.”

As Wolfe points out: “There are lots of things breeders can’t see which are being affected by the environment.” Scientific plant breeding depends on things that can be easily measured such as height and leaf shape and so on. But the strength of living systems depends on things that cannot be seen in this way. “Inevitably the natural world is a much better selector than the trained human breeder. We have to be humble in these things.”

For 150 years however, sanctioned by the “Darwinian” assertion that nature is red in tooth and claw and inherently competitive, we have gone in the opposite direction. From Darwin we have taken the image of animals fighting for survival and justified all our aggressive acts against nature and each other. We consider evolution in terms of exotic birds far away in South America and conveniently forget his ecological analysis of the native grasslands of England that tell quite a different story. The plant world shows that nature is essentially co-operative and the success of eco-systems depends on a complex weave of relationships, as well as a long genetic memory. The simple system science behind modern agriculture, most explicitly expressed in “the crude plant technology” of GM, is one of control and domination. But this control has now, according to Wolfe, reached its ultimate, and is about to face the music in the form of climate change and peak oil.

“The question we are posing (or that is being posed for us) is how has evolution coped with a huge variety of conditions? It’s coped by lots of variation, lots of diversity, lots of different answers to potential problems.“

Maybe it’s the word population but every time Martin starts talking about the CCP that door begins to swing open again: he’s not just talking about wheat diversity, he’s talking about human diversity! We are, after all, what we eat. In a Westernised industrial world where human populations are forced to become increasingly monocultural and dependent for their survival on artificial conditions, our own evolutionary moves are now being called into play. What is happening to wheat is happening to ourselves. What would it mean for us to become composite cross?

The Bakery

We are on our way to talk with a baker in Stanton, where Josiah went to school. If Wolfe represents the biological thought at the beginning of the supply chain, the bakers represent the working craft at the end. It’s mid March, after a long and relentless winter, and there is not one cherry plum tree in blossom. The land still wears last season’s coat and the hedgerows are twiggy except for sudden bursts of golden-tasselled hazel. A low grey sky hems us in as we hurtle down the small roads that wind along the border country between Norfolk and Suffolk. It’s already bleaker here. The clay fields are giant-sized and empty, punctuated by the occasional spinney or solitary oak. Apart from the rooks, we are the only thing moving amongst the swathes of blunted green barley and darker rosettes of rape.

On the wooden shelves at the back of the Hillcrest Farm Shop in Stanton we find a quote from Felicity Lawrence’s Not On The Label on Radio 4: “Only a small number (of Britain’s independent bakers) genuinely bake from scratch, many depend instead on factory ‘premixes’. Today there are only 3,500 individual craft bakers in the UK, compared to about 35,000 in France . . .” In between crusty white and crunchy granary loaves, a round face is beaming at me from the kitchen.

The smile belongs to Mick the Baker who has been baking from scratch for 37 years. “You can talk to me as I’m working,” he says. It’s probably the only time we can talk to Mick as he is definitely a man on the go. As he works ten pans of dough into hundreds of hot cross buns, he gives us a run down on his working schedule, baking, singing with a band at the weekends and driving long-distance trucks. Most of his days start at 4.30am, Saturday begins at 1.30am. Do you ever get time to sleep? I ask. “I don’t get a lot,” he says, “I used to survive on three hours. The only way is to keep going and not sit down. The trouble is I’m fifty now. The mind says you can but the body says maybe not.”

We’ve come to talk with Mick because he has just started baking with locally grown and milled flour. He bakes “the old-fashioned way” entirely by hand (except for the mixing), uses natural ingredients and is one of only nine traditional British bakers left in the Waveney Valley. “I’ve always done it natural. Slow mix, slow dough. Throw it in and hope for the best. I’ve got it right for the bread, I’m not sure for the rest of the life!”

Mick is “an old East End boy” who began his apprenticeship at 15 and came to East Anglia in 1991 to run the Swan Bakery in the neighbouring village of Garboldisham. He chose baking because he was waiting until he was 21 to follow his dream of being a long-distance lorry driver.

“I’m more into quality than money. I’m not motivated by money, I’m motivated by music.”

Mick is a motivated man. As he whirls his two hands around 360 buns he talks non-stop about bread, about bread making machines, about his old-style baking equipment and the necessity of hot ovens, the time John Peel almost came to interview him but then he died, how sweeping up is the most important part of the job, how he likes to barter, swapping bread for customer’s eggs, surprising children with a box of cakes when they hand him a picture, how he holds the peace between the scrapping artistes in his band (“I’m in the middle of it,” he laughs) and sings almost everything – jazz, blues, funk, soul - just not country (even though he is a trucker), how he hasn’t got time to teach, has never read a book in his life and the reason he likes baking is because it’s creative: he creates everything from start to finish.

“I use Canadian flour which isn’t very patriotic but it makes the best bread. The organic English one comes up quite small and heavy but that suits some customers. I don’t mess around with fancy stuff. Mine’s the proper old English bread. People like a bit of crust.”

Like most hands-on craftsmen he learned everything by watching people. “If anyone asks me anything technical, I can’t tell them. I know what happens if you leave yeast out but I couldn’t tell you why. I know when the salt is left out because the dough moves quicker. In the summer it’s a nightmare in here because the bread keeps moving and you can’t stop.”

We stand in the tiny back kitchen, peering at Mick busily not stopping with the currant-spotted dough, occasionally swerving out of the way as he whisks a tray into the fridge or freezer. I want to ask him when do you have time for life? And then as I listen to him, hands spinning, talking about gigs and whacking everything in the bowl, knocking it on the table, whacking it back in the prover, I realise this is Life, this whirl of activity, creating, producing, bartering, sweeping up. On the wall there is a photograph of Mick singing with a hat on (“I always wear a hat”), a smiley T- shirt and rainbow trousers. He’s carrying a giant sunflower in one hand.

Mick tells us a story about working through the night. At the Swan Bakery he had a chill-out room and at night people used to drop by: policemen came for a quick kip, firemen on call, young boys without anything much to do. One night a couple came on their way from the Glastonbury Festival lured by the lights of the chill-out room. “They said they could not believe it.” You could imagine it then, stoned out of your head in the small hours, finding a light burning on a dark road, and a man working in the kitchen mixing yeast, flour, water and salt, cooking up the kind of bread you might like to eat. What did they see when the door swung open?

“It’s time to decompress,” said Josiah as we reeled out of the shop. We chewed our buns as we walked about the garden centre. Everything after the intensity of the kitchen didn’t seem quite real: the stiff and clipped box trees, the flashy petunias in their pots, silently waiting under a grey and cold sky. “What’s the story?” he asked, as we climbed back into the small car. We had come out on an adventure the three of us for the day. I don’t know what we had expected from either the scientist or the baker. We all felt rather dazed.

“I don’t know yet,” I said. I was thinking about what I had first seen, as I glimpsed Mick’s round face between the shelves of bread. It was like the sun was smiling at me.

When I came to the story I realised that we live in a culture that keeps everything separate and that when you start to assemble the components back together again, it requires a way of thinking about life and engaging in it that is not just a matter of graphs and statistics. The bakers and millers and shopkeepers once appeared in our imaginations as part of life. These people operated in the fabric of our daily lives: they lived in songs and in fairy tales, as characters in children’s picture books and playing cards. They were apparent and lived in the brightness of day.

The processes of industry and science and agriculture are hidden. They recognise no people, only machines and numbers. They operate secretly in the dark and rely on our not joining up the dots and connecting the facts. Even when investigated by determined journalists like Lawrence, knowing facts about the global food industry does not actually shift our ways of thinking about them.

What shifts our awareness are the door-opening moments, when those connections start cross-referencing and self-organising inside you - those revelations about time, about Life. Suddenly you get the whole picture. You know that when the time is out of whack, everything else goes out of whack. How when you side-step evolution there is a price to pay. And that’s the moment you start asking yourself who exactly is paying.

At this point, I don’t know which way the story is going. It’s still fermenting: the faces of the three men appear before me and need time to reassemble themselves into a coherent shape. What I do know is that when you look at wheat, you find yourself looking at civilisation. The ability to domesticate wild grasses and feed thousands of people happened at the same time in different continents – rice in Asia, millet in Africa, maize in the Americas. Wheat, with barley and rye, was the main cereal crop of the Middle East and clearly marks the shift from the nomadic and hunter-gatherer world, to the city-ruled agricultural world of conquered and indentured populations. When you look at wheat you look at bread, and when you look at bread you’re looking at people. You’re looking at a certain kind of people eating for a certain kind of reason.

It’s not sacred anymore in the way we understand sacred - our daily bread - but it serves the same function. Modern factory bread is cheap and in a world that prizes convenience and availability and money most of all, the cheapness of bread means it is highly prized. For one section of the population of course. For cheap food is and always has been, since the city-states established themselves 5000 years ago, the fuel of the workforce. Though civilisations prize themselves on their architecture and technology and their high-flown ideals, all of them depend on a huge and expendable underclass. The daily bread that was apportioned to the city slaves in Rome is as vital to them as the ready-sliced bought by the urban poor of the global metropolis. And the contempt the modern ruling classes have towards the masses who eat junk bread is in proportion to their great and ancient fear that they will one day rise up and demand not wholemeal loaves, nor even croissants, but equity.

Sometimes I think that my intolerance to wheat, to gluten and yeast, is a symptom of my own revolt against the prevailing order. I used to think it was an expression of the imbalance between settled agriculture and the wild places of this earth – a shout of solidarity for all those medicine flowers and prairie grasses, sometimes as tall as a man, mown down and replaced by the millions and millions of hectares of identical corn. Our minds may acquiesce to industrialisation, to the maltreatment of nature, but our archaic hunter-gatherer bodies do not. They close down, blow up and start minor revolutions. But now I realise the body doesn’t just revolt in sympathy with the earth, but also with its own kind.

There are millions of people who are allergic to wheat. Some so allergic (the so-called coeliacs) they cannot consume one tiny speck of flour. It’s a phenomen that came with the industrialisation of cereals, particularly in the last 20 years. There is no medical cure for what happens to the intolerant body. Gluten is seen as a foreign invader by the immune system and it attacks the delicate lining of the intestine that normally takes in the goodness of food. As a result the micronutrients - the essential minerals and vitamins - are not absorbed by the blood. Without these vital ingredients we grow weak and tired and depressed, rashes appear on our knees and ulcers in our mouths. We sweat, feel poisoned and our bowels collapse. White bread, the symbol of oppression of the dominant Western world in many cultures, is often blamed as a cause of malnutrition amongst the poor and indigenous. But gluten intolerance is widespread amongst everyone in a wheat-consuming world. Between 1 in one hundred or 1 in 600 of people in the UK, depending which report you read. Allergies don’t just happen to the masses.

It’s difficult to look at food allergies like this. We want there to be scientific solutions, fixes and formulas. We want to be separate and blameless and live our lives in discrete units, as if our physical reactions bear no relation to the way we treat the earth or the culture we uphold. We want to cheat time and cheat each other and think we can get away with things forever.

But we can’t.

The Bowl

It’s a bowl my sister gave me years ago and has, for as long as I can remember, sat quietly in the corner or in front of fireplaces in houses I have lived in. It sat on the long table in my London flat for years. When I went travelling it was one of the only things I kept during a decade of perpetual moving and shifting. I just liked it for its great and useful form - a large deep pottery bowl, terracotta on the outside, creamy yellow on the inside with a hand-drawn ox-blood-coloured rim. I cooked up a lot of dishes in that London flat with its long table, and in all the places where I went travelling. Except bread. Bread was not my style: it felt way too domestic and slow.

But last Sunday I made my first loaf in the pottery bowl, and found out what it was really called: a panchion. My fellow first-time breadmaker took a snap of me holding it at my hip to send to her mother. “She used to use one,” she said.

It wasn’t a grand production, just a regular soda bread made with local spelt and rye. We were a small group of people in a neighbourhood restaurant, taking part in a bread making club that meets the last Sunday of every month. What was surprising was that when my hands went deep into the sides of the panchion, they knew what to do without any instruction. Push, pull, knead.

It was not like making pastry or anything else I’ve mixed in a bowl because the soda had activated the dough. You could feel the stuff living in your hands. Recorded somewhere deep in the bone-memory of those hands, in that bowl, in the spelt and rye, was the knowledge of people working with the staff of life for thousands of years. Knead, push, pull.

After kneading we waited. We had some tea and talked to each other. Then we put the round shapes into the oven. When we pulled our tins out forty minutes later, my two loaves were perfect. How did that happen? They were cracked in a cross shape - the distinguishing mark of soda bread - dusted with flour, chunky, sweet smelling. When I got home I went round and gave the spare loaf to my neighbour and the other I put in the centre of the table. I looked at that bread for a long time. And then I cut a thick slice and ate it the way I remember we used to in Ireland, with butter and hot tea. I did not get sick.

It’s something about craftsmen, about creators, that I’ve noticed. It’s not money that motivates them, or a machine that makes demands on their time. It’s something else. Wolfe remembers the strains of wild barley he saw once either side of a rock in a Middle Eastern field: short on the shadowy side of the rock and tall on the sunny side: beautiful! he declares and his face lights up (finally I recognise the creature, it’s a wild boar). Now I’m looking at those tough spikes of green outside his window in a different way, imagining how they can in a matter of months turn into pale golden fields of edible wheat on stalks of differing heights.

Mick is telling us he makes real English bread, that people like a bit of crust. Now I’m looking at his shiny loaves stacked on the shelf. How come I never noticed that English bread was crusty before, that it is square? I ate bread for years. I’ve gazed out across arable fields for years. How come I never examined those hairy ears of wheat closely, the stiffness of their forms? I could have missed everything, skimming on the top of what I saw or thought, and never delving deep into the place where time lives, where the cross currents of our lives make sense of everything, where what happens behind the scenes before dawn is everything that happens after sunrise.

What did these three men have in common that made me look at life with another eye? I realised it was a relationship with the material: the desire to shape the stuff of life with your own hands. If you talk to a man about his passion for making hats or chairs, or turning a bowl from a piece of old railway track or a cherry tree that has blown over, or to a man who knows how to turn the earth so that beans or roses will spring from it, or how to make a necklace of out of seaglass that reflects light all about your throat you will find a man with a deep satisfaction inside him. I’ve spent some of my life talking to such men, without knowing why there is a strong curent that flows between us. And now I see it’s because we have something in common: their eye is on matter in the same way my eye is on the blank page. The possibility is that what manifests could go one way or another and your interaction in the matter is everything. It’s the kind of relationship you never tire of.

To be in life requires your utter engagement. Industrialisation switches us off. It’s only interested in people working like machines To put yourself in the centre of things is the position in which time starts making sense, whether you are a biologist, a baker, a writer or a musician. You are working with the substance of life. In those spaces created by the synthesis of gluten and yeast and bacteria, nourishment is forged from the seeds of the wheat grass. In the spaces created within the matter, the craftsmen glimpse a possibility of eternity. It’s a mysterious process that even deeply practical bakers like Whitley acknowledge. It’s being fully engaged in this daily alchemy that gives us the real rewards of life, that mere possession of things, or endless hours of leisure never can.

The industrial machine produces from life what can be bought and sold, demanding endless energy and life-force. It makes slaves of people and gives us money and entertainment and cheap goods in return. But you never get to engage with the fabric of life that way - with plants or bread or words - or find any kind of satisfaction. The craftsman is using his hands to making life beautiful, useful, delicious: he is putting his attention and his skill into those loaves and those loaves are coming up good. No one gets sick afterwards.

To find satisfaction you have to have an encounter with the real world and absorb its great subtleties. It’s difficult to make the deep connections about food without meeting the people that grow the plants or bake the bread, or doing those things yourself. You have to stand in the intensity of the kitchen and in the emptiness of the land. And then you have to go home and let those ingredients shift and move and expand together. Real bread takes time. Real stories take time. How many stories can you make with 26 letters? How many songs can you sing with 12 notes? How many solutions can you come up with with 17 people in a room? How many things can you make out of flour and water that are not the monocultural white sliced loaf?

The loaves of the old world are stored inside me: cottage white, granary brown, bap, bagel, pitta, naan, focaccia, ciabatta, pumpernickel, brioche. A man with a black face is gulping water from a bucket like a horse, his warm bread stacked on a rough shelf set in the side of a Greek mountain. I am standing by the door, a dish of Easter kid at my hip, about to put the dish inside his oven stoked with thornbushes. An old man takes my hand in a French patisserie in Queensway and puts a sweet roll in it. His name is Monsieur Pechon. He is eighty years old and blind. I am four years old and wearing a coat the colour of the sun. Each morning he waits by the door for us, les petits, to come and hold his bread baking hands. It’s a long time ago. It’s a long long way away from where we are now.

I am wondering as I write this story about wheat, whether we will make it back in time.

Images: Organic loaves baked at the squatted farmhouse co-operative, Can Piella, in Spain (Philip Evans); Brockwell Baker Vincent Talleu, gathers Blue Cone Rivet heritage wheat at Perry Court Farm, Kent; baker from the community owned Handmade Bakery, Slaithwaite, Yorkshire; Ann-Marie Culhane and Corn Mask 1; CDC with the panchion and soda bread, Yoxford, Suffolk; Mark's first sourdough loaf made with local spelt and wheat, 2009, Suffolk.
          Woman dies from antibiotic-resistant bacteria when no antibiotics worked         

Antibiotic resistance is a vital topic of conversation because it affects all of us and represents perhaps the single biggest risk to general health we can fathom. The pace of technological innovation is perhaps the greatest hope we have of finding a solution that does not rely on fighting a losing war against an enemy capable of changing tactics to overcome conventional responses. This article from NewAtlas highlights one such solution. Here is a section:

The study combined the new PPMO with meropenem, a type of carbapenem antibiotic that's effective against a broad range of bugs, and pitted it against three different types of bacteria that make use of NDM-1. In all cases, the PPMO restored meropenem's ability to kill the bacteria in vitro, and also managed to kill off an NDM-1-expressing strain of E. coli in tests in mice.

"We're targeting a resistance mechanism that's shared by a whole bunch of pathogens," says Geller. "It's the same gene in different types of bacteria, so you only have to have one PPMO that's effective for all of them, which is different than other PPMOs that are genus specific." Geller says the new drug should be ready for human testing in about three years.

There is every reason for optimism that this problem can be overcome but it requires constant vigilance and technology represents our best chance to overcome it. It is not a problem that will just go away.

           Low-input, low-cost IPM program helps manage potato psyllid        
Potato psyllid is a pest of solanaceous plants throughout much of the western United States, including California, where it has increased and is now overwintering. The psyllid affects its plant hosts from direct feeding and by transmitting a plant pathogenic bacterium, Lso. Millions of dollars of damages have occurred in the U.S. potato industry, and a large acreage of crops is susceptible in California. Control is complicated because different crops have different pest complexes and susceptibilities to Lso; currently most growers use multiple pesticide applications, including broad-spectrum insecticides. Results of our field trials at South Coast Research and Extension Center indicate that the use of broad-spectrum insecticides actually increases psyllid numbers in both peppers and potatoes. We have developed a low-input IPM program, which in field trials produced encouraging results in peppers, potatoes and tomatoes compared to broad-spectrum insecticides. Economic analysis showed the low-input IPM approach was more cost effective than a standard insecticide program in tomatoes.
          Summing Up The Potted Grow        

Summing Up the Potted Grow

Congratulations Kush Farmer! You’ve grown your leafy ladies from seed to flower and now you’re ready for harvest. It’s an accomplishment that you should be proud of; one that’s a slap in the face to our ignorant minded governments and close minded douche bags everywhere! That alone deserves a pat on the back. If you think about it, not everyone takes the time to cultivate their own cannabis; most people are all about instant gratification. You however poured your time, money, and passion into your garden and you will soon be able to enjoy the fruits of your labor. Some tokers don’t grow because they think they don’t have a green thumb. The truth is, that anyone can grow cannabis, like any other hobby or skill that one is trying for the first time; it’s one that requires perfecting. You need to prefect and hone your cultivation skills, if this was your first grow chances are things may not have turned out the way you were hoping they would. Maybe your yield was lower than you expected. Maybe mold got into some of your colas, or possibly one of your females developed pollen sacks and pollinated some of the pistils resulting in seed filled bud. My friend, those are things that happened to the best of us. The difference between true growers and wannabe’s is whether or not you give up after your first harvest. True growers don’t let the results of a first time experience define their entire skill of growing. A true grower reevaluates their entire grow, their methods and identifies issues or mistakes that could have been made. They correct the issues and plan ahead about what can be done during the next grow to improve the overall harvest. Keeping detailed records of your entire grow can make the process of reevaluation far easier and can be very helpful to identifying issues that may have went unnoticed. Trial and error is a part of life; when learning to ride a bike we fall off a lot before we learn to balance ourselves. Success comes to those who persevere, always remember that.

Over the past couple of months I have made several recommendations for first time growers via my posts to the 4:20 blog, a few facebook pages, and my google+ community. All of which are practices I believe give first time growers the best chance for success. I have also made video blogs documenting these practices and the success I have with them. I recommend that first time growers grow their plants in potted soil. I believe that this is the case because plants naturally grow in soil, and require no manipulation to do so. Of course there are better soil’s to use, such as ones that drain better and allow for better oxygen penetration. I also recommend that first time growers (and all growers) grow with seeds. Seeds are all natural, versatile and are able to be stored and persevered for long periods of time with no human attention.

One of the things that can scare first time growers away is the cost of so called “necessary supplies”. Sure, Im not going to lie to you, store bought grow lights do work and they work well but often times they can be a bit on the expensive side for the first time grower. Quality grow supplies are an investment that serious personal/hobby growers should look into. But, understandably so, newcomers are a little apprehensive about laying down large amounts of cash for something they have never done before. For first time growers, I’d say use regular home grade CFL’s that you can buy at any Wal-Mart or department store, I’ve grown two good sized plants with only six 23 watt (100 watt equivalent )CFL’s You can make a homemade grow lamp with a 2 power strips/surge protectors, a disposable lasagna pan, the aforementioned home grade bulbs, flat white spray paint and white electrical tape for under $30. Higher quality grow rated CFL lamps sell at hydroponic shops for as little as $55 or as much as $100. If you buy metal halide, the cheapest grow rated lamp sold is $150 is 150 watts in not efficient in energy use and it creates allot of heat, the CFL’s produce little heat, are more efficient and pack plenty of UV rays and a wide spectrum.

You can grow simply cheaply and effectively and you don’t even HAVE to use cheaply made chemical fertilizers, you can grow quality all natural bud with a small investment into a organic nutrient kit such as GO BOX by general organics. The GO BOX contains a nice sized bottle of each product for around $30. You can buy larger replacement bottle of the products you liked at the cost of about $16 each. It really isn’t too bad if you are a personal needs cultivator and you’ll notice that you don’t go through the liquid fertilizer as quickly as you may originally think. For GO nutes, the advised dosage is only about 1-2 tsps per gallon of water. Typically you can get away with using a little less than the recommended dosage on the bottle. With decently priced products like these you’ll be growing all natural, organic, quality nugs that you’ll be proud to say you grew.

I find that it is also helpful to add beneficial microbes to your soil or feedings. These will help feed you plants and keep them appropriately moist. Since they have a symbiotic relationship with the plants, they healthier the plant, the more sucrose the roots of the plant produce. The more sucrose the roots produce the more food the microbes have. Beneficial fungi and bacteria also fight off things like pathogenic microbes which can harm and ruin your roots effecting the quality of the buds your growing. They can also prevent gnat larvae from gaining a foot hold in your soil. Symbiotic fungi and bacteria can be great allies and help make your pot larger and more potent. The Colorado based beneficial company I utilize sells one or two time use packets for just under $3.

I also recommend that first time growers grow auto flower cannabis plants. This is for a number of reasons; the first of which being the ease of their photo needs. They aren’t finicky like classic sativa, indica or hybrids of the two which require special photo periods that mimic the natural light cycles of the seasons. Auto flowers can grow from seed to harvest in as little as eight weeks and you can leave the lights on 24/7 if you want. They are just that chill . Another great thing about auto flowers is their innate short stature. First time growers are often paranoid and prefer to grow in small less detectable containers, auto flowers fit the need of those growers by fitting in smaller spaces. Auto flowers can be cloned but at the expense of a better sized yield, since they can’t be kept in a vegetative state by changing their light exposure, it is harder for auto flowers to bounce back. So you will have to buy auto flower seeds which aren’t too expensive. However; if you are under severe budget restrictions, you can always choose to buy pick n’ mix and then only buy one or two seeds at time if you must.

Many of my recommendations make growing easier for new comers, and also help to make growing a little more affordable. I believe that anyone who smokes weed should also grow it, I believe that many weed smokers also want to grow their own cannabis, but that its either too expensive or many seem to complicated. Follow my recommendations, make educated decisions, and buy what YOU need for your garden, not what hardcore industrial cultivators swear by. Remember their grow situation is different than yours. I don’t know everything about ganja growing, but I do know an awful lot. I believe that there is a way to help get new growers to have great success for their first few harvests, thus hopefully creating a larger generation of more confident, lifelong cannabis growers. Keep Growing Amigos.


-T.B. Green

          Good Ganja Gardening Practices        

Good Ganja Gardening Practices: Avoiding Malnutrition and Disease

Growing good quality bud takes more than just covering the essential needs of your cannabis. While feeding, watering, providing ample light and good environmental control is important to the overall success of your harvest, there are many other good gardening practices that can contribute to a bountiful return. When I say good gardening practices, I’m talking about the small important things you can do to make a big difference. Things like making sure that your grow area is clean and well taken care of, that you yourself are decontaminated and aren’t bringing anything negative into the grow area. These are a few examples of practices that exist in every top notch garden; I’ll go over why these practices and more should be a mainstay in your pot garden too!

You’ve heard of the saying “Cleanliness is Godliness “right? Well keeping your grow area clean and well-manicured can certainly make you a ganja messiah. By keeping your garden clean and crap-free you lower the likelihood that unwanted germs and bacteria will gain a presence on the surfaces surrounding you garden. Give the surfaces in your grow area a good wipe down after every feeding or pruning. Another good practice is to clean your tools in between uses. That way you’re not transferring unwanted contaminants from one plant to another. There are many types of plant diseases that can infect and even kill your sticky ladies, it’s important that you don’t aid or assist in their spread or transfer. One example of a virus that can ruin you weed crop is Tobacco Mosaic Virus also known as Tomato Mosaic Virus.

TBMV for short; is a plant disease that can spread from plant to plant easily, especially if there is a person or animal to catch a ride on. TBMV will severely warp the leaves of your plants causing abnormal growth and severe swooping on the leaf tips. This warping negatively impacts your pots ability to photosynthesize properly or optimally, which messes with your weeds ability to metabolize properly. In the long run your harvest will be ruined. The bud on these infected ladies will have low THC, low bud formation and wouldn’t even be worth smoking. You can prevent diseases such as TBMV from spreading into your garden by following a few good ganja gardening practices. First; wipe down and sanitize your grow area daily, it’s just as important as cleaning your kitchen daily (which hopefully you do, at least once a day.) You keep your kitchen clean to make sure that you aren’t contaminating your food with any bacteria or pathogens, apply the same practice to your grow space and garden tools. Second; Identify sick plants quickly and remove them from the company of the other weed plants ASAP. The longer that sick girl is exposed to the other ladies, the quicker the virus will spread, eventually catching like wild fire thus decimating your entire crop. Third; clean your hands often. Weather you change gloves in between plant interactions or sanitize, make sure you include this practice to prevent unwanted pests or pathogens from hitching a ride on you from one plant to the next. If you really want to make sure you keep your garden healthy then spread those cleaning practices into your living area as well. If your growing in your home then keep your home clean; vacuuming and dusting can help keep pest like mites out of your home. I never said cleaning would be a fun thing, but if it can help you have a good harvest then I think it’s a great thing!

Another good ganja gardening practice is to make sure that you are aware of your plants needs and have some kind of regular feeding schedule set up. Unless your growing your maryjane in a soil that has extended release fertilizer mixed in (which I certainly hope you don’t, CHEMICAL FERTILIZER!) then you will need to feed your plants as well as water them. When you’re adding liquid nutrients to your water to feed your plants, you want to have some kind of feeding schedule established. Most feeding regiments are dosed to be applied no more than once a week, depending on how nutrient hungry the strain your growing is. You’ll want to set up a feeding schedule so that you know which days you need to add food to your watering, as you’ll want keep you’re feeding and watering day’s consistent. This will help you to identify your plants needs and react to any deficiencies you may encounter. Making sure your plants needs are fully met will help ensure healthy and heavy bud production. Also, on a side note; growers please don’t recycle your soil. It’s like junkies sharing needles. Just don’t do it, if one of your girls gets sick and you reuse her soil on another plant, expect the new plant to get the same sickness. Think of it like exposing your girls to plant AIDS. Use clean new soils with each grow.

Sure these practices can require a little extra effort or planning, but I believe that growing high quality resinous buds takes effort. You should have a plan in place for the entire grow, from start to finish. Some of the worst weed growers are the ones that don’t anticipate the potential problems that can occur in any grow, and do things such as plan ahead and clean up after yourself and your ladies. Any high quality grow up follows these same grow practices and as a result produce high quality herb, just ask you self; what caliber of grower do you want be? It’s the little things that count and add up the quickest; take care of your weed ladies and gentlemen. Keep Growing 

-T.B. Green

          How to Grow Hydroponic-Quality Bud, in Soil        

Hey Ganja Enthusiasts,

Are you growing your cannabis in potted soil, Indoors? Do you wish you could get the results that some growers achieve by utilizing hydroponic growth methods? Or by growing outdoors? We all have certain circumstances that we are forced to grow within; due to local laws or other types of restrictions, but you don’t have to let those circumstances dictate the quality of your smoke! I grow my ladies indoors in a grow cabinet that is soil based; and by conditioning my soil with beneficial microbes, I have been able to acheive, LARGER more robust buds, colas and nugs from my ladies. I’ll explain to you how this all works, and how you too can use these fun little organisms! Hold on tight because things are about to get real scientific up in here! :-)

The first thing you need to know about these marvelous little helpers is that; in nature they are everywhere! This isn’t some new discovery or invention, but an innovation or re-adaptation. Growers and scientists are finding which microbes specifically benefit plants and their rhizospheres (root zone). What they have found an abundance of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, actinomycetes, and rotifers that seem to work together in a microscopic community that surrounds the root area, and all of which seem to have a symbiotic relationship with each other and the roots they surround. In this symbiotic community everyone has their own specific job, and their own place in the grand scheme of this circle. The bacteria, break down organic material (i.e. soil, dead plant material, dead animals, other dead microbes, excrement etc) this broken down organic matter becomes much more useable for nutrient hungry cannabis plants and fungi. The fungus ( predominantly mycorrhizae and trichoderma)have a more direct symbiotic relationship with plants and their roots then most of the other microbes in the rhizosphere. They actively colonize and coat the cannabis plant’s roots, they consume the sugars and protiens secreted by most plant root systems, and in exchange they help protect the marijuana plants from pests, pathogenic microbes (bad fungi and bacteria) and extreme conditions. They also help keep your cannabis plants well fed and watered, even in drought conditions. Actinomycetes are able to break organic material that is more solid and harder for other organisms to break down such as pulp and wood, which often breaks down into material that is very rich in potassium. Protozoa is kind of the bad guy, but in reality it keeps things in a good balance and doesn’t harm your ladies or their roots. Protozoa and Rotifers eat bacteria and fungus in abundance (rotifer also eats protozoa), and it does not discriminate between good or bad microbes. In some ways this is helpful as it does kill some of the more pathogenic bacteria, molds and mildews, and also keeps the beneficial bacteria from gaining too big of a presence, which can throw the balance out of whack. Too much good bacteria can kill off other beneficials in the rhizosphere. So think of it as both Yin and Yang, balance and harmony. It’s hard to imagine that this life cycle, this symbiotic relationship is in anyway reflective of our own life cycles, but oddly enough it does. It’s interesting to think that we also have a symbiotic relationship with plants, they can feed us, provide material to make clothing and shelter, and in turn we cultivate and aggregate these seeds all over the world. We nurture them and ensure the continuance of their lineage, and they do the same for us.

Now I’m sure at this point your internal voice is asking, “T.B. when are you going to finish up with all of this boring mumbo-jumbo, and tell me how this can help me grow good bud?!” How can this help you grow good bud? The answer to that my friend, is simple: more than likely if you are growing indoors, your growing media does not contain any or at least a helpful portion of these beneficial organisms. Sure bacteria and fungi are all around us, but outside of the beneficial ecosystem of natural rhizospheres, it can be hard to find these beneficial microbes. Indoors and in many cheap soil mixes, you’re more likely to find more aggressive and destructive microbes that are more likely to devour your plant than do it any kind of favor. So how do you enrich your indoor garden with the friendly microbes? There are many ways, from making or using compost, compost teas or using soil conditioners. Some of these options can require allot of planning, and manipulation to ensure that you are getting a colony of beneficial microbes instead of a pathogenic colony, and let’s face it, no one really likes to do more leg work than they have to. So what would I recommend? Whatever floats your boat! That’s what! As much as I like the convenience of pre formulated conditioners, which give you the convenience of KNOWING exactly what’s in your rhizospheres, I can’t deny that making your own compost teas and microbes can actually save you money and benefit the environment, as that method is greener and more environmentally friendly. However keep in mind that the homemade method lacks one aspect that I find to be incredibly important to any garden, and that is control. Control, is knowing what is in your soil, knowing that beneficials are present and that you aren’t adding something that could possibly harm your garden, it has less risk, and that is why I use premixed, individual soil conditioners. The line of conditioners is made by a Colorado based company called Supreme Growers. Their products are also able to be used in hydroponic systems! Check out their website for samples at www.SupremeGrowers.com .

I have one more question to answer, and I’m sure you’ve been waiting for me to get to it. Why should you add beneficial microbes to your garden? What’s the sell point? I’m sure most of you who have had good quality outdoor grown bud can hardly deny the fact that it tastes better, smokes better, and ultimately is a superior product than that produced in a hydroponic, or indoor soil grow. Not to mention it more natural, more closely related to ’The source’. The reason why is because of the abundance of these beneficial microbes. These microbes bring other benefits to the table as well, they help protect your plant from would-be pests, viruses, and molds that could rot your plant. These are things that are the enemy of any cannabis garden, and every experienced gardener knows it. In the end these beneficial additives are going to strengthen your plants, help manufacture a more superior end product, and give you bud that is more organic and close to nature. It’s not hard to get a good colony going in your garden, give it a try, I’ll bet you aren’t able to refute the results I have described. Go on, smoke a better bud! Keep Growing!

- T.B. Green

          Which Soil Mixes Work Best?        

Well let’s jump right into this one. First off, never, and I repeat NEVER use the 99¢ bag of soil sold in dollar stores or in the saver section of department stores when growing cannabis. I call those cheap bags on nonsense crap-soil. They are supposed to be a cheap alternate potting soil, but the last thing you want to do is put your marijuana plant or seed in a pot with crap-soil. The problem with crap-soil is that it’s not clean. It’s infested with mold and mildew and higher-than-desired levels of pathogenic bacteria. Plus its low drainage/high water-retention nurture’s these unwanted microbes. Bugs and pests, many times, are already present in the sealed for-sale bags of crap soil. Some of these soils can already contain pests like spider mites, thrips, and fungus gnats from the manufacturer. Most of you already know how damaging these microbes and pests can be to any plant, (the bugs take nutrients from the plants, and the microbes can attract more bugs and can cause root/bud rot) they can wreak total havoc on enclosed indoor gardens. Because they have nowhere else to go, they’ll stay where their food source is, and multiply. Meaning in YOUR Garden.

So what soil mixture should you use for your indoor organic potted weed garden? Certainly not Miracle Grow or any of the other soil mixes sold at department stores. They aren’t much better than the cheap bags of crap-soil, they don’t drain well and the soil IS NOT cleaned before packaging. The only real difference between crap-soil and Miracle Grow types are the high amounts of inorganic time-release plant food present, and that some of those soils specialize in retaining higher amounts of water. So in the end your plant isn’t getting all natural food, and more water retention is going to attract mold and mildew if it isn’t already present. Good potting mixes retain at least small amounts of water, but drain REALLY well. Drainage is really important, because it lowers the likelihood of mold or mildew making its self at home anywhere in your cannabis garden.

Nutrition content in a good soil mix IS important, but since most cannabis cultivators use supplemental plant food. Lite nutrition content can be a good thing as well, so that you don’t cause any nutrient burn to your cannabis roots by adding unneeded plant food to your root system. Lite nutrition content gives you a little more room to experiment with your nutrient supplements without causing any real damage to your bud. So which potting soil would I recommend for using in an indoor ganja garden that will provide good drainage and contain decent amounts of plant food?



I use ROOTS ORGANIC Original Potting Soil. ROOTS Original is made with a mixture of coco coir, vermiculite, volcanic pumice, guano, worm castings, bone meal and greensand. Roots Original is all organic, drains well, and encourages vigorous root growth. It has enough nutrition to help your cannabis plants start to veg’, but will need nute supplementation not far into the veg’ stage. Good breathable garden containers such as SMART POTS or GEO POTS that provide great aeration can really create a great environment for your plant and its roots when used in conjunction with Roots Organic Potting Soil. Using them together will help keep pests and pathogenic microbes far away from your plants. The high amounts of oxygen and lower amounts water don’t provide the kind of environment they are looking for. (We’ll get more into the many benefits of aerated containers later.)

One important thing to remember when using potting soils high in vermiculite and coco coir is that they are both hydroponic type growing mediums in their own right; they contain no natural nutrition, are PH neutral, and retain equal parts air and water. Keeping that in mind, you should PH your watering and feedings somewhere between 6 and 6.5 . This will help your roots utilize the nutrients present, and prevent nutrient lock out. One other important thing to remember when using coir and vermiculite rich potting soils is to add Calcium and Magnesium to all feeding regiments and even lite calcium and magnesium amounts to your straight water feedings. Coir and Vermiculite potting soils have low amounts of Calcium and Magnesium and both minerals play a vital role in the roots ability to absorb other necessary nutrients.

Soil choice is very important to your potted cannabis plant grow, and it can impact many aspects of plant wellness and health. You can find quality potting soils at indoor gardening stores, good seasonal garden supply stores, and even online. Do your research and remember, if you want a healthy marijuana plant with potent sticky buds, it all starts with a great beneficial soil that will take good care of your roots.

Keep Growing - T.B. GREEN

          Grow Containers         

Hey freedom growers,

One of the most important aspects of your grow is what you choose to grow your ladies in. Since we are doing an organic potted grow, I’m going to go over some pot choices and give you my opinion on what I think is the best growing container available. Seeing as how the grow container/pot you choose to grow cannabis in, will house the roots (the rizosphere) you’ll want to make sure that you choose a container that is going to provide the best possible environment for those cannabis roots. Thriving roots like environments that are dark, get lots of oxygen, are moist but not saturated and allows healthy expansion of the roots zone.

So it goes without saying that growers should avoid cheap or even expensive clay or plastic flower pots, why? Most of these containers don’t have adequate drainage if at all, and definitely don’t allow good oxygen penetration. Low drainage and poor air penetration lead to anaerobic situations where unwanted microbes are allowed to build up and thrive. Anaerobic pathogenic microbes can lead to root rot (which can kill your plant or ruin your bud), and can also attract a number of unwanted pests. Quite literally these containers are made only to contain dirt, with little consideration or thought put into what a plants root system actually needs to thrive. As the plants grow and their root systems expand they will eventually run into the walls of these solid containers with nowhere else to go and will be forced to circulate around and around creating a situation where your cannabis roots become what is called root bound. Once that happens the roots begin to slowly suffocate, killing the plant. Obviously that’s not what you’re looking to have happen in your Ganja garden. Another fall back to solid containers is that since it’s nearly impossible to get good air penetration, heat will build up in the container raising the temperature of the root zone to possibly dangerous levels, which can also negative impact your plants health. Always remember, root health is detrimental to the overall health of your plants. Another thing for growers to consider is the shape of your growing container. While it’s not SUPER important to the success of the overall grow as long as other factors are considered, keep in mind, square containers allow more overall space for expanding roots than round containers. That’s why when you see most potted grows, allot of those plants are in the square growing containers.

So what kind of growing container should you use? I use Geo Pots. Geo Pots are made out of a durable porous material that has numerous benefits, plus unlike SMART Pots, they are square. The fabric like material allows for many benefits that you won’t get from solid flower pots such as, excellent drainage, aeration, temp control, and air root pruning. If you’re new to gardening, you may be asking yourself what some of these benefits implicate. I’ll break it down for you.

Drainage- Since the material is made from a fabric, water can easily escape preventing water from just sitting in the pot meaning your growth media, will get the moisture it needs for your roots, but won’t let your plants become water logged. Too much water can prevent air from being able to get to the roots too, effectively drowning the cannabis plant.

Aeration- Since the container is fabric, air and more importantly oxygen can freely penetrate the container. Just as CO2 is important to the foliage of your plan, oxygen is necessary for the health of your roots. Plants that have good oxygen penetration to their roots will have strong more vigorous root zones.

Temp Control- Since the sides of your container aren’t solid, and are porous heat can freely exit the root zone and not become locked in such is the case with most all solid pots.

Air Pruning- This is a biggie. Since the sides of the container aren’t solid, when the roots expand they won’t hit that solid wall of the container and be forced to recirculate. The roots can actually grow THROUGH the container wall to a certain extent. When the roots come into contact with the fabric they become trapped, and when contacted with air, they will naturally become pruned. This encourages lateral branching in the root system, making for more effective use of nutrients and moisture, and improving overall all plant health. Because of the air pruning you can grow larger plants in smaller containers. In my personal experience you can grow 3 to 4 foot plants in 2 gallon geo pots. That contradicts the rule of thumb that you should at minimum grow cannabis in a 3 gallon container, even for small plants like auto flowers.

Try for yourself, I think you’ll be surprised at how awesome these grow containers are, they’ll quickly become a staple in your indoor weed garden! There are many containers out there for ganja gardeners to use, but do to the versatility of these new aeropots its hard not to choose them. The choice is yours but I am confident that these are a superior product for any soil grower to use, and you'll notice when the difference when you smoke the bud they grow. If your still unsure, ask around, allot of ganja growers are now converting, will you join them and grow a more supreme product??

Keep Growing! -T.B. Green

          Soylent Says It Knows What’s Making Customers Sick; Will Stop Using Algae-Based Flour        

Last month, meal-replacement startup Soylent voluntarily stopped selling its new-to-market nutrition bar and long-running powder after receiving reports from customers who became ill after consuming the meal-replacement products. Now, the company says it has pinpointed the cause of the issues: an algae-based ingredient called algal flour. 

Bloomberg reports that Soylent believes that algal flour — unique to the Food Bar and Powder 1.6 — is to blame for customers’ experiences with vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach pain, and it will stop using the ingredient in future batches of the products.

“We are releasing new formulations of our powder mix and meal replacement bars early next year,” Rob Rhinehart, Soylent’s co-founder and chief executive officer, tells Bloomberg. “Our new formulations will no longer contain algal flour.”

Algal flour, according to Bloomberg, is used as a vegan replacement for butter and eggs and is created from algae grown in fermentation plants that is then dried.

The ingredient was purchased by Soylent by TerraVia Holdings Co, which also provides the product to Unilever for use in lotions and soaps.

“Our algal flour has been used in more than 20 million servings of products, and we are aware of very few adverse reactions. In no cases was algal flour identified as the cause,” Mark Brooks, a senior vice president at TerraVia, tells Bloomberg.

Soylent also uses a version of the ingredient — algal oil — in its pre-made drinks, but says it has not received any complaints from customers related to those products.

Issues with Soylent’s products began in mid-October when the company announced it would voluntarily stop selling and advise customers to stop eating its Food Bar after receiving reports of people becoming ill after consuming the product.

The company then said it conducted an “aggressive investigation to uncover why people were having negative experiences after eating Soylent Food Bars.

The investigation included “product testing, an exhaustive industry search, and discussions with many of our suppliers,” the company said in a blog post. “Our tests all came back negative for food pathogens, toxins or outside contamination.”

At that point, the company says it began to shift its focus to whether any one ingredient could be triggering a food intolerance, noting that such an issue would explain why not all customers had become ill after eating the products.

During the review, the company says it noticed that a handful of consumers — less than 0.1%, according to Soylent — who consumed Powder 1.6 over the past several months reported stomach-related symptoms that were consistent with what Bar customers described.

Soylent then announced it would stop the sale of Powder 1.6 — which is designed to be mixed with water and consumed instead of solid food — and advised customers who have shown sensitivity to the product to discard whatever is left.

Despite the move, the company did not reveal at the time what ingredient it believed caused the issues.

Soylent says it will reformulate the Bar and Powder products to remove the common ingredient, with new products expected to be available in early 2017.

Still, Bloomberg notes that any kind of reformulation will take time, as extensive testing will be required before the products are put on the market.

Soylent Thinks It Found What Was Making People Sick: Algae [Bloomberg]

by Ashlee Kieler via Consumerist
           Development of a multiplexed bead-based suspension array for the detection and discrimination of Pospiviroid plant pathogens.         
van Brunschot, Sharon L., Bergervoet, Jan H. W., Pagendam, Daniel E., de Weerdt, Marjanne, Geering, Andrew D. W., Drenth, André and van der Vlugt, René A. A. (2014) Development of a multiplexed bead-based suspension array for the detection and discrimination of Pospiviroid plant pathogens. PLoS ONE, 9 (1):e84743. ISSN 1932-6203 (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084743 )
          UW-Madison biochemist wins Shaw Scientist Award        
Ophelia Venturelli's research may lead to the ability to engineer behaviors among beneficial microbes in the gut ecosystem, which could be used to enhance their resilience to invasion by pathogens or unintended impairment from antibiotics.
          Faflak, "Introduction"        

Romantic Psyche and Psychoanalysis


Joel Faflak, University of Western Ontario

Aside from outlining the historical and critical context within which the volume's paper's situate themselves, Faflak's essay explores more specifically how Romantic psychoanalysis emerges alongside Romantic psychiatry. The latter emerges with greater socio-historical force, specificity, and effect than the former. Yet this clear difference also points to how Romantic psychiatry and psychoanalysis become uncanny reflections of the same cognitive maneuver to find and understand the hiding places of the mind's power, a psyche that remains radically unassimilable and indeterminate. It is perhaps one of Romanticism's most powerful and disturbing legacies to modernity that it signifies the absolute ambivalence between marking the psyche's resistance to symbolization and making its darkness visible to a public sphere increasingly concerned to seek out and neutralize the mind's sepulchral recesses. This essay appears in _Romantic Psyche and Psychoanalysis_, a volume of _Romantic Circles Praxis Series_, prepared exclusively for Romantic Circles (http://www.rc.umd.edu/), University of Maryland.

  1. I.

  2. My thoughts here are not meant to preempt the papers that follow. I leave them to articulate their own voices, concerns, and views with far better precision than I could. Not all of the papers herein remain faithful to the volume's emphasis, and in Woodman's final case make a more analogical use of the period's literary concern with the psyche's labours. That said, I found in this difference of approaches something rather powerfully symptomatic about the period's own symptomatic response to the psyche and its meanings, both personal and social. That is to say, Romantic approaches to the psyche tend to be rather heterogeneous themselves because, well, the psyche's resistance to any monolithic interpretation of it was precisely the period's difficult education to us about psychology and psychic reality—a lesson we still find difficult to learn.

  3. I thus want to say something prefatory, yet by no means prescriptive, about the spirit of psychoanalysis that emerges in the Romantic period, to which these essays respond. This volume grows out of a panel entitled "Sciences of the Romantic Psyche," which I organized for the 2006 joint North American for the Society for the Study of Romanticism/North American Society for Victorian Studies Association. The session asked for papers that explored the emergence of psychoanalytical or psychiatric thinking and techniques in Romantic literature and thought, or that explored psychoanalytical approaches to Romantic literature and culture. In truth I was not much concerned about the latter approaches, and was more interested in Romantic psychoanalysis than Romantic psychiatry. At the time I presumed that criticism on Romantic psychiatry was tied to psychiatry's historical origins at the turn of eighteenth century, which were far clearer that those of psychoanalysis, which doesn't emerge until the turn of the next century. This criticism's attachments, I further presumed, were thus stubbornly historicist, reflecting more recent trends in Romantic studies, whereas work on Romanticism and psychoanalysis was more productively dialectical and diacritical. The scholarly genealogy of this latter field played out, if not in the letter, then certainly in the Jungian spirit of Bodkin's or Frye's archetypal criticism or Abrams's natural supernaturalism. It then became symptomatic in the Freudian agon of Bloom's or Hartman's anxieties about Romantic imagination. More recently we can say that it has worked-through these earlier repetitions and rememberings of Romanticism's critical unconscious to the dark phenomenology of poststructuralism's hermeneutics of suspicion, typified by Tilottama Rajan's account of Romanticism as a period of "restless self-examination" (Dark Interpreter 25). Moreover, one could roughly map this evolution onto the twentieth-century theoretical development of psychoanalysis from the split between Freud and Jung to a post-Freudian or post-Jungian complication of both pioneer's insights.

  4. The critical distinction I wanted to make here seemed, to me, productive: Romantic psychiatry needed to be historical and cultural, whereas Romantic psychoanalysis, unmoored from the materialisms of psychiatry's early history, needed to be theoretical. Romantic psychoanalysis was psychiatry's gothic and uncanny other, its political unconscious, the free radical of Romantic identity's otherwise organic chemistry. But the binary was/is, of course, too neat. It tends to re-inscribe precisely the kinds of critical divisions that have sometimes plagued the field. The recent turn toward the cultural or political in Romantic studies has attempted to repair these rifts, yet it sometimes does so without making the more incisive gesture of asking how Romanticism's historical identity was a process of self-theorization, how the theoretical within Romantic historicization is its own most potently self-fashioning gesture, whether as revolution or reaction. To proceed in this direction, I thus take the term 'psycho(-)analysis' to specify the multiple personalities of Freud, Jung, and their aftermaths as the future shadows that Romanticism casts upon our various presents. Yet the term also signifies a more broad-ranging analysis of the psyche that produces Freud and his heirs, while further taking in a more heterogeneous Romantic concern to explore, understand, and classify the psyche (a concern of Matt ffytche's paper, to which we shall return). This matrix encompasses the emergence of psychiatry, which in turn calls forth psychoanalysis as the eventual fulfilment of psychiatry's promise to modernity. But it tracks both identities as (dis)positions of Romantic thought which might help us to re-think the disciplinary boundaries of psychoanalysis, and thus to write against the grain of our histories of knowledge and thus against our knowledge of psychoanalytic history, whether psychiatric or otherwise. The papers herein map versions of a psychoanalysis avant la lettre, then, but also imagine how psychoanalysis before Freud thinks itself differently, as well as anticipating and staging its later concerns, theorizations, and institutionalizations.

  5. To this end I didn't mean 'science' in the sense of its strictly disciplinary, regulative, or empirical nature, for the ambiguity of such distinctions is partly what makes Romantic thought at once modernity's Symbolic, imaginary, and Real. As David Knight notes, in Romanticism's time the sciences still "lacked sharp and natural frontiers," and disciplinary boundaries were as yet indistinct. Instead, "the realm of science, governed by reason," was distinguished from "practice, or rule of thumb; and apostles of science hoped to replace habit by reason in the affairs of life" (13-14). This regulative desire, however, is undone precisely by the time's confrontation with the evasions and anxieties of desire itself. To paraphrase Rajan in this volume, with reference to Schelling's 1815 Ages of the World, there can be no science of nature without a detour into nature's history, at which point we are in the laboratory of a psychoanalysis whose history makes history impossible, or rather, a psychoanalysis that withdraws from history itself to think the human otherwise. In this sense something like literature itself becomes the traumatic core of Romanticism's confrontation with itself, the means through which Romanticism discovers human identity's traumatically literary nature. Or to cite Julie Carlson, (Romanticism's) phantasy is our reality test, which she provocatively refers to as the in/fancy of Romantic (self-)writing. This "'wandering fancy' welcomes imaginative life and unleashes what the 'development' in romantic imagination represses: delight in errancy, death-in-life, fits-and-starts of inspiration."

  6. Ildiko Csengei figures this delight through her readings of the faints/feints of eighteenth-century sensibility, whose 'novel' developments "critique the blind spots of Freud's interpretations." Fainting stages the hysterical symptom as a scene of resistant self-elaboration, a mode of "unconscious female protest" through which women escape the forced social repression of the novel of sensibility's plot. In such pockets of resistance the unconscious lies couched as a force that knows no "no." However transgressive this scene of gender, its triumph, left at the level of the unconscious, seems rather pyrrhic when read against the gendered social revolutions of the 1790s. However, Csengei's analysis, like Mary Jacobus's, suggests that there is a different confrontation with this specter of failure, an uneconomized and uneconomical feeling that doesn't locate itself within a binary structure of productivity vs. uselessness, but rather thinks feeling in ways we have only begun to understand. Such a process, Jacobus suggests, produces new ways of seeing and feeling—or more specifically, new ways of seeing feeling and of feeling what we see. In what Jacobus provocatively explores as Romantic autothanography, the valence of seeing, feeling, and thus being is a narrative of being in one's own death. This existence marks the interminable register of one's missed encounter(s) with the real of the world, which nonetheless has an all-too-real terminus. So, if something like psychiatry emerges in the period to provide for the care of wayward souls or psyches, it is equally confronted by a diagnosis without cure. This pathology is the contagion or stain produced by the cognitive business of feeling and thinking about the world, which business halts with traumatically abrupt force, the world's nature lingering far past it and caring nothing for it, like the blind triumph of Schopenhauer's will.

  7. One point of these papers, then, is to ask how Romantic psychoanalysis and psychiatry emerge as uncanny reflections of the same cognitive maneuver to find and understand the sources of the mind's power and affinities, knowing these things to be, as ffytche argues, irredeemably indefinite and obscure. And more often than not, this search ends up with specters that the future history of psychiatry and psychoanalysis would rather set aside, but whose powerful hauntings are constitutive of the Romantic psyche's confrontation with itself. This is the implicit point of Ross Woodman's paper, which investigates alchemy as the occult or spectral half-life of psychoanalysis, further reminding us that psychoanalysis and its often more radical investigations of the psyche haunts psychiatry and vexes its social productivity. Alchemy figures how the psychic machinery by which being is transformed into feeling and thinking looks rather like a black magic whose radically unknown speculative power has us perpetually within its spell, human genome projects, neuroscience, and pharmacological wonders to the contrary. Or rather, such attempts at physiological and psychological, or more properly psychosomatic, rationalization are symptomatic of how far we haven't come in our understanding of the psyche. By taking us back to Jung's and psychoanalysis' future in Blake and Shelley, giving historical precedence to neither, Woodman reminds us that we've been looking at things in the wrong way all along. We turn sideways toward the confidence of rationality, without looking into the uncanny work of understanding and imagination. Coleridge seemed already to know this when he coined the supernatural work of cognition as a willing suspension of disbelief constituting poetic faith, or coined the term "psycho-analytical" (Notebooks 2:2670) while attempting to theorize how we come to put our faith in the unknown.[1] Despite his later philosophical conservatism, he could never leave behind his own startling accounts of the human mind's mesmerizing powers in Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Christabel, or Kubla Khan. To borrow Woodman's parlance, these are as radically alchemical in their accounts of the empirical and phenomenological process of the imagination as we yet have in literature.

  8. So, in the various Romantic precedents we find here, we can name Romantic psychic organization as the site of a profoundly productive ambivalence, at once foundational and proleptic. Here we are in the realm of science, but one whose critical, cultural, and literary articulation is radically beside the point of its own rationally organized disciplinary other. For this reason, I want to set one primal scene of this volume in Coleridge, not his coining of the term "psycho-analytical," but one of its symptomatic outbreaks.


  9. In 1804 Coleridge left England for Malta, presumably to regain some sense of physical and psychological balance—that is, to overcome his opium addiction and recover his creative focus and purpose. In a notebook entry dated "Sunday Midnight, May 13th, 1804," Coleridge, still at sea, writes:

    O dear God! Give me strength of Soul to make one thorough Trial—if I land at Malta spite of all horrors to go through one month of unstimulated Nature—yielding to nothing but manifest Danger of Life!—O great God! Grant me grace truly to look into myself, & to begin the serious work of Self-amendment—accounting to Conscience for the Hours of every Day. Let me live in Truth—manifesting that alone which is, even as it is, & striving to be that which only Reason shews to be lovely—that which my Imagination would delight to manifest!—I am loving & kind-hearted & cannot do wrong with impunity, but o! I am very, very weak—from my infancy have been so—& I exist for the moment!—Have mercy on me, have mercy on me, Father & God! omnipresent, incomprehensible, who with undeviating Laws eternal yet carest for the falling of the feather from the Sparrow's Wing.—(Notebooks 2:2091)

    Such desperate confessions usually accompany one's night-thoughts, when the moon casts its ghostly illumination over the shape of things, though given the inclement conditions endured by the convoy in which Coleridge was sailing, it seems that even that enlightenment was unavailable. Nonetheless, as Wordsworth reminds us in his "Poem on the Formation of his mind" (2:2092), the five-book version of which Coleridge had taken with him to Malta, "when the light of sense / Goes out," other presences and articulations emerge in a "flash" to fill the gap, an "invisible world" or other life of things (Wallace Stevens calls it "ghostlier demarcations") that it was the particular business of Wordsworth, Coleridge, and their age to express. More often than not, this presence opened from the "mind's abyss / Like an unfathered vapour," which rift Wordsworth was prone to sublimate as the site where "greatness make[s] abode" (Prelude 6.594-602).

  10. Of course, these passages from what would become Book Six of The Prelude were not part of the manuscript Coleridge carried with him to Malta. For that he would have to wait until January 1807, after his return to England, when he listened to Wordsworth recite his expanded thirteen-book version over a fortnight, at which point Coleridge also realized the full extent of Wordsworth's rather patronizing psychoanalysis of Coleridge's decline. We read the effect of Wordsworth's transference onto Coleridge in "To William Wordsworth," in which Coleridge experiences the Great Man's diagnosis as "flowers / Strewed on my corse, and borne upon my bier, / In the same coffin, for the self-same grave!" (79-81). With the echo of his analyst's "deep voice" (110) still hovering in the air, Coleridge, "Scarce conscious, and yet conscious of its close" (115), finds himself "Absorbed, yet hanging still upon the sound" (118). In the ambivalence of "hanging still" as both lingering cathexis and deadly suspension we see the darker, interminable yearning of Wordsworth's experience of the "mind's abyss" as a "hope that can never die, / Effort, expectation, and desire, / And something evermore about to be" (Prelude 6.606-8). No wonder that, at the end of hearing Wordsworth's poem, Coleridge, in ironically reverent Dora drag, "found [himself] in prayer!" ("To William Wordsworth," 119).

  11. What compels us here is how the two men proceed in one another's absence, and how this absence stages in their respective writings a dialogue with the unconscious as a missed encounter ("the hiding-places of man's power / Open; I would approach them, but they close," Wordsworth writes in The Prelude [12.279-80]). Such latencies compel us to read the evidence of Romanticism always symptomatically rather than definitively. For instance, the indolence plaguing Coleridge's creative will also took its physiological toll. Writing to his wife on June 5, 1804, describing the voyage from Gibraltar to Malta, Coleridge explains that he was "wretchedly unwell; oppressed, uncomfortable, incapable of the least exertion of mind or attention, tho' not sick, in the intervals of eating; and the moment, I eat any thing, I became sick and rejected—at length, my appetite wholly deserted me; I loathed the sight of Food . . . " The result "made [him] neglectful of taking an opening medicine –.– O merciful God! What days of Horror were not that . . . Body & Being," though the next day he reports being "comfortable, only a little feverish," and, eventually, for "the remainder of the Voyage enjoyed a lightness, health, & appetite, unknown to me for months before" (Letters 1136). The rather quick recovery has to do with two openings: one in the manuscript of Coleridge's letter, which was subsequently mutilated (at the point of the ellipsis), the other in Coleridge's bowels, for one of the more unwelcome side effects of repeated opium use is constipation. For an account of both, we must go to Wordsworth, who got news of the letter firsthand from Mrs. Coleridge, and reported its contents to George Beaumont in a letter dated August 31, 1804:

    [Coleridge] then gives a most melancholy account of an illness which held him during the whole of his voyage from Gibraltar to Malta except the last four or five days, a languor and oppression, and rejection of food, accompanied with a dangerous constipation, which compelled the Captain to hang out signals of distress to the Commodore for a surgeon to come on board. He was relieved from this at last after undergoing the most excruciating agonies, with the utmost danger of an inflammation in the bowels. All this appears to have been owing to his not having been furnished with proper opening medicines. (Letters 498)

    Coleridge's own relief is, as it were, palpable: "every thing depends on keeping the Body regularly open.—" (Letters 1137).

  12. When Woodman pointed out to me in conversation the temporal proximity of this episode and Coleridge's September 1805 notebook entry which coins the term "psycho-analytical," I howled with laughter. Yet "keeping the Body regularly open" signifies in several possible ways, for staying open means staying receptive to oneself, the world, and others, a peculiarly regular attention of the senses that by the Romantic period becomes an acute dilemma, the psychosomatics of thinking and feeling vexing creation to the extent that 'regularity' itself becomes problematic, a symptom in turn for what Orrin Wang calls a Romantic sobriety that feeds upon its own desire for self-control, self-discipline, self-containment. That is to say, we can read the rather alarming symptoms of Coleridge's constipated body for the potential psychoanalysis of a mind not quite at one with itself, or rather of a mind and body whose incommensurate relationship with one another indicate the troubling conjunctions of affect within and between subjects, the staging of a (dis)embodied intra- and inter-subjectivity, the syntax of which it is difficult to parse. ffytche examines how the Romantic soul or psyche is neither divine power nor archetypal reality but a different mediation between psychology and ontology, offering a "basis of the self and its imagined processes of production [as] conveyed via metaphors of obscurity, oblivion or abrupt and inexplicable transition," a self "radically self-caused by a logic which belongs wholly to itself . . ." Via such "resistance to rational conceptions of causal process, the self has acquired a certain inalienable freedom."

  13. This freedom can be rather vertiginous, however. In Kubla Khan Coleridge speaks of a "deep romantic chasm" (12) that fills the poet with a sense of "holy dread" (52) about the unknown. Shelley sees this dread in the ravine of the River Arve from which the subject's entire phenomenological universe emerges and into which it threatens to evaporate. In the post-empiricist mindset that informs their writings, one is tempted to read these tropes as figures for the mind's tabula rasa re-cast as the sublime potentiality of imaginative power. As Kant was to write, however, as if to ventriloquize Locke's own anxiety about the "violence" (Essay 2:161) of the mind's tendency to find alternate paths of cognition, "The point of excess for the imagination . . . is like an abyss in which it fears to lose itself" (Critique 1:107). Such ideas constellate the image of a mind whose cognitive power the age at once esteemed and feared, especially at a time when the increasingly rapid dissemination of thought and thoughts in the public sphere was becoming an activity of some socio-political concern. Goya's monster-breeding sleep of reason suggests that just as soon as one confronts the mind's ability to breed pathologies, one also fears such Malthussian replications and reproductions (De Quincey's rabidly racist, imperialist, and classist confession of the nightmarishly baroque intricacies of his opium dreams being one of the most potent symbolizations of this anxiety).

  14. We have come to call this locus of subjectivity the unconscious. Yet naming the power is rather beside the point, for what seems to mark the Romantic encounter with it differently is this power's psychologically estranging and gothic effects. As ffytche or Rajan remind us, Freud's wasn't the only form of the unconscious with which the Romantics contended. Or as Carlson notes, "Shelley's psychical reality indeed is not Freud's but wilder." In his Prospectus to The Recluse (first drafted in 1800), which according to Coleridge in Biographia Literaria was to have been the "FIRST GENUINE PHILOSOPHIC POEM" (2:156) in British literature, Wordsworth speaks of how nothing, not "The darkest Pit of lowest Erebus, / Nor aught of blinder vacancy, scooped out / By help of dreams—can breed such fear and awe / As fall upon us often when we look / Into our Minds, into the Mind of Man" (36-40).[2] Something about confronting the work of the individual mind produces anxiety. It's not that the Romantics seemed compelled to prove the existence of this something, for that seemed more the province of science, philosophy, natural philosophy, medicine. Rather, they were at once haunted and fascinated by what power this power might hold for and over human consciousness and imagination, haunted and fascinated by its effects on human minds and bodies. As Jacobus reminds us by taking us back to the future of modernity's dislocating phenomenology (Philip Larkin's unease at seeing wet leaves on a road), the effect on our psyche of encountering a speck of glass on the ground of a ruined cottage can be—is—profound. Everything depends upon how we see it.

  15. Yet the dislocation doesn't come with the observation itself, as Jacobus is quick to add. Like the effects of Mesmerism, gravity, and a host of other phenomena through which post-Enlightenment culture was beginning to encounter its own uncanny nature, the point of post-Baconian scientific observation or post-Lockean associationism, of turning the world over to man's ability to witness it and his place in it, was that the empirical evidence from which we construct our bodies of knowledge was, in fact, merely symptomatic of the world's latency. The power of electricity or of galvanism wasn't as important as their galvanizing aftereffects, the startling fact that these effects staged the human as a radical dis-placement in the world. In that displacement emerged the unconscious as the radically disjunctive effect of man's consciousness upon the world, or more particularly the world of his own making, which in turn produced the idea that the human, by the very nature of its being human, was rather beside the point. Romanticism is filled with such uncanny encounters with otherness (think of how many times something like the Specter of the Brocken appears in Romantic literature). In this respect the unconscious was discovered, not as something that the human had missed about the world, but as an effect of discovering the unconscious, an effect of confronting how consciousness is always beside itself.


  16. In returning to the passage we started with, two points should arrest us: Coleridge's desire to achieve the momentary respite of an "unstimulated Nature" and the gesture toward faith. The former would allow Coleridge to "live in Truth—manifesting that alone which is, even as it is, & striving to be that which only Reason shews to be lovely—that which my Imagination would delight to manifest!" Coleridge wants to still the perpetually disruptive psychosomatic body of evidence that is specifically tied to his constipated and opiated condition. Yet one also senses a yearning to put the evidence of the senses altogether into some coherent form, to gain what Wordsworth calls the "genuine insight" of "the individual Mind that keeps her own / Inviolate retirement, subject there / To Conscience only, and the law supreme / Of that Intelligence which governs all" (Prospectus to The Recluse 88, 19-22). At the end of the penultimate stanza of his Intimations ode Wordsworth calls this the "philosophic mind," though he is quick at the end of the final stanza to note how such "Thoughts . . . do often lie too deep for tears" (184, 203). This isn't so much a sublimation or transcendence as a recognition that thought itself, when confronting its own nature, lies beyond the cognition of either intellect or feeling. If thought is a shape all light, its illumination, as Shelley will acknowledge with not a little tragic insight, tramples the mind's labour into dust. Confronting one's mind breeds such fear and awe that the mind becomes paralyzed, annihilated, the dark side of the suspension of disbelief which produces the confirming illusions of poetic faith, of the light of sense going out in order for the invisible world, which is the senses' after-staging of the world, to reveal itself.

  17. No wonder, then, that Coleridge calls out to God, "omnipresent, incomprehensible, who with undeviating Laws eternal yet carest for the falling of the feather from the Sparrow's Wing." Coleridge is asking for a certain philosophical clarity, and thus appealing more broadly to thought to sober or correct itself, to bring to enlightenment that within itself that won't make itself known. Here, as ffytche's or Rajan's papers again remind us by turning to German science and idealism, both potent pharmakons for a British philosophical tradition that couldn't remain immune to its influence (Wordsworth and Coleridge returning from Germany in the late 1790s is rather like Jung and Freud bringing the plague of psychoanalysis into New York Harbour in 1909), thought becomes the very pathogen it seeks to root out, thus giving the time's appeal to thought's power a certain feverish fervency. By the time of the high Anglicism of Coleridge's later philosophical writings, such incipient evangelicisms secure the otherwise heterogeneous and aberrant wanderings of his early thoughts as the internalized "Ideas" of church and state by which the clerical imagination is guided toward its higher social and moral purpose, insuring a cultural stability that the Victorians will find so useful. The turn inward in Coleridge, that is to say, is at once radically transgressive and opportunistically salutary. When Coleridge asks for the strength to "look into" himself and "begin the serious work of Self-amendment—accounting to Conscience for the Hours of every Day"—he is re-staging the disciplinary regime of spiritual exercise as a psychological call to duty, thus deploying psychological ritual as religious practice. Coleridge's unpublished writings, while on one hand demonstrating the often arcane and restlessly alternative cast of his thought, are also filled with repeated calls to "Self-amendment" similar to that of his Mediterranean letter.

  18. That is to say, we also see in Coleridge's personal encounter with the unconscious a desire for reparation and the therapeutic, a socially ameliorative gesture that allays fears about these effects in the name of what Wordsworth, in his own way always quick to move past the individual and the personal, speaks of as the collective "Mind of Man." The ideological tenor of this desire to organize the potential disorganization of thought and feeling was, by the turn of the century, well-established. As John Barrell writes,

    aesthetics was anxious to pass the concept [of imagination] over to psychiatry; for when the imagination slipped the lead of the will or judgment, often when "heated" by the overwhelming power of the passions, it became "disordered," and produced elaborate structures of ideas associated on accidental rather than on substantial grounds. The relation between insanity and the imagination had been a subject of a famous dispute in the late 1750s . . . (7)

    One is reminded here of mid-century works such as Akenside's Pleasures of Imagination, Joseph Warton's "The Enthusiast," or Thomas Warton's "The Pleasures of Melancholy," which make a spectacle of the mind's spectacular capacity to re-envision our environment. They typologize a feeling disposition toward the world and others. In the late eighteenth century the sense of sensibility embodies the exulting solitude of one's communion with nature as a dynamic economy of exchange, which psychiatry as well as psychoanalysis at once originates in and originates.

  19. Csengei's paper accounts for the later eighteenth century's powerful resistance to such developments by marking the novel's staging of sensibility as a novel development in sensibility's otherwise conserving and conservative evolution. Csengei reminds us that we need to be reminded of such evolutions, for such is how histories tend to write out of themselves that which might write them otherwise. Psychiatry emerges concurrently with what French psychiatric pioneer Philippe Pinel, in his 1801 Traité médico-philosophique sur l'aleniation mentale; ou la manie (first translated into English in 1806), termed the 'moral treatment' or 'moral therapy,' earlier instituted as part of the founding regime of the York Retreat (1796), which pioneered the humane treatment of the mentally ill after the blight of what in his History of Madness Foucault calls 'the great confinement.' Yet this otherwise benign and empathic transformation of sensibility also plays out the not-so-benign coercion of sympathy and its desire to bring the other within the sphere of one's influence, and thus to tame the 'wildness' of unconscious exchange in the name of political economy and discursive surveillance. One can locate Romantic psychoanalysis on either side of such developments: either its radical confrontation with the effects of the unconscious is cause for psychiatry's careful observation, or it reacts against such disciplinary effects, radicalizing and unsettling their normalizing imperatives. One remembers that when the pleasure of imagination turns to pain (a distinction that De Quincey further exploits when structuring his opium confessions), the confrontation begins to look less welcoming, even threatening, a point that Rajan's paper makes with reference to Mesmerism and its compulsive cultural repetition of the political specters of the 1790s, or Woodman makes via alchemy as psychoanalysis's matrix of transformational possibility (as Carlson notes with reference to Mary Shelley's first novel, Victor Frankenstein's "active fancy [is] drawn initially to books of alchemy").

  20. As I have suggested, the historical contours of psychiatry's emergence in the Romantic period are much more clearly defined than those of psychoanalysis—the numbering, segregation, and treatment of the insane in asylums such as the York Retreat; the development and dissemination of medical knowledge in a number of fields from philosophy to natural philosophy to medicine; etc.[3] But we can imagine this psychiatry ambivalently, for it emerges from a Romantic public sphere whose spirit of post-Enlightenment scientific, philosophical, and cultural enquiry informs Romanticism's forming and re-forming bodies of knowledge, which are at once interdisciplinary and cosmopolitan, local and general, radical and conservative, national and transnational. Much scholarship attends to German Romantic psychiatry, for instance, and it was Johann Christian Reil who in 1808 coined the term "Psychiaterie," only three years after Coleridge coined the term "psycho-analytical," and whose Rhapsodien über die Anwendung der psychischen Curmethode auf Geisteszerrüttungen (1803) is one of the rather more exotic examples of psychiatry's often anti-scientific origins. As Allen Thiher notes, Riel's text "proposes various therapeutic procedures while it theorizes that the self has hidden depths hiding the fantasies that erupt in madness," and the German Romanticism from which psychiatry partly emerges evokes a "moment during which medicine and literature looked upon each other as complementary discourses, and this moment was continued on, perhaps unknowingly, in the development of psychoanalytic discourse" (169, 167).

  21. A similar conjunction exists in Britain at the same time, as Michelle Faubert has argued. Yet Faubert is also quick to add that this conjunction speaks in resistance to what is, more often than not in psychiatry's British inflection, a common sense concern for the effective classification and discipline of feeling and thinking bodies, especially when such human economies turn pathological, as I have already suggested.[4] Emerging from the alchemy of German, Scottish, and French, as well as English thought, British Romantic Psychiatry, like the hybridization of British imperial identity from the discrete strands of other nationalities, forges from this philosophical and scientific melting pot an identity that, when it eventually ends up in the hands of an American psychiatric culture industry (and here I am thinking of Lacan's critique of American ego psychology), turns the enlightened self-examination of feeling into the nearly evangelical (which is also to say rabidly ideological) imperative to feel well and not to worry: to be or get happy. Here the meeting of Romantic psychoanalysis, and its radical encounter with the unconscious, and Romantic psychiatry, and its desire to economize this encounter, produces an epistemological and ultimately socio-political payoff whose paradigms of management, utility, development, and progress set the stage for a later nineteenth-century consolidation of psychiatric power.

  22. So, when Coleridge appeals to God to guide the properly productive labour of illuminating his inwardly pathological self and root out its mutating effect, we need to be aware, simultaneously, that this is the man who coined the term 'psycho-analytical' in an effort to explain the conjunction of psychology, myth, and faith. There was much to pray for when confronting the mind's heart of darkness, which seemed to know only interminable growth and transformation. This thought's sublime dimensions were a source of wonder and terror, awe and threat, diagnosis and contagion. In terms of Romanticism's own thoughtful response to such vertiginous dualities, this is not to read the Romantic as open critique without ideological borders. There was also much to pray for when one witnessed how even the radically incisive epistemological gestures of psychoanalysis could be turned to aesthetic and ideological profit, as Coleridge learned only too well in hearing Wordsworth's account of his "friend's" pathology of psychological and creative despondency.

  23. The papers in this volume, then, speak both implicitly and explicitly to a psychoanalysis haunted by its own specters, one that eventually produces Freud and permits us to recognize how the compulsive repetition of institutional power tends to feed upon its own failed enlightenment. This is also to say that the papers herein address how Romanticism emerges from this failure, to which it responds with considerable theoretical acumen, however much it also produces a fundamental split between a psychiatric consciousness, which attends to the socio-political management of psychosomatic causes and effects, and a psychoanalytical consciousness, which stages this management's feeling impossibility, the one intervolved in the other as what Schelling might call rotary drives whose productivity is at once the body politic's cure and pathogen. Perhaps we can frame things differently, however, by noting instead the emergence of a kind of psychiatric or psychoanalytic consciousness through which one can trace, not the invention of either psychiatry or psychoanalysis, but the imagining and imagination of their terms and dispositions of thought, feeling, and action. Together these gestures constellate the habitus within which the various theories, doctrines, and practices of either field could materialize themselves, but against which the period writes with some resistant force.

  24. The contributors to this volume account for this resistance by returning to Romantic literature and thought as expressions of the poetic forces of a burgeoning public sphere imbued with the desire at once to solidify and challenge itself. In short, these papers contribute to a kind of psychosomatic literary history of psychoanalysis, one that traces in Romantic literature, through its shifting textual forms, a cultural symptomatology that marks the affective and affecting influence in literature of an emerging consciousness mediated by both its psychiatric and psychoanalytic tendencies. Negotiating between the psychiatric within the psychoanalytic and the psychoanalytic within the psychiatric, the Romantic psyche becomes a productively bipolar cultural dis(-)order which it is the particular business of the psychology of Romantic literature and thought to work out and against, if not to work through.

  25. Taken together via their repetitions, transferences, and unconscious desires, these papers evoke what Deborah Britzman might refer to as Romanticism's difficult education. As Carlson notes, this trauma is the work of literature itself: "For [Shelley], the value of creative writing is in 'preparing' readers for the inability to be prepared. This preparation includes a fundamental lack of clarity regarding the coherence of that 'me.'" Books merely objectify the textualization of reality that conditions the formation of the Lockean identity from the traumatic tabula rasa of its core self. In short, books and literature traumatize, because that's what they're meant to do. Through them—like the gestures of those still insurmountable and inscrutable texts of Romanticism's thought-ful and difficult encounter with itself—Blake's Milton, Keats's Hyperions, Shelley's The Triumph of Life—exploits the confrontation with thought and feeling for all it's worth, an exploitation that subsequent years and thinkers will take in unimagined and unthinkable ways, in order to make all kinds of cultural profit, yet also to confront the incommensurability of thought itself, the place where our embodied experience of the world becomes the site of an uncanny, traumatic, apparitional encounter. Only by acknowledging such disconcerting psychic realities can we get on with the business of living on.

Works Cited

Barrell, John. Imagining the King's Death : Figurative Treason, Fantasies of Regicide, 1793-1796. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000.

Britzman, Deborah P. After-Education: Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, and Psychoanalytic Histories of Learning. Albany, NY: State U of New York P, 2003.

Burwick, Frederick. Poetic Madness and the Romantic Imagination. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 1996.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Biographia Literaria; or Biographical Sketches of My Literary Life and Opinions. Ed. by James Engell and W. Jackson Bate. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1983.

---. Coleridge's Poetry and Prose. Ed. Nicholas Halmi, Paul Magnuson, and Raimondo Modiano. New York: Norton, 2004.

---. Collected Letters of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Ed. by Earle Leslie Griggs. 6 vols. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1956-1971.

---. The Collected Notebooks of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Ed. by Kathleen Coburn and Merton Christensen. 4 vols. New York: Bollingen Series: Pantheon Books, 1957-1990.

Ellenberger, Henri. The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books, 1970.

Faflak, Joel. Romantic Psychoanalysis: The Burden of the Mystery. Albany, NY: State U of New York P, 2008.

Faubert, Michelle. "Cure, Classification, and John Clare." Victorian Literature and Culture 33 (2005): 269-91.

Foucault, Michel. History of Madness. Ed. Jean Khalfa. Trans. Jonathan Murphy and Jean Khalfa. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Ingram, Allan. The Madhouse of Language: Writing and Reading Madness in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Routledge, 1991.

Kant, Immanuel. The Critique of Judgement. Translated by James Creed Meredith. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1992.

Knight, David. "Romanticism and the Sciences." Romanticism and the Sciences. Ed. Andrew Cunningham and Nicholas Jardine. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 13-24.

Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Ed. Peter H. Nidditch. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1975.

Macalpine, Ida and Richard Hunter. George III and the Mad Business. New York: Pantheon Books, 1969.

Porter, Roy. Mind-Forged Manacles: A History of Madness in England from the Restoration to the Regency. London: Athlone P, 1987.

Rajan, Tilottama. Dark Interpreter: The Discourse of Romanticism. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1980. Scull, Andrew. "Psychiatry and its historians." History of Psychiatry. 2 (1991): 239-50.

Shorter, Edward. A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1997.

Thiher, Allen. Revels in Madness: Insanity in Medicine and Literature. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1999.

Wang, Orrin N. C. "Romantic Sobriety." Modern Language Quarterly 60.4 (December 1999): 469-94.

Wordsworth, William. The Letters of William and Dorothy Wordsworth. Ed. Ernest de Selincourt. 2nd ed. Vol 1. The Early Years, 1787-1805. Rev. Chester L. Shaver. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1967.

---. Poetical Works. Ed. Thomas Hutchinson. Rev. ed. Ernest de Selincourt. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1988.

---. The Prelude: 1799, 1805, 1850. Ed. Jonathan Wordsworth, M. H. Abrams, and Stephen Gill. New York: Norton, 1979.


1. I analyze this passage at some length in my Romantic Psychoanalysis 31-36, and again in my Afterword to a forthcoming book, co-written with Woodman, entitled Revelation and Knowledge. Woodman also reminded me of the startling affinity between this episode in Coleridge's life and Blake's mythologization of the psychosomatics of Milton moving at once inspirationally and with painful apocalyptic dread through Blake's bowels ("Bowlahoola") in that poem's remarkable scene of psychoanalysis.

2. I quote here from the published version of the poem, appended as part of preface to Wordsworth's 1814 publication of The Excursion. In the original manuscript Wordsworth speaks of the "fear and awe" that "fall upon me often when I look / Into my soul, into the soul of man – ," turning toward the collective, yet via a psychoanalysis whose confrontation with the unconscious is as much threateningly personal and idiosyncratic as consolingly universal, the latter clearly taking precedence by the time of the 1814 version, in which the more obscure work of the soul (to borrow Ffytche's term) is sublimated, intellectualized, and allegorized as the collective social work of the universal "Mind." See my discussion of the differences between version of the Prospectus in Romantic Psychoanalysis 91-97.

3. For histories of this emergence in the period, see Ellenberger and Shorter. The 1980s and 1990s saw a surge in work on the history of psychiatry in the wake of Foucault, but also the foundational research of McAlpine, Hunter, Porter and others. A 1990 article by Andrew Scull schematizes this work in terms of a tension between history and historiography–the way psychiatry writes its own history. Proceeding on what Scull calls the "firm and neutral ground of value-free natural science" (239), it produced "sanitized" histories of the field in which the spirit of progress guides psychiatry's move toward its own absolute knowledge: the cure of souls in the name of the public good and scientific fact. Foucault's Madness and Civilization radically challenged the rules of this game, though his historiography came under attack, a problem redressed, Scull argues, through the more "comparative" (242) approach of recent psychiatric historiography, which proceeds in the spirit thought not always the letter of anti-psychiatry. Writing psychiatric history otherwise, it combines Foucault's hermeneutics of suspicion with a firmer grasp of socio-historical specificity. Call it the New Psychiatry. Part of this effort is to nuance how later eighteenth-century culture produces psychiatry from its own desire to naturalize its citizenship among the disciplines. Scull links this desire more to the nineteenth century, whereas I would locate it earlier in the eighteenth century.

4. Here I want to mention the work of Shorter, again, but also Ingram, Faubert, Burwick, and of course Porter, whose Mind Forg'd Manacles is in many ways the ur-text of Romantic psychiatric historiography.

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          Kate Winslet :: "Less glamorous"character        

Kate Winslet has portrayed a slew of sophisticated women but the Oscar-winning actress says she prefers to play "less glamorous" roles.In the new film "Contagion," which was released on Friday, September 9, The 35-year-old British actress portrays Dr. Erin Mears, an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer who works to find a pathogen and vaccine for a deadly airborne virus that is threatening to spread around the world. The film also stars Matt Damon and Jude Law. "I really prefer playing the less glamorous characters to the perfectly manicured ones," Winslet said in an interview provided by Warner Brothers Pictures. "I do really like playing people who really look like people."
"I mean, no, I didn't have hair and makeup and the Epidemic Intelligence Service officers that I met ... they did say to me that they didn't even own any makeup," she added. "They might put on a little lipstick if they have to meet government officials, but other than that, no hair, no makeup."

Winslet said she did not know what an Epidemic Intelligence Service agent did before she took on the role. "These people are absolutely brilliant and quite extraordinary people and I was very grateful to them for sharing some of their stories with me," she said. "It made a huge difference to my knowledge of the role I had to play." Given the subject matter of the film, Winslet said that the cast and crew were increasingly aware of germs. "You've never see so many bottles of hand sanitizer on a movie set, probably in your life," she said. "It did make us more germ conscious, some people even had a hard time sleeping in their hotel rooms, knowing that a stranger had slept in that exact same bed the night before. It really made people a bit crazy."
"I didn't quite go to that extreme," she added. "But as a parent, one is of course health-conscious and germ-conscious on behalf of our kids and it and it has made me crank it up a notch. Not in an obsessive way, definitely not, but there has been more hand-washing that goes on and shoes going on and off going into people's houses and other people going into our house."
Winslet rose to fame with her role as Rose in another disaster film - 1997 movie "Titanic." She won her first Oscar for her performance in the 2008 movie "The Reader." Winslet, who is currently dating Louis Dowler, and has two children, Mia, 10, and Joe, 7, from marriages to directors Jim Threapleton and Sam Mendes. Winslet and Mendes separated in March 2010. Winslet will next appear in "Carnage," opposite Oscar-winner Christoph Waltz, Jodie Foster and John C. Reilly. The film, which is based on the play by Yasmina Reza, "The God of Carnage," is slated for release on September 30 and follows two sets of parents who organize a "cordial" meeting after their sons are involved in a fight at school which leaves one child with broken teeth.

Watch Kate winslet video ::

          Why Gasification of Sewage Sludge is Better Than Spreading it on Land        

Sewage sludge actually seems to be too wet to burn, but it does!

Gasification of sewage sludge is becoming a very popular method for disposing of the organic sludges from sewage works, or to give them a more genteel name wastewater treatment plants. It is currently a large market area for gasification technology. So, how did this come about and what are the particular merits of gasification when sludge disposal is considered. In this article we will explain this.

Presentation on videoof plasma gasification

First let/'s be clear what sewage sludge is. Sewage sludge is the bulk of the residual material removed during the wastewater treatment process. Most wastewater plants have dewatering facilities which compress and squeeze the water out of the collected sludge from the treatment process. In these cases the sewage sludge which goes into a gasification plant is the solid, semisolid, or liquid organic material that results.

You may also hear talk of biosolids. The terms sewage sludge and biosolids are used by US EPA interchangeably, but others often use the term biosolids to describe sewage sludge that has had additional processing for land application.

For gasification to take place the sludge is is usually transformed into biosolids using a number of complex treatments such as digestion, thickening, dewatering, drying, and lime stabilisation.

Sewage sludge can be composted and it can be spread on land. However, it also unfortunately is known to contain a heavy metals, PAH's and other organic micropollutants, and pathogens like spores of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Apart from substantial direct health risks for humans. This sludge, if applied to land, also results in contamination of the environment due to the presence of ammonia, and BOD etc. It is in fact an amalgamation of most the wastes of our society and it is not closely controlled so it may contain highly undesirable polluting trace contaminants.

Sewage sludge is an inevitable and unavoidable by-product of sewage treatment. The amount produced is massive and is also expected to rise by rapidly in Europe in particular, mainly as a result of the higher treatment standards provided through the UWWTD.

To achieve gasification sewage sludge is placed into a dewatering or dehydration chamber. The low water content sludge cake remaining is heated to convert moisture in the sludge to steam and cause gasification. These facilities are usually large because sewage sludge is produced in huge quantities day after day, year after year. In fact the municipalities find themselves under relentless pressure to get rid of the stuff.

Sewage sludge is primarily made of water, and 90 to 95 percent of its mass can be eliminated through the thermal drying process. The cost of thermal drying is usually easily repaid as the remaining 5 to 10 percent is much less expensive to transport and burn than the original material leaving wastwater treatment tanks.

Sewage sludge has been historically in the UK and US spread on land or shipped out to sea and dumped. However, recently it has been realised that it is not suitable to apply on areas near ponds, lakes, rivers, and streams without appropriate buffer areas (zones) and it is not suitable to apply near wetlands and marshes without a permit (for example this is now regulated by US EPA, 1995). Dumping at sea has also been outlawed by many nations, including the EU.

Furthermore, steep areas with sharp relief and undesirable geology and soil conditions are not suitable areas to apply sewage sludge (US EPA, 1995). Sewage sludge is classified in different countries in different ways but for most it falls into three categories according to application to land: unrestricted, restricted and unsuitable.

In many nations, sludges classified for unrestricted use may be applied in an unrestricted manner to all lands excluding sensitive sites, while those deemed unsuitable cannot be used outside the boundaries of the source sewage treatment plant. However, the rules are being tightened and it is becoming more and more difficult to spread sludges on land.

One major problem which is becoming much more appreciated is the long-term build-up of contaminants such as heavy metals in the soils where sludges are spread. Once these metals build-up beyond certain levels the land would become unsuitable for growing crops due to the presence of these metals in food grown on that land. Clearly, loss of productive land in this way has to be avoided.

Commentators have also identified fear of liability as a major deterrent to the widespread land application of sewage sludge. Liability issues regarding land application include not only legal liability, but also a risk to food product marketablity as a result of negative public perceptions of the land application of sewage sludge.

So now, many municipalities responsible for sludge disposal have turned to the benefits of gasification, and a small but well experienced industry is starting to form to use that sludge. These new companies are developing gasification technoogy to generate heat and power, and from gasification will also come useful gas (syngas) which can be used as a raw material for the production of many chemicals which have until now only been produced from non-renewable carbonaceous sources.

Steve Evans is a renewable energy enthusiast. Far from being despondent about rising gas prices he sees it as a great opportunity for us to start using clean renewable gasification energy sources which are going largely to waste all around us.
          FDA Drug Safety Communication: Drug labels for the Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα) blockers now include warnings about infection with Legionella and Listeria bacteria        
[9-07-2011] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is informing healthcare professionals that the Boxed Warning for the entire class of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα) blockers has been updated to include the risk of infection from two bacterial pathogens, Legionella and Listeria.
          Coffman speaks on agrobiodiversity in India        
Linda McCandless
30 Nov 2016

NEW DELHI, INDIA: Ronnie Coffman, vice-chair of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative, was a keynote speaker at the 1st International Agrobiodiversity Congress (IAC) held in New Delhi, India, November 6-9, 2016. Over 850 delegates from more than 40 countries were in attendance. Participants included farmers, scientists, policymakers and industry leaders.

Prime Minister Modi inaugurates the 1st International Agrobiodiversity Congress in New Delhi on Nov. 6.

The IAC’s objective was to initiate and encourage a dialogue among relevant stakeholders to share their experiences and knowledge in agrobiodiversity management and genetic resource conservation, and better understand everyone’s role in agrobiodiversity management and the conservation of genetic resources.

“Global food security depends on the free movement and open sharing of plant genetic resources,” said Coffman, who spoke on “Rust, Risk, and Germplasm Exchange: The Borlaug Global Rust Initiative.”

Acknowledging that certain provision of the Convention on Biological Diversity have merit, Coffman said stringent regulations and country-specific control are “stifling” the germplasm exchanges critical to agriculture and horticulture, including development of hybrids, introgression breeding for introgressing transgenic traits, and seed production including hybrid seeds. 

“It is not only the improved seeds that are subject to regulation,” said Coffman, “but isolates of country-specific disease organisms such as Ug99 stem rust that move between collection sites worldwide and biosafety testing labs in Minnesota, Denmark and Canada.”

According to organizers, there is evidence that the international exchange of germplasm has reduced considerably in the recent past thereby compromising the ability of nations to meet evolving needs. This is alarming since it is projected that the world will need 70 percent more food to meet the need of 9.5 billion people by 2050.

Wheat germplasm and pathogen exchanges have been essential in the Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat (DRRW) project and will be even more so under the Delivering Genetic Gain in Wheat (DGGW) project as plant breeders broaden their investigation to deliver new traits for wheat that fight diseases, pests, drought and other challenges brought about by global climate change, noted Coffman.

The Congress was hosted by the Indian Society of Plant Genetic Resources and Bioversity International, and co-organized by CIMMYT and the Borlaug Institute for South Asia.

The paper can be accessed here.


          WIT Profile: Esraa Alwan '10        
Tessa Schneider
27 Jul 2016

Esraa Alwan, a native of Syria, won the Women in Triticum Early Career Award in 2010. She received her undergraduate degree in Agricultural Engineering from Aleppo University in Syria, during which she also completed an MSc in conjunction with ICARDA. The BGRI is launching a series of profiles based on WIT winner's answers to seven questions as we follow them, their careers, and the science that motivates them.

What is your current professional position, title, affiliation, responsibilities? How long have you been in this position? I am currently a fourth year PhD student in the Crop and Soil Science Department at Washington State University. My research focuses on biotic/abiotic resistance breeding to effectively control current threats to wheat production worldwide in an attempt to reduce yield losses and ensure sufficient quantities of food available on a consistent

 basis. I am presently a member of the National Association of Plant Breeders (NAPB) and the Crop Science Society of America. Previously, I worked as a research assistant in the ICARDA Biodiversity and the Integrated Gene Management Program (BIGM).My MSc research focused on the identification of new sources of resistance to wheat stem rust from wild tetraploid species.

Who or what inspired you to work in wheat science and research and why? I have always had a passion for agriculture and a desire to be part of a system that would help feed the hungry. Wheat is a leading cereal crop in Syria and globally feeds 35% of the world population. Wheat production, however, is not reaching its full potential; there is an urgent need to increase food production at the same or at an increased rate in order to cope with an increasing population. Therefore, I want to contribute to improving wheat productivity and to ensuring access to safe and healthy food worldwide.

My passion has amplified during my time with ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas). It was exciting to link the knowledge I acquired from years of study at college with practical experience I learned in the field. I also had the opportunity to interact extensively with farmers, to understand their needs, and to assist them in using efficient agricultural strategies. I worked closely with female farmers (the participatory plant breeding project), and gained appreciation for their significant contributions to agriculture. However, I noticed that women were significantly underrepresented in leadership roles compared to their male counterparts. This has motivated me to advocate, support, and empower other young women and to highlight their vital role in the success of agriculture.

I was fortunate to begin my career with great mentors, like Dr. Francis Ogbonnaya, Dr. Rajaram Sanjaya, and Dr. Amor Yahyaoui, who have all inspired me in so many ways through their dedication, generosity, and passion for wheat research. I have also been inspired by the achievements of Dr. Norman Borlaug and his great role in saving so many from starvation and hunger.

What effect did the WIT Early Career Award have on your professional development? Winning the WIT Early Career Award was a unique opportunity and opened numerous avenues for myself and my career. The award has provided me the opportunity to meet and interact with agricultural scientists from different spectrums of society, share my work, and learn from others through workshops and training courses. Winning broadened my horizons and opened my eyes to major constraints currently facing agricultural productivity and to developing possible solutions. I was introduced to many inspirational and supportive women, such as Ms. Jeanie Borlaug-Laube and Ms. Sara Davidson Evanega, and others. Overall, this experience will help me tremendously as I prepare for my career. 

What are you currently working on, and how does it relate to wheat production and/or food security in your country? My PhD research focuses on the identification of new sources of resistance to Hessian fly and stripe rust in wheat, via linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, and identifying diagnostic DNA markers associated with multiple agronomic traits in wheat useful for genomic selection. The above threats continue to cause significant economic losses in spring wheat producing areas globally and in the United States. Genetic resistance is the most credible and sustainable remedy to controlling the recurring epidemics, and thus reducing yield losses. However, as a result of the fast evolutionary pace of the pathogen, most of the resistance genes have been failing, which emphasizes the need for collective efforts not only to identify new sources of resistance, but also to identify ‘breeder-friendly’ molecular markers tightly linked to the target gene(s) to accelerate incorporating these genes into regionally adapted wheat cultivars (This is where the significance of my research stems out).

Which recent scientific discoveries or new technologies do you think will affect wheat production in the next 10-15 years? The leverage of high-throughput genotyping approaches, such as the 9K and 90K iSelect SNP assays, the use of PstI-MspI restriction enzymes in genotyping by sequencing (GBS), and the availability of the entire wheat genome sequence,  will continue to advance wheat genetics research by enabling robust selection, precise gene mapping, gene transfer, gene pyramiding, and map-based cloning. I hope that genetic engineering becomes less controversial, so that we can exploit its effectiveness in advancing agricultural sustainability, and help crops adapt to climate change.

If you had access to unlimited funding toward wheat research as it relates to food security and improving life of small scale farmers, how would you invest it? I would invest in seed program, soil management in regards to conservation agriculture, find out the best rotation for the farming community, and of course, breed the best varieties in regards to yield, stability, and disease resistance. I would invest in quality research and conduct a large number of large plot varietal trials on farmer’s fields. I would also invest in educating and training farmers, farm management skills, marketing, and building community resources. I’d establish activities focused on mentoring and empowering women as leaders, youth involvement, networking and communication, and technology and social media.

What advice do you have for other women who are beginning their careers in agricultural science? Work closely with farmers and consumers and listen to their needs, share your knowledge with others who don’t have access to information, resources, and technologies. Use all your potential, work together to develop solutions to agricultural problems, choose your job/mentor/boss wisely, believe in yourself, turn adversity into opportunity.

People Tag: 

          TGV-inhalonix’s New Study Shows Promise To Fight Deadly CF Lung Infections        

New York-based company says its drug candidate demonstrates breakthrough results against pathogens that cause lethal infections in cystic fibrosis patients

The post TGV-inhalonix’s New Study Shows Promise To Fight Deadly CF Lung Infections appeared first on Online Free Press release news distribution - TopWireNews.com.

          Prompt diagnosis of Scedosporium apiospermum soft tissue infection: Life-saving in a renal transplant recipient        
R Ghosh, P Mishra, PK Maiti, A Debnandi

Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 2017 63(3):200-202

Scedosporium apiospermum, an ubiquitous filamentous fungus, a known cause of mycetoma, is emerging as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of painful foot abscess in a renal allograft recipient on immunosuppressive therapy, which was clinically diagnosed as a suppurative bacterial abscess. Pus was aspirated, which showed septate, branching hyphal elements and culture on Sabouraud&#39;s dextrose agar yielded S. apiospermum, which was identified based on its macroscopic and microscopic features. There are very few reports of scedosporiasis from India. High index of suspicion for unusual fungal infection helps in prompt etiological diagnosis in a transplant recipient and rapid management prevents further dissemination.
          Signs Over the Pacific        
Signs Over the Pacific
author: R.J. Astruc
name: Mark
average rating: 2.00
book published: 2013
rating: 1
read at:
date added: 2015/02/02
Signs Over the Pacific and Other Stories
By RJ Astruc
Publisher: Upper Rubber Boot Books
Published In: Nashville, TN, USA
Date: 2013
Pgs: 135


The intersecting life tales of an engineer, a thief, a terrorist, and a superpowerful artificial intelligence makes up the series of stories in this collection. Throw in blimps, Interpol, genetics, mutants, holograms, and runaway virus laden computer intelligences and the stories live on the edge of the new Pacific tomorrow. The Pacific Century is dawning. Will Man survive the experience?

fiction, science fiction, cyberpunk, computer

Why this book:
The descriptions of the stories drew me in.

This Story is About:
survival of the fittest, techno cannibalism,

courage, working hard, doing the right thing, greed, friends, jealousy, love, caring, happiness, sadness, family

Favorite Character:
VINK2, the vagabond, virus AI, comes across as much more likable than the AI RESYS who is chasing her...him...it.

Least Favorite Character:
RESYS is an ass and a cannibal.

Character I Most Identified With:
I thought I was identifitying with RESYS and then realized that it was VINK2 who was the most...human character in the bunch.

The Feel:
The power behind our connectivity is watching us and acting in its own interests.

Favorite Scene:
When VINK2 blows through the Hong Kong intraweb and is raising hell all across the island.

The pace of this story is excellent. A real page turner.

Hmm Moments:
When RESYS describes Hong Kong as a wired rats nest, cyberwise. Hunting in the Hong Kong interweb was like playing Pacman due to how it was/is connected. A world where wireless signals are being choked out by the volume of other traffic forcing the AIs to chase one another wire to wire through a interlocking board of nodes.

Story made me think that we’ve all been engaged in techno cannibalism for awhile. Ever since the internet became as all invasive as it is, we’ve been devouring each others intellects at a more and more precipitate manner.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
Maybe this could make a Metal Hurlant Chronicle episode. And I’m sure someone could turn it into a feature length presentation. But with all of the exposition, this seems like it would play better in a short format in visual media.

Casting call:
I often hear computers in stories speak in Terrence Stamp’s voice. Kneel before RESYS!

Signs Over the Pacific:
Favorite Character:
Val. He is the narrator. The whole story is from his perspective. It’s all happening to him.

Least Favorite Character:

Character I Most Identified With:
Val. Does what needs to be done.

The Feel:
This felt quick. Val’s confrontation with destiny whipped at him quickly and he charged in to meet it.

Favorite Scene:
Chubby guy dancing on the deck of a broken down airship short of the hangar at the sky city, trying to get the attention of passersby to catch a ride or a tow into the hangar.

The pace was great. Though it swept me through the short story at a fast clip. Could have easily been a much longer story.

Hmm Moments:
The scene with the Angel and the Devil costumed MILFs picking up Val and his sister from their broken down...up...dirigibile could have easily been a...uhm...bigger scene.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
This story would make a cool entrant into The Metal Hurlant Chronicles on Syfy.

Casting call:
Jonah Hill could have been Val in the years immediately following when he did Superbad.

Faceless in Halukan:
Favorite Character:
Bink Ottoman. Bink is a tragic character just trying to survive.

Least Favorite Character:
Sutchi is a shark using everyone and everything to feed his appetites.

Character I Most Identified With:
Bink Ottoman forced into acting against his own best interest by circumstances beyond his control.

The Feel:
There is a sharp feeling of sadness in all things Bink, especially in his interactions with Laan Ve.

Favorite Scene:
Holoworld sounds both awesome and superficial at the same time.

The identity theft of Laan Ve comes across as very sad. The way its done. The way it is forced on them. The way that Bink sees something human in the artist and di-hydra addict that could save him before being the scorpion that he is and stinging the frog.

This story moves along at a good pace.

Plot Holes/Out of Character:
It’s never said in the text, but I’m almost certain that Sutchi set Bink up. Set him up for getting robbed by the dude hiding inside the cute blonde holo and for being duped in the holo artist’s lounge and, then, offered up as a free sample of his true face for the sundry populace to parade around the terraces and bridges of Halukan in.

Hmm Moments:
The cute blonde being revealed in the mirror that under her holos is a fat middled aged perv with man boobs, moobs, and cold sores. The holographs that people wear isn’t just a masquerade, it’s also camouflage. The description of the guy under the cute blonde artifice is so gross, down to the tufts of black hair.

The holo identity theft routine is awesome...and horrible.

The way that the interlocking stories of the book seem to take place in and around airships and skyhouses makes me wonder what the problem with the ground is far below and worlds away.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
Spun into a screenplay, this would be a tragedy. But it could be lengthened into a feature.

Casting call:
With the holos playing such a large part in this, many actors could play the same character over the course of the movie.

Favorite Character:
Katya Sushi, the carrier

The Feel:
This one feels close and on the edge. The main character is all in and then not. She has that invincible edge to her to start with and you can feel it wear off over the course of the story as her true situation is revealed.

Favorite Scene:
When Katya has her dawning in the customs office in India, as she stands on solid ground, a rarity in this world of high houses and floating cities, as she realizes what kind of carrier she truly is.

The pace of this one is awesome.

Plot Holes/Out of Character:
We’re left to ponder whether Bouboucar had Katya watched the entire way or not. The only agent of his that we are sure of is Lucian when he confronts Katya in the lobby-lounge on Ma-Ma 2

Hmm Moments:
When the customs officials throw the Genku C plague ridden woman out the door of the transport to her death in the waters far below even though she claims that it is non transmissible.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
This one with it’s tenor and subject matter could totally play in a Metal Hurlant, Twilight Zone, or Heavy Metal context.

Casting call:
Lucy Liu as Bouboucar, the big bad terrorist who doesn’t get her hands dirty.

Favorite Character:
Del aka Delphine Desangua

Least Favorite Character:
Nemutaph, the opera singer who made himself into a castrati after spending time in an insane asylum and beginning to cut and bit off his appendages.

The Feel:
This one feels like a CSI episode...a bit...in a through the looking glass kind of way.

Favorite Scene:
When Del hits on the solution.

Well paced.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
The bones of this could be adapted for CSI, NCIS, et al.

Katya in Quarantine:
Favorite Character:
Katya Sushi

Favorite Scene:
Messing with the witch doctor.

Hmm Moments:
Katya is an evil creature of circumstance. She is an ultimate bio weapon. Infected with whatever her employers want her to carry, either to infect the local populace or to get a pathogen passed customs and bio filters, she can get it there...regardless of the consequences. Her seeing herself in brotherhood with the Angel of Death walking London at the time of the Bubonic Plague is a telling bit. Her feeling pride in the fear that she is fomenting among the populace is more telling. She is as big a monster as Bouboucar, her employer and used to be a more famous terrorist than she is.

I find it interesting that in the earlier story in which Katya appeared, I was thinking of her as an antihero. Now, I can only consider her a villain. She has gone over to the darkside, assuredly. Though with the type of work she was wanting to do, how I saw her in that other light. Shrug. Sympathy for her condition and the feeling that she was being left high and dry, I guess. That’s all gone. She is a monster.

She may be a monster, but she isn’t very smart. Revealing herself and what she is to the “dream girl” and, then, going out and getting into the middle of that voodoo parade was just stupid for someone trying to lie low.

Course how smart is someone who allows themselves to be infected with all kinds of plague and virus to transport it and trusting that the criminals that you work for and the criminals that they do business with are going to give you the medicine to fix you up on the other end of the journey or the job. Just not smart.

The Future of Lole San Paulo:
Favorite Character:
Bink Ottoman, though I’m not sure if this is the same Bink Ottoman from the earlier story or if this is a clone of that Bink Ottoman. The origin of this one is fascinating. The other version seemed older.

Least Favorite Character:
You just knew that there was betrayal in the works here. But until the end you can’t be sure if Bink is going to betray Lole or the other way around or if they are both going to end up afoul of Mr. Sutchi.

The Feel:
This has a great sci fi, gladiator pit feel to it.

Favorite Scene:
The monster fight reminds me of Return of the Jedi. Although, Lole doesn’t have any love for his creations.

The pace of this was excellent.

Hmm Moments:
The regrowing limbs and organs of the clone is a great touch.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
This could make a full length feature.

Casting call:
Love to see Hugo Weaving as Lole.

Maybe Chandler Riggs as this version of Bink Ottoman.

How You Make the Straight:
Favorite Character:
Mink is a good character. The ability to look into the minds of those around you when their guards are down would be cool. Though there are probably some things that you wouldn’t want to know.

Favorite Scene:
The rat hunt at the poker game in the floating, hi-town, pirate haven, airship casino.

Best paced story of the collection through this point.

Hmm Moments:
Okay. Ottoman isn’t a family name. It’s the Ottoman sky pirates clan or whatever they call their gang. Jean is a pirate king. Bink is a thief and a organ bank

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
This one could make a movie as well. The elements here could lend themselves to a longer form easily.

Mother and Daughter:
Least Favorite Character:
Bouboucar. She is something else. This whole series of stories was largely her story. She was a facilitator and a terrorist and evil. You learn more about her and her daughter in the moment that she realizes that her daughter had pushed the little girl off the boardwalk of the floating city.

The Feel:
This was too short. But I guess it’s purpose was to show us that Bouboucar was a mother and that her daughter was a chip off the old block.

Last Page Sound:
Hmpf! These aren’t as interconnected as advertised. The stories feature many of the same characters, but what happens in one story doesn’t necessarily have any continutity with another. The only one that really seemed to have cross continuity was the ones featuring Katya Sushi.

Author Assessment:
I’m digging the prose and style of RJ Astruc. Nice flow and action mixed with just the right amount of exposition. Might take a look at more stuff by this author.

Editorial Assessment:
The quality between the stories is very wide. Some good, some horrible. Author should have been pushed on some of these shorts to either rewrite them or dump them from the story and if they plot points of the story were necessary to figure out a way to include them in one of the others.

Knee Jerk Reaction:

Disposition of Book:

Would recommend to:
no one

          How an Aggressive Fungal Pathogen Causes Mold in Fruits and Vegetables        
A UC Riverside-led research team has discovered the mechanism by which an aggressive fungal pathogen infects almost all fruits and vegetables.
          Can Plants Cry for Help When Attacked by Pests?        
UC Riverside's Linda Walling will give a free lecture on campus May 2 in which she will discuss plant immune responses that protect against pathogens and pests.
          Scientists Identify Genetic Mechanism That Contributed to Irish Famine        
A team of UC Riverside researchers studied the pathogen that triggered the Irish Famine of the 19th century by infecting potato plants, and deciphered how it succeeded in crippling the plant’s immune system.
          Sistem Peredaran Darah        


1)      Sistem peredaran manusia berupa system peredaran darah tertutup dan peredaran ganda.
2)      Fungsi system peredaran darah :
-          mensuplai O2 & sari makanan dari system pencernaan ke seluruh jaringan tubuh
-          membawa CO2 ke paru-paru
-          mengembalikan sisa metabolisme ke ginjal untuk diekskresikan
-          menjaga suhu tubuh
-          mendistribusikan hormon2 untuk mengatur fungsi sel-sel tubuh
3)      Sistem peredaran darah melibatkan darah & alat peredaran darah
4)      Alat peredaran darah manusia adalah jantung dan pembuluh darah
5)      Darah merupakan unit fungsional seluler pada manusia yang berperan untuk membantu proses fisiologis (fungsi kegiatan makhluk hidup)
6)      Volume darah normal adalah 8% dari berat badan/ kurang lebih 5 liter.
7)      Fungsi-fungsi darah antara lain :
-          Darah sebagai alat pengangkut
a)       mengangkut sari makanan & O2 ke seluruh jaringan tubuh
b)      mengangkut oksidasi(sisa pembakaran) yaitu CO2 dari sel-sel tubuh ke paru-paru
c)      mengangkut sisa metabolisme ke alat ekskresi
d)      mengedarkan hormon ke organ tubuh tertentu
e)      mengedarkan air ke seluruh tubuh
-          Darah sebagai alat pertahanan tubuh dari penyakit
-          Darah sebagai pengatur suhu tubuh
-          Darah melakukan proses pembekuan darah
8)      Komponen darah ada 2 yaitu : sel-sel darah dan plasma darah
9)      Sel-sel darah = sel-sel yang hidup dan bagian darah yang padat
10)  Sel darah terdiri dari :
-          Sel darah merah (eritrosit)
-          Sel darah putih (leukosit)
-          Keping darah (trombosit)
11) Eritrosit merupakan bagian utama dari sel-sel darah karena
      Jumlahnya paling banyak
12) Setiap 1 ml darah mengandung kr2 5 juta butir sel darah   merah
13)  Ciri-ciri dari eritrosit adalah berbentuk cakram bikonkaf ( bulat pipih dengan cekung di tengah), berdiameter 8mm dgn ketebalan 2mm, tidak memiliki nucleus dan bentuknya dapat berubah-ubah
14)  Eritrosit dibentuk di hati & limfa -- Fetus
      Eritrosit dibentuk di sumsung tulang – Bayi lahir
15)  Di dalam eritrosit , ada Hemoglobin (HB)
16) Hemoglobin adalah suatu protein yang berkombinasi dengan senyawa hemin yang mengandung zat besi/protein pigmen yang memberikan warna merah pada darah
17)  Fungsi hemoglobin : mengangkut oksigen dari paru-paru ke seluruh sel-sel tubuh
dan mengangkut sedikit karbondioksida dari sel-sel tubuh ke paru-paru
18)  Fungsi utama hemoglobin adalah mengangkut oksigen dari paru-paru membentuk oksihemoglobin
19)  Hemoglobin terdiri dari protein yang disebut globin dan pigmen yang non-protein yang disebut heme.
20)  Selain itu, hemoglobin juga berperan dalam menjaga keseimbangan asam dan basa
21)  Darah yang banyak mengandung oksigen = merah terang
Darah yang banyak mengandung karbon dioksida = merah gelap
22)  Penyakit pada orang yang darahnya kekurangan oksigen disebut sianosis (tubuhnya berwarna kebiru-biruan)
23)  Umur sel darah merah yg beredar di aliran darah sekitar 120 hari. Sel darah yang mati akan ditelan oleh sel-sel fagosit yang terdapat dalam hati dan limfa, dirombak menjadi bilirubin(zat warna empedu) yang berwarna kehijauan.
24)  Pembentukan eritrosit disebut juga eritopoiesis. Pembentukannya dipengaruhi oleh hormone glikoprotein yang disebut eritropoitein. Sel pertama sebagai rangkaian pembentukkan eritrosit disebut proeritroblas.
25)  Proses pembentukkan eritrosit : proeritroblas membelah – basofil eritroblas – polikromatofil eritroblas – ortokromatik eritroblas – retikulosit – eritrosit
26)  Basofil eritroblas = sedikit mengandung HB, dapat dicat dengan warna basa
Polikromatofil eritroblas = cukup HB
Ortokromatik eritroblas = terbentuk lebih banyak HB, warnanya merah
Retikulosit = nucleus memadat sampai ukurannya menjadi kecil dan terdorong dari sel.
27)  Zat besi dari hemoglobin tidak diekskresikan, tapi digunakan untuk membuat eritrosit baru.
28)  Setiap 1 ml darah manusia mengandung 8000 butir sel darah putih (5000-10000)
29)  Sel darah putih dibuat di dalam sumsum merah, limpa, dan kelenjar getah bening (kelenjar limfe)
30)  Leukosit berumur sekitar 12 hari
31)  Proses keluarnya leukosit disebut juga diapedesis.
Kemampuan leukosit  menembus dinding pembeluh kapiler darah dan masuk ke dalam jaringan tubuh juga disebut diapedesis.
32)  Leukosit yang berperan melawan penyakit yang masuk ke dalam tubuh disebut antibody.
33)  Ciri-ciri leukosit adalah memiliki sebuah nucleus, tidak berwarna(bening), dan menunjukkan gerakkan anuboid, lebih besar dari eritrosit, tidak memiliki bentuk tetap(amuboid), memiliki inti bulat(cekung)
34)  Leukosit dapat dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok :
-          Granulosit – plasmanya bergranuler
Ada 3 kelompok :
a)       Neutrofil
b)      Basofil
c)      Eosinofil
-          Agranulosit – plasmanya tidak bergranuler
Ada 2 jenis :
a)       Monosit
b)      Limfosit
35)  Ciri-ciri Neutrofil : memiliki nucleus yg terdiri dari 2-5 lobus(ruang), ukuran selnya sekitar 8mm,bersifat fagosit. Merupakan sel yang paling banyak menyusun leukosit.
36)  Neutrofil dapat memfagositosis 5-20 bakteri sebelum sel neutrofil menjadi inaktif dan mati, Neutrofil hanya aktif sekitar 6-20 jam.
37)  Ciri-ciri Basofil : memiliki nucleus berbentuk S, bersifat fagosit, dan melepaskan heparin juga histamine ke dalam darah
38)  Heparin adalah mukopolisakarida yang banyak terdapat di dalam hati dan paru-
Paru, dan dapat mencegah pembekuan darah.
39)  Histamin adalah suatu senyawa yang dibebaskan sebagai reaksi terhadap antigen yang sesuai. Berperan dalam proses alergi
40)  Ciri-ciri eosinofil : berbentuk hampir seperti bola, berukuran 9mm, memiliki
Memiliki nucleus yang terdiri dari 2 lobus dan bersifat fagosit dengan gaya fagositosis yang lemah
41)  Eosinofil dapat mendetoksifikasi toksin penyebab radang. Eosinofil dilepaskan oleh sel basofil/jaringan yang rusak
42)  Ciri-ciri monosit : memiliki 1 nukleus besar yg berbentuk tapal kuda dan ginjal,
Berdiameter 12-20 mm, di dalam jaringan membesar, dan bersifat fagosit menjadi makrogaf. Makrograf dan neutrofil merupakan leukosit fagosit utama, paling efektif dan berumur panjang.
43) Monosit dapat berpindah dari aliran darah ke jaringan
44) Ciri-ciri limfosit : berbentuk seperti bola dan diameter 6-14mm, berperan dalam  system kekebalan tubuh
45) Limfosit dibentuk di sumsum tulang dan di janin dibentuk di hati.
      Limfosit ada 2 yaitu :
-          Limfosit B
= Perkembangan dari Limfosit yg berada di sumsum tulang
= Berperan dalam pembentukkan antibody
-          Limfosit T
= Perkembangan dari Limfosit yg berada di sumsum tulang dan pindah ke timus
= Cont ; Limfosit sitotoksik-T, berfungsi menghancurkan sel yang terserang virus
46)  Fungsi sel darah putih adalah memakan kuman-kuman penyakit atau benda asing lain yang masuk ke dalam tubuh, mengangkut lemak, dan berperan dalam system kekebalan tubuh
47)  Kemampuan sel darah putih melakukan fagosit disebut fagositosis.
48)  Keadaan sel darah putih yang berlebihan disebut leukositosis
49)  Penyakit kanker darah(leukemia), sel darah putih dapat meningkat sampai 20 ribu butir tiap ml darah
50)  Keadaan sel darah putih yang kurang dari normal disebut leukopeni
51)  Penyakit tifus, sel darah putih dapat menurun sampai 3 ribu butir setiap ml darah
52)  Jika, sel darah putih kurang dari normal, maka berakibat bakteri pathogen (penyebab penyakit) pada tubuh, sehingga perlu menggunakan antibiotic (obat anti bakteri)
53)  Ciri-ciri dari Trombosit (keping darah) adalah berbentuk bulat kecil, memiliki ukuran yang tidak teratur, tidak memiliki inti dan berdiameter 2-4mm.
54)  Setiap 1 ml darah mengandung sekitar 200 ribu – 400 ribu keping darah
55)  Trombosit dibentuk dalam sumsum tulang dari megakariosit
56)  Megakariosit merupakan trombosit yang sangat besar dalam sumsum tulang
57)  Masa hidup trombosit dalam darah adalah 5-9 hari. Trombosit sangat aktif.
58)  Keping darah berfungsi untuk proses pembekuan darah
59)  Keping darah disebut juga sel darah pembeku. Keping darah memiliki sifat mudah pecah jika keluar dari pembuluh darah / tersentuh permukaan keras
60)  Proses pembekuan darah : Keping darah mengeluarkan enzim trombokinase(tromboplastin) – Trombokinase + Ca2+ + vit K – mengubah protrombin – trombin – mengubah fibrinogen – fibrin – darah membeku.  
61)  Protrombin = suatu zat yg larut dan dihasilkan di hati , merupakan protein tidak stabil
62)  Fibrinogen larut dalam plasma darah, fibrin berbentuk benang-benang halus
63)  Skema Proses pembekuan darah :

Pembuluh darah mengakibatkan
Keping darah pecah



                    Protrombin                                  Trombin
                                        Ca2+ dan Vit K
                                                     Fibrin                        Fibrinogen      
                                         Darah membeku                                         

64)  Plasma darah adalah bagian darah yg cair dan kekuning-kuningan
65)  Plasma darah tersusun dari 90% air dan sisanya adalah zat2 terlarut/91.5% air dan 8.5% zat terlarut
66)  Fungsi-fungsi plasma darah :
- Mengangkut sari-sari makanan, hormone, dan zat-zat sisa metabolisme(karbondioksida)
- Pembekuan darah
67)  Sari-sari makanan yang larut dalam plasma darah antara lain : glukosa, asam amino, asam lemak, vitamin, dan garam-garam mineral
68)  Ion-ion yang banyak terdapat dalam plasma darah adalah Natrium dan Klor
69)  7% Protein yang terkandung / larut dalam plasma darah adalah 4% albumin , 2,7% globulin, dan 0,3% fibrinogen ---- disebut juga protein darah



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Reference Map to Episode 070:

(1m-4m) Despotism vs. Aaron Dykes (Infowars Nightly News clip) by R.G.

(4m-6m) U.S. Army Kills Kids by Abby Martin (RT)

(6m-9m) Robert F. Kennedy did not agree Oswald lone assassin (ABC News)

(9m-13m) U.S. Government Found Guilty of Murdering Martin Luther King by Lee Camp

(13m-19m) U.S. Court: Martin Luther King Killed by the Authorities by Barrie Zwicker

(19m-28m) Richard’s introductory monologue

(28m-2h50m) Debate: Larken Rose (Anarchy) vs. Tom Willcutts (Authority) History… So It Doesn’t Repeat

(2h50-5h25m) Briefing: Kevin Cole (Classical Trivium vs. Trivium Method) History… So It Doesn’t Repeat

(5h25m-6h50m) “Behaviorism in Disguise” School Sucks Podcast #150

Hist ory... So It Doesn't Repeat (Official YouTube Series Playlist)History So It Doesn't Repeat Timecodes, notes, links, and references are posted just below the HD video:

Notes, Links, & References for "The Trivium Method vs. The Classical Trivium" (recorded February 17, 2013)

  1. 1m “The Great Chain of Being and the Organic Unity of the Polis” by Kevin Cole (Winter 2013)
  2. 2m “The Trivium Method” by Jan Irvin and Gene Odening @ Gnostic Media dot com
  3. 3m “The Trivium Method of Critical Thinking and Creative Problem Solving” vs. the innate method of learning, and comparing it to how the Classical Trivium (as a method of institutionalizing individuals) has historically been used prior to the 21st century.
  4. 4m History of the Classical Trivium is the history of the Great Chain of Being, useful in shaping cultures. The Great Chain of Being is defined in classical terms.
  5. 5m The concept of “balanced” government and civil society itself, The Ominous Continuity of the “education” system we know as schooling
  6. 6m The changing of terms as a means of gaining power over unwitting minds
  7. 7m The Occulting of Knowledge to create Power
  8. 8m Legacy of 2,500 years of the Noble Lie being used to create Power
  9. 9m Romantic Nationalism & Germany vs. Limited Government System, continued definition of the Great Chain of Being (3 estates)
  10. 10m Caste System, Divine Right of Kings, and the Classical Trivium; specifically the artificial scarcity of the “7” liberal arts
  11. 11m Enkyklios Paideia and the Caste System, Arnold Toynbee “it allows each empire to be immortal”
  12. 12m Great Chain of Being and the Classical Trivium in context of Organic Unity
  13. 13m United Nations Charter provisions, Positive and Negative Rights, staying knowledgeable about the first principles and jury nullification, Thomas Jefferson and First Principles
    1. Article 29: 1. Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. 2. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
    2. Article 30: Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.
  14. 14m Logical foundation of Negative Rights, Irrational foundation of Positive Rights
  15. 15m Definition of Organic Unity
  16. 16m Scott Buchannan quote on the Classical Trivium to create Organic Unity, Cardinal and Ordinal structures of the story (Buchannan was a Rhodes Scholar)
  17. 17m Definitions: The Auctors, The Polis, The Polity, Episcopal, hierarchical structures of authorities, Anglicanism (Church of England)
  18. 18m Comparison and Contrast the Trivium Method vs. the Classical Trivium, 7 Liberal Arts, Plato, Aristotle, educational philosophy and Isocrates,
  19. 19m The “general education” of the inscribed circle of the Enkyklios Paideia, foreshadowing Fichte and Hegel of the Prussian Education System
    1. encyclopedia (n.) 1530s, "course of instruction," from Modern Latin encyclopaedia (c.1500), literally "training in a circle," i.e. the "circle" of arts and sciences, the essentials of a liberal education; from enkyklios "circular," and paideia “education”.
    2. According to some accounts such as the American Heritage Dictionary copyists of Latin manuscripts took this phrase to be a single Greek word, enkuklopaedia.
  20. 20m plunder v. production and human livestock, classical Trivium as a system of creating production to be plundered… farming plunder
  21. 21m Latin education and the Divine Right of Kings, organic unity and feudalism, legitimizing the great chain of being (methods of authority), using the battlefield and education to subjugate individuals for lack of Knowledge.
  22. 22m Legitimizing the storyteller as the authority of the day, group-think, authority to control human resources. Any citizen can become an individual through learning habits of self-reliance
  23. 23m “Authorities” (educators, sophists) define the “Grammar” of the Classical Trivium, thus making the “Logic” a belief, not an understanding. No knowledge is necessary for belief, in fact belief is often what fills the void created when Knowledge is absent.
  24. 24m Unified systems of knowledge, cybernetics and the ship of state (Plato), first principles and common ground (Logic) necessary for linguistic communication. The use of these ideologies to create state systems.
  25. 25m Richard Haklyut and Queen Elizabeth, propagating organic unity as “natural”, even though it depends on people ruling over others. Scott Buchannan papers from Harvard University, “Poetry and Mathematics” (foreshadowing role of Rhodes Scholars)
    1. Richard Hakluyt (c. 1552 or 1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer. He is known for promoting the settlement of North America by the English through his works, notably Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America (1582) and The Principal Navigations, Voiages, Traffiques and Discoueries of the English Nation (1589–1600).
  26. 26m Dorothy Sayers and removing the myths to get to the facts of her claims, Reinhold Niebuhr, Royal Institute of International Affairs, Milner Rhodes Roundtable Group, secularizing values to continue organic unity
  27. 27m Dorothy Sayers quotes in favor of British Empire building and Cecil Rhodes / Milner Roundtable Group and Organic Unity
  28. 28m Origins of the systems which create and facilitate organic unity, cybernetics, using the knowledge of self-learning to dissect the history and identify the contradictions of our public educations
  29. 29m Gnostic Media interview with Gene Odening, how the human being learns, removing the dogma from the process of learning for one’s self
  30. 30m Asking substantial questions and using a method to find valid answers consistently vs. the Classical Trivium (prescribed “Grammar”, mandated “Logic”, rhetoric which reinforces servitude)
  31. 31m Isocrates and literacy as a form of slavery (i.e. sophism) until the reader learns how to identify reality and remove unreality (i.e. logic).
  32. 32m closed systems of learning to maintain the city-states, aristocracy, and ruling class to manage the polity (public); educating the kings, adopting education systems to gain power over the polity, dichotomy of control, creating knowledge gaps to create “power”.
  33. 33m focus on significant and substantial, discard the arbitrary, dismiss the irrational. Sayers’ biases and the basis of Christian Homeschooling in America.
  34. 34m Sayers’ system as the “closest to the perfection of Plato’s Republic” – Freemasonry
  35. 35m Christian Homeschooling and predefined grammar, infecting the logic by not asking preliminary questions to identify that which exists, reality from unreality (Sayers’ seeds of irrationality)
  36. 36m History of Ideas in relation to the Trivium Method contrasted to the Classical Trivium and the history of creating organic unity
  37. 37m The Classical Trivium, Freemasonry as a feedback mechanism for creating organic unity through empire, “Builders of Empire: Freemasons and British Imperialism (1717-1927)” by Jessica Harland Jacobs
  38. 38m “Origins of Freemasonry” by Thomas Paine,
  39. 39m Johann Joachim Christoph “J.C.” Bode, Nicholas Bonneville, Philo’s Reply to Questions Concerning His Association with the Illuminati by Jeva Singh-Anand, Illuminati Manifesto of World Revolution (1792) translated by Marco de Luchetti,
  40. 40m King Elfwad, Charlemagne, and the origins of the word “Trivium” by Alcuin of York
  41. 41m Ancient Greece, systems of preserving itself against surrounding piranha states
  42. 42m Enkyklios Paideia created by Isocrates preserves organic unity until Thomas Jefferson recognizes what it is, and what it does
  43. 43m Scott Buchanan and Stringfellow Barr (Rhodes Scholars) and Freemasonry, origins of “Classical Trivium” revival veiling the Enkyklios Paideia
  44. 44m filling in between Isocrates and the Freemasons, Jesuits and the Ratio Studiorum, which was rejected by John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, Ratio Studiorum as continuation of organic unity under godhead of theology.
  45. 45m Thomas Jefferson (post-revolution) goes to William and Mary and has the Classical Trivium removed from the curriculum, breaking the mechanism of British perpetuation of their organic unity
  46. 46m Thomas Jefferson addressing the Educational Perennialists of his day, accepting the theory before inspection, condemnation prior to observation, “putting your logic before your grammar” as Jan Irvin says
  47. 47m Education as a tool of creating culture, its how the state reproduces itself, “reality” filtered through he prescribed rhetoric of the state,
  48. 48m Ignatius Loyola, Alumbrados, the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius Loyola as the origins of the esoteric organic unity progressed by the Jesuits, various flavors of organic unity (various empires through time), sacrifice of the individual to the state
  49. 49m Bavarian Illuminati, Thomas Paine, Nicholas Bonneville, and connections to the origins of America, May 1, 1776, Adam Weishaupt (1911 Encyclopedia Britannica entry for Illumati), Baron Adolph ‘Philo’ Knigge as Weishaupt’s #2 in the Bavarian Illuminati
  50. 50m Bavarian Illuminati as intellectual group fighting against organic unity and divine right of kings in Europe. “Philo’s Reply to Questions Concerning His Association with the Illuminati” Reply by Jeva Singh Anand reveals the personal conversations between Adam Weishaupt and Baron von Knigge prior to Knigge’s resignation from the Bavarian Illuminati and the promotion of revolutionary publisher J.C. Bode.
  51. 51m Thomas Paine’s references to Samuel Prichard’s “Freemasonry is based on the foundation of the Liberal Arts” quote, Illuminati as a system trying to do away with the state, Isidore of Seville and the creation of civil polity by limited education
  52. 52m Bavarian Illuminati vs. Religion and the State, Freemasonry as the genitalia of the state and the injection of organic unity throughout indigenous populations, Illuminati plans to use for the state to reproduce itself via taking over Freemasonry.
  53. 53m the Strict Observance Lodge of Freemasonry in Bavaria, Degree Systems above traditional York Rite degrees, transcending nationhood. Reinhard Koselleck’s “Critique and Crises : Enlightenment and the Pathogenesis of Modern Society” (published by M.I.T.) on Freemasonry and creating organic unity
  54. 54m Original members of the Illuminati influencing American education, The Ultimate History Lesson with John Taylor Gatto
  55. 55m Juxtaposing internet lore vs. actual artifacts and evidence of the Bavarian Illuminati, similar to Jesuits in seeing value of controlling education, 1610 Wood Manuscript (The Hiram Key by Lomas and Knight)
  56. 56m Individual Liberty based on that which exists vs. irrational illusions of Authority, Bonneville, Jefferson, and the unknown history of Bavarian Illuminati influence in America’s origins.
  57. 57m Social Circle Freemasonic Lodge, papers published by J.C. Bode of the Bavarian Illuminati, promoted after Knigge’s resignation, connections to Prussian education.
  58. 58m Johann Fichte’s references to Johann Pestalozzi’s organic unity method of schooling and creation of the Prussian education system, giving birth to Romantic Nationalism as opposed to the Jeffersonian ideas of nationhood.
  59. 59m Milton Peterson’s works on Thomas Jefferson, rejection of classical forms of the Trivium as being connected to the Great Chain of Being, i.e. a caste society subjugating individuals to illusory authority
  60. 1h1m ideas of creating a balanced government based on first principles subject to existence, not dogma; derivative proofs of non-aggression undermined by changes in education system which Jefferson feared, J.J. Rousseau, John Locke, The Meaning of Meaning, particularity and universiality, from Charlemagne through to the 21st Century.
  61. 1h5m Jefferson displacing the Classical Trivium at the University of Virginia, Jefferson laments genocide of indigenous languages and loss of etymology.
  62. 1h6m encryption of language enables selective power transfer
  63. 1h8m how to preserve the first principles which inspired the Constitution
  64. 1h10m Ben Franklin’s education in the liberal arts and secret societies
  65. 1h11m parallels of Isocrates and Freemasonic organic unity, “Builders of Empire” as blueprint for how Freemasonry assumes authority throughout the world
  66. 1h14m philosophic corruptions of reality, claims of authority break down under scrutiny and defined terms, taboo to discuss because you might perceive the ruse of organic unity
  67. 1h15m Thomas Jefferson displaces classical Trivium as being tied to the Great Chain of Being
  68. 1h16m Legacy of Alcuin of York, creating a duality in Christianity, “othering” of the natural world, Basil Bernstein’s work on the classical Trivium, Noah Webster, John Adams, Thomas Paine, Emerson and Thoreau, Rousseau’s social contract, liberal arts as chains of garland flung over reality, Bavarian Illuminati
  69. 1h17m Epistemological cartoons instead of getting into the details and artifacts, Techne (Technology) as a Craft to propel Culture (see: Freemasonry), Thomas Paine quote on education and knowledge of language vs. knowledge of things, Syntax and Statecraft in history
  70. 1h18m Destutt De Tracy “Elements of Ideology”, science of ideas from Condillac’s Statue of Man, solidifying a science of ideas to map out human resource control
  71. 1h19m Destutt De Tracy: how to define and identify in order to think clearly and progress to understanding
  72. 1h20m Prussian Nationalism, Hegel and the obsolescence of the Divine Right of Kings and “Authority” in general, discovering that life is not how we were taught it is as a result of the Prussian education system changing America away from natural rights liberalism
  73. 1h21m systems of natural rights and state education are not compatible
  74. 1h22m unitary education by congress is in direct contradiction to the founding principles of America, collectivism, pre-amble missing from Constitution, ambiguity therefore included unnecessarily
  75. 1h24m Classical Trivium imparting language without defense against unreality, thus creates a system of control
  76. 1h25m without defense against unreality, society becomes skewed and actions in conflict with needs of survival, as a result of Enkyklios Paideia introduced into England by the Venetian Black Noblity
  77. 1h26m Webster Tarpley’s 1981 article on the Venetian Black Nobility, how to fill in the blanks when history has been purposely omitted, creating cognitive dissonance
  78. 1h28m Wilhelm Wundt and the “Clockwork Orange” mentality of treating people as mechanical toys, to be manipulated; and how asking questions is the key to circumventing Wundtian control systems
  79. 1h30m Frederick the Great and the Gymnasium of Prussian Education, Obama’s recent references to the value of Prussian industrial training
  80. 1h31m John Taylor Gatto’s “Underground History of American Education” referring to Prussian indoctrination methods being used in America, Prussian principles displace American first princples imparted in Constitution
  81. 1h32m Prussian education creates a strong nationalistic fervor, at behest of “national” interest, parallels between Nazi Germany and America today via the Prussian education system
  82. 1h33m Frederick the Great, Freemasonry, Education, and Illuminati connections; going after our youngest through compulsory schooling, creation of schooling in America by secret societies
  83. 1h34m Frederick the Great May 1, 1786 creating constitutions of Freemasonry, similar degrees to draw people into the Illuminati plan by imitating Freemasonry
  84. 1h35m Reworking masonic texts to re-present the ideas to foment revolution, Amis Reunis, Lodge of the Nine Sisters, and the Social Circle, French Revolution, Congress of Wilhelmsbad, Baron Knigge and the attempts to recruit powerful figures into their stable of talent. Hegel, Herter, Mozart, Goethe, Zeitgiest (spirit of the age)
  85. 1h36m origin myth of the Nine Muses / Nine Sisters lodge of Freemasonry in France
  86. 1h37m Rev. George Washington Snyder letter to George Washington, Oct 24, 1798 regarding the Bavarian Illuminati, spores dispersed into America, Anti-Freemasonic Party to drive Freemasons from power
  87. 1h38m Cecil Rhodes and fellow Freemasons creating British organic unity via a Secret Society based on the methods of the Jesuits (Ratio Studiorum)
  88. 1h39m Ben Franklin and the Lodge of the Nine Sisters, representing the Nine Muses (9 liberal arts) as set down by Martianus Capella, Destutt De Tracy, Voltaire members of the lodge, Jefferson’s rejection of their first principles, Positive vs. Negative origins of Government
  89. 1h40m Napoleon rejected the first principles as Jefferson did, Destutt De Tracy deposed from his educational system, Grammar, Logic, & Ideology (instead of rhetoric)
  90. 1h41m Jefferson’s own contradictions (not perfect) but noted the success of America dependent on independence from British linguistic controls
  91. 1h42m Cecil Rhodes and the Jesuits, organic unity common to plans of monopoly, power, and empire, tracing back to the Indian (of India) monitorial schools (pedagogical control of group by authority at the front of the room), another brick in the wall as the craft of masonry
    1. Cecil John Rhodes PC, DCL (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was an English-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers, and an ardent believer in British colonialism, he was the founder of the state of Rhodesia, which was named after him. He set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate. Rhodes and his legacy are memorialized in the 1966 textbook “Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time” by Dr. Carroll Quigley, professor at Georgetown’s School of Foreign Service.
  92. 1h43m Cecil Rhodes goal to change American Constitution to bring America back under control of Britain by rings-within-rings, using Rhodes Scholars to create organic unity.
  93. 1h43m Cecil Rhodes plans grow roots in America, proliferating Anglo-Saxon Nationalism (everyone else was a “barbarian”)
  94. 1h44m Equal rights only for “civilized” men (positive rights) vs. natural rights inherent to all human beings
  95. 1h45m Cecil Rhodes Last Will and Testament, seeking to decontextualize the history and create amnesia in the American polity
  96. 1h46m Cecil Rhodes’ band of merry men, bring in Prussian ideals via Rhodes Scholars, creating a spacial-temporal consciousness shift
  97. 1h47m Carroll Quigley’s books addressing Rhodes and organic unity (Evolution of Civilizations, Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time, The Anglo-American Establishment), Porter Sargent’s books on the same topic
  98. 1h48m Clarence Streit’sUnion Now” plan to merge America with Britain, Andrew Carnegie’s “Triumph of Democracy”, Linus Pauling’s “Union Now” speech, Harris Wolford of the SDS (Students for a Democratic Society), Rhodes Roundtable group seeking to create a union of democracies, origins of Globalism, collaboration between Rhodes Roundtable, Rockefeller, Carnegie trusts.
  99. 1h49m undoing Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense”, to reverse roles and undo common sense to say America is subservient to Britain
  100. 1h50m Clarence Streit, Stringfellow Barr, and Scott Buchanan, (all Rhodes scholars) reviving the Classical Trivium, indoctrinating Anglo-American values and organic unity
  101. 1h51m Rhodes Roundtable supports “Union Now”, via Pilgrims Society, also seeking Organic Unity with Britain, origins of Apartheid in South Africa, Jan Smuts and Wholism as the philosophy of the British Empire (plunder rebranded as freedom)
  102. 1h52m “Union Now” as a Fabian Society for Federalists to create organic unity, Embers of World Conversation (Buchannan), origins of The Great Books of the Western World with Richard McKeown
  103. 1h53 Marshall McLuhan and I.A. Richards work on the Classical Trivium, James Bryant Conant
  104. 1h54m Poetry and Mathematics by Scott Buchanan (Rhodes Scholar) rediscovers the Classical Trivium, John Erskine, Nicholas Murray Butler, St. Thomas Aquinas, Great Chain of Being, and Mortimer Adler and logic existing within systems, Dr. Randall Hart “Classical Trivium” book
  105. 1h55m John Erskine bringing selective reading into the U.S., Woodbury and the X Club (see: Huxley), Matthew Arnold and Cecil Rhodes
  106. 1h56m Alfred Zimmern, William Benton, Benton and Bowles Advertising trending organic unity
  107. 1h57m “Union Now” and the liberal education at St. John’s University and the University of Chicago, Leo Strauss, Neocons, Robert Maynard Hutchins, and the origins of the Great Books of the Western World
  108. 1h58m Legacy of Cecil Rhodes, Pilgrims Society, RIIA, CFR, and creating organic unity in America
  109. 1h59m Arthur Balfour, Cecil Rhodes, Baron Rothschild and Palestine; Pilgrims Society as Anglo-American Alliance to usurp national government of the U.S. vis a vis Organic Union
  110. 2h re-branding British Empire as part of organic unity and role of St. John’s university in revival of the Classical Trivium within the Anglo-American tradition.
  111. 2h2m “Fat Man’s Class” and William Benton, J. Walter Thompson Company, Denise Sutton’s “Globalising Ideal Beauty: How Female Copywriters of the J. Walter Thompson Advertising Agency Redefined Beauty for the Twentieth Century”, De Beers Diamond Cartel, behaviorism (via John Watson) included to manipulate populations
  112. 2h3m Encyclopedia Britannica bought by William Benton vs. The Great Books of the Western World, Benton worked with R. Gordon Wasson, Bank of International Settlements
  113. 2h5m Benton and “Fat Man’s Class” sought to proliferate sophism into the business community, Henry Luce’s support, “The Romance of Commerce and Culture”, Walter Paepke, importation of Prussian/German culture into business and politics, boxing up our culture to bring concensus by de-individualizing and holding conflicting thoughts is the norm.
  114. 2h7m Great Books of the Western World and Eugenics, signers of the GBWW project (several Union Now supporters & Rhodes Scholars among other collectivist groups seeking organic unity for Anglo-Saxon Establishment power structures)
  115. 2h9m Society for the Cincinnatus and the ominous continuity of these ideas, Mirabeau as a member of the Social Circle, hereditary orders to create organic unity, Walter Paepke as founder of the Aspen Institute which funded the GBWW, founded on commemoration date of Goethe, ex-Bavarian Illuminati; origin of Aspen’s popularity and the Noble Lie
  116. 2h10m Leo Strauss at St. John’s University as a Scott Buchanan Scholar
  117. 2h11m GBWW to impart culture to common man, a scarcity not circulated in 70 years, a legacy of organic unity being propagated via Classical Trivium
  118. 2h12m Joseph S. Nye, Jr. (Rhodes Scholar, Harvard), Power and Interdependence
  119. 2h13m London School of Economics (Fabian Socialist institution), Rothschild family funding LSE
  120. 2h14m “The Real New World Order” (Foreign Affairs Publication) by Anne-Marie Slaughter, Office for Policy Planning, CFR driving organic unity
  121. 2h15m “The Real New World Order” is published by the Council on Foreign Relations
  122. 2h16m David Rockefeller, Memoirs, p. 505 quote, Admiral Chester Ward on CFR quote from Barry Goldwater biography “With No Apologies” chapter 33 “Our Non-Elected Rulers”
  123. 2h17m H.G. Wells, Fabian Socialist, Open Conspiracy, Island of Dr. Moreau, organic unity through Eugenics (see: G. Stanley Hall quote on organic unity in “NEA: Trojan Horse”), erasing of national borders, ethically responsible to control the many, “The Shape of Things to Come” by H.G. Wells
    1. H.G. Wells’ most consistent political ideal was the World State. He stated in his autobiography that from 1900 onward he considered a World State inevitable. He envisioned the state to be a planned society that would advance science, end nationalism, and allow people to progress by merit rather than birth. In 1932, he told Young Liberals at the University of Oxford that progressive leaders must become liberal fascists or enlightened Nazis in order to implement their ideas.[35]In 1940, Wells published a book called The New World Order that outlined his plan as to how a World Government will be set up.
  124. 2h18m Technocracy to control the thoughts of the polity, C.K. Ogden and I.A. RichardsThe Meaning of Meaning”, imparting of Liberal Arts to create civil polity, language as technology to control polity
  125. 2h20m Inherent rights (negative rights) vs. Positive Rights (arcane laws of governance and authority), “Fire in the Minds of Men” by James H. Billington (Rhodes Scholar & Librarian of Congress), the need to preserve oral traditions and the attack of our culture to manipulate our perceptions, thus to create organic unity, the use of cybernetics to wage psychological warfare, using the mind as the harness of human resources, Stephen Biko “the most powerful weapon in the hands of the oppressor are the minds of the oppressed.”
  126. 2h22m Ludwig Wittgenstein, I.A. Richards, and manipulating language to control perceptions in cybernetics, Macy Conferences of cybernetic applications, and “New Criticism” to decontextualize historical documents, thus re-defining liberty by separating literature from history. Rhodes/Milner Roundtable participation in supporting “New Criticism” and decontextualizing history to create organic unity; which evolved from the Prussian Nationalism which preceded it.
  127. 2h25m Frank Aydelotte (Rhodes Scholar) on Classical Trivium and Organic Unity, “spelling” to use words to further “liberty” in British terms.
  128. 2h26m Lord Percy v. Thomas Jefferson,
  129. 2h27m Arnold Toynbee and analogical reasoning using the Classical Trivium to promote British organic unity
  130. 2h28m Eugenics, Rockefeller, and organic unity vis a vis “The Molecular Biology of Life: Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology ” by Lily Kay (M.I.T.)
  131. 2h29m Frank and James Angell, G. Stanley Hall, and others instrumental introducing the Prussian education system into America, John Taylor Gatto’s work, Max Weber and scientific dictatorship
  132. 2h30m Population Control, Eugenics, and the Rockefeller “Science of Man” project rebranded as “molecular biology”, Linus Pauling’s support of Lily Kay’s book, Mr. and Mrs. Pauling support “Union Now” and other Anglo-American plans of unification, Delphi Technique of mind control, managing consent, Walter Lippmann
  133. 2h32m Rockefeller “Science of Man”, Edward Alsworth Ross’ “Social Control”, mapping the individual to destroy individuality, Lily Kay unmasks the eugenic agenda of the elites, culling the polity to create organic unity. Artificial scarcity of technology, planned economies (Agenda 21)
  134. 2h33m SUMMARY: By changing the terms and definitions throughout history, the theme of controlling the polity by means of irrational means has thus far been successful. Our voluntary servitude to ideas which are unreality, continues to be the problem; learning and asking substantial questions and finding valid answers continues to be the solution.
  135. 2h34m Kevin Cole’s closing statement, the logic behind the liberal arts education, slavery vs. free minds, the perpetuation of organic unity throughout time to create slave vs. free dichotomy. In America rights were inherent, not because you’re become a subservient slave to the state.



Subtitled: A 5-hour journey examining the history, root-causes, and consequences of public schooling

Alternatively, you can also find The Ultimate History Lesson listed on Amazon.com.

          Elon Musk Is About To Launch A Lethal Pathogen Into Space -- It Might Just Save Your Life        
Launching a lethal pathogen into space and observing accelerated mutation patterns may be a unique approach to discovering new drugs to treat problematic MRSA infections.
          Rheumatoid arthritis risk and noxious airborne agents        
New research indicates that certain occupations may put workers at an elevated risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis. The findings suggest that work-related factors, such as noxious airborne agents, may contribute to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid ar...
          Systemic Yeast Infections        
Systemic yeast infection affects our entire body and not localized to any particular organ. A victim can suffer very serious yet varied illnesses that seems to be due to different causes. The is because a single variant of candida fungus is known to produce more than 80 types of mycotoxins and poison that are harmful to the human body. Add to that the other strains of fungi out there that can infest your body and you get the idea. These dangerous mycotoxins can affect different parts of the body in different individuals, depending on the condition of their immune system, health and medication history. For example, someone may get skin rashes, indigestion and bloating problems while another person may get bad breath and so on. There is usually no easily identifiable source of systemic yeast infections as it can be caused by many varied internal and external factors. However, it is commonly agreed that an unhealthy diet coupled with a hectic stressful lifestyle together with long term medication can greatly weaken our body's immunity and increase the risk of systemic candida infections.

The best defense against systemic yeast infections is actually a strong immunity system. The fact is that fungi and mold existence is so common in our daily lives and environment that it is impossible to avoid contact unless you live in a clean room. Systemic yeast infections commonly start from the intestinal organs due to consumption or overgrowth of common medical yeast pathogen such as candida albicans or candida tropicalis. They can even be caused by airborne fungal spores. For example, the Aspergillus is a genus of more than two hundred molds found throughout the world on the skin of starchy foods such as bread and grains, as well as on many fruits and vegetables. The Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus can contaminate foods and produce aflatoxin which is both toxic and carcinogenic, leading to invasive diseases such as paranasal sinus infections, fever, cough, allergies, chest pain or breathlessness. The signs of Aspergillosis diseases tend to overlap with many other illnesses so mis-diagnosis can be common.

aspergillus fungus

The candida genus is considered as part of the human flora that exist normally within our bodies. However, when our body is weakened, producing insufficient amount of NK and Kupffer cells, there are high levels of toxins in the intestinal tracts due to a poor diet or due to the consumption of certain medication such as tetracycline antibiotics, the human immunity system is unable to contain the fungal growth development. External onset of yeast infection can also occur through injuries or cuts on our skin. If the human immune system cannot contain the fungal infestation, the body cells are gradually eaten away and inflammation spreads throughout the human host. This can be seen as poor healing of the wound, constant pus fluid formation etc. Medication is actually not as effective as our natural human immunity against defeating systemic yeast infections and their resulting complications such as crohn's disease, intestinal irritations, gout, reflux, chronic lethargy, allergies, hives, eczema, depression and so on.

Many suffers find that trying to treat the related signs of fungal infections is only a temporary measure. After a while, these problems usually resurface because the true problems of a poor immunity and excessive yeast overgrowth are not being remedied. Long term usage of antibiotics such as minocen, panmycin, prednisone etc can lead to cause an internal system imbalance, providing the perfect environment for candida to grow more than normal. Stress and alcohol weakens your body's immunity and its ability to control the spread of candida yeast. Over consumption of carbohydrates such as sugar, grains and starchy foods etc will facilitate the systemic growth of yeast fungi.
          August 2017 Highlights        
Editor-in-Chief Shawn Kennedy and Clinical Editor Betsy Todd present the highlights of the August issue of the American Journal of Nursing. On this month’s cover, a mother and her newborn share skin-to-skin contact. Our first CE, “Tuberculosis: A New Screening Recommendation and an Expanded Approach to Elimination in the United States,” provides a general overview of tuberculosis transmission, pathogenesis, and epidemiology, presents pre­ventive care recommendations for targeted testing among high-risk groups, and discusses a new USPSTF screening rec­ommendation. The author of our second CE, “Beyond Maternity Nursing: The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative,” provides an overview of the practices and policies of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), the insti­tutional benefits of achieving BFHI certification, and the process through which health care facilities can do so. Our next article, “Original Research: The Effects of Red Yeast Rice Supplementation on Cholesterol Levels in Adults,” explores the most recent evidence on the effectiveness and safety of red yeast rice supplementation in treating dyslipidemic adults. In “Good Nursing Is Good Antibiotic Stewardship,” the authors use patient examples to review several antimicrobial stewardship activities and illustrate how nurses are essential to the appropriate use of antibiotics. In addition, there’s News, Reflections, Drug Watch, Art of Nursing, and more.
          Backflow Preventer Devices Are Necessary In Dental Clinics        
Dental clinics are unhygienic especially if dental professionals do not take extra precautions when it comes to releasing their effluence and wastes. Aside from blood-soaked cotton swabs, water tops the list of wastes produced by dental clinics. On the other hand, the airflow inside the dental office during a procedure is also possibly contaminated with air-borne pathogens like fungi, bacteria and TAGS: backflow preventer, modern healthcare, dental practice design
           The stealth episome: Suppression of gene expression on the excised genomic island PPHGI-1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola         
Godfrey, S., Lovell, H., Mansfield, J. W., Corry, D., Jackson, R. W. and Arnold, D. L. (2011) The stealth episome: Suppression of gene expression on the excised genomic island PPHGI-1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. PLoS Pathogens, 7 (3). ISSN 1553-7366 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/14583
           Excision from tRNA genes of a large chromosomal region, carrying avrPphB, associated with race change in the bean pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola         
Jackson, R. W., Mansfield, J. W., Arnold, D. L., Sesma, A., Paynter, C. D., Murillo, J., Taylor, J. D. and Vivian, A. (2000) Excision from tRNA genes of a large chromosomal region, carrying avrPphB, associated with race change in the bean pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. Molecular Microbiology, 38 (2). pp. 186-197. ISSN 0950-382X Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7055
          Clues emerge to explain allergic asthma        

Allergens that chop up a clotting protein contribute to reactions

2:43pm, August 15, 2013

V. Millien et al. Cleavage of fibrinogen by proteinases elicits allergic responses through toll-like receptor 4. Science. Volume 341, Aug. 16, 2013, p. 792. doi: 10.1126/science.1240342. [Go to]
Further Reading

P. McGuirk et al. The role of regulatory T cells in respiratory infections and allergy and asthma. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. Volume 10, 2010, p. 21.
[Go to]

H. Hammad  et al. House dust mite allergen induces asthma via Toll-like receptor 4 triggering of airway structural cells. Nature Medicine. Volume 15, online March 29, 2009, p. 410. doi:10.1038/nm.1946. [Go to]

S. Eisenbarth et al. Lipopolysaccharide-enhanced, toll-like receptor 4-dependent T helper cell type 2 responses to inhaled antigen. Journal of Experimental Medicine. Volume 196, Dec. 16, 2002, p. 1645. doi: 10.1084/jem.20021340. [Go to]

A common blood-clotting protein turns out to play a role in allergic asthma. The protein interacts with better-known immune system players already implicated in allergy, providing a missing piece of the biological puzzle underlying such respiratory attacks. The finding exposes a biological chain of events that could offer targets for allergic asthma treatments, researchers say.

Asthma symptoms triggered by allergies are marked by inflammation of the respiratory tract, which leaves a person gasping for breath, coughing and wheezing. There are many players in this overreaction, including an immune protein called TLR4, or toll-like receptor 4, and enzymes in fungi and other allergens called proteinases.

In the new study, a team of scientists induced allergic asthma attacks in mice by exposing the animals to proteinases found in molds, which are common fungal allergens. These proteinases break down a blood-clotting protein called fibrinogen. The resulting shards of fibrinogen then bind to and activate TLR4, a receptor protein found on immune cells and other cells lining the airways. That in turn triggers inflammation — the hallmark of allergic asthma, the researchers report in the Aug. 16 Science.

Further tests indicated that this fibrinogen cleaving inhibited fungal infection in the mice, says study coauthor David Corry, an immunologist and pulmonologist at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston. “We suspect asthma is a protective response against fungi” in many people, he says. But in others, “it’s an aberrant response induced by extreme sensitivity to the proteinases.”

When the researchers prevented fibrinogen breakdown, the mice had a reduced reaction to mold spores. The same thing happened in mice lacking TLR4, suggesting that both proteins are part of a protective biological chain of events that goes awry in some people. The precise chunk of disassembled fibrinogen responsible for this chain reaction is still unknown, Corry says.

“The fibrinogen finding makes perfect sense,” says Stephanie Eisenbarth, a physician and immunologist at the Yale School of Medicine who wasn’t part of this study. “Fibrinogen may be a canary in a coal mine — acting as a detector of something pathogenic that may not be detected by classic mechanisms,” she says.

While the fibrinogen finding offers a curious addition to the allergy literature, Corry says the somewhat primitive TLR4 pathway “is only half the story.” Many scientists maintain that true allergy results only when another side of defense called adaptive immunity runs amok. That involves more sophisticated immune warriors called T and B cells. While adaptive immunity might also be steered by reactions to proteinases, Corry says, the specifics are still unknown.

          Zoonotic Diseases Action Package        
I. How do Action Package leading countries engage other participating countries? 
1.     To explore the participation of other countries and organizations in ZDAP and possible solicitation to join and / or play a ZDAP leadership role
2.     All GHSA participating countries must strengthen their use of PVS in harmony with IHR 2005 within JEE and other tools in line with the targets stated in their ZDAP Road Map taking into account lessons learnt and best practices adopted in other countries
II. What are the challenges and opportunities in implementing the GHSA Action Packages roadmap?
•      Challenges and opportunities identified in the use of PVS and IHR 2005 within JEE tools, particularly in the areas of coordination, Collaboration and an appropriate balance in sector representation shall be rectified.

III. Current Activities (2014 - 2016)
1.     Building Global Commitment to Multi sector Approach to Manage Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Support of the GSHA within the framework of Public Health.
2.     ASEAN Strategy on Rabies Elimination and the Action Plan.
3.     Update activities with GHSA steering group.
4.     OIE conference in Paris in June 2015.
5.     International Conference on ZDAP in Viet Nam àZDAP Action Plan.
6.     The Asia – Pacific Workshop on Multisectoral Collaboration for Prevention and Control of Zoonoses in Saporo Jepang in 2015.
7.     Global elimination of dog-mediated human rabies – The Time is Now, and the technical pre-meeting with the WHO Collaborating Centers in Geneva in 2015.
8.     Send assessors to JEE.
9.     2nd ZDAP meeting at Ritz Carlton Mega Kuningan Jakarta 22 August 2016.

IV. What are the coordination mechanism and efforts to be taken to strengthen the Action Packages?
1.     Effort will be made to improve (non-technical) communication about the importance and relevance of Zoonoses and One Health to the public and policy/decision-makers, including with ministries of finance, home affairs, planning, interior, etc.
2.     All GHSA participating countries must strengthen their use of PVS in harmony with JEE and other tools in line with the targets stated in their ZDAP Road Map taking into account lessons learnt and best practices adopted in other countries.
V. What are best practices to be shared?
1.     Integrated zoonoses prevention and control program.
2.     Enhance of knowledge and skill among health workers and education sectors.
3.     Integrated communities empowerment through IEC.
4.     Integrated Surveillance System, outbreak investigation and reporting from Districts/Cities, Province, Central level (Avian Influenza, Rabies, Anthrax, etc.).
5.     Sentinel surveillance of zoonoses.
6.     Zoonoses Epidemiology and Laboratory Network (Four Way Linking).
7.     Expert meeting of zoonoses integrated human and animal health.

Tools, Guidelines and Best Practices Partnerships Collaborations and Outreach for 2016
a.     Emergency operations Center (EOC) and Zoonotic Disease Action Package (ZDAP) in Viet Nam
b.     Strategic Plan for the elemination of Human Rabies in Kenya 2014 -2020
c.      GHSA Projecs and Partmers in Viet Nam
d.     Frequently Asked and Quetions on Rabies
e.      Zoonosis Electronical Comic
f.       Avian Influenza Pocket Book

IntersectorCoordination,Cooperation and Partnership Collaboration for Zoonoses Control  in Indonesia, 1972- 2016
1.     MOU 1972 (DG CDC MoH and DG Animal Health, MoA) : Strengthen Zoonosis Control.
2.     Three Minister Decree 1978 (Minister of : Health, Agriculture, Home Affair) : Guide line  of Rabies Control.
3.     National Comsion AI control, Pandemic Preparedness 2006 (Presidential Decree no. 7, Year  2006) : National Strategic plan of AI Control and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness, 2006.
4.     National Comission of Zoonosis Control 2011 (Presidential Decree no. 30 Year 2011) : National Strategic Plan of Integrated Zoonosis control, 2012.

ZDAP Logic Model
1.     Inputs
a.     Policy and Regulation : a. GHSA Technical Guidance Document; and b. IHR Document.
b.     Workforce and Training.
c.      Funds.
d.     Materials : a. Manuals and b. Protocols.
e.      National Partners : a. Relevant Govornment;  b. Public and Private Sectors.
f.       International Partners : WHO, FAO, OIE, World Bank, GHSA Partner Countries.

2.     Activities / Process
a.     Assessment and Planning.
b.     Framework Development and Implementation.
c.      Workforece Development.
d.     Prevention Policy.
e.      Outbreak Response.
f.       Partnership and Colaboration.
g.     Communication and Reporting.

3.     Monitoring and Evaluation

4.     Outcomes
a.     Short-term outcomes (1-3 years):
-         Health Facility,  Laboratory and surveilance system able to detect and diagnose prioritized zoonotic diseases.
-         National policy to detect, prevent and control zoonotic disease outbreak.
-         Joint outbreak response to real time zoonotic threats.
-         Animal and Public health staff trained in the implementation of one Health Approch.
b.    Intermediate outcomes (3-4 years):
-         Reduce time to detect zoonotic threats.
-         Early notification of zoonotic disease outbreak in both animal and human health sectors.
-         Innovation in prevention, detection and response of zoonotic diseases.
c.      Long-term outcomes (5 + years):
-    Avoidable zoonotic disease epidemics in animals and humans prevented.
-    Reduced impact of naturally occuring outbreaks and international or accidental release of dangerous pathogens.

6. Is there external assistance required for strengthening the Action Packages Implementation?
1.     Enhance capacity and number of human resource.
2.     Technical assisstance support (WHO and FAO) for zoonoses experties: Rabies, Pes, Leptospirosis and Antraks, etc.
3.     Strengten laboratorium capacity  for zoonoses.
4.     Research development support on zoonoses.
7. Key Milestones & Activities for 2016
1.     Collaboration on International Health Regulation (IHR) and Performance Veterinary Services (PVS) Training for human and animal health services.
2.     Enhance and strengthen surveillance and diagnose (early detection) of human and animal health using the existing system.
3.     Advocacy of policy and regulation on trade and production of poultry and other farm animal for national multisectoral stakeholder.
4.     Strengthen real-time bio-surveillance on animal and human implementation.
5.     Join zoonoses socialization for human and animal health workers

8.  Five-Year Action Items
1.     Emphasize One Health approaches across all relevant sectors of government.
2.     Implement joint IHR and PVS training programs for human and animal health services.
3.   &
          OIE-Listed diseases, infections and infestations in force in 2016        
Resolutions passed by the International Committee and recommendations issued by the Regional Commissions instructed the OIE Headquarters to establish a single OIE list of notifiable terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases to replace the former Lists A and B.

The aim in drawing up a single list was to be in line with the terminology of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the World Trade Organization, by classifying diseases as specific hazards and giving all listed diseases the same degree of importance in international trade.

In order to create a single list of notifiable diseases, the OIE defined criteria to examine the inclusion or not of a given disease in the OIE single list that were approved in May 2004.

In 2005, the first single list composed of former lists A and B was used, and in the same year, an Ad Hoc Group on disease and pathogenic agents notification was organized to examine diseases according to the adopted criteria for listing diseases, and proposed a new list of diseases meeting the criteria that entered into force in 2006.

The list is reviewed on a regular basis and in case of modifications adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates at its annual General Session, the new list comes into force on 1 January of the following year.

For year 2016, the list includes 118animal diseases, infections and infestations.

Multiple species diseases, infections and infestations
  • Anthrax
  • Bluetongue
  • Brucellosis (Brucella abortus)
  • Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis)
  • Brucellosis (Brucella suis)
  • Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever
  • Epizootic haemorrhagic disease
  • Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)
  • Foot and mouth disease
  • Heartwater
  • Infection with Aujeszky's disease virus
  • Infection with Echinococcus granulosus
  • Infection with Echinococcus multilocularis
  • Infection with rabies virus
  • Infection with Rift Valley fever virus
  • Infection with rinderpest virus
  • Infection with Trichinella spp.
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • New world screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax)
  • Old world screwworm (Chrysomya bezziana)
  • Paratuberculosis
  • Q fever
  • Surra (Trypanosoma evansi)
  • Tularemia
  • West Nile fever

Cattle diseases and infections 
  • Bovine anaplasmosis
  • Bovine babesiosis
  • Bovine genital campylobacteriosis
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
  • Bovine tuberculosis
  • Bovine viral diarrhoea
  • Enzootic bovine leukosis
  • Haemorrhagic septicaemia
  • Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis
  • Infection with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia)
  • Lumpy skin disease
  • Theileriosis
  • Trichomonosis
  • Trypanosomosis (tsetse-transmitted)

Sheep and goat diseases and infections
  • Caprine arthritis/encephalitis
  • Contagious agalactia
  • Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
  • Infection with Chlamydophila abortus (Enzootic abortion of ewes, ovine chlamydiosis)
  • Infection with peste des petits ruminants virus
  • Maedi-visna
  • Nairobi sheep disease
  • Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis)
  • Salmonellosis (S. abortusovis)
  • Scrapie
  • Sheep pox and goat pox

Equine diseases and infections
  • Contagious equine metritis
  • Dourine
  • Equine encephalomyelitis (Western)
  • Equine infectious anaemia
  • Equine influenza
  • Equine piroplasmosis
  • Glanders
  • Infection with African horse sickness virus
  • Infection with equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1)
  • Infection with equine arteritis virus
  • Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis

Swine diseases and infections
  • African swine fever
  • Infection with classical swine fever virus
  • Nipah virus encephalitis
  • Porcine cysticercosis
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
  • Transmissible gastroenteritis

Avian diseases and infections
  • Avian chlamydiosis
  • Avian infectious bronchitis
  • Avian infectious laryngotracheitis
  • Avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum)
  • Avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)
  • Duck virus hepatitis
  • Fowl typhoid
  • Infection with avian influenza viruses
  • infection with influenza A viruses of high pathogenicity in birds other than poultry including wild birds
  • Infection with Newcastle disease virus
  • Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease)
  • Pullorum disease
  • Turkey rhinotracheitis

Lagomorph diseases and infections 
  • Myxomatosis
  • Rabbit haemorrhagic disease

Bee diseases, infections and infestations
  • Infection of honey bees with Melissococcus plutonius (European foulbrood)
  • Infection of honey bees with Paenibacillus larvae (American foulbrood)
  • Infestation of honey bees with Acarapis woodi
  • Infestation of honey bees with Tropilaelaps spp.
  • Infestation of honey bees with Varroa spp. (Varroosis)
  • Infestation with Aethina tumida (Small hive beetle).

Fish diseases
  • Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis disease
  • Infection with Aphanomyces invadans (epizootic ulcerative syndrome)
  • Infection with Gyrodactylus salaris
  • Infection with HPR-deleted or HPR0 infectious salmon anaemia virus
  • Infection with salmonid alphavirus
  • Infectious haematopoietic necrosis
  • Koi herpesvirus disease
  • Red sea bream iridoviral disease
  • Spring viraemia of carp
  • Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

Mollusc diseases
  • Infection with abalone herpesvirus
  • Infection with Bonamia exitiosa
  • Infection with Bonamia ostreae
  • Infection with Marteilia refringens
  • Infection with Perkinsus marinus
  • Infection with Perkinsus olseni
  • Infection with Xenohaliotis californiensis

Crustacean diseases
  • Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease
  • Crayfish plague (Aphanomyces astaci)
  • Infection with Yellowhead virus
  • Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis
  • Infectious myonecrosis
  • Necrotising hepatopancreatitis
  • Taura syndrome
  • White spot disease
  • White tail disease 

  • Infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
  • Infection with rana

Resource : http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/oie-listed-diseases-2016/

          Influenza Virus Monitoring online in Indonesia        

The poultry industry makes up 1% of Indonesia’s gross domestic product and provides the protein needs of 232 million Indonesians. The complex poultry industry structure, starting from intensive poultry farms, semi-intensive broiler and layer farms, and small scale backyard poultry farms provide meat and eggs through traditional markets all over Indonesia. The introduction of the H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus in 2003 has disrupted the productivity of the poultry industry. Vaccination is used as one of the 8 strategies to fight the influenza virus in poultry.

Since 2009, the Government of Indonesia, supported by the influenza expert network of OIE/FAO (OFFLU) and FAO – ECTAD Indonesia have tried to increase the capacity of eight (8) animal health diagnostic laboratories, PUSVETMA, BBLITVET and BBPMSOH to detect and monitor the presence of the avian influenza virus circulating in Indonesia. The laboratory network was then developed to identify potential virus variants; determining the candidate strains for challenge virus and monitoring the efficacy of AI vaccines used. The diagnostic methods are harmonized with standard biological reagents for high quality results.

The characterization of clade 2.1.3 H5N1 AI in the laboratory provided the following results:

A. Determine 4 vaccine strains:

1. A/Chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006;

2. A/Chicken/Pekalongan/BBVW-208/2007;

3. A/Chicken/Garut/BBVW-223/2007;

4. A/Chicken/West Java (Nagrak) 30/2007

and 2 challenge strains:

1. A/Chicken/West Java-Subang/29/2007 and

2. A/Chicken/West Java/Smi-Pat/2006 through the Director General of Livestock and Animal Health Service’s decision letter on the use of local vaccine that matches the virus epidemiologically.

B. Detect the new clade H5N1 HPAI virus in mid-August 2012 that infects ducks and has spread to islands outside of Java. With the presence of two H5N1 HPAI clades, the HPAI situation in Indonesia becomes more complex and requires a rapid communication system. In relation to this matter, a web-based communication system has been developed to accelerate the reporting of HPAI H5N1 virus monitoring to decision makers at the National level. Communication methods between laboratories have been implemented within the Influenza Virus Monitoring (IVM) Online system, developed since 2011 and launched on 20th of May 2014.

          COUNTY AG NEWS        
Late blight in Central Wisconsin

Vegetables and field crops can sustain significant yield reduction from fungal diseases or in the case of late blight, total crop loss. At this time, late blight has been found at one location in southeastern Wisconsin.

Gardeners in our area often have issues with their plants dying form a blight type of disease. In nearly all cases this is from early blight. Early blight is a fungal disease that will overwinter in our soil and then as our new plants are growing rain water splashes the overwintering spores onto the plants and the plants then become infected. Tomato and potato plants become infected with early blight on leaves and stems closest to the ground. The infection then expands upwards in the plant. Late bight may infect the plants at any point.

Late blight is a potentially destructive disease of potatoes and tomatoes caused by the fungal organism, Phytophthora infestans. Late blight is the disease that caused the Irish potato famine in the late 1800’s. This pathogen is referred to as a ‘water mold’ since it thrives under wet conditions.

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          The Truth is Funny .....shift happens! with Host Colette Marie Stefan: The Bugs are not the Bad Guys with Karen Campbell Betten        
GuestJoin us as Karen unveils the science supporting the long held misconceptions about germs and viruses that keep us living in fear. Embrace the super organism that is your body and learn how supporting a symbiotic relationship between you and your bugs will precipitate resolving many of the health issues that face the Western world today. Microbes have moved from their long standing position as the evil pathogens invading our bodies and making us sick to "friend with benefits," organisms that ...
          The Truth is Funny .....shift happens! with Host Colette Marie Stefan: HANGOVER REMEDY, Better Than A Bloody Mary        
GuestHANGOVER REMEDY, Better Than A Bloody Mary Did you over-indulge on New Years Eve? Are you suffering the effects of holiday hangover? Start the new year off with this quantum cleanse for the body, mind and soul. Join me for this special show, my holiday gift to you Delete negative pathogens from your body, mind and spirit and optimize your physical potential to follow your hearts path to your authentic desires.
          The Best Burger Place Is a Lab - Issue 51: Limits        

Picture this. Sitting at the dinner table 50 years from now, you explain to your grandchildren that meat was once grown on living beings—who were bred, fed, transported, slaughtered, and carved up—all for a meal that could be contaminated with harmful pathogens, growth hormones, and antibiotic residue.

You’re met with expressions of confusion and disgust as they contemplate such a costly, cruel, and resource-intensive method of food production. Moments later, you all tuck into dinner—sausages made at the local meat brewery by feeding cow cells nutrients inside tall, steel bioreactors.

It may sound like an excerpt from a futuristic science-fiction story, but it’s a scenario that could become reality sooner than we think. And that’s a good thing.

To say current day meat production is problematic would be a colossal understatement. It’s an industry at the center of every major environmental problem—from climate change and water shortages to deforestation and the collapse of ocean ecosystems. It is also fuelling many global health crises: the rise of non-communicable diseases, the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and malnutrition in regions where grain is bought up by multinationals to feed livestock, pushing food prices beyond the affordability of local communities.

“Clean” or “cultured” meat,…
Read More…

          The Cost of Carbohydrates Versus Fats: Not What It Seems?        
When we went shopping at the Scottsdale farmers' market a couple of weeks ago, Tracy wanted to get some spring mix from McClendon farms to make a salad for our wedding anniversary dinner.  While getting the greens, we noticed that McClendon Farms also had some artisnal butter that they were selling for 6.99 for a half pound.

We didn't get any of the butter, but Tracy got a small bag, about a quart, of spring mix.  When we got to the check out, the cashier announced that we were to pay $8 for the quart of spring mix.

The moment I heard that, I thought that we could be getting the half pound of butter for $7 and we'd get a lot more calories for our money.

A quart of spring mix supplies about 52 calories.  At $8 per quart, that works out to $0.15 per calorie.

A half-pound of butter supplies about 1626 calories, 31 times the calories found in a quart of spring mix.  At $7 per half-pound, that works out to $0.004 per calorie.

Hence, on a per calorie basis, spring mix is 38 times more expensive than butter.

I wanted to trade in the spring mix for the much tastier butter!

That got me curious about the cost of commonly consumed plant foods on a per calorie basis.

After the market, we went to Trader Joe's to get some supplies, and on the way I decided I would do some cost-per-calorie comparison shopping.

TJ's organic carrot juice costs $3.99 for a quart.

The whole quart supplies 320 calories:

That works out to $0.012 per calorie for the carrot juice.

TJ's pint of organic heavy whipping cream also costs $3.99.

The pint supplies 1600 calories:

That works out to $0.0025 per calorie for the organic cream.

Per calorie, the organic carrot juice is 4.8 times more expensive than the organic heavy cream.

TJ's has conventional cream from animals not treated with r-BST for $3.29 per pint:

Of course it supplies the same number of calories per pint as the organic cream:

The cost per calorie from this cream is $0.0021.

If you're on a budget, trying to meet your energy needs, cream is a far better value than carrot juice, or for that matter, any fruit or vegetable.

TJ's regular butter costs only $3.19 per pound, which supplies 3252 calories, about what a physically active young man needs for an entire day.  That works out to about $0.001 per calorie.

Let's postulate that a young man gets 50% of his energy from butter and cream daily.  One stick of TJ's butter is going to provide him 813 calories for about $0.78 per day, and 8 ounces of heavy cream will provide another 800 calories for $1.65, for a total of 1613 calories at a cost of $2.43.

Now let's have him eat 3 eggs and 300 g of ground beef daily.

Three large (50 g) eggs supplies 233 calories, and 300 g of 80% lean ground beef.  He could once a week replace 100 g of that ground beef with pork or beef liver.  Three eggs and 300 g of beef will provide him with a generous 92 g of protein.

Fairly high quality eggs are going for about $3.00-$4.00 per dozen, or about $0.30 per egg.  Grass-fed ground beef is going for $6.99 per pound (454 g) at our local Sprouts store, so 300 g cost $4.62.

So this hypothetical young man can meet his calorie and nutrient needs on a high fat, animal-based diet, using eggs rich in omega-3 fats and beef from grass-fed animals, for about $7.95 per day.

Add  $1.05 for a teaspoon of nutritional yeast, a medium (131 g) orange ($0.35), a large (150 g) onion (0.31) and third of a bunch of spinach and he's good to go for $9.00 per day.

Source:  Numbeo

According to Numbeo, this is only $0.44 more than the average cost of food for an individual eating a standard Western diet in Phoenix:

If he's on a tighter budget he could choose conventional eggs and beef.   This week, Fry's Market in Scottsdale advertised ground beef for $2.99 per pound and pork loin roast or turkey breast for $1.49 per pound.

As noted above, the average cost for eggs in the Phoenix area is $2.26 per dozen, or just $0.19 per egg.  If he ate 150 g of ground beef ($0.99), 150 g of pork loin or turkey breast ($0.49), and 3 conventional eggs, the meat and egg portion of his low carbohydrate diet would cost  $2.05, and the butter and cream portion $2.43, for a total of $4.48.  Now he should substitute ~100 g of liver for one of the other meats once or twice weekly, and he can (if he wants) spend $1.52 daily for fruit, vegetables, and little nutritional yeast, and he is eating very well for $6.00 per day, $2.50 LESS than expected average costs (only $180 per month). 

If you do the cost per calorie calculation for any fruit or vegetable compared to the above deals for ground beef, turkey breast or pork loin, you will find the animal products are cheaper.

Here's another ad from Fry's:

Strawberries, at $2.00 and only 145 calories per pound, cost $0.014 per calorie.

Grapes, at $1.99 and 313 calories per pound, cost $0.0064 per calorie, half that of strawberries. 

Grass-fed ground beef, at $6.99 and 898 calories per pound, costs $0.008 per calorie, almost half the cost of strawberries and only 25 percent more than the grapes.

Conventional ground beef, at $2.99 and 898 calories per pound, costs $0.0033 per calorie, one-quarter the cost of strawberries and one-half the cost of grapes, and more nutrient dense as well.

Pork loin roast, at $1.49 and 1143 calories per pound (if you eat all visible fat), costs only $0.0013 per calorie, ONE-TENTH the cost of strawberries and one-fifth the cost of the grapes.

In summary, a meat- and fat- based diet is not necessarily more expensive than a carbohydrate-based diet in the short-term, and it may be less expensive in the long-term by saving you lots of costs in dental work (carbohydrates promote tooth decay and periodontal disease, protein and fat do not) as well as diabetes and other modern, sugar-related diseases.

Humphrey et al. "present evidence linking a high prevalence of caries to reliance on highly cariogenic wild plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from North Africa, predating other high caries populations and the first signs of food production by several thousand years. Archaeological deposits at Grotte des Pigeons in Morocco document extensive evidence for human occupation during the Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age (Iberomaurusian), and incorporate numerous human burials representing the earliest known cemetery in the Maghreb. Macrobotanical remains from occupational deposits dated between 15,000 and 13,700 cal B.P. provide evidence for systematic harvesting and processing of edible wild plants, including acorns and pine nuts. Analysis of oral pathology reveals an exceptionally high prevalence of caries (51.2% of teeth in adult dentitions), comparable to modern industrialized populations with a diet high in refined sugars and processed cereals. We infer that increased reliance on wild plants rich in fermentable carbohydrates and changes in food processing caused an early shift toward a disease-associated oral microbiota in this population."  [Italics added.]

Thus, even wild foods high in unrefined carbohydrate causes a high incidence of dental pathology.

Since a mammal can not survive without teeth, it seems impossible that natural selection could have favored reproduction of individuals whose internal organs demanded consumption of a high carbohydrate diet that progressively destroyed the individual's teeth from a very early age. 

Hamasaki et al. report:  "Multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of calories from fat was a nutrient factor associated with periodontal disease, with the percentage of calories from fat being significantly lower in the group with advanced periodontal disease."   In other words, for modern humans, high carbohydrate diets promote – and high fat diets prevent – periodontal disease.  That's because carbohydrate feeds the growth of pathogenic oral bacteria, which can't metabolize fats for energy.

Thus it is clear that natural selection has not yet produced a human species that in the absence of modern dentistry can remain free of dental disease while eating a high carbohydrate diet.  In fact the practice of dentistry prevents such adaptation from taking place.  In nature the loss of teeth through decay would lead to malnutrition and an unattractive appearance that would prevent reproduction and cause early death. 

Can a diet that causes progressive dental disease (in the absence of modern prophylactic and remedial dentistry) really be good for the gut or the rest of the body?

Dr. Philippe P. Hujoel, professor of dental public health sciences at the University of Washington  School of Dentistry reviewed the relationships between diet, dental disease, and chronic systemic illness in a report published July 1, 2009 in The Journal of Dental Research.  As reported by Leila Gray of the University of Washington

"He weighed two contradictory viewpoints on the role of dietary carbohydrates in health and disease. The debate surrounds fermentable carbohydates: foods that turn into simple sugars in the mouth. Fermentable carbohydrates are not just sweets like cookies, doughnuts, cake and candy. They also include bananas and several tropical fruits, sticky fruits like raisins and other dried fruits, and starchy foods like potatoes, refined wheat flour, yams, rice, pasta, pretzels, bread, and corn.....
"Hujoel observed that the dental harms of fermentable carbohydrates have been recognized by what looks like every major health organization. Even those fermentable carbohydrates assumed to be good for systemic health break down into simple sugars in the mouth and promote tooth decay. All fermentable carbohydrates have the potential to induce dental decay, Hujoel notes.

"But what if fermentable carbohydrates are also bad for systemic health? Hujoel asks. What if dietary guidelines would start incorporating the slew of clinical trial results suggesting that a diet low in fermentable carbohydrates improves cardiovascular markers of disease and decreases body fat? Such a change in perspective on fermentable carbohydrates, and by extension, on people’s diets, could have a significant impact on the dental profession, as a diet higher in fat and protein does not cause dental diseases, he notes. Dentists would no longer be pressed to recommend to patients diets that are bad for teeth or remain mum when it comes to dietary advice. Dentists often have been reluctant, Hujoel says, to challenge the prevailing thinking on nutrition. Advising patients to reduce the amount or frequency of fermentable carbohydrate consumption is difficult when official guidelines suggested the opposite.

"The close correlation between the biological mechanisms that cause dental decay and the factors responsible for high average levels of glucose in the blood is intriguing. Hujoel explains that eating sugar or fermentable carbohydrates drops the acidity levels of dental plaque and is considered an initiating cause of dental decay.

“Eating these same foods, he says, is also associated with spikes in blood sugar levels. There is fascinating evidence that suggests that the higher the glycemic level of a food, the more it will drop the acidity of dental plaque, and the higher it will raise blood sugar. So, possibly, dental decay may really be a marker for the chronic high-glycemic diets that lead to both dental decay and chronic systemic diseases. This puts a whole new light on studies that have linked dental diseases to such diverse illnesses as Alzheimer’s disease and pancreatic cancer.

"The correlations between dental diseases and systemic disease, he adds, provide indirect support for those researchers who have suggested that Alzheimer’s disease and pancreatic cancer are due to an abnormal blood glucose metabolism.

"The hypotheses on dental diseases as a marker for the diseases of civilization were postulated back in the mid-20th century by two physicians: Thomas Cleave and John Yudkin. Tragically, their work, although supported by epidemiological evidence, became largely forgotten, Hujoel notes. This is unfortunate, he adds, because dental diseases really may be the most noticeable and rapid warning sign to an individual that something is going awry with his or her diet.

“'Dental problems from poor dietary habits appear in a few weeks to a few years,' Hujoel explains. 'Dental improvement can be rapid when habits are corrected. For example, reducing sugar intake can often improve gingivitis scores (a measurement of gum disease) in a couple of weeks. Dental disease reveals very early on that eating habits are putting a person at risk for systemic disease. Since chronic medical disease takes decades to become severe enough to be detected in screening tests, dental diseases may provide plenty of lead-time to change harmful eating habits and thereby decrease the risk of developing the other diseases of civilization.'

"In planning a daily or weekly menu, Hujoel suggests: 'What’s good for your oral health looks increasingly likely to also benefit your overall health.'"  [Bold and italics added.]
And what's good for your oral health?  Hujoel said it:  "a diet higher in fat and protein does not cause dental diseases."

          Quantification of short term interactions between soil and fungi        
Quantification of short term interactions between soil and fungi Pajor, Radoslaw This thesis evaluates protocols to visualise and quantify short-term interactions between soil-borne fungi and soil. The quantification captures interactions between the ubiquitous soil saprotroph and plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, and a sandy loam soil, over a period of five days. The literature review provides evidence of mutual interactions between soil and fungi and highlights the lack of understanding about processes occurring at short time scales, which are crucial for modelling the complexity of soil environment. The first part of the thesis merges X-ray microtomography, image analysis and laboratory measurements to investigate the impact of short term incubation of fungi on soil water retention and soil structure at macro (whole microcosm) and micro (individual aggregate) scales. Part Two quantifies the effect of experimental variables such as aggregate-size and soil bulk-density on key descriptors of the soil pore network. Finally, a fungal growth model was used to quantify to what extent soil structure mediated by bulk-density affected fungal growth dynamics. The experimental work showed that despite high fungal biomass content there was no effect of fungal colonisation on soil structure and hydraulic properties after short-term incubation. However, it was possible to alter the geometry of soil pore space and thus influence fungal growth dynamics. This was achieved by manipulating the initial conditions of re-packed soil microcosms through variation of aggregate size and bulk density.The experimental work showed that despite high fungal biomass content there was no effect of fungal colonisation on soil structure and hydraulic properties after short-term incubation. However, it was possible to alter the geometry of soil pore space and thus influence fungal growth dynamics.This was achieved by manipulating the initial conditions of re-packed soil microcosms through variation of aggregate size and bulk density.
          Weight management with proper nutrition        

One of the prime health concerns that crops up is the bulky, obese weight that we often, tend to put up due to absorption into a sedentary lifestyle and inappropriate diet habits, that is mostly caused by an increased consumption of gargantuan amount of foods rich in fats and carbohydrates. The onus would always stay on our shoulder to shed off these weights, especially the fats that tend to grow around our waist, paving way to the construction of round belly in a short while. So, weight management has become the concern of the hour, and owing to the discovery of several ultra sophisticated research tools, it has been finally possible to create supplements and nutrients that would nourish your body, yet maintain a stable, steady weight, and in some case, would enhance in reduction of the weight, specially the tube around the waist, which is considered to be the tank of all fatty acids.

Why do we choose to reduce weight?

The primordial lifestyle was involved in the consumption of protein rich foods along with much physical workout that would helped to burn off the excessive fats, giving rise to a toned physique. But with advancement, the physical workout got replaced by mental workout, but the food consumption remained same, however, there has been a profound alteration of the dietary habits that resulted in the accumulation of these fats. People are much more tended to perform workout and exercise, even so, it needs to be done on a daily basis, for which supplements are a vital part to sustain the weight in a manageable condition.  Weight training and resistance training invoke a lot of voluntary muscular movements, which helps to burn out the fats but results in tear and wearing of muscle fibers, for which there is an urgent rush to combat such fatigues by intake of supplements.

Check before you shop

One of the primary mistake that buyers make while purchasing weight reducing supplements is they forget to check the compounds, which are specifically targeted for any particular body part. Usually, the supplements that are advisable to consume during weight reduction procedure are like Probiotics, Coq-10, and Omega-3 which helps to burn off the cholesterol, enhancing the body metabolism & keeping you active & healthy.

Online retail shopping may seem manageable, but in reality, it’s just the contrary. Proper selection of the consumable supplement should be ensured, and this should be prescribed by the pharmaceutical druggist. Since the fast foods are the harbingers of pot bellies, therefore, proteins like cod liver oil, fish oil, and flax seed etc should be considered for weight reduction.

There are several antioxidants available in the markets which are mostly marketed as Lycopene, which helps to detoxification of your immune system, but introducing high-quality bacteria that releases antigens, killing the pathogens from the system. Most of these antioxidants include glutamine, arginine, leucine which can be available in the powdery form and can be consumed with milkshake.  Consumption of these supplements would surely bring revolutionary effects in your body, only if you manage to maintain a healthy, hygienic lifestyle.

          Out of the Closet        
I have decided to bite the bullet, and write about something that has been gestating for quite some considerable time. Easily 5 years or more.

I have finally renounced my Christian faith, rejected the homicidal, murderous God of the old testament, as well as the fictional, ephemeral construct of the new. I'm not an atheist ... exactly. More like an agnostic, but I'm convinced that all the current religions, and the hodge podge of Gods on offer are all constructs. The big three, Allah, Christ and Whatisname the jews worship included.

It's been a long road, but damn I feel good!!!! I feel FREE.

The incredible irony of course, is that I have Bush, his hideous cabal, any number of "Christian" American bloggers, as well as the Falwells and Swaggerts of the world to thank. After 25 years as a Christian, 4 of them in active service, I had clocked up a comprehensive list things "not to think about". The last 5 years of US Christian sponsored torture, crime and state sanctioned murder have shattered the hermetic seals between my faith and the "real world".

Let me give you some examples.

1) A God who allows even the idea of Hell to gain traction in human culture is a sick sadistic bastard. A God who would create it should be resisted, fought, torn down and destroyed.

2) Every major element of Christian dogma has been lifted from prior religions. Every damn thing. There is nothing original in it. Check it out.

3) The idea of taking as "gospel" a book riddled with multiple, outrageous and self evident errors, on it's own recommendation , is so absurd, as to actually defy articulation. What was I thinking?!!?

4) Christianity is the ultimate virus. It infects a host, and then actively uses it to infect hundreds of others, and it works. Just look at the staggering variety of mutations that have evolved from that first, humble pathogen.

I could go on, but I'd just be repeating (badly) the conclusions of thousands before me. It's a scam, a pyramid scheme, and a con trick of monumental and staggering proportions, but I've seen through it, and I'm OUT.

I'm not bitter though. OK, I'm a bit bitter:-) Mind you I don't regret the years spent in Covenant Players. I grew as a person, I learnt German and I met Magdalena. The Christians of Covenant Players, with some notable exceptions, are largely good guys. Lets face it, it could have been much, much worse. There are some virulent variations of Christianity out there. Take a look at these guys.

I guess I resent all the times I worried about Hell, it raises a primordial twinge of subdued terror even now. Those Catholics sure know how to bed it down deep:-) I object to the hundreds of hours I spent in pointless prayer. SHIT, I could have been playing Dungeon's and Dragons, or reading, or having a quiet reflective wank. In fact, basically any damn thing.

To think I partially squandered the precious lightning flash of awareness that is my life, to worship some jumped up tribal deity. It makes me very, very angry.

Never again:-)
          When loss-of-function is loss of function: assessing mutational signatures and impact of loss-of-function genetic variants        
Motivation: Loss-of-function genetic variants are frequently associated with severe clinical phenotypes, yet many are present in the genomes of healthy individuals. The available methods to assess the impact of these variants rely primarily upon evolutionary conservation with little to no consideration of the structural and functional implications for the protein. They further do not provide information to the user regarding specific molecular alterations potentially causative of disease.Results: To address this, we investigate protein features underlying loss-of-function genetic variation and develop a machine learning method, MutPred-LOF, for the discrimination of pathogenic and tolerated variants that can also generate hypotheses on specific molecular events disrupted by the variant. We investigate a large set of human variants derived from the Human Gene Mutation Database, ClinVar and the Exome Aggregation Consortium. Our prediction method shows an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.85 for all loss-of-function variants and 0.75 for proteins in which both pathogenic and neutral variants have been observed. We applied MutPred-LOF to a set of 1142 de novo vari3ants from neurodevelopmental disorders and find enrichment of pathogenic variants in affected individuals. Overall, our results highlight the potential of computational tools to elucidate causal mechanisms underlying loss of protein function in loss-of-function variants.Availability and Implementation:http://mutpred.mutdb.orgContact:predrag@indiana.edu

          Passer de Vim à Neovim        

Neovim est un fork de Vim né il y a environ 2 ans et dont les premières versions publiques ont été mises à disposition à la fin de l'année dernière. Je suis un fervent utilisateur de Vim depuis... pfffiou une quinzaine d'année mais je trouve ce fork plutôt appropriée avec de bonnes idées. Par exemple Neovim permet d'éxécuter des tâches de manière asynchrone dans les plugins, j'aurais adoré avoir cette fonctionnalités quand je développais le plugin eZVim pour eZ Publish il y a quelques années.


L'installation de Neovim est bien détaillée dans Installing Neovim. Sur une Ubuntu (postérieure à 12.04 Precise Pangolin), pour l'installer, il suffit d'activer le PPA correspondant et ensuite d'installer le paquet neovim. En fonction des plugins, il sera peut-être nécessaire d'installer quelques paquets liés à Python. Cette même page propose également de configurer le système d'alternatives pour lancer Neovim avec les commandes vim, vi et editor, sinon il faudra impérativement utiliser nvim.


Le fichier de configuration principal ~/.vimrc est remplacé par ~/.config/nvim/init.vim et le dossier ~/.vim est remplacé par ~/.config/nvim/. La documentation pour passer de Vim à Neovim conseille de faire des liens symboliques. Pour ma part, j'ai préfèré profiter de l'occasion pour remettre à plat ma configuration un peu vieillissante au niveau des plugins et pour notamment remplacer Pathogen par vim-plug.

Les différences entre Vim et Neovim sont bien documentées et au final, le changement s'est fait sans grosse difficulté avec 2 adaptations relativement mineures :

  • La valeur par défaut de mouse est maintenant a mais je n'utilise quasiment jamais la souris dans mon éditeur et je préfère garder le fonctionnement du terminal intact, j'ai donc ajouté set mouse= à mon .vimrc euh init.vim ;-)
  • dans les plugins que j'utilisais avec Vim, seul Powerline n'est pas compatible avec Neovim, heureusement vim-airline fournit une alternative fonctionnelle et compatible avec Neovim.

Pour le reste quasi rien n'a changé, ou alors je n'ai pas encore remarqué ;-)

Et alors ça marche ?

Capture d'écran de Neovim
Capture d'écran de Neovim lors de la rédaction de ce billet

Neovim fonctionne très bien pour moi, je l'ai adopté depuis une petite semaine et jusqu'à présent je n'ai noté aucun problème dans mon usage relativement intensif en tant qu'IDE au bureau, dans l'édition de divers fichiers ou lors de la rédaction de ce billet. Bref, Neovim a l'air bien installé sur ma machine et il va maintenant falloir aller fouiller dans les quelques plugins qui tirent partie de Neovim et refaire le tour des plugins Vim compatibles qui valent le coup.

          Puberty Physiology and Abnormalities        
  Puberty Physiology and Abnormalities Bringing together the latest knowledge on the growth and development of children and the most important abnormalities of puberty, this comprehensive text presents the current views on the pathogenesis, diagnostic possibilities and therapeutic options of the main deviations from the normal course of puberty (e.g., precocious and delayed puberty). The
          Invasive alien species threaten Indian ecosystems: Govt        

New Delhi: Invasive alien species like Lantana and Cuscutta pose a threat to the ecosystems and lead to loss of biodiversity of the country, the government Friday said.

Invasive alien species are plants, animals, pathogens and other organisms that are non-native to an ecosystem and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health.

"The government is aware of the threats posed by Invasive Alien Species such as Lantana, Parthenium, Cuscutta on ecosystems and biodiversity of the country.

"In the national biodiversity action plan approved by the Union Cabinet on November 6, 2008, biological invasions by exotic species have been discussed as one of the major factors leading to loss of biodiversity in the country," Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar told the Lok Sabha.

He said that in terms of extent of distribution, Lantana is perhaps one of the most important invasive species in forest ecosystems of India and Indian Council of Forest Research and Education Dehradun as part of the exercise to re-evaluate the forest types of India observed that Lantana and Parthenium affected regeneration of teak.

Javadekar said that although there is no conclusive studies in this regard, these invasive species replace native plant species and grasses by adversely affecting their regeneration and growth due to allelopathy effect resulting in reduced biodiversity and availability of food base of wild herbivores like deers.

"Herbivores are considered as the primary consumer of the food chains, at the top of which are tiger and other large carnivores. Therefore, decline in the population of mammalian herbivores has the potential to impact tigers and other large carnivores which are critically dependent on herbivores as prey base," the Minister said.

News Source: 

          What is this? - Fungus Indentity        
What is this? - Fungus IndentityAll plants are subject to disease. Under proper environmental conditions a disease will occur when a susceptible plant is invaded by a causal agent (pathogen). Plant pathologists are principally concerned with disease caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes.The most important factor to remember in the control of plant diseases is that we are only able to prevent disease incidence, not affect a cure. All chemicals currently available for plant disease control are applied as a preventative measure or before disease symptoms occur.  
          RHR: Is a Disrupted Gut Microbiome at the Root of Modern Disease?—with Dr. Justin Sonnenburg        

revolution health radio

In this episode, we cover: 03:25 Just how many microbial cells are there? 11:38 What are the primary functions of the microbiota? 15:59 The connection between microbiota and chronic disease 27:14 How do you define a healthy microbiota? 30:36 The connection between low microbial diversity and disease 35:24 Can we manipulate our microbiota? 39:40 What inspired you to write your book?

Links we discuss

  • [easyazon_link identifier="0143108085" locale="US" nw="y" tag="chrikres-20"]The Good Gut: Taking Control of Your Weight, Your Mood, and Your Long-term Health by Justin and Erica Sonnenburg[/easyazon_link]
[smart_track_player url="http://traffic.libsyn.com/thehealthyskeptic/RHR_-_Is_a_Disrupted_Gut_Microbiome_at_the_Root_of_Modern_Disease_-_with_Dr._Justin_Sonnenburg_.mp3" title="Is a Disrupted Gut Microbiome at the Root of Modern Disease?—with Dr. Justin Sonnenburg" artist="Chris Kresser" social="true" social_twitter="true" social_facebook="true" social_gplus="true" ] Chris Kresser: I’m Chris Kresser and this is Revolution Health Radio. Hey, everybody, it’s Chris Kresser. Welcome to another episode of Revolution Health Radio. Today I’m really excited to welcome Justin Sonnenburg as my guest. He is currently an associate professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Stanford School of Medicine. He conducted his PhD in biomedical sciences at the University of California, San Diego, in the laboratory of Ajit Varki. His postdoctoral work was conducted at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri, in the laboratory of Jeffrey Gordon. After moving to Stanford University in 2008, Justin received an NIH Director’s New Innovator Award. In 2011 he received the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigators in Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease Award. He and his wife and collaborator, Erica Sonnenburg, PhD, are the authors of the book The Good Gut: Taking Control of Your Weight, Your Mood, and Your Long-Term Health. The goals of the Sonnenburg Lab are to elucidate the basic mechanisms that underlie dynamics within the gut microbiota and to devise and implement strategies to prevent and treat disease in humans via the gut microbiota. The long-term objective of the research program is to continue to the emerging vision of how our microbiota may be incorporated into precision medicine. I met Justin at the UCSF Paleo event a couple of months ago and was really impressed with the presentation and talk he gave...
          Looking Good on Paper        
One of the prerequisites for being an academic is you have to look and sound very academic. Which is why you’ll rarely spot Elvis Presley sideburns or a Frank Zappa style soul patch among research scholars. Forget the nerdy dress sense, even the language has to be unapologetically abstruse. May be that’s why research papers are cold, clinical, and as unreadable as an engineering manual.

The idea behind penning papers like ‘Metagenomic insights into the pathogenome of cellulosimicrobium cellulans’ is the equivalent of sporting a t-shirt that reads, ‘If you didn’t get my PhD dissertation title, then you’re not PhD enough’.

Given the peer pressure to portray oneself as ‘lab-coatish’, it takes a brave heart to strike a discordant note and make science, very unscientific. Thankfully for every boring scholar, there’s a Feynman somewhere trying to break the mould and simplifying things.

Recently, I stumbled upon a stash of dissertations with titles that made me want to read them. On top of the list is ‘Ramanujan’s association with radicals in India’. It almost feels like a historical thriller about mathematicians and Naxalites. On the contrary, it’s an in depth study of Ramanujan’s work in the field of radicals or square root numbers!

Another one that fascinated me was the ‘Alpher-Bethe-Gamow’ paper on the origin of chemical elements. Doesn’t that sound like Alpha, Beta, and Gamma to you? Apparently, Alpher is the author of the thesis. George Gamow, the famed cosmologist was his guide. And they added Hans Bethe, the nuclear physicist’s name, almost whimsically, just to add some punch to the title.

Juan Bicarregui’s ‘Do Not Read This’ is equally compelling. It taps into the child in you and urges you to take a sneak peek without explicitly asking you to do so. Bailey and Borwein were even more brilliant. They put their key finding as the header: 'The 40 billionth binary digit of Pi is 1'. Anyone who reads it will gasp, ‘How could they know that without a computer?’ and will definitely want to explore their algorithm.

Ryter, Morse & Choi got it spot-on when they put out their findings on the similarities between Carbon Monoxide and Nitrous Oxide. They chose to play on Star Trek and worded their work as 'Carbon Monoxide: To boldly go where NO has gone before'. That level of wit can lift the clouds of dullness from any vapid verbiage masquerading as research.
          MTS47 - Peter Daszak - Stalking the Wild Microbe        

Dr. Peter Daszak is a disease ecologist and President of the Wildlife Trust, an international organization of scientists dedicated to the conservation of biodiversity. He is a leader in the field of conservation medicine and is well known for uncovering the wildlife origin of the SARS virus. Dr. Daszak also identifed the first case of a species extinction caused by a disease and has demonstrated a link between global trade and disease emergence via a process called "pathogen pollution."

In this interview I ask Dr. Daszak about the threat new pathogens pose to endangered species and go into detail about his discovery that chytridiomycosis, a fungal disease caused by the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is responsible for global amphibian population declines. Dr. Daszack also discusses a unique study that exposes how the W.H.O. might better use their resources when faced with new pathogens such as the kind we've seen with the recent outbreak of the H1N1 virus. We also explore how pathogens of animals have the ability to evolve into human diseases like flu and HIV.

Links to research discussed in this episode: