Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) partners with Mumbai Dabbawala Association (MDA)        

Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) partners with Mumbai Dabbawala Association (MDA)

~A culturally enriching and riveting morning hosted by Malaysian Palm Oil Council with the Dabbawalas of Mumbai~

by Shrutee K/DNS

Mumbai, August 8, 2017 : In April 2017 in conjunction with the visit to India of the Hon. Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato Sri’ Haji Mohammad Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak, Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) signed a MoU with Mumbai Dabbawala Association (MDA). Taking this MoU forward, on the morning of August 8th, MPOC and Mumbai Dabbawalas flagged off an event to create awareness for Malaysian Palm Oil and its benefits.

The event took place at the Lower Parel Bridge, where Dabbawalas wore the T-shirts and topis branded with MPOC message. They then delivered the dabbas carrying a booklet of recipes of dishes that can be cooked in palm oil and the benefits of using palm oil. The Dabbawalas are in a unique position to promote MPOC and raise awareness to the positive nutritional attributes of Malaysian Palm Oil. This becomes particularly useful in Indian cuisine as most dishes are cooked in oil. Substituting for a healthier oil can do no harm, besides besides providing the added bonus of eating delicious food cooked in a healthy oil that is nutritious for the body.

To kick off this event, Dr. Kalyana Sundaram, CEO of MPOC, was present, encouraging the use of palm oil and showing appreciation to our Dabbawalas for their exceptional work. The morning was most enjoyable, entertaining and culturally riveting as some of Maharashtra’s best dancers performed the traditional Lezim Dance, a true delight to have watched! For those unaware of the Lezim Dance, it is a Maharashtrian folk dance performed to the beat of the Dholki, a percussion instrument.

Speaking at the occasion, Dr. Kalyan Sundaram, CEO, MPOC, said, “It gives me immense pleasure to be here this morning. Dabbawalas have been an integral part of this city and they define what Indians stand for: hardworking, responsible and efficient. They work relentlessly with a smile on their face, be it rain or storm. Malaysian Palm Oil has been a very important part of the Indian diet and with this unique initiative we wish to create awareness for this wonderful oil and its several health benefits. Our association with the Mumbai Dabbawalas allows us to spread the message of healthy cooking to a large number of households and encourages a healthier cooking lifestyle”


Mr. Subhash Talekar, Association Spokesperson of Mumbai Dabbawala Association said “We Dabbawalas unfailingly deliver thousands of dabbas to hungry people daily, they are undoubtedly the best people to directly reach out to households and create awareness about palm oil and the health benefits of using it. This is a very exciting new chapter, and we are glad to be partnering with MPOC.”

India is the world’s largest importer of cooking oils. Palm oil constitutes about two-thirds of India’s steadily increasing vegetable oil import. The price, in comparison to competing oils and the proximity of origin, Malaysia, has made Malayisan Palm Oil a highly preferred oil. Now the Dabawallas have taken it upon themselves, with the help of MPOC, to inform families about the benefits of palm oil and how exquisite food can be cooked in palm oil in alternative to other vegetable oils.

Amongst some of the benefits we came to learn about during the event was that palm oil is rich in natural chemical compounds essential for health and nutrition. It has a rich source of carotenoids that are rich in Vitamin A, a potent natural antioxidant, Vitamins D, E, K, fatty acids, and other important fat-soluble micronutrients that boost the human immune system. The health benefits from using palm oil are tremendous - it reduces chances of Cancer, protects against heart diseases, type 2 diabetes, and helps children with Vitamin A deficiency.

The oil is great for cooking; it is of vegetable origin, making it free of cholesterol and apt for vegetarians, vegans, and Jains. Furthermore, the oil has a neutral flavor - you needn’t worry about changing tastes, it does not oxidize easily – making it perfect for frying food, and produces less gummy materials and helps in the cooking area maintaining a non-greasy surface; so, most bakers prefer to use a palm-based margarine for baking goods.

With people now more conscious about their health and food habits, palm oil is definitely the healthier choice to make whilst cooking and a step towards healthier bodies and practices.  What better way to create awareness than directly reaching out to the households through our Dabbawalas.


Note to Editors:
MPOC is a Council under the Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities of Malaysia.  Its role is to promote the market expansion of Malaysian palm oil and its products by enhancing the image of palm oil and creating better acceptance of palm oil through awareness of various technological and economic advantages (techno-economic advantages) and environmental sustainability.

The Council has set up a network of ten offices all over the world, mainly in China (Shanghai), India (Mumbai), Pakistan (Lahore), Bangladesh (Dhaka), Middle East (Istanbul and Cairo), Europe (Brussels and Russia), Africa (Durban) and Americas (Washington DC)  to support, promote and venture into new areas for the industry.
                                                                                                             

The plantation industry, particularly palm oil, is one of the main pillars of the Malaysian economy.  The palm oil sector has contributed significantly towards providing a continuous inflow of export earnings through the export of raw commodity and valued-added products to the global market. In 2016, palm oil contributed USD 9 billion in export earnings for Malaysia and accounted for 33% of the world’s palm oil production and 39% of total palm oil exports.

          Tifiamo Scaramouche!        
Tifiamo Scaramouche è una raccolta di racconti in quattro volumi che possono essere scaricati liberamente in formato PDF dal sito dei Wu Ming. Si tratta di una fan fiction derivante da L'armata dei sonnambuli, l'ultimo romanzo storico del collettivo uscito nel 2014.

A curare la raccolta è stato Simone Scaffidi L. Da un'idea di: Pietro Pace, Mauro Vanetti e Alessandro Villari (Avvocato Laser). Il progetto grafico e l'impaginazione si devono a Franco Berteni (Mr Mill) e Simone Scaffidi L. La copertina e le illustrazioni sono di Alessandro Caligaris e Francesca Sibona.

Qui di seguito, ecco il mio contributo, pubblicato nel terzo volume della raccolta. Buona lettura.


Il flauto tradito
Parigi, 1801

1.

A suo modo, Ludwig Wenzel Lachnith era un uomo generoso. La sera del 20 agosto 1801, dopo la trionfale prima della sua opera I misteri d'Iside al Teatro della Repubblica, il compositore offrì la cena all'intera troupe, comparse e suggeritore compresi.
Benché relegate al tavolo meno prestigioso dell'ampia sala del ristorante, le due comparse Léo Modonnet e Emanuele Gizzio potevano udire facilmente i discorsi del tavolo principale, quello dove sedeva Lachnith assieme al manager del teatro, al librettista Étienne Morel de Chédeville e ai cantanti protagonisti. Per meglio dire, potevano udire il monologo del torrenziale musicista boemo, la cui voce sopravanzava quelle di tutti gli altri.
«Eh sì, caro Chédeville! Il buon Mozart aveva del talento, questo nessuno lo vorrà negare; ma aveva anche un'esecrabile tendenza al lambiccato, all'insolito... In una parola: troppa complicazione! Oggigiorno il pubblico non ne vuole sapere di una musica che sia troppo difficile. La gente vuole ariette semplici, presentate con garbo, che tocchino il cuore senza affaticare il cervello. Prendete il Don Giovanni: quante graziose melodie! Parola mia, credo che abbiamo fatto bene a prenderne una in prestito, per il nostro terzetto. Tuttavia, andiamo... La scena con la statua nel finale secondo... Chi può sopportare una tale rombante cacofonia? Pensate solo questo: in quattro battute, quel povero basso deve cantare tutte e dodici le note della scala cromatica. Sapete? Un mio amico italiano, galantuomo e compositore eminente, mi parlava tempo fa con orrore di un certo quartetto per archi, dove Mozart ha accumulato tante di quelle dissonanze da creare un ripugnante caos, direi quasi un giacobinismo sonoro, dove va completamente perso ogni giusto criterio di gerarchia tra le sette note... Di proposito dico sette, non dodici; giacché nessuno, a meno che il suo orecchio non sia guastato dalla musica per tastiera, crederà mai che un re diesis possa essere uguale a un mi bemolle... Anzi: un re è sempre un re, come dicono in Italia, non è vero?».
«Ma va' curcati, buffuni!» commentò Gizzio a mezza voce.
«Perciò, quando mi fu proposto di allestire per le nostre scene Il Flauto magico, la prima cosa che pensai fu: sta bene; ma, per carità, sfrondiamo! Semplifichiamo!
Smussiamo le asperità del testo! Rendiamo il tutto più comprensibile, più adatto alle orecchie del nostro pubblico. Più elegante, anche. E l'esito così radioso di questa serata ha dimostrato che avevamo avuto pienamente ragione. Prima di tutto: i nomi. Tutti quei Tamino, Papageno e Papagena del testo originale, così goffi e plebei, noi li abbiamo cambiati nei molto più raffinati Isménor, Bochoris e Mona...».
Modonnet rise.
«Non voglio parlare della parte musicale. Ho dovuto lavorare parecchio di forbici e d'ingegno per dare una veste accettabile alla barbarica partitura. Ma, per quanto riguarda il vostro lavoro, Chédeville, potete andare orgoglioso di avere addolcito il carattere di quella terribile regina della notte. Certo, l'aria del secondo atto l'abbiamo dovuta proprio espungere: a parte che è impossibile da cantare, ma quel testo “der hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen...”, “vendetta infernale sento nel mio petto”... Ahimè! Una gentile e amabile donzella come voi, signorina Maillard, avrebbe dovuto intonare tali parole? Per carità! Abbiamo già sofferto abbastanza, qualche anno fa, con quella spaventosa Medea di Cherubini. Basta, basta! I personaggi femminili, a teatro, devono rassicurare, non inquietare! Belle fanciulle, mogli e madri esemplari: questo vuole il nostro distinto pubblico. Perché la gente, la sera, vuole distrarsi dai traffici quotidiani del commercio e della Borsa, e trovare sollievo dalle cure dello Stato. Dirò di più: nell'epoca moderna la gente vuole vivere il proprio tempo come un affascinante, mutevole, infinito spettacolo. In una parola, vuole divertirsi. Il nostro compito è di farli divertire. E questa sera ci siamo riusciti; possiamo affermarlo con fierezza. Brindiamo!».

2.

Erano passate le quattro del mattino quando Modonnet e Gizzio ritornavano al foborgo Sant'Antonio. Davanti alle botteghe dei fornai c'erano già le prime code. I volti e i discorsi delle persone in fila per il pane manifestavano stanchezza, frustrazione, rabbia.
«Quattordici soldi per quattro libbre di pane! Così non si può andare avanti».
«Uno schifo, altro che!».
«Bonaparte non sta facendo un cazzo».
«Sbagli, cittadina. Bonaparte sta facendo parecchio. Solo, non per noialtri».
«Per i grandi proprietari. Per i nobili, gli speculatori, i fornitori dell'esercito e i finanzieri. Per quei merdosi, ecco per chi sta lavorando il Primo console...».
Gizzio sembrava ancora più taciturno del solito. Per tutto il cammino dal centro al foborgo, dove lui e Modonnet abitavano, disse a malapena due parole, eccettuate le strane bestemmie che ogni tanto sputava tra i denti.
«Toglimi una curiosità» gli chiese alla fine Modonnet mentre stavano per arrivare a casa. «Al tuo paese è normale invocare con tanta frequenza la ghigliottina su Gesù Cristo, sulla Madonna e su tutti i santi, come fai tu?».
Gizzio rise amaramente: «Lo facciamo di continuo. Tutti, anche i bambini e i preti. Vieni a vivere un mese dalle mie parti, e capirai».
«Non mi ricordo mai come si chiama la tua città».
«Io stesso vorrei non ricordarmene. Comunque, non è una città: è un villaggio di poche anime sperduto nell'Aspromonte. Ammesso che esista ancora. Non ho sue notizie da due anni, cioè da quando sono venuto qui a Parigi».
Era il discorso più lungo che Modonnet gli avesse mai udito fare.
«Ma no» proseguì Gizzio, come parlando fra sé. «Giudico troppo severamente i miei compaesani. In fondo, nessuno di loro si è arruolato nell'Armata cristiana e reale». Gizzio pronunciò queste ultime parole con una smorfia di disgusto.
«Ne ho sentito parlare» commentò Modonnet. «Le bande del cardinale Ruffo, non è vero? Una specie di Vandea...».
«Molto peggio. I vandeani, almeno, sapevano per cosa combattevano; i sanfedisti invece si sono solo fatti affascinare dai feudatari e dai preti. Hanno avuto quello che si meritavano. Li aspettano altri due o tre secoli di dispotismo e di miseria. E ti dico la verità: penso che anche qui, in Francia, andrà a finire allo stesso modo. Te lo concedo: finora il popolo di Parigi si è comportato bene, specialmente i tuoi compagni del foborgo Sant'Antonio. Ma quanto ancora potranno resistere? I contadini francesi non sono affatto
più intelligenti di quelli del Regno di Napoli; nelle campagne già da tempo monta la reazione. Gente che cerca solo un padrone cui obbedire; e in buona parte l'ha già trovato. E allora non chiedermi perché bestemmio, Léo: mi è rimasto solo questo, mannaia lu signuri!».
«Ho sempre apprezzato il tuo ottimismo, cittadino Gizzio!» concluse Modonnet.

3.

Uno dei vantaggi del mestiere teatrale è che permette di dormire sino a tardi; quando si ha un tetto sotto cui ripararsi, naturalmente. Léo Modonnet, per ora, l'aveva; ma quella mattina dormì lo stesso un sonno assai inquieto. Verso mezzogiorno, poco prima di svegliarsi, fece uno dei sogni più enigmatici della sua vita.
Era un sogno musicale. Modonnet udiva con una chiarezza allucinatoria una breve melodia, gentile e saltellante, in uno stile antiquato, suonata da una piccola orchestra. Poi, lo stesso tema, ma eseguito da un'orchestra molto più grande, con accenti molto più imperiosi e con una chiusa cromatica vagamente minacciosa. A questo punto appariva uno strano ometto, che si esprimeva con un forte accento tedesco. «Ogni vero artista, mein Freund, è anche uno Zauberer – un mago –, sì. Può capitargli di prevedere un futuro imprevedibile. Cosa, o chi, aveva in mente Rousseau quando, riferendosi alla Corsica, scriveva: “ho il vago presentimento che un giorno questa piccola isola stupirà l'Europa”? E quel ragazzino di dodici anni, che un giorno nel mio giardino mise in scena il suo Bastien und Bastienne – come poté presentire che un giorno la volontà generale sarebbe stata manipolata e circuita da un tiranno? Eppure, mein Freund, la storia non è mai un copione già scritto, così come una partitura non è mai immodificabile. E quando ci si accorge che la pagina è guasta, rimane sempre una soluzione: strapparla».
Modonnet si svegliò frastornato e con un forte mal di testa. Senza sapere bene perché, la prima cosa che fece fu aprire il suo baule per cercarvi un involto. Dentro c'erano una maschera nera, un mantello e un bastone dal manico lucente.
Quella notte, Ludwig Wenzel Lachnith, davanti al portone di casa sua, mentre frugava un po' alticcio nelle tasche del suo soprabito per cercare la chiave, notò una scritta di colore rosso fosforescente sul muro proprio accanto alla porta:

RACHE

Prima che avesse il tempo di chiedersi cosa stava succedendo, avvertì il brivido freddo di una lama proprio sotto il mento, e udì alle sue spalle una voce altrettanto metallica e tagliente: «Cittadino musicista, vogliate cortesemente condurmi nel vostro studio».
«Come volete, amico mio» diceva Lachnith mentre saliva le scale, tallonato da Scaramouche. «Non c'è bisogno di tutta questa commedia... vi ho riconosciuto, sapete?».
«Merda» pensò Modonnet.
«Eravate con me a cena ieri sera. Ammetto che il ruolo che vi è stato assegnato nell'ultima produzione è al di sotto delle vostre capacità attoriali; ma tenete conto che si tratta di un'opera, e che Voi non sapete cantare. Ho delle conoscenze, e posso farvi ottenere una buona scrittura per la prossima stagione di prosa... però, immagino che vogliate un risarcimento più immediato, e in contanti».
Erano intanto entrati nello studio del compositore.
«Immaginate male» disse Scaramouche. «Voglio solo porre rimedio a uno dei più insensati e odiosi crimini contro il buon gusto e il buon senso che si possano citare nella storia dell'arte musicale. Voglio cancellare la macchia con cui voi avete insudiciato la memoria di un grande musicista. Voglio che mi diate la partitura originale di quello scempio chiamato I misteri d'Iside».
«Eccola». Lachnith sollevò un manoscritto dal ripiano della sua scrivania e lo consegnò a Scaramouche: «Cosa ve ne farete, adesso?».
«Non lo so ancora. La strapperò in mille pezzi e la getterò nella Senna. Oppure ne attaccherò i fogli ai muri di Parigi per denunciare la vostra cialtroneria».
Lachnith rise: «Vedo che siete un idealista. Forse non vi siete accorto che i tempi sono cambiati e che la rivoluzione è finita. Permettetemi di darvi un consiglio: perché non ve ne tornate in Italia? Laggiù c'è ancora da fare per le teste calde come voi. Già che ci siete, portate con voi quel musone del vostro amico, e ditegli che non è colpa nostra se i giacobini napoletani erano degli imbecilli... se avessero dato subito la terra ai contadini, anziché perdere tempo in chiacchiere, le cose sarebbero andate molto diversamente».
«Ce ne ricorderemo per la prossima rivoluzione» disse Scaramouche.

Nota bibliografica

Questo racconto deve molto al primo capitolo del libro di Augusto Illuminati Gli inganni di Sarastro, Einaudi, Torino 1980, che indaga – sia pure con qualche eccessivo schematismo – le relazioni fra la teoria politica di Rousseau, le scoperte di Franz Anton Mesmer, il Bastien und Bastienne – la cui prima rappresentazione si dice abbia avuto luogo nel giardino della casa di Mesmer a Vienna – e Il flauto magico di Mozart.
Hector Berlioz nelle sue Memorie critica con estrema durezza l'adattamento molto libero de Il Flauto Magico realizzato da Lachnith sotto il titolo de Les mystères d'Isis. Il testo originale delle Mémoires di Berlioz (Parigi 1865) è facilmente reperibile in Internet.
Sulle critiche rivolte a Mozart dal musicista suo contemporaneo Giuseppe Sarti si veda il saggio Sarti contro Mozart di Massimo Mila, ora in M. Mila, Mozart. Saggi 1941-1987, Einaudi, Torino 2006, pp. 332-58.
La sorprendente identità fra il tema iniziale dell'ouverture del Bastien und Bastienne e l'inizio della Terza Sinfonia di Beethoven è, secondo Hermann Abert – citato da Wolfgang Hildesheimer nella sua nota biografia mozartiana –, una pura coincidenza. Com'è noto, Beethoven intendeva intitolare la sinfonia a Napoleone Bonaparte; secondo la tradizione, il musicista strappò la dedica quando seppe che Napoleone si era fatto incoronare imperatore.
Il parallelo fra Napoleone Bonaparte e il Sarastro di Mozart/Lachnith si trova in Jean Tulard, Napoleone. Il mito del salvatore, Rusconi, Milano 1980, p. 9. Alle pp. 183-85 dello stesso libro si parla della crisi alimentare in Francia fra la primavera del 1801 e il 1802.
Le idee esposte qui da Lachnith sulla modernità come spettacolo e sulla “gente” che si vuole divertire derivano in realtà dal libro di Alessandro Baricco L'anima di Hegel e le mucche del Wisconsin, Feltrinelli, Milano 2009.


          Cinque buoni motivi per (non) leggere D'Annunzio        
Quest'estate ho intrapreso un viaggio in automobile attraverso i classici della prosa italiana. Per non partire da troppo lontano, ho limitato l'arco temporale agli ultimi due secoli; sono entrato al casello dell'Ortis, ho proseguito per Manzoni, poi ho attraversato le Operette morali e lo Zibaldone e, già che c'ero, mi sono concesso una deviazione per i Canti e i Paralipomeni. Durante la sosta in autogrill, davanti a una piadina e a un quartino di Chianti, ho pensato a quanto ero fortunato per il fatto che né Carducci né Pascoli si fossero mai dedicati alla narrativa; poi ho imboccato con fiducia il rettilineo che conduce al grande De Roberto attraverso il grandissimo Verga.

Fin qui tutto bene. Ma già sapevo che, dopo la barriera in uscita dall'A-800, e prima di imboccare con decisione l'A-900, avrei dovuto attraversare un tratto di raccordo pericoloso e arduo.

Ecco che già si snoda sotto i miei occhi la temutissima tangenziale D'Annunzio, con le sue cinque uscite.

1. E' un classico. Può esservi capitato, per motivi di lavoro o di studio, di dover leggere parecchi testi italiani risalenti alla fine del diciannovesimo o all'inizio del ventesimo secolo. Non necessariamente testi letterari: anche articoli di giornale o saggistica. Vi sarete accorti di quanto spesso lo stile appare gonfio, ampolloso, enfatico. E' come se, in quel periodo, un'epidemia di cattiva retorica (il "dannunzianismo") si fosse abbattuta sulla prosa italiana. E però: quando un autore riesce a imprimere in modo così massiccio e durevole la propria impronta sulla lingua nella quale scrive, questo autore è ciò che si dice un classico. Vale a dire che D'Annunzio non può essere tralasciato, in quanto rappresenta una fase di evoluzione della lingua italiana.

"Ma, trapassando il simbolo materiale, ci abbandoniamo con ansia alla virtù evocatrice dei profondi accordi in cui il nostro spirito sembra oggi trovare il presentimento di non so qual sera grave di belle fatalità e d'oro autunnale su un porto quieto come un bacino d'olio odorifero ove una galera palpitante d'orifiamme entrerà con uno strano silenzio come una farfalla crepuscolare nel calice venato d'un gran fiore".

2. E' decadente. Mettiamo che un bel mattino vi svegliate e vi sentiate esteti. Ovviamente non lavorate, e non avete il problema della sussistenza materiale. Fra i moltissimi modi a vostra disposizione per iniziare la giornata (il sesso, l'equitazione, il gioco d'azzardo, le droghe, bighellonare per il centro cittadino, ecc.) scegliete di leggervi un buon libro. Siete snob, e quindi sdegnate l'idea di leggere una volgare traduzione. Siete pigro, e non vi va di approcciare Proust né Wilde in lingua originale. Siete italiano, e vi dovete accontentare di quello che passa il convento. E allora non c'è via di scampo. Alla richiesta "estetismo decadente", la letteratura italiana risponde con D'Annunzio. O cambiate arte (Puccini è una validissima alternativa), oppure vi tocca tirare giù dall'ultimo scaffale il poeta di Pescara.

"Ricordi la ventesima delle variazioni beethoveniane sul tema del Diabelli dedicate ad Antonia Brentano? - diceva Aldo, svegliando nella profondità della nera cassa quegli accordi in cui per una miracolosa trasfigurazione il tema principale è irriconoscibile. - Non sembra armonizzata su quel fondo ove la croce le scale i corpi i singhiozzi le grida gli aneliti la luce non penetrano? Ascolta; e guarda quell'azzurro opaco sordo eguale, senza raggio, senza nube, di là da cui spazia forse quella regione della vita ove una sola cosa importa".

3. E' un poeta. Nonostante tutto, in D'Annunzio c'è del bello. Egli si autodefinì "l'Imaginifico" (con la I maiuscola, e una emme sola). Infatti, la sua prosa è caratterizzata da una strabordante varietà di immagini, di similitudini e di metafore. In gran parte sono rumore di fondo e gratuito orpello kitsch. Ma, per un puro fatto statistico, ogni tanto qualcuna è giusta. In altre parole, D'Annunzio funziona un po' come quei comici che producono battute a raffica, velocissime: alla fine ridi, un po' per sfinimento e un po' perché fra le tante ce n'era una buona.

"E nella faccia e nella mano era tanta forza d'espressione e d'illuminazione, ch'elle parevano sorpassare la realtà e intagliarsi nel cielo stesso del fato, come quando il crinale delle Dolomiti solo arde nei crepuscoli inciso contro tutta l'ombra e ciascuno dei suoi rilievi s'addentra nell'anima di chi mira e vi s'eterna".

4. E' conseguente. Come si sa, l'opera di D'Annunzio ha anche una ben precisa connotazione politica. Non mi dilungo su questo aspetto, però voglio rilevare che, sotto questo punto di vista, moltissimi italiani sono dannunziani, senza saperlo o sapendolo. Non tanto, e non solo, per una questione di appartenenza a certi partiti o a certe ideologie; quanto per il fatto di condividere con D'Annunzio un determinato rapporto con il reale. Infatti, il tipico atteggiamento dannunziano nei confronti della realtà non consiste nel riconoscerla così com'è, né tanto meno nel cercare di cambiarla. Consiste nel mistificare, sempre e comunque, e con ammirevole pertinacia e coerenza, la realtà. Se D'Annunzio fosse un software, sarebbe una specie di Matrix che trasfigura esteticamente tutti gli oggetti dell'esperienza facendo apparire "bella" ogni cosa. Se D'Annunzio fosse un odierno manager della TV, la sua ambizione sarebbe quella d'ideare un palinsesto così avvincente da tenere tutti i telespettatori attaccati allo schermo ventiquattr'ore su ventiquattro, dimentichi della vita e desiderosi di sempre nuove illusioni. Se D'Annunzio fosse un politico... Ma lo fu, tra l'altro. E fece scuola, ed ebbe tanti seguaci. E molti ne avrebbe ancora oggi, se fosse vivo.

"Né soltanto verso quella moltitudine ma verso infinite moltitudini andò il suo pensiero; e le evocò addensate in profondi teatri, dominate da un'idea di verità e di bellezza, mute e intente dinanzi al grande arco scenico aperto su una meravigliosa trasfigurazione della vita, o frenetiche sotto il repentino splendore irradiato da una parola immortale. E il sogno d'un'arte più alta levandosi in lui anche una volta, gli dimostrò gli uomini novamente presi di reverenza verso i poeti come verso coloro i quali potevano soli interrompere per qualche attimo l'angoscia umana, placare la sete, largire l'oblio. E troppo gli parve lieve quella prova ch'egli compiva; poiché mosso dal soffio della folla il suo spirito si stimò capace di generare finzioni gigantesche".

5. E' morto. Alla fine questa è la cosa più importante. Dall'esperienza dannunziana la nostra letteratura uscì vaccinata: per un paio di generazioni gli scrittori sfuggirono la retorica e cercarono una lingua scabra ed essenziale.

"Io non comprendo perché oggi i poeti si sdegnino contro la volgarità dell'epoca presente e si rammarichino d'esser nati troppo tardi o troppo presto. Io penso che ogni uomo d'intelletto possa, oggi come sempre, nella vita creare la propria favola bella. Bisogna guardare nel turbinio confuso della vita con quello stesso spirito fantastico con cui i discepoli del Vinci erano dal maestro consigliati di guardare nelle macchie dei muri, nella cenere del fuoco, nei nuvoli, nei fanghi e in altri simili luoghi per trovarvi invenzioni mirabilissime e infinite cose".

Sì, certo.
E l'orifiamma e la ventesima variazione e l'arco scenico e le Dolomiti...
Le Dolomiti?
Mi sa tanto che ho sbagliato uscita.
Sto andando verso il Brennero.
Arrivederci, Italia!

[Già pubblicato su Evulon]
          La rivoluzione russa        
La mattina del 20 settembre 1871, il Maestro Franz Liszt si esercitava al pianoforte nello studio della sua sontuosa magione di campagna vicino Budapest, quando fu interrotto da un confuso e concitato vociare proveniente dal portone d'ingresso.

"Che succede, Pierre?" chiese mentre raggiungeva il suo maggiordomo, il quale, bloccando con il suo corpo l'accesso alla casa, stava palesemente cercando di convincere un ospite indesiderato ad andarsene.

Quando Liszt, avvicinatosi dietro le spalle del suo domestico, poté scorgere l'aspetto dell'intruso (un uomo sui sessant'anni, calvo, barbuto, che sembrava assai malmesso, ma parlava un francese forbito con marcato accento parigino), quest'ultimo troncò subito, lasciando una frase a metà, il suo litigio con Pierre e, volgendo speranzoso lo sguardo al padrone di casa, così lo apostrofò:

"Maestro Liszt! Maestro! Vi prego, degnatevi di concedere udienza ad un vostro grande ammiratore, giunto or ora dalla Francia solo per avere l'inestimabile onore di fare la Vostra conoscenza!"

"Padrone!" diceva intanto il maggiordomo, "lasciate che cacci via a calci nel sedere questo vagabondo che pretende di farsi ricevere da Voi! E' inaudito! Come se qualsiasi pitocco potesse..."

"Va bene, Pierre, lascia pure entrare Monsieur... di grazia, come vi chiamate?"

Il viso dello strano ospite si rasserenò. "Mi chiamo Eugène Pottier. Da Parigi. Poeta. Per servirvi. Sapevo che avreste... oh, grazie, mille grazie, Maestro!"

"Potete chiamarmi semplicemente Padre. Come forse saprete, non sono che un umile servitore di Santa Romana Chiesa... Ma accomodatevi nel mio studio, ve ne prego, e raccontatemi di voi..." diceva Liszt mentre accompagnava il suo ammiratore lungo il corridoio. "Venite da Parigi, avete detto?", qui il musicista scoccò uno sguardo sospettoso sul suo interlocutore. "E dove siete diretto, se posso..."

Mentre Liszt tornava a sedersi al suo pianoforte, Pottier si accomodò su un'ampia poltrona disposta in modo da fronteggiare il lato destro dello strumento. Come in una sala da concerto, pensò Pottier un po' a disagio. "Maestro, cioè scusatemi, Padre. Avete già capito. Sono un combattente della Comune. Sono in esilio, ramingo per l'Europa, da ormai quattro mesi. Ma non voglio annoiarvi con il racconto delle mie tribolazioni. Sono venuto qui, attratto dalla vostra fama di grande artista e di uomo già attento alla questione sociale, perché ho un testo, da me composto, che vorrei chiedervi di porre in musica".

Ci furono alcuni secondi di silenzio, durante i quali le palpebre di Liszt si aprirono e si chiusero spasmodicamente per una ventina di volte. "Monsieur Pottier... vi rendete conto, spero, del rischio a cui state esponendo voi stesso e me. Mi è difficile comprendere come siate potuto giungere fin qui dalla Francia. Ma, che la vostra sia stata fortuna o incoscienza, sappiate che la polizia asburgica non è affatto indulgente con quelli come voi, né con chi dà loro rifugio."

Pottier si raddrizzò sulla poltrona. "Né fortuna, né incoscienza, Monsieur Liszt. Siamo stati sconfitti, è vero. Ma abbiamo compagni ovunque, pronti a dare il loro silenzioso contributo alla Causa. E' grazie alla loro solidarietà che sono riuscito a sopravvivere e ad arrivare a voi. La musica che porto con me" - a questo punto Pottier tirò fuori da una tasca della giacca un fascicolo spiegazzato, ingiallito e sgualcito, e lo tese a Liszt - "mi induce a confidare anche nella vostra solidarietà".

Sempre più stupito, ma senza offuscare la politezza dei suoi modi da gentiluomo, il musicista prese l'opuscolo che lo strano visitatore gli porgeva. Era uno spartito a stampa che recava sopra il pentagramma il titolo Lyon e il motto: Vivre en travaillant, ou mourir en combattant. Che si potrebbe tradurre, a un dipresso: Vivere del proprio lavoro, o morire combattendo.

"Dove l'avete trovata?" chiese subito Liszt. "Questa composizione non fa più parte della raccolta delle mie opere. Non viene più ristampata da..."

"Dal 1837" lo interruppe Pottier. "Me la regalò mio padre, il giorno del mio ventunesimo compleanno. Mi spiegò che un grande musicista l'aveva composta per celebrare il ricordo della rivolta degli operai disoccupati di Lione. Mi disse: se vuoi davvero fare l'artista, prendi esempio, figlio mio, e ricordati sempre da quale parte della barricata devi stare!"

Liszt guardò fisso il suo ospite, che ricambiava lo sguardo con fermezza. Poi sospirò. "Monsieur Pottier, i tempi sono cambiati. Persino quella testa calda del mio amico Wagner se n'è reso conto, ed è passato (come direste voi) dall'altra parte della barricata. L'epoca delle rivoluzioni è finita. Per sempre. Anche voialtri, col vostro folle tentativo laggiù in Francia, lo avete dimostrato. Datemi retta: la vostra cosiddetta questione sociale non ha alcuna soluzione. Non su questa terra, almeno. La sola cosa che posso fare per voi è scrivere due righe al priore del convento francescano che si trova a una lega da qui. E' mio amico. Vi darà ricetto e ospitalità, fino al giorno in cui Dio, nella Sua infinita misericordia, illuminerà la vostra mente, come già fece con la mia. Allora anche voi comprenderete, e vi rassegnerete alla Sua volontà".

Pottier rimase in silenzio. Poi fece per rimettere in tasca l'altro foglio di carta che ne aveva tratto poco prima e che stava per consegnare al grande musicista. Ma gli tremava la mano e, senza che lui se ne accorgesse, il foglio cadde per terra. Infine disse: "Bene, Monsieur Liszt. Vi chiedo scusa per l'incomodo e per il rischio che vi ho fatto correre. Mi ero sbagliato sul vostro conto. Ora non vi importunerò ulteriormente e, col vostro permesso, riprenderò il mio viaggio."

Stava per uscire senz'altro dallo studio di Liszt, ma quest'ultimo lo richiamo: "Aspettate, Monsieur Pottier. Non fatemi il torto di rifiutare la mia ospitalità, almeno sino a domattina... Tra poco sarà servita la colazione. Frattanto, accomodatevi, e siate così gentile da attendere che abbia finito i miei esercizi. Fra l'altro, suono meglio quando ho un pubblico ad ascoltarmi. Posso chiedervi inoltre, nuovamente, qual è la meta del vostro viaggio?"

Eugène Pottier si risedette. "Credo che andrò in Russia. C'è molto lavoro da fare, laggiù".

"In Russia!?" esclamò Liszt. Stava per aggiungere: voi siete pazzo, ma si trattenne. "Voi non sapete quel che dite! Ogni giorno, ogni giorno lo Zar incarcera, spedisce in Siberia o manda sul patibolo gente come voi! Ecco, guardate" - Liszt prese in fretta dallo scrittoio una rivista - "guardate questo giornale che mi è arrivato ieri da San Pietroburgo. Sapete leggere il cirillico? Ecco l'elenco dei terroristi che sono stati impiccati il mese scorso per avere cospirato contro la monarchia: Rodion Raskolnikov, Nikolaj Stavrogin, Aleksandr Uljanov... Va avanti per un'intera pagina! E voi volete andare in Russia?"

Pottier ribatté con calma: "Terroristi, avete detto? Uhm... no, non è questa la strada. Noi vinceremo, ma seguendo un altro cammino."

"Ah, sì? E quale, se mi è concesso chiederlo?

"Non lo so. Forse la strada non c'è. Ma so che c'è da camminare".

Liszt sospirò. Guardò Pottier. Poi guardò il giornale russo. Poi guardò il suo pianoforte. Infine ci si sedette e, senza dire niente, attaccò a suonarlo.

Suonava già da un quarto d'ora, e le tortuose armonie della Sonata in si minore si dipanavano con sicurezza sotto le sue dita, come un filo di lana in un labirinto, quando Liszt sentì un suono inconfondibile provenire dalla poltrona del poeta. Liszt portò a termine l'esecuzione della Sonata, poi si alzò dal pianoforte e risistemò delicatamente il poggiatesta imbottito sotto la tempia di Pottier. Quest'ultimo smise di russare, ma non si svegliò. Poi il musicista si chinò a raccogliere il foglio di carta che era caduto dalla tasca di Pottier. Si risedé al pianoforte e lo lesse. Era scritto in versi e iniziava così:

"Debout, les damnés de la terre
Debout, les forçats de la faim!
La raison tonne en son cratère
C'est l'éruption de la fin.
Du passé faisons table rase.
Foules, esclaves, debout, debout!
Le monde va changer de base.
Nous ne sommes rien, soyons tout!"


Il poema andava avanti su questo tono per un'altra decina di strofe. Liszt lo lesse con attenzione. Poi sbuffò forte col naso, mise il foglio da parte e si rimise al piano. Attaccò a suonare una sua composizione che s'intitolava Funérailles. Si interruppe dopo poche battute. Poi, per la prima volta dopo decenni, dalla cassa armonica rintoccarono le possenti note iniziali di Lyon. Ma anche questa esecuzione fu lasciata a metà.

Liszt si prese la faccia tra le mani. Cosa gli stava succedendo?

Infine il musicista sembrò distendersi. Riprese in mano il foglio con la poesia di Pottier e lo pose sul leggìo. Iniziò ad improvvisare. Si udì una melodia piuttosto bella, allo stesso tempo vivace e solenne, in ritmo giambico. (Molto tempo dopo, qualcuno l'avrebbe descritta come una via di mezzo fra Oh, my darling Clementine e La cucaracha).

Subito iniziò a variare. Mentre un ritmo lento, profondo e pauroso rombava nella parte sinistra della tastiera, la melodia si trasformò in un canto popolare slavo che sembrava provenire dall'inizio dei tempi.
Poi il ritmo si fece più veloce, incalzante e sincopato, come di tamburi africani, mentre la melodia, stranamente deformata in semitoni, diede l'allucinante impressione di provenire non più da un pianoforte, ma da una tromba con sordina, o da qualche altro strano strumento a fiato non ancora inventato.

Poi ancora la stessa melodia, resa esile, sottile e tintinnante, si stagliò nelle zone alte della tastiera, sullo sfondo di colpi molto distanziati, come di un gong, che provenivano dalla mano sinistra. Senza soluzione di continuità, questo tintinnio si tramutò nel canto di un muezzin. Poi fu come se, prodigiosamente, tutte queste versioni della stessa identica melodia risuonassero insieme. Pottier, che nel frattempo si era svegliato, non credeva ai propri occhi. Le mani di Liszt si muovevano ad una velocità sovrumana, producendo una fittissima gragnuola di note di ogni altezza, che scemava e poi di nuovo s'intensificava, fino a scoppiare in un'onda di energia di terrificante violenza. Infine, mentre le ultime risonanze dell'esplosione ancora si dissolvevano, la melodia iniziale ritornò piano, semplice ed infantile, lenta, simile ad un carillon che suonasse una ninna-nanna.

La straordinaria esibizione di Liszt aveva intanto richiamato tutta la sua servitù, che si era raccolta ad ascoltare in un piccolo drappello dietro la porta dello studio: erano anni che non lo sentivano suonare a quel modo. Fra di loro, c'era una famigliola composta da una giovane coppia con la loro bambina di tre anni.

"Hai sentito, Sandor?" disse la moglie. "Tu dicevi che il vecchio si era ormai completamente rincitrullito..."

"Sì, Hannah, te lo confermo: il vecchio si è totalmente rimbecillito. Ma per sua fortuna, le mani ce le ha ancora buone. Vieni, Milena!" prese in braccio la sua figlioletta, "ascolta. Un giorno anche tu dovrai suonare così".

Pubblicato il 7 ottobre 2010, qui: http://www.evulon.net/news.php?extend.3549


          Radici        
"Sai" dico, "sono scaduti i diritti d'autore sulle opere di Freud".
E' domenica e sono le nove del mattino. Anna sa che, prima di colazione, non sono in grado di dire nulla che abbia un senso compiuto. Se è di buon umore, mi asseconda nel mio delirio. Oggi è di buon umore.
"Perché?", mi risponde. "Vuoi cominciare a tradurre Freud?"
"Magari. Purtroppo non so il tedesco. No, è per spiegare come mai mi sono alzato così presto. Ieri pomeriggio sono entrato in libreria e ho visto che la Newton Compton ha pubblicato questa edizione economica del saggio di Freud su Mosè..."
"Quello sul Mosè di Michelangelo? Ma non l'avevi già letto?"
"No, non quello sulla statua. E' una monografia proprio su Mosè il personaggio biblico. E' l'ultima grande opera di Freud, pubblicata nel 1938, un anno prima della morte. Non l'avevo ancora letta, perché l'edizione Bollati Boringhieri costa una barbarità e non mi andava di prenderla in prestito in biblioteca. Sai, i libri di Freud sono di quelli che voglio possedere. Comunque niente, ieri l'ho comprato e l'ho finito proprio poco fa. Senza zucchero, il tuo caffellatte, vero?"
"Tre cucchiaini, grazie".
"Mi prendi in giro?"
"Certo. Ma raccontami un po' questo libro, sono curiosa. E' assurdo come l'altro, quello sulla statua di Michelangelo? Quello dove Mosè, di ritorno dal Sinai, vedeva il suo popolo adorare il vitello d'oro, s'incazzava e stava per spezzare le tavole della legge, ma subito si tratteneva, e proprio in quel momento Michelangelo era lì che lo 'fotografava' con lo scalpello, e dietro un cespuglio c'era il professor Freud, col suo taccuino, che analizzava l'intera performance..."
"Dai, non essere così cattiva. Diciamo che, in quel saggio, Freud ha dato una sua interpretazione, un po' audace, di una celebre scultura rinascimentale. Comunque anche W. H. Auden, in una sua poesia, ha scritto che Freud a volte era assurdo e che ciò non diminuisce affatto la sua grandezza".
"Sarà. Intanto neppure il tuo Freud è riuscito a spiegare ad Auden la verità sull'amore".
"Tesoro! La verità sull'amore non la conosce nessuno. Tranne tu ed io, naturalmente".
"Naturalmente. Ma non mi hai ancora detto cos'ha di tanto speciale questo libro, che ti ha buttato giù dal letto poco dopo l'alba".
"E' presto detto. Hai presente Mosè, no? Il patriarca, il fondatore della religione ebraica, il profeta che guidò il suo popolo nell'esodo dall'Egitto verso la Palestina, che ricevette da Dio i dodici comandamenti, eccetera. Bene, Freud sostiene che Mosè, in realtà, non era affatto ebreo. Era egiziano".
"Ma va'?"
"Proprio così. Secondo Freud, Mosè era un nobile, o forse un alto sacerdote egiziano, seguace del dio Aton. Come ricorderai, il faraone Akhenaton aveva tentato di introdurre in Egitto il monoteismo, sostituendo al culto degli dèi la religione dell'unico dio solare Aton. Ma la sua riforma religiosa, molto avanzata per quei tempi, non ebbe fortuna. Quando Akhenaton morì, il politeismo riprese il sopravvento in Egitto. Il clero, che era stato represso ed esautorato da Akhenaton, morto il faraone, si vendicò ferocemente. Fu una reazione terribile: tutte le tracce del culto di Aton furono spazzate via. Persino il nome Aton fu cancellato dai monumenti".
"Sì, mi ricordo. Anche il faraone Tutankh-Aton, il giovane erede di Akhenaton, dovette cambiare nome, riconvertirsi alla vecchia religione e chiamarsi Tutankhamon. E forse neanche questo bastò a salvargli la vita, poverino! Probabilmente lo ammazzarono e lo chiusero nella tomba con quella bellissima maschera funebre tutta d'oro..."
"...quella che abbiamo visto cinque anni fa al museo del Cairo..."
"... durante il nostro viaggio di nozze. A proposito, fra poco è il nostro anniversario, Tato. Dove andiamo a festeggiarlo?"
"Mah, in Egitto ci siamo già stati. Ti porto a Vienna, a visitare la casa di Freud?".
"Anche a Vienna ci sono già stata".
"Ma io no. Comunque, stavo dicendo: Mosè era un fedele del dio Aton. La nuova religione gli piaceva proprio, e non si rassegnò alla restaurazione politeista. Era in contatto con questa popolazione di nomadi, che vivevano nel deserto, ai margini della società egiziana, chiamati Habiru...".
"Gli Ebrei?"
"Proprio loro. Mosè ne fece il suo popolo. Li convertì alla religione monoteista, diede loro nuove leggi, insegnò loro tutto ciò che sapeva, e li condusse con sé nell'esodo fuori dall'Egitto, verso la terra promessa."
"Ciumbia! Sembra una puntata di Voyager. Quali altre sensazionali rivelazioni ci sono, nel tuo libro? Nel senso: Mosè era egiziano, e poi? Shakespeare era siciliano? Le sinfonie di Mozart le ha scritte un veneto? Atlantide altro non era che la Sardegna? E qualcosa sul Graal? Non dirmi che non c'è niente sul Graal. Cioè, scusa, Tato, ma è una teoria un po' delirante..."
"Sshh! Se ridi così forte, svegli la bambina. Sì, hai ragione, è delirante. Proprio in ciò consiste la genialità di Freud. Lui ragionava come i suoi pazienti. Altrimenti non sarebbe mai riuscito a guarirli, no? Tramite lui, la Follia torna a parlare, dopo tre secoli di censura... E lascia perdere Voyager: non c'entra niente. Freud credeva in ciò che diceva, e non gli interessava fare audience".
"Boh. Ma li guariva, i suoi pazienti?"
"Certo che li guariva! Guarda, mi hai fatto talmente arrabbiare che mi sono mangiato tutti i pistokeddos".
"I savoiardi di Atlantide? Ma se te ne mangi un'intera confezione ogni mattina. Sei forte, Tato. Però spiegami una cosa. Allora, siamo nel 1938. Mezza Europa è sotto dittature fasciste, Hitler sta per annettersi l'Austria, lo stesso Freud deve scappare a Londra per sfuggire alla persecuzione, e in questa situazione tragica per il suo popolo, il professore non trova di meglio che pubblicare un libro dove sostiene che il fondatore dell'ebraismo non era ebreo? A me pare una mezza vigliaccata, non capisco come fai a parlarne con tutto questo entusiasmo".
"Ma caspita, Anna, è proprio questo il punto! Senti: chi ha vinto le ultime elezioni?"
"Non capisco cosa c'entra".
"Come, che c'entra? Ma lo senti, quello che dicono? 'Padroni a casa nostra. Ognuno a casa sua. Il Suolo. Il Sangue. La Razza. Le Tradizioni. Le Radici. Il Territorio. Radicarsi nel Territorio'... Dio, quanto ce la menano co' 'sta storia del territorio! Tutti a ribadire come un disco rotto che bisogna Radicarsi nel Territorio, come se non fossimo esseri umani, ma olmi, o platani, o che so io. E come se non fossero stati proprio loro a devastarlo e distruggerlo, 'sto cazzo di territorio, da quarant'anni in qua, a furia di capannoni e svincoli e tangenziali e inceneritori e ripetitori, centri commerciali e colate immonde di cemento, fabbriche aperte e poi chiuse, e sempre zero solidarietà, zero giustizia, zero cultura, zero arte e zero umanità... Talmente spaventati e abbrutiti e rimbecilliti da questo schifo che loro stessi hanno prodotto, da non saper fare altro che cercare spasmodicamente qualche capro espiatorio, cui far scontare tutta la loro bile e la loro frustrazione... E prima i meridionali, e poi i tossici, e poi gli albanesi, e ora gli islamici..."
"Adesso sei tu che rischi di svegliare la bambina".
"Sì. Scusami. Preparo un altro caffè. O preferisci un po' di spremuta d'arancia?"
"Spremuta, grazie. Quando parli di quelli là, mi sembri tuo padre".
"Che cosa brutta che hai detto..."
"Perché? Mi sta simpatico, tuo padre. Ma non mi hai ancora spiegato cosa c'entra tutto questo con Freud".
"Niente, tranne il fatto che tutta quella ripugnante retorica del Sangue e del Suolo era esattamente la stessa di cui si riempivano la bocca gli antisemiti al tempo di Freud. Sai cosa dicevano? Questo, dicevano: che ogni razza ha un proprio suolo d'origine, a cui è legata da un vincolo spirituale e mistico; che la qualità del suolo determina la qualità della razza; che gli ebrei non hanno patria, non hanno territorio e quindi non hanno dignità, sono nomadi e sbandati, vivono da parassiti degli altri popoli, eccetera eccetera."
"Beh, oggi gli ebrei ce l'hanno, il loro Stato".
"E infatti i razzisti di oggigiorno non se la prendono più tanto con gli ebrei (almeno per ora), quanto soprattutto con gli zingari e con i migranti. Ma gli argomenti sono più o meno gli stessi. Ed è contro questi argomenti che Freud mette in campo il suo Mosè. Considera questo: gli dèi che le popolazioni del Medio Oriente veneravano, a quell'epoca, erano divinità nazionali; ogni popolo aveva le sue, e queste facevano tutt'uno con il loro territorio. Erano divinità guerriere, rozze, sanguinarie, che accompagnavano ciascun popolo nella sua lotta per la supremazia sugli altri popoli."
"Ma era proprio così o lo dice Freud?"
"Non lo so. Non m'intendo di storia delle religioni. Comunque, Freud sostiene che il dio di Akhenaton e di Mosè era un dio molto diverso dagli altri dèi suoi contemporanei. Era un dio illuminista, per così dire. Anzi, quasi kantiano. Pacifista. Un dio universalista: non gli importava la nazionalità dei suoi fedeli. Non gliene fregava niente di cerimonie, riti, preghiere, statue o amuleti. Non pretendeva templi dove essere adorato, né una casta di sacerdoti per servirlo. Nemmeno prometteva alcuna vita dopo la morte. A questo dio, importava solo una cosa: che ci si comportasse bene. Che si vivesse una vita secondo ragione, verità e giustizia. Tutto qui. E' questa, secondo Freud, l'essenza del monoteismo ebraico: solo una personificazione della Ragione e della legge morale. L'aspetto etnico o nazionale o 'razziale' è così poco importante, nella concezione freudiana del monoteismo, che lo stesso fondatore dell'ebraismo non è ebreo. E allora il paradosso è che, con questo libro, l'ateo, scientista e razionalista Freud ha reso alla religione e alla cultura dei suoi padri l'omaggio più elevato che per lui fosse concepibile..."
"Bello. Ma è tutta una contraddizione. Prima non hai detto che tramite Freud la follia trova finalmente voce? Adesso te ne esci con questo panegirico della Ragione illuminista. Poi, scusa Tato, ma mi sembra tutta una diatriba tra maschi. Il dio di Freud, così ragionevole e tollerante, contro i rozzi e violenti dèi guerrieri delle mitologie pagane, va bene. Però le dee? La Grande Madre Mediterranea, per esempio, che fine ha fatto? E Iside? E poi, non capisco questa cosa dell'iconoclastia: cosa avete contro le cerimonie, i riti, e anche contro la magia, le statue e gli amuleti? Non so, sarà anche una bella cosa, questo famoso monoteismo, un grande progresso, non discuto, ma non so perché mi fa venire in mente la caccia alle streghe... Vado a svegliare la bambina, vah! Ché se no si fa tardi".
"No! Aspetta un minuto".

Pubblicato il 7 maggio 2010, qui: http://www.evulon.net/news.php?extend.3368
          Service Mini Horse “Teddy” Gets Custom Ride from Friendly Ford        

ROSELLE, Illinois—Equine Dreams, a non-profit therapeutic riding center in Newark, Illinois, is getting a unique customization for its miniature horse transporter vehicle, courtesy of Friendly Ford in Roselle. A Ford Excursion is being modified by the dealership to carry “Teddy,” the group’s star miniature horse. Equine Dreams provides therapeutic horseback riding to both kids and […]

The post Service Mini Horse “Teddy” Gets Custom Ride from Friendly Ford appeared first on Car News in the USA.


          Google Classroom for SPED        

Google Classroom is a new offering for districts who use Google Apps for Education (GAFE).  Classroom is a combination of Edmodo and Doctupus; part social network and part document manager.  Once Classroom is enabled you are able to create classes and invite your students to join.  Google creates a folder in your Drive, a place for you to upload and/or create documents to share with those students.  From the main Classroom page you have options for posting Announcements or create assignments.  Assignments can be linked to a Drive Document, Youtube video, weblink or you can attach a file.  Students can then complete the work and turn it in via Classroom.  When using Google Docs you have the option to allow students to view the document, edit one document or it will create a separate document for each student.

For self-contained teachers this immediately solves issues with distributing and collecting Google Doc files.  It's also a place for students to communicate questions with their classmates or you.  While the interface is limited and the themes are pretty basic, I think the potential for this product is astounding.

From my new perspective of a push-in support teacher, I see this as a way to push out modified assignments to students.  Part of our new reading curriculum involves discussion guides and we, as a special education team, are considering modifying them so they are Google Docs.  This would give me a way to push out specific docs, to specific students easily.  I also think giving students a place they can post questions might be useful, especially students who may not want to speak up in class.  I can see it as a way for those students to contact me when we are not together in class.

I'm going to continue to give it a try, and see if there are other ways it can be utilized.  I'd love to hear some of your thoughts on using Google Classroom.  This week Google opened it all users with GAFE account, but there is one caveat.  You and your students must be on the same domain.  This is actually a problem in my district, my email ends in "d57.org" and our students are "students.d57.org" so I cannot create a Classroom unless I have a different login.  This is frustrating, but Google is aware and hopefully they will fix it in the near future.



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          PROSPEK GAHARU 2012        
GAHARU, AROMATIK TERMAHAL DI DUNIA


Gaharu adalah bahan aromatik termahal di dunia. Harga gaharu kualitas baik di tingkat konsumen di pasar internasional, sekitar US $ 5 sd. 15 per gram, (Rp 45.000,- sd. 135.000,-). Sedemikian tingginya nilai produk gaharu, hingga penjualannya menggunakan bobot gram. Bukan ons atau kg. Gaharu adalah bahan parfum, kosmetik dan obat-obatan (farmasi). Parfum diperoleh dari hasil ekstraksi resin dan kayunya. Gaharu sudah dikenal sebagai komoditas penting, semenjak jaman Mesir Kuno. Mumi mesir, selain diberi rempah-rempah (kayumanis, cengkeh), juga diberi cendana dan gaharu. Dalam injil, disebutkan bahwa kain kafan Yesus (Isa Al Masih), diberi Aloe. Istilah ini bukan mengacu ke Aloe vera (lidah buaya), melainkan kayu gaharu.

Itulah sebabnya kayu gaharu juga disebut sebagai aloeswood (kayu aloe). Nama dagang lainnya adalah agarwood, heartwood, dan eaglewood. Di pasar internasional, gaharu murni diperdagangkan dalam bentuk kayu, serbuk dan minyak (parfum). Kayu gaharu bisa dijadikan bahan kerajinan bernilai sangat tinggi, atau untuk peralatan upacara keagamaan. Serbuk gaharu digunakan untuk dupa/ratus, dan minyaknya merupakan parfum kelas atas. Serbuk gaharu sebagai dupa akan dibakar langsung dalam ritual keagamaan. Baik Hindu, Budha, Konghucu, Thao, Shinto, Islam dan Katolik. Kayu gaharu disebut sebagai kayu para dewa. Aroma gaharu karenanya dipercaya mampu menyucikan altar dan peralatan peribadatan lainnya.

Selain itu dupa gaharu juga dimanfaatkan untuk mengharumkan ruangan, rambut dan pakaian para bangsawan. Aroma gaharu akan digunakan sebagai aromaterapi di spa-spa kelas atas. Selain untuk ritual keagamaan, parfum dan kosmetik, produk gaharu juga sering dikaitkan dengan hal-hal yang berbau mistik. Baik pemanfaatannya, terlebih lagi proses pencariannya dari alam. Pengambilan gaharu dari hutan, memang selalu dilakukan secara tradisional, dengan berbagai ritual dan kebiasaan setempat. Pencarian gaharu di lokasi sulit, harus menggunakan pesawat terbang atau helikopter. Beberapa kali pesawat terbang dan heli pencari gaharu, hilang di hutan belantara di Kalimantan, hingga memperkuat kesan mistis produk gaharu.

# # #

Gaharu adalah getah (resin, gubal) dari pohon genus Aquilaria, yang tumbuh di hutan belantara India, Asia Tenggara (termasuk Indonesia) dan Cina Selatan. Sampai saat ini, Indonesia masih merupakan pemasok produk gaharu terbesar di dunia. Meskipun populasi tumbuhan Aquilaria cukup besar, namun tidak semua pohon menghasilkan gaharu. Sebab resin itu baru akan keluar, kalau tanaman terinfeksi oleh kapang (fungus) Phialophora parasitica. Akibat infeksi, tanaman mengeluarkan getah yang aromanya sangat harum. Getah ini akan menggumpal di dalam batang kayu. Para pencari gaharu menyebut kayu dengan resin ini sebagai gubal. Tanaman Aquilaria yang tidak terinfeksi Phialophora parasitica, tidak akan beraroma harum.

Genus Aquilaria terdiri dari 22 spesies: A. (Aquilaria) agallocha; A. apiculata; A. baillonii; A. banaensis; A. beccariana; A. brachyantha; A. citrinicarpa; A. crassna; A. cumingiana; A. filaria; A.grandiflora; A. hirta; A. malaccensis; A. microcarpa; A. ophispermum; A. parvifolia; A. pentandra; A. rostrata; A. sinensis; A. subintegra; A. urdanetensis; A. yunnanensis. Dari 22 spesies itu, yang bisa terinfeksi kapang Phialophora parasitica hanya ada delapan spesies yakni: A. agallocha; A. crassna; A. grandiflora; A. malaccensis; A. ophispermum; A. pentandra; A. sinensis; dan Aquilaria yunnanensis. Dari delapan spesies itu, yang paling potensial menghasilkan gaharu adalah A. malaccensis dan A. agallocha.

Gaharu yang sekarang beredar di pasaran, semuanya berasal dari perburuan dari hutan. Para pencari gaharu, kadang-kadang tidak membedakan, mana kayu yang ada gubalnya, dan mana yang tidak. Hingga semua pohon Aquilaria yang dijumpai akan ditebang. Akibatnya, populasi kayu Aquilaria terus terkikis dan makin langka. Dalam pertemuan ke 13 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES CoP 13) di Bangkok, Thailand, 2 -14 Oktober 2004, genus Aquilaria telah dimasukkan dalam apendik II. Hingga pengambilan gaharu dari alam, sebenarnya dilarang. Tetapi karena tingginya nilai gaharu, maka pencarian gaharu dari hutan terus berlangsung tanpa bisa dicegah.

Genus Aquilaria adalah pohon dengan tinggi mencapai 20 m dan diameter batang 60 cm, yang tumbuh di hutan hujan tropika basah, mulai dari ketinggian 0 sampai dengan 1.000 m. dpl. Aquilaria bisa hidup pada berbagai jenis tanah. Mulai dari tanah humus, berpasir, lempung, berkapur, sampai berbatu-batu. Gaharu termasuk tanaman yang tahan kekeringan, dan juga tahan hidup di bawah naungan. Tanaman yang masih muda, memang memerlukan banyak air, dan naungan. Biasanya Aquilaria tumbuh di bawah tajuk palem atau pakis-pakisan. Aquilaria berkembangbiak dari biji. Buah Aquilaria berupa polong yang keras, dengan panjang antara 2,5 sd. 3 cm. Biji mudah dikecambahkan di tempat yang lembap dan hangat, tetapi terlindung dari panas matahari.

# # #

Dalam kondisi optimum, pohon Aquilaria akan mampu tumbuh dengan sangat pesat. Yang dimaksud dengan kondisi optimum adalah, suhu udara, kelembapan, sinar matahari, air dan unsur haranya cukup. Meskipun Aquilaria tahan hidup di berbagai macam tanah, tetapi dia akan tumbuh optimal di tanah humus yang subur, dengan topsoil cukup tebal. Tidak semua Aquilaria yang tumbuh di hutan merupakah penghasil gaharu. Produk gaharu, baru akan terjadi, apabila kayu Aquilaria terinfeksi oleh kapang Phialophora parasitica. Tumbuhan Aquilaria yang tidak terinfeksi kapang Phialophora parasitica, hanya akan menjadi kayu biasa yang sama sekali tidak harum. Beda dengan cendana (Sandal Wood, Santalum album), yang kayunya memang sudah harum.

Untuk mempertahankan diri, tumbuhan Aquilaria yang sudah terinfeksi kapang Phialophora parasitica akan menghasilkan getah resin (jawa: blendok). Resin ini akan menggumpal dan membentuk gubal. Proses pembentukan gubal berlangsung sangat lambat. Bisa puluhan bahkan ratusan tahun. Resin dan bagian kayu yang terinfeksi inilah yang akan menghasilkan aroma harum yang tidak ada duanya di dunia. Aroma gaharu ini sedemikian khasnya hingga hampir tidak mungkin disintetis. Pembuatan gaharu sintetis, hasilnya akan lebih mahal dibanding dengan gaharu alam. Proses pembentukan gubal berlangsung sangat lama, juga merupakan salah satu penyebab tingginya produk gaharu.

Kapang genus Phialophora terdiri dari delapan spesies aktif: Phialophora americana, Phialophora bubakii, Phialophora europaea, Phialophora parasitica, Phialophora reptans, Phialophora repens, Phialophora richardsiae, dan Phialophora verrucosa. Dari delapan spesies itu, yang berfungsi menginfeksi kayu Aquilaria hanyalah kapang Phialophora parasitica. Spesies lainnya merupakan kapang patogen, yang bisa menginfeksi manusia dan menimbulkan gangguan penyakit. Malaysia dan Indonesia, sudah bisa mengisolasi kapang Phialophora parasitica, untuk diinokulasikan ke pohon Aquilaria.

Di Indonesia, penelitian gaharu antara lain dilakukan oleh Balitbang Botani/LIPI, Badan Litbang Departemen Kehutanan dan Universitas Mataram di Mataram, Lombok. Universitas Mataram, malahan sudah melakukan ujicoba penanaman gaharu, dan menginfeksinya dengan kapang Phialophora parasitica. Sayangnya, tanaman yang belum membentuk gubal itu sudah dicuri orang. Para pencuri ini beranggapan, bahwa kayu gaharu sama dengan cendana. Padahal cendana pun memerlukan waktu paling sedikit 30 tahun agar meghasilkan kayu dengan tingkat keharuman prima. Gaharu yang sudah terinfeksi ini, masih memerlukan waktu puluhan tahun agar gubalnya bisa dipanen.

# # #

Mengingat tingginya nilai gaharu, dan juga kelangkaannya, maka budidaya gaharu sudah semakin mendesak. Membuat hutan Aquilaria, bisa dilakukan dengan mudah. Sebab tumbuhan genus ini relatif mudah dikembangbiakkan dan toleran dengan lokasi tumbuh yang sangat ekstrim sekalipun. Mengisolasi kapang Phialophora parasitica juga sudah bisa dilakukan di laboratorium Universitas Mataram. Menginfeksi tumbuhan Aquilaria dengan kapang Phialophora parasitica juga sudah berhasil diketemukan metodenya. Yang menjadi masalah, untuk mengembangkannya dalam skala komersial, diperlukan jangka waktu lama. Gaharu kualitas baik, baru akan terbentuk setelah proses selama puluhan bahkan ratusan tahun.

Para pemilik modal, akan berpikir ulang kalau investasinya baru akan kembali pada puluhan bahkan ratusan tahun yang akan datang. Para pejabat di lingkup pemerintah daerah pun, juga akan menolak untuk merancang proyek yang tingkat keberhasilannya baru akan bisa diukur puluhan bahkan ratusan tahun kemudian. Belum lagi gangguan masyarakat yang tidak terlalu tahu tentang gaharu. Mereka menganggap bahwa tanaman Aquilaria yang sudah diinfeksi kapang Phialophora parasitica, akan segera bisa ditebang untuk diambil gaharunya. Ketidaktahuan masyarakat ini, juga disebabkan oleh sedikitnya publikasi tentang gaharu. Para wartawan yang mengenal gaharu, jumlahnya juga masih sangat sedikit.

Dalam situasi seperti ini, pencarian gaharu di hutan menjadi satu-satunya alternatif. Di Papua, pencarian gaharu bahkan dilakukan oleh para pengusaha dengan cara yang sangat tidak bermoral. Para pengusaha tahu bahwa masyarakat Papua, sudah kecanduan minuman keras. Hanya dengan disodori beberapa kaleng bir, mereka sudah bersedia untuk mencari gaharu. Apabila gaharu sudah diperoleh, para pengusaha pun menawarkan perempuan kepada penemu gaharu. Perempuan-perempuan malang ini didatangkan dari Jawa, kebanyakan dengan cara ditipu untuk dicarikan pekerjaan yang layak di Freeport atau perusahaan HPH. Setibanya di Papua, mereka hanya dijadikan umpan memperoleh gaharu.
          Three days in Berlin (or improving the pim user experience)        

KDE Project:

Last weekend I've met with some of our old timer KDEPIM developers and some of the newer ones who are interested in KDEPIM or related technologies in the KDAB offices in Berlin.
Being a KDAB employee for a few years already (wow, time is passing quickly), the place was familiar, the people looked familiar. The foosball table was slightly familiar, although some players changed their dresses in order to spread confusion inside the visitor's heads. That is the only reason we've lost against locals with 5-0, 5-0.
Suprisingly enough, the table wasn't used that much. Why? Because people were busy either working and talking. What they talked about I don't know too much, as I focused on some issues I planned to fix, but others can testify that Volker did not sit too much in front of his computers, but was dragged from one place to another for various discussions.
Most of us started on Friday around noon. I won't tell too much about what others did, that is mostly their problem. Especially if they were on the other side of the room and I didn't saw their screens, I can't tell if they worked at all or not. They looked like they did though. ;) I can share some things about what some sitting nearby did. See later.
As recently I became the de-facto maintainer and bugfixer for mail filters, I worked mostly on them. Unfortunately the first attempt to fix a bug failed: a bug that bothers me, although it is not the most reported one. It is about mails not being filtered for a while after a resume from hibernation. It is hard to reproduce, and although I run into it, I couldn't reproduce reliably enough and in a way I can debug it. After fighting with it and realising it won't work, I gave up. See you next time.
Meantime we had some excellent food in an Indian restaurant, then when finally everybody arrived (almost everybody to be honest, plus even some more from KDAB who didn't sign up, but show up there), we were ready to start with presenting the kdepim and Akonadi architecture. Old time pimsters Volker Krause, Kevin Krammer and Tobias Koenig helped me with it, and sometimes saved me, as my knowledge in some area proved to be superficial. We ended up with a pretty impressive drawing on the whiteboard:
Hopefully for those being on site it was understandable.

Time passed, so we went out for dinner to a Greek restaurant at the corner. Nice place, third time being there, good food (seems Berlin has only good eating places). We even saw how Germany won over Ireland. Too bad Steveire (Stephen Kelly) was not there... We continued with some more talks and hacking, then everybody went to their sleeping places.
Some left earlier, some later waiting for remote developers to show up and discuss the patches (he didn't show up).

Day 2
Next day started around 9 o'clock for some. Later for others. I continued with the filter debugging and fixing. I looked at the bugreports and tried to come up with some bugs that are both would help the users and myself. I'm selfish, I want to fix the bugs I run into. ;) One problem that bothered me for a long time is that email content from online IMAP is downloaded even if no filter for IMAP requires it (but a filter for e.g POP3 needs the full content). Now this is fixed and those who use online imap could notice a great speedup in mail syncing (depending on their filter setup). Another often reported issue was duplicating the mails, especially after spam filtering. You've ended up with a mail in the spam folder and a mail in the original place. This could be combined with a conflict dialog shown up as well for that mail. This problem actually revealed a not-well handled case down inside the Akonadi stack that was created by a reordering of filter commands in the filtering code. For those who want technical details: if there was a move action (like "move mail to spam folder") followed by a modify action (like "mark as read"), the filter reordered this to "mark as read" followed by a move. Unfortunately this exposed two problems, (mostly, but not only) IMAP specific: on IMAP you can't modify a mail, instead you create a new one and delete the old. What happened here is that a filter changed the mail (run through bogofilter/spamassasin), then the "mark as read" action was executed, which uploaded the changes, including the changed mail to the IMAP server. This caused a new ID for the item on the IMAP server. The mail with the old ID was deleted. Then the filter agent performed a move, but he had only the *old* ID, before the modifications. The move - if performed between two different resources, like IMAP and local maildir - is technically a copy followed by a delete. The copy worked fine, but the delete didn't. It tried to delete the old mail again (which was gone), not the modified version. That's how you ended up with a duplicate.
The current solution is to reorder the filtering pipeline, so the move is performed before the flag modifications. The extra benefit is that the filtered message is not uploaded again just to be deleted the next second. Speedup, less network traffic, better user experience. This doesn't fix the main problem with Akonadi, but it is an acceptable workaround. The reordering is so far only in the master branch (KDE 4.10), but the relevant code will be backported to the 4.9 branch, so it will be in 4.9.3.
And speaking of conflicts, that was the next hot topic, and one of the often reported bugs. It was mostly caused by conflicting flag changes (read/spam/important/etc), either caused by KMail itself plus the filtering or just KMail. After some discussion we agreed, that reporting conflicts on flag changes doesn't make sense, so we should not bother the user. It is not data loss, and in worst case some flag is reset. In normal case nothing wrong happens, as Akonadi is able to merge two changes in the flags (or so claims Volker).
I have to admit that this fix was not completed at the sprint, I finished it today, as I noticed more code in KDEPIM that didn't disable conflict check on flag changes.
While doing the changes, I did quite some refactoring, cleaning up the code as much as I could do for the parts I touched. The code was originally deep inside KMail (as most of other code), got extracted from it for 4.8.0, and now we are at the stage that we can make the extracted code more cleaner, we can remove some things that doesn't make sense anymore now that the filtering is not inside KMail.
While reading the bug reports, I also run into one indicating that mails arriving to an MBOX account (like /var/spool/mail/username) are not filtered automatically. Sounds like an easy bug to fix and so was it. Now they are filtered.
Finally another annoying issue was fixed: there was no indication that filtering is ongoing. Now when this happens, you can see in the KMail's progress bar.
The net result of the above: faster filtering, less annoying and useless error dialogs for the users. And according to bugzilla, 31 bugs less (some were duplicates though).

Nepomuk...one of the things that, well, so far I was always recommending for users to turn off. Slight detour here: what is Nepomuk and its relation to KMail? Nepomuk helps you to find data. It indexes all kind of data and with some queries you can find e.g every file where my name is mentioned, all email addresses from any file, etc. There is a process that goes through the akonadi data (emails, calendars, etc) and "feeds" to it for Nepomuk to be indexed. Then there are queries and code in KMail accessing Nepomuk: getting email addresses for composer's autocompletion, searching inside mail bodies, tagging your emails with custom tags, etc.
Unfortunately there are problems around it. One is that some queries ae processed quite slowly, that in turn slows down KMail, leading to poor user experience. E.g switching between mails, sending mails, etc. is slow. Or startup is slow or even blocked. I tried to fix the last part as I just run into it, but as this was my very first Nepomuk related patch, I'm not sure 100% succeeded. We found a problem with the Nepomuk API itself, and I informed Vishesh, the Nepomuk developer about it (even if I used non-blocking calls against Nepomuk, one call is blocking without question). He suggested something I might try later, although I'd be more happier if somebody with real Nepomuk knowledge could give a review of the pim Nepomuk usage.
Then there is the Akonadi feeder, that gives the data to Nepomuk. Something is not perfect there and the indexing causes a serious slowdown, where either itself or Nepomuk (actually its storage backend, virtuoso) starts to use the CPU *a lot*. This is the main reason I recommend to users to disable Nepomuk so far. We had Christian Mollekopf the author of the feeder in the sprint, and he worked on some optimizations. Hopefully this will improve the situation. Meantime we (and I) tried to convince Vishesh to use KMail, so he can see himself the problems our users face.

As a break we had another presentation, this time about KMail itself, what components make up KMail, how they are distributed. As far as I saw, this was less interesting to the audience, they rather looked at their computers and hacked on something. Luckily our KMail maintainer, Laurent Montel, is super active, but I wouldn't mind more contributors. Too bad he wasn't at the sprint.

We had a lunch at a nearby place, nothing extra, but the food was (again) good.

What did other do? Let's see what I can remember... Sune dreamed about crypto stuff and composite jobs. He worked on making some cryptographic code asynchronous and started to get faimiliar with kdepim code. I'd not say he picked up the easiest job.
Volker run around all the time, discussed various things like "spanish sync" with Alex Fiestas (see here), database backends with Martin, change recorder with David Faure (who remotely joined the meeting and got lost inside the change recorder code ... he has the solution now in his head, so be patient, we will end up with a better implementation for it that again speeds up Akonadi), job pipelines with me, and who knows what with others, as for a long time he just disappeared with a bunch of developers. They actually ended up in the lobby discussing "stuff". Milian Wolf, who is not (or not yet?) a KDEPIM developer, but mainly a KDevelop one, joined us and used massif to track down some ugly memory usage in KMail. And he did a good job in it. Previously KMail used more and more memory as you navigated between large folders (Alex mentioned some 2GB for him), while now it levels up at one point and doesn't increase. He might blog himself about, as he has also some nice graphs.
Then there were two guys from KDAB, who are old time pim developers (quiz: find their names in this blog), but they cooked something else, not related to KDEPIM, not related concretely to KDE, but to a lower level: to Qt. It is an amazingly cool stuff, but I don't want to give more details. Expect it to be presented a the Qt Developer Days, either in a talk or at the KDAB booth. Don't worry, I'm pretty sure it will be freely available what they did and KDE can enjoy it in the future.
I'm sorry that I don't remember what the rest did. In general I know that Martin Klapetek worked on the social network resources, Mark Gaiser, who recently started to work on KDEPIM stuff eagerly listened to our presentations and worked on a QML calendar application, Alex kept reporting bugs and discussed improvements with Volker, while John Layt, the "timezone KDE guy" worked on plasma calendar related issues.
As a KDE person Chani also joined us for a while, we quickly nominated her as the QML and Plasma person, so all questions related to them were immediately redirected to Chani. Jos Poortvilet was also supposed to join for some talks, but he could show up only on Sunday for personal reasons.
At the end of the day everybody was so busy, so instead of going out for eating, we just ordered some pizza. And most of us stood in the office well past midnight.

Day 3
Well, the above partially happened on Sunday. It was a shorter day for me, due to the late night standup before, and that I had to go to the airport after lunch. A lunch that wasn't exactly as planned. We went out for a Doner Kebab place that is supposed to be the best one in Berlin. It is just a small kiosk on the sidewalk in a street, but man, there was a big queue for it. On a Sunday! Locals says it is worse on weekdays. Even after almost an hour, we still had 10 persons in front of us, my departure time was approaching, so I gave up and instead bought some (quite good) chinese fast-food from a nearby place, then rushed to the airport.
A long journey awaited me with a 3 hour stopover in Munich, but luckily I had a power supply there and even some network (they offer 30 minutes/day/phone number), so I could continue on the work I started at the sprint. After flying and driving another 2.5 hours, I arrived late (or rather early) morning next day back home, and after sleept until around 10. Then I started to work again for KDAB, a work that is just as enjoyable as working for KDE. After all, the two communities has a serious overlap. ;)
That's from the sprint. If you'll be at the Qt Developer Days Europe, we might meet there. I'm looking forward for a good conference.


          KDE4: is it usable for you?        

KDE Project:

I know it is not so nice to complain and bash a project when you don't contribute to it. And yes until now, I did not contributed to the KDE4 desktop as I wished. I compiled it regularly and used the libraries, but did not run the KDE4 desktop or KDE4 version of the applications except KDevelop and Quanta.
But as 4.0 is approaching, I decided that it is time to test, use, report bugs and even make fixes to it. I use KDE since a long time (~7 years), I think I always compiled from source, and for several years I compiled from CVS/Subversion regularly. I wasn't afraid to use the alpha/beta/whatever version as my daily desktop.
But with KDE4 somehow I feel lost. I tried a few days ago to start a KDE4 session. After getting through some issues that the libraries were not found unless LD_LIBRARY_PATH is modified (and knotify even with this setup has problem to find libkaudiodevicelist.so), I finally got it running. Well, it looks nice at first. So what to do there? I can start the KDE4 applications from the Run Command dialogbox. This dialog is a nice improvement over the old version, especially the autocompletion is handy.
In my version the menu was still missing, which isn't nice, but I don't care that much. What I care more is the speed, or to be exact, the lack of it. I blamed first the debug version of the libraries and the desktop, so I did a complete fresh build without debug information (a sidenote: my KDE3 is compiled WITH debug info and works fast enough). Sadly, it isn't faster. An example: right click on the desktop, and until the menu is shown, 3-4 seconds can pass. During this time Plasma and XOrg are heavily using the CPU. Moving around a window makes again ~58% CPU load (by kwin). Moving the mouse over the taskbar gives me 60% CPU usage by plasma AND 50% CPU usage by XOrg.
This slowness if everywhere on the desktop. I click somewhere and it takes some seconds until it reacts. The "natural" reaction is to click again, which makes things worse. What is the reason of this slowness, I don't know. But I am worried about it, because I have a fairy decent computer here, everything is fast except my video card: AMD Opteron 180 Dual Core (2.4Ghz), 2GB Dual Channel RAM, 7200RPM SATA HDD, Nvidia FX5500 card (with the binary drivers). The card isn't the state of the art one, but should be more than enough for desktop usage. I tried compiz with it, and it works OK. I can see the reaction lag with compiz as well (compared to the KDE3 version of kwin, which is lightning fast), but it is still quite usable.
I tried to remove kwin and use another window manager. This made at least the window operations faster, but the desktop was still slow.
That's about the speed.
Now about the usability side: I have no idea if what I tried is implemented at all or not, if there are plans to do them for the final release or not, but certainly I can say that as it is now, it is close to be unusable. There is the panel on the bottom with the taskbar and the clock. The taskbar let's say works, but I couldn't figure out what really a left/right click on an empty area of the taskbar does. It minimizes/restores the running applications, but I don't see the logic. I also don't know how to move around the taskbar on the panel. I don't know how to move the panel. It is possible to add new applets to the desktop, but I don't know how to move those applets to a panel. Moving them around on the screen is terribly slow.
There is also an Unknown Applet on my panel which "could not be created". I have no idea what it is or how it appeared there.
I also saw some bugs, like black boxes on top of windows appearing when you move a window over an applet, but this kind of issues are just simple bugs, acceptable at this stage of the development.
Unfortunately this experience can have only one outcome: I cannot use KDE4 as my daily desktop. Not even as a testing desktop.
So the solution is to test only the libraries and the applications. Luckily it is pretty easy to have a setup where you can run KDE4 applications under KDE3. Well, the first and one of the most important applications is Konqueror. I'm writing this blog from Konqueror4. Altough I feel a slowness here as well (when navigating through the menus, for example), this isn't a big issue, it is usable. I saw some rendering bugs, an ugly infinite loop when loading a certain page, but I saw similar issues with the old Konqui as well.
There is a problem with the editor area where I write the blog text (home bring to the beginning of the text, not the beginning of the line, mouse scrolling does not work) and the closing buttons on the tabs do not work, but again, in beta stage these are "normal" bugs.
For the applications the solution is to report the bugs or try to fix them. :) I will happily report them.

My conclusion: as it is now, the KDE4 desktop should not be released. Luckily we have some months left until the final release, so who knows, it might really be usable. I have more confidence in the base libraries and the applications. I think there only some polish is needed, in general they should be usable, but as I said, I didn't test many of them either. But what I started up for a quick test seemed to work.


          SMT Machine Operator - Nextek        
Madison, AL - Madison, ALFull-time
Company Description
Nextek is a niche market, technology-driven Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) company, founded in 1995. We offer precision electronic assembly and engineering services to customers with needs-driven, non-commodity products. Nextek
          Materials Analyst - Nextek        
Madison, AL - Madison, ALFull-time
Company Description
Nextek is a niche market, technology-driven Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) company, founded in 1995. We offer precision electronic assembly and engineering services to customers with needs-driven, non-commodity products. We
          Quality Inspector (pcb) - Nextek        
Madison, AL - Madison, ALFull-time
Company Description
Nextek is a niche market, technology-driven Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) company, founded in 1995. We offer precision electronic assembly and engineering services to customers with needs-driven, non-commodity products. We
          Manufacturing Specialist - Assembly/Hand Load - Nextek        
Madison, AL - Madison, ALFull-time
Company Description
Nextek is a niche market, technology-driven Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) company, founded in 1995. We offer precision electronic assembly and engineering services to customers with needs-driven, non-commodity products. We
          Soldering - Manufacturing Specialist - Nextek        
Madison, AL - Madison, ALFull-time
Company Description
Nextek is a niche market, technology-driven Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS) company, founded in 1995. We offer precision electronic assembly and engineering services to customers with needs-driven, non-commodity products. We
          Make dirt tracks longer visible v1.0        

In this TUT I described how you can make the tire tracks longer visible. have fun with it Authors: Paddy-28 Fahrspuren.zip – 574 B

The post Make dirt tracks longer visible v1.0 appeared first on Farming simulator modification - FarmingMod.com.


          Facing Foreclosure? Then You Need to Get on Board With Obama's Mortgage Loan Modification Today        
Believe it or not, you actually hold the upper hand when it comes to Mortgage Loan Modification in this situation. Your lender will have to pay a very high price to foreclose on your home. Added to this, is the mounting pressure from other companies and organizations for your lender to be more lenient with you in these hard times.

Think of all the memories your home holds for you. Do you recall the lazy days lying around or watching the children play. Maybe you have experienced countless emotions. Whether you have been happy, sad or angry, your home is something that you don't want to lose!

Your lender is not in the business of selling homes. The additional costs and fees associated with foreclosure will leave your mortgage provider looking for other suitable solutions.

With a Mortgage Loan Modification plan, you can reduce your payments for a period of 5 years to something far more affordable. The government can even reduce your mortgage principle in that time. This is a win-win situation for both parties. You get to keep your home, lower your repayments and have your mortgage balance reduced. Your lender doesn't have to go through the effort of trying to foreclose and sell your home and still receives some form of payment from you.

However, with a solution, there is usually always another problem right around the corner. Many people in your circumstances, resort to contacting attorneys, companies and specialists in mortgage foreclosure and loan modification. The fees that you can expect to pay can be astronomical and maybe even push you into further debt.

Some Loan Modification Companies have been reported to charge anywhere between $1500 - $5000 to perform this service. So this, of course, has led the way for certain individuals to fight back and complete the Mortgage Loan Modification process on their own.

If you need a step-by-step system and don't have up to $5000 to spend on Mortgage Loan Modification fees and charges then Click Here to see what other people who have "done it themselves" have to say.
          Discover What the Obama Loan Modification Programs and the 31 Percent Rule Can Do For You        
Loan Modification Programs aren't something new, but many will argue the old system wasn't structured properly to work. A recent example of this is - over half of the loans modified in the US from January to March 2008 defaulted on their modified loan before the end of the year.

What Exactly is Loan Modification?

As you are well aware the economy has taken a huge downturn over the last couple of years. This has had an undesired effect for many homeowners. People find their loans are at risk and the possible threat of foreclosure. This is where lenders will offer lower monthly repayments and set terms and conditions on your home loan for a specified period of time. However, with no real structure in place, this was doomed to fail.

The Obama administration unveiled their new program on Wednesday 4th March 2009. This program planned to restructure home loans and save millions of Americans from foreclosure.

So What is the 31% Rule?

The program requires lenders to reduce your monthly mortgage repayments to no more than 38% of your gross monthly income. The government will then fund the remainder, to bring your payments down by a further 7%. This would mean that your monthly mortgage repayments would be no more than 31% of your total gross monthly income.

In order for your lender to achieve this, they would first need to lower the interest rate on your loan and possibly extend the term of your mortgage. They have the ability to lower the interest rate to 2% and extend your term up to 40 years. However, even after all these alterations, if you are still paying above 31% threshold, the lender can merely claim payments for your principle balance and will charge no interest.

For you to secure help to join one of these Programs, you will usually need to approach a Loan Modification Company. Although, many people have reported savings in excess of $500 per month on their mortgage payments, others have told horror stories of the fees that some of these companies charge.
          How Barack Obama's Modification of Your Mortgage Can Really Help Those Suffering Financially        
The New Mortgage Loan Modification Programs were introduced by the Obama administration in March 2009. For those of you struggling to meet your monthly repayments and with the threat of possible foreclosure hanging over you, this could be just the thing you are looking for.

With the agonizing recent recession and slump in housing prices, this has had a huge effect on millions of Americans. The Obama Loan Modification process has been introduced to help you through these hard times.

So what help is the government offering exactly?

Should you own and live in your mortgaged property and have a loan balance of below $729,750 you may be eligible. The government are looking to streamline your payments for up to five years. This may involve lowering the interest rate or extending the term of your mortgage.

For those of you suffering financial hardship and wishing to participate in this plan, you will be required to write and sign a letter stating such and if your overall debts are above 55% of your income, you will have to agree to take part in credit counseling. The final criteria to be eligible is that you must haven taken your loan out prior to January 1st 2009.

The process is a very rigorous form of verification, involving proof of ownership, proof of income and expenditure, through supplying relevant documents. Many industry experts believe that if these plans had been brought in a few years ago, then perhaps the current housing crisis could have been avoided altogether.

There are many companies who can help you through the legal and financial aspects for the Modification of your mortgage.

However, some Loan Modification Companies have been reported to charge anywhere between $1500 - $5000 to perform this service. So this, of course, has led the way for certain individuals to fight back and complete the procedures on their own. To learn how you can complete this process yourself Click Here.
          5 Top Tips To What Makes A Great Loan Modification Hardship Letter        
A well thought out and well written Loan Modification Hardship Letter can be the difference between success and failure when making a loan modification application. You must remember ever since the Obama Administration announced the new Loan Modification Plans And Programs back in March 2009, the majority of lenders have been inundated with applications.

So your letter needs to be clear, concise and if at all possible as unique as you can:-

1) Don't make excuses. Just describe in detail what the hardship is and why you are in this situation.

2) State what you have tried to do to overcome your current financial hardship.

3) You need to fully emphasize to your lender how important it is to you that you and your lender work together to resolve any problems.

4) Explain what your plans are to get yourself back on track with your mortgage repayments.

5) Don't beat around the bush. Be very clear and get to the point.

The Hardships that lenders will accept:-

- Death of a family member or the person who pays the mortgage

- Divorce

- Loss of your Job or Relocation

- Due to a reset variable rate your monthly mortgage repayments have increased
          Thanks For The Help Obama But Are You Willing To Pay $5000 For The Modification Of Your Mortgage?        
Since the Obama Administration introduced the new Loan Modification Plans on Wednesday 4th March 2009, many people have gone about planning the changes to their mortgages.

However, one stumbling block seems to get in everyone's way! The process of approaching your lender for the Modification of Your Mortgage usually requires a middleman. This is when the help of specialized attorneys, Loan Modification companies and professionals is required.

How much do these services cost you?

Well, you could be looking at anywhere from $1500 to $5000. Now, the way i see things, if you had that kind of money freely available you probably wouldn't need to approach your lender.
The actual plan of the Obama administration is to help out the 4 million plus Americans, who have either fallen behind with their monthly mortgage repayments or to those unfortunate enough to be facing foreclosure.

The help you will be offered is over a five year period. You mortgage principle can be reduced by up to $5000. Your interest rate can be dropped to as low as 2% and the term of your home loan can be extended up to a maximum of 40 years.

This certainly is a fantastic helping hand to those suffering financial hardship and looking to modify their mortgage repayments, but once again, you are faced with the fees and charges to get the ball rolling.

I knew it wouldn't be long before someone had to go through this whole process and then worked out a way of doing it for themselves! You are undoubtedly looking for no huge fees, no additional charges, just some guidance on how to approach the Loan Modification process. Hence the birth of the DIY Loan Modification Kit!

With the help of this kit, you can learn to:-

- Lower your interest rate and your payment

- Reduce the principal balance

- Convert to a fixed rate for peace of mind

- Have all late fees and charges removed from your record

- Stop the Foreclosure process

Click Here For More Info On The Do-It-Yourself Loan Modification Kit

What have some of the people who have used the DIY Loan Modification Kit got to say:-

"Thanks to the Do-It-Yourself Loan Modification Kit I was able to save my home! I had to stick to it for 3 months and really put my head down, but it was well worth it in the long run. I will be the first one to say it wasn't easy, but if you are struggling to make ends meet, it is definitely worth it. I ended up with a 40yr term at 4.5% reducing my mortgage over $1000 per month! I talked to a loan modification company before I chose the kit, but they wanted $3,500 upfront. I weighed my options and for only $29.95 I knew exactly what I was going to receive! And If I couldn't get the loan modification done myself at least I had peace of mind that I didn't waste $3,500."
Ted Basil, Syracuse, NY

"We have been in our home for 3 years and I think we were given the wrong mortgage. We got behind, but your kit showed us how to make our lender listen! We are now in a mortgage that we can afford. Our entire family appreciates you and the information that you provide."
Paul and Brenda Keen, Danbury, CT

"I was over $10,000 behind on my mortgage. My rate had just adjusted to 13.25%! Using your kit, I was able to negotiate the following: 13.25% adjustable rate was taken to an 8% fixed!And, get this... the lender allowed me to have the $10,000 I was behind, rolled onto the back of my loan!My new payment including taxes and insurance, is $300 less than what my previous payment was, and that's not including the taxes and insurance!!!
Thank you, Thank you, Thank you!"

Vivian Stephens , Dallas, TX

Click Here For More Info On The Do-It-Yourself Loan Modification Kit
          What's All This About Mortgage Loan Modification Plans?        
The Government has now come up with two plans to help people who have missed payments on their mortgage and are struggling. In this article i wish to introduce you to the one that is called a Loan Modification plan. To qualify, you need to meet the following criteria:-

- Your original mortgage loan cannot be greater than $729,000

- Your mortgage must have completed prior to January 1st 2009

- You will be required to provide proof of your income and expenditure, through payslips, tax returns and bank statements

- If your total debts are in excess of 55% of your income, you have to agree to visit credit counselling

- Finally, you must be living in the mortgaged property and will be required to write a letter in your own handwriting stating that you are in financial hardship

So what can your lender do for you in this situation?

- They can lower your monthly repayments to approximately a third of your monthly income.

- Interest has been known to be dropped to as low as 2%.

- You don't need to pay any fees for the modification as these are covered by the government

- The government are able to reduce your balance by up to $5000 over 5 years as long as you make your payments on time

- Your rate is reduced for the period of 5 years, so you may have to pay more after this period

- You are only ever allowed one modification

Loan Modification Companies have been reported to charge anywhere from $1500 - $5000 to help you with this process. If you don't have that kind of "spare" cash lying around, you will need to complete a "Do-It-Yourself" Loan Modification.

Click Here for More Info On The Do-It-Yourself Loan Modification Kit


          Check in online: come prenotare i posti più comodi per il tuo volo        
Si chiama SeatGuru, è un servizio creato da un viaggiatore ed acquistato da Tripadvisor nel 2007, che ti permette di identificare i posti migliori sul tuo volo e di prenotarli o sceglierli durante il checkin online. Il vantaggio non è da poco specie per i voli lunghi, perché Seatguru non mostra semplicemente la piantina, ma indica chiaramente […]
          Sejda offre 30 strumenti online per fare di tutto con i PDF e un software per Windows, Mac e Linux        
Sejda è una suite che offre 30 strumenti online per fare di tutto con i PDF e un software per Windows, Mac e Linux. Le funzioni principali sono: split, merge, office & PDF, edit & sign, compress & convert. Vale a dire dividere, unire, ufficio e PDF, modificare e firmare, comprimere e convertire in altri formati. Vediamo […]
          FotoJet: editare immagini online, creare collage di foto, realizzare grafiche accattivati via web        
FotoJet è un’interessante applicazione web che permette di editare immagini online, creare collage di foto, realizzare grafiche accattivati via web. L’app è infatti suddivisa in tre sezioni: design, collage, edit. Tramite l’editor fotografico si possono applicare alle immagini caricate tutte le classiche modifiche di questo genere di strumenti: ridimensionare, ritagliare, ruotare, gestire i colori, l’esposizione, […]
          Ludus: un ottimo strumento per creare presentazioni creative ed accattivati online        
Ludus è un ottimo strumento per creare presentazioni creative ed accattivati online che si mette in concorrenza con i vari Prezi, Emaze, Slid.es, Sway e via dicendo. Si tratta di un’applicazione web che funziona principalmente grazie al drag&drop con cui trascinare e modificare qualsia forma di contenuto e di media: video di YouTube, foto trovate in internet, mappe di […]
          Comment on Episode 210: Characterization by William Palmer        
Nice episode, I feel like y'all only scratched the surface on this one. I like the idea of characterization coming in the moment, from choices. So in a RPG context every time you have to make a choice or speak in character (which I guess is a choice) you decide in that moment who your character is, based on what has come before, and then from the directors stance, what you want to happen. in a video game context like Mass Effect every time you come to a decision point, the game is asking you to characterize your version of its protagonist to be either Paragon, neutral or correct. :) As much as we'd like perfect consistency, characterization changes (outside of intentional character arcs) whether we want it to or not. This comes from the gaps between play sessions, differences in our emotional play state (bleed), and the (almost necessarily) fluid nature of characters in the shared imagined landscape. This isn't a bad thing most of the time because it's minor and we modify our characters slightly based on the outcomes we as players would like to see. In a recent game of Eclipse Phase I just ran over Roll20 I had all the characters introduce themselves with a dream sequence. I made it very clear that this was to be an opportunity for solo storytelling and had everyone else follow the microscope rules of shutting up and not helping as to preserve a unique vision. It went over really well, even if we had a few more pauses for thought than normal, and even over Roll20 the characterization was very clear and shined through. That's another thing, characterization is much easier in person or through text than it is online which has always been one of my bigger pet peeves with online gaming. In person you get to use all of your senses, through text you get to expound as much as you'd like, online you're normally restricted to voice and actions. It makes you work harder and practice which brings a lot to in person games. Yet another thing, how quickly does a character come to you? Are most NPCs at the same level of characterization in their first min of screen time as say an ApoWo character? Obviously we know more about the ApoWo character but does that come through right away or do you build that character up with every interaction/decision? I would say the later. Another way to say that would be: Are most characters defined more by what's on their sheets or what's in our heads? Could y'all post a link to 183 days from the rants section? I seem to be having trouble finding it. https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#newwindow=1&q=183+days+rpg Oh, have y'all ever Janked (that's now a thing, I'm making it a thing) about practicing for RPGs? If not, I have a potentially stupid topic for a cast, Do You Practice for RPGs? We practice writing, tennis, medicine, improv, calculus, sex, woodworking, and juggling; why not RPGs? This may be something that I'm alone in doing but I first took up acting in local theater partially because I thought it would bring something to my "craft" of role-playing. A lot of the time when I'm watching movies (especially bad but interesting ones like "In Time" or Divergent) I'm thinking about how I would translate that into a game (Fate conversion and Misspent Youth in those cases) and I'm logging away interesting choices or details that I can later bring back to the table. Staying in genre can be difficult when you have 5 different peoples conceptions of what noir is. But when you reference a movie or book everyone is familiar with then people are suddenly on the same page both conceptually and thematically. In general when I'm about to play in a game, or even worse run one, I often immerse myself in fiction of that genre to get it right. which seems like practicing a genre for an RPG to me. I've watched more than a few online videos on voice acting (see Roll20 stuff above). My bedside readers are fiction and things like Long-Form Improv by Hauck and Writing 21st Century Fiction by Maass. I've even run experimental one shots before to test out narrative concepts, like extreme flashbacks that only tie in tangentially to the main story, or practice something else unusual. I've never really retroactively declared anything longer than a one shot practice before but my first couple of fumbling forays into RPGs with D&D (because of coarse it was D&D) could certainly be called practice. I know RPGs aren't supposed to have a goal per se but what I'm striving for are improvisational stories that surprise me, thrill me, and touch my heart. What I'm after is a fluid game with little overt communication about it between players in the moment (all I'm asking for is mind reading here!). What I desire is a game that could be written down and sold as a good book and I feel like that takes practice. I practice to impress others, I practice to feel more relaxed and confident, but most importantly I practice to have a more distilled, better quality of fun. P.S. Your'e welcome for the text wall!
          iOS Update Quashes Dangerous SSL Bug        

5497202855_bbbca2a000_o.jpg

Photo by: Duncan Hull


If you haven't gotten the iOS 7.0.6 update, you need to stop what you're doing and get it now. There's a dangerous SSL bug that can hurt you in numerous ways if you don't take care of it right away by updating your Apple operating system. Even if you have an older version, you're going to want to make sure you're protected and have the latest OS available for your particular mobile device.


Back in February of this year, it came out that not updating could lead to bad people being able to read and modify encrypted communications whether people were using iPhones, iPads or other iOS devices. As you might imagine, this upset a lot of people. The good news is that Apple was pretty quick at making sure an update was available for people who downloaded it.


And yet that's part of the problem - not everyone updates their operating system on their own, especially on their phone or mobile device. Some people have claimed that it wasn't a flaw and was built-in iOS as a means for people - like the NSA perhaps - to be able to spy on people easier. Apple denied the claims, of course, but if you Google around, you're going to find some interesting speculation about the "flaw" found in iOS.


According to Ars Technica, the problem may have gone beyond iOS mobile devices and actually affected Mac OS X users - even if they had all the current patches and updates installed! According to them, "[The] vulnerability has been confirmed in iOS versions 6.1.5, 7.0.4, and 7.0.5, and OS X 10.9.0 and 10.9.1." That's quite a wide vulnerability. And while Apple seemed to be working fast to squash the bug last month, there's a good chance that a lot of people still don't have it patched.


In order to make sure you stay safe, here are some specific tips you should follow.


  • Always Update - The first thing you want to do is make sure you ALWAYS update your OS when you find out there's a new version available.
  • Be Aware - In order to know when you should update your OS, you're going to make sure you're aware of major problems that have been found.
  • Act Quickly - The sooner you patch the vulnerable code, the sooner you're going to be safe from attacks.


While there's no guarantee your mobile devices are going to be safe and secure, you want to make sure you take whatever steps you can to guarantee that you're as safe as possible. If you have any thoughts or opinions about the latest iOS update that killed some major security flaws, feel free to leave a comment below and let us know what you're thinking.


Guest Post:

Written by: Jenny Corteza has used a City Directory Theme because it made her life as a writer a whole lot easier. She's been writing technology articles for many years now.

          Les Chiens et les Loups, Irène Némirovsky        
Je mettais dis que cette année, j'allais découvrir la littérature slave. Et puis, les mois ont passé et rien du tout. Il était temps que je m'y mette. C'est donc avec une autrice d'origine ukrainienne exilée en France que je commence ma découverte slave.


Les Chiens et les Loups, Irène Némirovsky

Editeur : Le livre de poche
Collection : /
Année de parution : 2010
Nombre de pages :  250

A lire si :
- Vous voulez une histoire d'amour compliquée
- Vous aimez les histoires qui ne sont pas simples
- Vous voulez du sentiment d'exil

A ne pas lire si :
- Vous voulez juste de la romance

Présentation de l'éditeur :


Témoin des bouleversements de son siècle, Irène Némirovsky, morte à Auschwitz en 1942, est l'auteur d'une oeuvre étonnante qui fait d'elle un des plus grands écrivains de l'entre-deux-guerres. À la croisée des cultures juive, française et slave, cette romancière ne cesse de surprendre par sa modernité. Comme la plupart des romans d'Irène Némirovsky, Les Chiens et les Loups (1940) n'est pas étranger au destin personnel de son auteur. Le sentiment d'un inconsolable exil (issue de la
haute bourgeoisie, Irène Némirovsky fuit Kiev et la Révolution d'Octobre avec sa famille avant de trouver refuge en France), le poids de la société et la fatalité du destin sont au centre de ce roman qui évoque l'amour insensé de deux jeunes Juifs unis par un lointain souvenir. Ada, une artiste révoltée, et Harry, un riche banquier, sont les deux facettes d'une même personne. Tragiquement attirés l'un vers l'autre, rien ne peut les réunir, si ce n'est le sentiment de leur propre perte. Bercé de mélancolie, ce bouleversant roman sur l'enfance et l'innocence perdues est un chef-d'oeuvre de la littérature, à découvrir, ou à redécouvrir.

Mon avis

La quatrième de couverture étant assez intriguante au niveau de la vie de l'autrice de ce roman, je suis allée un peu fouiller sur wikipédia pour en savoir plus. Cette femme, née en Ukraine, de confession juive, a dut fuir son pays plusieurs fois pour échapper aux pogroms (attaque ultra violente contre les juifs) puis la révolution d'Octobre. Elle se réfugiera en France avec sa famille. Malheureusement, la seconde guerre mondiale passera par là et elle mourra à Auschwitz comme bien d'autres. Les Chiens et les Loups est le dernier roman publié de son vivant. Elle fut une autrice prolifique se basant pas mal sur sa vie et sur son exil. Les Chiens et les Loups en est un bel exemple. 

Ada Sinner est une enfant juive née dans la basse ville. Orpheline de mère, elle vit avec son père et son grand-père jusqu'à l'arrivée de sa tante Rhaïssa et de ses enfants après la mort de son époux. Si son enfance se passe dans la pauvreté, elle n'en est pas moins tout à fait malheureuse. Elle accepte sa condition, se rebelle contre une tante qui n'en a rien à faire d'elle, vit comme la plupart des enfants. Jusqu'à ce qu'elle aperçoive Harry Sinner, un cousin éloigné, petit fils du Sinner de la ville haute, un parent riche. A partir de cet aperçu, la vie d'Ada va se voir modifier. Elle voue un amour fou à Harry qu'elle ne connait même pas. Mais la vie est souvent injuste et suite aux pogroms, elle part avec sa tant Rhaïssa, Lilla et Ben, ses cousins, ainsi que Madame Mimi, une française pour Paris. Commence alors l'exil pour elle, dans une ville et un pays étranger où elle n'est pas forcément bien vu. Là, elle doit commencer une nouvelle vie et pourquoi pas, un jour se rapprochait d'Harry, lui aussi venu à Paris.

Si le roman se présente comme une sorte de Roméo et Juliette à la sauce juive, il est bien plus que cela. Irène Némirovsky a surement dut se servir de sa propre expérience tant les sentiments sur l'exil sont forts. Car c'est bien de cela que le roman parle. Enfin, pas que, mais nous le verrons après. Les deux personnages principaux du roman, Ada et Harry, vivent l'exil à leur façon. Elle restant slave, sauvage par rapport aux français, lui se mêlant sans vraiment le faire. Finalement, malgré la différence de leur statut sociaux (elle pauvre, lui héritier d'un empire banquier), ils restent pareil face au déracinement. D'ailleurs, ce sont les peintures d'Ada qui le feront comprendre à Harry. Leur attachement, leur histoire d'amour semble découler plus de cet exil que de vrais sentiments amoureux. Les deux sont particulièrement semblables, deux faces d'une même personne au final. Ils ne sont pas les seuls. Ben, le fils de tante Rhaïssa et mari d'Ada, vit aussi son exil d'une autre manière. En réalité, qu'il soit en France ou en Ukraine, il vivrait de la même manière, essayant à tout prix de s'élever de sa condition. Il en va de même pour Lilla, sa sœur, qui aurait pu avoir un avenir brillant et qui finalement, tombera dans l'oubli, comme bien d'autre.

Le fait que les personnages principaux soient juifs apporte aussi beaucoup au roman. Ils ne sont pas juste étranger, ils sont juifs. Or, à l'époque de l'écriture du roman (il est publié pour la première fois en 1940), les juifs ne sont pas vraiment les gens les plus en vu. Trop riches pour certains, trop "étrangers" pour d'autre, leur population restent mystérieuses pour beaucoup. Les personnages sentent tous cela. Ils sont tous semblables entre eux avec pourtant cette différence des liens sociaux. Cela se voit beaucoup avec Ben, jaloux de Harry, qui ne cesse de répéter à Ada qu'ils sont presque comme des frères, que seule la naissance et l'éducation ont séparé, qu'ils sont comme les chiens et les loups (d'où le titre, ben oui).

On ajoute à cela une écriture simple, agréable et finalement belle, une vision de la société d'alors assez critique, encore plus concernant les juifs. D'ailleurs, d'après wikipédia, Irène Némirovsky aurait eu à une époque une réputation d'antisémiste. Réputation qui lui venait semble-t-il plus de l'envie de plaire aux français à travers ses livres qu'autres choses. Il me faut trouver une biographie de cette autrice. Elle m'intrigue autant que ses personnages et ses histoires.

Pour finir, Les chiens et les loups est un très bon livre. Il se cache sous des abords un peu "simple" de la romance pour parler de tout à fait autre chose. Je l'ai lu lentement pour en profiter (il est tout de même assez court). Il est certain que je lirais d'autres roman de madame Némirosky. 

          Bioshock : Rapture, John Shirley        
Avant toute chose, sachez que je n'ai jamais joué à Bioshock. Du coup, je me suis aventurée dans cette lecture sans rien savoir. Juste parce que le livre fait partie du mois du Cuivre et que la couverture très art nouveau me plaisait beaucoup. Et cette lecture m'a plu et m'a donné envie de jouer au jeu. (il est sortit en 2007 et je n'ai pas la moindre idée de s'il tourne sous mac, faudra que je regarde ça de plus près).

Bioshock : Rapture, John Shirley

Editeur : Bragelonne
Collection : Le Mois du Cuivre
Année de parution : 2016
Titre en VO : Bioshock : Rapture
Année de parution en VO : 2011
Format : AZW

A lire si :
- Vous aimez les utopies qui tournent mal
- Vous n'avez pas peur de vous perdre entre personnages et les dates
- Vous voulez un huis-clos

A ne pas lire si :
- Vous voulez de la romance
- Vous voulez du tout beau tout propre
- Vous avez du mal avec le côté un peu trop documentaire

Présentation de l'éditeur : 

C’était la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale. Le New Deal du président Roosevelt avait redéfini la politique américaine. Les impôts avaient atteint un pic sans précédent. Les bombardements de Hiroshima et Nagasaki avaient créé la peur de l’annihilation totale. La montée d’agences gouvernementales secrètes avait rendu la population méfiante. Le sentiment de liberté des États-Unis s’était étiolé… Et nombreux étaient ceux qui voulaient retrouver cette liberté. Parmi eux, un grand rêveur, un immigré qui s’était élevé des plus profonds abysses de la pauvreté pour devenir l’un des hommes les plus riches et les plus admirés au monde. Cet homme s’appelait Andrew Ryan, et il avait la conviction que les grands hommes méritaient ce qu’il y avait de mieux. Alors il se mit en quête de l’impossible, une utopie libre de tout gouvernement, de toute censure, de toute restriction morale sur la science, où ce qu’on donnait on le recevait en retour. Il a créé Rapture, la lumineuse cité sous les mers. Mais l’utopie a été frappée d’une terrible tragédie. Voici comment tout a commencé… et tout a fini.

Mon avis

Comme dit en introduction, je ne suis pas du tout au courant de l'histoire de Bioshock, le jeu. Je partais donc totalement "vierge" de toute information, me demandant un peu ce que cela allait donner. Bon, après lecture, je me suis tout de même renseignée, et il s'avère que le livre se situe donc avant le jeu.

On se retrouve en fin de seconde guerre mondiale. Les USA ont largués les bombes atomique sur le japon, les populations ont peur, sont méfiantes. C'est avec un climat de plus en plus tendu qu'il faut vivre. Or, cela, Andrew Ryan ne le veut pas. Il a un rêve, créer une cité sous la mer où aucune règle ne viendrait ternir sa vision du monde. Une utopie fantastique pour qui veut évoluer dans la vie. Ce qu'aurait du être les USA avant le New Deal de Roosevelt. Ainsi va donc naître l'héroïne du roman, la ville de Rapture, dont nous allons connaitre l'histoire à travers quelques personnages, Ryan, Bill, Sullivan, Fontaine et d'autres.

Car la ville est bel et bien l'héroïne du livre, bien plus que les personnages qui la peuplent.  Mais parlons d'eux avant de parler d'elle. Le panel couvert par l'auteur est assez hétéroclite bien que principalement masculin. Oui, j'aurais voulu que les femmes ait de plus grand rôle, mais je ne peux pas tout avoir, n'est-ce pas ? Bref, des personnages nombreux et qui ne se ressemblent pas vraiment. On retrouve Ryan, richissime entrepreneur qui va donner naissance à Rapture, en faire une utopie secrète. Bill, employé de Ryan, confident aussi qui petit à petit va se rendre compte du désastre qui s'annonce, Fontaine, le "méchant" de l'histoire, Brigid Tenenbaum, scientifique ayant travaillé avec les nazis (et certainement pour moi le personnage qui aurait mérité plus de concidération), Sullivan, chef de la sécurité... Tous vont permettre de voir Rapture sous ses divers visages, et autant dire que ce n'est pas toujours très beau.

Si la ville se présente comme une utopie parfaite au départ, il s'avère qu'elle ne va pas le rester longtemps. Le fait qu'il n'y ait pas de règles pour réguler le marché ou la science va faire perdre la tête à plus d'un. Rapidement, les plus pauvres deviennent encore plus pauvres tandis que les plus riches s'enrichissent encore plus. Là où tout le monde aurait du avoir sa chance, le fossé se creuse de plus en plus. Et forcément quand les inégalités sont là, les contestations aussi. Entre un Ryan qui ne veut surtout pas modifier sa belle utopie malgré le désastre qui arrive, un Fontaine qui profite de tout cela pour prendre la ville de force, des scientifiques à l'esprit tordu, une psy communiste, plus personne ne sait vraiment qui suivre. Et rien ne s'arrange lorsque Fontaine aider par Tenenbaum et un autre scientifique inventent les plasmisdes, des produits capable de donner des pouvoirs surhumains aux hommes.

Je dois bien dire que j'ai adoré voir la ville descendre petit à petit dans les Enfers. C'est plutôt bien fait, surtout qu'on découvre les points de vue de personnages moins importants dans l'histoire mais qui éclaire un peu mieux la dite descente. Voir la belle utopie vouait à l'échec n'est pas nouveau mais je trouve ici que c'est plutôt bien fait, bien que pour moi, il reste quelques points noirs (parce que je n'ai pas joué au jeu ?). D'ailleurs, parfois, j'aurais voulu un peu plus de mystère et moins de fait annoncer froidement. C'est quelque chose que je reproche un peu à l'auteur, pas assez de sentiment. IL est parfois trop "documentaire". Pourtant, l'histoire de la création et de la chute de Rapture aurait surement pu être conté d'une manière plus romanesque (et je ne parle pas de romance ou que sais-je d'autre, juste un peu plus de sentiments, de n'importe quel sentiment). IL n'en reste pas moins que l’enchaînement des événements, qui courent sur plusieurs années est bien foutu et qu'on suit la chute de la cité sans le moindre problème. 

Finalement, ce Rapture a été une bien bonne découverte. J'ai vraiment apprécié le livre qui se lit bien et pousse à réfléchir sur quelques petites choses, comme la morale scientifique, le monde des affaires et surtout la place de l'homme dans son environnement et ce qu'il se passe quand il se prend pour un Dieu. Bref, passionnant, instructif aussi. Tout ce que j'apprécie dans un bouquin. Sans parler de l'esthétisme très rétro-futur, art nouveau de la ville qui transparait dans la couverture mais aussi dans les descriptions de Rapture. Quel dommage qu'il me parait si court (pourtant, il est dense comme roman) et qu'il manque un peu trop de sentiment. 

          Burn After Reading        

Who’s Who
What’s What

In the World of CIA Fronts, Partners, Proprietaries & Contractors




NEW BOOK:

The Almost Classified Guide to CIA Front Companies, Proprietaries & Contractors
By WAYNE MADSEN
ISBN: 978-1-365-11196-9


Cool Justice Editor's Note: Following are excerpts from author Madsen's introduction and the body of the work. Additional suggested reading: News story about Madsen's book via the Washington, D.C. based Justice Integrity Project [link at the bottom of this post].

EXCERPTS:

From the Introduction


One of the most pervasive uses of companies as intelligence partners was under the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD. During the Cold War, the CIA, often with the approval of corporate executives, infiltrated their agents to work as journalists in newspapers, radio and television networks, wire services, and magazines. The following pages in this book are rife with examples of this penetration of the Fourth Estate – all too many in the opinion of this journalist. The CIA admitted to at least 400 journalists on the agency’s payroll at the height of MOCKINGBIRD. The CIA traditionally understates its capabilities, especially when its covert activities become publicly known. Moreover, the end of the Cold War did not stop the practice of the CIA in infiltrating the media and slant news reports to its wishes.

*

An insightful look behind the veils of secrecy into the CIA’s use of fronts, proprietaries, and partners calls into question the purpose of the CIA. Created by President Harry S Truman to serve as a central collector and repository of intelligence, the CIA became much more than that. A few weeks after the United States witnessed the assassination of President Kennedy in the middle of downtown Dallas, Truman penned an op-ed piece that appeared in several newspapers around the country. In it, Truman shared his regret for having created the CIA in 1947:

“I think it has become necessary to take another look at the purpose and operations of our Central Intelligence Agency—CIA . . . For some time I have been disturbed by the way CIA has been diverted from its original assignment. It has become an operational and at times a policy-making arm of the Government. This has led to trouble and may have compounded our difficulties in several explosive areas.

"I never had any thought that when I set up the CIA that it would be injected into peacetime cloak and dagger operations. Some of the complications and embarrassment I think we have experienced are in part attributable to the fact that this quiet intelligence arm of the President has been so removed from its intended role that it is being interpreted as a symbol of sinister and mysterious foreign intrigue.”

*

The 21st century’s CIA’s partners are more likely to be found among high-tech companies marketing the latest and greatest mobile applications and data mining programs than among banks, law offices, and advertising agencies. However, in the post-World War II era, the CIA’s top and middle echelons were normally found operating through cover as typewriter-pecking journalists, traveling Madison Avenue admen, corporate lawyers, and chain-smoking oilmen. In the 1970s and 80s, CIA contractors and partners began showing up in the high-tech field, with database, local area networking, and on-line information retrieval systems attracting the most interest by Langley.

*

As this book went to press, the smart phone game application Pokémon Go fad was sweeping the planet. Unbeknownst to many of the on-line game’s avid fan’s was the connection of the game’s developers to the CIA’s venture capital firm IN-Q-TEL. All users saw their geo-location and other smart phone data being swept up by a CIA partner firm.

SELECTED ENTRIES

Amazon, Inc. [CIA contractor]. Company provides cloud computing services for the CIA. Amazon’s CEO Jeff Bezos also owns The Washington Post.

American Historical Society. [CIA partner]. Many society officials were OSS/CIA officers.

American Press Institute. [CIA front]. Operating out of Columbia University, the institute’s director in the 1950s was a CIA officer.

AmeriCares. [CIA partner]. A non-profit organization that is often the “first in” at refugee situations. Founded by tycoon J. Peter Grace, a board chairman of the CIA front, the American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD) and a trustee of another CIA front, the American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism, AmeriCares was involved in funding the Nicaraguan contras. The group has also provided the CIA with recruiting opportunities at mass refugee sites, particularly in Latin America and Asia.

Bechtel Corporation. [CIA contractor]. Bechtel is a large construction company that has included former CIA director Richard Helms, CIA pseudonym “Fletcher M. Knight,” among its executive ranks. Bechtel was active in providing corporate cover for the OSS in the Middle East during World War II. Bechtel has been a consummate service company for various CIA operations, including support for the CIA-inspired coup against the Syrian government in 1949, the Iranian government of Prime Minister Mohamed Mossadeq in 1953, and President Sukarno of Indonesia in 1965. From the 1960s to the 1970s, Bechtel provided cover for CIA agents in Libya under both the regime of King Idris and his successor, Muammar Qaddafi. Sometimes called a “secret arm” of the CIA, Bechtel’s executives included those who would join President Reagan’s Cabinet, including Secretary of State George Schultz and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger.

Before World War II, Steve Bechtel formed a military-industrial complex partnership with John McCone. McCone later became the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission and later, director of the CIA. The CIA has used Bechtel to provide cover for non-official cover CIA operatives abroad.

Blackstone Investment Group. [CIA front]. With offices in Washington, DC and Moscow, arranged for the purchase of KGB documents following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Among the documents sought by the front company were any related to illegal CIA activities during the Cold War, including the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

Bourbon and Beefsteak Bar and Restaurant. [CIA front]. Opened in 1967 in King’s Cross in Sydney, Australia. Served as a rendezvous point for CIA, Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO), and organized crime figures. Its proprietor was Bernie Houghton, a CIA operative with links to Nugan Hand Bank, CIA weapons smuggler Edwin Wilson, and CIA clandestine services officers Theodore Shackley, Rafael Quintero, and Thomas Clines.

Center for Democracy. [CIA front]. Administered under the aegis of Boston University, the center maintained offices in Boston, Washington, DC, Guatemala City, and Strasbourg, France. Involved in CIA operations in eastern Europe, Central America, and Africa.

Colt Patent Firearms Company. [CIA partner]. Based in Hartford, Connecticut, provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad.

Daddario & Burns. [CIA partner]. Headed by former OSS officer Emilio Daddario, a Democratic Representative from Connecticut, the Hartford-based law firm provided services to the CIA.

DC Comics. [CIA partner]. Worked with the International Military Information Group (IMIG), a joint CIA/Pentagon unit at the State Department, to disseminate propaganda comic books, featuring Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman, in Serbo-Croatian and Albanian, to youth in the Balkans during the military conflicts in that region.

Disney Corporation. [CIA partner]. CIA agents who were adept at creating front companies and shell corporations in Florida, worked closely with Disney in preparation for the construction of Disney World near Orlando, Florida. OSS veteran “Wild Bill” Donovan and CIA shell company expert Paul Helliwell helped create two fake Florida cities, Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, as well as a number of shell corporations, to keep secret the plans for Disney World. This kept land prices low because real estate speculators were unaware of the prospective value of the land in a desolate area of central Florida.

Emory School of Medicine. [CIA partner]. Located in Atlanta, Georgia. Involved in the CIA’s MK-ULTRA behavioral modification project.

Enron Corporation [CIA partner]. Houston-based firm that was used by the CIA to provide commercial cover for its agents around the world. There were at least 20 CIA employees on Enron’s payroll. Andre Le Gallo, a former official of the CIA’s Operations Directorate, went to work as a corporate intelligence officer for Enron.

Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC). [CIA front]. Officially established by American Trotskyists, the group was penetrated by CIA operatives. The FPCC New Orleans office was a CIA front that provided cover for the anti-Fidel Castro activities of Lee Harvey Oswald, Clay Shaw, and David Ferrie, among others. The New Orleans FPCC office was located at 544 Camp Street and shared the same building entrance with Guy Banister Associates, Inc., a private detective agency, the address for which was 531 Lafayette Street and around the corner from 544 Camp Street.

In December 1963, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the FPCC ceased all U.S. operations.

General Electric Company. [CIA partner]. Based in Fairfield, Connecticut, provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad.

General Foods Corporation. [CIA partner]. Advertising account at CIA’s Robert Mullen Company handled by an active CIA employee.

Google, Inc. [CIA partner]. Developed as a result of a research grant by the CIA and Pentagon to Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science. The CIA referred to the research as the “google project.”

Greenberg Traurig. [CIA partner]. Washington, DC “connected” law firm.

Guy Banister Associates, Inc. [CIA partner]. New Orleans private detective agency headed by former FBI agent Guy Banister. The detective agency coordinated the activities of various anti-Castro Cuban groups in New Orleans, including Banister’s own Anti-Communist League of the Caribbean, as well as the Cuban Revolutionary Council, the Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front, Friends of Democratic Cuba, and the Crusade to Free Cuba Committee.

Banister and Associates shared office space with the CIA’s New Orleans front, the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, headed by Lee Harvey Oswald.

Hale and Dorr. [CIA partner]. Boston-based law firm that provided cover for CIA’s Independence and Brown Foundations.

Halliburton. [CIA contractor]. Based in Houston, it is the world’s largest oil service company. Recipient of a number of CIA sole-source contracts for services worldwide.

Harper and Row, Inc. [CIA partner]. Manuscripts submitted to the New York publisher that dealt with intelligence matters, particularly CIA operations, were turned over to the CIA for censoring edits before publication.

Hewlett Packard Corporation. [CIA partner]. Sold computers to Iraq for Saddam Hussein’s missile program with the knowledge and approval of the CIA.

Hill & Knowlton. [CIA partner]. Public relations firm that teamed with the CIA on a number of operations. Hill & Knowlton’s numerous offices abroad provided cover for CIA agents. One known Hill & Knowlton office that was a CIA front operation was in Kuala Lumpur.

Kerr-McGee. [CIA partner]. Provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating overseas.

Kissinger Associates, Inc. [CIA partner]. New York-based international consulting firm founded by former Secretary of State and National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger. Former National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft is a co-owner. The firm provided support to the CIA-linked American Ditchley Foundation and the Bilderberg Group. Much of the 1982 seed money for Kissinger Associates was provided by Goldman Sachs.

Knight Foundation. [CIA partner]. Also known as the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Based in Miami, the foundation provides funding for various CIA-connected media operations in the United States and around the world.

Kroll Inc. [CIA partner]. Founded in 1972 by Jules Kroll, who had links to both U.S. and Israeli intelligence. Based in Manhattan. French domestic law enforcement believed Kroll’s Paris office was a CIA front. Kroll handled the security for the World Trade Center after the 1993 terrorist bombing and continued to be responsible for security up to, during, and after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. Kroll employed former FBI assistant director for counter-terrorism John O’Neill, who died in the collapse of the World Trade Center.

Lincoln Savings and Loan. [CIA partner]. Based in Irvine, California and headed by notorious swindler Charles Keating, Jr., involved in laundering funds for the Iran-contra scandal.

Lone Star Cement Corporation. [CIA partner]. Based in Stamford, Connecticut and linked to the Bush family, provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad. Involved in the Iran-contra scandal.

Mary Carter Paint Company. [CIA front]. A money-laundering operation for the CIA. Involved in casinos in the Bahamas.

Monsanto. [CIA partner]. The firm contracted with former CIA official Cofer Black’s Total Intelligence Solutions (TIS), a subsidiary of the CIA-connected Blackwater USA, later Xe Services, to monitor animal rights groups, anti-genetically modified (GM) food activists, and other groups opposed to Monsanto’s agri-business operations worldwide.

National Enquirer. [CIA partner]. The tabloid’s founder, Generoso (Gene) Pope, Jr., worked for the CIA’s psychological warfare unit and the agency’s Italy branch in 1950. In 1952, Pope acquired The New York Enquirer broadsheet and transformed it into a tabloid, renaming it The National Enquirer. This transformation bore the imprimatur of the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD media influence program.

Newsweek. [CIA partner]. Magazine reporters and stringers fed information to the CIA. Newsweek’s stringers in southeastern Europe and the Far East were CIA agents. When Newsweek was bought by The Washington Post Company in 1961, cooperation between the magazine and the CIA increased. It was a participant in the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD media influence program. Much of the staff of Newsweek was absorbed into a new online publication, The Daily Beast, which continues to disseminate CIA-influenced articles. See Washington Post.

Nieman Foundation. [CIA partner]. Located at Harvard University, the foundation awarded Nieman Fellowships, some on behalf of the CIA, for foreign journalists to study at Harvard. The journalists were subjected to CIA recruitment efforts prior to their returning to their home countries.

Pamela Martin & Associates. [CIA partner], Escort firm run by Deborah Jeane Palfrey, the so-called “DC Madam.” During her 2008 trial for mail fraud, Palfrey attempted to invoke the Classified Information Procedures Act in order to discuss her relationship with the CIA. The U.S. Court refused Palfrey’s request and she was convicted and later said to have committed suicide before her sentencing hearing in Washington, DC. One of her clients was Randall Tobias, the head of the CIA-connected USAID. Another was Louisiana Republican senator David Vitter.

Paris Review. [CIA front]. Literary magazine edited by George Plimpton. Published works by Jack Kerouac and Samuel Beckett. The magazine’s co-founder, Peter Matthiessen, relied on his affiliation with the magazine as his CIA cover.

Quaker Oats Company. [CIA partner]. Worked with the CIA and Atomic Energy Commission to place trace amounts of radiation in breakfast cereal served to boys at the Fernald School for the mentally retarded in Waltham, Massachusetts.

Radio Corporation of America. [CIA partner]. Provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad, particularly in Iran, Philippines, Japan, and West Germany. Provided technical assistance to CIA-financed clandestine and propaganda radio stations worldwide, including Radio Free Europe. RCA founder David Sarnoff was a major supporter of CIA operations, including propaganda dissemination around the world. RCA chairman and chief executive officer Thornton F. Bradshaw was active in the operations of the CIA-linked American Ditchley Foundation.

Reily Coffee Company. [CIA partner]. Also known as William B. Reily Coffee Company and based in New Orleans, this company employed Lee Harvey Oswald and a number of other U.S. government employees, many of whom were suspected CIA officers.

Robert M. Mullen Company. [CIA proprietary]. A Washington, DC public relations firm, it was used as a front for CIA activities. E. Howard Hunt, the CIA agent, worked for Robert Mullen when he was arrested in the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington in 1972. The Senate Watergate Committee reported that “the Mullen and Company has maintained a relationship with the Central Intelligence Agency since its incorporation in 1959. It provided covers for agents in Europe (Stockholm), Latin America (Mexico City), and the Far East (Singapore) at the time of the Watergate break-in.”

Rockefeller Foundation. [CIA partner]. Used by the CIA to direct scholarships and grants to the Third World and Eastern Europe. Rockefeller Foundation money was funneled to the American Committee for a United Europe (ACUE), created in 1948. The chairman of ACUE was OSS chief William J. Donovan and the vice chairman was Allen Dulles. One of ACUE’s board members was Walter Bedell Smith, the first CIA director.

Summa Corporation. [CIA partner]. Owned by Howard Hughes, Summa is believed to have skimmed gambling profits from the Sands, Desert Inn, Frontier, Silver Slipper, Castaways, and Landmark casinos in Las Vegas and Harold’s Club in Reno for the CIA and the Mafia. Provided financial cover for the CIA’s Glomar Explorer project.

Teneo Intelligence. [CIA partner]. Branch of Teneo Holdings, which is headquartered in New York. Teneo Holdings’s intelligence branch includes former CIA officials. Teneo is closely linked to former President Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton. Teneo Intelligence has offices in New York, London, Rome, Brussels, Dubai, Bogota, New Delhi, and Tokyo.

Texas Commerce Bank (TCB). [CIA partner]. Houston-based bank founded by the family of James Baker III. Texas Commerce Bank was used to provide commercial cover for CIA agents. After serving as vice president for Texas Commerce Bank in Caracas from 1977 to 1979, Jeb Bush joined his father’s presidential campaign in 1980. Serving with Bush on the campaign was Robert Gambino, the CIA deputy director of security who gave Bush his orientation brief at Langley in 1977.

Kenneth Lay, the chairman of Enron, which had its own links to the CIA, served on the board of Texas Commerce Bank. Texas Commerce Bank was acquired by Chemical Bank in 1987.

The bank provided major loans to Howard Hughes’s Summa Corporation. See Summa Corporation.

United Fruit Company [CIA partner]. Involved in 1954 CIA overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz government in Guatemala. Published the Latin America Report, a publication that was a CIA front used for clandestine activities. The CIA transferred weapons to United Fruit employees in Guatemala who were involved in undermining the Arbenz government. The joint CIA-United Fruit plan was code named OPERATION FORTUNE. Company provided an airfield in Guatemala for the CIA’s training of Cuban exiles for the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.

U.S. Rubber Company. [CIA partner]. Headquartered in Naugatuck, Connecticut and later called Uniroyal, provided corporate cover to CIA officers operating abroad. Included those operating under the cover of the Dominion Rubber Company of Canada, a subsidiary of U.S. Rubber Company.

U.S. Youth Council (USYC). [CIA front]. Founded in 1945 and based in New York. Some 90 percent of its funds came from the CIA. USYC received funding from the Foundation for Youth and Student Affairs (FYSA), a CIA front. The USYC was composed of American Youth Hostels, Camp Fire Girls, 4-H, American Unitarian Youth, National Catholic Welfare Conference, National Students Assembly, YMCA and YWCA.

Wackenhut. [CIA contractor]. Wackenhut, a Palm Beach Gardens, Florida-based security firm, stood accused of providing the CIA with specialized services around the world, including Chile, Greece, and El Salvador. Its Venezuelan branch, Wackenhut Venezolana, C.A., was accused in 2002 of involvement in the CIA’s coup against President Hugo Chavez. William Casey served as Wackenhut’s outside counsel before becoming CIA director in 1981.

Wackenhut eventually merged into the global security firm G4S.

Washington Post. [CIA partner]. The Washington Post was part of the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD, the agency’s media influence project. Post publisher Phil Graham was a close friend and associate of MOCKINGBIRD chief Frank Wisner, Sr. and CIA director Allen Dulles. Wisner assisted Graham in acquiring The Washington Times-Herald and WTOP radio, creating a sizable CIA-influenced media operation in the nation’s capital.

W. R. Grace. [CIA partner]. Provided corporate cover to CIA officers operating abroad, particularly in Latin America. Provided donations to CIA front foundations.

  • News story about Madsen's book via The Justice Integrity Project



  •           Location, location, location...         
    Medieval Citadel
    view from one of the trails within the village, overlooking the medieval fort in the nearby kibbutz Yehiam (it's about an hour hike from the studio)
    As of Spring 2017, our courses will take place at Ayala Moriel's new studio in Clil, Israel. This charming little organic village is situated in one of the country's most fascinating regions, the Western Galilee, and is overlooking the Mediterranean sea (gorgeous beaches are only 20min drive), Haifa Bay and Mount Carmel. Clil provides a unique experience for students who choose to stay here* - I'd describe it as a 180 from Vancouver, for better or for worse. Here are a few details so you can get the picture (and photos from different seasons too!).
    This off-the-grid village is solar-powered and has small population of under 1000 people, who live in custom-built homes and semi-temporary dwellings (yurts, teepees, modified train cars and shipping containers, etc.) that are scattered among ancient olive groves and wild bush and Mediterranean garrigue (comprising of carobs, oaks, pistachia and thorny bushes). Despite its size, the village is a community bustling with life and culture: our neighbours are the village's cafe (inside a tent) that is opened Thursday-Saturday and hosts live concerts, and there. A large percentage of the population are alternative healers (we're just across the "street" from an integrated holistic clinic offering massage, acupuncture, ayurvedic treatments, and more) as well as creative artists, who have their ateliers in the village - and some would also be happy to show you around - painters, sculptors, potters, glass artists, silversmiths and goldsmiths, basket weavers, etc. 
    Dusty pastoralia #clil
    Clil in summer: View of the village from the mountain behind my house.
    Amenities:ʉ۬
    There is a bakery that is opened twice a week (Sunday and Thursday) and offers Pizza Nights on Tuesdays. On all other days, fresh sourdough breads by other artisanal bakeries can be pre-ordered by phone, or purchased at the local Organic Garden (which tops off their own produce with other fruit and vegetables and organic goodies produced in the village and by nearby artisans). Also less relevant but sometimes handy are the village's book exchange and clothing exchange, which is open 24/7 and is completely free (take what you want and leave what you no longer use - it can come handy if you forgot to bring a hoodie or a book to read). There are three restaurants in the village - Smadar b'Clil, Cafe Clil and Chef Hagit Lidror's Vegan & Vegetarian kitchen (she will be providing most to the catering to our courses, by the way) - which also makes healthy smoothies and mouthwatering raw chocolate treats (she also teaches raw chocolate making workshops!).
    Made in Clil
    The "shop local" sign, where you can find various things made in the village. It's located right next to Cafe Clil (which is our next-door neighbours to the east)
    Accommodations within the village include one boutique hotel, one guest house (India-style "hostel" on the second level of one of our neighbours) and countless cute cabins for short-term rent - some also offering breakfast as part of the service. Sublets among the village's inhabitants are often listed and could be arranged if booked enough in advance, and also near Cafe Clil there is a small campsite for those who enjoy a fully rustic experience, as well as Meshiv Nefesh - the centre for meditation, which also has plenty of camping space around it for individuals and groups. If you choose to stay outside of the village - we are only 20-30min drive (depending on traffic) from lovely towns that offer also many wonderful attractions to visitors - i.e. Acre and Nahariya. 
    In short - there are plenty of places to explore and people to meet in Clil, so I'm sure you will enjoy your visit and find things to do and discover outside of the classroom. 
    Olives and Donkeys
    Ancient olive grove in winter, at the centre of the village. Near it there is now an organic garden and grocery store
    Attractions:
    You can enjoy the many hiking trails in the village all on your own (including one in Wadi Yehiam leading to the medieval citadel in Kibbutz Yehiam) - or hire the local tour guide who knows the place from the day he was born (happens to also be my brother!). There are also trail rides on horses. Thursday evenings there is a little market in the village's playground, weather permitting. And watch out for the live music at the cafe - where you can listen to up and coming artists and even already famous ones, in a very intimate setting (and the artists is usually kept as a surprise till the last minute, to prevent over crowding of the venue). The beaches nearby (only 20 minutes drive) also offer year-around conditions for swimming, surfing, SUP, and sea kayaking.
    Clil is not only a place where people live differently, but also offers an alternative culture for visitors who seek to take a break from the fast-paced modern lifestyle. It's no ordinary rural place - it is bustling with music, culinary innovations, art, healing and meditations workshops and alternative medicine gatherings, and a place where one can engage and interact with artists and artisans that live here. In short - it seemed like the perfect place to return to and continue my artisan perfumery work - and create a sanctuary for this art.
    * You don't have to stay within the village - there are also plenty of interesting places around to stay in, such as Akre and Nahariya - but keep in mind that in that case vehicle is a must as public transit in and out of the village only comes twice a day, very early and very late. 


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              BREVES COMENTARIOS SOBRE LA REFORMA TRIBUTARIA        
    Para vergüenza mía tengo que confesar que he perdido el tiempo leyendo la reforma tributaria. Bueno, es algo "ñoño", aparte que no he entendido ni la mitad de sus consecuencias. Sin embargo, quisiera compartir mis apreciaciones dado que el gobierno se ha desgastado (y comprado con sus recursos) una serie de propagandas para insistir en la reforma tributaria. Una de esas es que no afecta a la clase media.

    Lo primero que hay que decir es que la reforma tributaria cuenta con una redacción en extremo confusa. Los políticos no tienen incentivos para clarificar sus reformas tributarias porque quieren que nadie sepa para quien es el totazo. Y es verdad que de acuerdo con su publicidad una lectura rápida no muestra que se esté gravando a la clase media. Eso hay que estudiarlo a profundidad. 

    JUGANDO AL IMPUESTO TEMPORAL
    Pienso de lo que entendí y lo que pude leer entre líneas es que los impuestos que se crean son temporales. Una creación de impuestos temporales es entre señal de debilidad del estado y un peligro inmenso porque nada más permanente que un impuesto temporal. El mejor ejemplo es el 4 X 1000 que nació por decreto inconstitucionalmente para salvar a los bancos en el gobierno de Pastrana, pero luego se saneó la inconstitucionalidad. Este impuesto lo están desmontando desde que tengo uso de razón tributaria. La anterior reforma tributaria, no hace menos de 2 años, había ordenado su desmonte. Ésta ¡hace lo mismo, pero deroga el desmonte anterior! ¿Qué qué? ¡Más 4 X 1000 por ahora! Una reforma tributaria no puede venir sin beneficios. Así que también hay una prórroga de beneficios temporales de leyes anteriores.

    EL DISCURSO DE LA CLASE MEDIA
    Como la ley 1607 de 2014 gravó onerosamente con el Impuesto Mínimo Alternativo Nacional a la renta donde claramente los ingresos eran de personas de clase media, esto fue muy criticado. La opinión pública y el análisis fueron claros al insistir lo intenso del gravamen. Como el gobierno quiere la paz, digo estar en paz, tiene que mostrar un discurso que no grave a la clase media. ¿Qué hacer entonces?

    Una vieja estrategia que se remonta hasta Marx es generar en el colectivo la imagen del "capitalista" rico. "El rico es malo y no hay legitimidad en la forma de generarla". Por eso se crea el "impuesto a la riqueza". Que además es "transitorio". Dice el presidente:

    "Por supuesto, esta reforma supone un esfuerzo para las empresas más grandes del país –unas 32 mil que tienen patrimonio superior a los mil millones de pesos– y para los colombianos más ricos –unos 50 mil que tienen también un patrimonio por encima de esa suma–.
    Pero no afecta a la clase media del país, ni a las pequeñas y medianas empresas –las pymes–.
    Además, como ya dije, esta reforma se hizo escuchando las inquietudes y sugerencias de los empresarios, motivo por el cual el impuesto a la riqueza –yo prefiero decirle impuesto contra la pobreza– desaparece en 2018.". http://wp.presidencia.gov.co/Noticias/2014/Diciembre/Paginas/20141223_03-Palabras-Presidente-Santos-sobre-la-sanciom-Ley-Reforma-Tributaria.aspx

    Palabras más palabras menos hay que quitarle a los más ricos para darle a los más pobres. Pero, ¿Tiene el impuesto a la riqueza una destinación específica?  Â¡No! O sea que lo que paguen por concepto de impuesto a la riqueza va a cualquier gasto del estado. No está ni dedicándose a los programas de primera infancia, educación, lucha contra la pobreza, etc. Así que Robin Hood no le está quitando a los ricos para darle a los pobres, sino quitándole a los ricos para darle al más rico e inútil: ¡el estado! Tan no es así que otro de los novedosos inventos es la "sobretasa al CREE" pero, a diferencia del CREE que sí tiene una destinación social específica:

    ARTÍCULO 22°. No destinación específica. La sobretasa al impuesto sobre la renta para la equidad – CREE no tiene destinación específica. Los recursos que se recauden por este tributo no estarán sometidos al régimen previsto en los artículos 24 y 28 de la Ley 1607 de 2012, no formarán parte del Fondo Especial sin personería Fondo CREE, y harán unidad de caja con los demás ingresos corrientes de la Nación, de acuerdo con las normas previstas en el Estatuto Orgánico del Presupuesto. http://www.comunidadcontable.com/BancoMedios/Documentos%20PDF/105%20-%2014%20s%20-%20134%20-%2014%20c%20reforma%20tributaria.pdf

    Sin embargo, en este impuesto hay una gran confusión entre riqueza y su medida. Los tan expertos en análisis económico y tributario parecen no comprender un balance. Un balance cuenta con activos líquidos y activos ilíquidos o fijos. Una empresa puede estar llena de activos fijos pero padecer iliquidez. 

    ¿Qué de la reforma toca a la clase media? Aunque cabe reconocer que de manera rápida no encuentro un empeoramiento a las condiciones de la "clase media" en materia tarifaria. Lo único es que el gobierno aumentó a las sociedades sujeto del "CREE" del 8% al 9%. Además de novedosos enredos en este impuesto.

    ¿Y es que el gobierno no beneficia a los ricos? Recordemos que el mencionado 4 X 1000 nació como el 2 X 1000 precisamente con la intención de salvar a los Bancos. Vea este video de Rudolf Homes cuando en aquella época http://youtu.be/bRgATyQm54A. Los comentarios agudos de Jaime Garzón son muy buenos ¿es que por encima de las leyes sociales están los bancos? ¿Es que los bancos cuando ganan no reparten y cuando pierden sí reparten? El estado es un aliado de los bancos, para eso puede leer a Mises que lo explica muy bien en el libro Human Action. Lo irónico del 4 X 1000 es que ¡terminó afectando a los bancos! ¿No ha oído a nadie decir "págueme en efectivo para que no me cobren el 4 X 1000"?

    ¿POR QUÉ HACERLO FÁCIL SI PODEMOS HACERLO DIFÍCIL?


    Esta imagen de www.actualicese.com da en el punto de los enredos de la reforma tributaria. Ponga la primera parte del índice tapando el meñique y abrazando el anular, que a su vez atrapa el intermedio que abraza el meñique aunque sobresale. Finalmente deje el pulgar afuera. ¡La esencia es el pulgar afuera y los demás enrollados! Podemos hacerlo fácil como a la derecha, o difícil como a la izquierda ¡El efecto es el mismo!

    Esa imagen, sin proponérselo, logra ser una descripción virtual del siguiente artículo: 

    ARTÍCULO 16°. Modifíquese el artículo 23 de la Ley 1607 de 2012 el cual quedará así:

    “Artículo 23. La tarifa del impuesto sobre la renta para la equidad - CREE a que se refiere el artículo 20 de la presente ley, será del ocho por ciento (8%). 
    Parágrafo. A partir del período gravable 2016, la tarifa será del nueve por ciento (9%).Parágrafo transitorio. Para los años 2013, 2014 y 2015 la tarifa del CREE será del nueve (9%). Este punto adicional se aplicará de acuerdo con la distribución que se hará en el parágrafo transitorio del siguiente artículo.” http://www.comunidadcontable.com/BancoMedios/Documentos%20PDF/105%20-%2014%20s%20-%20134%20-%2014%20c%20reforma%20tributaria.pdf

    ¿Qué? Lo que dice el artículo 23 se resume en "La tarifa del CREE será del 9%. Esta tarifa tiene efectos para los años 2013 y 2014 inclusive". Pero primero decir que es el 8%, luego que es el 9% desde el 2013. Incluyo la segunda frase simplemente porque la ley tiene efectos a futuro a menos que se especifique otra vigencia. Pero ¿para qué hacerlo en una frase si podíamos hacerla confusa?

    ¿IMPORTAN LOS ENREDOS EN LA ECONOMÍA?

    A finales de la década de los 30 Ronald Coase planteaba la teoría de la firma donde incluía su exitosa creación del concepto de "costo de transacción". Los costos de transacción son lo que cuesta realizar un intercambio. Por ejemplo, salir a comprar ropa implica no solamente pagar el precio, sino también una tarde perdida en un centro comercial, unas medidas incómodas, caminar, gasolina, etc. Todo para comprar unos benditos zapatos. ¿Cuál es el costo de transacción de pagar impuestos? Lo primero es entender qué toca pagar, luego cuándo y luego cómo. 

    Uno de los casos más comunes del pago de impuestos es la retención en la fuente. El que es agente retenedor tiene que aplicar unos enredos a la hora de pagarle a los "empleados". Pero un empleado tributario, además del empleado del Código Sustantivo de Trabajo, también lo es el independiente. Vea los artículos 383 y 384 del Estatuto Tributario sobre cómo se retiene el la fuente. Eso sin contar que tiene que pedirle el comprobante de pago de la seguridad social al independiente. Este costo de transacción de ignorarse puede generarse sanciones y de asumirse genera más trabajo al que lo hace. 

    Si una reforma tributaria es confusa para un abogado, estudiante de maestría en economía con experiencia en el día a día tributario-contable. Es confusa, también, para expertos consultores en materia de impuestos y planeación tributaria ¿Va a ser fácil de entender para el trabajador del común? Hice el experimento con estudiantes de último semestre de una carrera donde tienen contabilidad, costos, impuestos, etc. en su pénsum y escasamente pudieron comprender el ejemplo anterior. 

    En la medida en que los impuestos se hacen más confusos, es más difícil pagarlos. Esto implica una elección "no pagarlos y arriesgarse", "pagarlos y perder valiosas horas de productividad". Tampoco creo que ayude al recaudo, en la medida que la administración de impuestos estará muy ocupada entendiendo, aclarando, recibiendo interpretaciones diferentes. En Estados Unidos, y no es mi paradigma tributario, un doctor en ingeniería me decía que allá hacía fácilmente la declaración, acá le toca contratar un contador. Si un experto consultor se demoró un mes en entender el "Impuesto Mínimo Alternativo Nacional" ¿Va a ser fácil para las personas del común manejar estos costos? Y si los maneja ¡está dejando de pensar en cosas que sí le aportarían a su productividad! ¡Está dejando de producir y de trabajar por pagar impuestos! 

    No faltará el que salga con que eso genera empleo para los contadores. La verdad no creo que un contador realmente gane con la reforma tributaria. Realmente una reforma confusa no aumenta la productividad del contador, realmente la disminuye, lo obliga a vivir de capacitación en capacitación y le dificulta llevar el trabajo que ya tiene. Es posible que pueda cobrar más, pero porque la demanda aumenta y la oferta disminuye. Puede que el contador cobre más pero ¿a qué costo? Al costo de una labor más compleja. Es como decir que el médico ganaría más con la enfermedad, pues sí, pero hasta el punto que le den sus fuerzas: ¡Bendita sea la enfermedad que da trabajo a los médicos!

    ¿INEVITABLE?
    Puede que usted sea un creyente ferviente de esa ideología llamada Constitución de 1991. Que ame el estado social de derecho, como si por ponerle "social" capitán Constitución resolviera la pobreza, que crea que pagar impuestos es bueno. Crea usted que el  estado es un generoso Robin Hood que le quita a los "ricos tacaños" y que por ende, es inevitable resolver el déficit fiscal. Sepa varias cosas:

    A) La reforma tributaria trae más confusión, una mayor confusión tributaria es un virus que eleva los costos de producción de todas las empresas. Eso ya de por sí es una pérdida.

    B) Tenga en cuenta que hay muchas labores del estado que no tienen sentido. Por ejemplo, piense en el cargo de procurador judicial que todos sabemos que son una traba en procesos, especialmente los penales donde se juega con la libertad de las personas. Y ¿cuánto ganan? Piense en los carruseles de pensiones de las altas cortes mientras el juez promedio no tiene ni lapiceros. Tenga en cuenta la desigualdad de muchos funcionarios donde los altos tienen salario en especie con vehículos, escolta, entre otras. ¡Sí, la burocracia es más desigual todavía que las empresas privadas! 

    C) Tenga en cuenta que las reformas tributarias son confusas porque se quiere ocultar su verdadero sentido. Por eso incluyen exenciones con nuevos gravámenes lo que las hace más confusas todavía. Las exenciones se dan a costa de los gravámenes favoreciendo grupos económicos concretos. Lea algunas de las exenciones o descuentos y verá cómo los "ricos" pero "especiales" también ganan. Además si la intención es cubrir el "hueco fiscal" ¿cree que va a haber más descuentos que beneficios? Los beneficios son el "premio de consolación", ¿no cree que su intención es más psicológica?

    D) Finalmente, si quiere que el estado cubra el déficit funcionaría mejor si pensara en disminuir el gasto y priorizar. No se tiene que hacer una reforma tributaria si la intención es favorecer a los más pobres. Lo que se tiene que hacer es darle prioridad a los más pobres sacrificando el valioso "servicio" del procurador judicial, las pensiones presidenciales, el número de Congresistas, el carrusel de pensiones. ¿Cuánto no es el gasto de los órganos de control? 


    CONCLUSIÓN
    Concluir sobre 52 páginas y 72 artículos que remiten a otros artículos no termina aquí. La reforma tributaria no se acabó ¡apenas empieza! Pronto va a haber decretos, resoluciones, conceptos de la DIAN, seminarios, cursos, actualizaciones (en menos de dos años), sentencias, líos, enredos... Va a haber líos para resolver los líos, enredos para aclarar los enredos. Así si razona ad infinitum los enredos que trae la reforma son infinitos. Si quiere profundice en http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2157804, un análisis especial de las leyes tributarias gringas, que al lado de las colombianas son ¡fáciles! Así que esto es cuestión de tiempo que se difundan los daños que hace la reforma, por más buenas intenciones que tengan quienes la promovieron...



              COLCIENCIAS ¿PROMOTORA O TRABA?: CIENCIA A LA COLOMBIANA...        
    ¿Ciencia a la Colombiana? Este es un artículo que va en contra de la corriente actual, de alguna manera podrán decir que estoy en contra de la "ciencia" lo que me parece en cierto sentido excelente. Hace pocos días se desató el escándalo de que le iban a quitar plata a Colciencias. Para mí fue motivo de decepción: ¡Deberían cerrarla! Si yo fuera presidente lo primero que cerraría sería Colciencias y eso que es complicado dado como se comporta la academia actual, deseo que eso pase, que cierren a Colciencias... no ser presidente.

    ¿Qué ha pasado? La verdad hay un exceso de noticias que impiden afirmar científicamente qué fue lo que pasó. Hay dos hechos que creo claros: 

    1. "La directora de COLCIENCIAS dijo que iban a quitarles presupuesto"
    2. "La directora de COLCIENCIAS dejó su cargo a los pocos días"

    COL CIENCIA... RAZONAMIENTO INDUCTIVO A LA COLOMBIANA...
    ¿Qué pasó realmente? ¿Cómo se supo la "noticia" difundida como escándalo nacional? Lo primero que genera inquietud es ¿cómo sabía la directora que les iban a quitar presupuesto? ¿Le escribieron el ministro o el presidente? De acuerdo con un artículo de "El Tiempo" (al que hay que leer a favor de Colciencias por el sesgo a favor del presidente) http://www.eltiempo.com/estilo-de-vida/ciencia/colciencias-recibira-menos-presupuesto-en-el-2015/14203881 manifestó que recibió un correo de su director de planeación, es decir, un funcionario de ella. ¿Y ese funcionario de dónde la recibió? El confuso artículo del periódico El Tiempo menciona al Departamento Nacional de Planeación. Esa mención parece una "Colcienciada..." es decir una imprecisión de tipo periodístico como se da en Colombia. Pero ¿y si viniera del DNP? Si uno mira las funciones del DNP frente al presupuesto sus funciones son más de carácter burocrático y asesor que realmente quien elabora el presupuesto https://www.dnp.gov.co/Qui%C3%A9nesSomos/Funciones.aspx . Por su parte, quien realmente elabora y sigue el presupuesto, por tener la misión de la política fiscal y la definición del gasto público es el Ministerio de Hacienda http://www.minhacienda.gov.co/HomeMinhacienda/presupuestogeneraldelanacion. 

    ¿Entonces era información veraz con la que se basaba la directora de Colciencias? Es factible que la información fuera veraz. ¿Y cómo lo comprueba? Pero no es una información que uno pueda tomar como concluyente.  Lo sería si hubiera conocido el proyecto de ley del presupuesto presentado al congreso, ni siquiera un borrador permitiría una inferencia que "les quitaron el presupuesto". Solamente podría hablarse de una intención. Pero releamos las palabras: "Voy a dar la mala noticia que me acaba de llegar en un correo. Me dice mi jefe de Planeación: 'Directora, le mando la confirmación del presupuesto del año entrante, que es 289.000 millones de pesos. Estamos ya a 125.000 millones del presupuesto del año pasado". Pero bueno esa es la ciencia a la colombiana, una declaración no confirmada de una funcionaria -con autoridad de dirigir la "ciencia colombiana"- da para que toda una academia proteste porque "le van a bajar el presupuesto a Colciencias". 

    Pero bueno ese es el ridículo argumento de autoridad -no verdaderamente científico- por el que la "academia" reconoce un hecho probado: le van a disminuir el presupuesto a "Colciencias". Ni el más formalista, ni el menos riguroso de los académicos validaría una información de ese calibre. Es más ni siquiera hace bien el único trabajo que ese el estado: ¡producir formularios y saber llenarlos! Es como si un científico dijera que en su laboratorio la presión atmosférica es de 900 HPa porque se lo dijo su "asistente". Uno como mínimo mira el barómetro. Pero es ciencia a la colombiana... una mentalidad que se cree pensadora porque sabe muchos chismes... Recuerdo que hablaba una vez con una niña que estudiaba periodismo y ella leía "las fuentes son... el ministro". Y yo le dije que eso no era real, que la fuente es el acto -que es como se comunica el ministro como ministro- no la opinión -política además-del ministro. Bueno, tal vez la directora de "ciencias a la colombiana" quería rebelarse contra la ¡producción de formularios! y ver que puede haber verdad confirmada más allá del formulario... en especial lo referente al futuro...

    UNA INSTITUCIÓN PARA "FOMENTAR" LA "INVESTIGACIÓN"
    "Deseo tener el país más educado: ¡todos tendrán un diploma!"
    ¿Qué es Colciencias? Uno podría quedarse por lo que dicen los decretos que la crean, que es el mismo copy paste de esos sueños que quedan en las leyes. Acá creemos que el tiempo y el reloj se mueven por decreto, sino pregúntele a Juan Manuel Santos su ridícula e improvisada propuesta que pasó a la historia como "la hora Gaviria" y que cancelaron casualmente en el momento en que astronómicamente era inconveniente... manifestando que "ya era económicamente viable". Así como creemos que por decreto va a salir la ciencia, la tecnología y la innovación, creemos que necesitamos gente "trabajando" para hacer magia el decreto. Y eso hace "Colciencias":

    Colciencias es el Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación.
    Promueve las políticas públicas para fomentar la CT+I en Colombia. Las actividades alrededor del cumplimiento de su misión implican concertar políticas de fomento a la producción de conocimientos, construir capacidades para CT+I, y propiciar la circulación y usos de los mismos para el desarrollo integral del país y el bienestar de los colombianos.  http://www.colciencias.gov.co/sobre_colciencias?vdt=info_portal%7Cpage_1

    ¿Las cosas se conocen por el qué o por el cómo? Seguramente por el cómo. ¿Cómo promueve, fomenta, (y mil sinónimos de la burocracia para enfatizar sus objetivos) la Ciencia, la Tecnología y la Innovación? Contaré mi experiencia. ¿Qué hace Colciencias?

    Siendo uno de los pocos privilegiados que pudo pasar por la universidad recuerdo varias cosas. Una de mis grandes amigas (que seguro estará en desacuerdo y podrá precisar este artículo) era la Directora del Centro de Investigaciones. También intentaba entrar al mundo de la investigación universitaria con un Semillero de Investigación. Y bueno he encontrado más cosas en las universidades. 

    En aquellas épocas mi amiga trabajaba con otra amiga que se encargaba de arreglar todos los asuntos de la investigación. Bueno "investigación". Recuerdo que una de sus tareas era ayudar a los profesores a actualizar el CVLac ¿Qué es el CVLac? En Colciencias http://www.colciencias.gov.co/tutorialcvlac puede verse un tutorial especial para hacer el CVLac. Esto es básicamente la hoja de vida del investigador. ¿Por qué para investigar en las universidades se requiere una hoja de vida? El tutorial para hacer el CVLac tiene unas 66 páginas http://es.calameo.com/read/000051811450cdee35ceb cuya lectura muy posiblemente serán horas de investigación... perdidas... Y eso que luego de leerlo hay que llenarlo... Una labor que podrá ayudar a la paciencia, la templanza, la fortaleza pero no la investigación, mucho menos la innovación... Bueno, puede servir a crear el llenado automático de formularios, ¿se le ocurrirá eso a la brillantez colombiana? Espero que como un chiste bastante picante el programador del llenado automático de formularios sea colombiano...

    Alguna vez renegaba del colegio del que salí diciendo "en este colegio no quieren científicos sino secretarias". Pero el colegio no era más que un mini-Colciencias. Creo que Colombia solamente necesita una profesión "elaboración y llenado de formularios", así que el colegio pensaba en mi bien cuando me hablaba de la importancia de no salirme de los márgenes. De paso no debía enseñar nada más, porque los que "estudiamos" comemos cuando llenamos formularios, y comemos mejor cuando llenamos formularios más elaborados. Pero entre llenar un CVLac para decir que investigo o una declaración de renta por plata prefiero llenar una declaración de renta.

    Ahora bien, no bastaba con llenar la hoja de vida. También las universidades hacen grupos de investigación. Aunque la curiositas es amplia la investigación suele centrarse, no en el macrocosmos sino en el primer pelo de la segunda pata de la hormiga culona santandereana.Y allí tenemos los grupos de investigación. Esos grupos se mueven por proyectos. Por ejemplo "El crecimiento del primer pelo de la segunda pata de la hormiga culona santandereana en la disminución  del consumo de la misma en la dieta de los habitantes de San Gil, Santander". Esos grupos también tienen hoja de vida... efectivamente, más formularios. Pero bueno, eso no es lo que hace Colciencias, lo que hace es tomar esas hojas de vida y "pesarlas" y es básicamente comparar la investigación con la producción de bienes y servicios. La calidad de la investigación es "cantidad" http://www.colciencias.gov.co/sites/default/files/ckeditor_files/files/DOCUMENTO%20Modelo%20de%20Medici%C3%B3n%20Grupos%202013-VERSI%C3%93N%20II%20Definitiva%20DIC%2010%202013%20_protected.pdf.

    Es así como los investigadores ya tienen un buen tiempo llenando formularios -e investigando cómo se llenan esos formularios-. Pero uno tal vez piensa "bueno, ese no es el día a día de la 'apasionante' investigación". Pero no es extraño encontrar a los profesores llenando esos formularios que tienen plazo para enviarlos. Eso sin contar con los miles de informes que deben mandar. Creo que Colciencias también financia proyectos o autoriza sumas pero eso por lo menos no lo vi. Bueno, vi los jóvenes investigadores de Colciencias ¿Un incentivo para destruir la investigación verdadera con dudosas vinculaciones a universidades?

    EL PELIGROSO MIX DE CIENCIA Y ESTADO
    ¿Formularios o celdas? Difícil volar alto dentro de una jaula...
    Supongamos que Colciencias sí financia los proyectos de investigación y supongamos que es una financiación eficiente: la burocracia es simple papeleo en comparación al apoyo a la investigación. Esto es un peligro porque queda centralizada a los intereses y compromisos del gobierno de turno. Supóngase que un grupo de investigación investiga las vías para la paz en Colombia y encuentra "peligroso negociar en la Habana por la inviabilidad y efectividad del acuerdo para generar un desarme efectivo". O supóngase que un grupo de investigación en "Energías renovables" investiga "la generación eléctrica mediante el uso de las olas" que afecta a los monopolios del carbón y de las energías en petróleo, carbón o gas que de paso son empresas "industriales y comerciales del estado" que le generan regalías o pueden subastar para mejorar su cash flow... O algo un poco más de frente "La necesaria liberalización de la investigación para asumir los retos del mundo moderno" o algo con un tono más marxista "el factor alienante del estado en sus 'oficinas de fomento' de ciencia y tecnología". 

    La primera es una investigación que puede estar en el rigor legítimo y que está en todo su derecho a disentir de las políticas del gobierno. Pero como "la investigación debe realizarse dentro de los marcos, planes y programas" del estado posiblemente no se le acuse de frente, pero sí le exigirán hasta por un milímetro demás en los márgenes. Mejor dicho le dirán "claro que puedes abrir las alas... dentro de la jaula que hemos construido para ti". La segunda tampoco saldrá de plano, pero le exigirán todo y de paso se fomentarán investigaciones para demostrar "la inviabilidad del uso de las olas en la generación eléctrica". La tercera tampoco se aprobará. El estado  no es el garante, ni el promotor, ni la ciencia nace por decreto, ni llenando formularios. Bueno, sí salen libros sobre cómo llenar formularios, 66 páginas sobre cómo llenar la hoja de vida del investigador, algo que nos "facilita" la vida...   

    El nacimiento de la innovación, la tecnología y la ciencia se da de una forma totalmente contraria al planteamiento burocrático y centralizado de Colciencias. Al respecto puede leerse "El Tomismo Desdeñado" donde explican con claridad cómo el descubrimiento, el aprendizaje y demás son cuestiones que se dan en el marco de cada persona en concreto. Esa novedad, eso que estaba 'under my very nose' para parafrasear a un autor judío-norteamericano citado en "El Tomismo Desdeñado", no es algo sujeto a la forma, la cantidad o la temporalidad. De esa misma forma investigo yo, abierto a la naturaleza, al mundo y a los hechos... En esa forma de investigar no tengo que llenar formularios, a veces ni dejar registro -aunque sea mejor hacerlo- sino una permanente observación. 

    No niego que en el sistema de ciencia a la colombiana pueda haber buenos, incluso genios en la investigación y verdaderos aportes a la ciencia. Pero me parece que el sistema de "ciencia a la colombiana" o "investigación de llenado de formularios" anula, restringe o excluye a aquellos que son a mi juicio los mejores investigadores y restringe el alcance de los que lo logran. Los mejores investigadores son los niños sin lugar a dudas, su permanente contacto con la magia de la naturaleza y su capacidad de asombro los lleva a proponer las mejores soluciones y conclusiones sobre el mundo. La investigación necesita también del error, cosa que no se puede si está centrada en el llenado de formularios que considera el error como incorrecto... y de paso delito...

    Y seamos sinceros ¿cómo se dio el aporte a la ciencia en la historia? ¿Por órganos centralizados que fomentaran la "innovación, la ciencia y la tecnología"? Entre algunos ejemplos Fermat era un matemático aficionado cuyo oficio era el de abogado, y tener un diploma en derecho hace 'necesariamente' que uno no sepa de matemáticas. Conclusión a la que los "col-científicos" han decretado como dogma. Fermat jugaba con los números y hacía continuos descubrimientos que sorprendieron a muchos matemáticos posteriores como Euler. Pitágoras necesitaba seguramente un proyecto de investigación -y financiación de "Crotociencias"- para probar que "en un triángulo rectángulo la suma de los cuadrados de los catetos es igual al cuadrado de la hipotenusa". Se dice que Pitágoras huyó de su ciudad natal a Crotonas entre otras porque no quería participar en cuestiones de política http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pit%C3%A1goras. Eso sin contar con notables condenas y asesinatos a genios del calibre de Sócrates, asesinado entre otras porque pidió como condena que "Colciencias" lo financiara de por vida por sus aportes a la sociedad...

    Acabo de citar a Wikipedia que en ciencias colombianas "no es una fuente de fiar porque lo modifica cualquiera", el problema creo no es que cualquiera pueda modificarlo sino que lo hace gente que no tiene "CVLac". Probablemente los que modifican Wikipedia sean unos mediocres que pasan todo el día de fuente en fuente y no se gradúen con honores como Newton http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton que pasaba todo el día en la biblioteca y no iba a clase. Un artículo académico trae mil fuentes -CITADAS CON NORMAS APA- wikipedia trae ¡las fuentes! con link directo. O sino vea lo que trae la Wikipedia cuando uno busca a Newton: http://gravitee.tripod.com/booki1.htm ¡Su obra maestra!

    IN CONCLUSIÓN...CIERRE, CIERRE!!
    Espero que todos sean científicos e innovadores como yo.
    Atte: Colciencias.
    El conocimiento, la verdad y demás, es dialéctico y por eso no debería concluir un debate. Pero yo concluiría, cerraría, a Colciencias. Una tímida disminución de presupuesto es poco por la ciencia, la tecnología y la innovación... pero, si eso es cierto ¡hay que reconocerle la buena obra al gobierno! Los críticos -simplemente porque no es el gobierno que quieren- critican cualquier cosa que haga o digan que haga el gobierno, es un deporte, hasta bueno, el caso es que ver algo bueno en un gobierno es TAN difícil que hay que felicitarlo si estuviera haciendo las cosas bien... 

    Sin embargo, así es la realidad de este alienante y desmoralizador país cuya única profesión es el llenado de formularios... Si alguien pregunta por Colombia y lo que hacen... ¿Qué hacen? las empresas "llenar formularios" y si les queda tiempo producir bienes y servicios, las universidades "llenar formularios" y si les queda tiempo dan clases pero ¿investigan? Y los abogados "llenan formularios" y ¿en su tiempo libre? Piensan cómo hacerlos más enredados ¿Y qué hace el gobierno? ¡Produce formularios!  

    Y ¿qué son entonces El Tiempo, El Espacio, El Asombro o Espectador, El Colombiano, La República, Portafolio, El Nuevo Siglo, El País, El Universal? ¿Realidades? ¡Qué va! ¿Formularios? No, eso tiene su ciencia... ¡Periódicos! Pero los dueños de los periódicos son los mismos que hacen los formularios... Esa es la ciencia a la colombiana, basta leer un periódico, e improvisar su resumen como lo hacía un mediocre profesor del colegio que estaba allí porque sabía cómo ser un buen policía... ah y sabía verificar que el "desprendible" -formulario para niños- se llenara bien so pena de llamar "negligentes" a sus alumnos... Ese era mi "modelo" de "diligencia"... Clases improvisadas, formularios bien llenados... 

    Esa es la ciencia a la colombiana: producción de formularios. Y su proceso o método:

    - Justificación o discusión del formulario: periódicos
    - Producción del formulario: gobierno/estado
    - Control y auditoria para garantizar su incomprensión: abogados, lobbies, grupos de poder. Su objetivo es que entre más incomprensible, mejor...¡calidad!

    ¿Y Colciencias? Una tuerca sin aceite en medio del engranaje decadente... al que muchos encuentran por donde elogiar sus "grandezas"...

    NOTA: Si quiere comentar este artículo escriba 1. para queja, 2. para ironía, 3. para felicitación y agradecimiento, 4. Para reclamo... ¡Qué! Si le da la gana de escribir hágalo como quiera... si quiere insúlteme, internamente me ofenderé y reiré de usted al mismo tiempo, pero bienvenido...

    NOTA 2: O uno escribe o se dedica a recopilar fuentes, ahí están los links y un libro "El Tomismo Desdeñado" de paso le dejo el "CVLac" del autor http://190.216.132.131:8081/cvlac/visualizador/generarCurriculoCv.do?cod_rh=0000534471. Algunos me entenderán que ese CVLac es ridículo...De investigador junior no tiene ni un pelo...




              AUTO-SEMEJANZAS Y FAMILIARIDADES: HUELLAS Y FLUJOS        
                                                                   â€œA great presence is hard to see. A great sound is hard to hear. A great figure has no form.” Lao-Tzu

                                                                    "Cantando alegre, cruzó el valle, pasó la Sabana y al mar llegó". Calavera y la Popular Independiente.

    Una de mis obsesiones permanentes son los flujos que generan patrones auto-semejantes, es en otras palabras, una obsesión por una nueva rama de la matemática llamada "geometría fractal". Sin embargo, el patrón fractal no es exclusivo únicamente de la geometría. El fractal se puede oír en música, en especial la música de Bach como este concierto donde los patrones son auto-semejantes, sin dejar de notar las diferencias. Son los flujos de muchas cosas que generan ciertos patrones auto-semejantes dibujando formas geométricamente hermosas.  Sin embargo ¿cómo podemos trascender un concepto de la matemática a la filosofía? ¿Cómo podemos utilizar el fractal para ampliar y trascender el rango de nuestros conocimientos? ¿Cómo pueden unas ideas matemáticas y de filosofía del caos aportarnos a descubrir la causa y sentido del todo? A continuación daremos un abrebocas al concepto matemático para luego trascenderlo a la filosofía y al arte y comprender cuáles son las huellas que dejan los flujos de movimiento de las cosas en los seres.

    1. DESCRIBIENDO E INTUYENDO LOS FRACTALES: Auto-semejanzas.

    1.1 Intuyendo al fractal y su causa
    ¿Qué es un fractal? ¿Cuál es su esencia? ¿Cómo es un fractal en términos geométricos? Muchas preguntas pueden surgir legítimamente acerca de lo que es un fractal en términos geométricos o de espacio.

    Un fractal es mejor mostrarlo que describirlo, en él se verá la auto-semejanza. Auto-semejanza que implica que la parte se asemeja al todo y el todo a la parte y para parafrasear a la señorita Antioquia "también del mismo modo y en el sentido contrario". El concepto de auto-semejanza es más intuitivo que racional y o mejor es mostrar la imagen de un fractal, el más famoso, el conjunto de Mandelbrot:


    Los fractales, son entonces estos modelos generados por fórmulas de retroalimentación no-lineal  (Las siete leyes del caos, pág. 138). En últimas son funciones en los términos que aprendimos matemáticas en el colegio. Sin embargo, la definición de la causa de los fractales, "fórmulas de retroalimentación no-lineal", términos que nadie entiende, es válido para los fractales generados por computador como el conjunto de Mandelbrot. Sin embargo, los fractales y más aquellos que son naturales, implican algo mucho más profundo.

    A los fractales naturales podríamos denominarlos la huella del caos (Las siete leyes del caos, pág. 140) o más bien de los flujos de movimiento que son caóticos. En términos Aristótelicos le hemos dado la vuelta al fractal desde la perspectiva de la causa-eficiente. Es decir lo que los origina. Sin embargo, la explicación de su origen era para intuir el concepto de "auto-semejanza" que es en últimas la esencia del fractal.

    Los flujos de movimiento decíamos dejan una huella Â¿cómo es esa huella? ¡Auto-semejante a escalas diferentes! (Las siete leyes del caos, pág. 140) Si se observa el conjunto de Mandelbrot podemos ver que a primera vista tiene una imagen, pero mirando las más pequeñas encontramos que hay un cierto patrón que se repite. La forma en la que se repite la huella del flujo de movimiento se denomina auto-semejanza. Invitemos a los autores de "Las Siete Leyes del Caos" para que nos expliquen lo que es la auto-semejanza:

    "Por mor de la claridad, diremos que el término 'autosemejante' incluye esta idea de las diferencias individuales y la singularidad, así como las similitudes (...) En algunas formas fractales -particularmente aquellas generadas por los computadores mediante fórmulas matemáticas- la autosemejanza tiene algo de mecánica. En otros fractales -de la naturaleza y el arte- lo que es autosemejante se halla mezclado con lo que es diferente de forma tal que constituyen un desafío a la descripción." (Las siete leyes del caos, pág. 142)
    1.2 Fractales naturales y algunas preguntas
    Si el Conjunto de Mandelbrot es un fractal artificial ¿cómo sería un fractal natural? ¡Algo que suele verse mejor desde la ventanilla de un avión! Si alguien quiere cazar fractales que pida la ventanilla de un avión así haya algunos mal encarados que crean que es capricho. Algo como la siguiente foto:

    NUBES FRACTALES

    El flujo de movimiento en el caso de las nubes es el agua, el fluido -término físico- más común en la tierra. La huella que deja son las formas que tienen una retroalimentación del sol, luego del "albedo" que producen devolviendo radiación solar al espacio, los choques de las goticas, la disminución de la temperatura ocasionada por el impacto de la devolución de la radiación que disminuye la evaporación, lo que disminuye la temperatura, aumenta la condensación, disminuye la humedad específica, al enfriar aumenta la presión. Mejor dicho es una situación de una multicausalidad enorme o sea de muchas causas, que se retroalimentan así mismas... 

    Esos fractales naturales son la huella de aquello que los primeros filósofos denominaban el arjé. Los primeros filósofos empezaron a ver que la naturaleza estaba compuesta de algo y el fluir de ese algo era lo que generaba los seres. Ese arjé plural o singular me parece que siempre era algo sometido a un flujo de movimiento capaz de dejar huella: Vgr -Agua, Aire, Fuego, Tierra. 

    Sin embargo, al ver el amplio movimiento. Algunos como Heráclito decían "uno no se baña dos veces en el mismo río", pero ante eso se genera una pregunta ¿cómo puede nombrar al río si siempre es diferente? Parménides se iba al otro extremo de considerar todo como eterno e inmutable. Pero ¿cómo explica que no hay una nube igual a otra? ¿Cómo explica al anciano y al niño? Heráclito diría que son personas distintas, lo que es contra-evidente, pero también sería contra-evidente negar la diferencia, son la misma persona pero con una diferencia en su estado. En todo caso ¿en qué medida habría impactado en su filosofía la geometría fractal? Una pregunta que generará en el lector un flujo de preguntas y respuestas... "¡Un diálogo es un fractal!" dice la Mula Pensante.

    1.3 De la filosofía a la intuición
    Quisiera cerrar este fractal con dos frases que muevan la intuición para comprender lo que es un fractal. Muchas veces la intuición la mente la entiende en forma de paradoja, o las paradojas producen intuiciones, y también del mismo modo y en el sentido contrario:

    "Ver el mundo en un grano de arena,
    y el cielo en una flor silvestre;
    tener el infinito en la palma de la mano
    y la eternidad en una hora."
    Flower world/mundo en la flor
    ¿El mundo en una flor...? ¡Quizás!
    (William Blake en PAPPAS, 1996, pág. 50)
    Dice un texto budista Chan: 

    "Se levanta una partícula de polvo y toda la tierra está allí; florece una flor y amanece un universo con ella" (Las siete leyes del caos, pág. 142-143)
    Finalmente:
    “A great presence is hard to see. A great sound is hard to hear. A great figure has no form.” Lao-Tzu. Y mi pésima traducción: "Una gran presencia es difícil de ver. Un gran sonido es difícil de oír. Una gran figura no tiene forma.". Ahh y es una cita que leí en
    http://www.yamamotomasao.jp/from_the_artist_3.html
    Hago una advertencia a los lectores eruditos desprevenidos y creen tener el dogma en sus cerebros que esto no es panteismo. Es una filosofía que quizás aún no la tenga categorizada en su aburrida cabeza. Es posible comprender la pluralidad de los entes y la trascendencia de Dios y las intuiciones orientales acerca de la parte y el todo. Las interrelaciones entre los entes que participan de la creación de Dios son mucho más profundas y delicadas de lo que parecen. Mejor dicho es una frase de desahogo ante tanto dogmático suelto que en vez de procurar entender y debatir busca clasificar y categorizar. Por cierto, las cosas no son mentiras o verdades porque yo las clasifique en modelos negativos, eso es una falacia denominada muñeco de paja.

    2. DE LA MATEMÁTICA A LA FILOSOFÍA: Familiaridades.
    Me escribe en estos días la Mula Pensante en facebook "el Apocalipsis es un fractal". Ante tal sorpresa le pregunté ¿Por qué? Y lo que me contestó me permitió entender el concepto de Iglesia. Me contestó o tal vez le entendí algo así como "la lucha individual de cada Cristiano es auto-semejante y se retro-alimenta a la lucha de la Iglesia Universal". La cuestión tiene lógica, si la gracias es un flujo de movimiento sobrenatural su huella ha de estar determinada por la lucha individual de cada cristiano. En últimas la gracia es un río que viene de Dios y a Él pretende llevarnos. De la misma forma podemos considerar el diálogo como un fractal que es la huella de un flujo de movimiento de ideas o insultos en algunos casos: insultos o ideas son fractales al fin y al cabo. También vemos fractales en la música, en especial de Bach.

    Esas autosemejanzas geométricas podríamos denominarlas también familiaridades. Los apartes de una melodía de Bach suelen ser similares al todo y así mismo a otras partes. Las nubes suelen ser familiares a las montañas, que suelen ser familiares a los árboles, las olas forman en la arena rizos familiares a las corrientes de los ríos. La auto-semejanza fractal traducida como una familiaridad esencial nos lleva a una intuición que los metafísicos descubren por lógica... ¡hay algo en común entre los seres/entes! ¡Que SON! Filósofos como Ockham por el contrario niegan esas familiaridades y dejan lo común de las cosas como meros nombres flatus vocis.

    Entre las mismas cosas hay una familiaridad, algo común, que viene como huella del rastro de los flujos de movimiento. No significa que todas sean lo mismo, para que haya autosemejanza tiene que haber diferencia. Podríamos llegar a múltiples disquisiciones al respecto, pero esa familiaridad y la retroalimentación que cada cosa hace a la otra y por ende a sí misma, sumada en un flujo de tendencias o fines al bien, ¿no será una prueba de que el arjé es el flujo del amor? Si los entes naturales se retroalimentan a sí mismos para lograr sus fines, todos esos entes tienen una huella de algo amoroso que los trasciende. La misma familiaridad y la retroalimentación que los entes hacen al flujo debe indicar que en ellos hay inmanente algo de amor. ¿Será que el amor es el arjé? El amor es querer el bien del otro, los flujos de movimiento naturales parecen indicar el bien de las cosas o que siempre les hacen un bien, un bien que las trasciende pero que las retroalimenta.

    Escher Metamorfosis. Estos cuadros utilizan los fractales para  dibujar las imágenes, pero el fondo que puede interpretárse es que todas sus imágenes a pesar de ser distintas cuentan con esa familiaridad.

    Me encantaría sentar claro que efectivamente ese amor proviene del Dios que es su causa, pero esto dejaría muchas dudas acerca de cómo de las familiaridades entre los entes que se retroalimentan se puede llegar a concluir que ese arjé proviene del flujo del amor. Creo que es así, pero esto lo digo por fe, no porque tenga la prueba fehaciente. Es decir, la existencia del mundo denota un Dios, pero que lo que mueva el mundo sea movido por el amor, es algo que requiere mayor rigor y profundidad. Apenas voy entendiendo las familiaridades. No sé lo que intuyo y razono.

    3. FAMILIAS Y FAMILIARIDADES: Arte.
    La razón intencional de este escrito era mostrar la auto-semejanza o familiaridad entre las intuiciones o sensibilidades mía y de un primo. El primo Calavera, es el cantante de la Banda Calavera y la Popular Independiente que son un nuevo género musical que busca mezclar la tradicional guasca antioqueña con un poco de rock. Es algo estilo Juanes pero mejor a mi modo de ver. Lo curioso del asunto es que oyendo una de sus canciones que advierto está mal grabada porque todavía no lo han hecho en estudio descubrí que la banda describía la intuición que me persigue hace días, la intuición y vocación hacia los "flujos". Vocación e intuición que me hace desear viajar en exceso en avión y pedir una bendita ventanilla. La canción donde Teo Calavera expresa la idea del flujo y de las familiaridades es "Soñé en el Río":

     

    Al fin y al cabo, las familias tienen la huella de la genética y también de prácticas -virtudes y vicios- de hace muchos años. Oír al abuelo diciendo que el cogía tigres de la cola y que venía El Alispruz, o a la abuelita obsesionada por tener las flores más hermosas de las palmas tienen claros impactos: "soñé una finca para mi madre -dice la canción-, llena de flores mirando al sol" . Son otra forma de "genética" pero a ambos nos tocaron y dejaron huellas en el espíritu que ahora queremos expresar al mundo. Que se expresan de acuerdo al espíritu y vocación individual, pero que tienen su auto-semejanza, su familiaridad. La familia es la portadora del flujo de herencia material y espiritual, esos flujos generan auto-semejanzas y diferencias en sus miembros.

    Teo Calavera hace sus alispruces mediante la música. La canción bellas imágenes describe los flujos de movimiento. La canción describe ese constante movimiento "soñé en el río y el río me llevó, bajó por la montaña..." luego la descripción lleva a la forma de cómo baja el río "Cantando alegre, cruzó el valle, pasó la Sabana y al mar llegó". Ese punto del mar donde se funde con el todo, con una cultura "eran las voces de una nación"  o la paradoja con la totalidad "mientras las olas me iban llevando yo era el cielo y tú mi sol". La canción tiene el mismo estilo literario de García Márquez, un realismo mágico, que describe la realidad sin desdibujarla pero de una forma curiosamente mística. En el fondo refleja ese anhelo de amor, de querer unirse con el universo, con la totalidad de las cosas en imágenes llegando a un mar que refleja ese todo de los anhelos humanos.

    INCONCLUSIÓN
    Ya se me volvió un delicioso vicio -o quizás virtud- de dejar mis escritos inconclusos. La razón es fractal ¡no quiero agotar el flujo del conocimiento! El fin de un ensayo no es el fin de lo que se pueda decir de una cosa, el fin de un ensayo es el comienzo para que muchos en su libre razonar, su creatividad y su inteligencia utilicen esas ideas para algo. Que las utilicen así sea para decir lo ridículo que es un autor o para tomar parte razonable y criticar el resto. Tesis, Antítesis y Síntesis como el Hegel Pop es imposible tenerlas en un escrito.  La dialéctica -que es quizás la ciencia que estudia los flujos de diálogos- no se agota en un escrito, ni en un autor. La verdad no es tan caprichosa como para quedarse en una sola cabeza.

    Por eso que siga el fluir, el movimiento, la dialéctica, las Tesis, Antítesis y Síntesis del Hegel Pop. Que le den duro al ensayo, modifiquen la idea y sea simplemente una ayuda de mi parte en el constante parto del conocimiento que no es oficio particular sino de la humanidad. Ojo, que sea oficio de la humanidad no significa como creen erradamente los marxistas que eso es oficio del estado. El estado es una metáfora de lo contrario al flujo de movimiento. Es oficio de la humanidad en cabezas particulares que libremente lo retroalimentan ¡un buen ejemplo es Wikipedia! En fin...

    BIBLIOGRAFÍA

    PAPPAS, T. (1996). LA MAGIA DE LA MATEMÁTICA. El orden oculto tras la naturaleza y el arte. (M. Rosenberg, Trad.) Madrid, España: Zugarto Ediciones S.A. 

    Peat, F. D., & Briggs, J. (1999). Las siete leyes del caos (Primera Edición ed.). (D. Mas, Trad.) Barcelona, Cataluña, España: Grijalbo.

    OTROS ARTÍCULOS DEL BLOG




              Empaque flexible y sus materiales mas comunes        
    Breve descripcion del Empaque Flexible:

    Se llama empaque flexible los materiales que se pueden transformar en laminas, que ya sea solos o en conjunto (estructuras) y que se presentan en primera instancia como rollos o bobinas para ser transformados en bolsas o pliegos con la finalidad de contener un producto para mantener o resguardar su integridad.
    Regularmente es usado como envase primario pero tambien se puede presentar como empaque secundario (bolsa docenera) y hasta embalaje (sacos).

    Materiales que se utilizan en el empaque flexible:

    Dentro de los materiales que al momento se utilizan y que se prevee a un futuro proximo y lejano se seguiran usando prevalecen los polimeros (polietilenos de varias densidades, poliesteres, polipropilenos, PVC etc.), el aluminio (como lamina o metalizacion), los papeles, el celofan, las parafinas, los adhesivos (con y sin solvente) las tintas y los solventes.

    Polietilenos: Estos constituyen la mayoria (en porcentaje por peso) de los materiales flexibles usados en el mundo, son exclelentes para laminar materiales, dar cuerpo a las estructuras y para sellado, lamentablemente no ofrecen ninguna barrera significativa al vapor de agua y al oxigeno a menos que sean modificados con otros componentes o polimeros de otros tipos durante su proceso de extrusion. Para empaque flexible se pueden extruir por cortina y por soplado (blow extrussion) que puede a su vez ser por proceso de una sola capa o de varias capas en cuyo caso se llama coextrusion.

    Polipropilenos: Conforme han avanzado tecnologicamente se han converrtido en la tendencia a seguir, se han desarrollado altas barreras, bajos grosores, mejoras en la resistencia y mejores apariencias ademas del precio, se podria decir que son los materiales que dominan la industria del empaque en cuanto a desarrollos. Su limitante radica en que son muy susceptibles a deformarse en el proceso de transformacion, empaque y sellado por su sensibilidad a la temperatura, requieren de maquinaria de empaque de alta presicion.

    Poliesteres: Tambien llamados Nylons (por ser la marca del poliesterde Dupont) se destacan por su resistencia a las altas temperaturas a la hora de sellar y la hora de congelar, poseen buenas barreras cuando son metalizados y exelente maquinabilidad ademas de buena resistencia al rasgado y ponchadura.

    Aluminio: La mejor de las barreras, aun que esta depende en gran parte de el manejo que se la va a dar al producto (muy facilmente se fractura en los dobleces) y a la calidad del productor pues presentan una cantidad definida de agujeros (pin holes) por metro cuadrado y cuando esta supera los estandards de la industria la barrera se compromete. Por ser un metal su precio es muy alto en comparacion con los demas materiales flexibles.

    Adhesivos: Son de dos tipos, los con solventes que se usan para industria que no requiere contacto con alimentos y altos niveles de adhhesion (bond) y los sin solventes que son de relativa reciente utilizacion y que son usados para unir sustratos (capas de materiales) de estrucuturas para la industria de alimentos.

    Papeles: Sirven para dar aspecto, ayudar a eliminar memoria (que el material se resista a permanecer doblado), dar cuerpo y como capas absorventes. Cuando son brillantes para impresion llevan por fuera un recubrimiento de caolin, loshay de distintos tipos como kraft, tissue etc.

    Celofanes: Se fabrican a partir de cululosa (similar al papel) y antes del surgimiento de los poliesteres y polipropilenos eran la opcion que habia para poder empacar alimentos, actualmente estan en desaparicion dado que por sus carcteristicas y precio no puede competir con con materiales mas modernos su demanda es menor y ya hay solo pocos productores.

    Parafinas: Estas se usan como capas sellantes en caliente y antes de la tecnologia de los adhesivos se usaba para laminar sustratos para la industria de alimentos pero daban un bond muy debil. Su barrera es baja y son muy sensibles a la temperatura.

    Tintas: Son pigmentos de color que disueltos en un solvente se adhieren a la superficie del empaque (ya sea por fuera o por dentro) para dar los efectos deseados en la impresion. En conjunto con los costos de desarrollos de artes graficas son la parte mas cara gramo por gramo de costo total del empaque. Hay tintas genericas o basicas (cyan, magenta, amarillo y negro) de las que se forman todas las demas y tintas directas como las que son emblematicas de una marca como el rojo Marlboro. Hay tambien tintas para rotograbado y flexografia que son las dos formas de impresion industriales en nuestra region centro americana, hay empresas que estan ya ofreciendo impresion inkjet para empaque flexible.



              5 mitos estéticos (falsos o verdaderos) que deberías conocer        
    Aclaración de 5 mitos estéticos | Elena del Mar
    Los tratamientos estéticos son una de las opciones más acertadas al momento de rejuvenecer y lucir radiante. Sin embargo existen diferentes mitos y realidades que giran entorno a estas posibilidades. Elena del Mar despeja dudas y te invita a visitar uno de sus centros de estética en Chicó para que vivas experiencias y disfrutes de todas las promociones que tenemos preparadas para ti.

    ¿Mitos estéticos? Conócelos y… no comas entero


    Las verdades universales son inexistentes debido a que los absolutos que definen la realidad en algún momento no arrojan los resultados esperados. En el caso específico de los tratamientos estéticos puede que en algunas personas lo esperado empiece a notarse a la segunda o tercera sesión. No obstante, en otros casos puede tardar un poco más. No mencionamos que desde la primera sesión porque en esa oportunidad puede suceder algo en tu cuerpo pero no se logrará lo que esperas ver.

    A continuación lo que debe ser desmentido o ratificado de los tratamientos estéticos:

    #1. Disminución de medidas en la primera sesión de masajes


    FALSO. Una sola sesión de masajes reductores como uno de los tratamientos post parto no disminuye tus medidas, lo que puede suceder es que tu estado de ánimo cambie y te sientas más segura, ligera y conforme con tu imagen. Fortaleciendo tu autoestima y amor por quien eres.

    #2. La celulitis no se elimina


    VERDADERO. La celulitis es una enfermedad crónica que proviene de factores como la mala circulación, problemas hormonales, enfermedades de la piel, malos hábitos alimenticios y sedentarismo. Se presenta en varios grados o etapas además de ser progresiva. Sin embargo se puede detener y revertir el proceso por medio de tratamientos especializados. En este caso, Elena del Mar te ofrece la promoción “Adiós Celulitis”, haz tu reservación y pago online desde aquí y disfruta de un centro de estética en Hacienda Santa Bárbara con buena ubicación y facilidades de llegada para cumplir con tu “cita especial”. 

    #3. Bañarse con agua caliente aumenta la celulitis


    VERDADERO. Las duchas muy calientes o los baños de inmersión generan en tu cuerpo acumulación de líquidos en las diferentes zonas donde tienes celulitis. Por tanto, no permite la eliminación de toxinas. ¿La recomendación? Ducharte con agua templada o, preferiblemente, fría.

    #4. El botox inflama el rostro


    FALSO. El botox no provoca inflamaciones en labios o partes de la cara pues no es un material de relleno. Es una toxina que permite la relajación de los músculos faciales y disminuye las líneas de expresión naturales.

    #5. Todos los rellenos faciales son notables


    FALSO. Los rellenos faciales que suelen utilizar los pacientes no se ven exagerados ni modifican las expresiones del rostro. Ahora, no existe en el mercado un relleno que dure para siempre, por tanto, este tipo de procedimientos te aportan una duración de 1 año a año y medio dependiendo factores de marca.

    5 de los muchos mitos que existen te los damos a conocer hoy para que despejes dudas y tomes decisiones estéticas si por alguna razón estás pensando en acudir a especialistas en el sector. Elena del Mar es uno de los centros de estética que ofrece además de spa en Bogotá norte y otras zonas de la ciudad, actividades deportivas en excelentes sedes de gimnasio, con el gran objetivo e iniciativa de promover un estilo de vida orientado al bienestar y armonía.

    Contáctanos, reserva tu cita y disfruta de grandiosas promociones estéticas.

    Artículo tomado de Elena del Mar.
              5 fabulosas técnicas de belleza para que luzcas radiante siempre        
    Inicia el 2017 practicando 5 hábitos para lucir bella | Elena del Mar
    Nada más saludable y rejuvenecedor que llevar rutinas de belleza que cuiden de tu aspecto y te permitan lucir renovada cada día. Elena del Mar como uno de los centros de estética en Chicó, te da a conocer 5 diferentes pero espectaculares rutinas para que las pongas en práctica por el resto de días. Empiézalos de manera distinta.


    Estás a tiempo. Renueva tu estilo de vida

    Pasados casi 30 días del año aun estás a tiempo de retomar y aplicar a tus días rutinas que te permiten empezar a renovar tu rostro y cuerpo, por ello, propón consentirte y sorprenderte, verte bella y radiante gracias a prácticas que podrás realizarte en algún spa en Bogotá norte y te ayudarán a lograr ese cambio tan deseado. Ten en cuenta estos consejos o hábitos de belleza, son especialmente para ti.

    #1. Cambia de look


    Sin dudas, este aspecto es crucial para que te sientas diferente contigo. Poder mirarte al espejo y lucir mucho mejor es el paso fundamental para que empieces a tomar decisiones en tu vida. La grandiosa Coco Chanel un día dijo: â€œuna mujer que corta su cabello está a punto de cambiar su vida” y sí que es cierto. O, ¿qué sucede cuando vas a la peluquería y decides transformarte? ¿Cómo te sientes? Tú tienes la respuesta. Entonces hoy toma camino a la peluquería y cambia tu look.

    #2. Ejercítate y moldea tu cuerpo


    Aunque suena hermoso, realmente es un objetivo difícil por su amplitud. Por ello, intenta ponerlo más específico, por ejemplo, salir a trotar todas la mañana, asistir al gym que está cerca a tu casa. De este modo, será mucho más alcanzable y no olvides que tu mayor motivación siempre serás tú; lucir bien y mantener tu peso para que tu salud no esté en riesgo.

    #3. Aliméntate correcta y balanceadamente


    Cuando se trata de cambiar hábitos es importante y muy aconsejable que lo hagas de manera gradual, ya que así acondicionas tu cuerpo y los empiezas a tomar como costumbres en tu vida. Por tanto, ¿qué tal si empiezas analizando cómo son tus comidas? ¿Tomas muy pocas raciones de fruta o verdura? ¿Tomas agua? Te aconsejamos que comiences a evitar los azúcares. Margarita Rosa de Francisco, actriz y presentadora aconseja evitar los lácteos, los fritos y el pan y, te invita para que tomes agua, té verde y agua de Flor de Jamaica.

    #4. Para el cuerpo y rostro una buena hidratación


    Éste hábito te anima para que te consientas gracias a buenas rutinas de limpieza de tu rostro. Limpiezas que puedes realizar en tu casa y si deseas más profundidad, existen spas en el centro de Bogotá que te ofrecen fabulosos planes y promociones que te prometen limpiezas correctas. Adicionalmente, es muy importante que te acostumbres a usar protector solar. Y, por supuesto, exfolia tu rostro y piel corporal una vez a la semana, te ayuda a eliminar células muertas.

    #5. Fíjate en las tendencias


    Estas serán las que te ayuden a determinar qué sigue y qué tipo de procedimiento o técnica de belleza podrías practicarte. Observa y analiza las tendencias en maquillaje, ejercicios, tratamientos que podrás realizarte en tu centro de estética en Hacienda Santa Bárbara o bien, aquellas grandiosas técnicas que podrás llevar a cabo en la comodidad de tu casa.

    Hoy te hemos enseñado 5 diferentes consejos para que te propongas, en lo que queda del año, cambiar y adoptar hábitos en tu vida que te permitirán lucir mucho más radiante y bella. En Elena del Mar te ofrecemos procedimientos faciales y corporales, llevados a cabo con grandiosos equipos y tecnologías que te prometerán lucir magnífica. Visita nuestro centro de estética facial en Cafam Floresta y empieza a cambiar desde hoy.

    Artículo tomado de Elena del Mar.

              Word of the Day: Options        
    Options A contract giving an investor a right to buy (call) or sell (put) a fixed amount of shares (usually 100 shares) of a given stock (or indexes and commodities) at a specified price within a limited time period (usually three, six, or nine months). The purchaser hopes that the stock's price will go up (if he bought a call) or down (if he bought a put) by an amount sufficient to provide a profit when he sells the option. Source: www.environmentalinvestors.com
              Toilet Ek Prem Katha: Karan Johar And Alia Bhatt Has A Funny Invite For You All        

    Toilet Ek Prem Katha is being promoted by Alia Bhatt and Karan Johar, and it’s funny to the point.  Toilet Ek Prem Katha is certainly turning out to be one of the most awaited Bollywood films of this year. Based on Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Clean India Campaign, the film is being promoted with all

    The post Toilet Ek Prem Katha: Karan Johar And Alia Bhatt Has A Funny Invite For You All appeared first on RapidLeaks.


              CZK - 7,5cm tankový kanon vz.39/44N (úprava kořistní zbraně pro ST-I)        
    Autor: Jiří Tintěra

    Datum: 10.08.2017 19:32:31



     
    Název:
    Name:
    7,5 cm tankový kanon vz. 39/44 N 7.5 cm tank cannon Mk. 39/44 N
    Originální název:
    Original Name:
    7,5 cm tankový kanon vz. 39/44 N
    Výrobce:
    Producer:
    Rheinmetall-Borsig AG, Düsseldorf /
    Období výroby:
    Production Period:
    DD.MM.1944-DD.MM.1945
    Vyrobeno kusů:
    Number of Produced:
    neuveden (Not specified)
    Prototyp vyroben:
    Prototype Built:
    DD.MM.RRRR ?
    Použití:
    Use:
    ST-I (1)
    Technické údaje:
    Technical Data:
     
    Hmotnost:
    Weight:
    1350 kg 2976 lb
    Ráže:
    Calibre:
    75 mm 2.95 in
    Náboj:
    Cartridge:
    75 x 495 mm
    Délka hlavně:
    Barrel Length:
    d/48 mm (2) L/48 (2)
    Celková délka:
    Overall Length:
    neuvedena Not specified
    Používaná munice:
    Ammo Used:
    tříštivo-trhavý granát vz. 34
    protipancéřový granát vz. 39
    protipancéřový granát vz. 40
    kumulativní granát vz. 38, verze B
    kumulativní granát vz. 38, verze C
    Mk-34 High Explosive
    Mk-39 Armour Piercing
    Mk-40 Armour Piercing
    Mk-38 Granate with Shaped Charge, mod. B
    Mk-38 Granate with Shaped Charge, mod. C
    Výkony:
    Performance:
     
    Maximální dostřel:
    Maximum Range:
    ~7,7 km ~4.8 mi
    Rychlost střelby:
    Rate of Fire:
    12-15 ran/min 12-15 rpm
    Úsťová rychlost:
    Muzzle Velocity:
    740 - 790 m/s 2428 - 2592 ft/s
    Poznámka:
    Note:
    Kořistní zbraň upravená ve Škodových závodech Plzeň.
    (1) 7,5 cm stihač tanků ST-I
    (2) Dostupné prameny uvádí dva rozdílné údaje o délce hlavně: 3600 mm a 3375 mm
    Prey weapon modified at Skoda Pilsen.
    (1) 7.5 cm tank destroyer ST-I
    (2) Sources show two different length barrel: 3600 mm or 3375 mm


    Zdroje:
    Sources:
    Výkres VTÚ: Nápisy na dělech, č.v. I-3C1-1-2/1, in VHA Praha, FL: MNO VTV, rok 1947, KL: 167, SL: 13871,
    Krátký popis 75mm tanového kanonu vz.39/44N ..., in VHA Praha, FL: MNO-VTVM, rok 1952, KL: 65, SL: 24-1/242.
    https://forum.valka.cz/topic/view/179099

               A conexão e o silêncio ou Desconectar para Conectar         



    Vel bekomme...

    Sørg for å laste ned videoen og deretter kopiere den over på VHS-kassett slik at den kan sees til skrekk og advarsel hver bloggfrie Blomsterstjerne-fredag i det kommende året. Husk at videoen har 18-års grense.
    (Om det har klikket for meg? Nei, jeg er bare lobotanisert...)

    På tross av alt dette her vil jeg bare avslutte med å spå at 2013 blir et fantastisk år!?!
    BÃ¥de for dere og for meg :)

    Godt nyttår & takk for det gamle!
    Vi sees inne i magasinet.









    P.S. Følg gjerne med pÃ¥ Facebook for siste nytt i Blomsterstjernesaken

    P.P.S. Vil dere høre en gladnyhet? Blomsterstjernen har nemlig et medmenneskelig NyttÃ¥rsforsett: Han skal bli 2-3% bedre til Ã¥ besøke og kommentere andre sine blogger i 2013.

    P.P.P.S. Dette blogginnlegget er ikke sponset. Maskemannen taler rett fra hjertet (i halsen)







              Hvordan lage kakemenn (uten Ã¥ vite det)?        

    Kakemenn i oktober?!? Er han gÃ¥tt fra vettet!?! Sannsynligvis! 

    Eller snarere tvert i mot..? Sannheten er nemlig den at Blomsterstjernen blir direkte uvel av Ã¥ se julerelaterte bestanddeler sÃ¥ tidlig som i oktober? Ikke fordi han ikke liker jul... Snarere fordi han mener at julen skal og mÃ¥ holdes hellig! Det burde være strengt forbudt Ã¥ tjuvstarte juleriene før den lilla mÃ¥neden er pÃ¥ trappene!!! 


    Men tydeligvis er han den eneste i den moderne verden som bryr seg om den slags? Butikkene bare øser pÃ¥ med mandariner, nøtter, kakemenn, juleblader og julemarsipan - senest fra starten av oktober, om ikke før? I november starter de salget av nyttÃ¥rsraketter, mens januarsalget ideelt sett bør avsluttes lenge før Santa Lucia-dagen. I følge almanakken er det nÃ¥ blitt sÃ¥ dekadent at vi allerede i 2017 vil oppleve at PÃ¥skeaften er fremskyndet sÃ¥pass mye at den vil sammenfalle med Lillejulaften!?! Jules(j)okk!!!

    Men sÃ¥ er det dette med Ã¥ bli ført bak lyset... mot sin egen vilje? Dere skjønner... Her forleden var nemlig Blomsterstjernen hjemme fra jobb med sin forkjølne datter. Etter Ã¥ ha sett 18 timer barne-tv ble datteren elegant overført til husets lego-avdeling. Endelig kunne far kose seg med mannebladet BoligDrøm... Men sÃ¥nt kan være direkte helsefarlig! Jo mer han leste, jo mer sulten ble han... For inniblant svulmende hus- og hagereportasjer fristet bladet med de herligste retter og oppskrifter! Plommemarmelade, chillifrikasé, artisjokk-kompott, jordbæransjos, mandelpuré og ikke minst Scones til Ã¥ smøre alt det fasjonable pÃ¥legget pÃ¥... 

    Vel vitende om at det i brødboksen pÃ¥ kjøkkenet kun fantes en tørr skalk av kneipp fra i forgÃ¥rs var det derfor svært vemodig Ã¥ fantasere om sin egen lunch... Men det var da Blomsterstjernen ble forledet! Scones?!? Hvorfor hadde han ikke tenkt pÃ¥ det før??? Scones er jo britenes eget sunnhetsalibi?!? Er det ikke? Det perfekte lunchmÃ¥ltid for syke døtre og pleiende fedre? Datteren var heller ikke snar om Ã¥ be. Selvsagt ville hun hjelpe Ã¥ bake! Eneste kriteriet var at vi mÃ¥tte benytte oss av pepperkakeformene... Som sagt sÃ¥ gjort!


    Før de visste ord av det sto de der med mel og bakepulver til langt oppunder ørene. Som seg hør og bør ble oppskriften fulgt slavisk, til punkt og prikke... Men akkurat som lærlingen til Bakemester Harepus, stusset ogsÃ¥ Blomsterstjernen ørlite over at oppskriften inneholdt hele 6 toppede spiseskjeer sukker og lysehvitt mel... Men pytt la gÃ¥! Oppskriften lyver aldri..?


    Deigen ble snurret elegant i hop og deretter hurtig omformet til 14 velformede figurer ubønnhørlig uttrykket av den sykladne datteren. Hjerter, rundinger og kakemenndamer i alle fasonger. Men for å gjøre dem litt ekstra sunne ble de krydret med sesamfrø, linfrø, havreflak og valmuefrø. Fjorten lynkjappe minutt senere pep komfyren av vellyst! Den oste av stolt hjemmebakst! Fjorten super-sunne lunch-krabater hadde kommet til verden! Tennene løp i vann & sukkerlake...


    Den syke smÃ¥rollingen valgte Ã¥ sluke scones-damene uten pÃ¥legg. Øynene gnistret! "Mmmmmmmm! For noen deilige "rundstykker" pappa!!!". Den ene etter den andre av scones-damene ble halshugget pÃ¥ stedet. Far derimot var blitt kraftig inspirert av BoligDrøms pÃ¥leggskavalkade og bladde opp litt hjemmelaget eplemos, andektig dandert pÃ¥ et lag av smeltet smør. Det dryppet slev av kjeften i strie strømmer...


    Han lukket øynene og satte tenna i sunnhetsbomben... Fabelaktig!!! Utmerket!!! Han himlet med øynene og hev innpå i rekordtempo! 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 scones!!! Men det var da... akkurat da han følte seg skitten... Det var noe kjent med smaken... Smaken av søt svie... Hvor hadde han kjent dette før? Jo! Nei!!! Det smakte da vitterlig av jul!?! Det smakte kakemann!!!



    SJOOOOOOOKKKKKK!!!!

    Dette var ikke scones!
    Dette var  forkledde kakemenn i sjofel scones-drakt!!!
    Han var blitt rundlurt av seg selv! Med overlegg! PÃ¥ høylys dag! 

    Og det føltes så riktig...
    Der og da...

    Ikke si det til noen..?

    Skamfulle fredags hilsener,









    P.S. Opp med hÃ¥nden alle andre som har en formening om nÃ¥r det er lov til Ã¥ sesongdebutere med henholdsvis kakemenn, mandariner og juleblader? Og er det en gradering? Hva skal komme først? Hva har man lov til Ã¥ tjuvstarte pittelitt med? Og hva er helligere enn Olav den Hellige?!?






              It's Spud Time        

    The United Nations wants more people to appreciate the potato's potential to fight world hunger

    Food for Thought

    As 2007 winds down, thoughts naturally turn towards what might lie ahead. Meals rich in high-carb tubers, perhaps? That's what the United Nations would like everyone to contemplate throughout 2008, which it is designating the International Year of the Potato.

    Farmers now harvest more than 300 million tons of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) worldwide. That makes it the fourth biggest food crop, trailing only corn, wheat, and rice.

    For 8,000 years, the humble potato has been a staple in the South American Andes, its homeland. Spanish adventurers encountered the New World crop roughly 500 years ago and brought various types back to Europe. Today, potatoes are cultivated not only throughout the Americas, but also from China's uplands to India's subtropical lowlands—even on Ukraine's arid steppes.

    A testament to the potato's Western roots, production of this crop in the States and southward leads the world. Fully 40 percent of the 2006 potato harvest came from North America, with Latin American farmers contributing another 16 percent.

    However, appreciation for this nutritious starch within developing countries outside of the Americas—especially in Asia—has been growing steadily, with production of the crop in those regions climbing some 5 percent annually. Indeed, 2005 marked the first time in recent history that production of potatoes in the developing world exceeded that in developed nations.

    Although most people think of potatoes as a commodity, in fact, more potatoes are processed to make fast foods, snacks, and convenience items than are sold fresh in the market place. Today, China is the leading producer of spuds, followed by the Russian states and India. International trade in potatoes—worth $6 billion annually—has also been growing within developing nations.

    You might then ask why, with all of this pre-existing global interest in potatoes, the UN feels compelled to devote a year of workshops, research contests, and other focused attention on this one particular food. And the reason, the UN's Food and Agricultural Organization argues, is that much of the spud's potential to feed the poor remains untapped.

    For instance, although Asians eat nearly half of the world's potatoes, per capita consumption even in Asia remains modest—just 25 kilograms per year, or roughly 45 percent of U.S. consumption and just 27 percent of what's typical in Europe.

    Even were potatoes to win greater respect for their nutritional attributes and ability to serve as industrial feedstocks, they couldn't necessarily make a big contribution in new regions of the world without significantly more research. The tubers are vulnerable to a host of major diseases—like the one that set off Ireland's 1845 potato famine. Some varieties of potato are especially resistant to particular diseases, but may not grow well in new regions of the world or taste that yummy.

    That's where potato scientists come in. They can identify the climate, soil types, day length, and native diseases with which any new potato crop would have to contend. Then they'll cross lines of wild or cultivated spuds to develop ones with traits that will allow them to thrive outside the Americas. The good news, the UN program notes: "The potato has the richest genetic diversity of any cultivated plant." So there's plenty of potential to tailor a new cultivar to meet the needs of farmers in most places on the globe.

    But the potato's biggest advantage, according to the International Potato Center, based in Lima, Peru, is that it yields more food, more quickly, on less land, and in harsher climates than any other major crop. Up to 85 percent of the plant is edible, compared to only about 50 percent for cereal grains. Moreover, the Center notes, potatoes "are ideally suited to places where land is limited and labor is abundant—conditions in much of the developing world."

    To help get this word out to agricultural agencies in parts of the world not already turned on to spuds, and from them to farmers, the International Potato Center will be sponsoring a March 2008 meeting: Potato Science for the Poor–Challenges for the New Millennium (http://www.cipotato.org/Cuzco_conference/). Those who attend will have the opportunity to explore the possibility of cooperating to fine tune existing potatoes into higher-yielding varieties.

    The International Potato Center's gene bank safeguards the largest biodiversity of potatoes—7,500 different varieties, of which 1,950 are not cultivated. Research on spuds, especially studies aimed at fostering food security and the alleviation of poverty, have become a focus for the center.

    With all of this talk of potatoes, are you hungry yet? The UN program has so far identified 172,000 web pages containing recipes for using potatoes. Stay tuned, it says: "We will gather the best of them" and share them on the Year of the Potato website.


    If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

    Citations

    International Year of Potato (IYP) Secretariat

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Room C-776

    Viale delle Terme di Caracalla

    00153 Rome

    Italy

    International Potato Center

    Apartado Postal 1558

    Lima 12,

    Peru
    Further Reading

    Gorman, J. 2000. Novel sensing system catches the dud spud. Science News 158(Nov. 25):341. Available at [Go to].

    C. Graves, Ed. 2001. The Potato, Treasure of the Andes: From Agriculture to Culture. Lima, Peru: International Potato Center (208 pp). Available at [Go to].

    Raloff, J. 2005. Food colorings: Pigments make fruits and veggies extra healthful. Science News 167(Jan. 8):27. Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2004. How carbs can make burgers safer. Science News Online (Dec. 4). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2004. Coming soon—Spud lite. Science News Online (June 19). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2003. How olives might enhance potatoes—and strawberries. Science News Online (May 24). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2002. Acrylamide—From spuds to gingerbread. Science News Online (Dec. 14). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 1998. Taters for tots provide an edible vaccine. Science News 153(March 7):149. Available at [Go to]

              Fattening Carbs—Some Promote Obesity and Worse        

    Food for Thought

    Nutritionists call them carbohydrates. To most of us, they're simply sugars and starches. And although the fructose in soft drinks and the refined flour in white bread taste quite different, "nutritionally and metabolically they're the same as table sugar," explains endocrinologist David S. Ludwig. That's because the body digests all carbohydrate-rich foods into glucose, or blood sugar.

    However, all carbs don't break down at the same rate. The body digests those in many whole-grain products quite slowly. Others become converted to glucose almost immediately.

    Rapidly digested carbs aren't healthy for people with diabetes and others watching their blood sugar. A new study by Ludwig and his colleagues at Children's Hospital Boston suggests that such carbs are also problematic for people looking to shed body fat. Indeed, the findings indicate that consumption of the wrong carbs can spur the development of body fat, even with no gain in weight.

    In the study, mice that chowed down on a type of rapidly digestible starch didn't gain any more weight than did animals eating a starch that digests slowly. But the first group did accumulate lots of excess fat. The data indicate that something about rapidly digesting carbs signaled the body to convert more of a meal's energy into body fat, into fatty lipids that circulate in blood, and into deposits of fat throughout the liver.

    Ludwig considers the observed effect on the animals' livers the most troubling one. Fatty-liver disease has traditionally been regarded as the first stage of damage from alcoholism that can progress to hepatitis, cirrhosis, and death. But researchers in recent years have discerned the beginnings of an epidemic of fatty-liver disease unrelated to alcoholism but correlated strongly with being overweight. Recent data suggest that as much as one-third of children and even a higher proportion of adults have the condition. Ludwig told Science News Online that he suspects that "up to half of the [U.S.] population" now has fatty-liver disease.

    The question has been what's fueling this epidemic. Because the disease so often accompanies obesity, many researchers have suspected that high-fat diets and junk foods are responsible. Ludwig's group had another idea.

    In recent years, the mushrooming incidence of obesity in the United States has led to a push to get people to lower their intakes of fat. However, reducing fat consumption almost always translates into increasing the intake of carbs (see Counting Carbs). Moreover, the carbs most people reach for first are the refined—easy to digest—types found in white flour, white rice, pasta, and potatoes.

    Ludwig's team decided to see whether a diet rich in a similar carb promotes fat buildup. They used a proportion of carbs that people on a low-fat diet might eat and compared its effects with that of a diet equal in all respects except that its carbs were mainly a slowly digested starch.

    In the September Obesity, the researchers show that animals eating rapidly digested carbs accumulated more fat throughout their bodies—including their livers—than did animals eating primarily the slow-to-digest starch.

    Says Ludwig, "This is the first study in which a single dietary factor—varied within normal ranges—affected whether the liver remained normal or accumulated seriously elevated levels of fat."

    Recipe for pudge

    In the new study, Ludwig's team fed 18 recently weaned mice food pellets containing 13 percent fat, 19 percent protein, and 68 percent carbohydrates from corn starch. Half the animals got pellets containing the starch called amylopectin, which is made up of a string of glucose molecules that the gut easily degrades into sugar. The remaining mice ate pellets containing some amylopectin but mostly the starch called amylose. That type of corn starch resists breakdown in the gut.

    All the animals ate and drank as much as they wanted for 25 weeks. Throughout the study, the researchers charted weight gain, body fat, fecal excretion of starch, and blood concentrations of glucose and insulin. At the end, the researchers killed the animals and measured their livers' fat contents.

    Weight gain didn't differ between the two groups of animals, suggesting that the mice found the diets comparably palatable. However, the animals' bodies responded differently to the two food-pellet recipes. Mice dining on amylopectin-enriched chow became twice as fat as those eating the slower-digested amylose recipe. Mice eating this starch grew a little longer in body, so they looked leaner that the "roly-poly" mice eating easily digested starch, Ludwig says. The latter mice "felt squishy," whereas the slow-digested-starch eaters felt firm, he adds.

    Although blood sugar concentrations didn't differ between the two groups, mice on the amylopectin-rich food developed higher insulin values after a meal. The body uses the hormone to shepherd energy into its cells. Higher blood insulin after a meal, Ludwig explains, indicates that an animal needs more insulin to fully use the food it's eaten. Needing more of the hormone can be a first sign of insulin resistance and impending diabetes.

    Ludwig notes, "Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone, meaning it promotes the storage of fat. In fact, that's arguably one of [the hormone's] main roles." One of the first places newly made insulin ends up is in the liver, where it can trigger the localized creation and stockpiling of fat.

    Although the rodents' livers weighed the same whether they ate fast- or slow-digested starch, fat made up 12 percent of the liver in mice fed the amylopectin-rich diet. That's double the fat content of livers in animals that had eaten the slow-digested starch. For perspective, Ludwig notes, people whose livers contain 10 percent fat are considered to be suffering from "advanced" nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease.

    What about people?

    This isn't the first study to indicate that foods that rapidly break down to glucose in the body—characterized as having a "high glycemic index" (see The New GI Tracts)—can fuel nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. For instance, last year Silvia Valtueña of the University of Parma in Italy and her colleagues reported findings from a study of 247 apparently healthy men and women. The volunteers' diets were evaluated and given a glycemic-index (GI) rating.

    Low GI foods included corn, dairy products, and fruit. High GI fare included bread, pizza, and baked snacks. The volunteers were grouped into four categories based on the ascending GI rankings of their diets.

    Participants with the highest-GI diets were twice as likely to have undiagnosed fatty-liver disease as were other study participants. People in the highest group were also far likelier to be insulin resistant, the researcher reported in the July 2006 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

    In an editorial accompanying the Valtueña report, David J.A. Jenkins and his colleagues at the University of Toronto argued that the "implication of this study is that a low-GI diet, or selection of lower-GI rather than higher-GI foods, may benefit persons with nonalcoholic fatty liver." Indeed, the commenters suggested, it might be possible for doctors to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver by lowering the glycemic index of an individuals' diets.

    That's what Ludwig's group is now investigating: "We hope to enroll 46 kids to a diet for 6 months," he says. The 8- to 17-year-olds and their parents will receive dietary counseling. Half of the recruits will be assigned to a low-fat diet. The rest will receive counseling to lower the glycemic index of their diets. The general guidelines for a low-GI diet call for substituting whole-grain foods for ones made from highly processed cereal fibers and reducing refined sugars in favor of sweet fruits.

    "Conceptually," Ludwig says, "fatty liver should be reversible—we've seen it anecdotally in practice many times, such as when someone loses weight or changes the quality of their diet."


    If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

    Citations

    David J.A. Jenkins

    Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center

    St. Michael's Hospital

    61 Queen Street, East

    Toronto, ON M5C 3E2

    Canada


    David S. Ludwig

    Children's Hospital Boston

    Department of Medicine

    333 Longwood Avenue

    Boston, MA 02115


    Silvia Valtueña

    Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

    University of Parma

    43100 Parma

    Italy
    Further Reading

    Pawlak, D.B., et al. 2001. High glycemic index starch promotes hypersecretion of insulin and higher body fat in rats without affecting insulin sensitivity. Journal of Nutrition 131(January):99-104. Available at [Go to].

    Raloff, J. 2007. Super-size mice—Fast food hurts rodents. Science News Online (June 9). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2004. Counting carbs. Science News 166(July 17):40-42. Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2004. Coming soon—Spud lite. Science News Online (June 19). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2000. The new GI tracts. Science News 157(April 8):236-238. Available at [Go to].

    Sloth, I., et al. 2004. No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-wk ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80(Aug. 1):337-347. Available at [Go to].

              Tudo começou num Boquete Inesperado        


    A Historia que vou contar é verdadeira e, embora pareça improvável, aconteceu comigo de maneira surpreendente. Ao longo de meus relacionamentos ocorreram várias situações relacionadas e igualmente curiosas. Irei relatá-las à medida que os leitores demonstrarem interesse. Bem, em certa época de minha vida, após ter sofrido alguns desenganos, acabei ficando meio deprimido e chateado por algum tempo, o que me levou a procurar algo para preencher o vazio que estava sentindo. Como dois de meus irmão eram religiosos naquela época, resolvi procurar a mesma igreja para tentar preencher tal vazio. Foi uma época muito boa de minha vida. Só não esperava que iria ter uma experiência nada religiosa a esta altura da vida! Após algum tempo na igreja, comecei a procurar alguma garota para estabelecer um relacionamento que fosse exemplar na congregação e gozasse de boa reputação, assim como é recomendado pelos líderes da igreja. Bem, após algum tempo escolhendo e conversando com as pessoas para pegar referencias cheguei a minha decisão! Ela era magra, muito bonita, lindos cabelos lisos que lhe chegavam à cintura, com uma reputação acima de qualquer suspeita!!! Todos diziam que se tratava de alguém que era religiosa desde a infância e muito dedicada! Bem, após algum tempo de cortejo e muitas recomendações por parte de todos! Iniciamos o namoro. A religião era muito séria e nós éramos incentivados a jamais sairmos sozinhos, não nos beijar em público e etc. Sexo então! Até pensar era pecado! Tudo ia muito bem e eu já havia passado pelo pior período da abestinencia. Agora tudo estava bem suportável. Até a masturbação era um recurso pouco utilizado naquela época. Até que um belo dia nós saímos com uns amigos e, na volta eles acabaram não podendo voltar com a gente por causa de uns problemas e acabamos tendo que voltar sozinhos para casa. Para mim não teria problemas, pois a distancia era curta e logo eu a entregaria em casa sã e salva. Ela ficou meio constrangida, relutou um pouco, mas como não havia outra saída, optou por voltarmos sozinhos mesmo. Bem, até aí tudo lindo. Eu todo feliz com a minha “andorinha” toda puritana e virgem que só fazia o que era correto e se guardava para o dia em que seria apenas minha! Assim como ditavam as regras! Entramos no carro conversando, alegres. Coloquei uma musiquinha. Passei a mão direita pelo pescoço dela enquanto dirigia com a mão esquerda, e puxei ela um pouquinho para se aconchegar no meu ombro enquanto eu dirigia. Derrepente ela olha para mim com o aquele olho assustado e diz: Não!... Eu, inocentemente, imaginando que ela estava pensando na sua reputação (já estávamos sozinhos, ainda por cima abraçados!?) insisti com um sorriso. _Vem cá...não tem nada de mais... Então, ao invés de por a cabeça no meu ombro ela se deita no meu colo, coloca a mão no meu pau, por cima da calça e começa a massageá-lo! Imaginem o meu susto! A garota mais puritana da igreja! Que nunca tinha chegado nem perto de um homem!!!... Fiquei meio desconcertado, sem saber o que fazer. Mas depois de tanto tempo em branco, a vontade falava mais forte e eu deixei para ver no que dava. Comecei a fazer carinho nos seus cabelos e ela muito tranquilamente tentou abaixar o zípper da calça, mas não conseguiu devido a minha posição. Não acreditava no que estava acontecendo! Levantei um pouco o corpo, abri o zípper e desabotoei a calça, porém não tirei ele para fora. Nem precisou. Ela enfiou a mão por baixo da minha cueca, tirou o danado para fora e, sem fazer muita cerimônia, abocanhou a cabecinha e começou a brincar com a língua bem devagarzinho. Eu fiquei louco! Fui aos céus! Depois de tanta fissura eu estava sendo chupado divinamente por aquele delicinha de menina! Ela chupava muito bem, brincando com a língua em volta da cabecinha. Tirava da boca e passava a língua por toda a extensão, colocava a cabecinha na boca enquanto batia uma punheta bem de vagarzinho, depois segurava na base e enfiava tudo na boca! Comecei a me animar e enfiei a mão por dentro a roupa dela, apertei seus peitos deliciosos por cima do sutian, depois puxei eles para baixo para poder brincar a vontade! Estava tudo uma delícia! Eu preocupado com os carros que passavam do lado e ela nem aí. Toda sua concentração estava em me proporcionar uma bela chupada! Acariciei bastante seus peitos, passei a mão na sua cintura e, fui deslizando até enfiar a mão na parte trazeira de sua calça. Ela usava uma calça bege clara que era amarrada na cintura por um barbante (era modinha naquela época). Soltei o barbante, enfiei a mão e ela deu uma paradinha e reclamou, mas não convenceu em nada...eu disse pra ficar tranqüila e ela logo voltou a me chupar divinamente. Que delicia, passei a mão naquela bundinha deliciosa, inicialmente por cima da calcinha. Acariciei aquele montinho gostoso da sua bucetinha e notei que ela já estava completamente molhada! Lentamente coloquei a mão por dentro da calcinha, ela não disse nada então continuei, passei a mão na danadinha, acariciei seu clitóris bem de levinho e em seguida procurei enfiar o dedo médio bem de levinho. Foi aí que constatei o que ela já havia dito. Ela era virgem! Mas como uma virgem que nunca ficou com ninguém aprendeu a chupar daquele jeito??? Bem, naquele momento isto não era a minha maior preocupação. Deslizei a mão para o seu reguinho, acariciei seu anelzinho bem de leve, ela não reclamou, então fiquei ali mais um pouquinho até conseguir enfiar a pontinha do dedo. Neste momento não agüentava mais de tezão, queria gozar! Tirei a mão de dentro de sua calça, peguei em seus cabelos e comecei a forçar a sua cabeça para fazer movimentos mais profundos e mais rápidos! Ela assustou um pouco no começo mas eu disse para agüentar e disse que era para ela engolir tudo. Ela quis reclamar mas eu fiz de conta que fiquei meio bravo e como eu ainda a segurava pelo cabelo, virei sua cabeça novamente em direção ao danado e empurrei com força pedindo para ela abrir a boca. Ela fez um pouquinho de resistência mas logo voltou a chupar divinamente! Neste momento eu não agüentei! Acelerei os movimentos como se estivesse metendo na boca dela e gozei! Gozei maravilhosamente! E gozei muiito!!! Ela fez gesto de querer tirar da boca mas eu não deixei. Segurei sua cabeça e continuei com o pau na boca dela, terminando de gozar....falei pra ela que queria que ela engolisse tudo e ela obedeceu direitinho! Engoliu tudo. Até um pouquinho que escorreu no canto da boca, eu pedi para ela passar o dedo e chupar e ela obedeceu com uma carinha que quase me deixou de pinto duro de novo!!! A esta altura estávamos chegando no bairro e nos recompomos rapidamente para entrar no bairro. Não conversamos muito. Só disse que foi delicioso e logo a deixei em frente a sua casa. Fui embora sem entender como ela podia ter feito aquilo, e confesso que naquele momento até fiquei com um pouco de peso na consciência, mas o que mais me encabulava era como e onde ela aprendeu aquilo! Uma coisa eu tinha certeza: aquela moça toda recatada e exemplar poderia até ser virgem, mas já tinha aprendido muita coisa! Inocente era a última coisa que ela poderia ser! Bem, após este acontecimento meu interesse por ela mudou completamente! Afinal ela havia traído minha confiança quando disse que jamais havia ficado com um homem. Era óbvio que isso não era verdade! Passei então a querer descobrir qual era a sua verdadeira história! Daí pra frente nossos encontros foram ficando mais e mais quente, nossas carícias aumentavam cada vez mais e eu já chupava aquela bucetinha virgem e enfiava meu dedo naquele cuzinho fazendo-a gemer e sussurrar, mas o cabacinho dela continuava intacto pois só admitia perdê-lo quando se casasse e eu respeitei. Ficamos um bom tempo namorando até que resolvemos nos casar. Já casados fomos para nossa lua de mel onde eu pude finalmente depois de dar um belo trato, mandar aquele selinho da xana dela pro espaço. Gozamos muito na nossa primeira noite real de amor e nos entendemos muito bem na cama até os dias de hoje, mas o que ela gosta e gosta muito mesmo é que eu derrame todo o meu leitinho na boca dela, que engole tudo até não sobrar nenhuma gota. Atualmente não somos mais evangélicos.
    J.C – Nilópolis - RJ
              OS 150 ANOS DE UMA PAIXÃO MUNDIAL        
    O livro original contendo as primeiras regras oficiais do futebol




    Há 150 anos, mais exatamente no dia 26/10/1863, era dado - literalmente - o pontapé inicial para uma paixão que viria atrair multidões planeta a fora. Foi num pub em Londres, no Freemasons Arms Tavern, localizado em Great Queen Street, que 11 representantes de clubes amadores da capital inglesa se reuniram para redigir as regras oficiais do futebol e fundar a FA - a Football Association. Depois de um século e meio de vida pouquíssimas mudanças ocorreram nas regras e até hoje elas regem a nossa maior paixão esportiva.


    Estiveram presentes à histórica reunião no bar londrino pessoas ligadas aos seguintes times: Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Crystal Palace, Forest of Leytonstone (que posteriormente seria rebatizado como Wanderers), N.N. Club, Blackheath, Kensington School, Perceval House, Surbiton e Blackheath Proprietary School. O Charterhouse foi convidado para participar, mas seu representante declinou do chamado. A maioria desses clubes não existe mais ou apenas atua no rugby.

    Vale salientar que o futebol já era praticado de forma amadora antes de 1863 em solo britânico, mas ainda sem uma regra oficial. O primeiro esboço de norma surgiu em 1848 nos pátios da Universidade de Cambridge. Outro surgiu em Nottingham em 1850. E ambos foram os alicerces para essa regra final criada pelos ingleses.

    Na primeira foto, a edição original do livro de regras escrito naquela noite de 26 de outubro de 1863 escrito por Ebenezer Cobb Morley, que viria a ser o segundo presidente da FA 8 anos depois de sua criação.

    A primeira partida da história sob as regras oficiais foi entre Barnes e Richmond, que não estava presente na reunião de fundação da FA. O placar foi de zero a zero no estádio de Mortlake em 19 de dezembro do mesmo ano.


    Futebol no século XIX na Inglaterra



    Desde então o futebol ganhou adeptos e admiradores até se tornar esse colosso que é hoje em dia. Além de um esporte apaixonante, virou um ótimo negócio que gera lucros cada vez mais exorbitantes. Mas a aprovação das regras, apenas, não era o bastante. Havia a necessidade de se distribuir cartilhas informativas nos clubes, nas escolas, nas livrarias e bancas de jornal, através de livros de regras. E essas regras foram sendo levemente modificadas, e novos manuais passaram a ocupar o lugar das primitivas instruções.

    Em 1868 instituiu-se a figura do juiz. Em 1878, um ano depois de se adotar o travessão de madeira (do mesmo comprimento das portas dos salões da universidade de Cambridge), surgiu o apito, já que até então era na força do grito que o juiz anunciava suas decisões em campo. Em 1882, Inglaterra, Escócia, Pais de Gales e Irlanda fundaram a International Board, que até hoje regula as leis do jogo no mundo inteiro, já como órgão assessor da FIFA. 

    Houve uma revisão total das regras em 1891, quando apareceram as redes nas balizas, para que não houvesse dúvidas quando da marcação do gol, e foi oficializado o pênalti - a falta dentro da grande área. Em 1896, cresce a autoridade do árbitro, que deixa de ser um simples tira-teima, e passa a se guiar pelo que mandam as regras.

    Nos últimos anos do século fixam-se o numero de jogadores em onze, as dimensões do campo, o tamanho da bola e a duração da partida. Os limites das áreas datam de 1901, as leis do impedimento começaram a partir de 1907, definindo-se de vez em 1924. Uma nova revisão foi feita em todo o texto em 1938. A popularização se fez rápida e regularmente, com o apoio dos jornais, cartazes exibidos nas ruas, folhetos distribuídos em comércios, bares e teatros. Uma vez uniformizado, codificado e organizado, o futebol não tardaria a se transformar no mais popular e universal de todos os esportes. 

    E hoje o futebol é o que é há 150 anos: uma paixão mundial!



    Foto: Adrian Roebuck
    Imagem: Newberry Library - Chicago 

              O FUTEBOL NO RÁDIO BRASILEIRO        
    Futebol e rádio: duas paixões nacionais lado a lado




    Hoje, 25 de setembro, é um dia especial para todos os comunicadores do país. Comemoramos o "Dia do Rádio", homenagem mais que justa à data de nascimento de Edgar Roquette-Pinto, considerado o "Pai da radiodifusão brasileira". E foi graças ao pioneirismo de Roquette-Pinto que esse veículo revolucionou a comunicação no país e mexeu com os sonhos e com o imaginário da população.

    Em 2009 este blog publicou uma postagem a respeito do futebol brasileiro nas ondas do rádio, contando um pouco de sua história e mostrando sua evolução ao longo dos anos com áudios históricos de profissionais que fortaleceram/fortalecem a paixão nacional pelo futebol, que muito contribuiu para que o esporte se popularizasse por todo o Brasil. Desta forma, em homenagem ao Dia do Rádio, vamos reproduzir o post logo a seguir.


    O FUTEBOL BRASILEIRO NO RÁDIO

    Postagem de 11/12/2009

    A história do futebol, tema principal deste blog, não se passa apenas dentro do gramado. Muito da paixão arrebatadora mundo a fora se deve às irradiações radiofônicas levadas ao 4 cantos do planeta por profissionais extremamente competentes e que deixaram - ou estão deixando - importantes legados para o esporte. O que seria da modalidade esportiva se no século 19, pouco tempo depois da "oficialização" do futebol na Inglaterra, não fossem esses aparelhos que divulgavam os eventos esportivos e informavam e transmitiam-nos aos mais longínquos apreciadores?

    Aqui no Brasil o rádio deu seu primeiro passo em 7 de setembro de 1922, no centenário da independência, durante uma grande feira internacional que recebeu visitas de empresários americanos trazendo a tecnologia de radiodifusão para o conhecimento dos brasileiros. Para testar o novo equipamento, até então desconhecido entre os nativos, os cientistas norte-americanos instalaram uma antena receptora no alto do Corcovado, no Rio de Janeiro (então Capital Federal), e transmitiram um discurso do presidente à época Epitácio Pessoa. O responsável direto pela primeira transmissão radiofônica no país foi o médico legista, professor, antropólogo, etnólogo e ensaísta brasileiro Edgar Roquette-Pinto (1884-1954). Sua primeira reação ao ouvir, emocionado, a transmissão das palavras presidenciais naquele dia foi dizer: "Eis uma máquina importante para educar nosso povo".

    A primeira transmissão por rádio de um jogo de futebol em solo brasileiro se deu na data de 19 de julho de 1931 pela Rádio Educadora Paulista através da voz do locutor Nicolau Tuma, que narrou o confronto entre as seleções de São Paulo e do Paraná no Campo da Floresta, na capital paulistana. Infelizmente não há registro gravado deste importantíssimo feito, mas ficou marcado na história da radiodifusão esportiva brasileira através das letras. Naquela época as transmissões futebolísticas se resumiam a boletins informativos para os ouvintes. Relatam os historiadores que Tuma foi o "pai da narração esportiva no Brasil", pois foi o pioneiro na idéia de irradiar um jogo na íntegra. Foi ao vestiário antes do início da partida para anotar as características físicas de cada jogador (naquele tempo ainda não se usavam os números às costas nas camisas dos clubes) e assim poder identificá-los no decorrer da narração. O radialista, que ficou conhecido como o "locutor metralhadora" por seu estilo rápido de transmitir as partidas, aproveitou a ocasião para explicar as regras do esporte que ainda estava engatinhando rumo ao sucesso no país. O jogo terminou em 6 a 4 para os donos da casa.

    Com o passar do tempo a qualidade do som das transmissões e da narração dos locutores foram melhorando significativamente. Equipamentos mais modernos faziam com que as irradiações dos principais jogos de futebol no Brasil a fora fossem conquistando cada vez mais adeptos. Do chiado constante da década de 30 à transmissão praticamente sem ruídos da atualidade, o rádio passou por grandes modificações ao longo do tempo, especificamente nessa postagem no aspecto locução como veremos adiante. Desde Tuma, Gagliano Neto e Ary Barroso no início do século passado até José Carlos Araújo, Luís Penido, Oscar Ulisses, entre tantos outros nos dias atuais.

    Como exemplo trouxe para vocês 5 locuções esportivas em diferentes tempos para análise. Para ouví-las basta clicar no link correspondente. No primeiro, o leitor poderá acompanhar uma narração feita por Armando Pamplona, no distante ano de 1934, pela Rádio Educadora de São Paulo, durante uma partida amistosa entre a Seleção Paulista e o Bologna da Itália.


    Percebam que a qualidade da transmissão é precária, mas que ainda assim conseguimos ouvir e entender as palavras de Armando Pamplona. A narração é bem no estilo "mestre de cerimônias", como uma espécie de apresentador, tratando até os espectadores como "senhores" e "senhoras" e fazendo uso de palavras rebuscadas e praticamente sem uso nas locuções esportivas da atualidade.

    Na seguinte temos as locuções de Jorge Curi e Antônio Cordeiro pela Rádio Nacional do Rio de Janeiro em 1950, na fatídica final da Copa do Mundo entre Brasil e Uruguai no estádio do Maracanã. Na ocasião a Rádio Nacional inovara no método de transmissão de um jogo de futebol, em que envolvia dois narradores ao mesmo tempo para irradiar cada um o seu lado do campo. No link abaixo ouviremos o áudio com o começo da narrativa de Cordeiro, que estava no lado do ataque brasileiro, e terminando com o gol do uruguaio Gigghia (o do título) trazido por Curi.


    Nesta parte notamos que a narração ficou mais dinâmica, mais rápida, e a qualidade do som é bem maior. Ainda assim o aspecto de cerimônia, de trazer a partida de futebol irradiada como informação, digamos, pura, não como entretenimento também, persiste no final da narrativa.

    No seguinte ouviremos a voz de Pedro Luiz Pauliello na final da Copa do Mundo de 1962 entre Brasil e Tchecoslováquia pela Rádio Bandeirantes de São Paulo. Não custa lembrar que a Seleção Brasileira tornou-se bicampeã mundial na ocasião.


    Nesta locução fica cada vez mais nítida a eloquência do narrador, que passava a torcer pelo time em campo quase como um torcedor que estava nas arquibancadas e pela tentativa de levar o máximo de emoção possível aos ouvintes do que se passava em campo.

    A seguir vamos ouvir o áudio de um dos verdadeiros "monstros sagrados" do rádio esportivo brasileiro em todos os tempos. Waldir Amaral, então na Rádio Globo, trazendo a decisão do Cameponato Brasileiro de 1974 entre Vasco da Gama e Cruzeiro, vencida pelo clube carioca.


    Amaral narra o confronto com extrema rapidez, dado o contínuo aumento da velocidade do jogo com o passar dos anos, mas com bastante clareza. Tenta fazer com que o ouvinte que estava fora do estádio ouvindo pelo rádio se sinta dentro dele trazendo a partida nos mínimos detalhes.

    Por fim, no século 21, a narração do também brilhante José Carlos Araújo, da Rádio Globo do Rio de Janeiro em 2001, na partida entre Flamengo X Vasco da Gama válido pelo Campeonato Carioca daquele ano, trazendo para os espectadores toda a emoção do gol histórico de falta do meia sérvio Dejan Petkovic que deu o título ao rubronegro. Atenham-se à narração, já que o vídeo apenas traz slides a respeito do confronto citado.


    É notório que atualmente um espectador pode tranquilamente ligar sua TV, baixar o volume, e ouvir pelo rádio a transmissão da partida. O dinamismo na narração é tão latente que o ouvinte se sente completamente em campo. São muitos detalhes descritos pelos narrador, interação dos comentaristas que praticamente dividem a irradiação com o locutor oficial, dos repórteres e do próprio público, sem contar a nítida qualidade sonora nos tempos atuais.

    Enfim, o rádio ainda é um meio de comunicação que encanta e traz informação em tempo real. A inserção e o consequente sucesso do futebol no nosso país muito se deve ao seu poder de comunicação, sem distinção de pobre ou rico, negro ou branco, já que um pequeno radinho de pilha pode ser comprado pelo mais simples até o mais abastado trabalhador - eu mesmo sou um apaixonado por esses aparelhinhos que irradiam som e não passo um dia sequer sem sintonizar as emissoras. Todos envolvidos pela mesma magia transmitida através de ondas em AM ou FM.



    Foto (José Carlos Araújo): Bastidores do Rádio


              Top drivers gunning for Ollie Silva trophy        
    LEE, N.H. -- The 17th annual Ollie Silva Memorial Classic highlights a huge open-wheel racing program with 35 winged big-block and small-block super-modifieds in the field this Friday night at Lee USA Speedway.
              5 Signs Your Sell Sheet Needs A Makeover        
    Synopsis Is your sell sheet driving the results you want or need? If not, it might be time for a makeover. The solution may be to rebrand, adjust your value proposition, or simply modify your existing strategy before these danger … Continue reading
              TALLER CONTRA LA TIMIDEZ 2010        
    Como hice el año pasado, les informo acerca de un taller contra la timidez que puede ser muy útil en sus vidas.

    Por favor, no me pregunten nada a mí. En las siguientes líneas están los teléfonos para consultar todo lo que quieran, y en todo caso vayan a la charla informativa para ver qué onda.

    Este es el texto de formato mail modificado para ser posteado en un blog:


    Hola:

    Te queremos invitar a la charla informativa gratuita del Taller "Dejando atrás mis miedos": Para superar la timidez, que tendrá lugar el día miércoles 24/02 a las 15hs en la Fundación Despegar (27 de abril 991).
    Allí te comentaremos los contenidos del taller para este año y se fijará la fecha de inicio y el horario de su realización.

    Cualquier consulta, no dudes en comunicarte con nosotras. Por favor, confirmá tu asistencia a la charla informativa llamando a la Fundación en el horario de 13h a 21hs (Tel. 4210504) o bien comunicandote directamente a nuestros teléfonos.
    Quedamos a tu disposición. Y te esperamos.

    Saludos,

    Aiby Pérez Quinteros
    Lic. en Psicología
    Tel: 351- 155316481

    María Sol Fernández
    Lic. en Psicología
    Tel: 351- 155911454
              Associations Between Physical Pain, Pain Management, and Frequency of Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use Among Young Adults: A Sex-specific Analysis        
    imageObjectives: We sought to determine sex-specific associations between experiences of physical pain, pain management, and frequency of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use among young adults. Methods: Among participants enrolled in the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study, we identified associations between physical pain in the past 6 months, pain history, pain management, polysubstance use, and weekly NMPO use. In sex-specific models, independent correlates of weekly NMPO use were identified via modified stepwise Poisson regression. Results: Of 199 participants, the mean age was 24.6, and 65.3% were male. The racial composition was 16.6% black, 60.8% white, and 22.1% mixed or other race. A total of 119 (59.8%) participants reported weekly or greater NMPO use. The majority of male (86.2%) and female (84.1%) participants reported ever experiencing severe pain. A majority of males (72.3%) and females (81.2%) reported that they engaged in NMPO use to treat their physical pain, and one-quarter (26.9%) of males and one-third (36.2%) of females had been denied a prescription from a doctor to treat severe pain. Among males, frequent NMPO use was independently associated with white race (P < 0.001) and reporting greater physical pain (P = 0.002). Among females, older age (P = 0.002) and monthly or greater nonmedical benzodiazepine use (P = 0.001) were independently associated with weekly NMPO use. Conclusions: Among young men in Rhode Island, physical pain may be related to frequent NMPO use. More research is needed to identify sex-specific, pain-related factors that are linked with NMPO use to improve harm reduction and pain management interventions.
              Associations Between Khat Use and HIV Risk and Status Among Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center Clients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia        
    imageObjectives: Ethiopia is 1 of 15 countries that account for nearly 75% of all people living with HIV. Khat use, a common practice in Ethiopia and sub-Saharan Africa, has gained attention as a potential risk factor for HIV. Our objective was to evaluate associations between khat use and demographic and risk-taking characteristics (alcohol use, sexual behavior), and also associations between HIV status and these characteristics among voluntary counseling and testing clients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among Pro Pride voluntary counseling and testing center clients, aged 18 to 49 years, from November 2009 to March 2010. All clients were approached, and 98.8% of these (684) completed a self-administered questionnaire. Associations between khat use, alcohol use, multiple sexual partners, and HIV status were assessed using logistic regression models. Results: Using khat in the past 90 days (current khat use) was significantly associated with being Muslim, being male, alcohol use, and having a greater number of sex partners in one's lifetime. The adjusted odds of current khat use was almost 7-fold higher in those having 4 or more sexual partners in their lifetime (adjusted odds ratio 6.89, 95% confidence interval 3.87, 12.25) as compared with those with 1 or none. HIV-positive status was significantly associated with age, employment, marital status, number of sex partners in one's lifetime, and khat use. Having used khat in one's lifetime, but not currently, past khat use, was associated with over a 2-fold increased adjusted odds (adjusted odds ratio 2.64, 95% confidence interval 1.13, 6.19) of being HIV-infected. Conclusions: Our findings highlight associations between current khat use and the modifiable factors of number of lifetime sexual partners and alcohol use. In addition, we observed the association between HIV status and past khat use after adjusting for age, marital status, and number of sex partners in one's lifetime.
              Z-AFM 4.9 Self Mapper        

    [widgetkit id=11]

    Quickly build custom fuel maps while riding.
    Collects data to adjust AFR for best performance for your specific bike.

    Your model, year, exhaust, filter, fuel type, engine wear, modifications, temperature, pressure, humidity... Now you can easily tune for all your specifics.
    The newly updated Z-AFM 4.9 offers a revolutionary new level of fuel tuning by simply gathering data while riding and then processing the data into a custom-built, race-level fuel map.

    Use technology. Not guesswork.

     

    Benefits
    Drastically improve performance with a pro-race level, immediate tune
    Crisp and responsive throttle
    Smooths out throttle transitions
    HP and torque gains

    How it Works
    Uses latest in technology LSU 4.9 oxygen sensor mounted in the exhaust to determine air / fuel ratio (AFR)
    Collects data while riding to adjust AFR for your specific bike
    Plugs in with USB cord to retrieve and apply data in a few easy mouse clicks

    Who needs it?
    Competitive riders who want their bike perfectly tuned for any track, any fuel, any mods
    Performance riders who want to keep their bike tuned simply for seasonal atmospheric and fuel changes
    Tuners who want to make dyno use quick and easy

    Note: Requires a wide-band O2 sensor bung (18mm diameter) in the exhaust's head pipe. If you do not already have a wide band bung, you may purchase this with the Z-AFM 4.9

    O2 sensor data sheet and installation diagram

    Order Z-AFM & Accessories


              F-22-Inspired Ford F-150 Raptor Raises $300,000 at Auction        
    This year, Ford created a one-of-a kind, special edition F-150 that joins nine special Mustangs it's offered at previous AirVenture gatherings. And like those pony cars, the specially-modified Raptor crossed the block at a charity auction that was held at the event.
              Gota no Oceano        

    gota no oceano

     

    Tem música, poema, texto e verso sobre isso. Todos entendemos o significado de fazer sua parte para que a transformação comece. E porque não fazemos? Li um excelente post da Marina Colerato (site Modefica) onde explica a impossibilidade da sustentabilidade na moda, se não mudarmos todo o processo.

     

     

    Como? Muitas empresas querem e tentam melhorar sua forma de fazer para tornar-se menos agressivo ao meio ambiente, mas é utopia dizer que as empresas sozinhas podem mudar tudo. Você precisa ajudar, para que o mundo modifique. Talvez não veja, mas a sua gota fará parte da onda.

     

    Nosso país esta passando por uma das fases mais difíceis e conflitantes da história. É hora de rever suas decisões e melhorar suas atitudes. Gaste menos água, apague as luzes, opte por uma alimentação mais saudável, compre com consciência, procure saber a procedência dos produtos, valorize a produção nacional, use menos papel, evite sacolinhas plásticas, estude mais, seja honesto....

     

     

    Mais honestidade? Sim, para haver reforma política, é preciso que a sociedade seja ética e honesta em sua maioria. Não jogue lixo no chão, não pague propina, não dê jeitinho, siga as regras de trânsito, são coisas rotineiras que às vezes fazemos errado, sem ter noção do erro. Pare e pense no que você pode melhorar.

    Vou continuar exigindo e fiscalizando as lideranças, mas eu quero ser a gota no oceano da transformação. 

     

    Embora ninguém possa voltar atrás e fazer um novo começo,

    qualquer um pode começar agora e fazer um novo fim. 

    (Francisco Cândido Xavier)      

     

    Para ler o post da Marina Colerato, clique aqui.


              Mãe tem estilo?        

    Mãe tem estilo?

    E dá tempo de cuidar dos filhos, trabalhar e ainda se preocupar com que vai usar? Sim, todo mundo tem personalidade, gosto, afinidade e vaidade. Em proporções diferentes, mas todo mundo tem.

    Classe social, raça ou religião não define estilo, influencia mas não é o fator determinante. O que te ajuda a identificar é sua preferência musical, atividade de lazer, profissão entre outras coisas. É normal, você transitar por estilos diferentes, afinal, somos humanos e estamos sujeitos a mudar de humor e opinião, não é mesmo?

    Voltando ao assunto, Mãe... para te ajudar neste dia tão especial, temos dicas bacanas, para não errar no presente. Só não esqueça que de nada vale um presente, se o abraço não for apertado :) 

     

    MÃE CLÁSSICA - elegante, nasceu como uma verdadeira aristocrata. Ela é impecável no comportamento e nos looks. Não se encanta fácil por modinha, prefere peças clássicas que nunca saem da moda. Fernanda Montenegro é a nossa inspiração.

    Dica: lenços, echarpes, brinco ou colar com pérolas

    Mae classica

     

     

    MÃE CASUAL -  praticidade é seu lema, adora peças confortáveis e descomplicadas. É uma pessoa descontraída e leve. Invista em peças versáteis e básicas. Maria Ribeiro é nossa mãe de personalidade forte, mas leveza na expressão.

    Dica: Bolsa Sacola e acessórios pequenos

    mae casual maria ribeiro

     

     

    MÃE ARROJADA - extravagante e adora chamar a atenção. Não usa nada básico ou discreto, adora as peças maxi e quer o olhar e o elogio de todos. Cores, estampas, brilho é com ela mesmo, ás vezes exagera um pouquinho, mas nada que sua personalidade não banque esse deslize. Cher é maravilhosamente exagerada.

    Dica: Maxi bolsa, maxi brinco ou lenços estampados.

    mae arrojada cher

     

     

    MÃE ANTENADA - super antenada nas novas tendências, sabe usar a moda à seu favor. Se veste bem em todas as ocasiões e circula tranquilamente por todos os estilos. Sabe ser sexy e discreta, clássica e arrojada. Seu look preferido? Depende do seu humor. Juliana Paes é a mãe ligadíssima da vez.

    Dica: Chapéu fedora e bolsa clutch.  

    mae moderna juliana paes

     


              Jatuh Cinta Membuat Anda Kehilangan Dua Sahabat        
    OXFORD, (PRLM).- Kita semua mungkin sudah tahu bahwa mabuk cinta dalam hubungan asmara yang baru saja dimulai membuat Anda tidak punya banyak waktu untuk orang lain, tetapi sekarang masalah ini sudah dikaji secara ilmiah. Para peneliti dari Universitas Oxford menanyai seratusan orang mengenai beberapa orang sahabat terdekat mereka dan bagaimana jumlah ini berubah ketika mereka memulai hubungan asmara
    .
    Mereka menemukan sahabat terdekat orang-orang itu biasanya berjumlah sekitar lima orang sebelum hubungan asmara dimulai dan menurun menjadi dua orang saja ketika kekasih baru mendominasi hidup sehari-hari mereka.

    "Orang-orang yang menjalin hubungan asmara, bukannya memelihara hubungan dekat dengan rata-rata lima orang sahabat terdekat mereka, tetapi hanya punya empat orang dalam lingkaran itu," jelas Robin Dunbar, seorang profesor antropologi evolusi di Oxford University.

    "Dan perlu diingat bahwa salah satu orang dalam empat orang dalam lingkaran inti itu adalah orang baru yang masuk dalam hidup Anda, itu artinya sudah mencoret dua orang," katanya yang dikutip "BBC".
    Riset yang baru-baru ini dimasukkan untuk publikasi, dibacakan dalam satu festival Ilmiah Inggris di Universitas Aston. Kelompok peneliti pimpinan Professor Dunbar meneliti jaringan sosial dan bagaimana orang-orang yang diteliti mengelola ukuran serta siapa saja yang masuk dalam jaringan sosial itu.

    Dia baru-baru ini memperlihatkan jumlah teman maksimum yang mungkin dimiliki seseorang secara realistis adalah sekitar 150 orang. Dalam situs jaringan sosial Facebook, contohnya, orang rata-rata memiliki sekitar 120-130 teman. Jumlah ini bisa dibagi ke dalam kelompok-kelompok yang lebih kecil, dengan lingkaran terdekat berjumlah sekitar empat dan enam orang.

    Empat dan enam orang inilah yang kita temui paling tidak sekali dalam seminggu; orang-orang yang didatangi ketika kita mengalami krisis. Lingkaran lain diluar itu adalah orang-orang yang mungkin kita temui sebulan sekali atau "kelompok simpati". Mereka adalah orang-orang yang jika meninggal dunia besok, tidak kita rindukan atau membuat kita sedih.

    Dalam penelitian terbaru, tim professor Dunbar menanyai 540 partisipan, berusia minimal 18 tahun, mengenai hubungan sosial mereka dan tekanan atas hubungan itu ketika hubungan asmara yang baru, baru saja dimulai. Hasilnya memperkuat dugaan yang diyakini secara luas bahwa cinta bisa membuat lingkaran inti yang terdiri dari para sahabat terdekat, ukurannya menjadi lebih kecil.

    Biasanya seorang anggota keluarga dan seorang sahabat harus keluar dari lingkaran inti ini, untuk mengakamodir pacar baru. "Keintiman hubungan, keterlibatan emosi anda, sangat berkaitan dengan frekuensi anda berinteraksi dengan invidivu-individu dalam lingkaran itu," kata Profesor Dunbar menyimpulkan.
    "Yang saya duga terjadi adalah perhatian anda semuanya terfokus pada pasangan asmara anda sehingga anda tidak punya waktu lagi bertemu teman-teman atau melakukan kegiatan bersama mereka, dan akibatnya hubungan itu mulai merenggang sampai akhirnya mereka keluar dari lingkaran terdekat anda, dan masuk ke lingkaran luar," ujarnya. (A-147)***

    Sumber : http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/node/122566

              Dejar de morder uñas – puede causar infecciones        

    ¿Que muerde las uñas, o quieres ayudar a alguien que usted conoce para aprender a dejar de biitng las uñas? De lo contrario, usted no leerá este post. Ya sabes id es una mala costumbre que no clavo mordedores repulsivo y no pueden entender por qué alguien haría.  Además de la apariencia y la pérdida del estatuto social, uñas penetrante presenta riesgos para la salud.

    Hay un término médico para el hábito compulsivo de uñas que morder. Se llama onychophagy, que también se escribe onychophagia, es el uso de médicos de la palabra para describir clavos deformados por morder uñas crónica. Hay numerosos remedios, soluciones, productos y trucos que pueden ayudar a morderse las uñas revertir el hábito.  Empezando a aprender cómo mantener las uñas con manicura regular puede aliviar mucho la condición para muchos. Para dejar de fumar a largo plazo, necesita ayuda más que tener una manicura. Un lugar que puede conseguir es en mi libro, Cómo dejar de uñas morder, que está disponible en Amazon.com y otras librerías online.

    Muchas pinzas cortantes de uñas pueden aprender a dejar de fumar por su propia cuenta, pero para los que sufren como una grave y profundamente arraigado hábito compulsivo, se recomienda buscar ayuda médica profesional. El acto de uñas que morder en sí mismo, por lo general no es una causa de daño llong-término. Sin embargo, el acto de poner varias veces los dedos en la boca durante todo el día puede llevar a problemas médicos. Considerar sólo haciendo esto es por lo menos una práctica muy poco higiénicas. Su alcance se carga con las bacterias, que lo pone en diversos grados de riesgo cuando entra al cuerpo a través de la boca.

    Además de portadores de la bacteria, los dedos son un conducto para el virus. Como tal, grandemente aumentas tus posibilidades de contraer un resfriado u otra algún tipo de infección. Si también tirar o morder tus cutículas, creas llagas abiertas que pueden conducir a graves infecciones por estafilococos. Estos hábitos de mala fijación oral pueden causar infección preexistente de la piel empeoran o persisten.

    Si agrega a su lista de razones para aprender a dejar de uñas morder que es no solo feos, sino también malsana, es una razón más para dejar de fumar ahora estrecha. Siga este enlace para encontrar herramientas útiles y productos para ayudarle a dejar de morder uñas.

    Etiquetado como: malos hábitos, comportamiento, morder su clavos, modificación del cuerpo, Dermatofagia, hábitos, comportamiento humano, infección, infecciones, manicura, masaje, término médico, uñas, pinzas cortantes de clavo, clavo mordiendo, clavos, stop uñas, dejar de morder de uñas


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              Dejar de morder hábitos – uso de fuerza de voluntad, productos de uñas        

    Control-It! Tarro 3 ~ 21 día uña penetrante tratamiento OMEGA3 Extra Strength, este médico recomienda crema cura las cutículas, a diferencia de polaco que cutículas secas, índice de éxito más fuerte disponible' >Stop Nail Biting Treatmentsin embargo, para aprender cómo dejar de morder uñas nunca es fácil para quienes han tenido una permanente aflicción a este hábito más indeseado. Podría decirse que es uno de los hábitos más difíciles de romper. Hay tantas cosas que van a morder uñas. No es un simple proceso de masticar una uña o puling en una cutícula.

    Morder uñas implica un complicado proceso que es mayoría en un estado subconsciente de la mente. No pensamos en ello cuando se cepille el pelo de la frente, o rayar un leve picor en algún lugar, hacerlo solo sin dar ningún pensamiento completo a la acción. Lo mismo vale para el proceso implicado de hacer inspecciones visuales y táctiles uñas pinzas cortantes.

    Muchas pinzas cortantes de uñas no se mira las uñas conscientemente para admirarlas, o busque potencial arreglarse las necesidades que se hará más tarde en privado. Hacen esto con ningún deseo de quitar un uñero o corregir una uña irregular, que es lo que sucede cuando un morderse las uñas mira o siente su clavo. Es la preparación que estimula el cerebro en una acción deseosa.

    Creo que hay algún tipo de reacción química en el cerebro. No a diferencia de anticipar algo agradable sobre a suceder. Los adictos son conocidos a experimentar síntomas pre-alta, los amantes son conocidos por tener un pulso acelerado y heightenend sentimientos de sensualidad antes de cualquier actividad física lleva a cabo.

    Usted puede poner cigarrillos y alcohol fuera de la vista, usted puede permanecer lejos de la mayoría de otras tentaciones mientras construyes tu fuerza de voluntad, pero los dedos están siempre contigo. Como tal, es más difícil hacer que cualquier morderse las uñas no podría imaginar.

    Para detener el clavo mordiendo, necesita entrenarnos para reconocer sus hábitos penetrantes y entonces usted necesita para entrenar a utilizar patrones de comportamiento alternativo para que pueda superar los impulsos poderosos para recortar las uñas y cutículas por morder y tirar en lugar de utilizar instrumentos adecuados en privado en un salón de manicura. Eso es lo que yo enseño en mi libro, cómo dejar de uñas morder

    Lo primero que comienzas con es el deseo. Tienes que tener un plan y una caída en el nuevo plan también.  Todo lo que tienes en mi libro. Además, necesita el clavo adecuado aseo herramientas para ayudarle. Para comenzar con, podría necesitas ayuda de un producto como Control-It! Tarro 3 ~ día 21 uña morder tratamiento OMEGA3 Extra fuerte. Este médico recomienda crema cura las cutículas, a diferencia de polaco cutículas secas, índice de éxito más fuerte disponible.

    También necesita algunos esmalte endurecedor, incluso los chicos. Algunos argumentan que se seca las uñas y podría hacerlo. Sostienen tener uñas más fuertes, especialmente en las puntas es más importante que la humedad en ir temprano. Si sigues de chipping sus uñas recién crecientes, evitas que quieren estar presentes después de la rotura, desgarro, jag o lo que tenga que activará una secuencia penetrante.

    Quimica Alemana Nail Hardener es una opción popular y asequible. Y chicos, se puede manchar el polaco como se seca a mate lo un poco. Si usted está preocupado por su vanidad o masculinidad, pensar sobre cómo mierda sus uñas miren ahora. Se trata de una compensación menor durante unas semanas obtener sus uñas en forma y bajar sus mordaces repeticiones en el proceso.

    Mínimamente las herramientas que usted necesita son tijeras, alicates y un buen archivo. Recomiendo Tweezerman apriete de acero inoxidable y Snip: cutícula y padrastro Snipper es fácil de llevar en el bolsillo, cartera o maletín. Utilizarlo con cuidado y limpio recortar tus cutículas cuando nota algo no lisa. No ser agresivo o sobre snip y causa llagas o más daño.

    Para los clippers, casi cualquier hará. Si quieres algo más de una mejor calidad que encuentran en la farmacia, prueba el Tweezerman plegable cortauñas. He encontrado la marca Tweezerman ofrecer productos de alta calidad y gran valor. Es decir por qué también me gusta el Tweezerman cerámica plegable Pocket archivo. Es un poco voluminoso como su único inconveniente. Una alternativa es el Kit de uñas de los dos hombres la pieza en estuche de cuero negro. Contiene un archivo y clipper en un caso de Niza.

    Luego se comprometen a utilizar herramientas como estas para ayudarle a conquistar el hábito. Para más ayuda, conseguir mi libro para que puedas empezar a aprender técnicas que puede utilizar en cualquier lugar en cualquier situación para ayudar a frustrar clavo mordiendo las tentaciones. Esto es especialmente útiles semanas o meses más tarde cuando las uñas se cultivan, la guardia está abajo, y ocurre un hecho desencadenante.

    Etiquetado como: trastornos de ansiedad, modificación del cuerpo, mordiendo la uña, hábitos, uñero, comportamiento humano, manicura, uñas, uñas pinzas cortantes, clavo mordiendo, hábito penetrante de uñas, productos, dejar de morder el clavo, clavo mordiendo recursos, fuerza de voluntad de detener


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              Final clavo mordiendo y usted        
    Sin embargo, no simplemente morder uñas aparece indeseable, sin embargo también podría afectar los dedos y les desfiguran para bien.

    Lamentablemente, lo que significa que casi todos los individuos deben considerar una serie de clavo varias opciones de terapia antes el descubrimiento de morder el uno que tiene previsto operar la parte superior para ellos. Como otros comportamientos ansiosos, es realmente a veces un síntoma de un problema psicológico.

    Para en el por lo menos cada semana, marca por lo que había estado realizando cada vez que acabaste la tentación de morder las uñas. Clavos que suceden a deformarse así como la expansión típica de las uñas pueden ser interferidos por otra parte por morder a largo plazo.

    Hay numerosas cuestiones que son capaces de hacer apoyar deje de morderse las uñas. Lo que permite al niño obtener ligada a la selección del remedio acercamiento puede ayudar al niño resultan para ser responsables de los problemas detener.

    Ser un morderse las uñas previo, de vez en cuando veo que caen de nuevo otra vez sobre el comportamiento de. Ese es un punto que debe ser expuesto en el curso de hipnoterapia Londres.

    No es sólo restringido a morder las uñas pero además a morder las cutículas y también los tejidos limítrofes a lo largo de las uñas uñas mordiendo. Elija cada día para satisfacer sus necesidades generalmente no son capaces de morder las uñas y justo antes de que usted necesita deshacerse de polaco de correo si cualquiera junto con el apoyo del removedor del clavo poslish.

    Su cutícula sangrará y usted también podría tener dedos doloridos y rojos. Lo contrario se podría tomar en cuenta la hace una tentativa de las madres y padres, hermanos o amigos lloriquear: "Prometiste dejar" clic aquí.

    Periódicamente manejar para aumentar mis uñas, y por suerte para mí se utilizan para obtener correctamente bien notable teniendo en cuenta los abusos que había facilitado a la gran mayoría en el tiempo. Después de que mis uñas lograron la duración en que realmente de hecho pude sentir una ventaja a ellos podría empezar a utilizar el tablero de esmeril para formarlas.

    Los gérmenes se podían transferir para los clavos dañados más la boca. Estrategias puede resultarle beneficioso consisten en producir un psicológico observar para detener, prometiendo uno mismo no mordida y reduciendo su resolución de año nuevo, o demás estos tipos de motivación para prevenir.

    Como resultado, si alguna persona de ustedes en el mercado está recibiendo problemas con uñas penetrante, es posible constantemente considerar complaciendo a su auto en el arte de uñas y uñas para colorear para mantener tus brazos preocupados y lograr buenos resultados al mismo tiempo.

    ¿Eres consciente, clavo mordiendo conduce a la moción de los gérmenes que puedan ser enterrados debajo del piso de la uña, o las lombrices intestinales de un área del ano para su bocamouthI darse cuenta de lo que realmente sientes. Van sólo tener la oportunidad de detener por sí mismos de maltratar a sus uñas tan pronto como el daño se lleva a cabo.

    Cuando se consiguió desarrolla a proporciones saludables, usted podrá entonces avanzar hacia el siguiente clavo derecho hasta que este tipo de tiempo que cada uno los clavos ya ha sido creado sano. Esto quita los bordes duros y todavía me dejó con absolutamente nada aparente a picotear en.

     Afortunadamente se casó con un hombre de la maravillosa variedad que me gusta mucho y a pesar del hecho que tenemos presiones para hacer frente a nuestro personal, mi estilo de vida es manera más segura de lo que había sido entonces.

    Se muerden las uñas, ya que no encontrará sabor definido a él, similar al agua potable para que debe modificar y hacer tu sabor de uñas realmente bruto para asegurar que no desearás a morderlos ya. Independientemente de la razón de ser es un comportamiento mucho más típico que posiblemente algunos pueden sentir y varios otros están tratando de encontrar un enfoque altamente eficaz para detener.

    El fundamento que escribirla es asegurarse de que no puedes poner excusas o causar con uno mismo, cuando tienes ausente la semana con no morderse las uñas a través del número de dedos que escribió, de incluir un número de derecho más dedos hasta poco tienes todos 10 compuesto por abajo.

    View the original article here
              Una vez aparecen en morder uñas        
    Conducen a más tensión y un problema de tensión adicional de la función. Cómo dejar de morderse las uñas con un solo usted está empleado su cabeza, utilizando otro ha cuerpo y posee igualmente un gran efecto en la disminución de nuestras gamas de tensión. Es porque el momento que pusiste los dedos a la boca, usted conseguirá el inesperado estilo terrible y podrá rechazar le mucho que simplemente no necesita morder tus uñas más de largo.

    Permite comenzar con el acto de colocación de la uña o dedo dentro de la boca, en el caso que se imagina que no es pobre, detener, reflexionar para el segundo. Otra vez se siente ansioso o presionado, participar en tener una bola de tensión o distraer a las palmas con otra cosa que es ciertamente reconfortante y no va a sostenerte en el borde de su asiento.

    Desencadenar una reacción corporal perjudicial, dicen, ajustar una banda elástica versus la muñeca cada vez que atrapes, podría apoyarle para detener la rutina. Todavía será mejor si usted podría conseguir pero otro clavo mordiendo buddy para evitar morder demasiado, de esta manera es posible ayudar a inspirar a cada uno de los demás y conjuntamente son capaces de dividir la práctica.

    Son capaces de utilizar un esmalte amargo en lo que sigue siendo de sus respectivos clavos. Así que ahora no suelen incluso tratar y asesorar a este pensamiento no se pudo realizar en su caso, simplemente porque eres un miembro de la douleur de la uña morder la cultura.Desnuda tonos de esmalte de uñas se ofrecen a su disposición que le apoyará con este tipo de problema.

    Debido a que no ha habido ahora bordes duros para tentarme, podía preservarlos prolongada con cabo mordisqueando los pedacitos difíciles, además pude pintarlos en bastante esmalte de uñas que creó también parecen totalmente no las uñas que me había mordido anteriormente. Numerosos pinzas cortantes de uñas están inclinados a pensar que morder las uñas no es negativa para ellos. Hipnosis obliga a considerar la gestión y dividir sus comportamientos.

    El daño comienza a ocurrir cuando uña de tipos tan modesta, morderlo daña cerca por carne, provocando dolor, o en un casos peor montón, sangrado. La altura de los hábitos es generalmente evidente en el momento de la pubertad. Al final encontrará algunos uso funcional en la mercancía de belleza costoso llamada esmalte de uñas del dedo.

    Desnuda tonos de esmalte de uñas se ofrecen a su disposición que le apoyará con este tipo de dilema. Morderse las uñas es con frecuencia tiempo una rutina ansiosa, algo que haces una vez incluso un poco ansioso de emoción.

     Obviamente, no es sólo las uñas breves, desagradables y desfiguradas le preocupa porque su vida propia y experta ha ya sido negativamente afectada, también. A mi hermana del estado que crecí Mostrar desagrado por lo estaba considerablemente de un eufemismo y seguramente era bastante racking que reside en una casa donde argumentos terminaron una función día a día, y una persona fue casi generalmente en lágrimas como un resultado de la final de la conducta de nuestro padre.

    El clavo morder es realmente un hábitos que sin duda está también situados en animales, particularmente de cachorros, demostrando un estado de histeria. ¿Se debe mantener sus uñas caza saludable, es considerablemente menos probablemente a morderlos.

    El propósito de la es siempre a poco a poco conseguir su auto apagado la práctica sin producir modificaciones drásticas, obviamente sus uñas se buscar algo extraño junto con los crecimientos de uñas irregulares, pero se adhieren a cabo ya que probablemente se valorarlo.

    Clavo morder es mucho menos de los síntomas de ansiedad o problemas psicológicos y aún más de su rutina pobre que ha se ha incubado al inconsciente por encima de varios años. Su generalmente popular método de gestión particulares interiores pensamientos, sentimientos, problemas, circunstancias o situación.

    Después de empleados el empujador de cutícula dentro la manicura establecido presionar mis cutículas en términos podría. Conseguir una botella de sistema de uñas amargas que está específicamente formulado para ayudar a igualmente jóvenes y ancianos, dividir el comportamiento penetrante de uñas.

    El primer proceso para terminar el clavo mordiendo hábitos va a ser para determinar las actividades reales y además situaciones durante el cual es una inclinación a morder las uñas. El más sencillo 1 conseguir un clavo transparente polaco que su área con sus uñas.

     Lamentablemente, sufrió numerosos problemas de salud, problemas coronarios del corazón, un coágulo a la mente, enfermedad de Parkinson, gota y así sucesivamente. El objetivo sería cambiar el comportamiento de morder las uñas con una particular que es mucho más constructivo. Clavo afilado y uñas arte no sólo es emocionante, pero muy inventiva al mismo tiempo.

    Un número de personas como yoga, que también es un excelente ejercicio físico. También normalmente se logra cuando estás aburrido de lo contrario no tienes nada para llevar a cabo.

    El clavo morder sanar que llevará a cabo en su caso será diferente, Considerando que no haya clavos morder el método de tratamiento funciona exactamente de la misma manera para todos. Dañados los poros y la piel con la cutícula – un uñero – pueden resultar contaminados cuando indebidamente eliminados así como el lugar que alrededor de las uñas pueden volverse rojo y angustiante. La mayoría de las personas que están tratando de detener el clavo morder con la electricidad de su voluntad por sí mismo Descubra en sus propias apropiado dentro de la práctica de rutinariamente.

    En caso de estar sin duda una mujer es posible pintar las uñas y también tienen el objetivo de intentar parecer bueno el fin de semana. Dividir la rutina justo antes de que los dedos se rompen significativamente.

    View the original article here
              Las 4 causas más comunes de uñas morder        
    Existen numerosas opiniones acerca de la aparición de uñas que morder. Algunos psicólogos afirman altos niveles de estrés y ansiedad para ser la causa, mientras que otros sostienen traumática infancia experiencias responsable del desarrollo de clavo mordiendo.

    Los párrafos siguientes se discutirá el 4 probablemente factores de chispas uñas que morder, así como de las tres causas para el mantenimiento de hábitos nerviosos como morderse la uñas.


    Genética

    Algunos científicos sugieren que morder uñas puede deberse a un comportamiento preparación antiguo en el cerebro, dejados por la evolución. Este mecanismo ha salido de control y se manifiesta en morder uñas excesiva. La teoría está sustentada en el hecho de que ciertas razas de perros y gatos participar comportamientos similares. Se ven lamiendo sus patas delanteras para el exceso, la eliminación de su piel y causando gran irritación y daño de la piel incluso.

    Tensiones de la infancia

    Hay apoyo para la teoría que morder uñas es causada por eventos estresantes o traumáticos, como parental regaño o castigo, intimidación en la escuela o timidez alrededor de sus compañeros. Otros factores que podrían catalizar el hábito son presión para lograr buenas calificaciones o la incapacidad para encajar en un grupo social. Para la comodidad de recibir y manejar el estrés excesivo, el niño se vuelve hacia sus uñas y comienza a morder entonces se convierte en un hábito.

    Imitación

    Los estudios han revelado que morder el clavo tiende a ser hereditaria. Esto apoya la idea de que puede ser un comportamiento aprendido: un niño ve un padre u otro familiar a morder uñas y comienza a copiar los movimientos, asumiendo que son útiles. La acción da una sensación de sentirse bien, con lo cual se desató un hábito. Esta teoría suena razonable, teniendo en cuenta que estamos influenciados por los padres de muchas maneras.

    Falta de herramientas adecuadas

    Otra teoría en cuanto a lo que inicia el clavo morder es que simplemente el morderse las uñas no tiene las herramientas adecuadas para recortar las uñas o manejar irregularidades que puedan surgir. En lugar de encontrar un instrumento para suavizar las uñas o clip, la persona se convierte simplemente en sus dientes para ayuda. El morderse las uñas repite la acción y, a pesar de los resultados a menudo insatisfactorios, sigue siendo el hábito.

    Lo que causó que usted comience su hábito — pudo haber sido una combinación de los factores descritos anteriormente, ahora persiste como un mal hábito. Cada vez que te encuentras en una situación incómoda, clavo mordiendo proporciona alivio. En tiempos de inactividad, masticar sus uñas le da algo que hacer con las manos. De hecho, los investigadores nos dice que hay tres razones principales para el mantenimiento de hábitos nerviosos como morderse las uñas.

    1. Para alivio de la tensión o estrés.

    2. Para reducir el aburrimiento y ocupar las manos.

    3. Para suavizar los bordes ásperos o cutículas desiguales.

    Aunque clavo mordiendo pretende reducir la tensión, aburrimiento de alivio o alcanzar un resultado físico como uñas suaves, rara vez conduce al resultado deseado. Probablemente, que te sientes más destacó después de caer en el hábito y las uñas se ven peor. Inicialmente, puede haber sido una estrategia de afrontamiento eficaces para tensiones de infancia — es probablemente la mejor manera su cuerpo supo hacer frente al tiempo, pero hoy en día, el comportamiento no servirle más.

    En muchos casos, morder uñas puede deberse a cualquiera de estos factores. También nota que también puede ser una combinación de éstos y en algunos casos ninguno en absoluto. Depende de su evaluación personal para decidir si alguno de estos factores puede tener alguna relevancia y aplican a su situación personal.
              AVISO PRÉVIO        

     ANTIGA LEI

    A comunicação antecipada é obrigatória do fim do contrato de trabalho, e feita pelo empregado ou pelo empregador.
    O período mínimo a ser cumprido após a comunicação ao empregado e de 30 dias.
    O trabalhador cumpriu o aviso conforme a Consolidação das leis trabalhistas (CLT), se o empregado deixa o emprega voluntariamente, tem que continuar trabalhar por 30 dias. Se não quiser cumprir o aviso devera ressarcir a empresa. Já quando o empregado e dispensado a empresa devera mantê-lo no trabalho por 30 dias ou liberá-lo pagando pelo período não trabalhado.

     NOVA LEI

    A nova lei 12.506/2011 aumenta de 30 para até 90 dias o aviso prévio que o empregador deve conceder ao funcionário no caso de demissão. As regras se aplicam para os desligamentos a partir do dia 13 de outubro de 2011, e não influenciam quem pediu demissão ou foi demitido antes da vigência do novo prazo.
    Para os que permanecerem por mais tempo, será somado ao aviso mais três dias por ano trabalhado, com limite total de até 90 dias. Em caso de demissão voluntária, o empregado deve trabalhar pelo mesmo período ou ressarcir a empresa pelo tempo devido. Mas a empresa pode optar por liberar o empregado, sem ônus.
    A medida vai beneficiar o trabalhador que tem mais estabilidade na empresa, e vai evitar demissões injustificadas por parte das companhias, já que demitir vai custar mais caro. Por outro lado o novo prazo, à primeira vista, beneficia o funcionário, mas se for levado em conta o fato de que o empregador também pode exigir o cumprimento do aviso prévio, mesmo quando demite o empregado, o prazo maior pode prejudicar a recolocação do profissional no mercado.
    A Federação das Indústrias do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Firjan) calcula que, com as novas regras, o pagamento do aviso prévio por parte das empresas será encarecido em 21%, representando um adicional da ordem de 1,9 bilhão de reais por ano. Segundo a Firjan, isso causará um desestímulo adicional à geração de empregos formais no país, contrariando a tendência internacional de flexibilização das legislações trabalhistas.
    A nova situação vai impactar todas as empresas e pesar no bolso do empresário. “Atualmente, paga-se um salário ao empregado quando não cumprido o aviso prévio trabalhado. Com as modificações, esta indenização poderá ser de até três salários, o que vai depender da proporcionalidade dos anos trabalhados pelo empregado, além das demais verbas do contrato de trabalho.”
    Quanto ao custo da mão de obra no Brasil, e o balanço das demissões e admissões, a nova lei, sem dúvida, encarece o custo de se manter um empregado, e a intenção de tentar diminuir a rotatividade nas empresas pode não ser alcançada. E mais, isso pode de alguma forma, aumentar a informalidade no mercado de trabalho.

              Proton turunkan harga kereta        
     
    Seperti mana janji yang dibuat kerajaan sebelum pilihan Raya umum ke-13 yang lalu untuk mengurankan harga kereta. Proton Holding Bhd akhirnya tampil menawarkan penurunan harga kereta dan langkah ini selaras dengan seruan Perdana Menteri dalam manisfesto PRU13 yang lalu.

    Berita baik ini turut mendapat perhatian Timbalan Menteri Perdangangan Dalam Negeri, Koperasi dan Keperggunaan Datuk Ahmad Bashah Md Hanipah dengan berkata Proton telah menyambut baik seruan Perdana Menteri dengan menurunkan harga kereta 1.3 sebanyak RM 5,000.

    Dengan penurunan harga kereta, pengguna boleh melihat dan merasai sendiri janji-janji yang dibuat oleh pihak kerajaan kepada rakyat Malaysia telahpun ditunaikan. Katanya pada sidang media di Alor Setar, Kedah.

    Sehubungan itu, beliau berharap agar syarikat-syarikat kereta lain turut sama mengikut jejak Proton untuk menurunkan harga kereta demi kesenangan rakyat.
    "Proton dah turunkan harga, jadi saya harap syarikat lain menjadikan Proton sebagai contoh dan akan tampil ke hadapan untuk mengurangkan harga kereta," katanya.

    Ahmad Bashah berkata harga kereta-kereta lain akan diturunkan secara berperingkat.

    Pada 13 Jun yang lalu, Proton menawarkan kepada rakyat Malaysia satu varian kereta keluarannya yang  akan dijual dengan harga lebih rendah dan mampu dimiliki oleh semua rakyat Malaysia.

              Coloração Infinity Color - Um passo a frente em tecnicologia        
    É a primeira coloração a possuir ANGSTRONG TECHNOLOGY, que é o mais avançado sistema de pigmentação, indo muito além da Nano Technology pois divide as moléculas em 10.000.000 de vezes, permitindo colorir os cabelos com mais profundidade, aumentando a fixação e a durabilidade dos pigmentos, oferecendo total cobertura dos cabelos brancos além desta tecnologia possui ainda:
    A proteína do trigo (D Phantenol) oferece ao cabelo uma substância semelhante a que existe naturalmente no cabelo que é responsável pelo fortalecimento da fibra capilar, em especial ao Córtex, que é a parte do cabelo onde se encontram as melaninas (pigmentos naturais ou cosméticos). O D Phantenol nutre o bulbo capilar ajudando no crescimento do cabelo e age como um protetor do couro cabeludo durante a coloração.
    A Amodimetine (silicone) atua como cimento intercelular que age sobre a cutícula (parte externa do cabelo) responsável pelo brilho e sedosidade. A ação do silicone protege o cabelo evitando o ressecamento e recupera a capacidade natural de reter a umidade dos fios.
    Os princípios ativos presentes na formulação deste produto oferecem ao cabelo maior condicionamento e mantêm a umidade natural, o que resulta em cabelos hidratados com mais sedosidade e brilho e seguram por mais tempo a cor cosmética sobre os fios.
    FRAGÂNCIA: Aroma suave de Lavanda Fresca Amadeirada.
    APRESENTAÇÃO: Bisnaga contendo 60gr.
    CONSISTÊNCIA: Cremosa.
    MISTURA: As colorações Infinity Color devem ser misturadas aos oxidantes Infinity devido a combinações de princípios ativos presentes nos produtos e a estabilidade dos oxidantes que agilizam seu desempenho. As quantidades quando forem usadas para colorir cabelos com porosidade e que desbotam facilmente, reflexos cobre, vermelho ou em cabelos grisalhos de difícil pigmentação deve ser de 60gr de coloração para 90 ml de oxidante na volumagem necessária de acordo com a cor desejada ou a cor natural do cabelo e textura dos fios. Quando se usar cores para fazer clareamento a mistura de oxidante poderá ser para cada 60gr de coloração 110ml de oxidante.
    DESCOLORANTES
    O Pó Descolorante é constituído por uma combinação de extraordinários produtos rigorosamente selecionados e com matéria-prima importada da Alemanha. É um descolorante de última geração não volátil nem desprende amônia, oferecendo mais conforto para o profissional e para a cliente.
    Pós Descolorante Blond Light
    Pó Descolorante Blond Light Infinty Color é indicado para cabelos sensíveis tais como: cabelos finos, delicados e sensibilizados ou com histórico de químicas anteriores, como bases alisantes, entre outros. Este produto poderá ser utilizado em todas as técnicas de reflexos, ballayagens, decapagens e clareamento de cabelos. Graças a sua fórmula auto protetora contendo colágeno solúvel seus cabelos vão ficar mais fáceis de pentear e com muito brilho.
    Embalagem: 500g
    Pós Descolorante Ultra Blond
    O Pó Descolorante Ultra Blond Infinity Color é indicado para cabelos com fios grossos e resistentes onde o resultado alcançado é de um clareamento rápido e superior aos demais descolorantes. Seu uso não é indicado para cabelos sensibilizados. Este produto pode ser utilizado em todas as técnicas de reflexos, ballayagens, decapagens e clareamento de cabelos. Graças ao efeito de sua formula auto protetora contendo colágeno solúvel seus cabelos vão ficar mais fáceis de pentear e com muito brilho.
    Embalagem: 500g
    OXIDANTES CREMOSOS
    Oxidantes com estabilidade apropriada para o uso com colorações INFINITY. Contém na sua composição Peróxido de Hidrogênio que associado às colorações e ao pó descolorante completam a ação na troca dos pigmentos naturais por pigmentos cosméticos. Contém princípios ativos que melhoram a textura dos cabelos e da estabilidade química aos oxidantes.
    AROMA: Lavanda Amadeirada (Suave)
    APRESENTAÇÃO: Embalagem plástica contendo 900ml.
    VOLUMAGEM:
    10vol - oxidante cremoso 3% de peróxido de hidrogênio.
    20vol - oxidante cremoso 6% de peróxido de hidrogênio.
    30vol - oxidante cremoso 9%de peróxido de hidrogênio.
    40vol - oxidante cremoso 12% de peróxido de hidrogênio.
              How to mix textures        



     As I  told you before, I am not a print fan, but I love mixing textures.

    I designed this chiffon skirt with a color  snake print thinking of mixing it with a simple top and comfy shoes, a casual,edgy outfit. I got the sequin top a while ago from The Front Row shop but I had my sleeves cut and shorthend in lenght  becasue it was too long .
     A few tips for mixing textures:
    Don't go wild in colors too.
     Get a printed item, and the other texture should pe plain in one of the print's colors, preferably a neutral one. Don't mix too many textures because it will look weird.
     Experiment , take pictures and see what looks nice, we all make mistakes, but we learn from them.



    Dupa cum v-am mai spus, nu ma dau in vant dupa imprimeuri, dar imi place mixul de texturi.
    Cand am creat fusta asta idn  voal cu imprimeu de sapre gri cu violet ma gandeam sa o asortez cu un top simplu, larg, pentru o tinuta de zi, casual ,dar totusi interesanta. Bluza din paiete albe o am de ceva timp , dar recent am modificat-o putin, adica am taiat din maneci si lungime ca pe mine arata ciudat, fiind mica de inaltime imi era aproape rochie. 
    Cateva idei pentru asocierea texturilor
    Nu va aventurati cu prea multe culori.
    O piesa cu imprimeu, iar textura alaturata sa fie de intr-una din culorile imprimeului, preferabil o nuanta neutra.
    Nu amestecati prea multe texturi, poate arata ciudat mai ales daca nu stapaniti tehnica.
    Nu ezitati sa incercati variante diferite, faceti-va poze ca astfel puteti vedea mai bine greselile.




     Top:Here
    Skirt: B.A.D. style
    Boots: Here
    Bag: Here
    ring: HM

     Photos by Veres Krisztian


              JNMS and Maxi-MMC updates        
    This weekend I fixed some disc emulation issues for the JNMS and Maxi-MMC boards. I had previously erroneously identified these two boards but they are different.

    The JNMS board is the one in the CDI 180 player (also called the JNMS player). It is not used in any other player and contains a CDIC (CD Interface Controller) chip but no SLAVE processor.

    The Maxi-MMC board is the one in the CDI 601 and 602 players. From the emulation point of view it is virtually identical to the Mini-MMC board used by the CDI 605 player, but it has a different CDIC chip version. Both boards contain a SLAVE processor.

    The link between the JNMS and Maxi-MMC boards is the CDIC chip: both turn out to have the same older CDIC chip version that differs in a few details from the version used on the Mini-MMC and Mono-I boards players (I described these differences in the earlier “CD-i 180 disc playing” post).

    I noticed the JNMS / Maxi-MMC link from the CD-i player type table in the July 1996 issue of The Interactive Engineer (it’s on the ICDIA site); turns out I had misinterpreted the Board column on page 4 (there’s also an error there: the 601/602 certainly do not have the 180 board!).

    After noticing this I did some testing and it turns out that the CDIC modifications needed for the 180 also work for the 601, including the TOC reading problem.

    I have yet to find a way to get chip version information from the CDIC chip itself, so for the time being I’ve keyed the differences on the SLAVE software version. The 180 has no such chip, the 601 has version 1.x where the 605 has version 3.x. For now I’ve assumed that version 2.x also uses the older CDIC chip, but that may be wrong (the 602 or 604 might be interesting test cases).

    Having done that, I did some more digging into the TOC read issue. It turns out that the 601 ROM performs CRC validation on the subcode Q data from the lead-in area (which is where the TOC is stored), and CD-i Emulator didn’t provide a valid CRC (no other ROMs I’ve seen so far validate this in software). The ROM even has compensation for shifts of between 1 and 7 bits in the incoming subcode Q data, probably because of some hardware timing issue.

    I also noticed a bug in the ROM: it always uses the first sector buffer because it takes the current buffer bit from the wrong memory location. Not that this really matters because the TOC data is repeated multiple times; half of the repetitions will always land in the first buffer anyway. The bug is fixed in the 605 ROM.

    Generating a valid CRC turned out to be straightforward (it’s just a simple CRC-CCITT calculation), but the ROM wouldn’t recognize it! After some head scratching I focused on the ROXL instruction (Rotate Left with Extend) used in the validation code. It is quite an esoteric instruction; could it be that there was an emulation bug here? It turns out that there was indeed; during rotation the contents of the X flag where put in the wrong bit. After fixing this the ROM properly recognized the data and the TOC reads became just as quick as other player models.

    In search of version information for the CDIC chip I looked at the emulations and found one potential point of interest: the release number displayed by the service shell. This is a special GUI shell that performs some service functions; you can get to it by inserting a specially wired test plug into input port 1.

    After some digging I found that the service shell obtains this number from the SLAVE processor, so it probably does not directly correspond to a CDIC version. The number does appear to differ from other version numbers, though, at least on my two 605 players.

    The service shell obtains this number using two special I$SetStt calls into the CDIC driver; extending CD-i Link to remotely perform these same calls was easy. The new -cds[tatus] option can now be used to make the special calls. Here's some representative output of the -cds A3 option:

    CD status A3000000 -> A3320000

    Extending CD-i Link with remote OS9 calls is actually a fairly easy way to perform some information and tracing actions; I will probably use it for sorting out other dangling issues in the near future. When possible, this technique avoids the problems of writing a fullblown memory-resident trace module.

    A new public beta release of CD-i Emulator that has full JNMS and Maxi-MMC support (among other things) is scheduled before the end of this year; there are still a few other issues that need sorting out first. This release should also have better support for the PCDI board used by several portable players, including the CD-i 370.

    The major player holes still remaining are the Sony IVO-10/11 players, the Kyocera player, the Bang&Olufsen TV/player combi and of course the I2M board. There is some perspective for all of these but they are not high priority; except for the latter I expect all of them to be minor hardware variations of existing boards.

    The I2M board has the interesting feature that it has multiple "ROMs" downloaded from the PC software (which is available for download from ICDIA); it also has a very different way of reading from CD as this is handled by the PC. As a consequence of this, audio is probably also handled differently. I have this board booting to a blue screen where it hangs on host communication.
              CD-i 180 disc playing        
    After a few hours of tweaking I’ve gotten CD-i 180 disc playing working in CD-i Emulator. Most of the time was spent on basic disassembly of the driver, which is very similar to the CD-i 605 version (but missing some features such as multi-session support and seek delay). Not very surprising as both players use the same CDIC chip, although they are supposedly different versions.

    The problems were really quite trivial but there are of course complications...

    The first problem turned out to be a memory map issue. On all CD-i players that I’ve encountered so far, a memory map chunk size of 128 KB works fine because memory from different devices (whether general purpose RAM or device-specific memory such as NVRAM and CDIC local memory) never lives inside the same 128 KB chunk of address space. On the CD-i 180 this is not true, as can be seen from the following fragment of maximmc.brd:
    $00300000   cdic.dev     level=4
    $00310000 nvr.dev
    My code silently overwrote the CDIC mapping with the NVR mapping which meant that any access to CDIC local memory terminated in a bus error. Needless to say, this was not conducive to disc playback. Simply lowering the memory map chunk size to 64 KB fixed this problem.

    Next it turned out that during initialization the cdap18x driver wants to do some kind of data transfer to address $320001, possibly DSP parameters or something, and there was no device there yet. This was easily fixed also.

    At this point the disc play got started but the interrupt routine ignored all interrupts. After inspecting the driver it turned out that the CD-i 180 expects an additional status bit to be set in the DBUF register that was never used on other CD-i players with a CDIC. Still easy to fix.

    Now the interrupt routine started trying to process the sector but it got bus errors in two places. It attempted to read the FILE selection register, which other CD-i players never did, and it took the buffer index bits (these specify the DMA buffer the hardware used from the sector) from a previously unimplemented register that I’ve dubbed DSEL for now. Easy fixes galore...

    After this one sector got properly transferred to memory but an unending stream of interrupts hung up the player. It turns out that the CD-i 180 ROMs don’t read the CDIC XBUF register that CD-i Emulator used to clear the interrupt. Generating and clearing the interrupt from the DBUF register fixed that also, and now the disc actually started playing!

    Of course I did some tests next and there are currently three known problems:

    - Reads of the disc table-of-contents (TOC) take ages, probably because the ROMs are checking for or waiting on some flag or data byte that CD-i Emulator currently doesn’t provide. This should not be very hard to fix.

    - Audio playback from memory doesn’t work, the symptoms are very similar to those of the audio sync issues that occurred during the MESS collaboration in 2009. This may be a hard problem to crack.

    - And finally the most hairy issue: the CDIC emulation modifications break other players. The breakage is often subtle but very definitely there so I will have to do some careful juggling to get it working on all players, if necessary by explicit version checking but I hope to avoid that. The hardware should not be that dissimilar, really...

    On the serial port and pointing device front, I’ve found someone who has a surplus serial port interface and an infrared remote. He also has a complete CD-i 180 set (including the CDI 182 unit) and I’m looking forward to extracting the ROMs from that one also.

    He also took apart his mouse and it seems to be a fairly standard Amiga design which means that it should not be very hard to manufacture a replacement.

    I’ve been looking into making a small PIC-based interface for PS2 and/or CD-i peripherals and it may still come to that but it seems to be not as necessary as I thought.
              CD-i 180 internals        
    In the previous post I promised some ROM and chip finds. Well, here goes. To understand some of the details, you'll need some microprocessor and/or digital electronics knowledge, but even without that the gist of the text should be understandable.

    The CDI 181 MMC unit contains the so-called Maxi-MMC board that is not used in any other CD-i player. Its closest cousin is the Mini-MMC board that is used in the CD-i 605 and CD-i 220 F1 players (a derivative of it is used in the CD-i 350/360 players).

    The Mini-MMC board uses two 68HC05 slave processors for CD and pointing device control (they are usually called SERVO and SLAVE). The Maxi-MMC board does not have these chips, but it does have two PCF80C21 slave processors labeled RSX and TRANSDUCER that perform similar functions.

    From their locations on the board I surmise that the RSX performs CD control functions; I know for sure that the TRANSDUCER performs only pointing device control. The latter is connected to the main 68070 processor via an I2C bus (I've actually traced the connections); I'm not completely sure yet about the RSX.

    In order to emulate the pointing devices in CD-i Emulator, I had to reverse engineer the I2C protocol spoken by the TRANSDUCER chip; this was mostly a question of disassembling the "ceniic" and "periic" drivers in the ROM. The first of these is the low-level driver that serves as the common control point for the I2C bus; the second is the high-level driver that is instantiated separately for each type of pointing device. The ROMs support three such devices: /cdikeys, /ptr and /ptr2, corresponding to the player control keys and first and second pointing devices (the first pointing device is probably shared between the infrared remote sensor and the left pointing device port). Both pointing devices support absolute (e.g. touchpad) as well as relative (e.g. mouse) positioning.

    Note that there is no built-in support for a CD-i keyboard or modem (you could use a serial port for this purpose).

    However, knowing the I2C protocol does not tell me the exact protocol of the pointing devices, which therefore brings me no closer to constructing a "pointing device" that works with the two front panel MiniDIN-9 connectors. Note that these connectors are physically different from the MiniDIN 8 pointing device connectors used on most other CD-i players. According to the Philips flyers, these connectors have 6 (presumably digital) input signals and a "strobe" (STB) output signal. From the signal names I can make some educated guesses about the probable functions of the signals, but some quick tests with the BTN1 and BTN2 inputs did not pan out and it could be too complicated to figure out without measurement of a connected and working pointing device.

    There is, however, also an infrared remote sensor that is supposed to expect the RC5 infrared signal protocol. This protocol supports only 2048 separate functions (32 groups of 64 each) so it should not be impossible to figure out, given a suitably programmable RC5 remote control or in the best case a PC RC5 adapter. I've been thinking about building one of the latter.

    There is also a third possibility of getting a working pointing device. Although the case label of the front MiniDIN 8 connecter is "CONTROL", the Philips flyers label it "IIC" which is another way of writing "I2C", although they don't give a pinout of the port. It seems plausible that the connector is connected to the I2C bus of the 68070, although I haven't been able to verify that yet (the multimeter finds no direct connections except GND, so some buffering must be involved). If there is indeed a connection, I would be able to externally connect to that bus and send and receive the I2C bus commands that I've already reverse engineered.

    If even this doesn't work, I can always connect directly to the internal I2C bus, but that involves running three wires from inside the player to outside and I'm not very keen on that (yet, anyway).

    Now, about the (so far) missing serial port. There is a driver for the 68070 on-chip UART in the ROMs (the u68070 driver which is accessible via the /t2 device), and the boot code actually writes a boot message to it (CD-i Emulator output):
      PHILIPS CD-I 181 - ROM version 23rd January, 1992.
    Using CD_RTOS kernel edition $53 revison $00
    At first I thought that the UART would be connected to the "CONTROL" port on the front, but that does not appear to be the case. Tonight I verified (by tracing PCB connections with my multimeter) that the 68070 serial pins are connected to the PCB connector on the right side (they go through a pair of SN75188/SN75189 chips and some protection resistors; these chips are well-known RS232 line drivers/receivers). I even know the actual PCB pins, so if I can find a suitable 100-pins 0.01" spaced double edge print connector I can actually wire up the serial port.

    Now for the bad news, however: the ROMs do not contain a serial port download routine. They contain a host of other goodies (more below) but not this particular beast. There is also no pointing device support for this port, contrary to all other players, so connecting up the serial port would not immediately gain me anything, I still need a working pointing device to actually start a CD-i disc…

    There are no drivers for other serial ports in the ROMs, but the boot code does contain some support for a UART chip at address $340001 (probably a 68681 DUART included in the CDI 182 unit which I don't have). The support, however, is limited to the output of boot messages although the ROMs will actually prefer this port over the 68070 on-chip device if they find it.

    As is to be expected from a development and test player, there is an elaborate set of boot options, but they can only be used if the ROMs contain the signature "IMS-TC" at byte offset $400 (the ROMs in my player contains FF bytes at these locations). And even then the options prompt will not appear unless you press the space bar on your serial terminal during player reset.

    However, adding a -bootprompt option that handles both the signature and the space bar press to CD-i Emulator was not hard, and if you use that option with the 180 ROMs the following appears when resetting the player:
      PHILIPS CD-I 181 - ROM version 23rd January, 1992.

    A-Z = change option : <BSP> = clear options : <RETURN> = Boot Now

    Boot options:- BQRS
    As specified, you can change the options by typing letters and pressing Enter will start the boot process with the specified options.

    From disassembling the boot code of the ROMs I've so far found the following options:

    D = Download/Debug
    F = Boot from Floppy
    L = Apply options and present another options prompt (Loop)
    M = Set NTSC Monitor mode
    P = Set PAL mode
    S = Set NTSC/PAL mode from switch
    T = Set NTSC mode
    W = Boot from SCSI disk (Winchester)

    It could be that there's also a C option, and I've as yet not found any implementations of the Q and R options that the ROMs include in the default, but they could be hidden in OS-9 drivers instead of the boot code.

    Once set, the options are saved in NVRAM at address $313FE0 as default for prompts during subsequent reboots, they are not used for reboots where the option prompt is not invoked.

    Options D, F and W look interesting, but further investigation leads to the conclusion that they are mostly useless without additional hardware.

    Pressing lower-case D followed by Enter / Enter results in the following:
    Boot options:- BQRSd
    Boot options:- BDQRS
    Enter size of download area in hex - just RETURN for none
    called debugger

    Rel: 00000000
    Dn: 00000000 0000E430 0007000A 00000000 00000000 00000001 FFFFE000 00000000
    An: 00180B84 00180570 00313FE0 00410000 00002500 00000500 00001500 000014B0
    SR: 2704 (--S--7-----Z--) SSP: 000014B0 USP: 00000000
    PC: 00180D2E - 08020016 btst #$0016,d2
    debug:
    One might think that entering a download size would perform some kind of download (hopefully via the serial port) but that is not the case. The "download" code just looks at location $2500 in RAM that's apparently supposed to be already filled (presumably via an In-Circuit Emulator or something like it).

    However, invoking the debugger is interesting in itself. It looks like the Microware low-level RomBug debugger that is described in the Microware documentation, although I haven't found it in any other CD-i players. One could "download" data with the change command:
    debug: c0
    00000000 00 : 1
    00000001 00 : 2
    00000002 15 : 3
    00000003 00 :
    Not very userfriendly but it could be done. The immediate catch is that it doesn't work with unmodified ROMs because of the "IMS-TC" signature check!

    Trying the F option results in the following:
    Boot options:- BQRSf
    Boot options:- BFQRS
    Booting from Floppy (WD 179x controller) - Please wait
    This, however, needs the hardware in the CDI 182 set (it lives at $330001). I could emulate that in CD-i Emulator of course, but there's no real point at this time. It is interesting to note that the floppy controller in the CD-i 605 (which I haven't emulated either at this point) is a DP8473 which is register compatible with the uPD765A used in the original IBM PC but requires a totally different driver (it also lives at a different memory address, namely $282001).

    Finally, trying the W options gives this:
    Boot options:- BQRSw
    Boot options:- BQRSW
    Booting from RODIME RO 650 disk drive (NCR 5380 SCSI) - Please wait
    Exception Error, vector offset $0008 addr $00181908
    Fatal System Error; rebooting system
    The hardware is apparently supposed to live at $410000 and presumably emulatable; it's identical or at least similar to the DP5380 chip that is found on the CD-i 605 extension board where it lives at $AA0000).

    Some other things that I've found out:

    The CDI 181 unit has 8 KB of NVRAM but it does not use the M48T08 chip that's in all other Philips players, it's just a piece of RAM that lives at $310000 (even addresses only) and is supported by the "nvdrv" driver via the /nvr device.

    In the CD-i 180 player the timekeeping functions are instead performed by a RICOH RP5C15 chip, the driver is appropriately called "rp5c15".

    And there is a separate changeable battery inside the case; no "dead NVRAM" problems with this player! I don't know when the battery in my player was last changed but at the moment it's still functioning and had not lost the date/time when I first powered it on just over a week ago.

    The IC CARD slot at the front of the player is handled like just another piece of NVRAM; it uses the same "nvdrv" driver but a different device: /icard. According to the device descriptor it can hold 32 KB of data, I would love to have one of those!
              CD-i 180 adventures        
    Over the last week I have been playing with the CD-i 180 player set. There’s lots to tell about, so this will be a series of blog posts, this being the first installment.

    The CD-i 180 is the original CD-i player, manufactured jointly by Philips and Sony/Matsushita, and for a score of years it was the development and “reference” player. The newer CD-i 605 player provided a more modern development option but it did not become the “reference” player for quite some years after its introduction.

    The CD-i 180 set is quite bulky, as could be expected for first-generation hardware. I have added a picture of my set to the Hardware section of the CD-i Emulator website; more fotos can be found here on the DutchAudioClassics.nl website (it’s the same player, as evidenced by the serial numbers).

    The full set consists of the CDI 180 CD-i Player module, the CDI 181 Multimedia Controller or MMC module and the CDI 182 Expansion module. The modules are normally stacked on top of each other and have mechanical interlocks so they can be moved as a unit. Unfortunately, I do not have the CDI 182 Expansion module nor any user manuals; Philips brochures for the set can be found here on the ICDIA website.

    Why am I interested in this dinosaur? It’s the first mass-produced CD-i player (granted, for relatively small masses), although there were presumably some earlier prototype players. As such, it contains the “original” hardware of the CD-i platform, which is interesting from both a historical and an emulation point of view.

    For emulation purposes I have been trying to get hold of CD-i 180 ROMs for some years, there are several people that still have fully operational sets, but it hasn’t panned out yet. So when I saw a basic set for sale on the CD-Interactive forum I couldn’t resist the temptation. After some discussion and a little bartering with the seller I finally ordered the set about 10 days ago. Unfortunately, this set does not include a CDI 182 module or pointing device.

    I had some reservations about this being a fully working set, but I figured that at least the ROM chips would probably be okay, if nothing else that would allow me to add support for this player type to CD-i Emulator.

    In old hardware the mechanical parts are usually the first to fail, this being the CDI 180 CD-i Player module (which is really just a CD drive with a 44.1 kHz digital output “DO” signal). A workaround for this would be using an E1 or E2 Emulator unit; these are basically CD drive simulators that on one side read a CD-i disc image from a connected SCSI hard disk and on the other side output the 44.1 kHz digital output “DO” signal. Both the CDI 180 and E1/E2 units are controlled via a 1200 baud RS232 serial input “RS” signal.

    From my CD-i developer days I have two sets of both Emulator types so I started taking these out of storage. For practical reasons I decided to use an E1 unit because it has an internal SCSI hard disk and I did not have a spare one lying around. I also dug out an old Windows 98 PC, required because the Philips/OptImage emulation software doesn’t work under Windows XP and newer, and one of my 605 players (I also have two of those). Connecting everything took me a while but I had carefully stored all the required cables as well and after installing the software I had a working configuration after an hour or so. The entire configuration made quite a bit of mechanical and fan noise; I had forgotten this about older hardware!

    I had selected the 605 unit with the Gate Array AH02 board because I was having emulation problems with that board, and I proceeded to do some MPEG tests on it. It turns out the hardware allows for some things that my emulator currently does not, which means that I need to do some rethinking. Anyway, on with the 180 story.

    In preparation for the arrival of the 180 set I next prepared an disc image of the “OS-9 Disc” that I created in November 1993 while working as a CD-i developer. This disc contains all the OS-9 command-line programs from Professional OS-9, some OS-9 and CD-i utilities supplied by Philips and Microware and some homegrown ones as well. With this disc you can get a fully functional command-line prompt on any CD-i player with a serial port, which is very useful while researching a CD-i player’s internals.

    The Philips/Optimage emulation software requires the disc image files to include the 2-second gap before logical block zero of the CD-i track, which is not usually included in the .bin or .iso files produced by CD image tools. So I modified the CD-i File program to convert my existing os9disc.bin file by prepending the 2-second gap, in the process also adding support for scrambling and unscrambling the sector data.

    Scrambling is the process of XORing all data bytes in a CD-ROM or CD-i sector with a “scramble pattern” that is designed to avoid many contiguous identical data bytes which can supposedly confuse the tracking mechanism of CD drives (or so I’ve heard). It turned out that scrambling of the image data was not required but it did allow me to verify that the CD-I File converted image of a test disc is in fact identical to the one that the Philips/Optimage mastering tools produce, except for the ECC/EDC bytes of the gap sectors which CD-I File doesn’t know how to generate (yet). Fortunately this turned out not to be a problem, I could emulate the converted image just fine.

    Last Thursday the 180 set arrived and in the evening I eagerly unpacked it. Everything appeared to be in tip-top shape, although the set had evidently seen use.

    First disappointment: there is no serial port on the right side of 181 module. I remembered that this was actually an option on the module and I had not even bothered to ask the seller about it! This would make ROM extraction harder, but I was not completely without hope: the front has a Mini-DIN 8 connector marked “CONTROL” and I fully expected this to be a “standard” CD-i serial port because I seemed to remember that you could connect standard CD-i pointing devices to this port, especially a mouse. The built-in UART functions of the 68070 processor chip would have to be connected up somewhere, after all.

    Second disappointment: the modules require 120V power, not the 220V we have here in Holland. I did not have a voltage converter handy so after some phone discussion with a hardware-knowledgeable friend we determined that powering up was not yet a safe option. He gave me some possible options depending on the internal configuration so I proceeded to open up the CDI 181 module, of course also motivated by curiosity.

    The first thing I noticed was that there were some screws missing; obviously the module had been opened before and the person doing it had been somewhat careless. The internals also seemed somewhat familiar, especially the looks of the stickers on the ROM chips and the placement of some small yellow stickers on various other chips.

    Proceeding to the primary reason for opening up the module, I next checked the power supply configuration. Alas, nothing reconfigurable for 220V, it is a fully discrete unit with the transformer actually soldered to circuit board on both input and output side. There are also surprisingly many connections to the actual MMC processor board and on close inspection weird voltages like –9V and +9V are printed near the power supply outputs, apart from the expected +5V and +/–12V, so connecting a different power supply would be a major undertaking also.

    After some pondering of the internals I closed up the module again and proceeded to closely inspect the back side for serial numbers, notices, etc. They seemed somewhat familiar but that isn’t weird as numbers often do. Out of pure curiosity I surfed to the DutchAudioClassics.nl website to compare serial numbers, wanting to know the place of my set in the production runs.

    Surprise: the serial numbers are identical! It appears that this exact set was previously owned by the owner of that website or perhaps he got the photographs from someone else. This also explained why the internals had seemed familiar: I had actually seen them before!

    I verified with the seller of the set that he doesn’t know anything about the photographs; apparently my set has had at least four owners, assuming that the website owner wasn’t the original one.

    On Friday I obtained a 120V converter (they were unexpectedly cheap) and that evening I proceeded to power up the 180 set. I got a nice main menu picture immediately so I proceeded to attempt to start a CD-i disc. It did not start automatically when I inserted it, which on second thought makes perfect sense because the 181 MMC module has no way to know that you’ve just inserted a disc: this information is not communicated over 180/181 interconnections. So I would need to click on the “CD-I” button to start a disc.

    To click on a screen button you need a supported pointing device, so I proceeded to connect the trusty white professional CD-i mouse that belongs with my 605 players. It doesn’t work!

    There are some mechanical issues which make it doubtful that the MiniDIN connector plugs connect properly, so I tried an expansion cable that fit better. Still no dice.

    The next step was trying some other CD-i pointing devices, but none of them worked. No pointing devices came with the set, and the seller had advised me thus (they were presumable lost or sold separately by some previous owner). The only remaining option seemed to be the wireless remote control sensor which supposedly uses RC5.

    I tried every remote in my home, including the CD-i ones, but none of them give any reaction. After some research into the RC5 protocol this is not surprising, the 180 set probably has a distinct system address code. Not having a programmable remote handy nor a PC capable of generating infrared signals (none of my PCs have IrDA) I am again stuck!

    I spent some time surfing the Internet looking for RC5 remotes and PC interfaces that can generate RC5 signals. Programmable remotes requiring a learning stage are obviously not an option so it will have to be a fully PC-programmable remote which are somewhat expensive and I’m not convinced they would work. The PC interface seems the best option for now; I found some do-it-yourself circuits and kits but it is all quite involved. I’ve also given some thought to PIC kits which could in principle also support a standard CD-i or PC mouse or even a joystick, but I haven’t pursued these options much further yet.

    Next I went looking for ways to at least get the contents of the ROM chips as I had determined that these were socketed inside the MMC module and could easily be removed. There are four 27C100 chips inside the module, each of which contains 128Kb of data for a total of 512Kb which is the same as for the CD-i 605 player (ignoring expansion and full-motion video ROMs). The regular way to do this involves using a ROM reading device, but I haven’t gotten one handy that supports this chip type and neither does the hardware friend I mentioned earlier.

    I do have access to an old 8 bit Z80 hobbyist-built system capable of reading and writing up to 27512 chips which are 64Kb, it is possible to extend this to at least read the 27C100 chip type. This would require adapting the socket (the 27512 is 28 pins whereas the 27C100 has 32 pins) and adding one extra address bit, if nothing else with just a spare wire. But the Z80 system is not at my house and some hardware modifications to it would be required, for which I would have to inspect the system first and dig up the circuit diagrams; all quite disappointing.

    While researching the chip pinouts I suddenly had an idea: what if I used the CD-i 605 Expansion board which also has ROM sockets? This seemed an option but with two kids running around I did not want to open up the set. That evening however I took the board out of the 605 (this is easily done as both player and board were designed for it) and found that this Expansion board contains two 27C020 chips, each containing 256Kb of data. These are also 32 pins but the pinouts are a little different, so a socket adapter would also be needed. I checked the 605 technical manual and it did not mention anything about configurable ROM chip types (it did mention configurable RAM chip types, though) so an adapter seemed the way to go. I collected some spare 40 pin sockets from storage (boy have I got much of that) and proceeded to open up the 180 set and take out the ROM chips.

    When determining the mechanical fit of the two sockets for the adapter I noticed three jumpers adjacent to the ROM sockets of the expansion board and I wondered… Tracing of the board connections indicated that these jumpers were indeed connected to exactly the ROM socket pins differing between 27C100 and 27C020, and other connections indicated it at least plausible for these jumpers to be exactly made for the purpose.

    So I changed the jumpers and inserted one 180 ROM. This would avoid OS-9 inadvertently using data from the ROM because only half of each 16-bit word would be present, thus ensuring that no module headers would be detected, and in the event of disaster I would lose only a single ROM chip (not that I expected that to be very likely, but you never know).

    Powering up the player worked exactly as expected, no suspicious smoke or heat generation, so the next step was software. It turns out that CD-i Link already supports downloading of ROM data from specific memory addresses and I had already determined those addresses from the 605 technical manual. So I connected the CD-i 605 null-modem cable with my USB-to-Serial adapter between CD-i player and my laptop and fired off the command line:

    cdilink –p 3 –a 50000 –s 256K –u u21.rom

    (U21 being the socket number of the specific ROM I chose first).

    After a minute I aborted the upload and checked the result, and lo and behold the u21.rom file looked like an even-byte-only ROM dump:
    00000000  4a00 000b 0000 0000 0004 8000 0000 0000 J...............
    00000010 0000 0000 0000 003a 0000 705f 6d6c 2e6f .......:..p_ml.o
    00000020 7406 0c20 0000 0000 0101 0101 0101 0101 t.. ............
    This was hopeful, so I restarted the upload again and waited some six minutes for it to complete. Just for sure I redid the upload from address 58000 and got an identical file, thus ruling out any flakey bits or timing problems (I had already checked that the access times on the 27C100 and 27C020 chips were identical, to say 150ns).

    In an attempt to speed up the procedure, I next attempted to try two ROMs at once, using ones that I thought not to be a matched even/odd set. The 605 would not boot! It later turned out that the socket numbering did not correspond to the even/odd pairing as I expected so this was probably caused by the two ROMs being exactly a matched set and OS-9 getting confused as the result. But using a single ROM it worked fine.

    I proceeded to repeat the following procedure for the next three ROMs: turn off the 605, remove the expansion board, unsocket the previous ROM chip, socket the next ROM chip, reinsert the expansion board, turn on the 605 and run CD-i Link twice. It took a while, all in all just under an hour.

    While these uploads were running I wrote two small programs rsplit and rjoin to manipulate the ROM files into a correct 512Kb 180 ROM image. Around 00:30 I had a final cdi180b.rom file that looked good and I ran it through cditype –mod to verify that it indeed looked like a CD-I player ROM:
      Addr     Size      Owner    Perm Type Revs  Ed #  Crc   Module name
    -------- -------- ----------- ---- ---- ---- ----- ------ ------------
    0000509a 192 0.0 0003 Data 8001 1 fba055 copyright
    0000515a 26650 0.0 0555 Sys a000 83 090798 kernel
    0000b974 344 0.0 0555 Sys 8002 22 b20da9 init
    0000bacc 2848 0.0 0555 Fman a00b 35 28611f ucm
    0000c5ec 5592 0.0 0555 Fman a000 17 63023d nrf
    0000dbc4 2270 0.0 0555 Fman a000 35 d6a976 pipeman
    0000e4a2 774 0.0 0555 Driv a001 6 81a3e9 nvdrv
    0000e7a8 356 0.0 0555 Sys a01e 15 e69105 rp5c15
    0000e90c 136 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 f25f23 tim070
    0000e994 420 0.0 0555 Driv a00c 6 7b3913 tim070driv
    0000eb38 172 0.0 0555 Driv a000 1 407f81 null
    0000ebe4 102 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 cf450e pipe
    0000ec4a 94 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 f54010 nvr
    0000eca8 96 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 17ec68 icard
    0000ed08 1934 0.0 0555 Fman a000 31 b41f17 scf
    0000f496 120 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 61 dd8776 t2
    0000f50e 1578 0.0 0555 Driv a020 16 d0a854 u68070
    0000fb38 176 0.1 0777 5 8001 1 a519f6 csd_mmc
    0000fbe8 5026 0.0 0555 Sys a000 292 e33cc5 csdinit
    00010f8a 136 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 6 041e2b iic
    00011012 152 0.0 0555 Driv a02c 22 e29688 ceniic
    000110aa 166 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 8 c5b823 ptr
    00011150 196 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 8 a0e276 cdikeys
    00011214 168 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 8 439a33 ptr2
    000112bc 3134 0.0 0555 Driv a016 11 faf88d periic
    00011efa 4510 0.0 0555 Fman a003 96 a4d145 cdfm
    00013098 15222 0.0 0555 Driv a038 28 122c79 cdap18x
    00016c0e 134 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 35f12f cd
    00016c94 134 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 d2ce2f ap
    00016d1a 130 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 1 1586c2 vid
    00016d9c 18082 10.48 0555 Trap c00a 6 5f673d cio
    0001b43e 7798 1.0 0555 Trap c001 13 46c5dc math
    0001d2b4 2992 0.0 0555 Data 8020 1 191a59 FONT8X8
    0001de64 134 0.0 0555 Desc 8000 2 c5ed0e dd
    0001deea 66564 0.0 0555 Driv a012 48 660a91 video
    0002e2ee 62622 0.1 0555 Prog 8008 20 ec5459 ps
    0003d78c 4272 0.0 0003 Data 8001 1 9f3982 ps_medium.font
    0003e83c 800 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 c1ac25 ps_icons.clut
    00040000 2976 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 0a3b97 ps_small.font
    00040ba0 7456 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 764338 ps_icons.clu8
    000428c0 107600 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 7b9b4e ps_panel.dyuv
    0005cd10 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8001 1 2a8fcd ps_girl.dyuv
    00065730 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 e1bb6a ps_mesa.dyuv
    0006e150 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 8e394b ps_map.dyuv
    00076b70 35360 0.0 0003 Data 8002 1 c60e5e ps_kids.dyuv

    File Size Type Description
    ------------ ------ ------------ ------------
    cdi180b.rom 512K cdi000x.rom Unknown CD-i system ROM
    cdi180b.rom 512K cdi000x.mdl Unknown CD-i player
    cdi180b.rom 512K unknown.brd Unknown board
    Of course cditype didn’t correctly detect the ROM, player and board type, but the list of modules looks exactly like a CD-i player system ROM. It is in fact very similar to the CD-i 605 system ROM, the major differences are the presence of the icard and *iic drivers, the absence of a slave module and the different player shell (ps module with separate ps_* data modules instead of a single play module).

    It being quite late already, I resocketed all the ROMs in the proper places and closed up both players, after testing that they were both fully functional (insofar as I could test the 180 set), fully intending to clean up and go to bed. As an afterthought, I took a picture of the running 180 set and posted it on the CD-Interactive forums as the definitive answer to the 50/60 Hz power question I’d asked there earlier.

    The CD-i Emulator urge started itching however, so I decided to give emulation of my new ROM file a quick go, fully intending to stop at any major problems. I didn’t encounter any of those, however, until I had a running CD-i 180 player three hours later. I reported the fact on the CDinteractive forum, noting that there was no pointing device or disc access yet, and went to a well-deserved sleep. Both of these issues are major ones and those I postponed for the next day.

    To get the new player type up and running inside CD-i Emulater, I started by using the CD-i 605 F1 system specification files cdi605a.mdl and minimmc.brd as templates to create the new CD-i 180 F2 system files cdi180b.mdl and maximmc.brd. Next I fired up the emulator and was rewarded with bus errors. Not unexpected and a good indicator of where the problems are. Using the debugger and disassembler I quickly determined that the problems were, as expected, the presence of the VSR instead of VSD and the replacement of the SLAVE by something else. Straightening these out took a bit of time but it was not hard work and very similar to work I had done before on other player types.

    This time at least the processor and most of the hardware was known and already emulated; for the Portable CD-i board (used by the CD-i 370, DVE200 and GDI700 players) both of these were not the case as they use the 68341 so-called integrated CD-i engine which in my opinion is sorely misnamed as there is nothing CD-i about the chip, it is just the Motorola version of an 68K processor with many on-chip peripherals in remarkably similar to the Philips 68070 in basic functionality.

    Saturday was spent doing household chores with ROM research in between, looking for the way to get the pointing device working. It turned out to be quite involved but at the end of the day I had it sort of flakily working in a kludgy way; I’ll report the details in a next blog post.

    Sunday I spent some time fixing the flakiness and thinking a lot about fixing the kludginess; this remains to be done. I also spent time making screenshots and writing this blog post.

    So to finish up, there is now a series of 180 screenshots here on the CD-i Emulator website as reported in the What's New section. A very nice player shell, actually, especially for a first generation machine.

    I will report some ROM and chip finds including new hopes for replacing the missing pointing device in a next blog post.
              MPEG decoding, state save/restore, NRF emulation, ...        
    It's been a while since I wrote anything here, but that doesn't mean that work on CD-i Emulator has stopped. On the contrary, a lot has happened in the last month and describing all of it will take a very long blog post. So here goes…

    Last January an annoying date-checking bug was found which forced me to release beta2 somewhat earlier than anticipated. After that I did no further work on CD-i Emulator. There were various reasons for this, but the most import one was a very busy period at my day job.

    After a well-earned vacation I resumed CD-i related work in early August. First I spent a few days on Walter Hunt's OS-9 port of gcc, the GNU C/C++ Compiler that I found in October of last year. Getting it working on a modern Cygwin installation was interesting and something very different from my usual line of work. The result could be useful for homebrew activities: it's a much more usable C compiler then the Microware OS-9 one and supports C++ as a bonus. I intend to use this for ROM-less emulation validation some day; see also below. The sources need to be released but I haven’t gotten to that stage yet.

    After that I had another go at the Digital Video cartridge emulation. At the point where I left off last year the major stumbling block was the presumed picture / frame buffering logic of the MPEG video driver. When the appropriate interrupt status bits are set the driver starts copying a bulk of status information to an array of device registers and it will sometimes also read from those registers. This is all controlled by several status and timing registers that are also referenced elsewhere and I previously could not get a handle on it.

    My first attempt this time was spending another few days staring at it and tracing it, but this did not gain me much new understanding. Finally I decided to just leave it for now and see how far I could get without understanding this part of the driver. I decided to once again attempt to get "CD-i Full Motion Video Technical Aspects" working.

    This CD-i was produced by Philips to give future Full Motion Video (as the new MPEG playback functions were called at the time) developers a demonstration of the technical capabilities of the new hardware, at a time when this hardware was still in the early beta phase. The CD-i actually contains the compiler libraries necessary for making FMV calls from CD-i applications, as these had not previously been widely distributed.

    It is not a very slick disc visually, being intended for developers, but it demonstrates a number of FMV techniques such as regular playback, playback control including pause, slow motion and single step, freeze frame and forward/backward scan, special effects like scrolling the FMV window, a seamless jump and a sample of overlay effects with the CD-i base case video planes.

    I had previously tried to run this disc on CD-i Emulator, but it always crashed for an unknown reason that I attributed to MPEG device emulation problems. This time I traced back the crash and it turned out to have nothing at all to do with FMV playback but was instead caused by an incorrect emulation of the 68000 instruction "move ea,ccr" which is supposed to set the condition code register (ccr) to the value specified by the effective address (ea). In the processor manual this is classified as a word instruction and I had emulated it as such, which turned out to be wrong as it caused a word write to the full status register which should have been a byte write to the lower eight bits of it which hold the condition codes.

    The problem manifested itself when the application calls the math trap handler for some mundane number calculations, which were naturally supposed to set the condition codes. The value written to the status register inadvertently changed the processor from user to system mode (and also scrambled the active interrupt masking level) which caused an instant stack switch that caused a bus error when the trap handler attempts to return to the application program (the cpu took the return address from the wrong stack and got garbage instead).

    Most CD-i applications probably don't use the math trap handler so the problem went undetected for a long time. Now that it's fixed some other titles have probably started working but I haven't tested that.

    After this, the FMV Technical Aspects application would get to its main menu screen, allowing me to start FMV playback operations. Regular playback worked fine until the end of the video clip, where there turned out to be status bit generation issues that prevented the application from properly detecting the end of video clip condition (the decoder is supposed to send a "buffer underflow" signal, among others, after the end of the MPEG data and my emulation didn't do that yet).

    This was not very easy to fix because of the way that MPEG data buffering and decoding is handled inside CD-i Emulator, which I'll get into below. So it took me some time.

    Regular play working fine, I started worrying about window control. This was the area where I feared the picture buffering stuff, but it turned out that this was easily bypassed. The horizontal / vertical scrolling functions were ideal to test this but it took me some time to get it working. There were bugs in several areas, including my integration of the MPEG video decoding code, which I took from the well-known mpeg2dec package. This code is written to decode a single video sequence and consequently did not handle image size changes without some re-initialization calls at the appropriate times. Failing that, it mostly just crashed (at the Windows application level) due to out-of-bounds video buffer accesses.

    Another issue was the timing of device register updates for image size changes; I turned out to have the basic mechanism wrong and consequently the driver would keep modifying the window parameters to incorrect values.

    Having all of the above fixed, I returned my attention to playback control. So far I can get the video playback properly paused, but I haven't been able to get it properly resumed. For some reason the application resumes the MPEG playback but it doesn't resume the disc playback. Since the driver waits for new data to arrive from disc before actually resuming MPEG playback nothing happens (this is documented as such). The application is presumably expecting some signal from the driver to get into the proper state for resuming disc playback, but I haven't found it yet.

    At this point, it seemed promising to look at other CD-i titles using playback control and the Philips Video CD application is an obvious candidate. Again, regular playback appears to work fine, but playback control (including pause/resume) does not. It turns out that this application uses a different driver call (it uses MV_ChSpeed instead of MV_Pause, probably in preparation for possible slow motion or single step), which never completes successfully, probably again because of device status signaling. Similar issues appear to block playback control in a few other titles I tried.

    I've given some thought to tracing driver calls and signals on an actual player to see what CD-i Emulator is doing wrong, and it appears to be relatively simple, there's just a bandwidth issue because all of the trace output will have to go out the serial port which can go no higher then 19200 baud. Some kind of data compression is obviously needed and I've determined a relatively simple scheme that should be enough (the CD-i player side will all need to be coded in 68000 machine language so simplicity is important!), but I haven't actually written any code for it yet.

    I know there are issues with the proper timing of some video status signals. Things like start-of-sequence, end-of-sequence and start-of-picture-group should be delayed until display of the corresponding picture, at present they are delivered at decoding time, which can be a few pictures early. But that does not really affect the titles I've tried so far, because they do not attempt picture-synced operations. An application like The Lost Ride might be sensitive to thinks like this, though, and it needs to be fixed at some time. Similar issues are probably present with time code delivery. In addition, the last-picture-displayed and buffer-underflow signals are not always properly sent; I'm fixing these as I go along.

    In the process, I decided that the magenta border was getting annoying and tried to fix it. That turned out to be harder then I thought. The MPEG chip has a special border color register that is written by the MV_BColor driver call and it seemed enough to just pass the color value to the MPEG window overlay routines. Well, not so. Again the issue turned out to be timing of decoder status signals, but of a different kind. The driver doesn't write the border color registers until it has seen some progress in certain timing registers related to the picture buffering thing, presumably to avoid visual flashes or something on the actual hardware. Fortunately, it turned out to be easy to simulate that progress, taking care not to trigger the complicated picture buffer code that I so far managed to keep dormant.

    At some point, possibly related to slow motion or freeze frame, I might need to actually tackle that code but I hope to by that time have gained more understanding of the supposed workings of the MPEG chip.

    Looking at the above, you might think that all of the difficulties are with the MPEG video decoding and that is indeed mostly true. I did have to fix something in the MPEG audio decoding, related to the pause/resume problems, and that was the updating of the audio decoder clock. When audio and video playback are synchronized the MPEG video driver uses the MPEG audio clock as it's timing reference, which means that it has to be stopped and restarted when video playback control operations occur. Since I had never before seriously tested this, the audio clock wasn't stopped at all and the video driver obligingly continued decoding and displaying pictures until it ran out of buffered data.

    There is currently just one known problem with the MPEG audio decoding: the audio isn't properly attenuated as specified by the driver. This causes little audio distortions at some stream transitions and when buffers run out. There is also a problem with base case audio synchronization but that is hard to trigger and possibly even not audible in many titles so I'll worry about that much later.

    Above I promised to get into the MPEG data buffering and decoding issue. The basic problem is one of conceptual mismatch: the CD-i decoding hardware gets data "pushed" into it (by DMA or direct device I/O) at the behest of the driver, whereas the MPEG decoding code (based on the publicly available mpeg2dec and musicout programs from the MPEG Software Simulation Group) expects to "pull" the data it needs during decoding. Things get messy when the decoding runs out of data, as the code does not expect to ever do so (it was originally written to decode from a disc file which of course never runs out of data until the end of the sequence). Some obvious solutions include putting the decoding in a separate thread (which given multi-core processors might be a good idea anyway from a performance perspective) and modifying it to become restartable at some previous sync point (most easily this would be the start of an audio frame or a picture or picture slice). Both options are somewhat involved although they have obvious benefits, and it may turn out that I will need to do one of them anyway at some point. For now I've avoided the problems by carefully timing calls into the MPEG decoding code so that enough data to decode a single audio frame or video picture should always be available; the MPEG data stream at the system level contains enough timestamp and buffering information to make this possible (in particular, it specifies the exact decoding time of every audio frame or video picture in relation to the timing of the data stream, thus making it possible to make those calls into the decoding code at a time that a valid MPEG data stream will have already filled the buffers far enough).

    The approach depends on the timing of the MPEG data entering the decoder, which means that it does not handle buffer underflow conditions unless you add some kind of automatic decoding that continues even if no more MPEG data appears, and this is basically what I’ve done. In the end it was just relatively straightforward extension of the automatic decoding already there to handle the fact that MPEG audio streams do not have to explicitly timestamp every single audio frame (the CD-i Green Book does not even allow this unless you waste massive amounts of space in each MPEG audio data sector) and would have been needed anyway to correctly decode the last pictures of a sequence, but that had never been tested before.

    For performance and possible patent reasons I have taken care to edit the MPEG decoding code (placing appropriate #ifdef lines at the right places) so that only MPEG 1 video and audio layer I/II decoding code is compiled into the CD-i Emulator executable. This is all that is needed for CD-i anyway and MPEG 2 video and audio layer III greatly complicate the decoding and thus significantly enlarge the compiled code.

    Being somewhat stymied at the FMV front, I next decided to spend some time on another lingering issue. During testing, I often have to do the same exact sequence of mouse actions to get a CD-i application to a problem point and this is starting to be annoying. Input recording and playback are a partial solution to this but then you still have to wait while the application goes through it, which is also annoying and can sometimes take quite some time anyway. The obvious solution is a full emulation state save/restore feature, which I've given some thought and started implementing. It's nowhere near finished, though.

    During the MESS collaboration I spent some time investigating the MESS save/restore mechanism. If at all possible I would love to be compatible for CD-i emulation states, but it turns out to be quite hard to do. The basic internal mechanism is quite similar in spirit to what I developed for CD-i Emulator, but it's the way the data is actually saved that makes compatibility very hard. Both approaches basically boil down to saving and restoring all the relevant emulation state variables, which includes easy things like the contents of cpu, memory and device registers but also internal device state variables. The latter are of course not identical between different emulators but they could probably be converted if some effort was thrown at it and for a typical device they aren't very complex anyway. The MESS implementation uses an initialization-time registration of all state variables; at save/restore time it just walks the registrations and saves or restores the binary contents of those variables. CD-i Emulator has a somewhat more flexible approach; at save/restore time it calls a device-specific serialize function to save or restore the contents of the state variables. The actual registration / serialization codes are structurally similar in the two emulators (a simple list of macro/function calls on the state variables) but the code runs at different times.

    The real problem is that MESS includes very little meta information in the save files: only a single checksum of all the names and types of registered state variables in registration order. This is enough to validate the save data at restore time if the state variables of the saving emulator exactly match those of the restoring emulator, because there is no information to implement skipping or conversions. This holds between different versions or in some case even configurations of MESS emulators, but it holds even more so between MESS and CD-i Emulator! The meta information could of course be obtained from the MESS source code (relatively simply macro modifications could cause it to be written out) but that would require exact tracking of MESS versions because every version could have its own checksum corresponding to different meta information (in this case CD-i Emulator would need meta information sets for every MESS checksum value it wants to support).

    I want CD-i Emulator to be more flexible, especially during development, so I decided to make full meta information an option in the save file. The saved state of every device is always versioned, which allows the save/restore code to implement explicit conversion where needed, but during development this isn't good enough. With full meta information turned on, the name and type of every state variable precedes the save data for that variable in the save file. This allows more-or-less automatic skipping of unknown state variables and when properly implemented the restore code can also handle variable reordering. At release time, I will fix the version numbers and save full metadata information sets for those version numbers so that the same automatic skipping and handling of reordering can be done even if the metadata isn't in the save file (it probably won't be because of file size considerations, although that may turn out to be a non-issue because save files need to include the full RAM contents anyway which is 1 MB of data in the simplest case without any compression, which is of course an option).

    In addition to all of the above, I made some progress on the ROM-less emulation front. First I spent some time reading up on the internals of OS-9 file managers, because writing a replacement for the NRF file manager (NRF = Nonvolatile RAM File manager) seemed the logical next step. Actually writing it turned out not to be that hard, but there were of course bugs in the basic ROM emulation code. Most of them had to do with handlers not calling into the original ROM, which totally screwed up the tracing code. Some new functionality was also needed to properly read/write OS-9 data structures inside the emulated machine from the ROM emulation code; I wanted to implement this in such a way that compilation to "native" 68000 code remains a future option for ROM emulation modules. And of course the massive tracing described in the previous blog post had to be curtailed because it was impossible to see the relevant information in the morass of tracing output.

    The new emulated NRF stores its files in the PC file system and it currently works fine when you start it with no stored files (i.e., the player will boot). In that case it will write out a proper "csd" (Configuration Status Descriptor) file. However, if this file already exists, the player crashes, although I have so far not found any fault in the NRF code. The origin of the problem probably lies elsewhere; I suspect it has to do with the hidden "player_shell_settings.prf" file. This file is read and written by the ROM bootstrap even before OS-9 is running; it does this by directly accessing the NVRAM memory (the file never changes size and is always the first one in NVRAM). Since the bootstrap accesses of this file do not go through the NRF file manager or even the NVRAM driver they are not redirected by the OS-9 emulation. However, later accesses by the player shell *are* redirected and the player shell does not seem able to handle the file not existing in the PC file system in the case where a csd file already exists. Solutions include extending the emulated NRF to always access this particular file from the NVRAM instead of the PC file system or somehow synchronizing the two locations for the file. The latter is probably the easiest route given the fixed location and size of the file, but the former is also useful as it would provide a full reimplementation of the original NRF that could in principle be compiled to native 68000 code to replace the "original" NRF in ROM (this is where gcc comes in as alluded to earlier, since all emulation code is written in C++).

    In either case, I do not want the file manager to directly access emulated NVRAM although it could do so easily, as there is already an internal CNvramPort interface that provides just such access independent of the actual emulated NVRAM chip. The NRF file manager should instead call the NVRAM driver, which means that I need to implement cross-module calling first. It's not really hard in principle, the design has been done but there are a lot of little details to get right (the most obvious implementation uses at least 66 bytes of emulated stack space on each such call which I find excessive and might not even work; smarter implementations require some finicky register mask management or a "magic cookie" stacking approach, the latter having the best performance in the emulation case but being impossible in the native 68000 compilation case). When cross-module calling is working, I can also have the file manager allocate emulated memory and separate out the filename parsing functions by using the OS-9 system calls that provide these functions (the current emulated NRF does not allocate emulated memory which is arguably an emulation error and has the filename parsing coded out explicitly).

    When everything works correctly with the emulated NRF, I have to find some way of integrating it in the user experience. You could always start over without any NVRAM files, but I'd like to have some way of migrating files between the two possible locations without having to run CD-i Emulator with weird options. Extending the CD-i File Extractor (cdifile) by incorporating (part of) the emulated NRF seems the obvious choice, which would also provide me with some impetus to finally integrate it with the CD-i File Viewer (wcdiview) program that's supposed to be a GUI version of cdifile but so far is just a very thin skeleton barely able to graphically display a single CD-i IFF image file passed on the command line (it doesn't even have a File Open menu) and will often crash. A proper implementation would look like Windows Explorer with a tree view on the left (CD-i file system, real-time channels and records, IFF chunk structure, etc) and a variable content display on the right (raw data view, decoded sector view, code disassembly view, graphical image view, audio playback, slideshow playback, decoded MPEG view, MPEG playback, etc).

    That touches on another area in which I did some work last month: the saving of CD-i IFF image files for each emulated video frame. The motivation for this was to bring full-resolution real-time frame saving into the realm of the possible, as it would write only about 2 x (1024 + 280 x (384 + 32)) = 247 KB of raw CD-i video and DCP data per frame instead of 560 x 768 x 3 = 1260 KB of raw RGB. At least on my PC this has turned out not to be the case, however. The data is written out fine, which is not as easy as it sounds since video line data size can vary with each line because of pixel repeat and run-length encoding, but it's still too slow. That being so, I am not really very motivated to extend the CD-i IFF decoding implementation to actually decode this information. Some kind of compression could be an option, but that takes processor time and makes things even harder and possibly slower. Perhaps using another thread for this would be a solution, on a multi-core machine this should not greatly impact the basic emulation performance nor the debugging complexity as the compression code would be independent of the emulation itself.

    So there is still a lot of work to be done, but it's all quite interesting and will provide for some entertaining evenings and weekends in the coming weeks or possibly months.

              CD-i Emulator 0.5.3-beta1 released!        
    I have just released the new version of CD-i Emulator. It has received very limited pre-beta testing, but that's what public betas are for.

    I've changed relatively little since the prebeta1 version.

    The most import change is the addition of the Help | Report menu option that contains a link to the new Report section of the website and will automatically fill in most of the information fields on that form when clicked.

    Unfortunately, to make this work properly I had to touch most files in the sys directory to add correct player model, extension and digital video cartridge identification.

    I've also added checksum reporting of DV cartridges, let's find out how complete my current collection is. These checksums will not (yet) trigger an "Unknown ROM" dialog if unknown, but they are posted with compatibility reports.

    The -writepng option also had to be fixed to support macros in its filename, otherwise each video frame would overwrite the previous one! The macros that I've decided to support for now are $seq$, which produces a 6-digit sequence number and $time$ which produces the 6-digit frame time (mmssff).

    The Release Notes have been modified to include these changes.

    Use of the input recording/playback functions revealed a number of bugs; I've fixed those and also added more player information recording so that recorded input files contain enough information for compatibility reports (this isn't used yet).
              Patch notes: version 1.0.3.276 (October 27, 2014)        
    A patch has been issued for Sid Meier's Civilization V. Here are the patch notes:

    EXPLOITS
    • Fixed tech overflow bug that could allow a user to get free tech each turn for multiple turns. The size of the maximum allowable science overflow is now set at 5 turns of science (about the same as a unmodified research agreement) OR the unmodified cost of the last tech researched, whichever is larger. AI also understands this adjustment.
    • Fixed a multiplayer bug that would allow a player to steal everything from another player when trading.

    GAMEPLAY
    • Allow Conquest of the New World achievements to be unlocked when playing the Deluxe version of the scenario.
    • Slight nerf to Tradition, and a boost to Piety (by adding one more prerequisite for Legalism and taking one away from Reformation).
    • Scale warmonger penalties by era (50% of normal strength in Ancient up to 90% in Industrial; 100% thereafter). Penalties for warmongering vs. City-States halved.
    • Added Cocoa and Bison resources from the Conquest Deluxe scenario into the main game.

    MULTIPLAYER
    • The autoslotting of human players when loading a saved game in LAN multiplayer was broken when trying to play round-to-round. This has been fixed.
    • Players now properly exit LAN games when they encounter a version mismatch.
    • Players can now set their nick name in LAN games.
    • Fixed an issue where player would get stuck on the joining multiplayer game screen if they used an incomplete IP address while attempting to join by ip address.
    • Notifications are no longer considered “broadcast” unless the player is connected to the game. This will make it easier to communicate information to players who were not connected when the message was broadcast.
    • Players now unready themselves if the host changes the game settings before the game started.
    • The number of player slots available was not updating for connected remote clients when the host increased the map size on the staging room.
    • Fixed an issue causing AI civs that used to be players to still have the player's Steam name after the player leaves in Multiplayer.
    • A player's name in the staging room chat panel no longer swaps if they swapped player slots.
    • Some multiplayer notifications can now expire at the end of the next turn.
    • Some multiplayer notifications will not expire until the player has network connected to the game.
    • Multiple hot-joining bugs fixed in Pitboss.

    MISC BUGS
    • The icon no longer changes to a spinning globe during diplomacy (this normally means the game is busy).
    • Don't show a third-party civ or City-State on the trade panel list to "Declare War" or "Make Peace" unless both players have met that civ or City-State.


              Trabaja desde tu casa empaquetando canicas        
    Trabaja desde tu casa empaquetando canicas te pagamos por pieza o por paquete (paquetes a partir de 200 piezas) entrego & recojo producto en la comodidad de tu hogar! distrito federal & estado de méxico, todas las delegaciones & municipios. obtén un ingreso mínimo de $3000 semanales, has cuentas! acepto amas de casa estudiantes, jubilados & pensionados. aprovecha tus vacaciones y obten ingresos desde tu hogar. requisitos: - de 18 a 60 años. - con o sin experiencia. - responsabilidad absoluta. - disponibilidad de tiempo. - nos reservamos el derecho de otorgar el trabajo. interesados enviar whatsapp al numero 5512419238
              Si estas desempleado, labora desde tu casa empacando galletas gamesa        
    Si estas desempleado, labora desde tu casa empacando galletas gamesa -cuauhtemoc, distrito federal, mexico esfuerzate y consigue ganancias mayores a $3000 semanales! te pago por pieza o por paquete (paquetes a partir de 200 piezas) entrego & recojo producto en la comodidad de tu hogar! distrito federal & estado de méxico, todas las delegaciones & municipios. obtén un ingreso mínimo de $3000 semanales, has cuentas! acepto amas de casa estudiantes, jubilados & pensionados. requisitos: - de 18 a 60 años. - con o sin experiencia. - responsabilidad absoluta. - disponibilidad de tiempo. - nos reservamos el derecho de otorgar el tra
              Empaca incienso desde la comodidad de tu hogar        
    Empaca incienso desde la comodidad de tu hogar trabajo para desempañar desde casa haciendo paquetitos de incienso entrego & recojo producto en la comodidad de tu hogar! distrito federal & estado de méxico, todas las delegaciones & municipios. obtén un ingreso mínimo de $3000 semanales, has cuentas! acepto amas de casa estudiantes, jubilados & pensionados. requisitos: - de 18 a 60 años. - con o sin experiencia. - responsabilidad absoluta. - disponibilidad de tiempo. - nos reservamos el derecho de otorgar el trabajo. interesados llamar o enviar whatsapp al numero 5512429438 dirigido a la lic. Lucero islas, para agendar en
              Labora desde tu casa empacando pastas dentales        
    labora desde tu casa empacando pastas dentales te pago por pieza o por paquete (paquetes a partir de 200 piezas) entrego & recojo producto en la comodidad de tu hogar! distrito federal & estado de méxico, todas las delegaciones & municipios. obtén un ingreso mínimo de $3000 semanales, has cuentas! acepto amas de casa estudiantes, jubilados & pensionados. requisitos: - de 18 a 60 años. - con o sin experiencia. - responsabilidad absoluta. - disponibilidad de tiempo. - nos reservamos el derecho de otorgar el trabajo. interesados llamar o enviar whatsapp al numero 5512429438 dirigido a la lic. Lucero islas, para agendar e
              Labora desde la comodidad de tu hogar empacando galletas gamesa         
    Labora desde la comodidad de tu hogar empacando galletas gamesa vacantes por temporada para empacar galletas trabaja desde tu casa empacando galletas, te pago por pieza o por paquete (el paquete mínimo incluye 200 piezas) obtén un ingreso mínimo de 3000 semanales. puntualidad en los pagos. entrego y recojo producto a domicilio, el pago se te hace cuando recogemos nuestro producto. acepto amas de casa, estudiantes, jubilados y pensionados. requisitos: - de 18 a 60 años - con o sin experiencia - responsabilidad absoluta - disponibilidad de tiempo - nos reservamos el derecho de otorgar el trabajo interesados llamar o envi
              Labora desde la comodidad de tu hogar haciendo paquetes de chocolates ferrero rocher        
    Labora desde la comodidad de tu hogar haciendo paquetes de chocolates ferrero rocher -cuauhtemoc, distrito federal, mexico- alcanza ingresos hasta de $3000 semanales! -contratación inmediata -pagos puntuales -trabajo desde casa -edad de 18 a 60 años -aceptamos amas de casa, jubilados, pensionados & estudiantes *nos reservamos el derecho a otorgar el trabajo* si te interesa integrarte a nuestro equipo de trabajo, agenda una cita para que acudas a la empresa y te detallemos la forma de trabajo. interesados, llamar o enviar whatsapp al numero 5512429438 dirigido a la lic. Lucero islas para agendar tu entrevista y brindarte la dir
              Detectives privados        
    Somos una organización de ex agentes federales americanos, hacemos cualquier tipo de investigación nacional e internacional, trabajamos en 150 países ¡únete a nosotros, esta es tu oportunidad, prepárate para ser un profesional con un mejor futuro! desde la comodidad de tu hogar puedes estudiar una lucrativa profesión, podrás graduarte para convertirte en un gran detective internacional, no lo pienses más e ingresa ya
              Detectives privados        
    Somos una organización de ex agentes federales americanos, hacemos cualquier tipo de investigación nacional e internacional, trabajamos en 150 países ¡únete a nosotros, esta es tu oportunidad, prepárate para ser un profesional con un mejor futuro! desde la comodidad de tu hogar puedes estudiar una lucrativa profesión, podrás graduarte para convertirte en un gran detective internacional, no lo pienses más e ingresa ya
              Detectives privados09        
    Somos una organización de ex agentes federales americanos, hacemos cualquier tipo de investigación nacional e internacional, trabajamos en 150 países ¡únete a nosotros, esta es tu oportunidad, prepárate para ser un profesional con un mejor futuro! desde la comodidad de tu hogar puedes estudiar una lucrativa profesión, podrás graduarte para convertirte en un gran detective internacional, no lo pienses más e ingresa ya
              Detectives privados09        
    Somos una organización de ex agentes federales americanos, hacemos cualquier tipo de investigación nacional e internacional, trabajamos en 150 países ¡únete a nosotros, esta es tu oportunidad, prepárate para ser un profesional con un mejor futuro! profesor desde la comodidad de tu hogar puedes estudiar una lucrativa profesión, podrás graduarte para convertirte en un gran detective internacional, no lo pienses más e ingresa ya
              Investigadores privados76        
    Somos una organización de ex agentes federales americanos, hacemos cualquier tipo de investigación nacional e internacional, trabajamos en 150 países ¡únete a nosotros, esta es tu oportunidad, prepárate para ser un profesional con un mejor futuro! desde la comodidad de tu hogar puedes estudiar una lucrativa profesión, podrás graduarte para convertirte en un gran detective internacional, no lo pienses más e ingresa ya
              Tutos : Mise à jour des fiches LibreOffice 5.2        
    Pour la dernière livraison de tutoriels de cette année, je vous propose mes fiches LibreOffice à la version 5.2 ! LibreOffice Texte 5.2 : 1-Interface-et-formats-5.2 2-Tableau-5.2 3-Numerotation-et-puces-5.2 4-Tabulation-5.2 5-Styles-et-Index-5.2 6-Publipostage-5.2 7-Gestion-Images-5.2 8-Le-volet-lateral-5.2 9-Proprietes-et-collaboration-modification-5.2 Memento_writer-5.2 LibreOffice Calc 5.2 : 1-Interface-tableur-5.2 2-Fonctions-References-5.2 3-Graphiques-5.2 4-Fonctions-logiques-5.2 5-Fonctions-de-recherche-5.2 6-Filtre-Tri-5.2 7-Tris-croises-5.2 8-Validite-Sous-totaux-filtre-5.2 9-Fonctions-conditionnelles-5.2 10-Formatage-conditionnel-5.2 11-Le-volet-lateral-5.2 Memento_calc-5.2 LibreOffice Draw 5.2 : 1-Dessin-5.2 … Continuer la lecture de Tutos : Mise à jour des fiches LibreOffice 5.2
              Windows Doctor 2.7.5 Final With Activator        
    Windows Doctor
    Windows Doctor 2.7.5 Final With Activator | 7.52 MB

    Windows Doctor is the perfect solution to all kinds of registry problems. Its advanced scan engine is able to scan your entire registry within a few seconds to identify every single registry error and safely repair them for you. With Windows Doctor, you’ll see immediate increases in performance and decreases in system conflicts. It will make your computer run as fluently as new and error-free. Windows Doctor applies the most professional and effective registry cleaner to solve your registry problem. Editing registry items is a highly risky task in that improperly modifying registry items may cause severe system damages. Windows Doctor knows the right way to deal with Windows registry. With a professionally designed scan engine, it carefully screens out the system-sensitive entries and accurately identifies and removes registry errors to boost Windows performance and eliminates Windows freezes and hangs. Windows Doctor guarantees 100% safety and effectiveness.

    In addition to the registry cleaner, Windows Doctor provides many other useful tools to optimize your Windows so that you don’t need to spend extra money on the expensive single-task software.
    • History Cleaner can clean all tracks of your activities to protect your privacy and improve PC performance;
    • Shortcuts cleaner identifies and removes the annoying redundant shortcuts that point to non-existent or invalid files.
    • Registry Defragger will defragment your registry to acquire linear registry structure, reduce application respond time and registry access time.
    • Start-up Manager allows you to easily inspect, delete or temporarily disable the start-up programs.
    • Uninstall Manager can safely remove the unwanted applications installed on your computer.
    • System Optimizer allows you to optimize your system settings, and as a result, boosts your system speed and improves system performance.
    • IE Manager can easily repair your IE problems as well as settings changed by malicious websites.
    • Additionally, Windows Doctor collects a list of very useful system tools to help you better manage your computer, such as Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, DirectX Diagnostic Tool, Registry Editor, etc.

    Registry Cleaner – Fix PC Errors & Boost System Performance
    • Professionally designed scan engine will scan your entire registry within a few seconds.
    • A comprehensive error report after scan will list the found registry errors in 20 categories
    • User is allowed to easily sort the error report according to 10 different attributes
    • Powerful registry fixer will quickly fix all registry problems with one simple click
    • For advanced computer users, it provides more freedom by allowing user to select items to fix by himself.

    Windows Doctor will fix all the registry errors that cause system instability, PC errors, crashes, system slowdown, including but not limited to:
    • Invalid User software settings
    • Invalid class keys
    • Invalid system software settings
    • Invalid fonts
    • Invalid browser helper objects
    • Invalid start-up programs
    • Invalid custom control settings
    • ActiveX errors
    • Errors in uninstall sections
    • Obsolete history lists
    • Shared DLL errors
    • Invalid file paths
    • Sound and AppEvents errors
    • Invalid file extensions
    • Startup popup window
    • Invalid software locations
    • Invalid System settings
    • Windows services error
    • Invalid help and resources
    • Invalid virtual devices
    • Empty registry keys
    • Invalid device drivers

    System Optimizer allows you to optimize your system settings, and as a result, boosts your system speed and improves system performance. The System Optimizer will optimize the following settings to speed up your system:
    • Automatically end hung applications
    • Enable UDMA66 support
    • Optimize Internet connection
    • Force Windows to Unload DLLs from Memory
    • Speed up Windows refresh
    • Speed up browsing remote computers
    • Speed up loading internet explorer pages
    • Speed up the menu show delay
    • Boost up the Windows prefetcher service

    OS: Windows 2000. XP, Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 32-bit and 64-bit.

    Download Link
              Norton PartitionMagic 8.05 Build 1371 (Boot CD) + Serial        
    Norton PartitionMagic 8.05
    Norton PartitionMagic 8.05 Build 1371 (Boot CD) + Serial | 276.14 MB

    Norton PartitionMagic lets you easily organize your hard drive by creating, resizing, copying, and merging disk partitions. Separate your operating system, applications, documents, music, photos, games, and backup files to reduce the risk of data loss if your system crashes. You can use Norton PartitionMagic 8.0 to run multiple operating systems safely.

    Features :
    1. Divides a single hard drive into two or more partitions
    2. Lets you safely run multiple operating systems on the same PC
    3. BootMagic makes it easy to switch between different operating systems
    4. Allows you to copy, move, resize, split, or merge partitions as needed - without losing any data
    5. How-to wizards guide you step by step through the partitioning process
    6. Intuitive Windows-based browser lets you find, copy and paste files in both Windows and Linux partitions
    7. Allows you to create and modify partitions up to 300 GB
    8. Supports USB 2.0, USB 1.1, and FireWire® external drives
    9. Supports FAT, FAT32, NTFS, Ext2, and Ext3 file systems
    10. Converts partitions among FAT, FAT32, and NTFS without losing data
    11. Allows you to enlarge an NTFS partition without restarting your computer
    12. Resizes NTFS system clusters to the most effective size
    Download Link

              Estrategias y productos para el exito        
    En el mundo hay una franquicia, para todos. La desarrollas solo con tu computadora y una conexión a internet, disfrutando de la posibilidad de hacerlo, desde la comodidad que te brinda tu casa. Esta es una actividad para un profesional, para una ama de casa, para un jubilado., para un comerciante, para un ejecutivo, para un empleado. No necesitas conocimientos de marketing. obtener ganancias importantes, sin jefes, sin horarios, otorgándote niveles gerenciales. Para mayor información te invito a que ingreses al enlace http://www.liberty-and-travel.net/albertango/es , seguramente encontrarás una real oportunidad comercial.
              How To Hack WhatsApp Without Rooting By Exactspy ?        

    How To Hack WhatsApp Without Rooting By Exactspy ? It is exciting for everybody to hack someone’s WhatsApp account. Whatsapp is most illustrious social networking application that is employed by numerous folks. once WhatsApp has launched, then it suffered from tiny security choices. when typically, a user has several resources which may modify to induce […]

    The post How To Hack WhatsApp Without Rooting By Exactspy ? appeared first on .


              Everything We Know About Battlefield 4 Multiplayer        

    At the EA booth I jumped into a 64-player conquest battle in the Siege at Shanghai map. After playing through a couple rounds and speaking with executive producer Patrick Bach, here is what I learned.

    • The Xbox One, PlayStation 4, and PC versions eac h support 64-player maps and run at a solid 60 frames per second. The Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 versions, however, are still limited to 24-players per match and 30 frames per second. 
    • Squads can now include five soldiers instead of just four.
    • Given the larger squad size, Squad Deathmatch mode now includes more competitors. 
    • Like Battlefield 3, the soldier classes you can play as are assault, engineer, recon, and support. All classes now have more shared weapons so players have more versatility when selecting their loadout.
    • Each class and weapon has a deeper persistance tree than previous Battlefield games.
    • DICE is changing how specializations work. It won't go into the finer details, but the developer is creating a system where you and your squad can bump up your specializations as you play if you are doing well. 
    • Gun and player customization are being broadened. You can now have multiple sights on your weapons and add optical magnifiers on the fly.
    • Vehicle progression is deeper as well. 
    • DICE has two new game modes it plans to reveal in the near future, and it plans to drop a few modes that were featured in Battlefield 3. The confirmed modes thus far are squad deathmatch, conquest, rush, and team deathmatch. 
    • Hardcore mode is returning.
    • The crazy wave technology featured in the E3 single-player demo is also coming to multiplayer. All the wave data is being pushed over the network, which means that every player will have the same sea experience at the same time.
    • Given the increased focus on naval combat, DICE is making sure you aren't a sitting duck if you lose your sea vessel or parachute into a body of water. Soldiers can now swim sprint, use sidearms in the water, hit the crounch button to dive underneath the surface of the water, and even deploy C4 to take out boats.
    • Players can rent their own Battlefield 4 servers on consoles from day one, and DICE plans to give them more server modifiers than were available in Battlefield 4.   
    • DICE knows the destruction in BF3 was disappointing so destructibility is coming back in a major way. Expect to see the microdestruction introduced in the Close Quarters map pack, plus large-scale destruction like the crumbling skyscraper in the E3 demo. 
    • You won't be able to completely flatten urban areas, which is a design choice rather than a technical limitation. 
    • Like Titanfall, DICE is using a proprietary matchmaking service instead of using the Xbox One native service.
    • DICE is also incorporating a skill level system on top of your player rank to help match you with players of a similar ability. You can set your rented server to only accept players of a certain ability.
    • DICE learned its lesson with Battlefield 3, and plans to keep a healthy amount of DICE sponsored servers for people who don't want to deal with the quirky rented servers.
    • Rather than build its own battle recorder, however, DICE plans to use the Xbox One and PlayStation 4 recorders.
    • Battlefield 4 also includes a spectator mode.
    • Given the difficult learning curve for some of the more powerful vehicles like jets and helicopters, DICE is including a practice mode or tutorial system of sorts so you can learn the tricks of the trade without hurting your team in a ranked match.
    • Battlelog is being revamped to be more directly integrated into the game and to give console players the same experience as the PC version. DICE wants the console players to have the ALT-TAB experience just like PC players, so you can check your stats at any time.
    • You can alter your loadout directly from the Battlelog app so it will be ready for you when you jump into a match.

    (Please visit the site to view this media)

    Commander Mode

    • You can play as a commmander on consoles, PC, and tablets.
    • Right now commanders are featured in two modes - conquest and rush. DICE also has some new modes that it isn't talk about yet.
    • Commanders gain experience and have a persistant skill tree just like other classes.
    • Unlike Battlefield 2, commanders don't have a physical presence on the battelfield. 
    • The commander roles are not counted against the player count. This means 64 soldiers will be on the battlefield with two commanders overseeing the battle.
    • DICE is aware that given the small number of commanders per server, there could be a supply/demand issue. To address this issue, it has created a gating system that prevents everyone from being allowed to play as commander.
    • If you are having trouble getting a commander role, you can always rent a server yourself and assume the role.
    • Commanders can issue orders to squads and deploy UAVs to spot troops. When the squads follow directives, the commander and soldiers are rewarded with XP. 
    • As they gain XP, commanders can use it to drop in ammo, med packs, and vehicles to their troops.
    • The more flags a team captures in conquest, the more weapons a commander has at his or her disposal. These offensive capabilities include tomahawk missiles and artillery strikes.
    • DICE views the commander mode as a game of chess between the two commanders. They are scored against one another. 
    • You can keep an eye on what the rival commmander is doing and counter their moves. For instance, if they scan an area you can try to jam their signals. If they drop in specific gear you can counter that in different ways. 
    • The commander's eye in the sky view is also used for respawns and spectator mode. It works the same way on all platforms.
    • DICE has rulesets to help populate maps with two commanders, but if one of the two commanders drops out the developer doesn't believe it will be a big issue for the guys on the ground.

    Battlefield 4 is coming to PC, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3 on October 29. The Xbox One and PlayStation 4 release dates have yet to be announced.


              Monitor Dell P2715Q        

    Buenas tardes. A ver si alguien puede ayudarme. Desde hace unas semanas noto que a pesar que el monitor esté en modo manual, al abrir Excel, Word o el bloc de notas por ejemplo el sólo cambia de tipo brillo y contraste atenuándolo (sin que se vean cambio en el tipo de ajuste que tiene el monitor seleccionado, por ejemplo personalizado o estándar)y al cerrarlo vuelve a su situación anterior. Esto lo entendería en modo automático, pero no en el manual. Necesito saber si esto es normal y ha pasado siempre o si hay algo que se ha modificado y  cómo puedo evitarlo en el modo manual.

    Gracias.


              Monitor U2713H con macbook air        

    Buenas!!

    En su día compré un monitor Dell U2713H. Lo conectaba a mi macbook air vía mini displayport (Thunderbolt). Utilizaba los diferentes puertos USB y lector de tarjetas sin problemas. Ahora no me funciona ningún puerto aunque mantengo el audio y el video. Desconozco si el problema ha sido actualizar el macbook a OS Sierra. Tampoco he modificado la configuración del monitor. 

    Alguna sugerencia?

    Gracias.


              DELL U2713H EN MODO BURNIN ON        

    Hola,

    Cuando enciendo el monitor, me aparecen en pantalla los colores rojo, verde, azul, blanco, negro... continuamente. Busco con el botón menú la fuente de mi portátil (miniDP en mi caso) y ya se me conecta el video. El tema es que arranca en modo "Burn in", ya que le doy al boton 1 y me aparece la pantallita azul con el "Factory menu" y con todos los parametros de fabrica (DP Speed, Back light on time, Panel SSC...). Intento apagar el burnin Mode desde ese panel, pero no hace caso.

    En el momento que apago el monitor, otra vez se vuelve al "burnin mode" y se olvida de todos los parámetros que he modificado en el OSD (Idioma, brillo, contraste...).

    Tiene alguna solución? El tema es que si calibro el monitor, se pierden todos los parámetros al apagarlo.


              Bonjour tout le monde !        

    Bienvenue dans WordPress. Ceci est votre premier article. Modifiez-le ou supprimez-le, puis lancez-vous !

    Cet article Bonjour tout le monde ! est apparu en premier sur Everblix.


              Son tornato!        
    È da un bel po' che non mi faccio vivo.
    Non so perché, forse proprio non avevo nulla di interessante da raccontare, o meglio: se l'avevo era più interessante viverlo che raccontarlo!
    Ci sono un mucchio di novità, ma prima quelle più fresche:
    vi scrivo dal mio computer, ma con una BELLISSIMA , che in quanto a grafica e comodità è ampiamente avanti a Windows XP (su Vista non mi pronuncio).
    E da qualche minuto riesco pure a fare quella gran bella (inutilissima) cosa che fa tanta invidia ai Windowsiani: il cubo!

    Per una dimostrazione venire a casa mia (e possibilmente prima che si rompa la magia...)

    Che altro?
    Oggi il clima semi-estivo ed il gran vento mi hanno proprio stordito: bello bello, ma a me è parso più che altro un presagio di morte... caldo, a tratti afa... SUV ed auto che passano per le strade appestando l'aria, sole che pare dire: "questo giugno vi massacro tutti!".

    Ah! ieri mi son fiondato al Lumiere a vedere Joe Strummer: Il futuro non è scritto.
    Titolo tradotto a parte, era da tempo che il cinema non riusciva ad emozionarmi tanto. Ed anche messo da parte il mio amore per il personaggio, è proprio un documentario fatto bene.
    Chi conosce i Clash non può non andarlo a vedere; chi non li conosce, o non ricorda bene chi sia questo , è bene che non perda l'occasione: il film-documentario è ben fatto, chiaro, trasmette le giuste emozioni.
    Non è esaustivo, non potrebbe neanche lontanamente, ma da un quadro interessante ed emozionante.

    Ora ricordo perché non ho più scritto sul blog... depressione politica...
              ricordando il centrodestra...        
    quando la sinistra non va; quando ti ha deluso al governo, e sta anche per cadere (mi verrebbe da dire finire), può esser utile ricordarsi del centrodestra al governo, per capire che in fondo è meglio così; che forse ci dovremmo accontentare; e che più di ogni altra cosa dovremmo salvare questo governo, fosse anche per il rotto della cuffia, fosse malamente, magari con un ribaltone.

    Il centrodestra è il male, perché quando era al governo...

    ha finanziato la scuola privata; ha riformato la scuola malamente, con la coscienza di facilitare le private;
    ha facilitato il lavoro privato dei medici, anche se ospedalieri, aiutando il privato a scapito del pubblico nella sanità;
    ha reso possibile l'esplosione di università fasulle in tutta Italia ed ha consentito le lauree truffa con la conversione dell'esperienza lavorativa in crediti formativi;
    ha tagliato drasticamente la ricerca strafinanziando un centro di ricerca amico di Tremonti e lasciando che alcuni centri di prestigio non avessero nemmeno i fondi per pagare la bolletta elettrica;
    ha in breve facilitato in ogni modo il privato nei confronti del pubblico, e ci siamo sentiti dire che il modello da imitare (nella previdenza sociale come nell'istruzione e nella sanità) è il modello statunitense.
    Quello statunitense è un modello mostruoso, che nessuno (se non ricco) può pensare di volere. Nondimeno i voti il centrodestra li prende eccome...

    ha detto che le tasse, se troppo alte, è giusto non pagarle;
    ha condonato l'incondonabile; ripetutamente;
    ci ha ricordato che con la mafia ci si deve convivere;
    ha introdotto una quantità di nuovi contratti atipici che hanno lasciato il via libera definitivo alla precarietà (dato che nel frattempo smantellava il welfare...);
    ci ha regalato (al grido di "abbassiamo le tasse") una finanziaria di rigore, con forti tagli ai bilanci ovunque ed un debito pubblico accresciuto;
    ha varato la Bossi-Fini sull'immigrazione (risultati zero, ingiustizia tanta);
    ha infilato nel pacchetto sulle Olimpiadi la Fini-Giovanardi sulle droghe, che ha ridotto le dosi di cannabis, ma ha aumentato le dosi di cocaina; equiparando un consumatore ad un criminale;
    ha gestito il G8 di Genova nel peggiore dei modi possibili sospendendo lo stato di diritto (basta vedere cosa dice in proposito Amnesty International);
    ha avvicinato l'Italia agli Usa spaccando l'Europa (ed allontanandosi da essa);
    ed ha reso l'Italia l'ennesima ancella degli Stati Uniti;
    ha avvallato l'invasione dell'Iraq inviando truppe altamente esposte al pericolo, per fornire aiuto agli Stati Uniti (esercito occupante ed aggressore); le Nazioni Unite sono arrivate dopo, non dimentichiamocelo;

    serve altro?!
    Mastella, ti prego, fa il buono; Di Pietro, Dini, ve lo chiedo per piacere...

    Tag: , , , ma anche solo
              MERCADO MOTOCICLÍSTICO 2006-2007        
    Nº273 ANECRA Setembro 2008
    Literalmente na cauda da Europa, Portugal parece dar sinais de por lá querer continuar no que ao sentido figurado da expressão concerne. O mercado motociclístico, ainda que palidamente a recuperar, não é – de todo – excepção.

    O ano de ouro deste sector aconteceu em 1999. Com mais de dezanove mil motos matriculadas, nunca mais a história se repetiu. Hoje, quase uma década depois, os sintomas vaticinam que a façanha não torne a acontecer, pelo menos a breve trecho. Em 2002 e 2003 as quedas ocorreram, inclusivamente, a compassos de dois dígitos percentuais. Em 2006 o ciclo inverteu-se timidamente, com uma recuperação de 2%. Entre outros contributos, essa recuperação também sucedeu por força da entrada de novos concorrentes no mercado, oriundos do eixo China-Coreia, que com os seus produtos finais de baixo custo conseguiram não só penetrar no nosso mercado, mas, inclusive, expandi-lo minimamente. A nível europeu, por comparação no mesmo período, o nosso país manteve-se à margem da tendência verificada. Onde todos os outros aumentaram, nós reduzimos. Portugal, envolto num cinzentismo conjuntural, continua o cenário perfeito para o fracasso dos mais vulneráveis.

    CICLOMOTORES
    Este segmento reflecte, ainda que aparentemente, uma tendência diametralmente oposta à vigente no mercado em que está inserido. Parece ter crescido para o dobro de um ano para o outro. É certo que a entrada de fabricantes como a Keeway e a Kymco funcionou como dinamizador comercial, por via da introdução de novos modelos com preços de venda e manutenção muito competitivos, o que, em consequência, fez com que os fabricantes tradicionais e conceituados se vissem compelidos a reorganizar o seu portfolio em articulação com o modus operandi das suas estruturas no terreno. Porém, não estaria esta análise enviesada se não fosse o facto de, até meados de 2006, não haver a obrigatoriedade de registo de matrículas na antiga DGV (agora IMTT) para motos de cilindrada inferior a 50cc. Como era prática corrente, as matrículas até então eram emitidas pelas câmaras municipais, passando, desde essa data, a ser emitidas a nível central. Portanto, a análise de 2006 para 2007 é prejudicada em cerca de seis meses, que foram aqueles em que se venderam motos (ainda com os registos camarários) mas que agora não entram nas estatísticas. Já a análise de 2005 para 2006 seria absurda, pois representaria a transição do nada para o tudo…

    A Keeway resulta numa aposta ganha. Apresenta taxas de crescimento anuais que só são possíveis porque a marca é nova no mercado. Ou seja, a montante, no seu negócio, tudo estava ainda por fazer. Deste modo, tanto a política de preços como a divulgação e promoção dos seus produtos nos fóruns próprios levaram a que rapidamente atingisse o primeiro lugar das vendas com o popular modelo Uricane 50. Perante os factos, somos levados a concluir que os produtos orientais não só chegaram, como também conquistaram o mercado nacional. Esta é, aliás, uma tendência de fundo noutros sectores da nossa economia global.

    MOTOCICLOS
    O motociclista português está todos os anos um ano mais velho. Não há “sangue novo” a entrar no sistema. O parque mantém-se estável, e com a falta de incentivos (ou com a criação de novos entraves) o “mundo das motos” já não seduz como seduziu em tempos. Uma tímida recuperação será o comentário mais fiel aos números apurados. Já 2006 havia sido um ano de ligeiras melhorias, porém, ambos, encontram-se muito distantes das mais de dezanove mil unidades matriculadas em 1999, o ano de ouro por excelência.

    O modelo campeão de vendas foi a Hornet 600 da Honda, seguido da Yamaha FZ6 e da Suzuki GSXR 1000.

    A preferência dos motociclistas lusos recai, maioritariamente, sobre modelos utilitários ou desportivos. As trail, cruisers e scooters constituem nichos num mercado já de si pequeno. Apesar dos circunstancialismos, o segmento das cruisers parece ter ainda bastante potencial. A atenção do público já se manifesta de forma diferente em relação a estas motos. Os motivos poderão ser de vária ordem, desde a crescente afluência destes modelos aos bike shows (o que suscita alguma curiosidade e admiração), à exibição de programas de tv sobre transformação deste género de motos, passando também pela aposta consistente da Harley-Davidson no marketing institucional e de produto.

    Outro caso que se vai verificando com relativa frequência é o de motociclistas acidentados em motos desportivas que reequacionam o seu percurso, e optam por permanecer nas “duas rodas” aos comandos de “montadas” menos nervosas. É aí que as trail e as cruiser os poderão atrair.

    Por seu turno, para deslocações citadinas, a versatilidade, a economia e a comodidade oferecidas pelas scooters de pequena e média cilindrada, são trunfos de peso para angariar novos adeptos, nesta era em que os custos do quilómetro percorrido e do minuto de estacionamento atingem máximos históricos.

    MOTO4 & ATV
    No segmento dos quadriciclos, a Yamaha, líder por excelência e tradição, foi pela primeira vez destronada. A Suzuki com o seu LTR 450 apoderou-se do primeiro lugar. A razão, segundo o próprio importador, prende-se com o facto de até 2007 a marca não possuir oferta direccionada a este segmento. Uma vez que ela foi disponibilizada, a liderança impôs-se naturalmente. Tanto mais que o segundo modelo no pódio surge sob a mesma insígnia, tratando-se do LTZ 400. A Yamaha aparece em terceiro lugar com o YFM 300.

    DISTRIBUIÇÃO DO PARQUE SEGURADO DE MOTOCICLOS POR DISTRITOS
    Todos os distritos, sem excepção, contribuíram para o aumento de quase dez mil unidades face a 2005. Continuamos a constatar uma predominância de motos no litoral, especialmente mais a norte (excepção feita, claro está, para o distrito de Lisboa, que é o maior concentrador do país). Faro, continua a ser a recordista de motos per capita, com apenas 42 habitantes para cada moto. Em termos absolutos, o Porto supera em dobro as motos de Faro, mas como tem mais do quádruplo da população, a relação final dos habitantes com as motos revela-se, em termos relativos, de menor expressão.

    EVOLUÇÃO DO MERCADO EUROPEU
    O mercado europeu, tal como o português, bateu no fundo em 2002. A diferença é que o primeiro, daí em diante, tem sabido recuperar, ao passo que o segundo não. Países como a França, Itália, Reino Unido e Alemanha, historicamente conhecidos pela sua tradição nas duas rodas, não servirão de ponto de comparação. Já a Grécia, Hungria, Lituânia servem na perfeição para estabelecermos analogias que ilustram bem a nossa falta de estratégia e desapego do sector. Actualmente, com percursos de venda ascendentes, estas economias reclamam para si os benefícios (em sentido lato) que um maior parque motociclístico lhes traz. Neste caso, em termos estritamente económicos, o fomento das vendas traduz-se também – e necessariamente – na defesa do tecido empresarial de serviços de reparação e manutenção, o qual é determinante para a independência e autonomia de muitas famílias que dele retiram o seu sustento, contribuindo para os cofres do Estado, em vez de o sobrecarregarem.

    CONCLUSÃO
    Com as cartas na mesa, as conclusões afiguram-se claras. A China massifica a sua oferta assente, com predominância, no baixo custo em detrimento dos altos padrões de qualidade ou inovação; o mercado português continua mergulhado numa crise e, tanto a nível político como empresarial, não há quem promova medidas de apoio estratégicas. Este problema, a jusante, agravará ainda mais a debilidade do sector e acentuará a distância que nos separa dos restantes modelos sociais e de gestão europeus, que muitas vezes nos orgulhamos de referir, sobretudo quando nos faltam os verdadeiros argumentos para sustentar a riqueza de uma ideia. Ainda assim, com os juros a aumentar, o desemprego em ascensão, a inflação a subir, a carga fiscal a subtrair uma importante fatia do rendimento de singulares e colectivos que pagam impostos, as taxas e emolumentos em serviços do Estado a sofrerem actualizações substanciais, a especulação dos combustíveis, as portagens onerosas em vias de comunicação com investimentos já amortizados (e com custos de exploração comedidos face ao encaixe de proveitos), as obras públicas de interesse questionável, e os salários a reflectirem perda efectiva de poder de compra, ainda assim, dizia eu, o mercado, nestes dois últimos anos, deu mostras de querer espevitar. Citando o reputado economista Dr. João César das Neves a propósito do atraso de Portugal face aos restantes países europeus: «O que este povo não faria se tivesse uma estratégia certa?».
    © Todos os direitos do texto estão reservados para REVISTA ANECRA, uma publicação da ANECRA. Contacto para adquirir edições já publicadas: +351 21 392 90 30.
    © General Moto, by Hélder Dias da Silva 2008

              A INDIAN MAIS RÁPIDA DO MUNDO        
    Nº207 MOTOCICLISMO Julho 2008
    Os sonhos, tal como as motos, também se tornam clássicos e míticos. Este, de transpor o recorde de velocidade, apesar de recorrente, não está ao alcance de qualquer um. É só para quem não tenha medo de arriscar.

    Burt Munro é o homem sobre quem escrevemos. Um neo-zelandês sexagenário, com alguns hábitos de eremita, mas um fervoroso entusiasta dos motores e da velocidade. O seu principal hobby consistia em estar constantemente a modificar a Indian Scout dos anos 20 que tinha na garagem, competindo, de quando em vez, com outros racers de montadas mais modernas. Assim era para que pudesse cumprir um sonho maior: o de competir com a sua moto em Bonneville Salt Flats com o fito de superar recordes de velocidade. Apenas por paixão. A vida desta personagem real já serviu de inspiração para, pelo menos, dois livros. George Begg escreveu em 2002 “Burt Munro: Indian Legend Of Speed” e, Tim Hanna, em 2006, fez editar "One Good Run: The Legend of Burt Munro". Contudo, pelo meio, em 2005, surge o filme “The World’s Fastest Indian”, protagonizado por Anthony Hopkins e realizado por Roger Donaldson que, de uma forma livre, nos reconta a senda de Burt Munro para perseguir e realizar o seu sonho. É sobre esse registo que pretendemos dar conta neste texto.

    Burt era um cidadão admirado na sua comunidade. Era afável, educado e respeitado, tendo sido, inclusivamente, distinguido pela publicação “Popular Mechanics”, em 1957, por a sua moto ser a mais veloz da Austrália e Nova Zelândia. Porém, ambicioso como era, distinções como essa só lhe aumentavam ainda mais o desejo de competir em Bonneville. Este projecto audacioso envolveu o dispêndio de todas as suas economias, fruto de uma vida inteira de trabalho.

    Poucos dias antes da partida, é-lhe diagnosticado um grave problema de coração, sendo aconselhado pelo médico a deixar, pura e simplesmente, de competir. Burt não podia ter dado maior desprezo às palavras do médico. Uma vida pacata, de roupão e chinelos, sem a adrenalina das motos e da velocidade não era para si. Com o descrédito de muitos dos seus conhecidos, mas com o voto de confiança dos que lhe estavam mais próximos, Burt Munro e a Indian Scout embarcaram rumo aos Estados Unidos. Estávamos em 1962.

    Depois das muitas peripécias que o filme nos apresenta, Burt Munro chega finalmente a Bonneville, mesmo a tempo de participar na famosa Speed Week. Bonneville fica no estado de Utah, e as Salt Flats são grandes superfícies secas que outrora haviam sido enormes lagos salinos. Esta, concretamente, tem cerca de 412km2, e é uma superfície tão plana que acompanha com precisão a curva do globo terrestre. Como local extenso e inóspito que é, tornou-se perfeito para atingir as grandes velocidades que Burt ambicionava.

    Apesar da sua patologia clínica em nada o ajudar, contra todos os prognósticos, Burt estableceu o recorde de 288km/h na sua Indian com o motor de 850cc. Uma moto que nem travões de disco tinha, e cuja ciclística era um misto de foguetão artesanal com bicicleta a pedais. Mas sobreviveu! De tal maneira que no ano seguinte regressou e atingiu os 305.88km/h (não oficial). Em 1967, Burt estabeleceu o recorde mundial de 295.45km/h com a sua Indian Scout a atingir uma capacidade de 950cc. Este feito ainda hoje perdura.

    De todas as vezes que Burt se deslocava a Bonneville, a sua “dream-team” era um grupo de entusiastas que o apoiava como podia e sabia. Os recursos eram escassos, e as necessidades eram muitas. Havia que gerir tudo com parcimónia. Compensava a boa vontade, que essa era de sobra. Como mais tarde confidenciou: «Na última vez em Los Angeles arranjei um furgão por 90 dólares. Era a sede da equipa Indian».

    Burt faleceu em 1978, com 79 anos. O seu exemplo de coragem e tenacidade ficará para sempre. A Indian Scout, que foi sua durante 57 anos, e com a qual estabeleceu novos limites para a ousadia, está hoje na posse de um entusiasta de longa data em South Island.

    INDIAN SCOUT
    Engenheiro responsável pelo projecto: Charles Franklin
    Produção: 1919-1930
    Cilindrada: 596cc
    Motor: bicilíndrico em V, 42º com válvulas laterais
    Caixa: 3 velocidades
    Transmissão: corrente
    © Todos os direitos do texto estão reservados para MOTOCICLISMO, uma publicação da MOTORPRESS LISBOA. Contacto para adquirir edições já publicadas: +351 21 415 45 50.
    © General Moto, by Hélder Dias da Silva 2008

              GNR-BT - A PA IXÃO PE LAS MO TOS        
    Nº204 MOTOCICLISMO Abril 2008
    Por motivos opostos, tanto os motociclistas como os agentes da BT são, por vezes, olhados de soslaio. Nós, olhamos para ambos de frente. Em simultâneo, e contra o preconceito.

    Há já muito tempo que as motos são um importante elemento no seio das forças policiais e militares. Os argumentos, em tudo racionais, justificarão a sua presença dentro destas organizações por muitos e longos anos. Hoje, a MOTOCICLIS MO teve a oportunidade de conhecer um pouco melhor a actividade que a GNR-BT desenvolve com as suas motos. Verificámos, inclusivamente, que existe uma crescente sensibilização interna que tende a incrementar, ainda mais, o seu uso. E como nisto de andar de moto, o coração também manda, entrevistámos dois militares que, mesmo quando despem a farda, continuam a andar de moto.

    MOTOCICLISMO: Como nasceu o vosso gosto pelas motos?
    Soldado Mendes (SM): Desde sempre.
    Cabo Bernardes (CB): Eu gosto de motos desde miúdo, mas a disponibilidade financeira era pouca. Assim que me foi possível comprei uma moto.
    M: Deslocam-se também de moto aqui para o Destacamento?
    SM: Se não for pleno Inverno, eu venho sempre de moto. Nunca uso carro. São cerca de 60km diariamente.
    CB: Depende. Eu como moro muito perto (a 5km), dá-me preguiça de tirar a moto da garagem só para vir para aqui. Nem a moto aquece. Mas se quiser dar uma voltinha, antes ou depois do serviço, aí trago mesmo a moto.
    M: Em que é que ser motociclista vos modificou enquanto agentes?
    SM: Se calhar vemos as coisas de maneira diferente. Determinadas acções, agora, são vistas com outros olhos. São autênticas barbaridades. Agora percebemo-lo. Depois, levamos a mentalidade da vida militar para a vida civil. Já não fazemos determinadas manobras que, esporadicamente, fazíamos quando não tínhamos esta profissão. Infelizmente, vemos diariamente muitos acidentes, e essas memórias acompanham-nos para todo o lado.
    M: O que devia ser alterado em termos culturais e comportamentais nos motociclistas?
    CB: Há meia dúzia de motoqueiros a dar má fama aos motociclistas. São indivíduos que abusam, fazem manobras irregulares, causam perigo a eles próprios e aos outros utentes da via. Por causa deles, os automobilistas olham para nós e pensam «ali vai mais um maluco …».
    SM: Ou pior, «mais um bandido».
    CB: E quem é bom motociclista, não se revê nesses comportamentos. Esses arruaceiros, os motoqueiros, são pessoas que pensam que sabem andar de moto, e fazem o que não devem. Tapam a matrícula, fazem barulho, são exibicionistas, gostam de levantar a roda da frente, etc. Mas esse não é o verdadeiro motociclista. E, por norma, são esses que acabam por ter os acidentes. Procuram o perigo, e, mais cedo ou mais tarde, encontram-no.
    M: Qual a vossa opinião sobre as dimensões das novas chapas de matrícula?
    CB: Esteticamente desfiguram um bocado as motos. Saem fora do contexto. Mas para nós facilita-nos o trabalho. São mais visíveis porque os caracteres são maiores. Podemos identificar a matrícula a uma distância superior, sobretudo em situações de fuga. Em relação à beleza, temos de reconhecer que são feias. Mas é uma questão de hábito. Por essa Europa fora há já muitos anos que as chapas são enormes. Não se pode ter o melhor de dois mundos…
    M: Sentem que há automobilistas a criar, deliberadamente, dificuldades a quem anda de moto?
    SM: Por exemplo, no trajecto que faço para casa, na EN3, há muita gente a desrespeitar os sinais STOP só porque o veículo que tem prioridade é uma moto. O motociclista que se desenrasque. Se algum cair (como já tem acontecido) se calhar nem prestam auxílio só para evitar problemas…
    CB: Tenho reparado muitas vezes que os automobilistas encostam-se ao traço contínuo só para impedir que uma moto os ultrapasse. Ou pior, às vezes afastam-se do traço, e quando a moto está ao lado do carro, apertam-nos para cairmos ou fazermos uma infracção. Se eu estiver a conduzir a moto da BT, às vezes até param quando deviam andar, mas quando vou com a minha moto é completamente diferente.
    SM: Não havendo sinalização vertical em contrário, uma moto pode ultrapassar um carro desde que não transponha o traço contínuo. Mas lá está, quando saímos com a moto da BT, nunca passamos por esses problemas. Aí os condutores dos automóveis agem civilizadamente, e em respeito da lei, como sempre deveriam fazer.
    CB: Conduzir a moto da BT é muito menos exigente, do ponto de vista da concentração, que conduzir a minha moto
    pessoal. Aí sou muito mais preocupado, porque tenho de antecipar as manobras dos outros. É dessa diferença que
    nunca me posso esquecer pois, caso contrário, corro o risco de ter um acidente com a maior facilidade.
    SM: Sim, nunca podemos levar a maneira de conduzir uma moto para a outra, se não damo-nos mal de certeza.
    M: Cabo, com uma Hayabusa é fácil cumprir os limites de velocidade?
    CB: (risos) Aquilo também trava…
    SM: (gargalhada)
    CB: Essa pergunta não é fácil (risos), mas a verdade é que ninguém consegue cumprir a totalmente a lei. Nem o ser humano mais puro do mundo cumpre a cem por cento. Eu como também sou humano, de vez em quando distraio-me, e como os outros condutores, dou um bocadito mais. Mas por norma, e principalmente dentro das localidades, ou quando há muito movimento de trânsito, faço uma condução defensiva. Pela minha segurança e a dos outros. Até porque, se for apanhado a infringir, por um radar dos nossos, tenho de pagar a multa. E há muitos por aí…
    SM: Muita gente não acredita mas é verdade. Um agente de autoridade é multado como qualquer pessoa. Se for apanhado por um radar não há nada a fazer…
    CB: Ainda há tempos fui apanhado com a moto da BT em excesso de velocidade e tive de justificar. Estava a tentar interceptar um condutor que fez uma manobra perigosa, e excedi o limite para aquele local. Portanto, até as motos da BT são “apanhadas” pelos radares. Claro que, nesse caso, tinha uma justificação atendível, mas de outra forma, o caso teria sido diferente.
    M: Como consideram o valor do Imposto Único de Circulação?
    SM: Considero excessivo. As motos são encaradas como veículos de luxo, mas esquecem-se que há muitas pessoas a utilizar as motos durante o ano inteiro como meio de transporte, algumas até já com bastantes anos. E isso nada tem de luxuoso. Eu paguei 102,00€, para andar legal, mas é excessivo. Mas temos de cumprir, e tentar fazer cumprir.
    CB: É muito exagerado. É como as portagens. Não tem lógica duas rodas pagarem o mesmo que quatro. O que é que
    desgastam? Que espaço ocupam? É injusto…
    M: Como reagem quando têm de autuar um motociclista?
    SM: Há, digamos, um sentimento diferente. Mas se eu, antes de ser agente, já era motociclista e tentava cumprir – ter seguro, ter a moto em meu nome, pagar o imposto (custa, mas temos de o pagar), ter a carta de condução, etc. – porque é que agora, numa fiscalização, hei-de desculpar? Se eu sou motociclista e cumpro, porque não hão-de ou outros cumprir também?
    CB: Às vezes, perante uma manobra menos grave, que se perceba que foi feita sem intenção, nós interceptamos o individuo, e até temos uma acção mais pedagógica que punitiva. Mas as pessoas têm de ser humildes, e perceber o que fazem. É uma questão em que impera o bom senso. Noutros casos, por altura das concentrações, se estiver escalado para o serviço, até aproveito as fiscalizações para dar sugestões e recomendações úteis. Se sensibilizar as pessoas, elas vão-nos encarar de uma outra forma e, da próxima vez, param novamente, em vez de fugirem. Tempos houve em que as motos quase nunca paravam. Até fazíamos apostas…«queres apostar que este vai fugir?»
    M: Como agentes de autoridade, que mensagem gostariam de deixar aos motociclistas que nos lêem?
    SM: Tenham prudência na estrada e amor pelas motos. Desfrutem do prazer de andar de moto.
    M: E como motociclistas?
    CB: A todos os automobilistas, respeitem-nos mais. Não ponham em perigo os motociclistas. Facilitem a passagem, deixem nos circular à vontade, que de certeza que a maior parte dos motociclistas até tem o hábito de agradecer. Esse
    seria um ambiente agradável para se viver. Um grande bem-haja para todos!

    Nota: Este trabalho nunca teria sito possível sem a prestimosa colaboração da GNR-BT, e de todos os militares envolvidos. Pela disponibilidade, simpatia, cooperação e paciência, o nosso obrigado ao Major Ruivo Tomás, 2º Comandante do Grupo Regional de Trânsito de Lisboa, também ele motociclista na vida civil.

    ● A BT-GNR está dividida 5 Grupos Regionais de Trânsito. Do GRT de Lisboa (GRT1) fazem parte 5 Destacamentos: Lisboa, Carcavelos, Setúbal, Coina e Carregado. Foi a este último que nos deslocámos para a realização deste trabalho.
    ● As motos têm o equipamento de rádio para comunicação com a central, ou com outras patrulhas. Têm também luzes para assinalar marcha de urgência, a sirene, e estão caracterizadas como veículos da BT. Em tudo o resto são idênticas aos modelos em comercialização.
    ● Por princípio, todos os militares até aos 45 anos estão aptos a conduzir motos. Só no caso de haver algum impedimento físico é que não o farão. A partir dos 45 só conduz moto quem manifeste interesse e reúna condições.
    Nas palavras do Tenente Oliveira, «quem manifestar disponibilidade para fazer serviço de moto, em qualquer idade, poderá, de acordo com as necessidades, fazê-lo». Existe uma militar na BT a fazer serviço de moto.
    ● A corporação tem fatos de frio e de chuva, que adequa conforme as condições atmosféricas, isto, clãro, além da farda normal de serviço. O passo seguinte é a aquisição de um fato completo – adaptado à função de agente da BT – com as protecções necessárias, botas de motociclista, reflectores, etc., de forma a que os militares possam desempenhar as suas funções de uma maneira mais segura. Este projecto conjunto com o Ministério da Administração Interna já está em curso.
    ● Devido à sua mobilidade é possível, de um momento para o outro, fazer deslocar uma moto para fora do itinerário que lhe estava traçado. Basta comunicar via rádio. Há um acesso permanente de comunicação entres patrulhas, e das patrulhas com a central. O objectivo é haver entreajuda.
    © Todos os direitos do texto estão reservados para MOTOCICLISMO, uma publicação da MOTORPRESS LISBOA. Contacto para adquirir edições já publicadas: +351 21 415 45 50.
    © General Moto, by Hélder Dias da Silva 2008

              SCHWENKLER – O MAGO DO 3D        
    Nº74 MOTO REPORT Fevereiro 2008
    Nº47 MAGIK TUNNING PLUS Março 2008

    Na edição anterior revelámos o talento de um jovem português e a sua paixão pela criação de motos através do método da realidade virtual. Nesta edição terminamos o tema mostrando aquilo que será o expoente máximo, ao nível mundial, e aquilo que um homem e um computador, juntos, são capazes de fazer. Fomos ao encontro de quem faz das suas criações 3D um modo de vida. Na América, Russ Schwenkler (ou “Dangeruss”, que é como gosta de ser chamado no meio), fez uma pausa no seu trabalho para nos revelar alguns segredos da sua magia.

    «Sempre tive um fascínio enorme por tudo o que estivesse relacionado com veículos. Em criança coleccionava miniaturas e desenhava eu próprio veículos agressivos. Agora que tenho 46 anos, tenho de admitir… faço a mesma coisa. É engraçado ter conseguido combinar o meu trabalho artístico com o entusiasmo que tenho por máquinas com motor. Profissionalmente os meus desenhos destinam-se a empresas de desenvolvimento na indústria do car tuning, fabricantes de brinquedos, fabricantes de jogos para PC e consolas, e empresas de web design.»

    MOTO REPORT: É motociclista?
    DANGERUSS: Sou desde 1986. Tive uma data de motos desportivas. A última foi uma Suzuki GSXR1000, com muita potência e muitas alterações personalizadas. Infelizmente os ladrões entraram na minha garagem e levaram-na. Limparam tudo desde os meus capacetes, fatos de cabedal, ferramentas, etc. Ainda não a substituí, mas a nova Ducati 848 é bastante tentadora. Fora as motos sou praticante regular de BTT.
    MR: Quando se iniciou no 3D?
    D: Foi em 1990. Tive de aprender modelação 3D para o meu emprego de então. Comecei com o 3D Studio® para o MS-DOS®. Na altura não havia o Google®, por isso eu não podia pesquisar pelas centenas de recursos que existem hoje em dia, à distância de um clique. Aprendi por tentativa e erro. Eu sou um admirador do estilo realista (pintura) e com o 3D conseguimos atingir um nível de realismo muito bom e com menor esforço do que se utilizássemos as técnicas de pintura. Há partes da modulação 3D que são comuns, e por isso são aproveitadas. As opções para acrescentar brilho, reflexos ou sombras, simplificam muito o trabalho. É claramente melhor para o artista.
    MR: Por que precisam os seus clientes de imagens 3D dos produtos que eles próprios fabricam?
    D: Eu tenho trabalhado com todos os vectores (principais, complementares e derivados) da indústria automóvel. Muitos clientes vêm ter comigo para que eu conceba algo que vai existir, mas ainda não existe. Eles esperam, ou necessitam, ver um conceito ou uma imagem antes de ela ser transposta para o mundo real. Por exemplo, a capa e o material promocional de um jogo de corridas para a X-BOX 360® necessitava de um determinado carro. O carro não existia na vida real, mas era importante que aparecesse e que mostrasse uma lista específica de patrocínios, determinadas cores, e que estivesse inserido num ambiente gráfico altamente estilizado. O carro tinha de parecer altamente real, preferencialmente tinha de aparecer numa situação de velocidade. Ora, usando técnicas de modelação 3D, foi-me possível criar este ambiente de fantasia, não sendo portanto necessário construir um carro real, pagar a um piloto e a um fotógrafo, alugar o espaço e retocar o resultado final.
    MR: Quanto custa desenhar uma moto?
    D: A resposta a essa pergunta não é simples. Para um projecto 3D normal, facilmente despendo quarenta horas para moldar as formas, mais doze horas para acabamentos realísticos e materiais. Como cobro aos clientes por hora, quase sempre os trabalhos ultrapassam os 2.600 euros, mas tudo depende do nível de detalhe. É como quando vamos comprar uma casa.
    MR: Que software usa actualmente?
    D: Desde o início da minha carreira que uso 3D Studio® e o 3D Studio MAX® da Autodesk®. Já devo ter actualizado as versões mais de uma dúzia de vezes. Para mim, são as que funcionam melhor pois, como ferramentas, são muito poderosas e a capacidade de integrar situações e contextos é literalmente infinita. Para arte digital 2D uso, maioritariamente o Adobe Photoshop CS2® e recorro ao Adobe Illustrator® para tarefas tecnicamente mais precisas como logótipos.
    MR: E hardware? A renderização de imagens pode demorar horas infindáveis…
    D: Com efeito é preciso alguma potência ao nível da máquina. Actualmente uso 2 processadores Intel® Core Duo® a 3.0GHZ com 4GB de RAM e uma placa gráfica aceleradora bastante dispendiosa. Trabalho em simultâneo com dois monitores Flat-Panel de 22 polegadas.
    MR: Que parte do seu trabalho o entusiasma mais?
    D: Eu gosto muito de dois aspectos do meu trabalho. Primeiro, é a arte realística. Entusiasma-me criar imagens que mais tarde podem passar a fotos. Adoro incluir o máximo de detalhes possível. Segundo, e em oposição, adoro desenhar motos e outros veículos fantásticos e agressivos, com aerodinâmicas exageradas e pormenores de competição acima da média. Muitas vezes esses veículos têm origens muito humildes. É engraçado pegar num Fiat e transformá-lo num carro de corridas de milhões de dólares.
    MR: Já alguma vez criou uma moto para si ou alguém pegou numa das suas motos originais e a mandou construir?
    D: Eu não faço muitas criações originais. A maior parte do meu trabalho assenta em desenhos já existentes, ou em modificações dos mesmos. Portanto não há nenhuma criação original minha a rodar na estrada. Mas estou a trabalhar com um australiano que quer produzir um Super Car baseado num Corvette. Tenho-me dedicado à parte da carroçaria. Se alguma vez ele conseguir realizar o projecto será espantoso!
    MR: Qual a relevância actualmente do 3D?
    D: Nenhuma moto é construída sem ferramentas 3D CAD (Computer Aided Design). A visualização 3D é usada em muitos sectores para produzir imagens indistinguíveis de fotografias. São usadas em anúncios de TV, outdoors, filmes de cinema etc. Os construtores de motos conseguem mostrar imagens das suas mais recentes criações antes mesmo de os protótipos estarem construídos. Com este recurso, os fabricantes conseguem determinar a dimensão ideal para os componentes das suas motos, como se interligam com outros componentes, quais as cores que jogam melhor, que tipos de jantes servem os melhores propósitos das motos, qual a suspensão mais adequada, e tudo isto sem a moto estar ainda construída. Depois de construída, em termos reais, e como disse, acaba por ser mais barato recorrer a imagens 3D do que expedir uma moto para um local exótico e preparar uma vasta equipa técnica para fotografá-la.
    MR: Vê-se a si próprio mais como um artista ou como um especialista gráfico?
    D: Creio que um pouco de cada. Para mim 3D e arte digital são formas de arte perfeitamente legítimas. Como para criar imagens 3D é necessária uma grande dose de técnica, acontece que a actividade não é tanto encarada do ponto de vista artístico, mas mais como uma sequência de inputs precisos. Quem manipula 3D tens de criar, literalmente, ou tem de instruir a aplicação para produzir absolutamente tudo. Todos os objectos de cena têm de ser introduzidos, os materiais aplicados, luzes, reflexos, sombras, cenários, operação de câmara, texturas, ângulos, efeito atmosférico, etc. E para tudo isto não há nos programas um botão que diga: “Fazer Arte”.
    © Todos os direitos do texto estão reservados para MOTO REPORT, uma publicação da JPJ EDITORA. Contacto para adquirir edições já publicadas: +351 253 215 466.
    © General Moto, by Hélder Dias da Silva 2008

              A VERDADEIRA ESCOLA - TUNING DAS "CINQUENTAS"        
    Nº64 MOTO REPORT Abril 2007

    O tuning das motos, tal como o dos carros, cativa quem o faz e quem o vê. Nos automóveis, os modelos sofrem “restylings”, grosso modo, a cada três anos, mas nos ciclomotores os intervalos de tempo são mais espaçados. As pessoas vão-se cansando de ver os mesmos modelos, durante anos a fio, sem alterações. Esse cansaço acumulado – de ver sempre a mesma coisa – começa então a disseminar-se um pouco por toda a parte e os utilizadores resolvem, eles próprios, iniciar um qualquer processo de transformação da sua moto. Se, por um lado, existe algum constrangimento financeiro, por outro acaba por ser ele, muitas vezes, o impulsionador para se tomar a decisão de “quitar” a motinha actual ao invés de comprar uma nova mais potente. Perde um sector do mercado mas ganha outro, o dedicado ao fornecimento de componentes de tuning. Como desafio até se torna interessante fazer com que uma “cinquenta” pareça tão bem decorada e tão desenvolta quanto uma “125”. Saiba este sector adaptar-se às novas realidades e nunca há-de morrer.

    Desde finais dos anos 90 que há um declínio geral do mercado, qualquer que seja a cilindrada. A legislação não ajudou, os incentivos desapareceram, os seguros agravaram-se e a sociedade adquiriu novos hábitos. Hoje, até as bicicletas estão em declínio. As que circulam por aí são modelos de topo de gama, compradas por gente adulta que as usa ao fim-de-semana para passear calmamente ou fazer BTT. Já não vemos crianças a andar de bicicleta naturalmente. É-lhes simplesmente vedada a oportunidade de se iniciarem nesse mundo das duas rodas. Há 30 atrás, a primeira bicicleta na vida das crianças surgia por volta dos três ou quatro anos de idade. Hoje em dia, se uma criança recebe a primeira bicicleta, na melhor das hipóteses, aos 11 ou 12 anos, dificilmente irá desenvolver daí o hobby, porque já teve um percurso anterior que a impede de apreciar e dedicar atenção àquele veículo, muito menos às motos e ao seu tuning. Quando tentámos aquilatar a faixa etária dos entusiastas deste tipo muito específico de actividade, Jorge Custódio, da Motoclasse, é peremptório na sua resposta: “Infelizmente são só pessoas a partir dos 17 anos.” Explica: “Aquela faixa etária dos 13 aos 17 anos, que dantes tinha muita «pica» pelas motos, que tantas vezes se iniciava nas scooters e evoluía mais tarde para uma moto com mudanças, está a desaparecer. Por razões sociais, que vão desde a gestão das prioridades familiares, ao mito de que as motos são perigosas, etc. Muitas vezes os adolescentes estão trancados em casa
    com outro tipo de actividades. Já os jovens a partir dos 18 anos, como alguns trabalham, têm mais disponibilidade financeira para desenvolverem o seu gosto pelo tuning.” E de facto esta conclusão é reveladora da importância que esta actividade tem para o sector, como, aliás, mais adiante desenvolve: “O tuning das cinquentas promove todo o sector, porque é um gosto que se cria, se desenvolve e se desmultiplica para os outros segmentos do mercado das motos, acompanhando a evolução desde a fase da adolescência até à vida adulta dos motociclistas. O que move o nosso ramo, a nível geral, são as 50cc e as 125cc. São o embrião de um gosto pessoal que perdurará e consequentemente promovem um sector inteiro a vários níveis (comércio de peças, vestuário, oficinas, eventos, etc.). Estas motos, de tão simples que são, quase que nos ensinam a andar... e a cair, o que também é importante. São o ritual de iniciação, sem o qual existirão cada vez menos motociclistas.” Habitualmente, os modelos favoritos para o tuning são, em scooters, as Yamaha Aerox e BWS, as Gilera Typhoon, Runner e NRG. Se falarmos de motos com mudanças, as mais populares são a Yamaha DT (embora as novas versões não sejam tão afamadas como as anteriores em termos de fiabilidade), as Honda CRM e NSR, Aprilia RX e RS50 Xtrema e a Suzuki RMX. Na classe 125cc, as rainhas são a Yamaha DTR e Honda NSR.

    Transformar a estética ou a mecânica?
    As duas coisas. Pela estética é mais fácil e o resultado mais imediato. Este tuning é cada vez mais ousado e acaba por conferir uma certa graça aos modelos que todos conhecemos, se bem que por vezes a transformação acaba por roçar o espampanante. Quanto ao tuning de potência, sempre existiu e a “malta” mais radical – que tem sempre uma costela a puxar para a competição – acaba, na medida das suas possibilidades, por se aventurar a “mexer” na mecânica. Aqui convém frisar que existe sempre um compromisso entre prestações e durabilidade. Os motores são concebidos com uma determinada fiabilidade, sujeita a intervalos de
    tolerância, e quando optamos por encurtar esses intervalos, por via do incremento das três variáveis (modificações, prestações e desgaste), devemos ter consciência de que a longevidade “de origem” já não poderá ser garantida. Parte dos componentes já não são os mesmos, e os que ainda o são, encontram-se sujeitos a esforços adicionais. Todavia, o que se perde na fiabilidade, poder-se-á ganhar no gozo e na satisfação. É uma relação de compromisso como qualquer outra.

    O que modificar
    Vamos partir da Yamaha DT como base, por sabermos que é um modelo muito vulgar. A receita do Jorge Custódio é a seguinte: “Temos de colocá-la supermotard. Transformam-se as rodas, o estilo do guiador, suspensões, ou seja, torna-se a moto mais pequena, mas também mais encorpada, e isso vai fazer com que haja realmente uma mudança para uma estética totalmente diferente, o que muitas vezes leva a que a «cinquenta» se pareça com uma «125». Devemos transformar os aros, pelo menos à frente, de roda grande para roda pequena, ou seja, de roda 19’’ para roda 17’’. Os pneus deixam de ser cardados e passam a ser uns racing para utilização em estrada. Depois os aros devem ser em alumínio. O guiador estilo fat-bar, mais largo, requer umas abraçadeiras próprias para fixação ao “Tê”. A moto fica mais baixa, com uma maior distância entre punhos, o que a torna mais resistente e com maior sensação de aderência à estrada. Muitas vezes altera-se também o amortecedor de trás. Os guarda-lamas devem ser mais curtos para acompanharem a alteração feita ao nível das rodas. Depois há imensas carenagens que se podem adequar ao estilo dos novos guarda-lamas colocados. As micas e os farolins devem também ser substituídas de forma a ficar tudo enquadrado com a estética final. Os aceleradores também se mudam. Em vez de terem as manetes acopladas, passam a ter acelerador rápido com o curso maior. Os comandos da iluminação ficam à parte, com interruptores pequenos. As cores a utilizar variam entre o muito garrido e os verde-água ou azul-água o que atribui à moto um estilo muito diferente. Os pousa-pés deixam de ser de borracha e passam a ser de alumínio, tanto à frente como atrás, e de preferência coloridos (da cor da moto).” “Na mecânica as transformações podem ser variadíssimas. O mais comum é colocar uma cambota nova, com um curso superior, porque os cilindros que existem para o efeito são de 54/55mm, praticamente iguais aos da DTR (56mm), portanto a diferença é mínima. Esses cilindros por serem mais altos exigem que a cambota tenha um curso superior para que o pistão chegue à parte de cima e fique nivelado com o respectivo cilindro. Logicamente, é preciso alterar o carburador. Este é um componente fundamental porque a moto vai precisar de admitir mais gasolina e só o consegue com um de corpo mais largo (28mm, 30mm, 32mm ou 34mm). Outro componente importante é um rotor electrónico. Ele dá mais potência. Ideal para complementar um cilindro largo. Nessa sequência, falta também um filtro de ar cónico reutilizável para melhorar a mistura. O escape, que muito interfere no rendimento dos motores, deverá ser igualmente alterado no caso de se terem feito as modificações anteriores. Seja industrial ou artesanal, um escape é caro (entre 150 a 250 euros), pelo que devemos contar com verba para ele logo desde o início do processo de transformação. A embraiagem deixa de ser de três discos e passa a ser de quatro. Muitas vezes utilizam-se até embraiagens de modelos de competição de Cross (YZ80 ou da CR80). Mas isso é muito ousado, e em caso de necessidade de substituição é preciso vasculhar um pouco à procura de um sistema igual. A transmissão (pinhão de ataque e cremalheira) deve também ser ajustada. Provavelmente terá de ser toda nova. Mas só analisando caso a caso. Por fim, a travagem. Os discos de travão devem ser em flor porque dão um aspecto mais radical. As bombas de travão devem ser duas em vez de uma, pois se a moto vai ser muito mais potente, requererá maior prontidão ao travar”, concluiu. Bom... e após tantas dicas que aqui ficaram, indicadas por quem realmente percebe do assunto, resta-nos aguardar para ver algumas destas pequenas “grandes” motos a circular por aí, influenciadas por este artigo. Aguardamos essas fotos!

    Agradecimentos: A MOTO REPORT agradece a toda a equipa da Motoclasse o apoio e facilidades concedidas para a realização deste trabalho, especialmente ao Jorge Custódio, que, mesmo engripado e atarefado, partilhou connosco humildemente os seus conhecimentos. Também uma palavra de apreço ao Hugo Faustino. Bem hajam!

    © Todos os direitos do texto estão reservados para MOTO REPORT, uma publicação da JPJ EDITORA. Contacto para adquirir edições já publicadas: +351 253 215 466.
    © General Moto, by Hélder Dias da Silva 2008

              Â¿Se leen los conflictos de manera distinta con el paso del tiempo?        
    ¿Se leen los conflictos de manera distinta con el paso del tiempo?

    Por Sara Plaza

    No deja de ser curioso observar cómo han ido evolucionando las distintas lecturas de los conflictos –tanto de los que ya terminaron, como de los que perduran– a lo largo del tiempo. A veces, ni siquiera tienen que pasar siglos pues bastan unos pocos años para hablar de modo distinto de un mismo problema que, indudablemente, con el paso del tiempo habrá sufrido numerosos cambios para permanecer sin solución o terminar resolviéndose.

    Se acaban de cumplir 60 años desde la creación del Nuevo Estado de Israel en una región cuyos límites y nombres han variado a lo largo de la historia.

    Hagamos un poco de memoria y repasemos un pedacito de la que enmarca esa zona.

    Los primeros restos humanos datan de hace 500.000 años. Doce milenios a.C. la cultura Natufiense elaboraba herramientas de madera, piedra y hueso, y las primeras comunidades agrícolas se asentaron en aquellos territorios entre el 10.000 y el 5.000 a.C. Nuevos grupos migratorios que utilizaban el cobre llegaron de una cultura originaria de Siria, y entre el 3.000 y el 2.200 a.C. fueron creadas las primeras ciudades–estado cananeas independientes. Las civilizaciones de Egipto, Mesopotamia, Siria y Fenicia tuvieron gran influencia en Canaán a través de las relaciones comerciales y diplomáticas que establecieron entre sí, y en 1190 a.C. arribarán los filisteos, quienes se mezclarán con las poblaciones locales e introducirán el uso del hierro y del carro tirado por caballos.

    Se estima –aunque algunos historiadores cuestionan incluso su autenticidad– que entre 2.000 y 1.000 años a.C., Abraham marchó desde la antigua ciudad de Ur (antigua Mesopotamia) hasta Harán (actual Turquía), y que una vez allí se apartó de su tribu y dejó de lado la idolatría para encaminarse, junto a su familia y rebaños, hacia Canaán y fundar –por mandato celestial– un pueblo monoteísta. Los cananeos denominaron a Abrahán, Ibri y quienes le acompañaban serían conocidos como ibrim ("del otro lado"), palabra que dio origen al término "hebreo". Se cuenta que Isaac, el hijo de Abraham, se trasladó todavía más al sur de esa "Tierra Prometida", hasta el desierto de Néguev y que el menor de sus hijos, Jacob, después de engañar al mayor, Esaú, huyó a Mesopotamia, donde pasó a llamarse Israel ("El que disputó con Dios"). También se dice que Israel tuvo 12 hijos y que su favorito fue José. Él fue el primero de los hermanos en marchar a Egipto. Años más tarde, el hambre en Canaán obligaría a los demás y a su padre a seguir sus pasos. Con la llegada al poder de Ramsés II los judíos fueron esclavizados y no sería hasta la aparición de Moisés –al parecer llamado también por Dios para refrendar el acuerdo celebrado con Abraham y guiar a los israelitas a la tierra prometida–, y el azote de aquellas famosas siete plagas cuando el faraón permitió salir a los esclavos de Egipto. Durante 40 años estuvo Moisés en el desierto, al cabo de los cuales regresó a Canaán. El testigo pasará entonces a su discípulo, Josué, quien recorrerá el Jordán y tomará Jericó, para conquistar después toda Canaán y repartirla entre las 12 tribus de Israel.

    Durante los primeros siglos en Canaán, los israelitas fueron gobernados por una sucesión de "jueces". De ellos, quizás el más famoso fuese Sansón, traicionado por la filistea Dalila. El primer rey judío fue un guerrero campesino, Saúl, a quien sucedería en el trono su yerno David, vencedor en la lucha frente al gigante filisteo Goliat. Con el tiempo David conquistó una pequeña población en la colina de Salim y la convirtió en Jerusalén. Bajo la dirección de su hijo, Salomón, estos pueblos alcanzaron su máximo esplendor, pero a su muerte las discordias internas desgarraron el territorio en dos nuevos reinos: Israel al norte y Judá al sur (de ahí vendrá la palabra "judío"). Estos reinos coexistieron junto a otros, entre ellos varias ciudades–estado filisteas.
    Las tribus del norte fueron vencidas por los asirios 200 años más tarde y pasaron a ser conocidas como las "Diez Tribus Perdidas". En el 587 a.C. Nabucodonosor capturó Jerusalén y los judíos, junto al resto de los sobrevivientes, fueron llevados cautivos a Babilonia. Solamente se les permitió volver cuando Ciro, el rey persa, conquistó Babilonia en el 538 a.C. El Imperio Persa caerá ante las tropas griegas de Alejandro Magno y a los judíos de Judá se les limitará su autonomía religiosa y administrativa. Fascinados por la cultura griega algunos judíos reformistas se enfrentaron a los más ortodoxos y esta división interna, que terminaría en guerra civil, posibilitó la invasión del sirio Antíoco IV Epifanes. Los sirios serán expulsados de Jerusalén por Judas Macabeo en el 167 a.C. y los judíos volverán a progresar bajo los macabeos por un corto espacio de tiempo. En el 63 a.C. aparecen los romanos y llamarán Judea a Judá, convirtiéndola en colonia y nombrando, años después, a Herodes el Grande como "rey de los judíos". Judea se rebelará contra el Imperio Romano en el 66 d.C. y el territorio será asolado por las legiones de Vespasiano y Jerusalén tomada por su hijo Tito en el año 70. Los judíos se diseminarán y Judea junto con Galilea, Samaria e Idumea serán conocidas a partir de entonces como una nueva provincia romana denominada Siria Palestina en honor a los filisteos.

    En los siguientes siglos esta zona sufrirá otras muchas ocupaciones. Entre ellas las de los árabes allá por el 636, de los cruzados en 1099, de los tártaros en 1244 y de los turcos en 1517. Para ser nuevamente ocupada en el siglo pasado, durante casi tres décadas, esta vez por los británicos. Al finalizar la Primera Guerra Mundial, Gran Bretaña había vencido a los turcos otomanos con la ayuda de rebeldes árabes, pero no pudo cumplir su promesa de crear un gran Estado árabe independiente porque en el 1920 Francia expulsará al rey Faisal de Damasco y Gran Bretaña dará prioridad a los acuerdos con los franceses. En 1920, el Consejo Supremo Aliado (Gran Bretaña, Estados Unidos, Francia, Italia y Japón) se reunió en San Remo y Gran Bretaña aceptó un mandato para Palestina, aunque quedaron pendientes las condiciones y los límites del mismo. En 1922, la Liga de Naciones le conferirá a Gran Bretaña dicho mandato internacional en esa región, donde ya se había concedido a los judíos el derecho a organizar su hogar nacional. Habían pasado cinco años de la declaración de Balfour, en la que se reconocía la conexión histórica del pueblo judío con Palestina. Durante el mandato, mientras Gran Bretaña favorecía a los judíos, éstos mantuvieron una política de negación de la población autóctona.

    En los años que siguieron a las Segunda Guerra Mundial, el control británico sobre Palestina se volvió cada vez más incierto. Finalmente, a principios de 1947 el gobierno británico anunció su deseo de finalizar el mandato argumentando que era incapaz de encontrar una solución aceptable para ambas partes, la judía y la árabe, y cedió su responsabilidad sobre Palestina a las Naciones Unidas. Éstas aprobaron la partición del Mandato de Palestina en dos estados, uno árabe y otro judío, quedando el área de Jerusalén bajo control internacional. Los líderes judíos estuvieron de acuerdo, pero no así los árabes palestinos. No obstante, el Nuevo Estado de Israel fue proclamado el 14 de mayo de 1948, y los estados y ejércitos árabes vecinos atacaron Israel inmediatamente después de su declaración de independencia provocando la guerra árabe–israelí de 1948. Durante esta guerra, de acuerdo a las estimaciones de Naciones Unidas, alrededor del 80% de la población árabe tuvo que abandonar el país. Al finalizar el conflicto armado, Israel quedó establecido la mayor parte del territorio mientras que la restante, que comprendía la Franja de Gaza, el margen occidental del río Jordán y Jerusalén del este, fue ocupada por Egipto y Jordania, y conquistada con posterioridad por Israel durante la Guerra de los Seis Días en 1967.

    Hasta aquí el ejercicio de memoria y esbozo de la historia que les proponía.

    Veamos ahora cómo se han tratado un par de momentos de la más reciente en dos textos que estuve consultando estos días mientras revisaba lo expuesto hasta ahora en un par de enciclopedias. Uno de ellos es el artículo "El sufrimiento como identidad" escrito por el periodista especialista en política internacional, Andrés Criscaut, en la edición internacional para Argentina del diario Le Monde diplomatique, "el Dipló" de mayo de 2008. El otro es un libro titulado "Israel" de Robert St. John y los redactores de LIFE en español, publicado en 1962 perteneciente a la colección "Biblioteca Universal de LIFE en Español".

    Así es como Andrés Criscaut escribe sobre lo sucedido entre 1936 y 1939:

    "Los árabes de Palestina, tanto urbanos como campesinos, se vieron por primera vez solos y ante una colonización judía que creció de 12.500 personas en 1932 a 66.000 en 1935, cuando se intensificó la huida de la Alemania nazi.

    Entre 1936 y 1939 se produjo una revuelta espontánea –similar a la ocurrida en la última década con las dos Intifadas– compuesta básicamente por campesinos y marginados de los centros urbanos, conocida como al Gran Revuelta árabe de Palestina, y que tomaría por sorpresa a la pequeña elite de dirigentes palestinos (sólo un 9% participó, y menos de un 5% dirigió acciones armadas o de guerrilla).

    El levantamiento, si bien fue disparado por los desafíos y las inequidades ante el creciente enclave judío en el Mandato, tuvo una orientación abiertamente antibritánica, ya que la Corona era responsable directa de este desequilibrio. Pero en su etapa final terminó siendo una verdadera guerra civil entre palestinos. La revuelta puso en serios aprietos a la administración del Mandato, que desplegó más tropas en la pequeña zona de Palestina que en todo el subcontinente indio". (p. 33)


    Y de esta manera lo hace Robert St. John:

    "A mediados de la década de 1930, el antisemitismo de Alemania, Austria y Checoslovaquia, y la renuencia de Australia y de los países aún poco poblados de América a abrir sus puertas a los judíos que huían de Europa Central para salvar sus vidas, hizo que muchos de éstos optaran por buscar refugio en Palestina. Ahora los árabes, en señal de protesta, organizaron una rebelión en gran escala que principió durante la primavera de 1936. Los motivos comenzaron en Jaffa y se extendieron a todos los lugares donde había árabes y judíos. Hubo muchos muertos y la vida en las poblaciones se trastornó por culpa de un paro general decretado por los árabes. Los británicos enviaron fuerzas militares desde Egipto, Malta y la propia Inglaterra y finalmente el orden fue restaurado". (pp. 39–40)

    Habría mucho en lo que fijarse, pero lo que primero llamó mi atención fue que el primero denomina revuelta a lo que el segundo considera rebelión, y la espontaneidad atribuida a la primera se contrapone con la organización de la segunda. De lo que no quedan muchas dudas es de los métodos británicos.

    Fijémonos ahora en cómo ha cambiado, en el transcurso de los 44 años que separan la escritura de St. John de la de Criscaut, la denominación de la contienda que finalizó en 1948, un año después de que las Naciones Unidas decidieran dividir el territorio de la Palestina británica en dos estados, uno judío y otro árabe.

    Criscaut explica:

    "Para los israelíes, 1948 fue el año en que los judíos ganaron la ‘Guerra de la Independencia' y crearon el Estado de Israel. Para los palestinos, fue el año de la Nakba (el Desastre), el año en que perdieron Palestina y su sociedad fue devastada". (p. 33)

    St. John manifiesta:

    "Pero durante la guerra que siguió al retiro de las fuerzas británicas en 1948, [Jerusalén] fue escenario de sangrientos combates entre israelíes y árabes ... desde que rechazaron a los ejércitos árabes ... [los israelíes] orgullosamente llaman a esta contienda ‘Guerra de la Liberación'". (pp.12–14)

    En las líneas extractadas ambos textos hablan de los mismos hechos, ¿cómo pueden parecerles tan distintos a sus autores? ¿Ha sido el tiempo el causante de sus diferentes miradas? ¿Se ha modificado con él nuestro propio análisis? Opino que el tiempo juega un papel importante, pero quizás nuestros prejuicios intervengan mucho más. En muchos casos, cuando no contamos con la experiencia o la información suficientes –o recibimos información incorrecta– los autores y los lectores seguimos partiendo de ideas preconcebidas para llegar a conclusiones preconcluidas.

    Antes de finalizar esta entrada, les invito a que busquen y hagan lo posible por encontrar y sentarse a ver la estupenda película del director Severio Costanzo, "Private" (Italia, 2004, 35mm, AM13, 90'). Fue premiada en varios festivales y Costanzo recibió el David di Donatello al director revelación en 2005. Podrán ponerse un poquito en la piel de una familia palestina a quienes el ejército israelí les confisca su casa. Tendrán oportunidad de hacerse un montón de preguntas y posiblemente no encuentren muchas respuestas, pero vale la pena quedarse con la duda y seguir pensando sobre ello.

    Ilustración.

              Las páginas de un libro son como el hombro de un amigo        
    Las páginas de un libro son como el hombro de un amigo

    Por Sara Plaza

    Andábamos Edgardo y yo revisando nuestra biblioteca y redescubriendo viejos tomos en las estanterías más bajas, cuando me di de bruces con una edición viejita en inglés de "Anna Karenina". Sus tapas estaban raídas y su encuadernación seriamente dañada. Sus hojas amarilleaban por los bordes y al pasar despacito sus casi mil páginas se desprendió de ellas ese aroma a papel viejo tan característico de los depósitos de bibliotecas y archivos. Había otras joyas en aquellos estantes pero por alguna razón especial mis ojos recalaron en ésta. Sin incorporarme aún, me había sentado en el suelo y a mi alrededor tenía pequeños montones de libros que intentábamos ordenar entre ambos, comencé a leer las palabras del conde León Tolstoi y ya no pude parar hasta que sentí el cosquilleo de una de mis piernas que se me había quedado dormida. Entonces sí, ordené en la librería los libros que aún quedaban por el suelo –si no recuerdo mal Edgardo andaba tan ensimismado como yo frente a sus propios descubrimientos– y, levantándome despacito para no despertar de golpe aquella extremidad dolorida, fui dando pasitos cortos hasta mi silla. Ahora sí, un poco mejor sentada –suelo subir los pies al asiento y apoyar mi barbilla en las rodillas mientras leo– continué descubriendo aquella sociedad rusa de finales del XIX. A las puertas del capítulo veintinueve de la primera parte del libro me encontré con unas líneas tan fascinantes que no pude evitar volver sobre ellas varias veces y compartirlas ahora con ustedes. Me trajeron tantos recuerdos de otras lecturas, de mis muchos kilómetros "arriba de un bus" –como cantaba Miguel Ríos– siempre con un libro en mi bolsón negro de tela, de todas las veces que me quedaba mirando a través de sus ventanillas jugando con el separador en una mano y dibujando con la otra el horizonte, de cuando se me cerraban los ojos y aprovechaba para soñar despierta con la vida de aquellos personajes que, sin darme yo cuenta, se habían sentado sobre las rodillas del viajero que ocupaba el asiento de al lado y se sonreían al comprobar mi sorpresa sabiéndoles fuera de aquellas páginas que habían quedado abiertas. Esos libros y esos paisajes a través de las ventanillas han sido los interlocutores de una buena parte de mi vida, sobre ellos apoyaba mis ojos, mis manos, mis pensamientos y en ellos encontraba algo así como el hombro de un amigo sobre el que descansar proyectos y quejas, enojos e ilusiones. Tolstoi me los trajo todos a la memoria y Anna Karenina se encargó de revivirlos con toda su fuerza. Aquí les muestro el pedacito de la novela donde reconocí muchos de mis pasos como lectora, quizás les rememore alguno de los suyos...

    «¡Gracias a Dios que ha terminado todo esto! », pensó Ana al separarse de su hermano, quien hasta que resonó la campana permaneció obstruyendo con su figura la portezuela del vagón.

    Ana se acomodó en el asiento junto a Anuchka, su camarera.

    «¡Gracias a Dios que voy a ver mañana a mi pequeño Sergio y a Alexis Alejandrovich! Al fin mi vida recobrará su ritmo habitual», pensó de nuevo.

    Presa aún de la agitación que la dominaba desde la mañana, empezó a ocuparse de ponerse cómoda. Sus manos, pequeñas y hábiles, extrajeron del saco rojo de viaje un almohadón que puso sobre sus rodillas; se envolvió bien los pies y se instaló con comodidad.

    Una viajera enferma se había tendido ya en el asiento para dormir. Otras dos dirigieron vanas preguntas a Ana, mientras una más vieja y gruesa se envolvía las piernas con una manta mientras emitía algunas opiniones sobre la pésima calefacción.

    Ana contestó a las señoras, pero no hallando interés en su conversación, pidió a su doncella que le diese su farolillo de viaje, lo sujetó al respaldo de su asiento y sacó una plegadera y una novela inglesa.

    Era difícil abismarse en la lectura. El movimiento en torno suyo, el ruido del tren, la nieve que golpeaba la ventanilla a su izquierda y se pegaba a los vidrios, el revisor que pasaba de vez en cuando muy arropado y cubierto de copos de nieve, las observaciones de sus compañeras de viaje a propósito de la tempestad, todo la distraía.

    Pero, por otra parte, todo era monótono: el mismo traque­teo del vagón, la misma nieve en la ventana, los mismos cambios bruscos de temperatura, del calor al frío y otra vez al calor; los mismos rostros entrevistos en la penumbra, las mismas voces, y Ana acabó logrando concentrarse en la lectura y enterándose de lo que leía.

    Anuchka dormitaba ya, sosteniendo sobre sus rodillas el saco rojo de viaje entre sus gruesas manos enguantadas, uno de cuyos guantes estaba roto.

    Ana Karenina leía y se enteraba de lo que leía, pero la lectura, es decir, el hecho de interesarse en la vida de los de­más, le era intolerable, tenía demasiado deseo de vivir por sí misma.

    Si la heroína de su novela cuidaba a un enfermo, Ana habría deseado entrar ella misma con pasos suaves en la alcoba del paciente; si un miembro del Parlamento pronunciaba un discurso, Ana habría deseado pronunciarlo ella; si lady Mary galopaba tras su traílla, desesperando a su nuera y sorpren­diendo a las gentes con su audacia, Ana habría deseado hallarse en su lugar.

    Pero era en vano. Debía contentarse con la lectura, mientras daba vueltas a la plegadera entre sus menudas manos.

    El héroe de su novela empezaba ya a alcanzar la plenitud de su británica felicidad: obtenía un título de baronet y unas propiedades, y Ana sentía deseo de irse con él a aquellas tierras. De pronto la Karenina experimentó la impresión de que su héroe debía de sentirse avergonzado y que ella participaba de su vergüenza. Pero ¿por qué?

    «¿De qué tengo que avergonzarme?», se preguntó con indignación y sorpresa. Y dejando la lectura, se reclinó en su butaca, oprimiendo la plegadera entre sus manos nerviosas.

    ¿Qué había hecho? Recordó lo sucedido en Moscú, donde todo había sido magnífico. Se acordó del baile, de Vronsky y de su rostro de enamorado enloquecido, de su conducta con respecto a él... Nada había que la pudiese avergonzar. Y, no obstante, al llegar a este punto de sus recuerdos, volvía a renacer en ella el sentimiento de vergüenza. Parecía como si en el hecho de recordarle una voz interior le murmurase, a propósito de él: «Tú ardes, tú ardes. Esto es un fuego, es un fuego». Bueno, ¿y qué?

    «¿Qué significa todo eso?», se preguntó, moviéndose con inquietud en su butaca. «¿Temo mirar ese recuerdo cara a cara? ¿Por ventura, entre ese joven oficial y yo existen otras relacio­nes que las que puede haber entre dos personas cualesquiera?»

    Sonrió con desdén y volvió a tomar el libro; pero ya no le fue posible comprender nada de su lectura. Pasó la plegadera por el cristal cubierto de escarcha, luego aplicó a su mejilla la superficie lisa y fría de la hoja, y poco faltó para que estallara a reír de la alegría que súbitamente se habla apoderado de ella.

    Notaba sus nervios cada vez más tensos, sus ojos cada vez más abiertos, sus manos y pies cada vez más crispados. Padecía una especie de sofocación y le parecía que en aquella penumbra las imágenes y los sonidos la impresionaban con un extraordinario vigor. Se preguntaba sin cesar si el tren avanzaba, retrocedía o permanecía inmóvil. ¿Era Anuchka, su doncella, la que estaba a su lado o una extraña?

    «¿Qué es lo que cuelga del asiento: una piel o un animal? ¿Soy yo a otra mujer la que va sentada aquí?»

    Abandonarse a aquel estado de inconsciencia le causaba terror. Sentía, sin embargo, que aún podía oponer resistencia con la fuerza de su voluntad. Haciendo, pues, un esfuerzo para recobrarse se incorporó, dejó su manta de viaje y su capa y se sintió mejor durante un instante.

    Entró un hombre delgado, con un largo abrigo al que le faltaba un botón. Ana comprendió que era el encargado de la calefacción. Le vio consultar el termómetro y observó que el viento y la nieve entraban en el vagón tras él. Luego, todo se volvía confuso de nuevo. El hombre alto garabateaba algo apoyándose en el tabique, la señora anciana estiró las piernas y el departamento pareció envuelto en una nube negra. Ana escuchó un terrible ruido, como si algo se rasgase en la oscuridad. Se diría que estaban torturando a alguien. Un rojo resplandor la hizo cerrar los ojos; luego todo quedó envuelto en tinieblas y Ana sintió la impresión de que se hundía en un precipicio. Aquellas sensaciones eran, no obstante, más divertidas que desagradables.

    Un hombre enfundado en un abrigo cubierto de nieve le gritó algunas palabras al oído.

    Ana se recobró. Comprendió que llegaban a una estación y que aquel hombre era el revisor.

    Pidió a su doncella que le diese el chal y la pelerina y, poniéndoselos, se acercó a la portezuela.

    –¿Desea salir, señora? –preguntó Anuchka.

    –Sí: necesito moverme un poco. Aquí dentro me ahogo.

    Quiso abrir la portezuela, pero el viento y la lluvia se lan­zaron contra ella, como si quisieran impedirle abrir, y tam­bién esto le pareció divertido. Consiguió al fin abrir la puerta. Parecía como si el viento la hubiese estado esperando afuera para llevársela entre alaridos de alegría. Se asió con fuerza con una mano en la barandilla del estribo y sosteniéndose el vestido con la otra, Ana descendió al andén. El viento soplaba con fuerza, pero en el andén, al abrigo de los vagones, había más calma. Ana respiró profundamente y con agrado el aire frío de aquella noche tempestuosa y contempló el andén y la estación iluminada por las luces.

    Ilustración.

              Poemas en prosa        
    Poemas en prosa

    Por Sara Plaza

    Bajo ese título aparecieron algunos escritos de Oscar Wilde en "The Fortnightly Review" en julio de 1894. Yo los he encontrado en una recopilación de las historias breves del autor irlandés que se encargó de editar Ian Small para Penguin Classics con el título "Oscar Wilde, Complete Short Fiction". Entre esos textos difícilmente clasificables –que pueden leerse como poemas o como narraciones en prosa–, el que lleva por título "The Artist" se me antoja como marco ideal para el barullo que está levantando estos días la conmemoración de los 40 años de mayo del 68, parte del cual resonaba hace una semana en las páginas del suplemento literario "Babelia" de la edición internacional del diario El PAÍS.

    En "El Artista", Oscar Wilde cuenta en primera persona que una tarde sintió el deseo de modelar "El placer de un instante" y fue por todo el mundo en busca de bronce para tallar esa obra, porque pensó que sólo podía estar hecha de dicho material. Sin embargo, en todo el mundo no quedaba más bronce que el de otra figura que él mismo había esculpido y a la que dio el título de "La pena que siempre perdura". Ésta se encontraba en la tumba de lo que él más había amado en su vida y podía significar que el amor del hombre no muere o ser símbolo de la pena que queda para siempre en él. Pero como estaba hecha del único bronce que quedaba en el mundo fue a buscarla, la introdujo en un gran horno y la prendió fuego. Y así, a partir de "La pena que siempre perdura", que él mismo había creado, dio forma a "El placer de un instante".

    He leído y releído la historia y sigo sin poder decidir si su primer trabajo terminó siendo pasto de las llamas porque efectivamente no quedaba más bronce en el mundo o porque al artista se le acabaron el amor y la pena sucesivamente. Mayo del 68 también tuvo mucho de obra artística y, según leía en el "Babelia" del sábado 20 de abril, tampoco queda en el mundo más material del que utilizaron sus creadores entonces. Incluso da la sensación de que a algunos de ellos también se les ha acabado el sentimiento revolucionario que les inspiró. Aunque quizás la inspiración esté relacionada con la primera Ley de la Termodinámica, esa que nos enseña que nada se pierde sino que todo se transforma, y el material de aquel mayo contestatario sigue formando parte de la mucha poesía y la no poca prosa a que ha dado lugar después de 40 años. Juzguen ustedes mismos a partir del conglomerado de opiniones que, con no poco lirismo, presentaba "Babelia" el sábado 20 de abril. Y es que había mucha metáfora en los títulos de algunos artículos, fíjense si no en los siguientes versos de Fernando Savater, "La elocuencia de las paredes" y de Juan Goytisolo, "Instantáneas en sepia de un mes excepcional". O en estos bocetos de estrofa que aparecen en algunas frases como la de Catherine François y Santiago Auserón, "La juventud no quería un porvenir asegurado, sino un presente apasionante", o la que ellos recogen de Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari, "Por mucho que el acontecimiento sea ya antiguo, no consiente en quedarse atrás, porque es apertura hacia lo posible".

    Claro que lo verdaderamente emocionante de la lectura llegó cuando, mientras intentaba esclarecer si la rima de este suplemento literario era consonante o asonante, Josep Ramoneda y Antonio Muñoz Molina sumaron una opción más con la que no había contado hasta entonces: la disonante. El primero volvía sobre la actualidad de lo sucedido entonces, pero lo hacía de manera distinta, "Ha costado entender que el tiempo pasa para todos y la patente de modernidad no tiene dueño". Y el segundo prácticamente volvía la espalda a los hechos en sí, "A mí, sinceramente, tanta conmemoración de Mayo del 68 me produce un aburrimiento invencible. Ya me lo sé todo: lo de la imaginación al poder, lo de ser realista y pedir lo imposible, lo de los adoquines y la arena de la playa, etcétera. Otros hechos coetáneos me importan mucho más, y reciben mucha menos literatura". A su vez, en el artículo "Los ecos de la revuelta", Octavi Martí repasaba el pensamiento de otro conjunto de voces que también discrepaban sobre la importancia del movimiento estudiantil y si cambió el mundo –para mejor o para peor– o no cambió nada. Entre ellas se encontraba la del actual presidente francés durante la pasada campaña presidencial, a quien, como bien acotaba Martí "solo le faltó darle a Mayo del 68 influencia retrospectiva, culparle del nazismo, la trata de esclavos o del hundimiento de la torre de Babel".

    Pese a que durante las últimas cuatro décadas han corrido ríos de tinta, seguimos bajo el riesgo de inundaciones a la vista de las nuevas publicaciones que van a sacar a la luz en los próximos meses un número nada desdeñable de editoriales. No obstante, nunca está de más revisar nuestra propia opinión en las circunstancias actuales. Probablemente encontremos en ella algunos tópicos y no pocos lugares comunes, es decir que sigamos desconociendo bastante sobre el asunto aunque nos sepamos de memoria sus lemas. Claro que, a veces, nuevas lecturas no sirven para desmontar viejos clichés, sino que los perpetúan. De manera que tendremos que hacer un pequeño esfuerzo por descubrirlos y polemizarlos. Siempre es saludable un poco de inconformismo.

    He dicho, a veces, que fuimos mucho mejores hijos –en la medida en que supimos plantar cara a nuestros padres– que padres –en la medida en que no supimos plantar cara a nuestros hijos–. Con nuestra actitud –y la potencia integradora de las contradicciones que el capitalismo tiene– les hemos dejado sin espacio para la trasgresión [1].

    [1] Extracto del artículo "Contestación mundial" de Josep Ramoneda en EL PAÍS del sábado 20 de abril.

    Ilustración.

              Making Progress - Making Distractions        

    ORGANIZATIONAL DISCIPLINE


    Introduction

    In this post I will discuss why I am not following the Organisational Prompts in the Get Organized challenge. 

    What I am doing instead.  

    The challenges this approach has had and how I have dealt with them.



    FINALLY Get Organized challenge

    This year I had intended to follow along with the weekly challenges set by DearMYRTLE in her FINALLY Get Organized prompts. 
    Week 1 
    I had previously done much of what was suggested, somewhat fortuitously, with the week coinciding with catching up at work after the Christmas and New Year breaks.
    Week 2
    This was where I started to see that the system being suggested was close to what I had previously tried. This way of organizing I had found to work for some of my digital files but not everything.
    Organizing by family group works for items specific to that family but stumbles when previously unconnected groups collide. One example of this would be a group photograph at a wedding or a newspaper report of that same event.
    I am trying to avoid duplicates of the records and have devised a modified version keeping the family group as a hub containing an index to the relevant documents and other media.

    I have gradually realised that a key element in citation is being able to accurately pinpoint the provenance of the source. Whilst digital files can have this information embedded in the properties it is a greatly underused function. Most of the files just contain the filename for that computer and a date. Making use of this ability will take time so I have started with a quicker fix to ensuring the correct provenance is recorded.


    The System


    This is a screenshot of my system as it stands today



    I discussed this system briefly in my featured earlier post.
    The Media file in my Family Historian project has subfolders which I have colour coded using Folder Marker .


    I have further subdivided the folder named Official Archives as shown below



    I expect some of the folders will be moved, renamed or deleted as I decide the best place to use for those census images and other items I have downloaded. I need the flexibility at present that this system provides. I also want something that can be easily modified at a later date.

    The process has been far from straightforward and I find myself having to go through earlier emails trying to discover who sent me pictures or documents. When I find the relevant email I have sent it to Evernote and added tags.

    This has slowed down my folder organization but will pay dividends when I start to rebuild my tree as part of my Genealogy Go Over.

    I did not create a research log when I started out so I am going to create one retrospectively from interviews, photographs, scans and correspondence to ensure the sources are correctly cited.
    If I am unable to accurately date something I can no longer replicate, such as an interview with a deceased relative, I will date with a year range.

    I am sure I will find other distractions to send me "off course" but hopefully most of them will help me attain my ultimate goal to get organised and digitised so I can find, analyse and preserve the history of our family. 


              Smooth world from block data        

    Ephenation is a voxel based world. Everything (almost) are blocks that have a given address. Graphics based on square blocks doesn't look very good. There are ways to make it look good, e.g. the Marching Cubes algorithm.
    However, this algorithm has some drawbacks. Every created triangle has a texture, and it is not trivial to decide what texture to use for triangles that span from one block type to another. Another problem is that some cubes in the world shall still be shown as cubes. This leads to difficulties in the transition between smooth terrain and cubistic blocks.

    Use of a filter

    In Ephenation, it was decided to use another algorithm, with similarities to a low pass filter. The basic idea is to take every coordinate and add a specific delta to each of the three dimensions. The magnitude of the delta is determined as a function of neighbor blocks. A two dimensional example of this could be:
    Delta in X dimension
    Next, if the same delta is applied in 'y', we get:
    Delta in Y dimension
    The principle is simple; the delta is computed in every dimension and can be applied independently.

    Three dimensions

    When computing the delta for 3 dimensions, neighbor vertices has to be take into account from 3 dimensions.

    In the figure, there are 8 cubes. They are initially uniformly distributed. The content of these 8 cubes are used to determine the delta of the point P, in the middle, for each of the X, Y and Z dimensions. Only one filter is defined for one dimension, and then the transformation is rotated in three different directions. The algorithm uses a small matrix, of the size 2x2x2, that is initialized with the content of the 8 cubes. The delta computation uses that matrix to determine the delta in one dimension. And then this small matrix is filled with the same content, but rotated for the other dimensions, and the test is repeated.

    Merging normals

    After applying the delta, it is possible to change the appearance without changing the geometry. If the normals for all triangles that meet at the same vertex is replaced by an average, then it will further increase the smoothness look of the world. To speed up this process, the vertex data is sorted on vertex position. A std::multiset is used, with pointers to the vertex data. This set of pointers is then sorted. A question is whether normals from different materials shall also be averaged. This is not done currently.

    There are some special cases that need to be taken care of. For example, it may be that the sum of the normals is a null vector. When that happens, the normals are simply left unchanged.
    Non modified normals
    And with normals merged, the same geometry will be:
    Merged normals

    Calibration

    The amount of the delta has to be calibrated. See below a video clip where the delta goes from 0 to 0.17.

    • There has been a steady increase in the percentage of farmers having small landholdings. Small landholdings do not support mechanisation and irrigation. Moreover, the absence of land records in many cases prevent these farmers from accessing formal credit, government benefits or crop insurance.

    • A large number of small farm holders are accessing credit mainly from informal sources.

    • Indebtedness among farmers is on the rise with 52 percent of agricultural households in the country being plagued by it.

    What causes distress among farmers in Yavatmal and Sangrur?

    Although Yavatmal and Sangrur are very different in terms of socioeconomic backgrounds, crop patterns, agricultural practices, the underlying reasons for distress are found to be similar.

    • Flawed cropping patterns aggravating water scarcity

    In Sangrur and Yavatmal, where paddy and cotton are grown, the crop choice is not harmonious with the agroclimatic features of the region. BT cotton is very sensitive to the timing and intensity of rainfall. Growing it in Yavatmal that has unpredictable rainfall and no alternative source of irrigation is unsuitable for the region.

    As much as 2,000–4,000 litres of water are required to produce one kilo of rice. The high water demand makes rice unsuitable for a place like Sangrur which is highly water stressed with falling water tables due to severe depletion of groundwater resources.

    • Rising input costs

    Farmers in both regions complain of rising input prices (seed, water, electricity, fertiliser, pesticide and land rent) and the absence of a proportionate increase in minimum support prices (MSP). In Yavatmal, BT cotton producers are barely able to meet the costs of production, while traders and middlemen make profits at the cost of farmers who are not able to store the harvest and wait for the right price. Farmers in the study question the instability of prices and demand an enhancement of the loan amount from formal credit sources so that they can cover input costs and make farming viable.

    In Sangrur, in addition to the high input prices needed for farming, dependence on paddy cultivation increases the demand for water, forcing farmers to spend huge amounts on digging borewells in an area that suffers from severe depletion of groundwater resources.

    • The unending cycle of borrowing, non-repayment and the shame of debt

    Rising input costs force farmers to borrow. Since the bank loans are insufficient to meet these high input costs, farmers are compelled to access informal sources of credit. At times, farmers prioritise repayment of loans taken from informal sources over bank loans due to high rates of interest and to retain their rapport with the moneylender to remain credit-worthy. Also borrowing from different sources to repay bank loans to stay within the banking system further pushes farmers into the spiral of debt. This, coupled with crop failure, worsens their situation.

    At times, farmers are forced to borrow from their close relatives when other avenues of borrowing such as moneylenders have been tried and exhausted. The shame associated with one’s inability to repay is immense in village society and it is worse if money is borrowed from relatives, which forces many farmers to commit suicide.

    • Rising aspirations and absence of alternative sources of income

    Recently, rising aspirations have also led to farmers taking huge loans for non-farming activities such as marriages, ceremonies, cars, gadgets, contributing to their financial burden as many do not have any other source of income.

    What is the way out?

    The article suggests some fundamental changes to alter the situation.

    • Moving towards cropping patterns that are suitable for the agro-climatic zones and encouraging indigenous patterns of farming that are less cost intensive.
    • Modifying the institutional credit disbursal system by introducing the option of repayment in instalments.
    • Introducing a proportionate loan–land ratio which would enable the farmer to retain his rights for the rest of his landholdings, which can then be used as a source of liquidity.
    • Introducing specific farming credit policies for dryland and rainfed areas.
    • The introduction of cashless loan components to avoid diversion of crop loans towards non-farm expenditures.
    • Restructuring of loans against localised crop failures where specific and targeted compensation packages take extreme weather events or natural calamities into account.
    • Introducing land reforms, correcting the terms of trade that work against farmers and providing them with alternative sources of livelihoods.

    A copy of the paper can be downloaded from below:

    Languages: 
    Don't Show In All Article: 

              Introduction and First Thoughts        

    Introduction

    Hi! I was accepted to build a Crystal Space World Editor for Google Summer of Code this summer.

    A little about me: I'm an 18-year-old computer engineering major at University of Maryland. My main interests beside computers are classical guitar and biking.

    In this blog I'll post my ideas and progress on this project. Comments and suggestions will be greatly appreciated.

    Here is the abstract as given in the proposal:

    Crystal Space, being a 3d engine, deserves a good art pipeline so that applications using it can focus on creating assets, not editing world files by hand. Having worked on several game projects using CS over the past 2 years, I have experienced directly the difficulty of getting art into the engine. I would like to help take a huge step in improving it by creating a usable world editor.

    The editor should have a completed framework by the end of the work period, including a working plugin system, undo/redo system, selection system, tool system, save/load functionality, scene browser, factory browser, and property editor. Also, basic selection and transform tools will be implemented. Any remaining time will be used to polish the user interface or implement tools for other CS features, such as terrain.

    The project is currently in the design stage, but the ideas are becoming more focused.
    Here is some of the progress so far.

    Name of the editor

    We had nearly an hour-long name-throwing session on IRC about this, but I don't think any of them stuck. The consensus seems to be that the name shouldn't be too serious. Some highlights: Ochre, Composotron IV, Crystal Latte, Crystachino, Deity for Dummies, Quartz, Chainspoon, Turbospoon, CrystalGarden, Plow, Colloid Space. I would choose Anvil, but it is already the name of my old editor. Maybe Anvil Reloaded? ;) Any more ideas?

    User interface

    The editor will use wxWidgets as a GUI library.
    I'll use wxAUI and wxPropertyGrid widgets. wxAUI is a really nice docking toolkit that should give a very flexible, modern-looking interface. wxPropertyGrid will be great for the property editor.

    wxAUI has been included in wxWidgets 2.8.0+, but wxPropertyGrid is a contrib widget. To handle the dependency, the editor will probably require wxWidgets 2.8.0+ and wxPropertyGrid will be included in the source tree.

    I'll use wxFormBuilder to design the more complex dialogs for the editor (options, material editor, etc) and save them as XRCs. The main window will be done in code, using wxAUI.

    Tools

    Tools allow the interface to remain consistent when switching between different editing functions. Tools will handle events like mouse move, mouse click, keyboard press, and draw to allow for extra information to be drawn on top of the scene. Examples of tools are select, move, rotate, scale. Plugins can also add tools. Tools will be available through a toolbar. In addition, tools can provide a panel for tool-specific settings.

    There are several types of tools.

    Mesh-specific tools: These tools will be shown based on the type of the selected object.
    e.g. for particle system editor, an emitter editor. For a terrain editor, a tool to modify heights with a brush.

    Creation tools: Tools which create things, e.g. a tool which creates mesh primitives, or a tool which creates an initial flat terrain.

    One-shot tools: Tools which perform one "non-interactive" action, like "compress vertices" or "generate normals".

    Scene Browser

    The scene browser is basically a tree that will show all of the instances in the world file (e.g. all the stuff that goes in between <sector> tags).

    There could possibly be multiple "view modes" for this: Group by sector, group by object type, sort alphabetically.

    Plugins should be able to add 3rd party types to the scene browser (e.g. CEL entities).

    Project Manager

    This should show some of the files that the world file depends on. It will allow you to link or unlink libraries to the world file.

    Assets Browser

    Formerly named "factory browser", the assets browser will allow you to browse through mesh factories, materials, etc. It should allow you to remove them, or edit their properties when selected (in property editor). Adding mesh factories can be accomplished through importing or linking to a library. Or you can use a tool which creates primitives.

    Mesh Browser

    This will show all of the available mesh factories, rendered to textures. The selected one will show a rotating preview.

    Material Browser

    This will show all of the available materials rendered on tiny spheres. You should also be able to create an empty material from here.

    Browsers

    With all of these browsers, there seems to be a commonality between them: they generally provide a view of a certain category of objects, and when selected, they should publish an event to listeners, including the property editor which will allow you to edit the selected object. It seems like they could share a lot of code.

    Property Editor

    There will be a property editor shown for the selected object.

    I will need to implement some custom property types, including one for matrices.

    Another thing I would like is a "link" to another object. It would basically allow you to choose one of the available objects of that type. And it will allow you to follow the link and show the linked-to object in the property editor. For example, the mesh instance property editor will have a link property "Material", which will allow you to choose which material is used for the mesh.

    Saver Improvements

    Since the saver doesn't fully support saving all CS objects, and since it is desirable to preserve comments in the world files, I'll be supplementing the loader to attach the original DOM nodes to engine objects when they are loaded (and only when the saveable flag is on). The editor will then keep track of which objects are modified, and only save those. This means that all unsupported nodes will be preserved. A main failure of the current way of using the saver is that it obliterates any unsupported nodes. Judging by the rate at which the loader advances versus the rate at which the saver plugins advance, this will be necessary for some time.

    The sooner this is implemented, the sooner the editor will be useful for making small tweaks to existing world files. So I do regard it as quite important, although it is not trivial.

    Wrap-Up

    Whew! There are a lot of ideas there. I hope I get some good feedback on this.

    I still have approximately 2 more weeks of school, so I'll be trying to think of this and post when I'm not taking exams. Then, summer! :)


              Perfume Review: Lou Lou, Cacharel        

    Perfume da Rosa Negra
    From Perfume, We Return!




    Recordar uma determinada década com roupas ou acessórios vintage, adquiridos a muito custo e garimpo em algum brechó, é um dom que pouquíssimas pessoas possuem. Para completar a indumentária fashionista, que tal um perfume que também marcou época?

    Exatamente no início da década de 1980, em meio ao desejo louco de brilhar e aproveitar a vida como os quadros da pop-art multicolorida de Andy Warhol, e a badalação interminável de uma boate que chocava o mundo, o famoso clube 54 em New York, a Europa entrava em um colapso econômico sem precedentes até aquela época, os Estados Unidos tem um crescimento exagerado em seu patriotismo e sua economia cresce em ritmo vertiginoso, o desejo de ter tudo o que o dinheiro pode comprar torna-se cada vez mais intenso, as grifes européias invadem a America do Norte e trazem seus magníficos perfumes.





    Foi em meio a essas inúmeras modificações econômicas e comportamentais que LouLou foi lançado, com um frasco em formato piramidal em vidro opaco de cor azul celeste adornado por uma listra horizontal vermelho profundo. As mulheres desejavam destacar-se no mercado de trabalho, as ombreiras exageradas e paletós retirados diretamente do closet masculino eram um hit entre as executivas americanas, maquiagem forte mesmo durante o dia, batons em tons de vermelho e violeta intenso, olhos esfumaçados de preto e chumbo e intensamente delineados com lápis preto, cortes de cabelo cada vez mais curtos e andrógenos. A igualdade entre sexos era o foco dessa década. Para brindar esse busca insana pelo sucesso, nada melhor que um aroma denso e que fosse capaz de demarcar território, sendo sexy de modo discreto.






    LouLou é este cheiro, um bloco sólido de matérias primas variadas com o objetivo único de chamar atenção, o mix de notas destaca quase que exclusivamente os acordes de Iris. Com o decorrer do dia, o perfume mostra acordes de canela e incenso o que compõem o lado oriental da fragrância. A evolução é mínima, pois o exagero de matérias usadas não permite uma percepção de notas separadas, sabe-se que há tuberosa, mimosa, jasmim, ylang e outras notas florais, mas a percepção única é de que todos se unem para compor um só acorde sólido e com leves pitadas de especiarias adocicadas. A impressão é que se está usando um perfume attar resinoso e floral, que não se diferencia entre masculino e feminino.


    Nada combina mais com o desejo de ostentação de luxo que o mercado de trabalho impunha Ã s mulheres que LouLou, um perfume romântico de modo mascarado, que mostrava quem dominava o ambiente e tirava o fardo de fragilidade e delicadeza das jovens mulheres dos anos 1980.
    Nota do autor: Fixação boa. Usar em doses minimas em noites frias e em festas que exigam black-tie


    Avaliação Perfume da Rosa Negra





    Review by  Perfume da Rosa Negra Colaborator Italo Wolff for Perfume da Rosa Negra. Lou lou Ads, a courtesy of Cacharel.







              GUBERNURPUN BERKOMITMEN        
    KESEPAKATAN BERSAMA GUBERNUR/ KETUA DEWAN KETAHANAN PANGAN PROVINSI dalam KONFERENSI DEWAN KETAHANAN PANGAN 2012 mengenai “Percepatan Pencapaian Sasaran Swasembada Lima Komoditas Pangan Pokok”   MENGINGAT :   Peraturan Presiden Nomor 83 Tahun 2006 tentang Dewan Ketahanan Pangan mengarahkan pembentukan Dewan Ketahanan Pangan Provinsi dan Dewan Ketahanan Pangan Kabupaten/Kota untuk merumuskan kebijakan dalam mewujudkan ketahanan pangan, […]
              Daftar Harga Panga        
    DAFTAR INFORMASI HARGA PANGAN Minggu    : I Bulan       : Maret  2010 Lokasi     : Pasar Raya Padang No. Komoditi Satuan Harga ( Rp ) Minggu lalu Minggu skrg I Pangan Pokok 1 Beras Kwalitas I –  IR. 42 C Solok kg 8,750 8,750 – Cisokan Solok kg 8,750 8,750 – Kuriak Kusuik kg 8.437,5 8.437,5 2 […]
              Comment on Bonjour tout le monde ! by Monsieur WordPress        
    Bonjour, ceci est un commentaire. Pour supprimer un commentaire, connectez-vous et affichez les commentaires de cet article. Vous pourrez alors les modifier ou les supprimer.
              L. A. is dying        
    My city has a tumor in its heart, a cancer that is threatening to destroy the host, destroy the state, destroy America.

    The government, more so, the members of congress in their infantile wisdom have handed over a large portion of Los Angeles to the Zombies. It has been named the zombie zone by elected officials and zombie homeland by the degenerate half dead monsters that infest it. Explained to the public as a way of reaching across the aisle and finding common ground on which to base human zombie relations, the zombie zone is a huge blow to humans. With one sinuous line of the governor?s pen, and the president Obazy smiling over his shoulder, a large swath of Los Angeles was given over to the zombies. The creatures flooded the area within days, and the humans that failed to leave beforehand were as cattle at the slaughter. Some humans remained behind to fight for their property, given away by the government without their consent or recompense; others did not have any means to leave, or anywhere to go. The feeding frenzy of the zombies was and orgy of screams heard all around the perimeter of the zone, yet most of America sat secure in their homes, blissfully ignorant of the happenings in the heart of L.A., denying that it could ever happen to them.

    Some citizens learned of what was happening, and in their outrage they went to their representatives in congress begged and demanded that something be done to help those trapped in the zombie zone. Their pleas were ignored. Other citizens begged for congress to send in the National Guard, and once again, congress remained resolutely silent.

    Within days, the zombie zone was declared human free, eradicated as if they were offending vermin. Some few humans clung to life and learned how to survive and fight in the zone. However, they were seriously outnumbered and lacked much to defend against the walking dead.

    I could not sit by any watch this horror without attempting to help, so I snuck in to the zone.

    Throughout my career as a costumed crime fighter, I haunted the night and protected those that ventured into that world. But night in the zombie zone was death for a normal human, so I explored the zone during the day, avoiding darkened areas, as I quickly learned this is where the zombies rested and would awaken at the lest amount of noise. I found that most zombies stayed in large groups and hunted as if in packs. But some, for what reason I cannot fathom, chose to be by themselves. It was one of these monsters I came across, and learned how to tune my fantastic goggle to read what I could from their near black soul. It was from this beast I learned what it took to kill a zombie.

    After my foray into the zone, I realized I would need a better mode of transportation than walking on foot. I went home and bought a 1945 Dodge power wagon and began making some modifications.

    I am the Mirrorman, I protect humans, I protect good citizens, and I hunt zombies. Your doom or triumph will be at your own hand.

              Annual Mormon Book Review        

    Carrying on from last year's review of David Robert's Devil's Gate: Brigham Young and the Great Mormon Handcart Tragedy, here is a second review of another Mormon-centered book. Enjoy!

    Jared Farmer. On Zion’s Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008. 455 pages. Cloth: Alkaline Paper. $29.95.


    From the early days of the inception of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints (LDS), the Mormons were concerned with place-making. Joseph Smith, the religion’s founder, initially identified Jackson County, Missouri as the “center place,” where the Garden of Eden had once stood. However, the devout were soon thrown out of the state by the governor, and moved on to Nauvoo, Illinois. Later, after Smith was assassinated, the new Mormon leader, Brigham Young, turned his gaze farther west and in 1846-1847 led a party of followers to Utah, which he claimed as “Deseret”—their Zion. There, the Saints found their “place apart” from the rest of the world.

    Jared Farmer’s 2008 book On Zion’s Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape adroitly traces Mormon place-making in Utah. His story is ostensibly about Mount Timpanogos, a landmark known as “Timp” that unites the skyline above Orem and Provo. But the history involves much more than the mountain. It is a microcosm of Angloamerican settlement in the west. Using a singular landmark, Farmer delves into the importance of creating place out of space. He asks why Mount Timpanogos usurped the importance of the historically and agriculturally significant Lake Utah, and how the Mormon settlers manipulated their turbulent history with the Ute Indians in order to make myths and claim places as their own. The book deals with two centuries of history, as well as the interaction between varied cultures and the sometimes contradictory dogma of the LDS Church. Though complex, On Zion’s Mount is a wonderfully executed book—well written, insightful, and an excellent example of how to use local history to illuminate greater historical narratives.

    The book is divided into three sections, each focusing on a different step in the climb to the veneration of “Timp.” The first, “Liquid Antecedents,” deals with the early history of the Ute Indians and the Mormons. It also concentrates on how bodies of water were significant to residents and settlers in the Utah Valley. This section is compelling, as Farmer explains just how distinct the freshwater Lake Utah was in the arid Great Basin. The lake was a natural landmark for the Utes, who relied heavily on its plentiful supply of fish. In the mid-1800s, it became a landmark for the Mormons, who arrived predisposed to seek out monuments in their new “holy land.”

    Despite the Mormons’ intention to find a locale that was disconnected from the rest of the world, the Utah Valley, where the first waves of Mormons settled, was not a “place apart.” It was populated with Ute Indians, who had lived in the area for centuries. The wellspring for many of these Utes was Utah Lake, a freshwater reservoir southeast of the Great Salt Lake. The Indians there called themselves Timpanogos Nuche—“Rocky River Fish Eaters.” They identified themselves in connection with the body of water. The Mormons entered into an unstable relationship with the Timpanogos; an association characterized by violent fits, uneasy alliances, and contradictory feelings. This fluctuating friendship came with a bond to Utah Lake.

    Both the Timpanogos and the Mormons emphasized the importance of place. The Utes classified bands by “geographic food names” like “Lake People” and “Fish-Eaters.” (25) The Saints were concerned with place as it related to Millenialism. While other religions affected by the Second Great Awakening believed in a prediction of when Christ would return, the Mormons were concerned with where. (36) When the Mormons arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, the hot springs, streams, and of course the Great Salt Lake all contributed to the Saints’ belief that they had found their promised land. In the waters they took healing baths, baptized their children, and fished. These same waters had been frequented by the Utes for decades, if not centuries.

    From their introduction onward, relations between the Mormons and the Timpanogos were rocky. In 1849, the former noticed that livestock was missing, and rallied a group to ride south and confront Little Chief, a Ute leader who lived on the shores of Utah Lake. The chief turned the Saints towards some “mean Ewtes,” who they subsequently slaughtered for stealing.(62) Three days afterward, a band of Mormon men decided to relocate their families to Utah Lake. The Saints settled in the midst of hostilities between bands of Utes. In order to secure their own safety, the settlers at Utah Lake as well as the LDS leadership engaged in unsteady diplomacy and occasional fights with different Indian contingents.

    To complicate the already problematic situation, Mormons arrived in Utah with preconceptions of Native Americans. In fact, Indians were integral to the burgeoning religion’s discourse. According to LDS dogma, Indians were descendants of the “Lamanites,” once followers of Christ who traveled to America before the Babylon captivity. In the New World, the hostile sect broke away from their brothers, the “Nephites.” For this, God cursed the Lamanites with dark skin. The ill-fated group waged war on the Nephites and erased any fragments of Christianity from the land. The last Nephite scribe, Moroni, was the impetus for the Mormon religion. He came to Joseph Smith in a dream and told him where to find the scriptural record of this lost history. With his revelation of the sanctity of the Lamanites, Smith incorporated proselytizing to Indians into the Book of Mormon. The descendants of the Lamanites who converted would be saved during the Second Coming. More importantly, they would assist Christ in destroying the earth as soldiers of the apocalypse. This created a contradictory idea of Native Americans: “They were cursed to be inferior yet promised to be superior. They were destined to save the world, yet they couldn’t save themselves.”(57) Furthermore, dealing with real-life Utes proved harder than the LDS leadership imagined.

    The tension in Saints’ beliefs between “Indian-as-brother and Indian-as-other” continued to influence their interactions with natives around Utah Lake.(61) Young was wary of the amicable relations between his followers and the Timpanogos and wished that the two groups not mix. In 1850, following the murder of an Indian man, the Mormons and the Utes engaged in the “Indian War.” Later, LDS leadership chastised natives for engaging in slave trade with a New Mexican. Though in Mormon thought there were some redeemable Indians, by 1860 Young was determined that the Utes ought to be displaced. He wrote to Washington, D.C.: “It is our wish that the Indian title should be extinguished, and the Indians removed from our Territory (Utah) and that for the best of reasons, because they are doing no good here to themselves or any body else.”(82) By the latter half of the 1860s most of the Timpanogos people moved to the Uinta Basin, estranged from the place upon which they based their identity.

    Following the removal of the Utes, Utah Lake experienced a surge and then a decline in popularity that mirrored the fate of other regional waterways. In the late 19th century, tourists came to the area to take in the healing waters of the hot springs, the Great Salt Lake, and Utah Lake. Additionally, the latter continued to be a distinguished fishery. However, this fame did not last. In the first half of the 20th century, fires destroyed a number of Salt Lake resorts. Overfishing and the introduction of nonnative species affected Utah Lake. The Great Depression and WWII furthered the destruction of water sport popularity. The federal government opened the Geneva Steel plant on Utah Lake; its smokestacks and pollution diminished the reservoir’s beauty and water quality. Even after the plant closed in 2001, the lake had lost its reputation. Residents considered it dirty, shallow, and full of undesirable fish. Furthermore, during the twentieth century Utahans rethought their sense of identity. Instead of revering the hydrological geography of Utah, its residents had turned their gaze upward to the peaks.

    The second section of the book, “Making a Mountain: Alpine Play,” discusses how Utahans built Mount Timpanogos into a landmark. Farmer makes great use of the exclusion of certain places as well as their later inclusion. Using topographical resources from the four western surveys, as well as mormon settler drawings and maps, Farmer shows how Timpanogos went from being an undefined ridge in the Wasatch Range to a distinct massif that overshadowed both the larger Mount Nebo to the south and the historically significant Lake Utah to the west.

    As in the first three chapters, Farmer employs LDS beliefs to form the basis of his argument. The Saints’ theological sense of place included an emphasis on mountains. Settlers viewed their new homeland through religion; mountains pervade world religions as the geographical pathway to God. Peaks were of special importance to Mormons, since Joseph Smith purportedly prophesied that they would “become a mighty people in the midst of the Rocky Mountains.”(150) When the Saints arrived in Deseret, they labeled many geographic sites with biblical names, including Mount Nebo, the highest peak in the Wasatch range. However, in the 1880s Mormons began to secularize their environment. This shift was motivated by the United States Congress, which outlawed theocracy and polygamy. During what Mormons call “The Great Accommodation,” the Saints rethought the peaks in a patriotic light.

    The King Survey was the first to identify “Tim-pan-o-gos Peak” in 1869.(164) However, no one considered it a defining aspect of the region, and many could not even see it; the massif was just a part of the jagged wall between Provo and American Fork Canyons. It wasn’t until the early decades of the 20th century that residents of Provo “began to visualize a mountain.”(167) The view of Timpanogos from Provo changed as the town relocated to the east of its original home at old Fort Utah. Spurred by the historic importance of mountains to the Mormons as well as the “European vogue of alpine aesthetics,” it was not unnatural for the residents of Provo to revere a nearby peak.(141) By 1910, the town described itself in relation to the mountain.

    The King Survey did more than just identify Mount Timpanogos—the survey also pronounced it (erroneously) the highest peak in the Wasatch Range. In reality, that title belongs to Mount Nebo. However, the claim persisted even after the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey corrected the record, and tourists began arriving to climb the “highest mountain in the Wasatch.”(175) With the boosterism of Eugene “Timpanogos” Roberts, Brigham Young University’s athletics director, and the national increase in the popularity of hiking, “Timp” became a recreational landmark. Roberts led yearly hikes to the top of the massif, and along with the claim that they were climbing the highest peak in the Wasatch, boosters “endlessly repeated claims that the Annual Timpanogos Hike ranked as the biggest hike in America, the greatest community hike in the world, and the largest ‘pilgrimage’ to any mountain over 10,000 feet.”(202) The peak, as well as its ascent were powerful symbols of community strength.

    Though the hike was discontinued in the 1970s, the peak remained emblematic of Provo. The Forest Service designated Timpanogos as wilderness. They banned the grazing of domestic animals and introduced mountain goats to the area in 1981. Meanwhile, Provo and Orem transformed from farming communities into suburbia and Robert Redford bought and built up Sundance. These changes emphasized the dichotomy between wilderness and urban areas. With the growth in population of the two cities and the ski resort, Timpanogos increased in importance. In 1996 the mountain’s significance was solidified in Mormon minds when the LDS Church built Mount Timpanogos Temple. Farmer ends this section with a rumination on environmentalism. Despite all the reverence for place, Mormons are not conservationists, and do not engage in preservation of their landmark. “Sense,” he concludes, “is not the same as sensibility.”(238)

    The final section of the book, “Making a Mountain: Indian Play,” investigates how “Timp” was marked with cultural meaning. Farmer examines the place name as well as the legends that surround it. In the nineteenth century, white Americans like Henry Schoolcraft and Lydia Sigourney advocated the use of Indian place-names, despite the usual miscommunication, misappropriation, or blatant invention of “native” words. The American government continued the trend by accepting Indianist names of states. In Utah, “Timpanogos” was a long-remembered name in the Provo region. The Indians themselves were displaced to the Uinta Band, and though the name had originally designated a river, the waterway had been renamed “Provo River.” For locals, associating the mountain with a Native word “gave the landmark a heightened semblance of antiquity and authenticity.”(281)

    Ironically, to further this authenticity, Eugene “Timpanogos” Roberts provided the mountain with a fake Indian legend. “The Story of Utahna and Red Eagle, an Indian Legend of Timpanogos” retold a familiar Angloamerican tale of the Indian Princess—the “dark-skinned Sappho” throwing herself from a precipice in response to a suitor.(287) These stories, all of which have suspect providence, used Native American tragedies to deepen American antiquity.(297) In a land without any ancient city walls or moldering castles, a sense of historic depth was created through legend. Additionally, the legends of leaping maidens alleviated whites’ guilt on displacing the Indians across the continent. The tales emphasized either brutish men that the women could only escape by committing suicide or savage societies that forced women to neglect her chosen lover. Either ended with the implicit message: the race of Indians is uncivilized. More importantly, the destruction of these Native maids was self-imposed. In an age when America was dealing with the morality of Indian Removal, it was more convenient for white storytellers that the natives to make the choice of self-destruction.(314)

    The Legend of Timpanogos gained further footing by its performance in Utah. People repeated the story of Utahna and Red Eagle, and the tale influenced an opera, a ballet, and an oratorio. Locals further promoted the fake history by dressing up in war paint and moccasins and climbing the mountain “as Indians.” The mountain was seen as the embodiment of a Native woman; like the “Sleeping Ute” in Colorado, “Timp’s” ridge resembles a slumbering Indian maid. The Mormon use of Indianist music, storytelling, and fashion to create the Legend of Timpanogos was paradoxical in that they paid homage to a romanticized version of the people that they had forced out of the Utah Valley—the Timpanogos’ ancestral home. These cultural performances replaced history with both fiction and selective memory. Modern residents of Utah formed their own heritage; no matter that their memory is based on a fallacy.

    But of course it does matter, which is Farmer’s point. Mormons produced a heritage that all but erased the Utes, just as it effaced the importance of Utah Lake. Instead of concentrating on their forebears’ efforts to colonize a “place apart,” which would necessitate emphasis on their interactions with the Indian inhabitants, Saints overwhelming focused their attention on the successive journeys westward. LDS theologians went so far as to modify the meaning of a Lamanite, so that Amerindians lost their scriptural status.(370) When they did incorporate Native Americans into their heritage, they did so with Indianist fictional stories that obscured history with romanticism. In this way, Farmer’s book acts as a historical monument, countering the heritage attached to Mount Timpanogos. Using “Timp” as a framework for his study, Farmer is able to resurrect the forgotten history of the Timpanogos Nuches and Lake Utah.

    On Zion’s Mount is an outstanding cultural, local, environmental, and religious history. Farmer engages readers with his lucid prose even as he presents the tangled story of Mormons, Utes, and the western landscape. Such excellent writing is especially important when one is reminded of some of the recently popular books on Mormon history: Jon Krakauer’s Under the Banner of Heaven and David Roberts’ Devil’s Gate: Brigham Young and the Great Mormon Handcart Tragedy.19 Krakauer and Roberts are both professional journalists and authors; their work is aimed at the populace rather than the academy. And yet Farmer rivals these works in its composition and surpasses them in its historic breadth and depth. More importantly for scholars, his argument illuminates the American inclination to transform its landscape and pinpoints those transformations in culture and historic memory. Overall, Timpanogos’ jagged ridge proved an excellent vantage point from which to view Utah’s past.
              tout nu        
    Par revendication, il se promenait nu devant chez lui Ce père de famille adepte du naturisme a été condamné à six mois de prison ferme pour s’être promené nu devant chez lui, dans la Dombes, jeudi.  Cet artisan à la retraite reconnaît les faits. Il promet qu’il ne récidivera plus. Et qu’il défendra désormais ses idées « sans provocation ». Comprenez, sans se promener en tenue d’Adam dans son jardin à la vue de tous ou sur le trottoir devant chez lui pour, en l’occurrence, aller récupérer une brouette. Ce fervent défenseur du naturisme, affilié depuis des années à la fédération nationale en question, va plutôt jouer la carte du lobby auprès des députés pour faire modifier la loi. En attendant, il a été condamné par le tribunal correctionnel de Bourg-en-Bresse, pour exhibition sexuelle en récidive, lors d’une comparution immédiate, à six mois de prison ferme sans maintien en détention. Une peine qui lui permettra de solliciter un aménagement. « Pas dans le pathologique » Aux magistrats, ce père de famille de quatre enfants âgé de 69 ans, explique, dans une déclaration préparée et lue, qu’il vient de comprendre « ce que la prison veut dire et les conséquences dramatiques que ça a sur sa famille et leur entreprise. » « Mais est-ce que vous comprenez que ça peut choquer ? » lance, le président du tribunal à l’audience au sexagénaire. Le 3 août, à deux reprises, il se présente nu devant chez lui. Sa voisine, qui se trouve en voiture avec des enfants et des adolescents,(...)
    http://www.leprogres.fr/faits-divers/2017/08/08/par-revendication-il-se-promenait-nu-devant-chez-lui
    ============
    (période critique septennale des 70 ans - rythmes courts à voir)
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              475.- Crónica 428ª Reunión Oficial de Tejedores Madrid Knits (viernes, 12 de mayo 2017)        

    Feliz San Isidro 2017 a todos los madrileños y madrileñas.  Y a los que no lo son pero viven en esta preciosa ciudad también. Nos queda un largo fin de semana por delante y dicen que hoy sábado vuelven las buenas temperaturas y dejará de llover así que un tiempo fantástico para ir a la pradera el lunes a tomarse unos bocatas de entresijos y una refrescante limonada.

    La reunión de ayer empezó en petit comité y acabo que casi nos echan del local con el cierre. Y es que cuando uno está tan bien charlando se te pasan las horas volando.

    Empecemos con la minicrónica.


    Cristina F ha retomado los calcetines BLY que empezó hace algún tiempo y que tenía ahí aparcados o, mejor dicho, que los volvió a empezar y ya va por el segundo. Está utilizando lana Cascade Heritage Solids en un color mostaza que me tiene enamoradita perdida.


    Elena S sigue con el chal de flores. Tuvo que volver a empezar para cambiar la numeración del ganchillo para que quedara mas suave y mullidito y ya lo tiene mas que encaminado. Seguro que a su hermana le va a encantar. Las lanas, sorprendentemente, son de una tienda de todo a 100 y tienen unos colores que la fotografía no les hace justicia, pero es que no atinaba a hacer la foto sin que hiciera sombra ...


    Eva con el jersey que ella misma está diseñando sobre la marcha con un calado que le vio a Pilar y que le gustó tanto que decidió incorporarlo a su labor. Está pensando en hacerle también unas mangas con el mismo motivo. Va despacito pero animada porque ya va viendo resultados. La lana que está utilizando es candena merino extrafino de katia.



    Joao terminó su monedero de ganchillo y está contenta con el resultado. Ahora está empezando el chal Interlude de Lisa Hannes. Le ha costado acertar con la aguja correcta para la lana que está utilizando hasta que se ha decidido por menos numeración de la que indica el patrón. La lana es la baby Melbourne de Ornaghi Filati. El reto de este chal, según nos cuenta, es el calado de la banda de en medio.


    Y aquí la menda lerenda, Siona, que deshice lo tejido la semana pasada del jersey Princess Fiona con baby alpaca silk de drops porque me había confundido en la zona del calado (nota mental, pon siempre marcadores chata), y la parte perfeccionista de mi decidió tirar del hilo ... Ahora ya está viento en popa a toda vela pero quizás acabe haciendo algunas modificaciones al patrón en cuanto a los aumentos. 

    También pasó un ratito con nosotros Patricia, pero le dimos mas a la musculatura mandibular que  a ejercer la noble afición de tejer.

    Entonces ¿nos vemos el viernes que viene? misma hora, mismo sitio.

    Viernes 12 mayo de 2017
    Starbucks, C/ Orense, 26 
    Horario: de 17.00h a 21.00h


              IL NOSTRO TRADITORE TIPO        


    “Qual è la cosa più atroce e tremenda che hai visto nella tua vita? Ovunque tu sia stato. A parte la canna dell’Uzi di un signore della droga puntata in faccia. I bambini con il ventre gonfio e le mani mozze che muoiono di stenti in Congo, che urlano disperati per la fame senza nemmeno la forza di piangere? I padri castrati con il cazzo cacciato in bocca e le orbite piene di mosche? Le donne con le baionette infilate nella fica?”
    Luke non aveva mai prestato servizio in Congo, quindi suppose che Hector stesse descrivendo la sua esperienza personale.
    “Noi abbiamo il nostro equivalente” osservò.
    “Cioè, fammi qualche esempio.”
    “Le grandi manovre del governo colombiano. Con l’aiuto degli americani, ovviamente. Villaggi incendiati. Abitanti stuprati in massa dalle bande, torturati, fatti a pezzi. Tutti massacrati eccetto l’unico superstite lasciato in vita per raccontarlo agli altri.”
    “Già. Bé, ne abbiamo visto di cose in giro per il mondo” osservò Hector. “Non siamo stati a menarcelo.”
    “No.”
    “ E i flussi di denaro sporco, i profitti ricavati dalla sofferenza, abbiamo assistito anche a quello. Solo in Colombia, miliardi. L’hai visto con i tuoi occhi.  Lo sa Dio quanto valeva il tuo uomo.” Non aspettò la risposta. “Nel Congo, miliardi. In Afghanistan, miliardi. Cazzo, un ottavo dell’economia mondiale: in nero, nero come l’inferno. Noi lo sappiamo.”
    “Sì, lo sappiamo.”
    “Denaro di sangue. Ecco cos’è.”
    “Sì.”
    “Non importa dove. Può essere in una scatola sotto il letto di un signore della guerra in Somalia, come in una banca di Londra vicino alla vecchia zona portuale. Il colore non cambia. Rimane sempre denaro di sangue.”
    “Immagino di sì.”
    “Non c’è niente di affascinante, non ci sono scuse. I profitti dell’estorsione, dello spaccio di droga, dell’omicidio, dell’intimidazione, degli stupri di massa, della schiavitù: è denaro di sangue. Dimmi se sto esagerando.”
    “Non stai esagerando.”
    “Ci sono solo quattro modi per fermare tutto ciò. Primo: dai la caccia ai responsabili. Li prendi, li ammazzi o li sbatti dentro. Se ci riesci. Secondo dai la caccia al prodotto. Lo intercetti prima che arrivi sulle strade o nei mercati. Se ci riesci. Terzo: blocchi i profitti, mandi in rovina quei bastardi.”
    Una pausa fastidiosa, mentre Hector sembrava riflettere su argomenti non alla portata di Luke. Stava pensando agli spacciatori di eroina che avevano ridotto il figlio a un avanzo di galera e a un tossico? O agli avvoltoi capitalisti?       
    “E poi c’è il quarto modo” proseguì Hector. “Davvero orribile, il più sicuro, il più semplice, il più conveniente, il più comune, quello che crea meno difficoltà. Te ne fotti di quelli che sono stati ridotti alla fame, che sono stati stuprati, torturati, dei morti per droga. Al diavolo i costi umani. Il denaro non puzza, se ci appartiene ed è tanto. Soprattutto pensa in grande. Becchi i pesci piccoli ma lasci in giro gli squali. Un tizio ricicla un paio di milioni? E’ un volgare truffatore. Fai intervenire l’autorità, mettilo ai ferri. Ma se ricicla qualche miliardo? Bé allora la faccenda è diversa. I miliardi rientrano nelle statistiche.” Con gli occhi chiusi, immerso nei suoi pensieri, a Luke Hector per un attimo parve una maschera mortuaria. “Non devi per forza essere d’accordo con tutto questo, Lukie” disse gentilmente, ridestandosi dalle sue fantasticherie. “La porta è aperta. Considera la mia reputazione, a questo punto un sacco di gente se ne andrebbe.” (...)

    (John le Carré IL NOSTRO TRADITORE TIPO mondadori, Milano 2010)

              DAVID        


    Tutto è iniziato quando sono entrati in commercio tessuti elasticizzati di un'aderenza sorprendente. In pratica una seconda pelle, splendente, brillante, colorata secondo il gusto e le esigenze della proprietaria. Detti tessuti non si limitavano a fasciare cosce, seni e glutei, ma aderivano con precisione a genitali e capezzoli, scolpivano ogni angolo del corpo, si infilavano in ogni anfratto e non davano nessun ingombro che non fosse quello delle carni. Le nuove vesti erano un perimetro aderente, una pellicola fasciante, un domopak per umani.

    Così abbigliate truppe di casalinghe, studentesse, professoresse ed impiegate allagavano il percorso lungo il fiume, mostrando muscoli in tensione, corpi perfetti, carni in eccesso o carni quasi assenti, carni giovani, carni mature e provate dal tempo. Tutto splendeva di blu e rossi, di neri dimagranti e brillanti, di bianchi evidenti. I corpi passeggiavano, correvano, marciavano ad ogni ora. I tessuti tecnologici riparavano dal freddo in inverno e proteggevano dal caldo nelle ore più soleggiate dell'estate. Per lungo tempo assistemmo ad un lento e graduale processo di riduzione delle superfici coperte, e ad un ulteriore perfezionamento dell'aderenza, fino ad evidenziare nei, brufoli, muscoli periferici ridotti per massa ed estensione, mucose ed orifizi. La depilazione dei corpi doveva essere totale ed accuratissima onde evitare spiacevoli inestetismi. I capelli venivano raccolti in code di cavallo e catturati da rapaci fasce elastiche multicolori. Il percorso era frequentatissimo, da donne di costumi ed estrazioni sociali differenti. Non ci furono incidenti o aggressioni riconducibili a questo nuovo modo di abbigliarsi nel tempo libero. Ogni tipo di violenza rimase nella media, poi improvvisamente si formarono delle associazioni e tutto ebbe un'accelerazione imprevista.

    Le associazioni si svilupparono conseguentemente ad una semplice applicazione dei tessuti elasticizzati precedentemente utilizzati: la completa trasparenza. Le associazioni si riconoscevano per le diverse parti mostrate in pubblico e per le guardie armate, solitamente androidi, che accompagnavano i gruppi di donne a passeggio o di corsa fra i sentieri del parco fluviale. C'erano i gruppi a bolle trasparenti o con particolari in mostra e quelli di nudo parziale o integrale. Non si registrarono incidenti degni di nota, le guardie erano ben pagate ed alla fine ci si abituò a questa nuova tendenza. Gli uomini al massimo scoprivano il petto, ma dopo una dozzina di mesi tutte le associazioni confluirono in quella di nudo integrale ed a questo punto passarono quasi 5 anni di naturismo urbano. Si vedevano corpi di ogni tipo e provenienza e di età assai differenti. Sulle tute trasparenti comparvero i marchi di alcuni sponsor che pagavano ma a patto che le donne fossero a gruppi di almeno sette. Gli studi su questi tessuti progredivano e la medicina si interessò alla possibilità di ricostruire tessuti epiteliali lesionati, principalmente da ustioni, mettendo alla prova questi eccezionali prodotti di sintesi. All'inizio ci furono crisi di rigetto, ma poi si giunse a soluzioni sempre più brillanti e così cicatrici, ustioni e altri orrori furono sostituiti da bei tessuti difficili da distinguere dalla pelle vera a cui si raccordavano in maniera perfetta.

    A quel punto nacque un'associazione particolare. Si trattava di persone con una cultura particolarmente elevata e solitamente dedite a salutismo ed alla passione per le arti e la letteratura. Conobbi David l'androide armato che li accompagnava, in una pausa al bar sotto i tigli. Mi raccontò delle loro abitudini e dei rituali con cui si sottoponevano ad una radicale modificazione. La trasparenza fece di nuovo la differenza. Gli adepti dell'associazione si sottoponevano ad una complessa e graduale rimozione della pelle, che veniva poi sostituita con del tecnotessuto trasparente. Gradualmente assistemmo ad interi gruppi di persone, ora maschi e femmine in egual numero, che parevano tavole anatomiche in cammino o di corsa, con vasi, arterie ed interiora perfettamente visibili, fasci muscolari e nervosi esposti a bambini ed a sconcertati passanti. Si sviluppò una particolare branchia della chirurgia estetica dedita alle modificazione degli apparati interni. David mi spiegò che si recidevano muscoli per mostrare organi e sostituivano porzioni di grasso opache con siliconi trasparenti. Gli adepti solitamente campavano come sculture viventi per esposizioni d'arte o come modelli per eccentriche sfilate di moda. Erano assai richiesti anche come ballerini ai concerti rock. Tutto divenne normale nel giro di tre anni ed in poco tempo alle persone tradizionalmente vestite, parzialmente nude e nude si aggiunsero questi scorticati, sempre sorridenti ed in perfetta forma.
              LO STATO DELLE COSE        



    Oggi leggevo un'intervista a Jung, lo psicanalista, dove sostiene che bisogna essere grati a Stalin perché ci mostra il vero volto del comunismo: violento e totalitario. Ho sfogliato le pagine per datare l'intervista: 1938!

    In giro per l'Europa ed in Italia sta evidentemente serpeggiando un malessere profondo, che partendo da dati oggettivi, sorti dalla crisi economica, si sta manifestando in modi che non conoscevo. Penso in particolare al demone della paura ed alla sua declinazione successiva ed inevitabile: l'odio. La miscela di povertà, paura ed odio è stata, non dimentichiamolo, il combustibile che ha incendiato l'Europa nel XX secolo ed i quasi 70 anni di pace che abbiamo alle spalle sono ormai un capitale che per i più è cosa scontata o sconosciuta per diretto raffronto con il suo contrario: la guerra.

    BANCHE, FINANZA, POLITICA, STATO/TASSE sono parole attorno a cui si stanno coagulando sentimenti che dalla paura/reverenza stanno passando all'insofferenza/odio. Certo non dimentico i dati oggettivi per cui questo accade, ma non siamo ben oltre una risposta oggettiva di fronte al disagio di scelte sbagliate? Qual è la forza che ha spinto Marie Le Pen ad un'affermazione così importante ed a un plauso incondizionato in rete dopo la sua intervista a SERVIZIOpubblico di giovedì 3 maggio? Credo si vada ben oltre un oggettivo disagio e ci si trovi in un malessere emotivo pericoloso, proprio perché non poggia su cause precise. L'Europa del XX secolo quali "frutti" ci ha offerto a fronte di ricette come il nazionalismo economico e politico invocato da Marie Le Pen? Due guerre mondiali.

    Non sono state le BANCHE, almeno in passato, ad aver rilasciato crediti che hanno prodotto ricchezza e lavoro (quindi anche ricchezza ridistribuita)? Non è FINANZA quella che attraverso i BTP ha dato risorse per servizi di cui tutti usufruiamo, pagato stipendi di tanti dipendenti pubblici, prodotto occupazione, cultura e ricerca e fatto crescere i risparmi degli Italiani? La POLITICA non è l'unico strumento che abbiamo per tessere una democrazia fallace e limitata, ma di cui non si conoscono alternative che non siano tirannide, oppressione, tortura e morte? Le TASSE non sono a loro volta pilastri nell'erogazione di servizi? Queste domande paiono ormai per molti contemplare solo una risposta sprezzantemente negativa.

    Le forze politiche, alcune in particolare, se ne sono accorte e pur di recuperare o allargare il consenso in modo spregiudicato accolgono come eroi personaggi che sequestrano impiegati armati di tutto punto.
    La complessità ed il tentativo di capirla ed interpretarla, anche attraverso inevitabili errori, è l’unica via che abbiamo davanti. L’odio, le frontiere chiuse, il nazionalismo, hanno al contrario essenzialmente bisogno di generalizzazioni e semplificazioni, dove il male sta tutto da una parte. Nascono così i nemici, necessari ai demagoghi per costruirsi anche un consenso.

    Ho l'impressione che il meccanismo si stia avvitando su se stesso, producendo un progressivo alzarsi dei toni, delle decisioni e delle azioni, non a caso giunte ad approdi sempre più violenti. Avete la stessa impressione? 

    E' ancora possibile tornare a fare dei distinguo basati su ragionamenti o c'è solo spazio per i demoni?

              Obama: Don't go out and buy guns        
    Since people have been purchasing guns in droves since Obama's been pres-elect, he has told people it's ridiculous to keep buying them. I personally don't trust him and will use credit cards if I have to before inauguration to buy a couple more.

    See article http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/1318968,obama-gun-sales-up-120808.article

    My take:

    People are stocking up on guns because they don't trust the federal government any longer. They are buying the guns for protection against the government, such as martial law or civil unrest. Obama has already spoke at length about 'flaws' the constitution has. I have no doubt he will attempt to disarm citizens. It was Jefferson who knew that citizens themselves were the only last resort in overthrowing a tyrranous government; and as our government becomes larger and more communistic, we will someday need these guns to defend ourselves.

    The inauguration of presidents to 'uphold and protect the constitution' is an absolute joke. They all want to subvert it, modify it and ignore it. Just look at the patriot act.

    I no longer trust my government as I once had some faith that our government was setup to protect us. I no longer believe this with the banksters running the show.

    I hope you will educate yourself and make your own decisions regarding this. You will find our liberties are on the brink of being done away with.

    We need to restore our republic with leaders who will actually support and defend the constitution. Otherwise our liberties are doomed.
              Comment on Allow Anyone To Upload Files To a Folder in Your Dropbox Account by Get The Most Out of Dropbox - Tech Expert        
    […] an upload page for your blog . The code was originally developed by Jaka Jancar and modified by Ampercent.com. Read more […]
              Comment on PowerShell Script to Download and Install Updates from Windows Update and WSUS by rejohnson        
    Can this be modified to just report on the updates that would download? Windows 10 won't let us look at the list of what's available without installing them, for some unintelligible reason... Thanks!
              [Current] Education SepW1: UGC vs. IIT controversy, Sarvapalli’s contribution, Teachers day speech summaries        

    UGC vs IIT controversy Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan President speech on teachers day PM Modi’s speech on teacher’s day HRD minister’s speech UGC vs IIT controversy Why controversy 2014, August: The UGC has directed all academic institutions to follow the 10+2+3 model, under the National Education Policy. UGC sent this direction to IITs as well. But IIT […]

    The post [Current] Education SepW1: UGC vs. IIT controversy, Sarvapalli’s contribution, Teachers day speech summaries appeared first on MP Study.


              Shower it off        
    A new round of Tres Chic means a new item from Chez Moi! This time it’s all about showering – outside oh la la. Really love the wooden texture and the curly pathway leading to the cubicle. Totally adorable poses in both the Adult and Pg versions. Deets: It comes with 58 animations in PG version and 126 in Adult version:
    ♥ 14 single poses (male and female) ♥ 44 animations for couples in love (22 x 2)
    ♥ 68 hot sex animations (34x 2) ♥ Automatic Rezzing Props – attaches when an animation is chosen. Touch the Tap to turn on or off the shower. ♥ Control by menu
    ♥ Adjustable Poses
    ♥ Functionality SWAP Specification and content:
    ♥ Shower: 14 LI | Copy | Modifiable
    ♥ Hanging Towel: 4 LI – Texture change options (3 textures to choose)
    ♥ Mirror&Organizer Rusty Iron: 5 LI Tres Chic
    Filed under: Blogging SL, Uncategorized, Virtual Fashion Feed Tagged: adult animations, chez moi, chezmoi, decor, Faithless Babii, furniture, home & garden, mesh, original mesh, outside shower, PG animations, Pure Eggs & Spam, second life, SecondLife, Shower, tres chic

    View original post on Pure Eggs & SpamRead the rest
              Peace on the patio        
    Enjoying  a little moi time, which is in really short supply at the moment. I decided to sit quietly on the new Patio set from Chez Moi, out now at the latest round of Cosmopolitan. I’ve only set out one single chair but of course you can have more! deets: ♥ 28 single poses (male and female) ♥ 24 animations for couples in love (12 x 2)
    ♥ 48 hot sex animations (24 x 2)
    ♥ Automatic Rezzing Props – attaches when an animation is chosen. Texture change options: Tap the Chair to display the colour menu. There are 18 combinations to choose ♥ Chair: 2 LI | Copy | Modifiable
    ♥ Coffee Table: 1 LI | Copy | Modifiable
    ♥ Teapot: 1 LI | Copy | Modifiable
    ♥ Tea Cup: 1 LI | Copy | Modifiable 100% Original Mesh Available in Adult and PG version. My outfit is another promo at just $50L from Stars. Its called Kaitlyn, sweet mini skirt and tank with frilly bits – the Hud is ginormous so make sure to check it out! Cosmopolitan Chez Moi blog (for more info) Stars Fashion store Stars fashion market place La Bohemia sandals $120L (with massive colour hud) Beautiful Dirty Rich Plants & flowers by Dysfuntionality
    Filed under: Blogging SL, Uncategorized, Virtual Fashion Feed Tagged: chez moi, chezmoi, cosmopolitan, decor, dysfunctionality, Faithless Babii, furniture, home & garden, interior design, mesh fashion, Promo, promotion, Pure Eggs & Spam, second life, Second Life fashion, SecondLife, Stars, stars aichi

    View original post on (Read more...)
              Santorini Days        
      Perfect for lounging about beside the pool or on the terrace – the “Santorini Lounger” from Chez Moi @ Tres Chic. This is available in PG & Adult versions. It can hold 1-5 people, singles,couples,friends and family ! Heaps of animations stuffed inside. Specifications: 10 LI | Copy | Modifiable IMPORTANT: It’s not sectional. The parts are linked to reducing land impact Original Mesh I also found this little gem on the marketplace. The “mesh romantic tray”, it’s just 1Li and costs $5L, bargain! The sunshade in the first photo I also found on the market place for FREE, set of three in different colours – I think they were 1Li also. Tres Chic Chez Moi blog for more photos Mesh tray Sunshade
    Filed under: Blogging SL, Uncategorized, Virtual Fashion Feed Tagged: chez moi, decor, dollarbie, Faithless Babii, free, free gift, freebie, furniture, garden furniture, home & garden, Parasol, Pure Eggs & Spam, second life, SecondLife, sun lounger, Tray, tres chic

    View original post on Pure Eggs & SpamRead the rest
              There is no death, there is the Force.        
    There is no emotion, there is peace. There is no ignorance, there is knowledge. There is no passion, there is serenity. There is no chaos, there is harmony. There is no death, there is the Force. Avatar Modifications: Stargazer Creations – Head Tails Set [OMEGA] [@ Genre] Skin: Lumae – Eirtae – Lorelai – Bare…Read more There is no death, there is the Force.

    View original post on Eccentric UsagiRead the rest
              Vanity be thy name        
    New round of Tres Chic has flung open its doors and Chez Moi are right there in the line up. I’m primping infront of the “Watercolour vanity & closet”, and gosh can you do a LOT with this. At just 16Li its a big piece of furniture with a whole heap going on. Here’s the deets: 16 animations – brushing hair, drying hair, painting nails and toes, blogging, on the phone, moisturizing and more. Rezzing Auto Props – assigns when an animation is chosen. Control by menu Adjustable Poses Specifications: 16 LI | Copy | Modifiable This set is exclusive and available for the Tres Chic event. All that you see in the closet is part of the set PLUS depending on which pose you choose, more items rez right before your eyes! Its fantastic and I’m trying to find a space for it in my SL bedroom! Tres Chic All clothing by Neve
    Filed under: Blogging SL, Uncategorized, Virtual Fashion Feed Tagged: animated, chez moi, closet, damien fate, Faithless Babii, Fashion, furniture, home & garden, Janie Marlowe, mesh, Neve, new release, original mesh, Pure Eggs & Spam, second life, SecondLife, tres chic, vanity, zyrra falcone

    View original post on Pure Eggs & SpamRead the rest
              Its Ultra        
    Chez Moi are in the latest round of Ultra and have a dead fancy-smancy French Country pergola, table, chairs and planter set out. The pergola has already won a place on our sim, it’s just beautiful. The wood textures especially caught my attention. Two types of pergola, one with bare wooden roof struts and the other has a canvas canopy. I choose the bare wood option for my home, as you can see above. The lanterns switch on and off, the animations are utterly adorable in either set – whats not to fall in love with! Thanks Nanda ❤ Deets: This Set comes with 60 animations in PG version and 104 animations in Adult version. Texture change options: tap the cushion to change texture – 10 options ♥ Pergola: 18 LI | Modifiable | Copy
    ♥ Potted Plant: 3 LI (each) | Modifiable | Copy
    ♥ Chair: 2 LI (each) | Modifiable | Copy
    ♥ Table: 1 LI | Modifiable | Copy ♥ 100% Original Mesh Available in Adult and PG version. This release is exclusive for Ultra from May 15th to June 8th Ultra
    Filed under: Blogging SL, Uncategorized, Virtual Fashion Feed Tagged: adult animations, chez moi, couples poses, decor, furniture, garden furniture, Gazebo, home & garden, mesh decor, original mesh, patio set, PG animations, Pure Eggs & Spam, second life faithless babii, SecondLife, ultra

    View original post on Pure Eggs & SpamRead the rest
              Bob Going Lithium        
    Bob sent me an update on his progress converting the car to lithium batteries (sorry it took so long to post it, Bob):

    I found a pair of rear trunk torsion bars on ebay. To install them, I needed to split the rear battery box and remove the rear half. Because I had the batteries out, I decided it was time to get lithium. I decided that 40 cells would have nearly the same voltage as the 20 lead batteries. I ordered from Calib in Pomona and after a little wait, they were delivered from their stock. They were in three boxes on a pallet, and the UPS driver moved them with his manual fork lift right to the rear of Silver II. Back to the torsion bars. Installation requires two tools; a pry bar and a close-fitting pipe. The hinge is first removed and the pry bar is used to bend the spring to the rear under the corner of the engine cover. The pipe then holds the end of the spring with an assist of block of wood leaning against the underside of the corner of the engine cover. The hinge can be easily reinstalled. This is a one man job with the right tools. It is nice to be able to open and close the rear trunk without a broomstick. The saddle bag boxes are no longer needed so I have a full trunk to use.
    I will include a few pictures of the lithium installation. Calib sent me the wrong hardware so I can't complete the wiring. One picture shows how I used the copper strap, modified, to terminate each box.

              Bob Update: Number 3        
    I redid the charging configuration on paper and I'm about to test it. It relies on the aux contacts on the charger itself. The charger is Italian and the translation is not clear. I'm hoping that aux 2 closes as the trickle phase begins. That phase is not desired for lithium and I want to us aux 2 to stop the charging. Do any of your contacts know about this? I found a recessed male plug on ebay and I'll be using that.
    The 914 tach would not work with an ordinary square wave coming from the tach board that I built. I think I told you that I modified the tach itself to get it to work. I was not satisfied with that, so I bought another on ebay and changed my driver until it did work. The design is such that the output looks a whole lot like the signal from a distributor. I don't know if all tachs need this, but I'm going to look into it.
    I've been driving the car a little. My impression is that it does not feel like a Porsche. Every other one I've had felt light and nimble.

    Could this be the lead sled I've heard about? As soon as I can verify the charger, I'll order lithium. I have a source that has a pretty good delivery schedule. The voltage for 40 lithium should be about the same as 20 lead.

    Bob
              Bob Update: Number 2        
    I believe I have enough side issues corrected to do some driving. The turn signals work. The ignition key is installed. That took several days because it required modifying the column. The 914 has early versions and late versions, and they do not interchange. I bought a late column on ebay and the mounting holes don't match. The late switch and lock won't go in an early column without severe modification, which mine now has. The tach is working. I made an optical pickup and mounted it on the back face of the motor. there was only one hole available so I hope that is enough. I pre tested the output and got a perfect square wave going to the tach, but the tach still didn't work. I took the tach apart and modified it and now the tach works. I got lucky here because I had no schematic and was working blind. I wish I did have a schematic of a VDO tach. I'm not done with this because I want to make an adaptor which works without having to modify the tach itself. The next big hurdle before I order lithium is the charger. It has the wrong profile for lithium and I don't even like it for lead. My approach is current limit in initial phase, voltage limit, then stop when the current reduces to 10 percent of it's initial value. This for lead and lithium. This approach is even good for nicd and nimh although it is seldom used this way. Next, the low voltage schematic that was furnished with the kit is unreadable in it's present form, so I redrew it. I discovered what i think is an error and after I make some changes, I'll comment further.

    Bob
              Bob Updates: Number 1        
    I'm dating this for when Bob sent the e-mails. He continues to update me about the car. This was the first one:
    I thought I would bring you up to date on the electric car. First, the turn signals haven't worked since the car was painted because the painter crossed the wires on both front turn signal lamps. I bought a flasher relay from a Porsche parts distributor and it was not compatible with the 914. I opened it up and modified it and now the turn signals work. I took the speedometer apart and found where the odometer was slipping. I assembled the slipping part with loctite and it is working for now. If this repair doesn't hold, I will do something more extensive. The replacement key-lock assembly is correct, but not for this early car. I bought a steering lock assembly on ebay and put the lock with it and it works OK but will not fit the steering column. Now I have a later model steering column coming from ebay.
    I found a switch under the dash with a broken handle. I replaced the switch and now the antenna goes up and down. I'm going to modify the radio so the antenna goes up when the radio is on.
    I found the forward shaft of the Warp 9 is tapped 1/4-20 so I'll be able to mount a cam on the end of the shaft. There is a tapped hole 1 1/4 inches from the center to mount an optical pickup. I haven't built any hardware yet but I should be able to make this work. I noticed the kit instructions had you tie the tach wire to a terminal board for this use.
    I have improved the engine bay lid somewhat but have not yet finished this. The kit instructions called for parts which I couldn't find in the box.

    After I get the tach working, I'll start shopping for lithium batteries. I'll keep you posted.

    Bob


    Obviously, Bob is doing the things I was incapable of doing without a long learning curve, so I think the car is in good hands.
              Blog Post: Comment Period Ends On Proposed Methane Rule Delay         
    On the final day that comments are due regarding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s proposal to stay implementation of a rule aimed at curbing methane emissions from new and modified oil and gas infrastructure, a coalition of 14 state attorneys general said on Wednesday that it opposed such a delay.
              Bangalore University Sixth Semester BBA Exams Question Papers        
    Bangalore University Sixth Semester BBA Exams Question Papers

    Question Papers 2015

    VI Sem E - Business
    VI Sem Income Tax
    VI Sem International Business
    VI Sem Investment and Portfolio Management
    VI Sem Stock and Commodity Markets
    VI Sem Strategic Management

    Question Papers 2014-15

    VI Sem Cost and Financial Analysis
    VI Sem Cost and Financial Analysis (Repeaters)
    VI Sem Entrepreneurial Development
    VI Sem Management Information Systems
    VI Sem Management Information Systems (Repeaters)
    VI Sem Portfolio Management
    VI Sem Strategic Management


              Complicité de fraises et de rhubarbe sur mousse de lait        

    Un dessert simple et gourmand pour utiliser la rhubarbe de mon jardin..

     

    complicité de fraises et de rhubarbe sur mouuse de lait 3

     

    Ingrédients pour 6 gourmands

     

    Pour le crumble

    100 g de farine de sarrasin

    50 g de noisettes réduites en poudre

    50 g de cassonade

    1 pincée de fleur de sel

     

    300 g de fraises

    1 jus de citron

    1 gousse de vanille

     

    Compotée de rhubarbe

    500 g de rhubarbe

    100 g de cassonade

     

    Mousse de lait

    12,5 cl de lait végétal pour nous

    1 gousse de vanille

    quelques gouttes de sirop de Menthe

     

    Préparer le crumble.

    Faire ramollir le beurre, incorporer les noisettes en poudre, le sucre et la farine sans oublier la pointe de fleur de sel.

    Laisser reposer 10 minutes au réfrigérateur.

    Pendant ce temps préchauffer le four à 180°.

    Sortir la pâte et l'étaler sur une feuille de papier cuisson , enfourner 15 minutes environ .

    Sortir et réserver.

     

    Préparer les fraises marinées. Les laver rapidement et les couper.

    Les disposer dans un saladier avec le jus de citron et les graines de vanille.

    Laisser macérer 10 minutes à température ambante.

     

    Eplucher la rhubarbe et la couper en petits morceaux.

    La déposer sur une plaque recouverte d'un papier cuisson.

    Saupoudrer de cassonade et mettre au four 30 minutes à 160°.

    Mélanger de temps en temps.

    Sortir la plaque du four.

     

    Verser le lait dans un shaker avec les graines de vanille et quelques gouttes de menthe (facultatif).

    Secouer vivement.

     

    Dressage

    Déposer un peu de crumble dans un emporte pièce sur votre assiette , recouvrir de rhubarbe, ensuite disposer les fraises.

    Disposer la mousse de lait tout autour et retirer votre cercle.

    Servir aussitôt.

    complicité de fraises et de rhubarbe sur mouuse de lait 1

    Très bonne dégustation!

    complicité de fraises et de rhubarbe sur mouuse de lait 2

    Je me suis inspirée d'une recette vue dans diététique Gourmande mais j'ai un peu modifié les proportions notamment le sucre...

     

     

     

     

     


              Tarte au Brocciu et au miel        

    Le brocciu, que certains comparent  Ã  tort à la ricotta, est un fromage délicieux, frais en bouche, fondant, qui se déguste à la cuillère, nature, avec du sucre ou du sel, ou s'impose comme l'ingrédient-clé de nombreuses recettes corses.

    Un fromage si célèbre qu'un poète déclara un jour : « Qui n'en n'a pas goûté ne connaît pas l'île ».

    Vous connaissez sans doute Le Fiadone!

    Le fiadone est un gâteau corse. Spécialité occupant une place importante dans la cuisine corse.

    Mais aujourd'hui je vous propose une tarte salée.

     

    tarte au bocciu et au miel

     

    Ingrédients

    Pâte à tarte

    200g de farine semi-complète

    40ml d'huile d'olive environ

    60/80 ml d'eau tiède  verser au fur età mesure

    2 grosses fiches séchées coupées en petits dés

    1 càs de graines de lin concassés ou de Tournesol

    1 pincée de fleur de sel

    Mélanger la farine, les graines et les figues , ajouter l'huile et le sel et terminer en versant l'eau petit à petit jusqu'à l'obtention d'une boule de pâte.

    Envelopper la de film alimentaire et la réserver au réfrigérateur.

    Préchauffer votre four à 180°.

    Beurrer votre moule (j ai fait deux cercles de 18cm)

    Etaler votre pâte dans votre moule et enfourner 10/15 minutes environ

    Retirer du four et réserver.

     

    La garniture à la brousse

    2 oignons émincés

    1 courgette

    1 càs de crème végétale (crème de riz pour nous)

    15 feuilles de menthe ou plus si vous aimez

    2 càs de pignons et un peu plus pour décorer

    1 càs de miel d'oranger ou ce que vous avez

    quelques gouttes de fleur d'oranger

    Laver la courgette , la râper et bien presser pour evacuer l'eau.

    Dans un bol , bien mélanger le brocciu , les oignons, la menthe ciselée,la courgette râpée, les pignons et le miel préalablement chauffé pour le liquéfier.

    Goûter et assaisonner.

     

    Verser l'appareil sur votre pâte.

    Cuire environ 20/25 minutes

    tarte au brocciu et au miel 1

     

    Très bonne dégustation.

    Je me suis inspirée d'une recette vue dans une revue gourmande tout en la modifiant ...


              Weight Inward into Lightness: A Reading of Canoe Repair        
    by
    Flore Chevaillier
    2004-08-19

    “Canoe Repair” takes place at a transitional time for the main character. Zanes moves from New York City to a New Hampshire town and has to adapt to a new life and a new job, running a Laundromat, as well as to his son’s new hang-gliding activity and his wife’s new TV job. Thus, “Canoe Repair” occurs at a moment when rural and urban worlds are put in “connection and disconnection at the same time” (“Midcourse Corrections” 50). While we learn more about Zanes’ occupations, we also read a portrait of the town’s life. We discover a picture of America and its smell of “coffee richly dripping and poppy-seed-blue corn muffins” (69). We read Zanes’ discussions with “Seemyon Stitching … a spring immigrant from Byelorussia and a trained marathon runner” (62), and find out about the “president’s eight o’clock message to the nation” they listen to when “no one among the machine-users seemed to be waiting for the president’s speech” (72). The story deals with the movements of people from the town who use the Laundromat and the movements of the canoe on the lake, as well as the hang-gliding and the weather.

    One might describe the events in these terms. But the story is also a reflection on time and on strange, everyday moments in one’s life. “Canoe Repair” presents a section of a man’s life, also a canoe’s, since its repair is at the center of the story’s multiple directions, its focus on space and movement. The story is a space where different tensions meet. It shows the strain between two worlds, two generations, between different experiences of time and perception, and between two voices telling the story. “Betweenness” is central in McElroy’s writing. In “Canoe Repair,” “ ‘Betweenness’ is… the crumbling edge of the interface of worlds, selves, and situations” (Saltzman 100). Betweenness is also at stake when we consider “Midcourse Corrections,” an unusual autobiographical interview/essay ended by “Canoe Repair.”

    “Is a canoe too beautiful to be funny unless somebody falls out of it?” asks Joseph McElroy in “Midcourse Corrections” - “falls out, tipping it over? Put two people in it facing forward. What’s the stern paddler see? What’s the bow paddler feel? - for the stern paddler?”(42).

    These questions about canoe uses are put into practice in McElroy’s short story, independent but part of the essay, as he explains. “Some of the material in ‘Midcourse Corrections’ could be said to turn into ‘Canoe Repair’… I wanted to use ‘Canoe Repair’ to fulfill ‘Midcourse Corrections,’ that peculiar interview memoir … that should turn into fiction at the end.” Personal correspondence with the author, June 16, 2001.

    “Corrections” is itself an experiment in literary form that in many ways epitomizes the body of McElroy’s writing. “With its inserted interviews, its odd proportions, and its highly colored perspectives of me,” McElroy writes in a letter, “[‘Corrections’] is a hybrid fiction, I suppose. A daydream posing as a document.” (cited in Tabbi 156)

    The thematic and structural research of this “hybrid fiction” turns into practical experience in “Canoe Repair.” The author’s reflections upon space, motion, and perception connect to the movement of the boat on water because the “canoe becomes an occasion to think.” Personal correspondence with the author, February 6, 2003. We can approach the story from different angles due to the openness of its particular structure linking it to the essay, of which it is also the unusual closing part. Nevertheless, it would be unfair to consider the story strictly as a conclusion to “Midcourse Corrections;” it has its own structure, dynamics, and meaning. It is a complex and intense story because of the multiple tensions we can feel in its narration.

    To understand “Canoe Repair,” we have to focus on the transient aspect of Zanes’ life and its relation to tensions that appear both thematically and structurally. The text is literally at the end of the “Midcourse Corrections” but metaphorically “in between.” It connects to “Midcourse Corrections” but is autonomous. Moreover, it plays strangely with the reader’s expectations. It is organized around a double voice that disturbs the reader’s traditional way of reading. The reading, because of structural devices that put us “in between,” becomes the experience of the transition moment Zanes goes through, his shift from one world to another, his perception of the world.

    Zanes’ visions can sometimes be confusing. Hence, some aspects of the story can be destabilizing to the reader. The story starts with a family scene: Zanes and his son are watching the river. A strange canoe used by a black man and a blond woman catches their attention. Zanes’ neighbor calls him afterward to fix the canoe for the blond woman’s son; the canoe captures Zanes’ attention throughout the rest of the story. Parallel to Zanes’ work on the canoe, we learn about his arguments with his son regarding the latter’s hang-gliding practice. We also get to know more about the life that goes on at the Laundromat where Zanes meets with Seemyon Stytchin and a group of young punks that disturb the community. Zanes starts a friendship with Lung, a member of this group. However, this summary contradicts the story’s original presentation of Zanes’ world because it reassembles what is purposefully fragmented in “Canoe Repair.” We only achieve this vision of the story retrospectively because it is not told linearly.

    Our expectations as readers are challenged, as David Porush notes when associating the technique of “de-automatization” provoked by the unsettling language of McElroy’s novel Plus. Plus ’ main character Imp Plus is a brain detached from its body and put in orbit to communicate with earth during a scientific experiment. When relearning ways to communicate, Imp Plus uses language unusually. Therefore, the reader is forced to see words in a different way. Imp Plus presents a new use of words that questions the systems we automatically refer to when using language. In “Canoe Repair,” the challenge to our automatisms lies in the distortions that affect the structure of the story. The compact paragraphs of “Canoe Repair” are juxtaposed without transitions. When turning to a dialogue, McElroy does not use rules of quotation to let the reader know that the viewpoint is changing. Tabbi claims that for McElroy “the mental text … does not precede the work at all but exists instead in the work, where the reader might imaginatively participate in the compositional or self-creative effort that went into the life/work’s composition” (158). The activity of the reader is thus part of the structure of the short story. Disjunction calls up the reader’s activity of representation. It asks us to create a coherent image of the narrative, a coherent text. Omitting the relation between two events leaves room for the reader to fill in the blanks. This crafted incompleteness creates the structure of “Canoe Repair.” Facts have more than one logical order; the reader coordinates elements by analyzing fragments.

    Thus, the reader organizes the very space of the text. We shift, for example, from “When he took his canoe out, Zanes also thought,” to “The ideas knew how to get away sometimes” in the next paragraph (59). Reading “Zanes also thought,” the reader does not expect the sentence to stop at this point. S/he expects a complement to the verb “thought.” Therefore, reading “Canoe Repair” can be somewhat frustrating; the author even ironically refers to our unsatisfied expectation when we lack a transition between the two sentences. That is why, as Wolfgang Iser notes in The Implied Reader, we have to use imagination to compensate for the gaps. The context created by the sentence: “When he took his canoe out, Zanes also thought,” is destroyed so that the reader steps back and reflects upon the narrative as a work of art. “The artwork itself is represented as an artwork” (McHale 30). The reader finds metafictional allusions that suggest a fiction conscious of its fictionality, which makes the reader understand the story at another level of representation. These metafictional moments create a disjunction in addition to the fragmenting of the plot itself.

    Each blank invites interpretation and coordination. Do the gaps become the theme of the narrative? When analyzing Modern texts such as Ulysses, Iser engages the issue of semantic richness and incoherence of gaps, moments of inconsistency, disruption, or omission. He sees reading as a process the reader undergoes to synthesize fragmented elements; the reader creates meaning.

    The unconnected allusions and the abrupt alternation of stylistic devices disclose a large number of gaps … [that give] rise to the stimulating quality of the text. On the one hand, the density of allusions and the continual segmentation of style involve an incessant changing of perspectives, which seems to go out of control whenever the reader tries to pin them down; on the other hand, the gaps resulting from the cuts and abbreviations tempt the reader to fill them in. (Iser 213)

    The structural breaks in “Canoe Repair” might be less extreme than those in Ulysses but, similarly, the gaps and omissions become part of the story’s theme, possibly denying thematic synthesis itself. Zanes’ fragmented thinking and his way of experiencing life are present in the style the author uses. The medium is often the message. The construction of sentences that might make us insecure reminds us that reading “Canoe Repair” is a special experience that enables us to coordinate elements of the story and thus penetrate Zanes’ mind and his somewhat eccentric thinking. The reader, by grasping multiplicity, references, and rambling elements, maps out what is happening in Zanes’ mind. The way things get originally connected structurally mirrors Zanes’ experience of the world that also reaches for unusual connections.

    How do we find our bearings reading “Canoe Repair?” The narration resists linear order. It seems laminated into different sequences of the character’s life. Flashes are exposed with neither explanation nor transition. Joseph McElroy “never hid the gaps” (“Neural Neighborhoods” 204). Chronology is not respected; events follow a pattern of shifts from one subject to another, from one point of view to another, and everything seems important and unimportant at the same time. There is sometimes no link between consecutive sentences: “Was it my time device operating again?” and “A canoe is what makes you do” (77). Here, gaps interfere with our sense of the evolution of the story and the progression in the character’s life, if there is one. These gaps are caused mostly by the double narration of the story, and they are even more challenging to the reader. When we shift from, “Was it my time device operating again?” to “A canoe is what makes you do” (77), we shift from an “I” to an omniscient narrator. Zanes’ own perspective on his life is balanced by the omniscient narrator. To understand Zanes’ life, we need to be inside him and outside him. We need to know the world exterior to Zanes’ subjectivity to understand his reactions, hence the role of the omniscient voice.

    The embedded structure of the story told by two narrators juxtaposes two sources of information. This construction enables the insertion of one perspective within another and it leads us to see Zanes’ life as an accumulation of fragments. Different perspectives provide distinct information about and approaches to the same life. Can the story be seen as a dialogue between these two poles? Unlike traditional narrations where the reader faces a set of events exposed in a linear way, “Canoe Repair” makes the reader feel the duality of life.

    McElroy constructs a dynamic that can be paralleled with the theme of the double, often present in gothic stories. In these stories, the narrator and the character are the same person, although it is usually not clearly stated in the text. In “Canoe Repair,” there is, to some extent, a renewal of the theme of the double since our character has a double voice. The schizophrenic tensions represented by the strange vision of the double in the gothic stories appear in “Canoe Repair” in a somewhat different way. The strain between two voices can be understood as the representation of power over the development of the story.

    First, the omniscient exterior narrator controls the story. Progressively, “I” becomes dominant. At the end, rapid shifts of viewpoint break up the story. The evolution of each viewpoint implicitly lets us gather details about the context of each narrator’s intervention. The constant shift form “I” to “he” changes the reader’s relation to the narrator because it implies a nonlinear way to gather information. Each narrator puts the reader into a frame of mind that influences interpretation. The shifting of frames makes the reader’s activity intense. When we change frames, we have to change our interpretation. How to base our understanding of the story on a specific context when the latter is always denatured?

    The two narrators fragment the story, and they produce a repetitive pattern. Each of the narrators gives us details on the same moments of Zanes’ life. The double narration is thus based on the repetition of similar life sequences. The double narration allows repetition to penetrate the narrative. It is thanks to repetition that the reader can make sense of the story’s disconnected elements. The gaps that we apparently cannot coordinate - such as “Is there somebody over there? Zanes said. Probably, his son said” and “All but one of the machines were in use that evening”(72) - are so large that the only way the reader can assemble the fragments of the story is by focusing on the repetitive patterns that connect these partial perspectives. We constantly come across the same moments: the observation of the canoe, meetings between Zanes’ wife and the producer of her cooking show, scenes with Lung, discussions with Seemyon, and so on. The plot offers not so much progress as recurrence, duplication, and reiteration.

    In our mind, those terms are usually connected to something monotonous. Yet in “Canoe Repair,” the iteration of words, ideas, and/or themes does not result in a redundant effect on reading. The first reference to “sunset” (56) is echoed by “[o]ne of them materialized at sunset” and “at sunset a window beamed” (57). Through repetition, meaning emerges. Repetition is not used to stop the progression of the plot: the elements of Zanes’ life are never told twice in exactly the same terms. The accumulation of repetitions creates an unusual meaning, a meaning understood through indirect means. Zanes refers to his own time: “my time device” (58), “another time” (61) as opposed to “my wife’s cookbook, my time machine” (69). Zanes’ experience of life does not rely on a chronological structure. When we accept repetition, we understand that time does not need to be seen as a linear progression.

    Repetition lets us understand how Zanes organizes his life. The first and last moments of the story present similar scenes. “It was sunset and the boy was angry and wanted to be somewhere else” (56). Zanes and his son are outside watching the canoe for the first time. The first words of the story put the reader in the middle of a situation. The first character we meet is not Zanes but his son referred to as a “boy.” He could be anybody. In that sense, the story can be considered a statement about any family life, its structure, its implicit rules, and its repetitive patterns. The reference to “somewhere else” also puzzles the reader at the beginning of a story; we do not even know where the character is. At the end, we have circled back: “Above me, I felt the presence of my son at his window. If I didn’t take down the screens, it would soon be summer again” (78).

    The end is paradoxical since it does not explain the story but at the same time concludes it through indirect means. The story ends on “again,” which alludes to an opening, a repetition of what we have read, maybe an allusion to the beginning if we think of the circularity of the repetitive pattern of the narration. On the other hand, the allusion to the coming summer ends with a period. Spring will soon be finished. We note here again the parallel between the first scene and the last one since the story opens on the ending of something, of a day. We are at a time when Zanes makes a pause in his life. His work on the canoe is what “makes [him] do” (77). His crafting the canoe changes aspects of his life, his relationship with his family and his community. The end of spring makes a kind of conclusion to the story but, at the same time, it opens the story toward a new time period. The conclusion and the opening lead us to different interpretations. We face some conflicting perception of time and closure. Depending on the type of time framework one has in mind, things can be open or closed; that is where the tension originates. The last and first scenes teach us to pay attention to how things are repeated in variation in the story. Both scenes point to a double direction. By examining this process, one understands that repetition is used to let one access Zanes’ subjective knowledge.

    In the two scenes, the son and the father are both watching another place, an outsider place. They disagree on the hang-gliding activity. But this tension gets somewhat resolved at the end when they both look again in the same direction. An open conversation about this issue never appears in the story. Tensions are solved indirectly: “Is the leak like worry, no more than worry?” (75). The boat becomes the center of our attention; it is a place where Zanes’ concerns are to be projected and fixed too. The leak of the boat is associated with Zanes’ life: “When you left your job last year you were taking what you had and making it flow into a new system rather than holding onto what had been used. It would have leaked away if you had not made it move into a new system” (63). The canoe becomes a system of reference we share with Zanes to understand his life. The changes he goes through are projected into the repairing of the canoe, and thanks to the details of the crafting we understand the adjustments of his own life.

    Connection is hidden where we cannot see it at first sight, where we do not expect it. For instance, a paragraph describing Zanes canoeing ends, “A wind was coming up, and I heard a breathing sound of paddling” (65). The next paragraph begins, “He treaded water and in his mind smelled fish scales. A wind came up. Zanes felt a wash against his dome” (65). The wind coming up appears twice, but the repetition is not identical because it lets us collect different details about Zanes canoeing. The first time, the wind relates to sound, while the second time it is linked to smell and then touch because of the sensation of “wash.” The different senses are connected to the same moment of Zanes’ life, and we gather this general image as well as its fragmented aspect thanks to repetition. Zanes’ sense of the world is not constructed upon a close frontier between things. Wind and breath become one; canoe and lake become one. To Zanes, “the beautiful canoe could loosen in your mind” (73). The different parts of his life (his relationship to Lung, his son, his wife, the canoe, the neighbor) are permeable. They communicate in an unusual way because they get to influence one another without ever being purposely or directly connected. The apparently rambling progression of the content of the story mirrors Zanes’ vision of life. As a result, the nonlinearity guides us.

    The relationship between “Canoe Repair” and “Midcourse Corrections” emphasizes the reflections on moments of “repair” or “correction” in one’s life. The two works present pauses at a transitional time. The reading of “Canoe Repair” is the reading of images and themes mapped out in a paradigm linking scattered elements from the story, “Midcourse Corrections,” and the reader’s world. McElroy’s variation on themes common to both “Midcourse Corrections” and “Canoe Repair” is close to Andy Warhol’s technique in a series such as Marilyn. Like the painter, the author chooses a theme and modulates it. This project changes the narrative framework and our reaction to it. We can consider “Midcourse Corrections” and “Canoe Repair” to be doublings on a similar project: both pieces give different perspectives on the same thing, the way “Canoe Repair” also gives partial perspectives on the same plot. When reading “Canoe Repair,” the reader may have “Midcourse Corrections” in mind. Both pieces are meant to add to each other.

    In that sense, McElroy “repeat[s] something now to make you remember something then and set[s] you up for something later” (Kawin 34). The reiterations linking the two pieces can be understood as emphases on moments that create echoes in the reader’s network of references. In “Midcourse Corrections,” McElroy writes that his essay is written to “interrupt, interleave, break diverse kinds of documents” (10). “Canoe Repair” can be read as the application of such a project to fiction. The gaps are motivated by a wish to mix disconnected “documents.” Tabbi notes that the interviews “are like a fiction” (160). In that sense, the frontiers between the essay and fiction are blurred because of their connections. Tabbi also claims, “McElroy locates his compositional self in the space between plural subjectivities” (160). The double narration of the story pluralizes Zanes’ subjectivity in a parallel way.

    Structurally, the two pieces are surprisingly close. “Midcourse Corrections” is a combination of three interviews interrupted by the author’s reflections, “INSERTS,” and ” workpoints.” The short story and the autobiographical essay display a structure that accepts gaps and emphasizes echoes that connect the two texts. The substance of the canoe’s texture is mirrored by other parts of the essay:

    INSERT: hinge turning: remember those trick hinged pieces of wood that were really constructed with curiously attached canvas strips?

    An essay like that. An interview. A sentence fly-by that manufactures its own canvas in the space it also generates out of a music its thought spun off. (“Corrections” 20)

    The crafting activity of canoe repair is paralleled by the composition of writing. The texts’ themes and images branch into one another. As McElroy expresses it, the “mixed metaphor of [his] work extends a fluid trial. Like a mixed metabolism and through the pulmonary winding also unfolding and exfoliation of the sentence’s plot it holds exchanges even between incompatibles” (“Corrections” 15). A paradigm of images is used to progressively construct the original way Zanes conceives his world. We understand how in the story, incompatibles such as “weight” and “lightness” can correlate. In the canoe, “the noble forcing of the ribs into this oval narrow form turned the weight inward into lightness” (67). In one’s life “corrections” and “repair” bring “weight” and “lightness” in contact. Traditional oppositions are reconciled in “Canoe Repair.”

    The Laundromat is a place where clothes are washed, but it also becomes a place to meet, a place where life is concentrated. In addition, when Zanes thinks “rowing looks like work” (58), we see how things can serve different purposes. For Zanes, things do not have a unique meaning. Commonly, a Laundromat is used for washing. The rowing activity is meant to move a boat. However, experience changes the use of things. Zanes gives them a power to influence the world indirectly. His time influences the “real time;” his vision of space dialogues with the “real space.”

    The reader adapts, concentrating on the unsettling aspects of Zanes’ representation of the world, and it participates in the creation of a simultaneous immobility and movement as when “the canoe [is] moving but … [is] still” (56). The apparent contradiction of this statement is illustrated by the structure of the story, which is partly why we may wonder if the canoe or the landscape is moving. Referring to a similar moment of immobility and movement in Hind’s Kidnap, Tony Tanner explains that “we are all familiar with such optic illusion pictures which can be read in more than one way, often as focus shifts so that figure and ground seem to change places” (219). This optic effect is rendered by the way the story is told. The process of perception alters the representation of time and space: “[t]he lake was part of the canoe” (58).

    When reading the description of the canoe, we have an example of a moment when “the eye following the line of something creates motion.” Personal correspondence with the author, June 16, 2001.

    Its grand lines flared to a beam so wide it seemed low and was. Which end was which? Ribs curved with a beautiful singleness up to the gunwales, and, out of the bent tension in which they seemed to grip and bow the ribs, as you ran your eyes over it and felt it the canoe developed a force of tightness and actual lift, as if the noble forcing of the ribs into this oval narrow form turned the weight inward into lightness. (67)

    The passage describes the canoe precisely and technically - “ribs,” “gunwales.” We are so close to the ribs of the boat that we get an impression of immensity. The sentences saturated with commas and information prevent us from picturing a full image of the canoe. Each small detail gets enlarged so that each part seems to expand itself infinitely. The movements are underlined: “flared,” “curved,” “bent,” “grip,” “bow,” “lift,” “turned.” The canoe is still but its description creates motion.

    This passage can be seen as a micro-structural template for the way the story evolves. The story is the combination of different lines gathered into a unique moment. Indeed, there is a network of words that refer to either abstract images or other words linked to the movement of the boat in the story. The circuitry of words and their relation to other words is as important as what the words refer to. The formal fragmentation and disconnection lets us experience literally what happens in Zanes’ mind. The narrator explains Zanes has a “restless mind” (60) but never explicitly explains what it means. He never gives a full description of the way Zanes orders his thoughts. We access the definition of Zanes’ “restless mind” through the organization of the story. The tensions inviting for “repair” in Zanes’ life are present at any level of the text without ever being clearly expressed. The slow paths of the narration, its fragmentation, and its echoes are images of the canoe which itself reflects the tensions at stake in Zanes’ life.

    These descriptions let us experience a different sense of space but also reveal the story’s sensual approach to the world. Zanes’ readjustments orient and transform his vision. Things are examined, and their perception is detailed when Zanes describes his wife swimming, for instance: “He imagined her, and he knew her words had reached some reservoir in his brain, where she was swimming at night, the luminous things like tiny muscular wakes lit up her thighs and the curve of her back” (60). The “luminous things like tiny muscular wakes” are observed with attention, and remind us of a vision of a sculpted body where forms and relief are emphasized. Narration zooms in on details of surfaces, and the intense observation of body parts and of the canoe makes a paradigm of sensual representations. The story pays attention to the concrete surface of things: the canoe looks like a “deer swimming” (56). Things and people are described minutely, and the scale used is so close that the images of the story appear as details of a painting. The details Zanes’ vision focuses on remind us of the indirectness of his actions. Zanes pays attention to things in their details and cannot always see the overall framework of these things. Similarly, he cannot perceive the outcomes of all his actions.

    McElroy refers to “’[a]ttention’ [as] a rather cold word [he] use[s] to suggest that the ways in which we embrace the world and embrace other people can be more precise and clear than we think sometimes” (Anything 248). Zanes’ attention to the canoe and to his breath, for instance, as he feels the “air filling the space of [his] chest to be measured by another time” (60), is his way to “embrace the world.” His attention to the world indirectly penetrates his relationships. Zanes’ precise description of the exterior world lets us access his interior world. We understand, when paying attention to the depiction of his environment, why “the lake [is] part of the canoe” (58). People’s lives are permeable, their energies travel into one another. Zanes’ activities involuntarily connect to other areas of his life. The clearer vision of life that appears when Zanes repairs the canoe gets transferred in mysterious ways to the other parts of his life. Different aspects of Zanes’ life influence one another, although it is not clear to him or us how they connect.

    The flashes and fragments emphasized in the sequences of the story are used to represent the world: “it is the very abundance of perspectives that conveys abundance of the world under observation” (Iser 226). The canoe is personified by Zanes’ interest in it: “A body was what it was” (73). Zanes’ observations change our perception of the canoe. It is compared to a lover, an animal, and a body: “he almost loved the canoe” (67), “[t]he canoe attracted others to it, they were in its future” (75), and “[a] canoe is what makes you do” (77). Intensity changes the character’s visions of the world.

    This intensity also affects the way time is represented in the story. Perception is altered. Likewise, time is distorted. McElroy refers to “the arranging of things in space, the motion of things and persons in space. Time dissolved into spatial relations.” Personal correspondence with the author, June 16, 2001. When Zanes asks, “what if space was time?” (72), his question could be considered as a comment on the devices used by the author. In “Canoe Repair,” time is peculiar since it is fragmented and does not follow a plain progression. McElroy writes in “Midcourse Corrections” that his writing is to be understood as “modifications of language editing the rhetoric of what’s inside and not disclaiming faith that the words really rendered things and motions outside - and outside, somehow, consciousness” (13). The subjective experience of Zanes’ time is spatialized in the story. “Outside” and “consciousness,” connected in “Midcourse Corrections,” become the pivot of “Canoe Repair.”

    The story covers approximately seven months (“One bright mid-September afternoon” [65] to “summer soon” [77]), but the vision we have is the vision of an infinite time without bearings or perhaps a very short time so dense that the notion of its temporality is not valid. The sentences are constructed in order to convey the circuits and canals of Zanes’ stream of consciousness and even his perception process sometimes. Time is altered by perception and becomes spatialized in the story. We think about the witty reference to the Times and the “two Timeses for the price of one” (“Corrections” 19) that could ironically summarize the treatment of time in the short story where subjective time is juxtaposed to seasonal time. When reading “Canoe Repair,” we face two experiences of time: one that is subjective and distorted by experience, and the other that is universal and related to the seasons referred to in the story. The original structure of the story, its fragmentation, and connections to “Midcourse Corrections,” is a means for the author to present a subjective system of perception.

    When allowing the defamiliarizing elements of the story to change our reading, we penetrate a new experience of the world, of perception, and of time. For example, the image of the canoe passing is a recurrent pattern in the short story: “It came out of a cove as quiet as a deer swimming” (56), “[t]he canoe’s animal flanks and low length absorbed the two paddlers” (57), “[t]he lake was part of the canoe” (58), “[t]reading water, my hand upon the overturned canoe” (65), and so on. These allusions create a network of references to the symbolical meaning of the slow movement characteristic of an infinite moment. The personal experience of Zanes’ time transforms the time of the story: “But he wondered what the long bark canoe felt like. Its length and strong delicacy. Its secret speed. Its time” (64). The canoe has its particular pace, its own time. Reading “Canoe Repair” is experiencing canoe(ing) time.

    Works Cited

    Culler, Jonathan. On Deconstruction. Theory and Criticism after Structuralism. London: Routledge, 1983.

    Kawin, Bruce. Telling it Again and Again. Repetition in Literature and Film. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, 1972

    Iser, Wolfgang. The Implied Reader. Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins UP, 1974.

    McHale, Brian. Postmodernist Fiction. London: Routledge, 1996.

    McElroy, Joseph. “Canoe Repair.” The Review of Contemporary Fiction 10. 1. (Spring 1990): 56-79.

    _____ “Midcourse Corrections.” The Review of Contemporary Fiction 10. 1. (Spring 1990): 9-56.

    _____ “Neural Neighborhoods and Other Concrete Abstracts.” Tri Quarterly 34 (Fall 1975): 201-17.

    LeClair, Tom and Larry McCaffery. Anything Can Happen: Interviews with Contemporary American Novelists. Urbana: University of Illinois P,1983.

    Porush, David. The Soft Machine: Cybernetic Fiction. New York: Methuen, 1985.

    Saltzman, Arthur. The Novel in the Balance. Columbia: U of South Carolina, 1993.

    Tabbi, Joseph. Postmodern Sublime. Technology and American Writing from Mailer to Cyberpunk. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, 1995.

    Tanner, Tonny. Scenes of Nature, Signs of Men. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 1987.

    Notes


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              Masa Untuk Bercuti dengan Malaysia Airlines        
    Salam sejahtera kepada semua pembaca setia blog makan Mahamahu dan juga rakan-rakan sekalian. Pernahkan korang menggunakan perkhidmatan MAS? Malaysia Airlines (MH / MAS) adalah syarikat penerbangan negara Malaysia, yang ditubuhkan pada tahun 1937 oleh British di bawah nama Malayan Airways. 


    Pada masa kini, Malaysia Airlines ialah Skytrax yang disahkan Five Star Airline disediakan untuk wilayah Asia, “Laluan Kangaroo” antara Eropah dan Australasia serta penerbangan transpasifik dari Kuala Lumpur ke Los Angeles melalui Tokyo.

    Tahu tak korang Malaysia Airlines mempunyai 2 anak syarikat penerbangan untuk berkhidmat kepada segmen pasaran yang berbeza. Pertama adalah MASwings anak syarikat milik penuh yang memberi tumpuan kepada kawasan luar bandar di Sabah dan Sarawak serta kawasan BIMP-EAGA.


    Kedua pula adalah Firefly, syarikat penerbangan serantau bajet rendah yang memberi tumpuan kepada tiket penerbangan tambang murah juga milik penuh Malaysia Airlines dan dengan pengurusan berasingan oleh FlyFirefly Sdn.Bhd.


    Malaysia Airlines mempunyai slogan yang menekankan lebih kepada syarikat penerbangan itu sebagai sebahagian daripada pengalaman perjalanan dan bukan komoditi semata-mata: "Perjalanan Dilakukan Bersama Orang yang Anda Bercuti Bersama". 

    Ia memiliki keanggotaan-status penuh Oneworld yang merupakan salah satu 3 kerjasama yang terbaik di dunia. Satu lagi syarikat penerbangan terkemuka antara yang lain bergabung dalam Oneworld adalah American Airlines, Air Berlin, British Airways dan Cathay Pacific.



    Malaysia Airlines telah memenangi jumlah anugerah yang banyak. Sejak dari 2001-2004, 2007, 2009 dan 2012 ia telah dianugerahkan dengan Krew Kabin Terbaik Dunia oleh Skytrax. Pada tahun 2010 sahaja, Malaysia Airlines telah dianugerahkan sebagai Kelas Ekonomi Terbaik di Dunia dan Perkhidmatan Petugas Cemerlang bagi Asia oleh Skytrax, Syarikat Penerbangan Utama Dunia Asia, Syarikat Penerbangan Utama Asia dan Syarikat Penerbangan Kelas Perniagaan Asia yang pertama. Pada tahun 2012, ia telah memenangi “Best Airline Signature Dish” serta status Syarikat Penerbangan 5-Bintang (juga pada 2005-2007 dan 2009).


    Malaysia Airlines menawarkan 3 kelas perjalanan: Kelas Pertama, Kelas Perniagaan dan Kelas Ekonomi. Bagi Kelas Ekonomi, penumpang akan menduduki kerusi 18 inci berjenama A380 yang baru. Hiburan dalam penerbangan syarikat penerbangan ini disokong oleh ”Audio Video on Demand” (AVOD) yang mengagumkan, video di kerusi dengan pilihan hiburan yang luas terdiri daripada Filem Blockbusters hingga kepada lagu-lagu popular. So korang boleh pilih kelas mana yang korang nak duduk mengikut bajet dan kemampuan korang. Jangan risau perkhidmatan mereka memang yang terbaik.


    Malaysia Airlines juga menawarkan pelbagai cara untuk mendaftar masuk selain menggunakan kaunter daftar masuk di lapangan terbang. Tersedia 48 jam sehingga 90 minit sebelum berlepas, penumpang boleh memilih untuk melakukan perkhidmatan daftar masuk sendiri melalui daftar masuk web desktop atau mudah alih (tanpa kertas dengan pas masuk mudah alih kod bar 2D) dan MHmobile di mana pas masuk penumpang dihantar melalui pautan SMS dan emel, hanya boleh didapati untuk tempahan satu penumpang.

    Peruntukan pemeriksaan bagasi untuk Kelas Ekonomi adalah 30 kg, Kelas Perniagaan 40 kg dan Kelas Pertama 50 kg (kecuali Amerika Utara & Selatan). Setiap penumpang dibenarkan membawa bagasi kabin sehingga 7 kg / 1 buah untuk Kelas Ekonomi, dan 2 buah (setiap 7 kg) untuk Kelas Perniagaan / Pertama. Cabin Baggage ni maksudnya beg yang boleh di bawa masuk sekali dengan kita dalam flight. Ada sesetengah orang gelarkan Hand Carry Luggage.


    Bagi pengetahuan korang, lepas korang beli tiket. Terus la download apps dekat playstore ye. Actually senang untuk korang in future. Download apps then add la korang punya travel date. Apps ni bagus sebab  boleh remind bila boleh buat check in. Web chek in boleh dibuat 48 jam sebelum penerbangan dan free seat boleh pilih lepas chek in yang ni untuk sapa cepat dia dapat la. Tapi kalau korang tak nak berebut korang boleh la buat belian seat awal-awal.

    So tunggu apa lagi jom dapatkan MAS online promotion untuk kadar harga yang menarik. Nikmati perjalanan korang tanpa membazir masa dan wang.








              Calendario CLAUSURA PRIMERA "A".        
    Desde este enlace Clausura Primera "A". podéis consultar y/o descargar el calendario CLAUSURA de Primera "A"; ascenderán a División de Plata, el primer clasificado de cada uno de los Grupos. No hay descensos.

    Se han modificado los grupos, para cumplir con la disposición de grupos publicada en la web, el pasado 10 de Enero de 2017-

              OzRacer wins PDRacer Worlds for the fourth time in five years        
    2013 - Once again an OzRacer wins the PDRacer World titles. That is four times in the last five years. An OzRacer does need to be modified to fit the PDRacer rules or as standard is an excellent boat for first time sailors. It sails REALLY well which aids learning. And doesn't need to cost any extra money. Plans $20
              Rick Landreville is the Canadian PDRacer Champion in an OzRacer modified to meet the PDRacer rules        
    From Rick The Canadian Nationals took place today at Summerland B.C.  with 7 boats competing for the coveted title of ‘Canadian Champion’. Pictures are posted. We had a beach start over a triangular course that was 4.2 kms long, and, well, I won. A testiment to the fine design of Michael Storer. Canadian National Puddle […]
              DR Congo launches its National Investment Plan for Agriculture. Is anyone listening?         

    At around 2.5 per cent of the national budget, DR Congo spends the least on agriculture of all its neighbors, a figure made more minuscule given the great untapped potential of its vast arable lands. For comparison, the Republic of Congo spends close to 14%, Zambia 10% and Ethiopia over 20%.

    Following the 2009 Maputo Accords, NEPAD initiated the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (or CAADP), a continent-wide compact to reduce poverty and hunger by increasing state investment in agriculture over a ten-year period, with two basic metrics: raise public ag spending to 10% of GDP and raise ag growth rates to 6% by 2020. Participating countries were encouraged to tailor their growth strategies and investment plans accordingly, and solicit the views of farmers' associations, civil society and the private sector for an inclusive national approach with popular support.

    DR Congo announced its National Investment Plan for Agriculture (PNIA) last month in Kinshasa, with great fanfare and expense. A total of $5,730m is budgeted, but only $857m had been committed (93% from donors, 7% from GDRC) by the closing ceremony. So where were the investors? In interviews and public pronouncements, government officials are confident that their chosen path, the PNIA, will attract foreign investment and will modernize and monetize Congo’s vast agricultural potential, thus transforming the lives of the country's rural poor, nearly all of whom are isolated, subsistence farmers.

    Outside of government, skepticism regarding the PNIA is high. The primary criticism from donors and the Congolese private sector accuses the GDRC of failing to commit to sweeping infrastructural renovation (communications, transport, electricity, etc) as the foundation of national economic growth, and instead shifting that burden onto the international firms it assumes are lining up to invest. Yet no foreign firm would consent to such a capital outlay given the country’s dismal business environment. Serious investors would expect to see government planning and budgets to this end, yet beyond the PNIA the GDRC has no comprehensive plan to address the country’s deeply eroded infrastructure (piecemeal donor projects are the norm), or resolve its regulatory morass and lack of legal protection for private enterprise.

    An even greater deterrent, the current Code Agricole stipulates that any private enterprise would require a 51% ownership stake by the GDRC. These terms are currently being revisited, but the compromise under discussion is 20% national ownership -- still untenable for obvious reasons, particularly given the country's long history of nationalization (viz., Zairianisation), expropriating private businesses, stripping assets and triggering massive capital flight. This legacy is still felt today among potential investors who see Congo as too risky (unpredictable and unstable), and in the Kabila administration's patrimonial, anti-entrepreneurial policies. 

    The other main deterrent for foreign investors is the cost of commerce itself which, after the endless hoops and ladders of business registration, is so high that local produce cannot compete with cheap imports. In the country’s urban centers, imported versions of Congo’s basic foodstuffs (palm oil, maize, beans, sugar, rice, and wheat flour) outnumber local varieties, except for cassava.  

    This wave of imported commodities began with a policy enacted in Mobutu's final years (1992-96, known as ‘Plan Mobutu’) as colonial infrastructure finally and irretrievably collapsed, interrupting the regular flow of local produce into Kinshasa and causing food prices to soar. Allowing cheap foodstuffs from outside to saturate the market was initially intended as a stopgap measure, but the challenge of infrastructure rehabilitation proved overwhelming and was postponed indefinitely. Now as then, local produce is uncompetitive because high transport costs and extortion rackets deter trade, production and investment. Specific to local farming, the impact of systematic rent-seeking on agricultural production and trade is another crippling deterrent to rural agricultural production and commerce. Detailed studies of these organized rackets abound, but have had no policy impact.


    Ambitious in vision and consistent with COMESA and AU policy frameworks, operationally the PNIA is unlikely to succeed. It is hostage to the government's general inability to address the country’s primary obstacles to economic growth—a chaotic business environment (legal protection, banking systems, transparent procedures/absence of corruption, and credit) and a very thin, highly unreliable infrastructure (power, transport, communications, etc). If in fact l'argent n'aime pas le bruit, then Congo's leaders need to concentrate on creating a law-abiding and responsive administration capable of reassuring investors that their entrepreneurism is welcome and respected.

              Actividades: Curso SIG en Barcelona!!        
    Dentro de la oferta formativa del Departamento de Educación de CIRCE (Conservación, Información y Estudio sobre los Cetáceos) y con la colaboración de la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB) se informa que durante los días del 29 de Marzo al 2 de Abril de 2011 en Barcelona se llevará a cabo el Curso de Aplicación de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica en Biología Animal.

    Pueden contactarnos para recibir información del próximo curso en la dirección: cursos@circe.biz

    Objetivos del curso:

    Si bien es posible encontrar un gran número de cursos y tutoriales dedicados al manejo de las herramientas SIG y en particular del gvSIG, pocos hacen incidencia en la aplicación práctica de éstos en el ámbito de la biología animal.

    Este curso tiene como objetivo preparar al alumno para iniciarse en el mundo de los sistemas de información geográfica dentro del entorno del software libre. Se trata de ofrecer una visión general de sus posibilidades y centrarse únicamente en aquellas herramientas que suelen ser de mayor interés o más frecuentemente utilizadas en ecología espacial.

    La finalidad del curso es iniciar al alumno en el manejo de las herramientas SIG comprendiendo los conceptos básicos y explorando todas las posibilidades que ofrece este tipo de herramientas. De esta forma, una vez terminado el curso los alumnos serán capaces de aplicar todo lo aprendido en sus propios proyectos e investigaciones.    

    Al final del curso se espera que los alumnos sean capaces de:

    1.    Entender los principios básicos del funcionamiento de un SIG y sus elementos.
    2.    Introducir y visualizar en un SIG información geográfica en los formatos más habituales, incluyendo el acceso a datos de servidores remotos.
    3.    Entender y elegir correctamente el sistema de referencia apropiado en cada caso así como exportar los datos de un sistema de proyección a otro.
    4.    Visualizar geográficamente los datos recopilados y modificar su aspecto y simbología.
    5.    Realizar ediciones vectoriales simples.
    6.    Realizar los análisis vectoriales y raster más habituales.
    7.    Realizar presentaciones de resultados en forma de mapas elaborados.

    Profesorado:

    El curso será impartido por Raúl Vilela Pérez, licenciado en ciencias del mar, con un máster en teledetección por la Universidad de Dundee (UK) y actualmente és investigador en el departamento de Biogeografia y Ecosistemas pesqueros del Centro Oceanográfico de Murcia (IEO). También trabajó como investigador en el departamento de Pesquerías Lejanas del Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo (IEO) a cargo del proyecto ‘Aplicación de los sistemas de información geográfica al estudio de la variabilidad espacio-temporal de especies de interés comercial’.

    Coordinadores:
    El curso será coordinado por  Joan Giménez Verdugo y por Cecilia Corbella Felip.

    Duración:


    El curso tendrá una duración de 30 horas, con horario de tarde de 15:00 horas a 21:00 horas. Debido al carácter práctico del curso y para aprovechar de la mejor manera posible el tiempo las plazas son limitadas.

    Precio:

    El precio del curso tiene un coste de 200€.
    Cada alumno deberá traer su propio ordenador portátil, durante el curso se empleará el software libre gvSIG. Con el fin de aprovechar al máximo el tiempo de clase, la semana anterior al curso se le enviará a cada persona inscrita instrucciones sobre la instalación del software. Asimismo el profesor del curso estará disponible durante la semana previa para resolver cualquier incidencia relacionada con la instalación de gvSIG.

    Dirigido a:

    Curso dirigido a estudiantes, licenciados y profesionales que quieran iniciarse en el manejo de herramientas SIG, a través de software de libre uso (gvSIG). Además en el material del curso se dispondrá de un anexo para realizar los ejercicios en ArcGIS.

    Si estas interesado en realizar este curso por favor rellena la ficha siguiente y realiza la transferencia correspondiente.

    Para cualquier otra duda o solicitar más información puede ponerse en contacto con nosotros al correo

    cursos@circe.biz

              Two Quick Links        
    How ‘likes’ bring votes – Narendra Modi’s campaign on Facebook: Like it or not, India has just concluded its first social media election. It is no coincidence that the national parties that were late adopters or did not have a social media strategy also acquired the image of non-transparency, out of sync with the aspirations […]
              My 10 Least Favorite Things About Living and Teaching in Korea        
    I've got a week left here in Korea before I go home to start grad school and say goodbye to the Sparkling Hermit Kingdom of Morning Calm for good. I've lived and taught here for two years, and it has been wonderful and terrible, glorious and excruciating, boring and exciting, eye opening and let-me-just-tune-out-the-world-and-watch-television-for-weeks-on-end.

    I thought I'd finish out the year with two last posts: my ten favorite things about living here and my ten least favorite things. So that we end on a positive note, here are ten things that I have found consistently, repeatedly, powerfully annoying.

    10. "Hello! Howareyou! Whereareyoufrom!" This is at the bottom of the list because in slightly modified form, it can actually be nice. When I pass an ajuma and her 4 year old granddaughter and the ajuma smiles and tells her granddaughter to say hello, it's really sweet. When I'm in the right mood, it can make me smile for a bunch of middle school girls to get over themselves and say hello and then giggle for fifteen seconds. But when I pass a group of college aged boys (or grown men!) across the street and one yells out "whereareyoufrom!" and the others start laughing uproariously, that's annoying.

    9. Auto exhaust. I like to run and I walk everywhere, so I spend a lot of time "with" cars, trucks and scooters. I don't know what it is that our exhaust tests in the states get off the road, but the majority of autos here put out a foul, noxious gas that I'm sure is just destroying my lungs. Of course the tractors and scooters are even worse.

    8. Sewers rising. Again, I don't know what they've done in the US to prevent the smells of sewers from rising into the streets, but they certainly haven't figured it out here. The national dish is kimchi -- rotting (er, sorry, fermenting) cabbage with garlic, fish sauce, shrimp paste and chilies. Unfortunately, that's what everyone shits and it smells even worse than you would imagine.

    7. Fan death and other insanity. A lot of Koreans (maybe a majority. really. even doctors.) think that if you sleep with a fan on in your room you will die. A lot of Koreans also think that Korea is the pinnacle of culture and accomplishment. Logic here is... to be culturally sensitive, I'll say different, though having studied symbolic logic, I feel pretty comfortable saying it's just either missing or gets beat out by antiquated cultural beliefs. Ignorance and delusion are everywhere.

    6. Logistical challenges. A lot of things are a lot harder in a foreign country. Often to buy something, I have to ask a Korean friend for help. I'm not going to miss feeling like a retarded four year old.

    5. Volume and style of speech. Korean men are much worse than the women on this, though plenty of women are plenty annoying as well. Fresh from the west, you would honestly think a discussion on where to go to lunch was a boiling blood feud. Koreans love to eat and drink outside (which I love), and there's a nice spot just below my apartment window (which I don't love). For hours on end two women will sit pouring soju (the Korean version of sake, except it's vile) for men talking and yelling and interrupting and gesticulating at volumes I thought impossible. No time of day or location is off limits for this manner of communication.

    4. Confucianism. Confucius mapped out social relationships to try to produce social harmony (the ultimate goal of Confucianism) in any situation. According to Confucianism, the younger, female or lower status should be deferential and obedient, which often seems more like meek and unquestioning. I think social harmony is an admiral goal, and I think deference and humility are lacking in westerners, but the rigid way Confucianism operates in modern Korea creates manifold problems. As my coteacher (a 31 year old woman) said when she learned we wouldn't be having a retirement party for our principal (a 64 year old man) because the government found out he has been stealing money from the school, "Why does he still have job? If I am stealing, I don't have job one more day!"

    3. The staring. Maybe now I know what it's like to be a gorgeous woman. No, not the same. I am stared at constantly. This was less true (though still common) in the big city, but in this rural little town, I'd say around half of the people I see on the streets just fix their gaze on me. I almost always look back, try to summon compassion and acknowledge them. Maybe one in ten gives me a nice smile and bows back (usually the older women), the rest look away until I've stopped looking at them, and then fix their stare right back on me. What really makes this hard is what's behind the stare:

    2. Xenophobia. Korea has long been called the Hermit Kingdom and with good reason. Throughout its existence, Korea has had to fight off domination from China and empires of the Japanese, Mongolians and others. Even in modern times, Korea has remained remarkably isolated. Besides the utter unfamiliarity with anything not-Korean, there is also a deep (and historically valid) antipathy toward foreigners. I once asked three wealthy, cosmopolitan middle school students from Busan if they would allow their children to marry foreigners and all three said absolutely not. I have received a tremendous amount of kindness and welcome from Koreans, but with a few notable exceptions, there is always an element of my being not quite the same, not quite human. What I'm about to write is completely unfair -- there are so many differences and what I have faced here doesn't even enter into the same arena -- but living here has given me emotional insight into what it must have been (and be) like to be black in many times and places in the United States.

    1. Missing events and holidays at home. All of the above end when I leave in a week. But one of my best friends got married this summer, and I missed two Christmases with my family, and those are gone forever. I wouldn't trade the experiences I've had for those that I missed, but without exception, the hardest days here have been the days I have most wanted to be home.


    What do you think waegookin seonsaengnim... what would you have included that I've left out?
              Commenti su Scuola di stile (fatto a mano) di media partner 18        
    Hai una taglia in più. Compri abiti e poi li fai modificare? Cambia ! Crea tu i tuoi vestiti! Con Mensile per le donne creative La Mia Boutique speciale taglie forti per la donna curvy in edicola dal 24 marzo 2016 il n.24. Allegate copertina e modelli numero di Aprile ora in edicola La Mia Boutique, idee da cucire Stile Italiano da trenta anni periodico di riferimento per i cultori dei cartamodelli. da trenta anni periodico di riferimento per gli appassionati di cucito, professionisti, dilettanti ed amatori. La Mia Boutique promuove lo stile italiano. Il suo messaggio è "Sewing pattern with italian Flair." Dà quindi spazio ai modelli di abiti e agli accessori che nascono dalla creatività degli stilisti italiani. Ogni mese 40 quaranta capi che compongono l'ossatura del numero in vendita. Modelli ispirati ai capi dei dai grandi stilisti italiani. ( vedi allegati ) L’universo dei lettori comprende tutte le donne che sentono di essere creative e che vogliono portare abiti unici frutto di questa creatività che è affermazione della loro femminilità e individualità . 4 cartamodelli di grande formato con schede tecniche di tutti i 40 capi , indicazione dei prodotti, istruzioni di taglio e confezionamento guidano l'opera di creazione. direzione e redazione info@hepipress.it sito www.lamiaboutique.net abbonamenti www.lamiaboutique.net/categoria-prodotto/abbonamenti/ Per informazioni su pubblicità e comunicazione: Media Partner 18 Consulenza Marketing e Distribuzione Dott. Peter Hubscher Via Domenichino n.7 - 20149 Milano cell. 3355696542 email: papress@gmail.com Questa e-mail è un servizio gratuito, inviata nel rispetto della legge196/03 agli indirizzi presenti nei nostri archivi o in archivi pubblici presenti online. In qualsiasi momento può chiedere l’aggiornamento dei Suoi dati inviando una e-mail a: papress@gmail.com o la cancellazione da questo servizio cliccando qui: papress@gmail.com
              Tim Cook Modifies Siri for Barbra Streisand        

    Most people just write up an email or submit a forum post when they’re having an issue with a certain product, but things change considerably when you’re a celebrity. Barbra Streisand, the famed American singer, songwriter, actress, and filmmaker has decided to take a much shorter route to fix an issue she was having with Apple’s intelligent […]

    The post Tim Cook Modifies Siri for Barbra Streisand appeared first on eTeknix.


              Why don't I write an Android version of PDX Bus?        
    This is one of the most common questions about PDX Bus,  and I have not really answered it.  So here goes!

    Firstly - part of me really likes the idea of porting the app to Android.  Being an iPhone developer for a free app can be incredibly annoying:

    • I have to pay Apple $100 a year for the privilege of being able to put an app on a device.  (Yes the Civic App awards prize money covers that, but it i still annoying that actually I am the only one who has to pay to use PDX Bus!).
    • The app approval process is still slow and feels random.  You may get rejected as Apple may simply decide your app does something they don't like.  It can take anything from 2 days to 2 weeks to get approved.
    • Technically, the apps in the app store cannot be "free" by the definition of the GPL - apps cannot be shared or modified by their users.  Kids can't experiment with writing apps.  It feels like censorship. This is just annoying.
    So why don't I just recompile it for Android.  :-)  Here this bit gets technical.  Basically I'll have to start again... (Skip this technical bit...).

    • PDX Bus is written entirely in Objective-C, Android apps are written in Java or recently C/C++.  You might think that this is a small difference...  Objective-C is quite different from these languages in syntax. The code looks really different, it would need completely re-writing.
      • The back end data retrieval code is tightly coupled to Objective-C frameworks.  For example, Apple provides an XML parser - this returns the tags and data in Objective-C associative arrays ("NSDictionary") from which you access the XML tagged data and place it into objective-C objects for use by the UI.  This'll need completely re-writing.   PDX Bus currently deals with 10 different XML schemas for the different data.
      • The GUI is written entirely with Apple frameworks (UIKit) and none of it can be re-used - Android GUIs have a completely different paradigm.  The GUI has been a lot more work than the back end.     Even the Google Maps API is completely different on the two platforms.
    Summary:  Almost none of the PDX Bus code can be re-used as-is for Android.  Some of the design and flow could be re-used, but still, there would be a lot of re-coding.   I don't have the time for this!
              Departamento a 3 cuadras del centro de villa carlos paz: cochera, asador, wifi..        
    Hermoso departamento para vacacionar..."todo el aÑo"....atendido por sus dueÑos estamos a 3 cuadras del centro !! equipado para 4- 5 personas, con todas las comodidades. Se alquila a familias. Mascotas "no". consta de: 2 habitaciones (una matrimonial y la otra con 2 camas de 1 plaza + una cama marinera), baÑo grande, cocina - comedor, galerÍa techada , jardÍn, patio con asador y cochera cubierta. comodidades: tv por cable, wi-fi, aire acondicionado,heladera c/ freezer, cocina c/ horno, vajilla completa. Todos los servicios incluidos. Menos ropa blanca (sabanas y toallas) precio por dÍa para 4 personas $1000 consultas y reser
              plinth started the forum topic "Cannot modify header information" error when editing profile in the group How-To and Troubleshooting        
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    KOMPETENSI DASAR
    Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP)/
    Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs)
    KEMENTERIAN PENDIDIKAN DAN KEBUDAYAAN
    2013
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs i
    KATA PENGANTAR
    Puji dan syukur kami panjatkan kehadirat Allah SWT atas selesainya penyusunan dokumen Kompetensi Dasar untuk Sekolah Menengah Pertama/Madrasah Tsanawiyah sebagai salah satu perangkat kelengkapan Dokumen Kurikulum 2013. Penyusunan dokumen ini dalam rangka menindaklanjuti program-program prioritas yang tercantum dalam Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional 2010-2014 dan dalam Rencana Strategis Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional 2010-2014.
    Selain berisi deskripsi Kompetensi Dasar, dokumen ini berisi pula Kompetensi Inti dan Struktur Kurikulum. Kompetensi Dasar dikembangkan dari Kompetensi Inti, sedangkan pengembangan Kompetensi Inti mengacu pada Struktur Kurikulum. Kompetensi Inti merupakan kompetensi yang mengikat berbagai Kompetensi Dasar ke dalam aspek sikap, keterampilan, dan pengetahuan yang harus dipelajari peserta didik untuk suatu jenjang sekolah, kelas, dan mata pelajaran. Kompetensi Inti harus dimiliki peserta didik untuk setiap kelas melalui pembelajaran dengan pendekatan pembelajaran siswa aktif. Kompetensi Dasar merupakan kompetensi setiap mata pelajaran untuk setiap kelas.
    Penghargaan dan ucapan terima kasih disampaikan kepada Bapak Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Tim Nara Sumber, Tim Pengarah, Tim Internal Kemdikbud, Tim Inti, Tim Teknis, dan Tim Pengembang yang telah meluangkan waktu untuk menulis dan memberikan kontribusi pemikiran yang komprehensif dalam mewujudkan Dokumen Kurikulum 2013 ini. Penghargaan yang sama juga kami sampaikan kepada semua pihak yang telah memberikan masukan baik secara tertulis, melalui media elektronik dan cetak, maupun secara lisan guna penyempurnaan Kurikulum 2013.
    Kepala Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan
    Prof. Dr. Khairil Anwar Notodiputro
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs ii
    DAFTAR ISI
    KATA PENGANTAR ........................................................................................................... i
    DAFTAR ISI ......................................................................................................................... ii
    BAB I STRUKTUR KURIKULUM SMP/MTS ................................................. 1
    BAB II ORGANISASI KOMPETENSI DASAR DALAM MATA PELAJARAN ........................................................................................... 4
    BAB III KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR ............................. 5
    Lampiran 1A KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR AGAMA ISLAM DAN BUDI PEKERTI ............................................................................. 6
    Lampiran 1B KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR PENDIDIKAN AGAMA KRISTEN DAN BUDI PEKERTI ......................................... 12
    Lampiran 1C KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR PENDIDIKAN AGAMA KATOLIK DAN BUDI PEKERTI ........................................ 15
    Lampiran 1D KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR PENDIDIKAN AGAMA HINDU DAN BUDI PEKERTI ............................................. 19
    Lampiran 1E KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR PENDIDIKAN AGAMA BUDDHA DAN BUDI PEKERTI ......................................... 22
    Lampiran 1F KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR PENDIDIKAN AGAMA KHONGHUCU DAN BUDI PEKERTI ................................ 25
    Lampiran 2 KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR PENDIDIKAN PANCASILA DAN KEWARGANEGARAAN (PPKn) ....................... 30
    Lampiran 3 KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR BAHASA INDONESIA ......................................................................... 36
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs iii
    Lampiran 4 KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR MATEMATIKA ..................................................................................... 42
    Lampiran 5 KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASARILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM (IPA)............................................................ 48
    Lampiran 6 KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASARILMU PENGETAHUAN SOSIAL ( IPS ) ........................................................ 56
    Lampiran 7 KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASARBAHASA INGGRIS ................................................................................................ 62
    Lampiran 8 KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASARSENI BUDAYA 68
    Lampiran 9 KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASARPENDIDIKAN JASMANI, OLAH RAGA DAN KESEHATAN ................................... 74
    Lampiran 10 KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR PRAKARYA .... 80
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs 1
    BAB I
    STRUKTUR KURIKULUM SMP/MTs
    PENGERTIAN
    Struktur kurikulum menggambarkan konseptualisasi konten kurikulum dalam bentuk mata pelajaran, posisi konten/mata pelajaran dalam kurikulum, dostribusi konten/mata pelajaran dalam semester atau tahun, beban belajar untuk mata pelajaran dan beban belajar per minggu untuk setiap siswa. Struktur kurikulum adalah juga merupakan aplikasi konsep pengorganisasian konten dalam sistem belajar dan pengorganisasian beban belajar dalam sistem pembelajaran. Pengorganisasian konten dalam sistem belajar yang digunakan untuk kurikulum yang akan datang adalah sistem semester sedangkan pengorganisasian beban belajar dalam sistem pembelajaran berdasarkan jam pelajaran per semester.
    Struktur kurikulum juga gambaran mengenai penerapan prinsip kurikulum mengenai posisi seorang siswa dalam menyelesaikan pembelajaran di suatu satuan atau jenjang pendidikan. Dalam struktur kurikulum menggambarkan ide kurikulum mengenai posisi belajar seorang siswa yaitu apakah mereka harus menyelesaikan seluruh mata pelajaran yang tercantum dalam struktur ataukah kurikulum memberi kesempatan kepada siswa untuk menentukan berbagai pilihan.
    STRUKTUR KURIKULUM SMP/MTs
    Beban belajar di SMP/MTs untuk kelas VII, VIII, dan IX masing-masing 38 jam per minggu. Jam belajar SMP/MTs adalah 40 menit.
    Struktur Kurikulum SMP/MTs adalah sebagai berikut: MATA PELAJARAN ALOKASI WAKTU BELAJAR PER MINGGU VII VIII IX
    Kelompok A
    1.
    Pendidikan Agama dan Budi Pekerti
    3
    3
    3
    2.
    Pendidikan Pancasila dan Kewarganegaraan
    3
    3
    3
    3.
    Bahasa Indonesia
    6
    6
    6
    4.
    Matematika
    5
    5
    5
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs 2
    MATA PELAJARAN ALOKASI WAKTU BELAJAR PER MINGGU VII VIII IX
    5.
    Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam
    5
    5
    5
    6.
    Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial
    4
    4
    4
    7.
    Bahasa Inggris
    4
    4
    4
    Kelompok B
    1.
    Seni Budaya (termasuk muatan lokal)*
    3
    3
    3
    2.
    Pendidikan Jasmani, Olah Raga, dan Kesehatan(termasuk muatan lokal)
    3
    3
    3
    3.
    Prakarya(termasuk muatan lokal)
    2
    2
    2
    Jumlah Alokasi Waktu Per Minggu
    38
    38
    38
    Keterangan:
    *Muatan lokal dapat memuat Bahasa Daerah
    Ekstra Kurikuler SMP/MTs antara lain:
    - Pramuka (Wajib)
    - OSIS
    - UKS
    - PMR
    Kelompok A adalah mata pelajaran yang memberikan orientasi kompetensi lebih kepada aspek kognitif dan afektif sedangkan kelompok B adalah mata pelajaran yang lebih menekankan pada aspek afektif dan psikomotor. Seni Budaya dan Prakarya menjadi dua mata pelajaran yang terpisah. Untuk seni budaya didalamnya terdapat pilihan yang disesuaikan dengan minat siswa dan kesiapan satuan pendidik dalam melaksanakannya.
    IPA dan IPS dikembangkan sebagai mata pelajaran integrative science dan integrative social studies, bukan sebagai pendidikan disiplin ilmu. Keduanya sebagai pendidikan berorientasi aplikatif, pengembangan kemampuan berpikir, kemampuan belajar, rasa ingin tahu, dan pengembangan sikap peduli dan bertanggung jawab terhadap lingkungan sosial dan alam.Disamping itu, tujuan pendidikan IPS menekankan pada pengetahuan tentang bangsanya, semangat kebangsaan, patriotisme, serta aktivitas masyarakat di bidang ekonomi dalam ruang atau space wilayah NKRI. IPA juga ditujukan untuk pengenalan lingkungan biologi dan alam sekitarnya, serta pengenalan berbagai keunggulan wilayah nusantara.
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs 3
    BEBAN BELAJAR
    Dalam struktur kurikulum SMP/MTs ada penambahan jam belajar per minggu dari semula 32, 32, dan 32 menjadi 38, 38 dan 38 untuk masing-masing kelas VII, VIII, dan IX. Sedangkan lama belajar untuk setiap jam belajar di SMP/MTs tetap yaitu 40 menit.
    Dengan adanya tambahan jam belajar ini dan pengurangan jumlah Kompetensi Dasar, guru memiliki keleluasaan waktu untuk mengembangkan proses pembelajaran yang berorientasi siswa aktif belajar. Proses pembelajaran siswa aktif memerlukan waktu yang lebih panjang dari proses pembelajaran penyampaian informasi karena peserta didik perlu latihan untuk melakukan pengamatan, menanya, asosiasi, dan komunikasi. Proses pembelajaran yang dikembangkan guru menghendaki kesabaran dalam menunggu respon peserta didik karena mereka belum terbiasa. Selain itu bertambahnya jam belajar memungkinkan guru melakukan penilaian proses dan hasil belajar.
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs 4
    BAB II
    ORGANISASI KOMPETENSI DASAR
    DALAM MATA PELAJARAN
    Mata pelajaran adalah unit organisasi terkecil dari Kompetensi Dasar. Untuk kurikulum SMP/MTs organisasi Kompetensi Dasar kurikulum dilakukan dengan cara mempertimbangkan kesinambungan antar kelas dan keharmonisan antarmata pelajaran yang diikat dengan Kompetensi Inti. Berdasarkan pendekatan ini maka terjadi reorganisasi Kompetensi Dasar mata pelajaran sehingga struktur Kurikulum SMP/MTs menjadi lebih sederhana karena jumlah mata pelajaran dan jumlah materi berkurang.
    Khusus untuk muatan lokal, Kompetensi Dasar yang berkenaan dengan seni budaya, dan keterampilan, serta bahasa daerah dapat diintegrasikan ke dalam mata pelajaran Seni Budaya dan Prakarya. Sedangkan Kompetensi Dasar muatan lokal yang berkenaan dengan olahraga serta permainan daerah diintegrasikan ke dalam mata pelajaran Pendidikan Jasmani, Olahraga dan Kesehatan.
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs 5
    BAB III
    KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR
    Kompetensi Inti merupakan terjemahan atau operasionalisasi SKL dalam bentuk kualitas yang harus dimiliki mereka yang telah menyelesaikan pendidikan pada satuan pendidikan tertentu atau jenjang pendidikan tertentu, gambaran mengenai kompetensi utama yang dikelompokkan ke dalam aspek sikap, pengetahuan, dan keterampilan (afektif, kognitif, dan psikomotor) yang harus dipelajari peserta didik untuk suatu jenjang sekolah, kelas dan mata pelajaran. Kompetensi Inti harus menggambarkan kualitas yang seimbang antara pencapaian hard skills dan soft skills.
    Kompetensi Inti berfungsi sebagai unsur pengorganisasi (organising element) kompetensi dasar. Sebagai unsur pengorganisasi, Kompetensi Inti merupakan pengikat untuk organisasi vertikal dan organisasi horizontal Kompetensi Dasar. Organisasi vertikal Kompetensi Dasar adalah keterkaitan antara konten Kompetensi Dasar satu kelas atau jenjang pendidikan ke kelas/jenjang di atasnya sehingga memenuhi prinsip belajar yaitu terjadi suatu akumulasi yang berkesinambungan antara konten yang dipelajari siswa. Organisasi horizontal adalah keterkaitan antara konten Kompetensi Dasar satu mata pelajaran dengan konten Kompetensi Dasar dari mata pelajaran yang berbeda dalam satu pertemuan mingguan dan kelas yang sama sehingga terjadi proses saling memperkuat.
    Kompetensi Inti dirancang dalam empat kelompok yang saling terkait yaitu berkenaan dengan sikap keagamaan (kompetensi inti 1), sikap sosial (kompetensi 2), pengetahuan (kompetensi inti 3), dan penerapan pengetahuan (kompetensi 4). Keempat kelompok itu menjadi acuan dari Kompetensi Dasar dan harus dikembangkan dalam setiap peristiwa pembelajaran secara integratif. Kompetensi yang berkenaan dengan sikap keagamaan dan sosial dikembangkan secara tidak langsung (indirect teaching) yaitu pada waktu peserta didik belajar tentang pengetahuan (kompetensi kelompok 3) dan penerapan pengetahuan (kompetensi Inti kelompok 4).
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs 6
    Kompetensi Inti SMP/MTs adalah sebagai berikut: KELAS VII VIII IX
    1. Menghargai dan menghayati ajaran agama yang dianutnya.
    1. Menghargai dan menghayati ajaran agama yang dianutnya.
    1. Menghargai dan menghayati ajaran agama yang dianutnya.
    2. Menghargai dan menghayati perilaku jujur, disiplin, tanggungjawab, peduli (toleransi, gotong royong), santun, percaya diri, dalam berinteraksi secara efektif dengan lingkungan sosial dan alam dalam jangkauan pergaulan dan keberadaannya.
    2. Menghargai dan menghayati perilaku jujur, disiplin, tanggungjawab, peduli (toleransi, gotong royong), santun, percaya diri, dalam berinteraksi secara efektif dengan lingkungan sosial dan alam dalam jangkauan pergaulan dan keberadaannya.
    2. Menghargai dan menghayati perilaku jujur, disiplin, tanggungjawab, peduli (toleransi, gotong royong), santun, percaya diri, dalam berinteraksi secara efektif dengan lingkungan sosial dan alam dalam jangkauan pergaulan dan keberadaannya.
    3. Memahami pengetahuan (faktual, konseptual, dan prosedural) berdasarkan rasa ingin tahunya tentang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni, budaya terkait fenomena dan kejadian tampak mata.
    3. Memahami dan menerapkan pengetahuan (faktual, konseptual, dan prosedural) berdasarkan rasa ingin tahunya tentang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni, budaya terkait fenomena dan kejadian tampak mata.
    3. Memahami dan menerapkan pengetahuan (faktual, konseptual, dan prosedural) berdasarkan rasa ingin tahunya tentang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni, budaya terkait fenomena dan kejadian tampak mata.
    4. Mencoba, mengolah, dan menyaji dalam ranah konkret (menggunakan, mengurai, merangkai, memodifikasi, dan membuat) dan ranah abstrak (menulis, membaca, menghitung, menggambar, dan mengarang) sesuai dengan yang dipelajari di sekolah dan sumber lain yang sama dalam sudut pandang/teori
    4. Mengolah, menyaji, dan menalar dalam ranah konkret (menggunakan, mengurai, merangkai, memodifikasi, dan membuat) dan ranah abstrak (menulis, membaca, menghitung, menggambar, dan mengarang) sesuai dengan yang dipelajari di sekolah dan sumber lain yang sama dalam sudut pandang/teori.
    4. Mengolah, menyaji, dan menalar dalam ranah konkret (menggunakan, mengurai, merangkai, memodifikasi, dan membuat) dan ranah abstrak (menulis, membaca, menghitung, menggambar, dan mengarang) sesuai dengan yang dipelajari di sekolah dan sumber lain yang sama dalam sudut pandang/teori.
    Kompetensi Dasar merupakan kompetensi setiap mata pelajaran untuk setiap kelas yang diturunkan dari Kompetensi Inti. Kompetensi Dasar adalah konten atau kompetensi yang terdiri atas sikap, pengetahuan, dan ketrampilan yang bersumber pada kompetensi inti yang harus dikuasai peserta didik. Kompetensi tersebut dikembangkan dengan memperhatikan karakteristik peserta didik, kemampuan awal, serta ciri dari suatu mata pelajaran. Mata pelajaran sebagai sumber dari konten untuk menguasai kompetensi
    KOMPETENSI DASAR SMP/MTs 7
    bersifat terbuka dan tidak selalu diorganisasikan berdasarkan disiplin ilmu yang sangat berorientasi hanya pada filosofi esensialisme dan perenialisme. Mata pelajaran dapat dijadikan organisasi konten yang dikembangkan dari berbagai disiplin ilmu atau non disiplin ilmu yang diperbolehkan menurut filosofi rekonstruksi sosial, progresif atau pun humanisme. Karena filosofi yang dianut dalam kurikulum adalah eklektik seperti dikemukakan di bagian landasan filosofi maka nama mata pelajaran dan isi mata pelajaran untuk kurikulum yang akan dikembangkan tidak perlu terikat pada kaedah filosofi esensialisme dan perenialisme.
    Kompetensi Dasar SMP/MTs untuk setiap mata pelajaran tercantum pada Lampiran 1A s.d. Lampiran 10 yang mencakup: Pendidikan Agama dan Budi Pekerti, PPKn,Bahasa Indonesia, Matematika, IPA, IPS, Bahasa Inggris, Seni Budaya, Pendidikan Jasmani, Olahraga dan Kesehatan, serta Prakarya.
    LAMPIRAN
    Lampiran 1A
    KD SMP/MTs PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM& BUDI PEKERTI 6
    KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR
    AGAMA ISLAM DAN BUDI PEKERTI
    SEKOLAH MENENGAH PERTAMA (SMP)/MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH (MTs)
    KELAS: VII KOMPETENSI INTI KOMPETENSI DASAR
    1. Menghargai dan menghayati ajaran agama yang dianutnya
    1.1 Membaca al-Qur’an dengan tartil.
    1.2 Beriman kepada Allah SWT
    1.3 Beriman kepada malaikat Allah SWT
    1.4 Melaksanakan bersuci dari hadats besar dalam kehidupan sehari-hari
    1.5 Melaksanakan shalat wajib berjamaah sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman rukun Islam
    1.6 Melaksanakan shalat Jum’at sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman Q.S Al Jum’ah ayat 9
    1.7 Melaksanakan shalat jama’ qashar ketika bepergian jauh (musafir) sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman ketaatan beribadah
    2. Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam dalam ja dalam ja ngkauan ngkauan ngkauan ngkauan ngkauan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan keberadaannya keberadaannya keberadaannya keberadaannyakeberadaannyakeberadaannyakeberadaannya keberadaannyakeberadaannya
    2.1 Memiliki perilaku semangat menuntut ilmu sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman sifat Allah (Al-’Alim, al-Khabir, as-Sami’, dan al-Bashir) dan QSAl- Mujadilah (58): 11 dan Ar-Rahman (55): 33 serta hadits terkait
    2.2 Memiliki perilaku ikhlas, sabar dan pemaaf sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman QS.An Nisa (4):146, QS. Al Baqarah (2):153, dan QS. Ali Imran (3):134, dan hadits terkait
    2.3 Memiliki perilaku meneladani perjuangan Nabi Muhammad SAW periode Mekah dan Madinah
    3. Memahami pengetahuan Memahami pengetahuan Memahami pengetahuan Memahami pengetahuan Memahami pengetahuan Memahami pengetahuan Memahami pengetahuan Memahami pengetahuan Memahami pengetahuan Memahami pengetahuan (faktual, konseptual dan (faktual, konseptual dan (faktual, konseptual dan (faktual, konseptual dan (faktual, konseptual dan (faktual, konseptual dan procedural) berdasarkan procedural) berdasarkan procedural) berdasarkan procedural) berdasarkan procedural) berdasarkan procedural) berdasarkan procedural) berdasarkan procedural) berdasarkan procedural) berdasarkan procedural) berdasarkan rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang rasa ingin tahunya tentang ilmu pengetahuan, ilmu pengetahuan, ilmu pengetahuan, ilmu pengetahuan, ilmu pengetahuan, ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni, budaya teknologi, seni, budaya teknologi, seni, budaya teknologi, seni, budaya teknologi, seni, budaya terkait fenomena dan terkait fenomena dan terkait fenomena dan terkait fenomena dan terkait fenomena dan terkait fenomena dan terkait fenomena dan terkait fenomena dan terkait fenomena dan kejadian tampak mata kejadian tampak mata kejadian tampak mata kejadian tampak mata
    3.1 Memahami makna al-Asmaul-Husna: Al-’Alim, al-Khabir, as-Sami’, dan al-Bashir
    3.2 Memahami makna iman kepada malaikat berdasarkan dalil naqli
    3.3 Memahami kandungan QS. Al- Mujadilah (58): 11 dan QS. Ar-Rahman (55): 33 serta Hadits terkait tentang menuntut ilmu.
    3.4 Memahami kandungan QS.An Nisa (4):146, QS. Al Baqarah (2):153, dan QS. Ali Imran (3):134 serta hadits terkait tentang ikhlas,sabar dan pemaaf
    3.5 Memahami ketentuan bersuci dari hadats besar
    3.6 Memahami ketentuan shalat berjamaah
    Lampiran 1A
    KD SMP/MTs PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM& BUDI PEKERTI 7
    KOMPETENSI INTI KOMPETENSI DASAR
    3.7 Memahami ketentuan shalat Jum’at
    3.8 Memahami ketentuan shalat Jama’ Qashar
    3.9 Memahami sejarah perjuangan Nabi Muhammad SAW periode Mekah dan Madinah
    3.10 Mengetahui karakter Khalifah dari Khulafaurrasyidin
    4. Mencoba, mengolah, dan Mencoba, mengolah, dan Mencoba, mengolah, dan Mencoba, mengolah, dan Mencoba, mengolah, dan Mencoba, mengolah, dan Mencoba, mengolah, dan Mencoba, mengolah, dan menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah menyaji dalam ranah konkret (menggunakan, konkret (menggunakan, konkret (menggunakan, konkret (menggunakan, konkret (menggunakan, konkret (menggunakan, konkret (menggunakan, konkret (menggunakan, konkret (menggunakan, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, mengurai, merangkai, memodifikasi, dan memodifikasi, dan membuat) dan ranah membuat) dan ranah membuat) dan ranah membuat) dan ranah membuat) dan ranah membuat) dan ranah abstrak (menulis, abstrak (menulis, abstrak (menulis, abstrak (menulis, abstrak (menulis, membaca, menghitung, membaca, menghitung, membaca, menghitung, membaca, menghitung, membaca, menghitung, membaca, menghitung, membaca, menghitung, membaca, menghitung, membaca, menghitung, menggambar, dan menggambar, dan menggambar, dan menggambar, dan mengarang) sesuai dengan mengarang) sesuai dengan mengarang) sesuai dengan mengarang) sesuai dengan mengarang) sesuai dengan mengarang) sesuai dengan mengarang) sesuai dengan mengarang) sesuai dengan yang dipelajari di sekolah yang dipelajari di sekolah yang dipelajari di sekolah yang dipelajari di sekolah yang dipelajari di sekolah yang dipelajari di sekolah yang dipelajari di sekolah yang dipelajari di sekolah yang dipelajari di sekolah dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dan sumber lain yang sama dalam sudut pandang/teori dalam sudut pandang/teori dalam sudut pandang/teori dalam sudut pandang/teori dalam sudut pandang/teori dalam sudut pandang/teori dalam sudut pandang/teori dalam sudut pandang/teori dalam sudut pandang/teori dalam sudut pandang/teori
    4.1 Membaca QS. Al- Mujadilah (58): 11, QS. Ar-Rahman (55):33 QS.An Nisa (4):146, QS. Al Baqarah (2):153, dan QS. Ali Imran (3):134 dengan tartil
    4.2 Menunjukkan hafalan QS. Al- Mujadilah (58): 11, QS. Ar-Rahman (55):33 QS.An Nisa (4):146, QS. Al Baqarah (2):153, dan QS. Ali Imran (3):134 dengan lancar
    4.3 Mempraktikkan tata cara bersuci dari hadast besar dalam kehidupan sehari-hari
    4.4 Mempraktikkan shalat jama’ dan qashar
    4.5 Mempraktikkan shalat berjama’ah
    4.6 Mempraktikkan shalat Jum’at
    Lampiran 1A
    KD SMP/MTs PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM& BUDI PEKERTI 8
    KELAS: VIII KOMPETENSI INTI KOMPETENSI DASAR
    1. Menghargai dan menghayati ajaran agama yang dianutnya
    1.1 Membaca al-Qur’an dengan tartil.
    1.2 Meyakini Kitab suci Al Qur’an sebagai pedoman hidup sehari-hari
    1.3 Meyakini Nabi Muhammad saw sebagai nabi akhir zaman
    1.4 Melaksanakan shalat sunnah
    1.5 Melaksanakan sujud syukur, sujud tilawah dan sujud syahwi
    1.6 Melaksanakan puasa Ramadhan dan puasa sunnah sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman rukun Islam
    1.7 Mengkonsumsi makanan yang halal dan bergizi
    2. Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan menghayati menghayati menghayati menghayati menghayati menghayati menghayati perilaku jujur, perilaku jujur, perilaku jujur, perilaku jujur, perilaku jujur, perilaku jujur, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya royong), santun,percaya diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam dalam jangkauan dalam jangkauan dalam jangkauan dalam jangkauan dalam jangkauan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan pergaulan dan keberadaannya keberadaannya keberadaannya keberadaannyakeberadaannyakeberadaannyakeberadaannya keberadaannyakeberadaannya
    2.1 Memiliki perilaku rendah hati, hemat, dan hidup sederhana sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman QS. Al Furqan (25): 63 , QS. Al Isra’(17): 27 dan hadits terkait
    2.2 Memiliki perilaku mengkonsumsi makanan dan minuman yang halaldan bergizi dalam kehidupan sehari sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman QS An-Nahl (16):114 dan hadits terkait
    2.3 Memiliki perilaku menghindari minuman keras, judi, dan pertengkaran sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman QS. Al Maidah (5): 90 – 91 dan QS. Al Maidah (5): 32 sertahadits terkait.
    2.4 Memiliki perilaku semangat menumbuhkembangkan ilmu pengetahuan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari
    2.5 Meneladani semangat ilmuwan muslim dalam menumbuhkembangkan ilmu pengetahuan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari
    3. Memahami pengetahuan (faktual, konseptual dan procedural) berdasarkan rasa ingin tahunya tentang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni, budaya terkait fenomena dan kejadian tampak mata
    3.1 Memahami makna QS. Al Furqan (25): 63, QS. Al Isra’(17): 27, Qs An Nahl (16):114, QS. Al Maidah (5): 90 – 91 dan QS. Al Maidah (5): 32 serta Hadis terkait
    3.2 Memahami makna beriman kepada Kitab-kitab Allah
    3.3 Memahami makna beriman kepada Rasul Allah SWT
    3.4 Memahami hikmah shalat sunnah berjamaah dan munfarid
    3.5 Memahami hikmah sujud syukur, sujud sahwi, dan sujud tilawah
    3.6 Memahami hikmah puasa wajib dan sunnah
    3.7 Memahami hikmah penetapan makanan dan
    Lampiran 1A
    KD SMP/MTs PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM& BUDI PEKERTI 9
    KOMPETENSI INTI KOMPETENSI DASAR
    minuman yang halal dan haram berdasarkan Al-Qur’an dan Al-Hadits
    3.8 Memahami sejarah pertumbuhan ilmu pengetahuan sampai masa Umayahdan masa Abbasiyah
    4. Mengolah, menyaji, dan menalar dalam ranah konkret (menggunakan, mengurai, merangkai, memodifikasi, dan membuat) dan ranah abstrak (menulis, membaca, menghitung, menggambar, dan mengarang) sesuai dengan yang dipelajari di sekolah dan sumber lain yang sama dalam sudut pandang/teori
    4.1 Membaca QS. Al Furqan (25): 63, Al Isra’(17): 27, QS An Nahl (16):114, QS. Al Maidah (5): 90 – 91 dan Al Maidah (5): 32 dengan tartil
    4.2 Menunjukkan hafalanQS. Al Furqan (25): 63, QS. Al Isra’(17): 27, Qs An Nahl (16):114, QS. Al Maidah (5): 90 – 91 dan QS. Al Maidah (5): 32 serta Hadis terkait
    4.3 Mempraktekkan shalat sunnah berjamaah dan munfarid
    4.4 Mempraktekkan sujud syukur, sujud sahwi, dan sujud tilawah
    4.5 Merekonstruksi sejarah pertumbuhan ilmu pengetahuan sampai masa Umayahdan masa Abbasiyah untuk kehidupan sehari-hari
    Lampiran 1A
    KD SMP/MTs PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM& BUDI PEKERTI 10
    KELAS IX KOMPETENSI INTI KOMPETENSI DASAR
    1. Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama menghayati ajaran agama yang dianutnya yang dianutnya yang dianutnya yang dianutnya yang dianutnya yang dianutnya yang dianutnya yang dianutnya yang dianutnya yang dianutnya
    1.1. Membaca al-Qur’an dengan tartil
    1.2. Beriman kepada Hari Akhir
    1.3. Beriman kepada Qadha dan Qadar
    1.4. Melaksanakan penyembelihan hewan berdasarkan ketentuan syariat Islam
    1.5. Melaksanakan ibadah qurban dan aqiqah sebagai implementasi dari surat al-Kautsar
    2. Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan Menghargai dan menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, menghayati perilaku jujur, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, disiplin, tanggungjawab, peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong peduli (toleransi, gotong royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya royong), santun, percaya diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi diri dalam berinteraksi secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan secara efektif dengan lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam lingkungan sosial dan alam dalam jangkauan pergaulan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dalam jangkauan pergaulan dan keberadaannya dan keberadaannya dan keberadaannya dan keberadaannyadan keberadaannyadan keberadaannya dan keberadaannyadan keberadaannya dan keberadaannyadan keberadaannya
    2.1. Memiliki sikap optimis, ikhtiar, dan tawakkal sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman QS Az Zumar (39):53, QS. An Najm (53): 39-42, dan QS. Ali Imran (3):159serta hadits terkait.
    2.2. Memiliki perilaku toleran dan menghargai perbedaan dalam pergaulan di sekolah dan masyarakat sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman QS. Al Hujurat (49):13, serta Hadits terkait.
    2.3. Memiliki sikap empati, peduli, dan gemar menolong kaum dhuafa sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman makna ibadah qurban dan aqiqah
    2.4. Memiliki sikap mawas diri sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman iman kepada Hari Akhir
    2.5. Memiliki sikap tawakkal kepada Allah sebagai implementasi dari pemahaman iman kepada Qadha dan Qadar
    3. Memahami pengetahuan (faktual, konseptual dan procedural) berdasarkan rasa ingin tahunya tentang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni, budaya terkait fenomena dan kejadian tampak mata
    3.1. Memahami QS. Az Zumar (39):53, QS. An Najm (53): 39-42, dan QS. Ali Imran (3):159tentang optimis, ikhtiar, dan tawakal dan hadits terkait.
    3.2. Memahami QS. Al Hujurat (49):13 tentang toleransi dan menghargai perbedaan dan hadist terkait.
    3.3. Memahami makna iman kepada hari Akhir berdasarkan pengamatan terhadap dirinya, alam sekitar, dan makhluk ciptaanNya.
    3.4. Memahami makna iman kepada Qadha dan Qadar berdasarkan pengamatan terhadap dirinya, alam sekitar dan makhluk ciptaan Nya
    3.5. Memahami ketentuan penyembelihan hewan dalam Islam
    3.6. Memahami hikmah qurban dan aqiqah
    3.7. Memahami ketentuan