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          Trust Territory Photo Archives        

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Trust Territory Photo Archives

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http://libweb.hawaii.edu/digicoll/ttp/ttpi.html and http://digicoll.manoa.hawaii.edu/ttphotos/

Website Creator

University of Hawaii

Date of Review

November 2003

Website Review Text

Trust Territory Photo Archives contains 6,000 images selected from an archive of 52,000 photographs and slides documenting the American period in Micronesia between 1947 and 1988. It provides details on the Trust Territory Photograph Collection and links to information on the Trust Territories today, mostly in the form of government websites.

The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands comprises three major Micronesian archipelagoes in the Pacific Ocean. These groups of islands, the Marshalls, Carolines, and Marianas, came under the control of the United States as a United Nations (UN) strategic trusteeship following World War II. This was one of 11 trusteeships established across the world by the UN at this time covering areas once controlled by defeated powers. The Trust Territory is unusual within an international context because the transitional arrangement remained in effect until 1990. The territories remain strongly tied to the United States, with the islands of the Northern Marianas designated U.S. commonwealth territory, and the other three localities (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic Of Palau) in compacts of "free association" with the United States, which controls their defense.

The images in the collection are an extensive record of American views of Micronesian peoples, society, and culture and of the interaction between the United States and the Trust Territories. The photographs were mostly taken by those either employed by the government or closely associated with it. While the photographs are extremely diverse, a sense of the focus of the collection can be gained by the "Photo Gallery Displays." This presents nine broadly defined topics from the collection as a useful introduction to the material. They include themes such as "Parades," "Dancing," "Health/Hospitals," and "Architecture." The disadvantage of this function is the lack of any caption to identify or contextualize the photographs, rendering the collection of "Leaders," for example, largely meaningless for anyone not familiar with the politics of the region. The same photographs can be accessed through the search function, however.

The archive contains a large number of photographs of children. Searches of "boy" (94), "girl"(144), "child" (43), "children" (172), "infant" (2), "family" (26), "play" (7), and "school" (529). These results are indicative of good captioning and a well designed database. The images appear as thumbnails linked to a larger version with metadata, and even a means of adding user comments that must be accompanied by a name and/or e-mail address. The search results yielded photographs of children going about their normal lives with their families, in groups in the landscape, creating crafts, and participating in community or national activities.

Although the photographs are captioned and dated, these captions do not provide very much context. By comparing dates, settings, and the type of activity, these photographs of children document a transformation of individual and communal life under the influence of Americans. Images of a child at a well, shelling copra, your girls weaving, or a family preparing breadfruit seem to show a life that was closer to the period before contact. Other images show hospital and school buildings, girl scout troops, a home-made processions for visiting dignitaries and a general regimentation of communal life around nascent nationhood.

One striking difference among the photographs, which are identified with various islands, is the transition from traditional customs of dress for boys and girls to the wearing of European-style dresses and pants for boys. The archive includes many scenes of traditional line dancing in grass or wrapped fabric skirts, flowers and jewelry, in which young girls did not wear bodices. Other images show the girls performing similar dances wearing ruffled dresses with bodices, made from imported cotton fabrics. Girl Scout uniforms, nurses' attire, and formal European dress mark other images, especially of official scenes. The images show that children's dance and song performances were incorporated into national cultural displays, to which flag processions and other symbols were added.

Scholarly interest in the issue of imperialism with reference to the United States has paid less attention to the question of Micronesia than to other locations, such as the Philippines. The advantage of this site is that it provides extensive primary sources related to this issue. For students of world history it provides a visual record of cultural contact in a situation of quasi-colonialism that continued well into the 20th century.

In this regard, Robert Aldrich and John Connell's The Last Colonies 1 is a particularly useful companion to the site for teachers of world history interested in using it in this way. Aldrich and Connell situate Micronesia within a global discussion of territories formally dependent upon metropolitan powers. Given the relative unfamiliarity of many students with this topic and region, teachers may find the following resources useful: Gary Smith, Micronesia: Decolonisation and U.S. Military Interests in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands takes a geopolitical perspective and argues that U.S. control over the islands of Micronesia "was the strategic equivalent to the Soviet Union's control over Eastern Europe." 2 For Smith, local demands for self-determination were sacrificed to U.S. strategic and defense interests. Francis X. Hezel's The New Shape of Old Island Cultures: A Half Century of Social Change in Micronesia 3 explores social history more broadly, is focused on the same period as the site, and makes extensive use of the Photographic Archive.

1 Robert Aldrich and John Connell, The Last Colonies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

2 Gary Smith, Micronesia: Decolonisation and U.S. Military Interests in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Canberra: Peace Research Centre, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1991), 3.

3 Francis X. Hezel, The New Shape of Old Island Cultures: A Half Century of Social Change in Micronesia (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001).

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Website Reviewer

Kirsten McKenzie

Website Reviewer Institution

University of Sydney

Pullquote

Trust Territory Photo Archives contains 6,000 images documenting the American period in Micronesia between 1947 and 1988. A large number include children.

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Grösse des Eiskristalls: ca 0,5 x 1 cm


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Farsisch: Cristmas-e-shoma mobarak bashad!
Finnisch: Hyvaa joulua!
Flemisch: Zalig Kerstfeest en Gelukkig nieuw jaar!
Französisch: Joyeux Noel!
Gaelisch: Nollaig chridheil agus Bliadhna mhath ùr!
Griechisch: Kala Christouyenna!
Hebräisch: Mo'adim Lesimkha. Chena tova!
Hindisch: Shub Naya Baras!
Hausarisch: Barka da Kirsimatikuma Barka da Sabuwar Shekara!
Hawaianesisch: Mele Kalikimaka ame Hauoli Makahiki Hou!
Irländisch: Gledileg Jol!
Indonesisch: Selamat Hari Natal!
Inuit (inupik): Jutdlime pivdluarit ukiortame pivdluaritlo!
Irakisch: Idah Saidan Wa Sanah Jadidah!
Irisch: Nollaig Shona Dhuit, or Nodlaig mhaith chugnat!
Italenisch: Buone Feste Natalizie!
Japanisch: Shinnen omedeto. Merii Kurisumasu!
Koreanisch: Sung Tan Chuk Ha!
Lateinisch: Natale hilare et Annum Faustum!
Latvianisch: Prieci'gus Ziemsve'tkus un Laimi'gu Jauno Gadu!
Litauisch: Linksmu Kaledu!
Macedonisch: Sreken Bozhik!
Maltesisch: LL Milied Lt-tajjeb!
Manx: Nollick ghennal as blein vie noa!
Maorisch: Meri Kirihimete!
Marathisch: Shub Naya Varsh!
Navajo: Merry Keshmish!
Norwegisch: God Jul, or Gledelig Jul!
Pennsylvania Deutsch: En frehlicher Grischtdaag un en hallich Nei Yaahr!
Polnisch: Wesolych Swiat Bozego Narodzenia or Boze Narodzenie!
Portugisisch: Boas Festas!
Rumänisch: Sarbatori vesele!
Russisch: Pozdrevlyayu s prazdnikom Rozhdestva is Novim Godom!
Samoanisch: La Maunia Le Kilisimasi Ma Le Tausaga Fou!
Serbisch: Hristos se rodi!
Slovakisch: Sretan Bozic or Vesele vianoce!
Samisch: Buorrit Juovllat!
Samoanisch: La Maunia Le Kilisimasi Ma Le Tausaga Fou!
Scots Gaelisch: Nollaig chridheil huibh!
Serbo-Kroatisch: Sretam Bozic. Vesela Nova Godina, Hristos se rodi!
Singhalesisch: Subha nath thalak Vewa. Subha Aluth Awrudhak Vewa!
Slovakisch: Vesele Vianoce. A stastlivy Novy Rok!
Slovenisch: Vesele Bozicne. Screcno Novo Leto!
Spanisch: Feliz Navidad!
Swedisch: God Jul and (Och) Ett Gott Nytt År!
Tagalogisch: Maligayamg Pasko. Masaganang Bagong Taon!
Tamisch: Nathar Puthu Varuda Valthukkal!
Trukeesisch: (Micronesian) Neekiriisimas annim oo iyer seefe feyiyeech!
Thaiisch: Sawadee Pee Mai!
Tschechisch: Prejeme Vam Vesele Vanoce a stastny Novy Rok!
Türkisch: Noeliniz Ve Yeni Yiliniz Kutlu Olsun!
Ukrainisch: Srozhdestvom Kristovym!
Ungarisch: Kellemes Karacsonyi unnepeket!
Vietnamesisch: Chung Mung Giang Sinh!
Welisch: Nadolig Llawen!
          HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2010: THE CIRI REPORT        
In conjunction with Human Rights Day, 2011, the CIRI Human Rights Data Project releases its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2010. The CIRI project's data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a wide variety of purposes. The project is Co-Directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University) and Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut) and assisted by Senior CIRI Associate K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). Any inquiries may be addressed to info@humanrightsdata.org

Below, we present four types of stories from this year's released data:


THE BEST AND WORST of 2010

All 14 of CIRI's indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world. The top (best) score a country can receive is 30, while the worst score would be 0. The world average was 18 and the USA scored 26 (tied for 5th place). Below are the best and worst of 2010.

Top 13 Countries:

Denmark [30]
Iceland [30]
Austria [29]
New Zealand [29]
Norway [29]
Australia [28]
Belgium [28]
Finland [28]
Liechtenstein [28]
Luxembourg [28]
Netherlands [28]
San Marino [28]
Sweden [28]


Bottom 10 Countries:

Burma [2]
Eritrea [2]
Iran [2]
China [3]

Korea, Democratic People's Republic of [3]
Yemen [3]
Zimbabwe [3]
Saudi Arabia [4]
Congo, Democratic Republic of [5]
Nigeria [5]


THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL

On May 20, 2011, the United Nations elected 15 new members of the UN Human Rights Council. Here are their total CIRI human rights scores for 2010, out of a possible 30 points. Six out of the fifteen new members had scores below the world average of 18 for the year 2010. Below are the scores for each new member:

Austria         [29]
Benin          [16]
Botswana     [22]
Burkina Faso    [20]
Republic of Congo  [18]  
Chile             [26]
Costa Rica     [26]
Czech Republic   [24]
India               [10]
Indonesia        [13]
Italy               [24]
Kuwait          [11]
Peru              [18]
Philippines     [15]
Romania        [17]


DECLINE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Index of Physical Integrity Rights measure's a government's overall level of respect for four rights: torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, disappearance. The index ranges from 0 (no respect for any of these four rights) to 8 (full respect for all four of these rights). In 2008-2009, the world saw an overall average increase in these rights of .047. However, a reversal of this improvement was seen from 2009-2010, with it's overall average decline in respect of -.031. In particular 2009-2010 saw the following dramatic changes:

Three Countries Lost 3 Points (Violations Increased)

Croatia
Georgia
Panama

Seven Countries Gained 2 Points (Violations Decreased)

Angola
Chad
Chile
Guinea
Italy
Kenya
Seychelles

The fact that the CIRI data stretch back in time to 1981 allows for longitudinal comparison. For example, the graph below shows how regional averages of respect for physical integrity rights have changed over the years:



MORE TORTURE

An important part of this overall decline in respect for physical integrity rights comes from a continuing degradation, globally, of respect for the right not to be tortured. For example, 2009-2010 saw 17 countries engage in more torture, while only 8 engaged in less torture. Below is the list of these countries. CIRI's indicator of government respect for torture is as follows: (0) Frequent/systematic torture, (1) Moderate/occasional torture (2) No reported/confirmed episodes of
torture.

Increased Torture, 2009-2010

Austria
Bahrain
Canada
Congo, Republic of
Croatia
Georgia
Hungary
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Kyrgyz Republic
Marshall Islands
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovenia
Thailand

Decreased Torture, 2009-2010

Chile
Czech Republic       
Denmark       
Dominica       
Italy       
Micronesia, Federated States of       
Seychelles       
Spain

This trend in the greater use of torture is not a post-9/11 phenomenon, however. The chart below shows the increased use of torture beginning in the early 1980s. The extent of the drop in respect for this right differed by region and is seen to be particularly acute in Africa.


          Jellyfish Lake, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
A stingless jellyfish  suspended in space.  The surrounding trees are visible through the water. The stingless jellyfish evolved over millions of years inside the protected lake, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
A stingless jellyfish suspended in space. The surrounding trees are visible through the water. The stingless jellyfish evolved over millions of years inside the protected lake, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Manta Ray Swoops in Front of Sunball, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Manta and two remora fish swoop past in front of sunball - Palau Micronesia, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Manta and two remora fish swoop past in front of sunball - Palau Micronesia, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Ideal Tropical Beach Scene with Palms, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Tropical beach scene with palm trees and crystal clear water, Palua Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Tropical beach scene with palm trees and crystal clear water, Palua Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Mandarin Fish Mating, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Male and female Mandarin fish mating in open water above the coral. It is quite difficult to capture the fast moving Mandarin fish, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Male and female Mandarin fish mating in open water above the coral. It is quite difficult to capture the fast moving Mandarin fish, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Abstract Macro of Anemone, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The sea anemone looks like a beautiful translucent plant. It is actually a predatory animal which catches food using stinging capsules in its tentacles - Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The sea anemone looks like a beautiful translucent plant. It is actually a predatory animal which catches food using stinging capsules in its tentacles - Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Blue Holes with Diver, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Diver leaving Blue Holes through an eye in the wall of the cave, Palau Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Diver leaving Blue Holes through an eye in the wall of the cave, Palau Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Clark's Anenome Fish Deep in a Purple Forest, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Luxuriously colored tentacles envelop a Clark's Anemone fish. Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Luxuriously colored tentacles envelop a Clark's Anemone fish. Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Croal Tendrils, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Red coral fronds reaching for the light on sheer wall, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Red coral fronds reaching for the light on sheer wall, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Jellyfish, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
This jellyfish is a different variety to the non-stinging jellies in Palau Micronesia.   This one
This jellyfish is a different variety to the non-stinging jellies in Palau Micronesia. This one "hunts" outside of the enclosed lake systems. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Diver Watching Tropical Storm, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The tropical storm is a spectacle underlined by the bright aqua blue of the shallow tropical water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The tropical storm is a spectacle underlined by the bright aqua blue of the shallow tropical water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Deep Blue at the Bottom of Blue Holes, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Looking out from the back of Blue Holes into the deep blue open sea. The shafts of light are from the holes in the top of the cavern that give Blue Holes its name, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Looking out from the back of Blue Holes into the deep blue open sea. The shafts of light are from the holes in the top of the cavern that give Blue Holes its name, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          My Shadow in Jellyfish Lake, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Looking down into the lake with the sun streaming past me from above created this interesting shadow effect, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Looking down into the lake with the sun streaming past me from above created this interesting shadow effect, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Blue Holes, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Blue Holes is one of the best dives in Palau. The light creates a cathedral like atmosphere, giving the diver a sense of vast the volume of the cave Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Blue Holes is one of the best dives in Palau. The light creates a cathedral like atmosphere, giving the diver a sense of vast the volume of the cave Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Bubble Bursts of Divers at Blue Holes, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Looking up at two of the entrance holes in the top of the Blue Holes cave system. The divers' bubble bursts march across the face of the cave Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Looking up at two of the entrance holes in the top of the Blue Holes cave system. The divers' bubble bursts march across the face of the cave Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Clark's Anemone Fish Hiding, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Clark's Anemonefish hiding amongst purple tentacles, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Clark's Anemonefish hiding amongst purple tentacles, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Red Coral on Wall, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Two illuminated wall corals on a sheer wall that drops off into open water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Two illuminated wall corals on a sheer wall that drops off into open water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Manta Ray Swooping Down to a Cleaning Station, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Manta ray flying down to a cleaning station. Manta rays can be uniquely identified by the pattern of spots on their white belly, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Manta ray flying down to a cleaning station. Manta rays can be uniquely identified by the pattern of spots on their white belly, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Ulong Channel and Glasseyes, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The famous Ulong Channel with plate coral and Glasseyes taking shelter from the current.  It is great fun to do a fast drift dive down Ulong past  all the abundant life on the reef, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The famous Ulong Channel with plate coral and Glasseyes taking shelter from the current. It is great fun to do a fast drift dive down Ulong past all the abundant life on the reef, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          School of Fish, Wire Coral and Crinoid, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Large school of fish and a Feather Star (Crinoid) on a very long piece of wire coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Large school of fish and a Feather Star (Crinoid) on a very long piece of wire coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Red Coral on Wall, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Red coral against the deep blue of the open water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Red coral against the deep blue of the open water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Coral Abstract Macro, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Close up of hard coral terrain, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Close up of hard coral terrain, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Large Fan Coral on Wall, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Large fan coral on a wall dive in Palau, with baraccuda and other fish in the background, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Large fan coral on a wall dive in Palau, with baraccuda and other fish in the background, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Rock Islands, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The Rock Islands of Palau are coral miracles. The sea and rain have eroded the coral, undercutting the borders of the islands, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The Rock Islands of Palau are coral miracles. The sea and rain have eroded the coral, undercutting the borders of the islands, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Puffer Fish Eye Close up Macro, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The slow moving Puffer fish has good eyesight. The puffer fish is poisonous but is sometimes prepared as soup or sashimi (fugu) by specially trained chefs in Japan and Korea, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The slow moving Puffer fish has good eyesight. The puffer fish is poisonous but is sometimes prepared as soup or sashimi (fugu) by specially trained chefs in Japan and Korea, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          A Chool of Fish all Feeding with Gulping Mouths, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
This image is an abstract impressionist interpretation of the open mouthed school of fish, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
This image is an abstract impressionist interpretation of the open mouthed school of fish, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Feather Star or Crinoid Against a Deep Blue, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Feather Star (crinoid) with a yellow heart and delicate amber tipped black fern-like tendrils against a blue that you only find in the clearest water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Feather Star (crinoid) with a yellow heart and delicate amber tipped black fern-like tendrils against a blue that you only find in the clearest water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Abstract Macro of Translucent Anemone, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The translucent nature of the sea anemone tentacles look like an alien world, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The translucent nature of the sea anemone tentacles look like an alien world, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Tropical Beach Scene, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Tropical beach scene with palm trees, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Tropical beach scene with palm trees, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Manta Ray Doing Loops in Plankton Rich Water, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
When the water is rich in plankton and other life it takes on a green hue.  It is at these times that the manta rays will loop through the water in loose formation. Sometimes the mantas will repeatedly loop around the diver, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
When the water is rich in plankton and other life it takes on a green hue. It is at these times that the manta rays will loop through the water in loose formation. Sometimes the mantas will repeatedly loop around the diver, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Soft Fleshy Leather Coral, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
This large soft fleshy leather coral sways gently in the current, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
This large soft fleshy leather coral sways gently in the current, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Blue Stripe Snapper Schooling, Palau by Matt Considine        
It is possible to get quite close to these brightly colored blue striped snapper, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
It is possible to get quite close to these brightly colored blue striped snapper, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          One Entrance to Blue Holes, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Looking up at divers and the sky through one of the entrances to Blue Holes, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Looking up at divers and the sky through one of the entrances to Blue Holes, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Grey Reef Shark, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
These sharks are generally not dangerous but have been known to attack in open water, when in a feeding frenzy or when cornered, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
These sharks are generally not dangerous but have been known to attack in open water, when in a feeding frenzy or when cornered, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Odd One Out Anemone, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Just one is different in this abstract macro world of anemone tentacles, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Just one is different in this abstract macro world of anemone tentacles, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Nautilus Swimming, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The Nautilus species has been in existence for around 550 million years and so is one of the longest surviving species on earth, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The Nautilus species has been in existence for around 550 million years and so is one of the longest surviving species on earth, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Coral on Wreck of the Iro, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Large fragile coral structure on the wreck of the Japanese ship the Iro, sunk during WWII. Some experts believe this wreck is actually the Sata, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Large fragile coral structure on the wreck of the Japanese ship the Iro, sunk during WWII. Some experts believe this wreck is actually the Sata, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Sunburst Behind Diver in Canyon, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Diver suspended in the crystal clear water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Diver suspended in the crystal clear water, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Divers Exiting Silas Tunnel, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Silas tunnel in Palau has a long section where at one point there is very little light, as you move through the tunnel, the exit becomes visible and appears to radiate a deep blue, typical of the clear waters around Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Silas tunnel in Palau has a long section where at one point there is very little light, as you move through the tunnel, the exit becomes visible and appears to radiate a deep blue, typical of the clear waters around Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Exiting the Temple of Doom, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Leaving the aptly named Temple of Doom, with divers in Blue Holes.  Even a few feet from the entrance and exit, there is no light or means of orientation. Even with plenty of artificial light and air, it is easy to see why divers have died here, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Leaving the aptly named Temple of Doom, with divers in Blue Holes. Even a few feet from the entrance and exit, there is no light or means of orientation. Even with plenty of artificial light and air, it is easy to see why divers have died here, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Pair of Mandarin Fish in Coral, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Male and female Manadarin fish move out of the coral ready to start the mating dance. The male is the small one, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Male and female Manadarin fish move out of the coral ready to start the mating dance. The male is the small one, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Unusual coral Growth, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Unusual coral Growth, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Unusual coral Growth, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Divers Climb a Mooring to the Surface, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Divers using the mooring line of a buoy marking the wreck of the Iro, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Divers using the mooring line of a buoy marking the wreck of the Iro, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          School of Fish and Diver, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Diver and Glasseye schooling on the reef, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Diver and Glasseye schooling on the reef, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Hard Coral in Clear Blue Water, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The crystal clear waters of Palau create a deep range of blues that contrast nicely with the warm colors of the coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The crystal clear waters of Palau create a deep range of blues that contrast nicely with the warm colors of the coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Tropical Beach with Palm Trees, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Ideal tropical beach with palm trees, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Ideal tropical beach with palm trees, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Red Fan Coral on Wall, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Fantastic but fragile fan coral on wall, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Fantastic but fragile fan coral on wall, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Soft Coral, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Soft coral with sunbeams, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Soft coral with sunbeams, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Grey Reef Shark, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
These sharks cruise back and forth on the current in front of you.  They can sometimes get quite close.  Though generally not dangerous to divers in groups, it is wise to always face them, though this is not always possible, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
These sharks cruise back and forth on the current in front of you. They can sometimes get quite close. Though generally not dangerous to divers in groups, it is wise to always face them, though this is not always possible, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Male and Female Manadarin Fish, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Male and female Mandarin fish in mating dance. The large one is the female and the small one the male. When mating, they emerge very briefly out of the coral and move into the open water, before darting back to the safety of the coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Male and female Mandarin fish in mating dance. The large one is the female and the small one the male. When mating, they emerge very briefly out of the coral and move into the open water, before darting back to the safety of the coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Lettuce Coral Bloom and Diver, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Hard coral in the shape of a Lettuce, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Hard coral in the shape of a Lettuce, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Hard Coral with Sky, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Looking up it is possible to see the blue of the sky through the interconnected branches of the coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Looking up it is possible to see the blue of the sky through the interconnected branches of the coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Cauliflower Soft Coral, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Soft coral resembling an oversized cauliflower, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Soft coral resembling an oversized cauliflower, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Soft Folds of Coral, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Large convoluted soft leather coral (filter feeder) sways gently in the current, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Large convoluted soft leather coral (filter feeder) sways gently in the current, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Jellyfish Swarming towards the Sun, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The stingless jellyfish of Palau swarm towards the sun in Jellyfish Lake, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The stingless jellyfish of Palau swarm towards the sun in Jellyfish Lake, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Manta Ray, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Manta ray swooping into cleaning station.  The manta rays repeatedly return to the same rock and coral outcrops to be cleaned of parasites by small cleaner wrasse, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Manta ray swooping into cleaning station. The manta rays repeatedly return to the same rock and coral outcrops to be cleaned of parasites by small cleaner wrasse, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Abstract Coral Macro, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
This close up (macro) image of coral polyps shows the  complex terrain of the living coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
This close up (macro) image of coral polyps shows the complex terrain of the living coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Nautilus, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Nautilus illuminated against a background of sunbeams, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Nautilus illuminated against a background of sunbeams, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Chevron Baracuda, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
School of chevron barracuda Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
School of chevron barracuda Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Driftwood, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Driftwood on tropical beach in Palau, with a typical rock island, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Driftwood on tropical beach in Palau, with a typical rock island, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Sun Burst Through Jellyfish, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Sun burst through jellyfish from deep below the surface, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Sun burst through jellyfish from deep below the surface, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Coral with a Single Moorish Idol, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Coral branch with Moorish Idol, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Coral branch with Moorish Idol, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Pyjama Cardinal Fish, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The Pyjama Cardinal fish usually hovers amongst the coral in quiet areas on the reef, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The Pyjama Cardinal fish usually hovers amongst the coral in quiet areas on the reef, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Small Fish Schooling over Coral, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Small fish schooling over colorful reef scene, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Small fish schooling over colorful reef scene, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Blue Holes, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Looking up through one of the Entrances to Blue Holes, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Looking up through one of the Entrances to Blue Holes, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Coral City and Divers, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
A bizarre coral formation with fantastic little spires, with divers in the background, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
A bizarre coral formation with fantastic little spires, with divers in the background, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Macro of Anemone and Clark's Anemonefish, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Two Clark's Anemonefish taking refuge amongst the tentacles of an anemone, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Two Clark's Anemonefish taking refuge amongst the tentacles of an anemone, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Soft Coral, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Soft coral on reef in the crystal clear waters of Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Soft coral on reef in the crystal clear waters of Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Looking Down Through Swarm of Jellies, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Looking through the swarming jellyfish of Jellyfish Lake in Palau is a magical and unforgettable experience, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Looking through the swarming jellyfish of Jellyfish Lake in Palau is a magical and unforgettable experience, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Dive Boat Anchored in Space, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The water is so clear that the dive boat appears to be anchored in space, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The water is so clear that the dive boat appears to be anchored in space, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Puffer Fish, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Puffer fish with an amazing stripe pattern. The puffer fish is poisonous but is sometimes prepared as soup or sashimi (fugu) by specially trained chefs in Japan and Korea, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Puffer fish with an amazing stripe pattern. The puffer fish is poisonous but is sometimes prepared as soup or sashimi (fugu) by specially trained chefs in Japan and Korea, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Shafts of Sunlight on the Streams of Bubbles, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The divers' bubbles coming up through the hole in the top of the cave reflect the sunlight, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The divers' bubbles coming up through the hole in the top of the cave reflect the sunlight, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Divers Line up Along Wall, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
A delicate hard coral branch extends from the wall, as the divers disappear into the distance, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
A delicate hard coral branch extends from the wall, as the divers disappear into the distance, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Black Snapper, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The amazingly clear water of Palau gives the water a vast range of blues. A school of black snapper swims by, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The amazingly clear water of Palau gives the water a vast range of blues. A school of black snapper swims by, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Grey Reef Shark Cruising on the Reef, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
A stocky grey reef shark cruises up and down the current like a jet fighter. Occasionally a shark will swoop past just a few feet away and sometimes surprise a divers by coming in from behind, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
A stocky grey reef shark cruises up and down the current like a jet fighter. Occasionally a shark will swoop past just a few feet away and sometimes surprise a divers by coming in from behind, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Soft Folds of Coral, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Large convoluted soft leather coral (filter feeder) sways gently in the current, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Large convoluted soft leather coral (filter feeder) sways gently in the current, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Coral Abstract Macro, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Close up macro of hard coral terrain, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Close up macro of hard coral terrain, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Wave Breaking on Coral, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Wave Breaking on Coral, Palau Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Wave Breaking on Coral, Palau Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Scribbled Filefish, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Scribbled Filefish, Palau Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Scribbled Filefish, Palau Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Kids Swimming Between the Tropical Rock Islands, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
An ideal swimming place between the rock islands at one of the diver lunch spots, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
An ideal swimming place between the rock islands at one of the diver lunch spots, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Abstract Macro of Anemone, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The translucent nature of the sea anemone tentacles look like an alien world, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The translucent nature of the sea anemone tentacles look like an alien world, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Fragile Fan Coral on Wall, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Sunburst behind fragile fan coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Sunburst behind fragile fan coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Coral Forest, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Coral Forest, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Coral Forest, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Stone Fish, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Magnificently camouflaged poisonous stonefish, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Magnificently camouflaged poisonous stonefish, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Clark's Anemone Fish in Purple Anemone, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Clark's Anemonefish taking refuge in the tentacles of a purple anemone Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Clark's Anemonefish taking refuge in the tentacles of a purple anemone Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Schooling Open Mouthed Fish, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Abstract impressionistic image of gulping open mouthed school of fish, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Abstract impressionistic image of gulping open mouthed school of fish, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Schooling Jacks, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The jack fish often keep their distance but if there is a predator nearby they seem to move closer to divers, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The jack fish often keep their distance but if there is a predator nearby they seem to move closer to divers, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Female Mandarin Fish with Dorsal, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
It is quite difficult to get a shot of the tiny female Mandarin fish with dorsal fin fully extended as they dart in and out of the coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
It is quite difficult to get a shot of the tiny female Mandarin fish with dorsal fin fully extended as they dart in and out of the coral, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Soft Coral Flower, Palau Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Beautiful soft floral-like coral filter feeding in the current, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Beautiful soft floral-like coral filter feeding in the current, Palau Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine
          Maybe In Another Life        


{ here }

One of the nice things about teaching college writing is that jobs are everywhere. (The downside: the pay is pretty horrible.) So whenever I get a pinch of wanderlust, I start trolling for jobs that are more than 15 miles from where I grew up. (Yes, I'm that close to my hometown.)

I especially like looking through the out-of-country listings, and recently came across an opening in Micronesia. I had to Google where exactly that was, as I had a reference point for Indonesia, but not Micronesia. It turns out that it's kind of, sort of in between Hawaii and Australia. Like, middle-of-the-ocean nowheresville.

The pay was really, really low ($15k / year), but in photos the island nation seems like one of the prettiest places possibly anywhere, so... tempting? Besides, what would you need extra money for when you lived someplace like this? Of course, with a fiance, a mortgage, and three cats, I won't be moving to a tropical paradise anytime soon.

Still, wouldn't it be nice to wake up every day to this?


{ here }

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          Elementary Science Program Focuses on Climate Change in the Pacific        

As part of a larger effort that seeks to expand education about climate change in Micronesia, CRDG’s Carol Ann Brennan and Tom Scarlet are working to create curriculum for elementary schools that will build toward...

The post Elementary Science Program Focuses on Climate Change in the Pacific appeared first on Curriculum Research and Development Group.


          Episode 80 - Relax        

It's Zoolander-aplenty this episode as I come rip-roaring (sort-of) back from having the flu. Zoolander 2 is out on 12th February and Zoolander is one of my favourite films of all time. I a bit love Ben Stiller. Imagine my surprise, then, that there are indeed no patterns on Ravelry for anything Zoolander themed. Not one. Not even a cheeky little amigurumi Hansel...

So, don't kill the president of Micronesia. Just chill out a bit more. Relax, Derek!

In Enabler's Corner, courtesy of Helen Stewart of Curious Handmade and Paula of Knitting Pipeline, I enable you to the Fish Lips Kiss Heel pattern. Let's get the Sox Therapist and her kids together for a big reunion. Breast cancer ain't fun. I am offering to gift a pattern to the first ten people that reply to the thread in the group on Ravelry.

There are a pair of Edinburgh Yarn Festival tickets up for grabs in a giveaway on the Ravelry group. I'll be attending and taking part in the Podcast Lounge again. You can find all the details at www.edinyarnfest.com

Wippin' Piccaddilly has Owligan by Kate Davies, Voodoo by Boo Knits and a pair of afterthought heel socks in yarn from The Golden Skein. Future knits are pretty much any hat by Clare Devine (Tea Collection) and Frisson by Brittany Wilson, available from Ravelry.

Show notes are at www.shinybees.com

Music for this episode is 'I Need a Drink' by Adam and the Walter Boys.

 


          ANEXOS        
Artículo Enciclopedia encarta:




Constitución

Constitución (ciencia política), ley fundamental, escrita o no, de un Estado soberano, establecida o aceptada como guía para su gobernación. La constitución fija los límites y define las relaciones entre los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial del Estado, estableciendo así las bases para su gobierno. También garantiza al pueblo determinados derechos. La mayoría de los países tienen una constitución escrita. La de Gran Bretaña, encarnada en numerosos documentos (por ejemplo, la Carta Magna) y el derecho consuetudinario que definen las relaciones de los ciudadanos con la Corona, el Parlamento y los tribunales, no está escrita, pese a que, en muchas ocasiones, se ha postulado su redacción para que Gran Bretaña disponga de un texto análogo al de la gran mayoría de estados.


Las constituciones pueden clasificarse mediante varios criterios: si están protegidas contra enmiendas (constituciones blindadas), si presentan una clara separación de poderes, si las disposiciones pueden ponerse en vigor mediante revisión de la actuación del ejecutivo o del legislativo, si establecen un Estado unitario o federado, etc. Las constituciones escritas están asociadas históricamente al liberalismo político y a la Ilustración. Tal es el caso de la historia del constitucionalismo español. Muchos estados autoritarios y totalitarios poseen unas elaboradas constituciones, pero, en la práctica, no tienen vigor para ser respetadas por el gobierno en el poder, que siempre puede no acatarlas, suspenderlas o invalidarlas.


Constituciones en el mundo
Constituciones vigentes en el mundo





1. Afganistán: 1987 .suspendía tras el golpe fundamentalista al gobierno marxista en 1992
2. Albania : 39 de abril de 1991
3. Alemania: ley fundamental. promulgada en 1949
4. Andorra : 1983
5. Angola: noviembre de 1975. modifica en 1976,1980,1991
6. antigua y barbuda: noviembre de 1981
7. Arabia saudita: desde el 1 de marzo de 1992 , el gobierno monárquico absolutista se rige por intermedio del sistema básico gubernamental
8. Argelia : febrero de 1989
9. argentina : 1853. modificada en 1860,1866,1898y 1994
10. Armenia: en 1993 entro en vigencia una nueva constitución
11. Australia : 1 de enero de 1901
12. Austria:1920 .enmendada en 1929
13. Azerbaiján: se prepara una constitución dentro del sistema autoritario que impera en el es país islámico
Bahamas : 10 de julio de 1973.
14. Bahrein : 1973, bajo la monarquía absolutista
15. Bangla Desh: es enmendada e 1973,74,75,77,79,81.88.89 y 91
16. barbados : 30 de noviembre de 1966
17. belarus: se redacta una nueva constitución
18. Bélgica: 1831.enmendada varias veces y revisadas en 1949 y 1971
19. Belice: 21 de septiembre de 1981
20. Benín: el dictador Kereskou al abandonar el marxismo establece una constitución el 2 de diciembre de 1990 .propiciando el multipartidismo por primera vez
21. bhutan : 1953
22. Bolivia 1967
23. bophuthatswana : se rige por la constitución de Sudáfrica
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1974.Modifica en 1989,90,91
25. Botswana: 30 de septiembre de 1966.En una de las pocas democracias del África
26. brasil: 5 de octubre de 1988.la primera constitución , en un gobierno civil en 24 años
27. Brunei darussalam :1959. algunos preceptos fueron suspendidos en 1962 , por el reino absolutista mas rico del mundo
28. Bulgaria :13 de junio de 1991 , ante la caída del viejo régimen marxista pro soviético y la instauración del pluripartidismo
29. burkina faso: con el establecimiento del multipartidismo se consolida una nueva constitución el 11 de junio de 1991
30. Burundi : 13 de marzo de 1992.suspendida por el golpe militar de 1993 que derroco al primer presidente civil .Melchior Ndadaye en plena vigencia
31. cabo verde : 7 de septiembre de 1980 modificada en septiembre de 1990
32. Camboya : 27 de junio de 1981. modificada por el régimen pro soviético de Samrin en 1989
33. Camerún : aprobada en 1996
34. canada : acta constitucional de 1982
35. ciskei : suspendida por el nuevo régimen militar en 1990
36. Colombia : 6 de julio de 1991
37. congo: al establecerse e nuevo sistema multipartidista , se redacto una nueva constitución en 1992
38. corea del norte : la constitución del 27 de diciembre de 1972
39. corea del sur: 25 de febrero de 1988
40. costa rica : 7 de noviembre 1949
41. cote d” Ivoire: (antes costa de marfil ) 31 de octubre de 1960. modificada por el presidente vitalicio Houphoner
43.Croacia: Diciembre de 1990
44. Cuba: 1976
45. Chad: Aprobada en 1996
46. Chile: 1980, Enmendada en 1989
47. Chipre Septentrional: 5 de mayo de 1985, aprobada por referéndum
48. Chipre, 16 de Agosto de 1960
49. Dinamarca, 5 de junio de 1953
50. Djibouti, 1991 y 1984. Leyes constitucionales realizadas pro la dictadura de Aptidón.
51. Dominica: 3 de noviembre de 1978
52. Ecuador: 10 de Agosto de 1978
53. Egipto: 11 de Septiembre de 1971
54. El Salvador: 20 de Diciembre de 1983, modificada en 1991.
55. Emiratos Árabes unidos: Siembre de 1971, en provisional establecido por la monarquía absolutista.
56. Eritrea: El país más joven de la tierra esta redactando su primera constitución bajo el gobierno provisional de Osaías Afwerki, Ex líder de la guerrilla del Frente de Liberación popular de la Eritrea (FLPE).
57. Eslovaquia: El país más joven de Europa se rige bajo la misma constitución de la Republica Checa creada el primero de enero de 1993, ambos estados pertenecían a la antigua Checoslovaquia
58. Eslovenia, Diciembre de 1991
59. España, 29 de diciembre de 1978
60. Estado Vaticano, no hay constitución,(Ley fundamental) 2001
61. Estados unidos, 1787, tiene 26 enmiendas
62. Estonia, una nueva constitución fue sometida a referéndum el 28 de junio de 1992, el país Báltico fue uno de los primeros en independizarse y establecer el sistema multipartidista.
63. Etiopía, promulgada en 1994
64. Fiji: 25 de julio de 1990
65. filipinas: El régimen democrática Corazón Aquino estableció una nueva constitución el 2 de febrero de 1987, que fue sometida a referéndum.
66. Finlandia: 17 de Julio de 1979
67. Francia: 6 de octubre de 1958
68. Gabón: 21 de febrero de 1961, modificada por Omar Gongo, uno de los dictadores mas antiguos del mundo en 1967-1975-1981-1986-1990.
69. Gambia: 24 de abril de 1990 , enmendada en 1982 por el régimen democrático de Dawda K. Jawara.
70. Georgia: Aprobada en 1995
71. Ghana: Marzo de 1992, el nuevo régimen democrático somete a referéndum la nueva constitución.
72. Granada: 1974 fue suspendida por el golpe marxista de 1979 y reestablecida en 1984, luego de la invasión norteamericana.
73. Grecia: Válida desde 1986
74.Guatemala: 14 de enero de 1985
75. Guinea Bissau: 16 de mayo de 1984, bajo la dictadura izquierdista de Luis Cabral y modificada en 1991 por su seguidor Joao Vieira.
76. Guinea Ecuatorial: Obiang Nguema establece una nueva constitución en noviembre de 1991 y es sometida a consulta popular.
77. Guinea: 23 de diciembre de 1991
78. Guyana: El régimen izquierdista de Forbes Burham establece una nueva constitución el 6 de octubre de 1980 y modificada en 1988 por sucesor Desmond Hoyte
79. Haiti. 1987
80. Honduras: Noviembre de 1982,
81. Hungría: 18 de Agosto de 1989. Modificada en 1972, 1983, 1989.
82. India: 26 de Enero de 1950, Modificada en 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1992 en la democracia más grande del mundo.
83. Indonesia, agosto de 1945, modificada en 1969 por régimen autoritario más antiguo del mundo del dictador Suharto.
84. Irak: 22 de septiembre de 1968, enmendada en 1969,1970, 1973, y 1974 de manera provisional.
85. Iran: Creada por el gobierno fundamentalista islámico del desaparecido Ayatollah Khomeini en diciembre de 1979, enmendada en 1989.
86. Irlanda del Sur: 29 de Diciembre de 1937
87. Islandia: 17 de junio de 1944
88. Islas Camoras: 7 de junio 1992
89. Islas Marianas del norte: 1986
90. Islas Marshall: 1 de mayo de 1979
91. Islas Micronesia: 10 de mayo de 1979
92. Islas Palau: 1 de enero de 1981
93. Islas Salomón: 7 de julio de 1978
94. Israel: No existe constitución política como tal sino un conjunto de leyes; desde 1950 se han incorporado durante un periodo no específico.
95. Italia: 1 de enero de 1948
96. Jamaica: 6 de Agosto de 1962, conjuntamente con la independencia nacional
97. Japón: 3 de noviembre de 1946. En vigor en mayo de 1947.
98. Jordania: 1 de enero de 1952, enmendada en 1974, 1976 y 1984.
99. Katar: 2 de abril de 1970, creada por la monarquía Absolutista con carácter provisional.
100. Kazajstán: Aprobada en 1995
101. Kenya : 12 de diciembre de 1963, enmendada en 1982, 1986, 1991 durante los gobiernos autoritarios de Jommo Kenyata y Danieal Arap Moi.





Las 10 Constituciones mas jóvenes del mundo

1) Chad: 1996
2) Camerún: 1996
3) Sudáfrica: 1996
4) Georgia: 1995
5) Armenia: 1995
6) Kazajstan:1995
7) Malwi:1994
8) Bielorusia:1994
9) Lusemburgo: 1994
10) Rusia: 1993








No Existen constituciones en los siguientes países

1) Israel
2) Nueva Zelanda
3) Reino Unido (Escocia, Inglaterra, Gales, Irlanda del Norte)
4) San Marino
5) Vaticano
6) Bhutan
7) Omán
8) Somalia




Se han suspendido las funciones de la Constitución en los siguientes países

1) Afganistán: Tras el derrumbe del gobierno marxista en 1992.
2) Togo: El régimen autoritario de Eyadema la suspendió en 1991, tras los disturbios políticos que reclaman mayor para el multipartidismo al igual que otros países africanos.
3) Sudán: El nuevo régimen fundamentalista, que llegó vía golpe militar en 1989, suspendió la constitución de 1985 y ahora se rige a base de leyes coránicas.
4) Venda: El nuevo régimen castrense de 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la constitución.
5) Ciskei: Los golpistas militares que asumieron el gobierno en 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la Constitución.
6) Myanmar: El régimen castrense que asumió el poder en 1998 prohibió la constitución de 1974.
7) Burundi: Los golpistas que llegaron al poder a finales de 1993 y derrocaron la primera democracia del país, suspendieron la constitución de marzo de 1992
8) Transkei: Los golpistas encabezados por el general Bantu Holomisa suspendieron la constitución de 1987.
          Guam        
Location Micronesia (Micronesia)
          Northeastern Quartersphere - Wikipedia        

Northeastern Quartersphere

This is the Wikipedia article for "Northeastern Quartersphere" as it appeared on January 26, 2012, shortly prior to its expected deletion as original research.

The terms Northeastern Quarter or Northeastern Quadrant or simply Northeast are sometimes applied to the portion of the Northern Hemisphere in the Eastern Hemisphere or vice versa. If it's lateral boundaries are based on the Prime Meridian, this region includes most of Asia and Europe, a large portion of Africa and some islands in Oceania. The Northeast covers about two fifths of the Earth's land surface area and hosts 75-80% of the world's population. It is the only quarter bounded by the Prime Meridian and Equator that is mostly land. The Northeast hosts about two fifths of the world's economic activity.
Eastern portion of Earth's Northern Hemisphere

Countries

* Europe
o If the Prime Meridian is used as the Western boundary, all except Portugal, most of the United Kingdom, much of Spain and France. If the 20th meridian west, then all of Europe.

* Africa
o If the Prime Meridian is the lateral boundary, then all of Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, most of Somalia, most of Kenya, most of Uganda, Southern Sudan, part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, parts of Gabon, parts of Equatorial Guinea, parts of Rio Muni, parts of Sao Tome and Principe, Cameroon, Nigeria, Benin, Chad, most of Niger, part of Mali, most of Algeria, Libya and Tunisia are in this region. If the 20th meridian west is used, then all of Africa North of the Equator.

* Asia
o all except some portions of Indonesia.

* Oceania
o If Prime Meridian is used as the lateral boundary, then Palau, Guam, the Marianas Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, part of Kiribati and Wake Island. If the 20th meridian west is used as the boundary in the West and the 160th meridian east in the East, then only Palau, Guam, the Marianas, and the Federated States of Micronesia.

Bodies of water

* The Arctic Ocean in the Eastern Hemisphere,
* The Western portion of the North Sea, most of the Mediterranean Sea, and all of the Baltic Sea and Black Sea of the Atlantic Ocean,
* The Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean,
* The Eastern Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan/East Sea, the Yellow Sea, East China Sea the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, Gulf of Thailand and open ocean in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
          Guam        
Location Micronesia (Micronesia)
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Australia        
Australia(Oceania) is the smallest continent in the world and the sixth largest country in the world,comprising of 17 countries.Here is the list of 17 countries in Australia and their capitals.



 Australia
S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Australia
Canberra
2.
East Timor
Dili
3.
Fiji
Suva
4.
Indonesia
Jakarta
5.
Kiribati
South Tarawa
6.
The Marshall Islands
Majuro
7.
Micronesia
Palikir
8.
Nauru
Yaren
9.
New Zealand
Wellington
10.
Palau
Melekeok
11.
Papua New Guinea
Port Moresby
12.
Samoa
Apia
13.
The Solomon Islands
Honiara
14.
Tonga
Nuku'alofa
16.
Tuvalu
Funafuti
17.
Vanuatu
Port Vila

          Object journeys: working with the Kiribati community in the UK        
When I was asked back in 2014 to start thinking about the upcoming Object Journeys project, my mind immediately turned to the possibility of bringing the British Museum’s Micronesia collection in to f ... - Source: blog.britishmuseum.org
          Earthrace re-fuelling and heading for Cochin, in India to check Singapore repairs        



Earthrace to check Singapore repairs
Earthrace crew, their support staff and sponsors who came to their rescue have found their "miracle" in Singapore, and now hope to resume their attempt on a round-the-world record, says operations manager, Adrian Erangy.

They still hope to beat the existing record of nearly 75 days by returning to Spain to complete their circumnavigation, he told the powerboat-world.com website.

"The entire team have pulled together a miracle in Singapore," Mr Erangy said.

Staff at a salvage shipyard, Posh Semco, helped lift Earthrace - weighing 19 tonnes - from the water at the weekend to repair a shattered propeller, and driveshaft, and cracked bearings and brackets.

The boat took a week to limp to Singapore on one engine after hitting a submerged object, possibly a log, 4000km to the east in Micronesia, at Palau.

"We have completed our repairs and now hope to have 14 days left at sea to get the record," Erangy said. A new propeller shaft had to be machined by engineers.

The boat and support crews worked round the clock over the weekend to finish the repairs 12 hours earlier than expected.

They were due to test the boat's engines early today, then conduct a short sea-trial before re-fuelling and heading for Cochin, in India, if the repairs are seaworthy.

The boat has up to 35 days to get back to Sagunto, north of Valencia, to beat the 1998 Cable & Wireless World record of 74 days, 23 hours 53 minutes, but skipper Pete Bethune, of Auckland has said he wants to "smash" the record rather than just beat it.

- NZPA

The New Zealand Herald
          Singapore to Cochin,Kerala,India next leg of Earthraces(78 foot, biodiesel fuelled trimaran ) World Record Attempt        

Earthrace on track for India and World Record
'Posh Semco put Earthrace back in the water Singapore June 2008'
Day 42- Earthrace, the 78 foot, biodiesel fuelled trimaran is back in the water repaired and is currently being refuelled in preparation for the next leg of her 24,000 nautical mile round the world record attempt, the 2,000 mile passage to Cochin, India.

Earthrace arrived in Singapore last Friday morning local time, having motored 2,200 miles from Palau in Micronesia on one engine after hitting an unknown object, smashing her port propellor and cracking her port drive shaft.

Despite the delays for repairs, the boat is still 1,556 miles ahead of the world record pace, set by the British Cable and Wireless team in 1998.

'We’ve been overwhelmed by the generosity we’ve received in Singapore,' says New Zealand skipper Pete Bethune. 'After the accident in Palau we began to doubt whether we still had a shot at the world record, but now the boat is back in top shape and weather conditions for the leg to Cochin are great.

'I’m constantly amazed by all the fantastic support individuals and companies across the globe have shown to Earthrace. Each one of their efforts counts in helping us smash this record and showing the world the potential for sustainable fuels.

Earthrace was lifted back into the water this afternoon local time and sped back to the One Degree 15 marina, where she is currently taking on her full load of Spanish bio-fuel. She was back at full pace on that short leg, showing that the repairs had been successful.

'Once we reach Cochin we’ve only got three refuelling stops to go. If we can maintain this pace up the Suez Canal and through the Mediterranean we could be back in Sagunto 17 days ahead of the world record.'

The crew has relied on the generosity of a number of companies that stepped forward to offer Earthrace support for speedy repair upon arrival to Singapore, particularly POSH SEMCO, an offshore marine service contractor, Assetton asset management, and J B Global, project sponsor.

Repair work was successfully carried out in three days, after the ground crew spent the whole of last week sourcing components and shipyard space.

'Assetton wanted to help Earthrace’s world record attempt because we believe it is a great reminder of the race against time to protect our planet,' said Mohan Nainan of Earthrace sponsor Assetton.

POSH Semco director, Peter Lee, said 'we were happy to help Earthrace in her hour of need. As marine salvage specialist, we want to support this worthwhile project, and we were the only company who could act quickly to help save the race.'

Justin Beeton of J B Global is already a Presenting Sponsor of Earthrace since January. He said 'when I heard about the critical repairs required, I immediately wanted to lend further support. I am delighted to confirm my sponsorship for the Australian tour next year and as Sydney Tour Host Sponsor in January 2009.’ Justin will also be joining as Guest Crew on the final leg of the race, along with Paul Topley of Churches Fire Security.

Earthrace left Sagunto, north of Valencia in Spain on April 27th. She had to round the world, in less than 74 days, 23 hours and 53 minutes to break the
record.



by Rob Kothe - 10:54 AM Mon 9 Jun 2008 GMT

Power Boat World.com
          5 Tempat paling alami untuk dikunjungi        
apakah agan seorang eko-petualang? Jika ide agan dari perjalanan yang sempurna semakin dekat dan pribadi dengan alam, agan pasti ingin lmemeriksa salah satu tujuan impian bagi ecotourists. Dari hutan yang rimbun dan terumbu karang warna-warni untuk savana yang luas dan fjord menakjubkan, lima daerah telah dipilih mencakup beberapa ekosistem bumi yang paling khas.

5 tempat ini dipilih tidak hanya untuk keanekaragaman hayati yang unik mereka, tetapi juga untuk komitmen lokal untuk menjaga keindahan dan integritas tempat-tempat melalui pariwisata yang berkelanjutan. Dan ingat - pengunjung harus melakukan bagian mereka juga, sebagai bagian dari bumi dengan keragaman ekologi terbesar adalah sering yang paling terancam. Jika agan memilih untuk mengunjungi, tips ini untuk perjalanan hijau untuk memastikan bahwa tempat-tempat tetap cantik dan murni selama bertahun-tahun yang akan datang.
pulau palau


Spoiler for palau island:







Quote:
Pulau yang pernah dipakai oleh serial TV "LOST" selama 10 season ini sebagai tempat paling menakjubkan untuk melakukan diving, di dalam permukaan air yang bercahaya ini terdapat 1.400 macam ikan dengan jenis beraneka ragam yang berbeda, dan 500 species coral yang dapat ditemui sekitar permukaan laut.
di daratan pengunjung bisa menikmati pantai yang tidak terjamah oleh perusk alam, dan juga bisa menelusuri hutan yang alami.
palau terletak di dataran paling barat Micronesia yang penduduknya memanfaatkan kealamian pulau untuk menghidupi kebutuhannya


Costa Rica

Spoiler for Costa Rica:








Quote:
Costa Rica memiliki jumlah ecotourism yang banyak untuk menjadi salah satu perjalanan para pecinta alam, karena memiliki hutan yang berkabut, pasir hitam pesisir pantai, flora dan fauna yang beragam yang selalu berhasil memikat para pecinta alam.
penginapan-penginapan dan hotel berbintang disana juga menyediakan suasana yang menunjukan kehijauan pulau costa rica sendiri yang alami.


Fjord's Norwegia
Spoiler for Norwegian Fjord's:








Quote:
kesepakatan dan kedisplinan mereka mempertahankan keberadaan ekosistem disana selalu alami, pengunjung dapat bertualang Hiking ataupun bersepeda melalui jalanan sekitar penduduk lokal yang ramah, penggunaan kendaraan motor lebih displin disini, sehingga tidak ada polusi yang mebahayakan lingkungan


Kerala India
Spoiler for kerala india:









Quote:
kerala terletak di bagian barat dari india, penduduk setempat menyebutnya sebagai "tempat yang dijaga tuhan", sebutan ini memang tidak terasa sebuah hiperbolla karena usai melihat keadaan disana tak dapat di pungkiri keindahannya.
dan di sini adalah letak keindahan india yang tak terjamah tangan para perusak, dan dapat dilihat perbedaannya dengan kota" di india yang terkesan kumuh dan tak terurus, dilihat saja cukup untuk mengatakan "ini mungkin bukan india"
dan di dalam hutannya terdapat 10.000 species tumbuhan yang berbeda yang dilindungi


Kenya
Spoiler for Kenya:




Quote:
siapa yang tidak tahu kenya?, yup tempat ini memiliki savana yang luas dan keaneka ragaman fauna yang mayoritasnya dihuni oleh Singa, Gajah, Zebra dan lainnya. savana ini adalah rumah dari para binatang yang hidup bebas.
kenya mempersembahkan kehidupan para binatang yang natural tak terganggu dan berlarian bebas sekitar savana.
dan daerah ini di pilih sebagai salah satu tempat yang dijaga ke alamian satwanya

Quote:
gimana gan? udah siap buat ngunjungin salah satu tempat dari 5 diatas
mari kita jaga kealamian bumi ini gan !
Quote:
bila ada mohon diberi bila mohon diampuni kalo jangan di lempari
jangan lupa ok
          A long lost airplane that crashed during WWII is finally discovered almost perfectly preserved on        
(full article title: A long lost airplane that crashed during WWII is finally discovered almost perfectly preserved on the riverbed of a remote Pacific island) Holidaymakers can expect to witness numerous unexpected wonders when they explore the world. But tourists visiting the Micronesian archipelago of Palau discovered an unusually rare sight, recently - after stumbling across a doomed WW2 plane. The long lost aeroplane was found in a shallow river on the archipelago of Palau, which boasts 500 picturesque islands. An image of the remarkable relic, which surfaced on Imgur, shows the plane largely intact with the wings still attached...
          General Eligibility Requirements for Federal Aid        

To be eligible for federal student aid, an applicant must:

  • Be a U.S. citizen or eligible non citizen.
  • Have a valid Social Security Number (unless you are from the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia or the Republic of Palau).
  • Be registered with the Selective Service if you are a male age 18–25.
  • Have a high school diploma or a General Education Development (GED) certificate or pass an exam approved by the U.S. Department of Education.
  • Be accepted or enrolled as a degree-seeking student at a school that participates in federal student aid programs.
  • Be in good academic standing and maintain a satisfactory level of academic progress.
  • Not have a drug conviction for an offense that occurred while you were receiving federal student aid (such as grants, loans, or work-study).

Also you must:

  • Not owe a refund on a federal grant or be in default on a federal student loan
  • Demonstrate financial need (except for unsubsidized Stafford Loans)

          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Zika Virus: Facts And Management        

Zika fever, known as the Zika virus disease, is a disease caused by the Zika virus. The disease’s causative agent was first isolated in 1947 and the first notable outbreak among people took place in 2007 in Federal States of Micronesia. Aside from an increased number of cases in 20 regions in the Americas in […]

The post Zika Virus: Facts And Management appeared first on HealthDigezt.com.


          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Striated Heron        

The Striated Heron, Butorides striata, also known as Mangrove Heron, Little Heron or Green-backed Heron, is a small heron. Striated Herons are mostly non-migratory and noted for some interesting behavioral traits. Their breeding habitat is small wetlands in the Old World tropics from west Africa to Japan and Australia, and in South America. Vagrants have been recorded on oceanic islands, such as Chuuk and Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marianas and Palau; the bird recorded on Yap on February 25, 1991, was from a continental Asian rather than from a Melanesian population, while the origin of the bird seen on Palau on May 3, 2005 was not clear.

This bird was long considered to be conspecific with the closely related North American species, the Green Heron, which is now usually separated as B. virescens, as well as the Lava Heron of the Galápagos Islands (now B. sundevalli, but often included in B. striata, e.g. by BirdLife International); collectively they were called "green-backed herons".

          FILIPINA        
BANDAR UDARA INTERNASIONAL CEBU-MACTAN
Bandar Udara Internasional Cebu Mactan (IATA: CEB, ICAO: RPVM) merupakan sebuah bandara yang terletak di Kota Cebu, Pulau Mactan, Filipina. Bandara ini merupakan bandara terbesar kedua di negara itu. Pada tahun 2005, bandara ini melayani 2.789.699 penumpang.

Maskapai
Bagian Domestik
Air Philippines (Bacolod, Davao, General Santos, Iloilo, Manila, Puerto Princesa)
Asian Spirit (Cagayan de Oro, Malay, Manila)
Cebu Pacific (Bacolod, Davao, Iloilo, Kalibo, Manila, Manila-Clark, Puerto Princesa, Zamboanga)
Philippine Airlines (Manila)
South East Asian Airlines (Cotabato, Malay, Mambajao)

Bagian Internasional
Asian Spirit (Koror)
Asiana Airlines (Seoul-Incheon)
Cathay Pacific (Hong Kong)
Cebu Pacific (Busan, Hong Kong, Seoul-Incheon, Singapore)
China Airlines
Mandarin Airlines (Taipei-Taiwan Taoyuan)
Korean Air (Seoul-Incheon)
Malaysia Airlines (Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur)
Philippine Airlines (Seoul-Incheon, Tokyo-Narita)
Qatar Airways (Doha)
Singapore Airlines
SilkAir (Singapore)

Pranala luar
Mactan-Cebu International Airport
=========================
BANDAR UDARA INTERNASIONAL DAVAO-FRANCISCO BANGOY

Terminal bandara
----------------
Bandar Udara Internasional Davao-Francisco Bangoy (BIDFB) (IATA : DVO, ICAO : RPMD) (Bahasa Filipina : Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Davao-Francisco Bangoy, Bahasa Inggris : Davao-Francisco Bangoy International Airport) merupakan bandar udara yang terletak di Kota Davao, Filipina.Ini adalah bandara tersibuk di pulau Mindanao. Bandara ini memiliki landasan pacu 3.000 meter presisi tunggal.Sebuah terminal baru menggantikan terminal bandara sebelumnya, yang terletak tepat di seberang itu, dalam menangani baik penerbangan domestik dan internasional yang beroperasi ke dan dari Davao. Fasilitas modern dirancang untuk menangani sekitar 2 juta penumpang per tahun dan 84.600 ton metrik kargo per tahun. Kapasitas ditambahkan juga dilengkapi dengan keamanan navigasi terbaru, dan peralatan penanganan bagasi.

Lokasi bandara
-----------------
Modernisasi dan peningkatan fasilitas bandara bertujuan untuk semen Davao sebagai hub untuk pariwisata dan investasi asing di wilayah tersebut. Pembangunan ini didanai oleh pinjaman empat puluh juta dolar dari Bank Pembangunan Asia, dibiayai oleh Bank Investasi Eropa untuk dua puluh lima juta ECU, dan melalui alokasi anggaran dari pemerintah. Total biaya proyek sebesar $ 128 juta.Setelah hampir satu dekade, terminal baru akhirnya diresmikan pada tanggal 2 Desember 2003. Konstruksi awal dimulai pada tahun 2000 sementara rencana untuk pembangunan diumumkan pada tahun 1992.
Pada tanggal 12 November 2007, Cebu Pacific mengumumkan bandara ini sebagai hub ketiga.
Terlepas dari kenyataan bahwa Bandara Internasional Davao dianggap "internasional", saat ini layanan hanya satu tujuan internasional, Singapura. Namun, ada penerbangan charter sesekali ke Davao dari Manado, Indonesia oleh Wings Air dan Davao dari Seoul, Korea Selatan oleh Jeju Air . Cebu Pacific digunakan untuk melayani Davao-Hong Kong dan Singapura, namun ini penerbangan telah dihentikan pada tahun 2009. Tapi Executive Order Pocket Kebijakan Open Skies saat ini sedang ditinjau oleh pemerintah Filipina yang akan memungkinkan operator asing untuk beroperasi di Bandara Internasional Davao.

Bangunan Terminal Lama Bandara Internasional Davao-Francisco Bangoy yang digunakan sampai tahun 2003
------------------
Sejarah
Bandara Internasional Francisco Bangoy mulai beroperasi pada 1940-an dengan sumbangan lahan di Barangay Sasa, yang terletak di distrik Buhangin dari Davao City, oleh Francisco Bangoy, patriark dari sebuah keluarga berpengaruh yang berada di kota. Pada saat mulai operasi, bandara hanya terdiri dari landasan pacu 1.200 meter rumput tak beraspal dan pondok Quonset melayani sebagai bangunan terminal. Pada saat itu, dan di banyak 1940-an dan 1950-an, baik Philippine Airlines dan Angkatan Udara Filipina memberikan pelayanan udara ke kota.Pada tahun 1959, kompleks terdiri dari sebuah menara kontrol kecil dan beberapa bangunan bertingkat rendah. Terminal baru yang dirancang oleh arsitek Filipina Leandro Locsin, dengan kapasitas satu juta penumpang, dibangun pada tahun 1980 dan landasan pacu itu semakin diperpanjang dari panjang aslinya 1.200 meter sampai 3.000 meter saat ini. Kedua proyek didanai selama jangka waktu kemudian-anggota Kongres Manuel Garcia, yang meliputi kabupaten Kongres perimeter bandara.Pertumbuhan yang cepat di bandara diendapkan pembangunan terminal P15 juta internasional sementara itu sudah ada di samping terminal bandara, dan kemudian akhirnya baru, lebih besar bangunan terminal yang akan mengkonsolidasikan dua terminal yang ada. Dalam merencanakan sejak tahun 1992, konstruksi dimulai pada tahun 2000 dan kemudian diresmikan pada tanggal 2 Desember 2003, dengan kapasitas dua kali lipat dari terminal bandara lama. Pembangunan gedung P2.7 miliar baru ini didanai oleh Bank Pembangunan Asia dan Bank Investasi Eropa.

Rencana Masa Depan
Kebijakan Pocket Open Skies
Otoritas Penerbangan Sipil Filipina (CAAP) mengatakan bahwa segera akan meng-upgrade dan memodernisasi 5 bandara internasional alternatif sejalan dengan panggilan pemerintahan untuk kebijakan "pocket open skies" untuk menarik lebih banyak wisatawan. Ini termasuk Bandara Internasional Davao, antara lain. Sebanyak 5 bandara telah memiliki fasilitas garis depan yang berhubungan dengan Bea Cukai, Imigrasi dan Karantina. Airlines seperti Jepang berbasis All Nippon Airways, Korean Air dioperasikan Jin Air dan Air Asia Philippines menunjukkan minat terbang ke bandara ini secara Internasional.

Penerbangan Davao-Manado Akan Segera Dioperasikan
Wings Air menyatakan akan melanjutkan penerbangan antara Davao City dan Manado, Sulawesi Utara pada akhir tahun 2011. Hal ini diumumkan selama pertemuan Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia Malaysia, Filipina - East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA) yang diselenggarakan di Cagayan de Oro, Filipina. Konsep maskapai anak perusahaan LCC, Lion Air bahkan telah diusulkan oleh BIMP-EAGA untuk menjadi salah satu operator untuk membuka transportasi untuk meningkatkan pembangunan ekonomi di kawasan ASEAN.

Infrastruktur
Terminal
Terminal penumpang P2.7 miliar adalah bangunan arsitektur Melayu yang terinspirasi adalah empat kali lebih besar dari terminal lama. Hal ini sangat komputerisasi, lebih aman dan memiliki ruang yang lebih komersial untuk pemegang konsesi di sekitar 9.000 meter persegi. Ia memiliki empat unit jembatan jet untuk penumpang. Ini juga memiliki Flight Information Display System dan Sistem Sirkuit Tertutup televisi melengkapi sistem keamanan terminal.Terminal memiliki 14 domestik dan 14 internasional check-in counter yang dapat menangani aliran lalu lintas penumpang. Cek-in counter dilengkapi dengan timbangan elektronik dan konveyor dan sistem penanganan bagasi nya juga komputerisasi. Ia juga memiliki 2 area kedatangan, untuk domestik dan internasional dengan 2 konveyor bagasi masing-masing. Gedung Terminal Kargo meliputi hampir 5.580 meter persegi dan dapat menangani hingga 84.600 metrik ton kargo per tahun.

Menara Pengawas Lalu Lintas Udara Bandara Internasional Davao-Francisco Bangoy
-------------------
Landas pacu
Bandara ini memiliki landasan pacu 3.000 meter panjang tunggal yang dapat menangani pesawat berbadan lebar seperti Airbus A330, Airbus A340, Boeing 747 dan bahkan pesawat Airbus A380. Instalasi sistem pendaratan instrumen baru (ILS) untuk kedua Landas pacu 05 dan 23 upgrade kepatuhan terhadap Organisasi Penerbangan Sipil Internasional (ICAO) yang beroperasi kategori-Presisi Pendekatan Kategori 1. Hal ini dapat mengakomodasi pendaratan pesawat 8-10 per jam, tergantung pada ukuran dan memiliki 8 wilayah setara memegang gerbang untuk pesawat tersebut. Bandara juga 2 dual akses landasan [landasan A3 dan A4 landasan digunakan untuk mengakses jalan baru dan terminal; taxiway B dan taxiway C digunakan untuk akses ke jalan bandara lama].

struktur lainnya
Selain bangunan terminal utama, ada juga fasilitas pendukung baru seperti Gedung Administrasi, Bangunan Bandar Udara Pemeliharaan, Bangunan Pabrik Tengah, Hangar untuk Militer dan pesawat Pelatihan dan Api / Kecelakaan / Penyelamatan Bangunan. Ia memiliki 688-slot parkir mobil dan 4 slot untuk bus antar-jemput. Memiliki generator listrik 3 megawatt siaga. Lalu Lintas Udara menara Pengendalian dianggap sebagai yang paling maju di Filipina. Ada juga lounge Mabuhay 2 dari Philippine Airlines dalam bangunan bandara.

Pesawat SilkAir Airbus A320 di Bandar Udara Internasional Davao-Francisco Bangoy
---------------
Maskapai dan Destinasi
Maskapai                     Destinasi
Airphil Express           Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Iloilo [mulai 18 Agustus], Manila
Cebu Pacific                Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Iloilo, Manila, Zamboanga
Philippine Airlines       Manila
SilkAir                         Singapura
Wings Air                    Manado [mulai akhir tahun 2011]
Zest Airways               Manila

Insiden dan Kecelakaan
Pada tanggal 19 April 2000, Air Philippines Penerbangan 541, sebuah Boeing 737-200 dalam perjalanan dari Manila ke Davao jatuh di dekat bandara menewaskan 131 orang.
Pada tanggal 4 Maret 2003, sebuah bom meledak di gudang menunggu di luar gedung terminal lama, menewaskan 21 orang. Setidaknya 145 orang lain terluka ketika bom meledak.
Pada malam 25 Agustus, 2008, Angkatan Udara Filipina, C-130 Hercules menuju Iloilo City jatuh ke Teluk Davao lama setelah take off dari Bandara Internasional Davao. Pesawat tenggelam 800 kaki ke dalam air. Setelah beberapa hari operasi pencarian-dan-pengambilan, pesawat transportasi berat itu ditemukan dengan bantuan sebuah Kapal Angkatan Laut AS. Insiden itu menewaskan semua awak kapal, termasuk 2 prajurit Angkatan Darat Filipina.

Pranala luar
(Inggris) Official Gazette of The Philippines
=========================
BANDAR UDARA INTERNASIONAL NINOY AQUINO
Bandar Udara Internasional Ninoy Aquino (IATA: MNL, ICAO: RPLL) merupakan nama bandara yang terletak di Manila, Filipina. Bandara ini merupakan bandara terbesar di Filipina. Bandara ini terletak di perbatasan Kota Pasay dan Kota Parañaque. Pada tahun 2007 bandara ini melayani 20.467.627 penumpang.

Maskapai
Terminal 1
Air Macau (Macau)
Air Niugini (Hong Kong, Port Moresby)
Asiana Airlines (Busan, Seoul-Incheon)
Cathay Pacific (Hong Kong)
Cebu Pacific (Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Seoul-Incheon, Singapore, Taipei-Taiwan Taoyuan)
China Airlines (Kaohsiung, Taipei-Taiwan Taoyuan)
China Southern Airlines (Beijing, Guangzhou, Xiamen)
Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines dioperasikan oleh Continental Micronesia (Guam, Koror, Saipan, Yap)
Emirates (Dubai)
Etihad Airways (Abu Dhabi)
EVA Air (Taipei-Taiwan Taoyuan)
Gulf Air (Manama, Muscat)
Japan Airlines
Japan Airlines dioperasikan oleh JALways (Tokyo-Narita)
Jetstar Asia Airways (Singapura)
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Amsterdam)
Korean Air (Busan, Seoul-Incheon)
Kuwait Airways (Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Kuwait)
Lufthansa (Frankfurt)
Malaysia Airlines (Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur)
Northwest Airlines (Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Nagoya-Centrair, Tokyo-Narita)
Qantas (Brisbane, Sydney)
Qatar Airways (Doha)
Royal Brunei Airlines (Bandar Seri Begawan)
Saudi Arabian Airlines (Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh)
Singapore Airlines (Singapura)
Thai Airways International (Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Osaka-Kansai)

Terminal 2
Bagian Utara
Philippine Airlines (Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing, Busan, Fukuoka, Guam, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Jakarta, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Nagoya-Centrair, Okinawa, Osaka-Kansai, San Francisco, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapura, Sydney, Taipei-Taiwan Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita, Vancouver, Xiamen)

Bagian Selatan
Philippine Airlines (Bacolod, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Cotabato, Davao, Dipolog, General Santos, Iloilo, Kalibo, Laoag, Legazpi, Puerto Princesa, Roxas City, Tacloban, Tagbilaran, Zamboanga)
Air Philippines (Bacolod, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Dumaguete, General Santos, Iloilo, Naga, Puerto Princesa, Tuguegarao, Zamboanga)

Terminal Penumpang Domestik Manila
Asian Spirit (Baguio, Basco, Busuanga, Calbayog, Catarman, Cebu, Malay, Masbate, Pagadian [seasonal], San Fernando, San Jose (Antique), Surigao, Virac)
Cebu Pacific (Bacolod, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Cotabato, Davao, Dipolog, Dumaguete, General Santos, Iloilo, Kalibo, Laoag, Legazpi, Puerto Princesa, Roxas City, Tacloban, Tagbilaran, Zamboanga)
Interisland Airlines (Biak, Malay, Tablas)
South East Asian Airlines (Basco [seasonal], Busuanga, El Nido, Malay, Manila-Clark, Taytay)
Pranala luar
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Manila International Airport Authority
NAIA - MIAA Website (Accessed, May 22, 2007)
========================
BANDAR UDARA INTERNASIONAL DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL 
Bandar Utara Internasional Diosdado Macapagal (Bahasa Filipina: Paliparang Pandaigdig na Diosdado Macapagal) (DMIA), disebut juga Bandara Internasional Clark ((airport codes , adalah bandara utama yang melayani sebagian dari Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ) dan area Angeles City di Filipina.
Bandara tersebut terletak di sebuah area CSEZ yang dulunya digunakan sebagai pangkalan udara Clark Air Base, yang mana ditutup pada tahun 1991 oleh U.S. Air Force setelah letusan Gunung Pinatubo, dan dibuka kembali sebagai CSEZ.Bandara ini adalah hub bagi Asian Spirit dan South East Asian Airlines dan melayani sebagai bandara pengganti di Manila, Bandara Internasional Ninoy Aquino, yang mana dianggap memiliki tarif pendaratan mahal oleh beberapa maskapai penerbangan yang melayani bandara Ninoy Aquino.
Bandara Diosdado Macapagal dipimpin oleh Clark International Airport Corporation (CIAC), sebuah perseroan terbatas yang dimiliki pemerintah.

Sejarah
Setelah pengosongan pangkalan udara Clark Air Base, yang mana ditutupi lahar setelah letusan Gunung Pinatubo dan badai taifun yang terjadi setelah letusan tersebut, pangkalan udara tersebut dibuka kembali pada tahun 1995 sebagai CSEZ.Selama administrasi mantan Presiden Filipina, Fidel Ramos, bandara tersebut ditunjuk sebagai gerbang internasional utama menuju Filipina dan menjadi bandara internasional satu-satunya di Manila dan provinsi sekitarnya saat Bandara Internasional Ninoy Aquino di Metro Manila telah mencapai kapasitas penuh dan tidak dapat diperluas lagi.Pada permulaan tahun 2000, bandara ini diberi nama DMIA oleh Presiden Filipina, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, atas penghormatan kepada ayahnya, Diosdado Macapagal, presiden Filipina ke-9, yang mana merupakan penduduk asli provinsi Pampanga, dimana bandara itu terletak sekarang.

Rencana Masa Depan
CIAC Board akhirnya menyetujui sebuah rencana master untuk pembangunan Bandara Internasional Diosdado Macapagal. Rencana tersebut berisi perluasan dan modernisasi terminal penumpang yang sudah ada dan merubahnya menjadi terminal untuk maskapai penerbangan bertarif rendah dan akan menjadi gerbang internasional utama menuju Filipina, membuat bandara tersebut menjadi Terminal Maskapai Penerbangan Bertarif Rendah pertama di Manila dan ketiga di Asia, setelah Bandara Internasional Kuala Lumpur dan Bandara Internasional Changi.Ada juga rencana ambisius untuk membangun sebuah terminal penumpang yang lebih besar dan berteknologi tinggi daripada terminal penumpang di Bandara Internasional Hong Kong dan Bandara Internasional Suvarnabhumi tetapi lebih kecil daripada Terminal 3 Bandara Beijing.

Proyek tersebut termasuk:
Penghancuran beberapa struktur bandara kecuali terminal penumpang yang sudah ada.
Apron terminal penumpang, dan perluasan 2 landasan pacu dan modernisasi terminal penumpang dan perubahannya menjadi Terminal Maskapai Penerbangan Bertarif Rendah.
Perpanjangan landasan pacu timur menjadi 4000 meter.
Konstruksi gedung terminal penumpang utama berbentuk "y" dengan 56 jetway (19 diantaranya dipersiapkan untuk Airbus A380) dan sebuah concourse satelit berbentuk "x" dengan 28 jetway (12 diantaranya dipersiapkan untuk Airbus A380) dan sebuah menara kontrol (ATC) baru di tengah-tengahnya.
Konstruksi taxiway dan apron baru.
Konstruksi landasan pacu baru.
Konstruksi terminal kargo baru.
Konstruksi plaza bandara yang mana akan memiliki fasilitas wellwisher.
Konstruksi kantor Manajemen, pusat bisnis dan hotel bandara dan akan juga memiliki sebuah area toko eceran.
Konstruksi Pusat Transportasi Darat (GTC) di bawah plaza bandara yang mana akan memiliki stasiun Airport Railway, stasiun bus bandara, stasiun taksi dan penyewaan mobil.
Konstruksi sebuah Automatic People Mover (APM) yang menghubungkan plaza bandara dan GTC dengan terminal penumpang utama dan terminal satelit.
Konstruksi sebuah rel baru dengan 2 jalur berbeda, satu untuk Airport Railway dan yang lainnya untuk jalur rel commuter dan kereta api cepat yang melayani Manila dan provinsi Luzon.

Keistimewaan bandara:
Dua landasan pacu paralel di bandara dapat mendaratkan pesawat luar angkasa NASA (satu dari tiga di dunia).
Bandara tersebut dapat mengontrol Airbus A380 setelah selesai.
Akan menjadi salah satu bandara terbesar di Asia Pasifik.
Kereta api commuter rel utara akan menghubungkan bandara dengan Metro Manila.

Apabila selesai, bandara tersebut akan memiliki:
84 Frontal Gates
134 Remote Gates
Bandara Diosdado Macapagal akan menjadi salah satu bandara terbesar dan berteknologi tinggi di Asia.

Maskapai Penerbangan
Maskapai penerbangan berikut melayani Bandara Internasional Diosdado Macapagal (bulan Januari 2006):

Maskapai Penerbangan
AirAsia (Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur)
Asian Spirit (Macau [musiman], Manila)
Asiana Airlines (Seoul-Incheon)
Cebu Pacific (Cebu)
Hong Kong Airlines (Hong Kong)
Lion Air (Langsa, Medan, Lhokseumawe, Jakarta, Gunung Sitoli)
South East Asian Airlines (Cebu, Malay, Manila)
Tair Airways (Jeddah, Riyadh} [rute ini dimulai bulan Januari 2007]
Tiger Airways (Macau [rute ini berakhor bulan Februari 2007], Singapore)
Tiger Airways dioperasikan oleh South East Asian Airlines (Cebu, Davao, Macau, Singapore) [rute ini dimulai bulan Februari 2007]

Maskapai Penerbangan Kargo
Pacific East Asia Cargo Airlines
United Parcel Service
Yangtze River Express

Maskapai Penerbangan Terdahulu
CR Airways

Pranala luar
Bandara Internasional Diosdado Macapagal
Clark Development Corporation
Informasi bandara World Aero Data untuk RPLC
=========================
BANDAR UDARA INTERNASIONAL LAOAG
Bandar Udara Internasional Laoag (Bahasa Filipina: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Laoag) (IATA: LAO, ICAO: RPLI) adalah bandara utama yang melayani area Laoag City di Filipina. Bandara ini merupakan bandara internasional paling utara di Filipina berdasarkan letak geografisnya. Bandara ini juga merupakan sebuah destinasi charter populer untuk turis dari daratan Cina.Bandara Laoag memiliki sebuah landasan pacu sepanjang 2,420 dan ditunjuk sebagai bandara internasional kedua.

Maskapai Penerbangan
Maskapai penerbangan berikut merupakan maskapai yang terbang menuju Bandara Internasional Laoag:
Cebu Pacific (Manila)
China Southern Airlines (Guangzhou)
Far Eastern Air Transport (Kaohsiung)
Philippine Airlines (Manila)

Maskapai Penerbangan Terdahulu
Air philippines
Asian Spirit
CR Airways
South East Asian Airlines

Pranala luar
Bandara Internasional Laoag
Sumber, http://id.wikipedia.org/

          V63FKR, Micronesia        


Del 27 de setiembre al 2 de octubre 2017, Chusuke - JR1FKR, estará activo desde el South Park Hotel en Pohnpei, Micronesia como V63FKR.

Qsl vía JR1FKR.

73´s, Luis EA1CS

          GBIF abre convocatoria BID a propuestas del Caribe y el Pacífico        

GBIF invita a la presentación de propuestas de financiamiento del Caribe y el Pacífico bajo el programa de Información de Biodiversidad para el Desarrollo (BID). El financiamiento total potencialmente asignado a estas dos convocatorias es de €1.000.000, o €500.000 para cada región.

Lea las convocatorias completas para:

La primera fase del financiamiento de proyectos a través del BID proveyó cerca de €1 millón a 23 proyectos en el África sub-sahariana. Los beneficiarios incluyen 34 organizaciones de 20 países africanos, cuyos proyectos fueron merecedores de selección por un jurado internacional a partir de un grupo inicial de 143 propuestas.

Las nuevas convocatorias para el Caribe y el Pacífico buscan proyectos que:

  • Movilizarán datos de biodiversidad relacionados con áreas protegidas, especies amenazadas y especies invasoras
  • Usarán y extenderán mejores prácticas para digitalizar colecciones de historia natural y movilizar otros datos de biodiversidad
  • Aplicarán datos de biodiversidad en apoyo a la toma de decisiones e investigación
  • Desarrollarán redes nacionales, regionales o temáticas duraderas para apoyar el compartir y reutilizar datos

Tipos de financiamiento

GBIF invita propuestas en tres categorías generales de financiamiento.

  1. Financiamiento de movilización de datos de biodiversidad regionales que establecen o fortalecen colaboraciones internacionales para incrementar la disponibilidad y utilización de datos de biodiversidad. NOTA: Un consorcio regional debe involucrar socios de al menos tres diferentes países o territorios de ultramar de la región. El coordinador del consorcio y al menos uno de los otros socios debe estar localizados en un país de la region (ver la lista de países elegibles en el Caribe y el Pacífico). Cada socio puede recibir hasta €20.000 y el coordinador del consorcio puede recibir un máximo de €30.000.
  2. Financiamiento para movilización de datos de biodiversidad nacionales que establecen o fortalecen instalaciones de información en biodiversidad nacional e incrementar los datos de biodiversidad disponibles acerca del país para responder a prioridades nacionales. Hasta €60.000 serán puestos a disposición por financiamiento nacional.
  3. Financiamiento de movilización de datos de biodiversidad pequeños que movilizan datos de biodiversidad relevantes para prioridades de conservación de biodiversidad con un máximo de €5.000.

Proceso de solicitud y cronograma

Dos jurados de expertos internacionales con experiencia en las regiones respectivas, evaluará las solicitudes a través de un proceso competitivo de dos etapas.

  • Notas conceptuales iniciales, usando las plantillas provistas, debe ser entregada antes del 10 de Noviembre del 2016.
  • Basado en las recomendaciones de los jurados, GBIF invitará un grupo seleccionado de solicitantes a preparar propuestas completas, para entregar a principios de Febrero del 2017.
  • Luego de una revisión y selección final a cargo de los jurados, GBIF anunciará los proyectos a financiar en Mayo del 2017.

Las plantillas de la nota conceptual y las directrices que le acompañan están disponibles para cada uno de los tres tipos de beca en el sitio de los solicitantes al BID.

Aquellos interesados en recibir actualizaciones sobre el programa BID pueden inscribirse para recibir alertas de correo electrónico. Preguntas y solicitudes generales pueden ser enviadas a BID@gbif.org.


European Union

 

Este programa está financiado por la Unión Europea.

 


Nuestro agradecimiento a William Ulate, Biodiversity Heritage Library / TDWG / Missouri Botanical Garden, y Anabela Plos, GBIF Argentina, por su ayuda con la traducción al español.

Images 
Isla de manglares

Isla de manglares, Caye Caulker, Belize. CC BY-NC-SA 2009, CameliaTWU.

GBIF area 
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GBIF opens BID calls for proposals from the Caribbean and the Pacific

          GBIF ouvre deux appels à projets BID pour les régions des Caraïbes et du Pacifique        

GBIF invite dès maintenant à soumettre des projets pour les régions des Caraïbes et du Pacifique en vue d’obtenir un financement dans le cadre du programme BID (l'Information sur la Biodiversité pour le Développement). Le montant total potentiel de ces deux appels à projets est 1.000.000 €, soit 500.000 par région.

Voyez ici les appels à projets détaillés:

La première phase du projet BID a permis de financer pour près d’un million d’euros 23 projets en Afrique subsaharienne. Les bénéficiaires sont 34 organisations issues de 20 pays africains dont les projets ont été sélectionnés par un jury international parmi 143 propositions initiales.

Ce nouvel appel à projets pour les régions des Caraïbes et du Pacifique cible des projets visant à :

  • Mobiliser des données sur la biodiversité concernant les zones protégées, les espèces menacées et les espèces exotiques envahissantes.
  • Utiliser et étendre les bonnes pratiques pour la numérisation des collections d’histoire naturelles et la mobilisation d’autres types de données.
  • Utiliser les données de biodiversité pour la prise de décision et la recherche.
  • Développer des réseaux nationaux, régionaux et thématiques durables de façon à soutenir les activités futures de partage et de réutilisation des données.

Catégories de subventions

GBIF lance un appel à projets pour trois grandes catégories de subventions:

  1. Subventions régionales pour la mobilisation de données établissant ou renforçant des collaborations internationales visant à augmenter la disponibilité et l’usage des données sur la biodiversité. A NOTER : un consortium régional doit impliquer des partenaires issus d'au minimum 3 pays / territoires d’outre-mer de la région. Le coordinateur du consortium et au moins un autre partenaire doivent être situés dans un pays ACP (voir la liste des pays éligibles dans les régions des Caraïbes et du Pacifique). Chaque partenaire pourra recevoir jusqu’à 20.000 €, et le coordinateur du consortium pourra recevoir jusqu’à 30.000€.
  2. Subventions nationales pour la mobilisation de données établissant ou renforçant un point nodal GBIF national et visant à augmenter la quantité de données disponibles sur le pays de façon à répondre aux priorités nationales. Jusqu’à 60.000 € pourront être alloués par subvention nationale.
  3. Petites subventions pour la mobilisation de données mobilisant des données de biodiversité adaptées aux priorités en matière de conservation, pour un financement maximal de 5000 €.

Procédure et délai

Deux jurys composés d’experts internationaux ayant de l’expérience dans la région évalueront les propositions selon une procédure en deux temps :

  • Une note conceptuelle initiale utilisant le formulaire fourni devra être soumise au plus tard le 10 novembre 2016.
  • Suivant les recommandations du jury, le GBIF invitera un groupe candidats sélectionnés à préparer une proposition détaillée pour début février 2017.
  • Après une évaluation finale et une sélection par les jurys, les projets financés démarreront en avril 2017.

Le formulaire pour la note conceptuelle et les recommandations associées sont disponibles sur le site BID pour chacune des trois catégories de subventions.

Si vous souhaitez recevoir les nouvelles informations sur le programme BID, vous pouvez vous inscrire aux alertes par courriel. Les questions et demandes d’ordre général peuvent être transmises à BID@gbif.org.


European Union

 

Ce programme est financé par l'Union européenne.

 


Nos remerciements à Nicolas Noé, Belgian Biodiversity Platform pour le soutien de la traduction.

 

 

Images 

Mangrove island, Caye Caulker, Belize. CC BY-NC-SA 2009, CameliaTWU.

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GBIF opens BID calls for proposals from the Caribbean and the Pacific

          GBIF opens BID calls for proposals from the Caribbean and the Pacific        

GBIF invites the submission of proposals for funding from the Caribbean and the Pacific through the EU-funded Biodiversity Information for Development (BID) programme. The total potential funding assigned to these two calls is €1,000,000, or €500,000 for each region.

Read the complete calls for:

The first phase of project funding through BID provided nearly €1 million to 23 projects in sub-Saharan Africa. The recipients include 34 organizations from 20 African countries, whose projects earned selection by an international panel from an initial pool of 143 initial proposals.

The new calls for the Caribbean and the Pacific seek projects that will:

  • Mobilize biodiversity data relating to protected areas, threatened species, and invasive alien species
  • Use and extend best practices for digitizing natural history collections and mobilizing other biodiversity data
  • Apply biodiversity data in support of decision-making and research
  • Develop lasting national, regional or thematic networks to support ongoing data sharing and reuse

Types of grants

GBIF invites proposals in three broad categories of grants.

  1. Regional biodiversity data mobilization grants that establish or strengthen international collaborations to increase the availability and use of biodiversity data. NOTE: A regional consortium must involve partners from a minimum of three different countries or overseas territories from the region. The consortium coordinator and at least one other partner must be located in an ACP country (see the list of eligible countries in the Caribbean and the Pacific). Each partner can receive up to €20,000 and the consortium coordinator may receive a maximum grant of €30,000.
  2. National biodiversity data mobilization grants that establish or strengthen national biodiversity information facilities and to increase the biodiversity data available about the country to respond to national priorities. Up to €60,000 will be made available per national grant.
  3. Small biodiversity data mobilization grants that mobilize biodiversity data relevant for biodiversity conservation priorities with a maximum funding of €5,000.

Application process and timeline

Two panels of international experts with experience in the respective regions will evaluate applications through a competitive two-stage process.

  • Initial concept notes, using the templates provided for the Caribbean and the Pacific, must be submitted by 10 November 2016.
  • Based on the panels’ recommendations, GBIF will invite a select group of applicants to prepare full proposals, due in early February 2017.
  • Following a final review and selection by the panels, funded projects will start in April 2017.

The concept note template and accompanying guidelines are available for each of the three grant types on the BID grantseekers’ site.

Those interested in receiving updates on the BID programme can sign up for email alerts. General questions and inquiries may be sent to BID@gbif.org.


European Union

 

This programme is funded by the European Union.

Images 
Mangrove island

Mangrove island, Caye Caulker, Belize. CC BY-NC-SA 2009, CameliaTWU.

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          Ann Wright at WAMM Annual Meeting, March 4, 2017        

Mary Ann Wright is a retired United States Army colonel and retired U.S. State Department official, known for her outspoken opposition to the Iraq War which precipitated her resigning from the State Dept. Wright served 13 years in active duty in the U.S. Army, and 16 years in the Army Reserves, rising to the rank of colonel. She was placed in the Retired Ready Reserve, meaning the President could call her back to active duty in a time of need.

In 1987, Wright went to work for the Foreign Service within the U.S. State Department. Over the course of her State Department career, Wright served as Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. embassies in Afghanistan (which she helped open following the 2001 U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, an assignment she volunteered for), Sierra Leone (an embassy which she helped close and then reopen again), Micronesia and Mongolia, and also served at U.S. embassies in Uzbekistan (which she helped open), Kyrgyzstan, Grenada, and Nicaragua.

Wright's eventual resignation was not the first time she had spoken out against policy. In an interview, Wright said that she spoke out against United Nations bombing tactics waged in Somalia, in the effort to kill rebel leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid. Wright also says that she didn't agree with policy on multiple occasions, but continued her State Department work despite her own disagreements with the policy.

Since her retirement from the State Department, Wright has become a prominent figure in the movement opposed to the occupation of Iraq. She has attended many conferences and given numerous lectures on her political views and on her experiences before and after her resignation.

Wright has worked with anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan on several occasions, most notably by helping organize the Camp Casey demonstration outside George W. Bush's Crawford, Texas, ranch in August 2005, and by accompanying the southern leg of the Bring Them Home Now bus tour. She also volunteered at Camp Casey 3, the Veterans For Peace shelter for Hurricane Katrina victims in Covington, Louisiana, during the bus tour. She marched with Sheehan in 2006 with the Women Say No to War campaign, which was meant to deliver a petition with over 60,000 signatures of citizens against the war.

Wright has willingly been arrested while taking part in anti-war demonstrations, the first such arrest occurring in front of the White House on September 26, 2005. She has said in interviews that she does not remove the arrest bracelets attached to her wrists upon the processing of her arrest, but rather collects them.

Her law degree comes from the University of Arkansas and her master's degree in national security affairs is from the U.S. Naval War College.

Cast: Bill Sorem

Tags: Coleen Rowley, Women Against Military Madness, Ann Wright and WAMM


          The Ancient Secrets of Levitation        
Did ancient civilizations possess knowledge that has since been lost to science? Were amazing technologies available to the ancient Egyptians that enabled them to construct the pyramids - technologies that have somehow been forgotten?

The ruins of several ancient civilizations - from Stonehenge to the pyramids - show that they used massive stones to construct their monuments. A basic question is why? Why use stone pieces of such enormous size and weight when the same structures could have been constructed with more easily managed smaller blocks - much like we use bricks and cinder-blocks today?

Could part of the answer be that these ancients had a method of lifting and moving these massive stones - some weighing several tons - that made the task as easy and manageable as lifting a two-pound brick? The ancients, some researchers suggest, may have mastered the art of levitation, through sonics or some other obscure method, that allowed them to defy gravity and manipulate massive objects with ease.

The Egyptian Pyramids

How the great pyramids of Egypt were built has been the subject of debate for millennia. The fact is, no one really knows for certain exactly how they were constructed. The current estimates of mainstream science contends that it took a workforce of 4,000 to 5,000 men 20 years to build the Great Pyramid using ropes, pulleys, ramps, ingenuity and brute force.

And that very well may have been the case. But there is an intriguing passage in a history text by the 10th century Arab historian, Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masudi, known as the Herodotus of the Arabs. Al-Masudi had traveled much of the known world in his day before settling in Egypt, and he had written a 30-volume history of the world. He too was struck by the magnificence of the Egyptian pyramids and wrote about how their great stone blocks were transported. First, he said, a "magic papyrus" (paper) was placed under the stone to be moved. Then the stone was struck with a metal rod that caused the stone to levitate and move along a path paved with stones and fenced on either side by metal poles. The stone would travel along the path, wrote Al-Masudi, for a distance of about 50 meters and then settle to the ground. The process would then be repeated until the builders had the stone where they wanted it.

Considering that the pyramids were already thousands of years old when Al-Masudi wrote this explanation, we have to wonder where he got his information. Was it part of an oral history that was passed down from generation to generation in Egypt? The unusual details of the story raise that possibility. Or was this just a fanciful story concocted by a talented writer who - like many who marvel at the pyramids today - concluded that there must have been some extraordinary magical forces employed to build such a magnificent structure?

If we take the story at face value, what kind of levitation forces were involved? Did the striking of the rock create vibrations that resulted in sonic levitation? Or did the layout of stones and rods create a magnetic levitation? If so, the science accounting for either scenario is unknown to us today.

Other Astonishing Megaliths

The Egyptian pyramids are not the only ancient structures constructed of huge blocks of stone. Far from it. Great temples and monuments around the world contain stone components of incredible size, yet little is known about their means of construction.

* The Temple of Jupiter at Baalbek, Lebanon has a foundation that contains the three largest stone blocks ever used in a man-made structure. Each block is estimated to weigh as much as 1,000 tons! No super crane in existence today could lift one, yet they are positioned together with such precision that not even a needle could fit between them. Nearby is an even bigger stone. Known as Hajar el Hibla - the Stone of the Pregnant Woman - it lies abandoned in its quarry, never used. But the giant rectangular block is the largest piece of stone ever cut by humans, weighing an incredible 1,200 tons. It is estimated that it would require the strength of 16,000 men to even budge it, and represents a formidable challenge to 20th century machines and technology.
* On an isolated plateau at Tiahuanaco Bolivia, 13,000 feet above sea level, stands an impressive monument called Puerta del Sol, or Sun Gate. The elaborately carved gate weighs an estimated 10 tons, and how it arrived at its present location is a mystery.
* Nan Madol, sometimes called "the Machu Pichu of the Pacific," is a great ruins on the island of Pohnpei, capitol of the Federated States of Micronesia. This lost city, constructed around 200 B.C., is made up of hundreds of stacked stone logs, each about 18-feet-long and several feet in diameter. The logs, stacked like cordwood, constitute walls that are 40 feet high and 18 feet thick. Each stone log is estimated to weigh about 2.5 tons. How they were moved and lifted into position is unknown.

What was the secret these diverse and ancient cultures possessed to manipulate these great stone blocks? A massive supply of slave labor straining human muscle and ingenuity to their limits? Or was there another more mysterious way? It's remarkable that these cultures leave no record of how these structures were constructed. However, "in almost every culture where megaliths exist," according to 432:Cosmic Key, "a legend also exists that the huge stones were moved by acoustic means - either by the chanted spells of magicians, by song, by striking with a magic wand or rod (to produce acoustic resonance), or by trumpets, gongs, lyres, cymbals or whistles."

          Resoluciones de Naciones Unidas sobre los derechos del niño. Noticias de la especial situación de Irak        
Aquí vemos resoluciones de la ONU que pueden guiar para la comprensión del problema y sobre como hacer resoluciones en modelos de naciones unidas. Especialmente se tiene en cuenta la situación de los niños de Irak para iluminar la problemática

Julio Daniel Nardini

GENERAL
A/54/601
30 de noviembre de 1999
ESPAÑOL
Original: ÁRABE




Quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones
Tema 112 del programa

Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño


Informe de la Tercera Comisión


Relator: Sr. Naif Bin Bandar Al–Sudairy (Arabia Saudita)


I. Introducción
1. En su tercera sesión plenaria, celebrada el 17 de septiembre de 1999, la Asamblea General, por recomendación de la Mesa, decidió incluir en el programa del quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño” y asignarlo a la Tercera Comisión.
2. La Tercera Comisión examinó el tema en sus sesiones 23ª a 28ª, 35ª, 41ª y 43ª, celebradas los días 27 a 29 de octubre y 1°, 5, 10 y 11 de noviembre de 1999. La reseña de las deliberaciones de la Comisión figura en las actas resumidas correspondientes (A/C.3/54/SR.23 a 28, 35, 41 y 43).
3. Para su examen del tema la Comisión tuvo ante sí los siguientes documentos:
a) Informe del Secretario General relativo a la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265);
b) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía (A/54/411);
c) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados (A/54/430);
d) Carta de fecha 17 de mayo de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Bangladesh ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el Programa del Siglo XXI por la Paz y la Justicia aprobado por la Conferencia del Llamamiento por la Paz, celebrada en La Haya del 12 al 15 de mayo de 1999 (A/54/98);
e) Carta de fecha 28 de septiembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Islandia ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite la Declaración de los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los países nórdicos contra la utilización de niños soldados (A/54/419);
f) Carta de fecha 15 de octubre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Sudáfrica ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el comunicado de la reunión de Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores y Jefes de Delegación del Movimiento de los Países No Alineados celebrada en Nueva York el 23 de septiembre de 1999 (A/54/469–S/1999/1063);
g) Carta de fecha 3 de noviembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Turquía ante las Naciones Unidas (A/54/528–S/1999/1126).
4. En su 23ª sesión, celebrada el 27 de octubre, formularon declaraciones introductorias el Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados, la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, el Director General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, el Director de la oficina de Nueva York del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y la Directora Ejecutiva del UNICEF (véase A/C.3/54/SR.23).



II. Examen de propuestas


A. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46
5. En la 35ª sesión, celebrada el 5 de noviembre, el representante de Namibia, en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Angola, Argelia, la Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaiyán, las Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Botswana, el Brasil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, Chile, China, Chipre, Colombia, el Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Cuba, Dinamarca, el Ecuador, Eritrea, Eslovenia, Etiopía, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Fiji, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Ghana, Grecia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Ecuatorial, Guyana, Haití, Hungría, Indonesia, Irlanda, Islandia, las Islas Salomón, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburgo, Malasia, Malawi, Malí, Mauricio, Mónaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, Papua Nueva Guinea, el Paraguay, el Perú, Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Democrática del Congo, la República Dominicana, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Rumania, Rwanda, Santa Lucía, el Senegal , Seychelles, Singapur, Sudáfrica, Suecia, Suriname, Swazilandia, Tailandia, Ucrania, el Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe presentó el proyecto de resolución titulado “La niña” (A/C.3/54/L.46). Posteriormente Antigua y Barbuda, Australia, Belarús, Belice, Camboya, España, Granada, Jamaica, la India, Madagascar, Panamá, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, San Marino, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Uganda y Uzbekistán, se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
6. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución I).


B. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3.54/L.49
7. En la 41ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, el representante de Finlandia en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Argelia, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bangladesh, Belarús, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, China, Chipre, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Dinamarca, Egipto, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, España, Estonia, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, la Federación de Rusia, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Guinea, Hungría, la India, el Iraq, Irlanda, Islandia, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kazajstán, Kenya, Kirguistán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Madagascar, Malasia, Malí, Malta, los Estados Federados de Micronesia, Mónaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, el Pakistán, el Perú (en nombre de los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas que pertenecen al grupo de Estados de América Latina y el Caribe), Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Checa, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, Rumania, San Marino, el Senegal, Sierra Leona, Sudáfrica, Sudán, Suecia, Tailandia, Túnez, Turquía, Ucrania y Uzbekistán presentó un proyecto de resolución titulado “Los derechos del niño” (A/C.3/54/L.49). Posteriormente, Camboya, el Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Ecuatorial, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Mozambique, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Swazilandia, el Togo, Uganda, y Zimbabwe se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
8. En la 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Secretaria del Comité leyó una declaración del Contralor sobre las consecuencias para el presupuesto por programas del proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).
9. En la misma sesión, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución II).
10. Tras la aprobación del proyecto de resolución, formularon declaraciones los representantes de Singapur, los Estados Unidos de América y el Uruguay (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).



C. Proyecto de decisión propuesto por el Presidente
11. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, a propuesta del Presidente, la Comisión decidió recomendar a la Asamblea General que tomara nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265) (véase el párrafo13).



II. Recomendaciones de la Tercera Comisión
12. La Tercera Comisión recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe los siguientes proyectos de resolución:



Proyecto de resolución I

La niña


La Asamblea General,

Recordando su resolución 53/127, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y todas las resoluciones anteriores sobre la cuestión, incluidas las conclusiones convenidas de la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 7 (E/1999/27), cap. I, secc. B.IV., en particular las pertinentes a la niña,

Recordando también todas las conferencias anteriores pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo., así como el reciente examen y evaluación al cabo de cinco años de la ejecución del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo,

Profundamente preocupada por la discriminación contra las niñas y la violación de sus derechos, como consecuencia de lo cual las niñas suelen tener menor acceso que los niños a la educación, la nutrición y la atención de la salud física y mental y disfrutar de menos derechos, oportunidades y beneficios de la niñez y la adolescencia y con frecuencia son víctimas de diversas formas de explotación cultural, social, sexual y económica y de violencia y prácticas perjudiciales como el infanticidio, el incesto, el matrimonio precoz, la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto y la mutilación genital femenina,

Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr la igualdad de género de modo de asegurar un mundo justo y equitativo para las niñas,

Observando con profunda preocupación que en situaciones de pobreza, guerra y conflicto armado las niñas figuran entre las víctimas más perjudicadas, lo cual limita sus posibilidades de pleno desarrollo,

Observando con preocupación que la niña ha pasado además a ser víctima de enfermedades venéreas y de contaminación con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, lo que afecta la calidad de su vida y la deja expuesta a mayor discriminación,

Tomando nota de que en 1999 se cumple el décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo. y el vigésimo aniversario de la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer Resolución 34/180, anexo.,

Reafirmando la igualdad de derechos de mujeres y hombres consagrada, entre otros instrumentos, en el Preámbulo de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño,

1. Subraya la necesidad de que se materialicen de manera cabal y urgente los derechos que se garantizan a la niña en todos los instrumentos de derechos humanos, en particular la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño3 y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer4, así como la necesidad de que esos instrumentos sean ratificados universalmente;

2. Insta a todos los Estados a que tomen todas las medidas necesarias y adopten las reformas jurídicas para garantizar el disfrute pleno y en condiciones de igualdad por parte de la niña de todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, a que tomen medidas eficaces contra las violaciones de esos derechos y libertades y a que utilicen los derechos del niño como base de las políticas y los programas relativos a la niña;

3. Insta a los Estados a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes que estipulen que sólo se podrá contraer matrimonio con el libre y pleno consentimiento de los futuros cónyuges, a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes relativas a la edad mínima para expresar consentimiento y contraer matrimonio y a que eleven la edad mínima para contraer matrimonio cuando sea necesario;

4. Insta además a los Estados partes a que cumplan las obligaciones que han contraído en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer, así como el compromiso de llevar a la práctica la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer Informe de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, Beijing, 4 a 15 de septiembre de 1995 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.96.IV.13), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo I.;

5. Insta asimismo a todos los Estados a que promulguen y apliquen leyes que protejan a las niñas contra todas las formas de violencia, con inclusión del infanticidio y la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto, la mutilación genital femenina, la violación, la violencia en el hogar, el incesto, el abuso sexual, la explotación sexual, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, y a que establezcan programas y servicios de apoyo médico, social y sicológico adecuados a la edad, seguros y confidenciales para ayudar a las niñas que son objeto de actos de violencia;

6. Exhorta a todos los Estados y a las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que, en forma individual y colectiva, sigan aplicando la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, en particular los objetivos estratégicos relativos a la niña;

7. Insta a los Estados a que adopten medidas especiales para proteger a los niños y, en particular, a las niñas, de la violación y de otras formas de abuso sexual y violencia por motivos de sexo en situaciones de conflicto armado, prestando especial atención a las niñas refugiadas y desplazadas, y a que, al ofrecer asistencia humanitaria, tengan en cuenta las necesidades especiales de las niñas;

8. Insta además a los Estados a que formulen planes, programas o estrategias nacionales completos, multidisciplinarios y coordinados, para eliminar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas, a los que deberán dar amplia difusión y en los que habrán de fijar objetivos y calendarios para la aplicación, y procedimientos nacionales eficaces para hacer cumplir las normas pertinentes mediante mecanismos de supervisión en que intervengan todas las partes interesadas, incluidas las consultas con las organizacio- nes de mujeres, y a que, al hacerlo, tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones relativas a la niña formuladas por la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la violencia contra la mujer, con inclusión de sus causas y consecuencias;

9. Exhorta a los gobiernos, a la sociedad civil, incluidos los medios de difusión, y a las organizaciones no gubernamentales a que fomenten la educación en materia de derechos humanos y el pleno respeto y disfrute de los derechos humanos de la niña mediante, entre otras cosas, la traducción, la producción y la difusión en todos los sectores de la sociedad, y en particular entre los niños, de material informativo sobre estos derechos adecuado a la edad de los destinatarios;

10. Pide al Secretario General que, en su calidad de Presidente del Comité Administrativo de Coordinación, vele por que todas las organizaciones y los órganos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, tanto por separado como colectivamente, en particular el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, tengan en cuenta los derechos y las necesidades particulares de la niña en sus programas de cooperación por países, de conformidad con las prioridades nacionales y con el Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo;

11. Pide a todos los órganos creados en virtud de tratados sobre derechos humanos, procedimientos especiales y otros mecanismos relativos a los derechos humanos de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos y a la Subcomisión de Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos que adopten permanente y sistemáticamente una perspectiva de género en la ejecución de sus mandatos e incluyan en sus informes análisis cualitativos sobre violaciones de los derechos humanos de la mujer y la niña, y alienta a aumentar la cooperación y coordinación a ese respecto;

12. Exhorta a los Estados y las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que movilicen todos los recursos, el apoyo y la acción necesarios para alcanzar las metas y los objetivos estratégicos y aplicar las medidas que se proponen en la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer;

13. Destaca la importancia de realizar una evaluación sustantiva de la aplicación de la Plataforma de Acción dentro de una perspectiva del ciclo de vida, de modo de determinar cuáles son las lagunas y los obstáculos con que se ha tropezado en el proceso de puesta en práctica y plantear nuevas medidas para el logro de las metas de la Plataforma de Acción;

14. Insta a los gobiernos, los organismos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en particular la División para el Adelanto de la Mujer de la Secretaría, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y las organizaciones de mujeres a que procuren que en los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General titulado “La mujer en el año 2000: igualdad entre los géneros, desarrollo y paz en el siglo XXI”, se tomen debidamente en cuenta las necesidades en los derechos de la niña y se los integre en todas las actividades;

15. Pide al Secretario General que vele por que se evalúen concretamente las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en el examen de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social Informe de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, El Cairo, 5 a 13 de septiembre de 1994 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.95.XIII.18), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo. que se realizará en junio del año 2000;

16. Pide además al Secretario General que, en consulta con el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Banco Mundial, vele por que se preste atención especial a las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en todos los preparativos a escala nacional, regional e internacional, incluido el informe sobre Evaluación de la Educación para Todos en el año 2000 Véase A/54/128–E/1999/70. y el programa del Foro Mundial de la Educación, que se celebrará en abril de 2000;

17. Pide asimismo al Secretario General que se asegure de que las necesidades y los derechos de la niña se tengan en cuenta en la labor preparatoria del período extraordina- rio de sesiones de la Asamblea General sobre el seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia que se celebrará en el año 2001, entre otras cosas, presentando a la Asamblea General un informe completo basado en las experiencias y resultados de los exámenes de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer y el Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social, y en la labor preparatoria del Foro Mundial de la Educación.



Proyecto de resolución II

Los derechos del niño
La Asamblea General,
Recordando sus resoluciones 53/127 y 53/128, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y la resolución 1999/80 de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, de 28 de abril de 1999 Véase Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 3 (E/1999/23), cap. II, secc. A.,
Teniendo presente la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo., destacando que las disposiciones de la Convención y otros instrumentos pertinentes de derechos humanos deben constituir la norma en la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño y reafirmando que el interés superior del niño ha de ser una consideración primordial en todas las medidas que se adopten en relación con los niños,
Reafirmando, la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño y el Plan de Acción para la aplicación de la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño en el decenio de 1990, aprobados en la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que se celebró en Nueva York el 29 y 30 de septiembre de 1990 A/45/625, anexo., en particular el compromiso solemne de asignar alta prioridad a los derechos del niño, su supervivencia, su protección y su desarrollo, y reafirmando asimismo la Declaración y Programa de Acción de Viena que aprobó la Conferencia Mundial de Derechos Humanos, celebrada en Viena del 14 al 25 de junio de 1993A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), cap. III., en que, entre otras cosas, se indica que deben reforzarse los mecanismos y programas nacionales e internaciona- les de defensa y protección de los niños, en particular de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles, con inclusión de medidas eficaces para combatir los casos de explotación y el maltrato de niños, como el infanticidio femenino, el empleo de niños en trabajos peligrosos, la venta de niños y de sus órganos, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de los niños en la pornografía, y en que se reafirma que todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales son universales,

Observando con profunda preocupación que la situación de los niños en muchas partes del mundo sigue siendo crítica como resultado de la pobreza, las dificultades sociales y económicas en una economía cada vez más mundializada, las pandemias, los desastres naturales, los conflictos armados, el desplazamiento de la población, la explotación, el analfabetismo, el hambre, la intolerancia, la discriminación y la protección jurídica inadecuada, y convencida de que es preciso adoptar medidas urgentes y eficaces en los planos nacional e internacional,
Destacando la necesidad de integrar la dimensión del género en todas las políticas y programas relacionados con los niños,
Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr un nivel de vida adecuado para el desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral y social del niño, así como de proporcionar un acceso universal a la enseñanza primaria en condiciones de igualdad,

Reconociendo también que la colaboración entre los gobiernos, las organizaciones internacionales y todos los sectores de la sociedad civil, en particular las organizaciones no gubernamentales, es importante para el ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Destacando la importancia del décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño para la movilización y adopción de nuevas medidas a fin de lograr el pleno ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Acogiendo con satisfacción los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General, dedicado al seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que ha de celebrarse en 2001,


I
Aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
1. Insta una vez más a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que, como cuestión prioritaria, firmen y ratifiquen la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 o se adhieran a ella, a fin de lograr el objetivo de la adhesión universal para el décimo aniversario de la celebración de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y de la entrada en vigor de la Convención en el año 2000;
2. Reitera su preocupación por el elevado número de reservas a la Convención e insta a los Estados partes a que retiren las reservas que sean incompatibles con el objeto y propósito de la Convención y que revisen periódicamente sus reservas con el fin de retirarlas;
3. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que apliquen plenamente la Convención y subraya que la aplicación de la Convención contribuye al logro de los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia;
4. Insta a los Estados a que hagan participar a los niños y a los jóvenes en las actividades para lograr los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y la Convención;
5. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que cooperen estrechamente con el Comité de los Derechos del Niño y cumplan puntualmente la obligación de presentar informes que les impone la Convención, ateniéndose a las directrices elaboradas por el Comité, y alienta a los Estados partes a que tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones formuladas por el Comité en la aplicación de las disposiciones de la Convención;
6. Exhorta asimismo a los Estados partes a que promuevan la capacitación en materia de derechos del niño de quienes participan en actividades relacionadas con niños, por ejemplo, por conducto del programa de servicios de asesoramiento y cooperación técnica en materia de derechos humanos;
7. Pide al Secretario General que facilite el personal y los medios necesarios para que el Comité pueda cumplir de manera eficaz y rápida sus funciones, y toma nota del apoyo temporal proporcionado por el plan de acción de la Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos para reforzar la importante función del Comité en la promoción de la aplicación de la Convención; y le pide que presente información sobre las medidas complementarias del plan de acción;
8. Exhorta a los Estados partes en la Convención a que adopten las medidas apropiadas para que la enmienda del párrafo 2 del artículo 43 de la Convención sea aceptada a la mayor brevedad posible por una mayoría de dos tercios de los Estados partes a fin de que entre en vigor y el número de miembros del Comité pueda aumentar de 10 a 18 expertos;
9. Invita al Comité a que siga intensificando su diálogo constructivo con los Estados partes y la transparencia y eficacia de su funcionamiento;
10. Acoge con satisfacción la atención que presta el Comité al logro de los niveles más altos posibles de salud y de acceso a la atención de la salud y a los derechos de los niños afectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y exhorta a los gobiernos a que, en cooperación con los órganos y las organizacio- nes de las Naciones Unidas, tomen todas las medidas que corresponda con el fin de hacer efectivos esos derechos;
11. Insta a los Estados a que protejan todos los derechos humanos de los niños migrantes, en particular los niños migrantes no acompañados, y que garanticen que el interés superior del niño sea, por tanto, la consideración principal, y alienta al Comité, al Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a otros órganos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que, en el marco de sus mandatos respectivos, presten especial atención a las condiciones de los niños migrantes en todos los Estados y, según convenga, formulen recomendaciones para fortalecer su protección;
12. Recomienda que, en el marco de sus mandatos, todos los mecanismos competentes de derechos humanos y otros órganos y mecanismos pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, así como los órganos de supervisión de los organismos especializa- dos, presten especial atención a las situaciones particulares que pongan a los niños en peligro y en que sus derechos sean violados y que tengan en cuenta la labor del Comité, y alienta a seguir desarrollando el criterio basado en los derechos del niño que ha adoptado el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a adoptar nuevas medidas a fin de incrementar la coordinación a nivel de todo el sistema y la cooperación interinstitucional para la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño;
13. Alienta al Comité a que, en su labor de supervisión de la aplicación de la Convención, siga prestando atención a las necesidades de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles;
14. Alienta a los gobiernos, a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas, a las organizaciones no gubernamentales competentes y a las personas dedicadas a las actividades en pro de la infancia a que, según corresponda, contribuyan a la base de datos que ha establecido en la red el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) a fin de continuar proporcionando información sobre leyes, estructuras, políticas y procesos adoptados a escala nacional con el objeto de llevar a la práctica la Convención;


II
Prevención y erradicación de la venta de niños y de su explotación y maltrato sexual, en particular la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía
1. Acoge con satisfacción el informe provisional de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía A/54/411. y expresa su apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial;
2. Pide al Secretario General que proporcione a la Relatora Especial toda la asistencia necesaria en materia de recursos humanos y financieros para que pueda cumplir plenamente su mandato;
3. Invita a que sigan aportándose contribuciones voluntarias por conducto de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y a que se preste apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial para que pueda cumplir su mandato con eficacia;
4. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 relativo a la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía e insta al grupo de trabajo a que concluya su labor antes de la celebración del décimo aniversario, en 2000, de la entrada en vigor de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
5. Reafirma la obligación de los Estados partes de impedir el secuestro, la venta o la trata de niños para cualquier fin o en cualquier forma y de proteger al niño de todos los tipos de explotación o abuso sexual, de conformidad con los artículos 34 y 35 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
6. Insta a los Estados a que tipifiquen como delito y castiguen eficazmente todas las formas de explotación y abuso sexual de los niños, en particular dentro de la familia o con fines comerciales, la utilización de niños en la pornografía y la prostitución infantil, incluida la explotación de niños en el turismo sexual, garantizando al mismo tiempo que los niños víctimas de esas prácticas no sean penalizados; y a que adopten medidas eficaces para garantizar el procesamiento de los delincuentes, tanto locales como extranjeros, por las autoridades nacionales competentes, en el país de origen del delincuente o en el país de destino, respetando las garantías procesales;
7. Insta también a los Estados a que en los casos de explotación de niños en el turismo sexual aumenten la cooperación internacional entre las autoridades competentes, en particular las autoridades policiales, y a que compartan los datos pertinentes a fin de erradicar esa práctica;
8. Pide a los Estados que intensifiquen la cooperación y la acción concertada a nivel nacional, regional e internacional, incluido en el contexto de las Naciones Unidas, por parte de todas las autoridades e instituciones competentes, a fin de adoptar y aplicar medidas eficaces para la prevención y la erradicación de la venta de niños y su explotación y abuso sexual y para prevenir y desmantelar redes de trata de niños;
9. Destaca la necesidad de combatir la existencia de un mercado que fomenta ese tipo de prácticas delictivas contra los niños, incluso mediante la adopción de medidas preventivas y coercitivas dirigidas contra los clientes o las personas que explotan o maltratan sexualmente a los niños;
10. Insta además a los Estados a que promulguen, apliquen, examinen y revisen, según proceda, la legislación pertinente e implanten políticas, programas y prácticas para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de la explotación y abuso sexual, incluida la explotación sexual con fines comerciales, y eliminar esas prácticas, teniendo en cuenta los problemas específicos que plantea la utilización de la Internet en este sentido;
11. Alienta a los gobiernos a que faciliten la participación activa de los niños víctimas de explotación o abuso sexual en la formulación y aplicación de estrategias para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de explotación o abuso sexual;
12. Alienta a seguir tratando de determinar a nivel regional e interregional las mejores prácticas y las cuestiones que exigen una respuesta particularmente urgente para dar seguimiento a la aplicación de medidas acordes con las indicadas en la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo.;
13. Invita a los Estados y órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que asignen recursos suficientes para la rehabilitación de los niños víctimas de la explotación y el maltrato sexual y a que tomen las medidas correspondientes para promover su plena recuperación y reintegración social;


III
Protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados
1. Acoge con beneplácito el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre el efecto de los conflictos armados en los niñosA/54/430.;
2. Expresa su apoyo a la labor del Representante Especial del Secretario General, en particular sus esfuerzos por crear mayor conciencia de la cuestión en todo el mundo y por movilizar a la opinión oficial y pública en favor de la protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, a fin de promover el respeto de los derechos y las necesidades de los niños en los conflictos y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, y recomienda al Secretario General que prorrogue su mandato por un nuevo período de tres años, conforme a lo estipulado en los párrafos 35, 36 y 37 de la resolución 51/77 de la Asamblea General, de 12 de diciembre de 1996;
3. Insta al Secretario General y a todas las partes pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, incluido el Representante Especial y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, a que intensifiquen sus esfuerzos por elaborar un enfoque concertado de los derechos, la protección y el bienestar de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, incluso, según proceda, en los preparativos de las visitas al terreno del Representante Especial y en el seguimiento de dichas visitas;
4. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes interesadas a que sigan cooperando con el Representante Especial, cumplan los compromisos que han contraído, y examinen atentamente todas las recomendaciones del Representante Especial y se ocupen de las cuestiones señaladas;
5. Celebra el apoyo constante que se ofrece a la labor del Representante Especial y las contribuciones voluntarias efectuadas a ese respecto;
6. Insta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados a respetar el derecho internacional humanitario, a poner fin a cualquier forma de agresión dirigida a los niños y a los ataques a lugares en los que suele haber un número considerable de niños, exhorta a los Estados Partes a que respeten plenamente las disposiciones de los Convenios de Ginebra de 12 de agosto de 1949 Naciones Unidas, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, Nos. 970 a 973. y los Protocolos Adicionales de 1977 Ibíd., vol. 1125, Nos. 17512 y 17513., y exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a adoptar todas las medidas necesarias para proteger a los niños de los actos que constituyen violaciones del derecho internacional humanitario, incluso mediante el enjuiciamiento por los Estados, en el marco de la legislación nacional, de los responsables de dichas violaciones;
7. Reconoce, a ese respecto, que el establecimiento de la Corte Penal Internacional contribuiría a poner fin a la impunidad de los perpetradores de ciertos crímenes cometidos contra los niños, tipificados en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional Véase A/CONF.183/9, art. 8., que incluyen, entre otros, los que entrañan violencia sexual o la utilización de niños soldados, y tendrá también un efecto preventivo;
8. Condena el secuestro de niños en situaciones de conflicto armado o con el fin de involucrarlos en conflictos armados e insta a los Estados, a las organizaciones internacionales y a otras partes interesadas a que adopten todas las medidas que sean apropiadas para obtener la liberación incondicional de todos los niños secuestrados, e insta a los Estados a someter a los perpetradores a la acción de la justicia;
9. Toma nota de la importancia del segundo debate público sobre los niños y los conflictos armados, celebrado por el Consejo de Seguridad el 25 de agosto de 1999 Véase S/PV.4037., y del compromiso del Consejo de prestar especial atención a la protección, el bienestar y los derechos de los niños, al adoptar medidas encaminadas al mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad Resolución 1261 (1999) del Consejo de Seguridad., y reafirma el papel fundamental que corresponde a la Asamblea General y al Consejo Económico y Social en la promoción y protección de los derechos y el bienestar de los niños;
10. Exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a que velen por que el personal humanitario tenga acceso seguro y sin restricciones a todos los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, y por que se preste asistencia humanitaria a esos niños;
11. Celebra la decisión del Consejo Económico y Social Documentos Oficiales de la Asamblea General, quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones, Suplemento No. 3 (A/54/3), cap. VI, párr. 5, conclusiones convenidas 1999/1, párr. 22. de exhortar a una acción interinstitucional sistemática, concertada y amplia a favor de los niños y pedir que se asignen recursos suficientes, en forma sostenible, para prestar a los niños asistencia inmediata de emergencia y financiar medidas a largo plazo a ese respecto durante todas las etapas de una emergencia;
12. Insta a los Estados y a todas las otras partes en los conflictos armados a poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados y asegurar su desmovilización y desarme efectivo, y a adoptar medidas eficaces para la rehabilitación, la recuperación física y sicológica y la reinserción en la sociedad de todos los niños que han sido víctimas de situaciones de conflicto armado; invita a la comunidad internacional a prestar asistencia en ese empeño; y subraya que no se debe prestar a quienes utilicen niños soldados ningún apoyo que haga posible o que facilite esa práctica;
13. Exhorta a los Estados y a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas a que continúen prestando apoyo a las actividades nacionales e internacionales de remoción de minas, incluso mediante contribuciones financieras, programas de información sobre el peligro de las minas y programas de asistencia a las víctimas y de rehabilitación dedicados especialmente a los niños, y celebra también los efectos positivos que tiene para los niños la adopción de medidas legislativas concretas respecto de las minas antipersonal;
14. Toma nota con preocupación del efecto de las armas pequeñas y ligeras sobre los niños en situaciones de conflicto armado, en particular como consecuencia de su producción y tráfico ilícitos, e insta a los Estados a ocuparse de ese problema;
15. Recomienda que, cada vez que se impongan sanciones, se evalúen y vigilen sus efectos en los niños, y que las exenciones por motivos humanitarios tengan especialmente en cuenta a los niños y se formulen con unas claras directrices de aplicación;
16. Exhorta a los Estados, a los órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y a las organizaciones regionales a que integren los derechos del niño en todas sus actividades durante los conflictos armados y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, incluidos los programas de capacitación y las operaciones de socorro de emergencia, los programas en los países y las operaciones sobre el terreno encaminadas a promover la paz y a prevenir y resolver conflictos, así como en la negociación y aplicación de los acuerdos de paz, y, teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias a largo plazo para la sociedad, subraya la importancia de incorporar disposiciones específicas para los niños, incluso disposiciones relativas a la aportación de recursos, en los acuerdos de paz y en los acuerdos negociados por las partes en los conflictos;
17. Acoge con beneplácito las gestiones que realizan, entre otros, las organizaciones regionales, las organizaciones intergubernamentales y las no gubernamentales para poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados en los conflictos armados, y reafirma la necesidad urgente de aumentar la edad mínima límite establecida en el artículo 38 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 para el reclutamiento y la participación de cualquier persona en los conflictos armados, con el objeto de poner fin a la utilización de niños soldados;
18. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño relativo a la participación de los niños en los conflictos armados, y las consultas que dirige el presidente del grupo de trabajo para seguir avanzando con el fin de concluir su labor antes del décimo aniversario de la entrada en vigor de la Convención;


IV
Los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país
1. Insta a los gobiernos a mejorar la aplicación de políticas y programas para la protección, el cuidado y el bienestar de los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país, con la cooperación internacional necesaria, en particular la de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Representante del Secretario General sobre los desplazados internos, en consonancia con las obligaciones contraídas en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
2. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados, así como a los órganos y organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas, a que presten atención urgente a la protección y asistencia a los niños refugiados o desplazados en el interior del país, que están especialmente expuestos a riesgos relacionados con los conflictos armados, como los de ser reclutados forzosamente o ser objeto de violencia, maltrato o explotación sexual;
3. Expresa su profunda preocupación por el número cada vez mayor de niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados, y hace un llamamiento a todos los Estados y a los órganos y organismos de las Naciones Unidas y otras organizaciones pertinentes para que den prioridad a los programas para la búsqueda y reunificación de las familias y continúen supervisando las disposiciones en materia de cuidado de los niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados;


V
Eliminación progresiva del trabajo infantil
1. Reafirma el derecho del niño a la protección respecto de la explotación económica y la realización de cualquier trabajo que pueda ser peligroso para él o constituir un obstáculo para su educación o que pueda resultar nocivo para su salud o su desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral o social;
2. Acoge con satisfacción la aprobación por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, en el 87° período de sesiones de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, celebrado en Ginebra del 1° al 17 de junio de 1999, del Convenio No. 182 sobre la prohibición de las peores formas de trabajo infantil y la acción inmediata para su eliminación, y alienta a todos los Estados a considerar, como cuestión prioritaria, la posibilidad de ratificarlo, con miras a que entre en vigor lo antes posible;
3. Exhorta a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que consideren la posibilidad de ratificar los convenios de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo relativos al trabajo infantil, en particular el Convenio No. 29, de 1930, sobre la abolición del trabajo forzoso u obligatorio y el Convenio No. 138, de 1973, sobre la edad mínima de empleo, y los exhorta a que apliquen esos Convenios;
4. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a que traduzcan en medidas concretas su compromiso de eliminar progresiva y efectivamente las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas y los insta a que, como cuestión prioritaria, eliminen de inmediato las peores formas de trabajo infantil, enumeradas en el nuevo Convenio No. 182 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo;
5. Exhorta además a todos los Estados a que evalúen y examinen sistemáticamente la magnitud, la naturaleza y las causas del trabajo infantil y a que elaboren y pongan en práctica estrategias para la eliminación del trabajo infantil que contravenga las normas internacionales aceptadas, prestando especial atención a los peligros concretos a que hacen frente las niñas, así como a la rehabilitación y la reinserción social de los niños afectados;
6. Reconoce que la educación primaria es uno de los principales instrumentos para reintegrar a los niños que trabajan e insta a todos los Estados a que reconozcan el derecho a la educación, haciendo obligatoria la enseñanza primaria y garantizando que todos los niños tengan acceso a la enseñanza primaria gratuita como estrategia fundamental para prevenir el trabajo infantil, y reconoce, en particular, la importante función que cumplen a este respecto la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia;

7. Exhorta a todos los Estados y al sistema de las Naciones Unidas a que incrementen la cooperación internacional como medio de ayudar a los gobiernos a prevenir o a combatir las violaciones de los derechos de los niños y a alcanzar el objetivo de eliminar las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas;

8. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que fortalezcan la cooperación y coordinación en los planos nacional e internacional, para abordar efectivamente el problema del trabajo infantil, cooperando también estrechamente con la Organización Internacional del Trabajo y con el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, entre otros organismos;


VI
La difícil situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle

1. Exhorta a los gobiernos a buscar soluciones amplias a los problemas que dan lugar a que los niños trabajen o vivan en la calle y a aplicar políticas y programas apropiados para la protección y la rehabilitación y reinserción de esos niños, teniendo en cuenta que son particularmente vulnerables a todo tipo de violencia, maltrato, explotación y abandono;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a velar por que se presten servicios a los niños para evitar que se dediquen a actividades que puedan acarrearles daño, explotación y maltrato y atender a las necesidades económicas apremiantes que motivan su participación en tales actividades;

3. Insta encarecidamente a todos los gobiernos a que garanticen el respeto de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales de todos, en particular el derecho a la vida, a que adopten con carácter urgente medidas eficaces para evitar que se mate a los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle, combatir la tortura, el maltrato y los actos de violencia contra ellos y someter a los perpetradores de tales actos a la acción de la justicia;

4. Hace un llamamiento a la comunidad internacional para que, mediante una cooperación internacional eficaz, incluida la prestación de asesoramiento y asistencia técnicos, apoye la labor de los Estados encaminada a mejorar la situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle;


VII
Niños con discapacidad

1. Celebra que, de conformidad con la decisión del Comité de los Derechos del Niño, se haya establecido un grupo de trabajo con el fin de elaborar un plan de acción en favor de los niños con discapacidad, en estrecha colaboración con el Relator Especial sobre Discapacidad de la Comisión de Desarrollo Social y otros sectores pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas Véase CRC/C/84, párrs. 219 a 222.;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que adopten todas las medidas necesarias para asegurar que los niños con discapacidad gocen plenamente y en condiciones de igualdad de todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales y a que promulguen y hagan cumplir leyes contra la discriminación de esos niños;

3. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a promover para los niños con discapacidad una vida plena y decorosa, en condiciones que aseguren la dignidad, fomenten la autosufi- ciencia y faciliten la participación activa del niño en la comunidad, incluido el acceso efectivo a la educación y los servicios de atención de la salud;


VIII

Decide:

a) Pedir al Secretario General que le presente en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones un informe sobre los derechos del niño que contenga información sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 y los problemas a que se hace referencia en la presente resolución;

b) Pedir al Representante Especial del Secretario General para la cuestión de los niños y los conflictos armados que presente a la Asamblea General y a la Comisión de Derechos Humanos informes que contengan información pertinente sobre la situación de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, teniendo en cuenta los mandatos actuales y los informes de los órganos correspondientes;

c) Seguir examinando esta cuestión en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones en relación con el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño”.
***

13. La Comisión también recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe el siguiente proyecto de decisión:



Informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
La Asamblea General toma nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño A/54/265
Iraq: ONU califica de intolerable situación de niños



25 de abril, 2008 La representante especial de la ONU para Niños en Conflictos Armados, Radhika Coomaraswamy, consideró que la situación de los niños en Iraq es intolerable debido a la violencia.
Al concluir una visita de cinco días a ese país, la enviada dijo hoy que los menores son víctimas silenciosas del entorno violento que impera

en Iraq.




En este sentido, instó a los líderes religiosos, políticos, militares y comunitarios del país a enviar un mensaje claro a la niñez iraquí para que se mantengan el margen de las hostilidades y vuelvan a la escuela.

Coomaraswamy urgió a todas las partes en conflicto a apegarse estrictamente a los estándares humanitarios internacionales sobre la protección de los niños y a liberar de inmediato a los menores de 18 años que estén asociados a cualquier organización combatiente.

Señaló que más de la mitad de los desplazados y refugiados iraquíes son niños que afrontan grandes dificultades en los lugares donde llegan a asentarse ya sea en su propio país o en uno ajeno.

“La comunidad internacional debería asistir a los países anfitriones para garantizar que se protejan los derechos de los niños y que tengan acceso a servicios básicos como la educación y los servicios de salud”, enfatizó la representante especial.


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Kadhum Al-Sahir, nuevo Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, habla sobre las necesidades de los más pobres
BAGDAD, Iraq, 9 de mayo de 2011. Kadhum Al-Sahir, el cantante iraquí mundialmente reconocido como uno de los más grandes representantes de la música árabe contemporánea, se convirtió hoy en el primer Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq. Al regresar a su país tras 14 años de ausencia, Al-Sahir destacó la necesidad de luchar por la igualdad en pro de los niños más necesitados de Iraq.

VÍDEO (en inglés): 5 de mayo de 2011. El famoso cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir, recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, compuso una nueva canción, titulada "Juntos por los niños", en la que convoca a todos los segmentos de la sociedad de su país a que ayuden a poner fin a las penurias que afrontan los jóvenes y niños.
"Los niños y niñas de Iraq han sufrido penurias indescriptibles en las últimas dos décadas, en las que cientos de miles de menores sufrieron las consecuencias brutales de la violencia y las privaciones inhumanas", dijo. "Ha llegado la hora de poner fin a esa situación".
Al-Sahir es uno de los más destacados músicos en la historia de Iraq y uno de los artistas más populares de la región.
El cantante aboga por los niños y jóvenes desde hace mucho tiempo. Ese apoyo comenzó en 1998, cuando compuso e interpretó "Tathakkar" ("Recuerda"), una canción sobre los niños en las situaciones de conflicto. El tema recibió un premio de UNICEF por tratarse de una contribución sobresaliente al mejoramiento de las vidas de los niños en situación de necesidad. En 2004, Al-Sahir ofreció un concierto a beneficio de más de 50.000 niños y niñas de Oriente Medio.



Juntos por los niños
Continuando en la misma vena, Kadhum Al-Sahir presentó hoy "Juntos por los niños", una nueva canción que es también un llamamiento a la acción.



© UNICEF Iraq/2011/Arar
Kadhum Al-Sahir, el famoso cantante recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, regresa a su país tras una ausencia de 14 años.
La canción rinde homenaje al coraje de los niños de Iraq en versos que dicen, por ejemplo, "¿Hay alguien que haya sufrido las penurias que sufrieron ustedes? Porque ustedes han superado los límites del temor y las privaciones".
El cantante convocó a todos los segmentos de la sociedad iraquí a que ayuden a mejorar la situación de sus niños. "Unámonos a UNICEF, y marchemos juntos para poner fin a las muertes, las enfermedades, el abandono y la pobreza", añadió. "Ayudemos a los niños que son víctimas de las guerras. Vengan y hagamos algo para que sus penurias se conviertan en prosperidad. Vengan, trabajemos todos juntos".
Las cuestiones que afectan a los niños de Iraq
En el decenio de 1970, Iraq era uno de los mejores países de Oriente Medio y África septentrional si se era niño, pero tras varias décadas de guerra y abandono, hoy es uno de los peores. Entre las cuestiones más graves que afectan a los casi 15 millones de niños y niñas iraquíes figuran las siguientes:
 Unos 35.000 lactantes mueren anualmente durante su primer año de vida.
 Más de 1,5 millones de niños menores de cinco años sufren desnutrición.
 Unos 700.000 niños y niñas en edad escolar no asisten a clases, mientras que cientos de miles de niños que inician sus estudios no los terminan.
 Unos 2,5 millones de niños carecen de acceso al agua potable y unos 3,5 millones no cuentan con instalaciones de saneamiento adecuadas.
 Unos 800.000 niños y niñas de 5 a 14 años de edad trabajan.


© UNICEF-Iraq/Arar/2011
El cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir se dirige a un grupo de periodistas tras el anuncio en Bagdad de su nombram
          Scuba Diving the Canyons, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
One of the best dives on Yap is the Canyons.  It is a quiet dive with little current, and has a labyrinth of canyons and swim throughs that are a joy to explore - Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
One of the best dives on Yap is the Canyons. It is a quiet dive with little current, and has a labyrinth of canyons and swim throughs that are a joy to explore - Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Mother and Daughter in Traditional Costume, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Mother and daughter taking an ancient traditional stone path through the forest to the village house. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Mother and daughter taking an ancient traditional stone path through the forest to the village house. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Coral Garden, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Brain coral and other colorful corals flourish in the clear blue waters around Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Brain coral and other colorful corals flourish in the clear blue waters around Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Stone Money and Palms, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Looking up at some Yap stone money and the coconut palms against a bright blue sky, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Looking up at some Yap stone money and the coconut palms against a bright blue sky, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Stone Money and a Traditional Men's House, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Each piece of stone money has a name and a story.  Some stone money is more valuable than others, depending on the difficulties, heroism and lives lost obtaining and transporting the money, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Each piece of stone money has a name and a story. Some stone money is more valuable than others, depending on the difficulties, heroism and lives lost obtaining and transporting the money, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Coral Garden, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Coral garden, including a variety of soft leather and cauliflower corals, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Coral garden, including a variety of soft leather and cauliflower corals, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Sea Slug Shuffle, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Sea Slug feet feeling their way over a red coral, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Sea Slug feet feeling their way over a red coral, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Boy Preparing for Traditional Dance, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Traditional dances are a central part of the Yap culture. The decorations for the dance make imaginative use of natural materials to excellent effect, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Traditional dances are a central part of the Yap culture. The decorations for the dance make imaginative use of natural materials to excellent effect, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Nudibranch, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
This green polka dotted nudibranch is an unusually colorful creature, Yap Micronesia <br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
This green polka dotted nudibranch is an unusually colorful creature, Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Gun From World War II, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Large anti-aircraft gun from World War II, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Large anti-aircraft gun from World War II, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Young Child in Traditional Dress, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Young Child in Traditional Dress, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Young Child in Traditional Dress, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Brain Coral, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Convolutions of Brain Coral, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Convolutions of Brain Coral, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Boy Climbs Betel Palm, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Boy Climbs Betel Palm, Yap Micronesia(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Boy Climbs Betel Palm, Yap Micronesia(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Huge Soft Leather Coral, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Huge soft leather coral in Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Huge soft leather coral in Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Young Girl Laughing in Traditional Dance, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The traditional dances in Yap have no schedule and occur only when the people themselves decide to have a dance.  The Yap dancers are the most skilled and authentic Pacific dancers I have seen. The dancers include people of all ages, and everyone has a lot of fun, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The traditional dances in Yap have no schedule and occur only when the people themselves decide to have a dance. The Yap dancers are the most skilled and authentic Pacific dancers I have seen. The dancers include people of all ages, and everyone has a lot of fun, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Crinoid (Sea Fan), Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Crinoid (Sea Fan) feeding in the current, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Crinoid (Sea Fan) feeding in the current, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Damaged Anti Aircraft Gun from WWII, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Damaged Anti Aircraft Gun from WWII, Yap Micronesia(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Damaged Anti Aircraft Gun from WWII, Yap Micronesia(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Crinoid (Sea Fan), Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Crinoid (Sea Fan) filter feeding in the clear waters around Yap, Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Crinoid (Sea Fan) filter feeding in the clear waters around Yap, Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Female Mandarin Fish, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Female Mandarin Fish, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Female Mandarin Fish, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Brain Coral, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Brain Coral, Yap Micronesia<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Brain Coral, Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Christmas Tree Like Tube Worm, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Christmas Tree Like Tube Worm, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Christmas Tree Like Tube Worm, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Sea Life, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Abundant Sea Life, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Abundant Sea Life, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Traditional Dance, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Young man leading the other dancers in a dramatic dance. The traditional dance costume makes imaginative use of local materials, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Young man leading the other dancers in a dramatic dance. The traditional dance costume makes imaginative use of local materials, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Large Anemone, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Large anemone look like hair waving and swirling in the current, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Large anemone look like hair waving and swirling in the current, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Boy in Traditional Dance, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Boy in Traditional Dance, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Boy in Traditional Dance, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Coral Ball, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Coral Ball, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Coral Ball, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Local Village Chief, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
This local village chief is over 70 years old and is still fit and active.  He does not drink or smoke, but chews betel as is traditional on the island, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
This local village chief is over 70 years old and is still fit and active. He does not drink or smoke, but chews betel as is traditional on the island, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Golden Sea Fan Crinoid, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Golden Sea Fan Crinoid, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Golden Sea Fan Crinoid, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Brain Coral, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Brain coral,Yap Micronesia<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Brain coral,Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Japanese Zero Wreck, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Japanese Zero Wreck, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Japanese Zero Wreck, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Cockpit of Old Plane, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Cockpit of Old Plane, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Cockpit of Old Plane, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Clark's Anemone Fish, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Clark's Anemone Fish, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Clark's Anemone Fish, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Coral Polyps, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Coral Polyps, Yap Micronesia<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Coral Polyps, Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Brain Coral, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The clear blue water around Yap promotes healthy coral growth. This large brain coral is particularly beautiful, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The clear blue water around Yap promotes healthy coral growth. This large brain coral is particularly beautiful, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Trochus Shells on Wall of Men's House, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Trochus shells decorate the wall of a traditional Men's House in Yap. Men and women can gather in their own separate communal housing during the day.  The traditional house is actually far more than a place to gather, the building and maintenance and use of the house is integral to the passing on of skills and culture from one generation to another, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Trochus shells decorate the wall of a traditional Men's House in Yap. Men and women can gather in their own separate communal housing during the day. The traditional house is actually far more than a place to gather, the building and maintenance and use of the house is integral to the passing on of skills and culture from one generation to another, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Diver Above Anemone, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Diver above large anemone, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Diver above large anemone, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Chief Outside Men's House, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Local village chief outside a traditional men's house in Yap. Men and women sometimes gather in their own separate communal housing during the day. The traditional house is a key instrument to the passing of skills and culture from one generation to another. The men and young boys gather here and fishing and building skills are learned and discussed, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Local village chief outside a traditional men's house in Yap. Men and women sometimes gather in their own separate communal housing during the day. The traditional house is a key instrument to the passing of skills and culture from one generation to another. The men and young boys gather here and fishing and building skills are learned and discussed, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Pipefish, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
This is a Pipefish (probably a Bellybarred) a close relative of the seahorse family, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
This is a Pipefish (probably a Bellybarred) a close relative of the seahorse family, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Red Coral, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Red Coral, Yap Micronesia<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Red Coral, Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Amazing Feet of Sea Slug, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
It was amazing to watch the feet of this sea slug feeling its way along the reef in Yap Micronesia<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
It was amazing to watch the feet of this sea slug feeling its way along the reef in Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Elder Helping Young Girl Prepare for Dance, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Elder matriarch helping a young girl prepare for a traditional dance. These interactions are one way in which the cultural traditions are passed from one generation to another. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Elder matriarch helping a young girl prepare for a traditional dance. These interactions are one way in which the cultural traditions are passed from one generation to another. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Traditional Dance and Stone Money, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
All age groups, including the very young, participate and enjoy traditional dance, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
All age groups, including the very young, participate and enjoy traditional dance, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Soft Coral Filter Feeders, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Delicate soft coral filter feeders, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Delicate soft coral filter feeders, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Men's House with Dolphin Motif, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The men's house is an amazing construction, no nails are used and only locally available materials go into the creation of cool place to gather and shelter from tropical sun. Local hand made twine and ropes of different thicknesses are used to bind everything together in a flexible and strong structure that is able to withstand high winds. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The men's house is an amazing construction, no nails are used and only locally available materials go into the creation of cool place to gather and shelter from tropical sun. Local hand made twine and ropes of different thicknesses are used to bind everything together in a flexible and strong structure that is able to withstand high winds. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Soft Coral Anemone, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Soft Coral Anemone moves back and forward in the current like mermaid hair, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Soft Coral Anemone moves back and forward in the current like mermaid hair, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Nudibranch, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Nudibranch moving slowly along the reef, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Nudibranch moving slowly along the reef, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Coconut Palm, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Coconut Palm, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Coconut Palm, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Regal Angel Fish, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Regal Angel Fish, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Regal Angel Fish, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Soft Corals and Sea Fan, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
A wall of hard and soft corals with a sea fan (crinoid) filter feeding, Yap<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
A wall of hard and soft corals with a sea fan (crinoid) filter feeding, Yap
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Traditional Canoe, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Traditional hand carved canoe, Yap.  The fork or V shape at the bow of the boat is used to point at a star as an aid to navigation between the far flung islands. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Traditional hand carved canoe, Yap. The fork or V shape at the bow of the boat is used to point at a star as an aid to navigation between the far flung islands. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Forceps Fish, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
This is a Forceps Fish.  It might look like a Butterflyfish but it does not have a vertical black stripe through the eye. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
This is a Forceps Fish. It might look like a Butterflyfish but it does not have a vertical black stripe through the eye. Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Soft Coral Wave, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Just like a wave of hands of the crowd at a game of football, the soft coral waves back and forth in the current, filter feeding on micro organisms, Yap Micronesia<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Just like a wave of hands of the crowd at a game of football, the soft coral waves back and forth in the current, filter feeding on micro organisms, Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Abstract Macro of Anemone, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The translucent tentacles of a sea anemone are from the alien world of underwater macro, Yap Micronesia.(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The translucent tentacles of a sea anemone are from the alien world of underwater macro, Yap Micronesia.(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Thumb Splitter (Mantis Shrimp), Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Thumb Splitter (Mantis Shrimp) a strange creature that uses its claws to create a pressure wave that shocks its prey but is also powerful enough to split your finger or break glass if you get too close, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Thumb Splitter (Mantis Shrimp) a strange creature that uses its claws to create a pressure wave that shocks its prey but is also powerful enough to split your finger or break glass if you get too close, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          The Mnuw, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Two old East India Company cannons on the bow of The Mnuw, a 170ft (55m) Phinisi schooner from Indonesia set up as a restaurant and bars.  The Mnuw is moored just off the Manta Ray Bay Resort, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Two old East India Company cannons on the bow of The Mnuw, a 170ft (55m) Phinisi schooner from Indonesia set up as a restaurant and bars. The Mnuw is moored just off the Manta Ray Bay Resort, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          The Mnuw Helm at Sunset, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
The Mnuw is a 170ft (55m) Phinisi schooner from Indonesia set up as a restaurant and bars.  The Mnuw is moored just off the Manta Ray Bay Resort, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
The Mnuw is a 170ft (55m) Phinisi schooner from Indonesia set up as a restaurant and bars. The Mnuw is moored just off the Manta Ray Bay Resort, Yap Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Local House with Family Stone Money, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Local House with Family Stone Money Outside, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Local House with Family Stone Money Outside, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Ceremonial House and Stone Money, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Ceremonial House and Stone Money, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Ceremonial House and Stone Money, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Very Large Stone Money, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Very Large Stone Money, Yap Micronesia<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Very Large Stone Money, Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Chief Chewing Betel, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Chief Chewing Betel, Yap Micronesia<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Chief Chewing Betel, Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Old Traditional Path Between Palms, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Old Traditional Path Between Palms, Yap Micronesia(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Old Traditional Path Between Palms, Yap Micronesia(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Pair of Clown Fish in Anemone, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Pair of Clown Fish with baby clown fish in Anemone, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Pair of Clown Fish with baby clown fish in Anemone, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Hard Coral, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Hard coral, abstract macro - Yap Micronesia - (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Hard coral, abstract macro - Yap Micronesia - (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Chief Preparing Betel, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Chief preparing betel, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Chief preparing betel, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Leaf Fish, Yap by Matt Considine        
Leaf fish camouflaged, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Leaf fish camouflaged, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Stone Money, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Coconuts seen through hole in middle of stone money, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Coconuts seen through hole in middle of stone money, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Broken Coral and Palms, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Broken coral is collected and cooked to create lime that is chewed with betel nut to amplify the effect.  Betel is chewed partly for cultural reasons (like smoking) but it also acts as a mild stimulant and appetite suppressant, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Broken coral is collected and cooked to create lime that is chewed with betel nut to amplify the effect. Betel is chewed partly for cultural reasons (like smoking) but it also acts as a mild stimulant and appetite suppressant, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Traditional Dance Konga Line, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Talented traditional dancers form a  konga line in front of stone money in Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Talented traditional dancers form a konga line in front of stone money in Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Old WWII Japanese School, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Old WWII Japanese School, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Old WWII Japanese School, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Ancient Stone Path, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Ancient stone paths like this connect all the villages in Yap, Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Ancient stone paths like this connect all the villages in Yap, Micronesia. (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Village Chief Explaining Dance Culture, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Village Chief explaining dance culture in Yap Micronesia.<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Village Chief explaining dance culture in Yap Micronesia.
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Dolphins on Custom House, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Dolphins on custom men's house, Yap Micronesia<br />
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Dolphins on custom men's house, Yap Micronesia
(Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Swarming Fish Amazing Blue, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Reef fish swarming in amazing blue water, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Reef fish swarming in amazing blue water, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Filter Feeding Soft Coral, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
A filter feeder soft coral, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
A filter feeder soft coral, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Stone Money Road, Yap Micronesia by Matt Considine        
Stone Money Road, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Stone Money Road, Yap Micronesia (Photo by Matt Considine - Images of Asia Collection) (Matt Considine)
Copyright: Matt Considine / www.mattconsidine.com
          Human Rights, Climate Change, Fossil Fuels and Civil Society        
Last week I participated in the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre's event on Climate Change and International Human Rights Law. Below are my speaking notes.

My name is Julie-Anne Richards, and I’m here today partly in my capacity as Oxfam and also as Climate Justice Programme.  Oxfam needs no introduction.  Climate Justice Programme has been working in this area for a long time.  In 2003 CJP sent letters formally placing the major polluters and emitters of greenhouse gases on notice, reminding them of their potential legal liability if they failed to address the risks of climate change posed by their activities.  CJP also commissioned the Carbon Majors work - more on that later.

I feel the need to start with a reality check:
With less than 1 degree of warming we have already gone beyond the most vulnerable people’s capacity to adapt to climate change.  

The worst-ever typhoon (Haiyan) has wreaked devastation in the Philippines, possibly the worst cyclone in the Pacific (Pam) destroyed or damaged 80% of buildings in Vanuatu;  increasingly severe droughts in Africa and the Middle East have resulted in hunger, people forced off their land and conflict;  floods here in the UK and elsewhere;  the heat wave baking India right now has so far killed 1,000 people;  and “super” fire storms have become an all too frequent event in California and my home country Australia.

Climate change is possibly the biggest justice issue of all time.  Caused by the fossil fuel companies, but whose impacts largely fall upon those who have done the least to cause the crisis - the poorest and most vulnerable.  The people that Oxfam works with and for.   But lest we be lulled into a false sense of security, an analogy can be made to the Titanic. Those of us lucky enough to be here in first class or the “first world” might feel safe and secure, whilst those in “third class” are dealing with the icy water.  But the hull has been breached. and unless we do something about that breach, we’re all going down.

We have limited time to turn our trajectory around.  there are some key moments coming up - the Paris COP at the end of this year must be a crucial turning point - a point at which the world’s governments, business and citizens realise that we must do things differently.  

Happily, the world’s citizens are waking up. 400,000 people in the streets of NYC and nearly 3,000 events in 162 countries last September called loudly for ‘climate action now’.  The lead up to Paris will see more people, more voters on the street calling for action even more loudly.  

And organised civil society is also waking up and doing things differently.

There is more solidarity across civil society in seeing the links between climate change and other social issues - including inequality.

And there has been an increasing focus on the human rights aspect of climate change (for which the IBA can take some of the credit), and messaging of climate change from a values perspective (some of you may be familiar with the For The Love Of campaign).

Perhaps most noteworthy is a shift to identify and focus on the real climate change villains - the fossil fuel industry.

Both the excellent work done by Carbon Tracker on the Carbon Bubble - which showed that we have to leave 80% of fossil fuels in the ground - and the great work done by Bill McKibben and 350.org in making this “terrifying maths” and the solution to it personal and actionable - through their divestment campaign.

The divestment campaign has inspired enthusiasm worldwide, causing something like $50bn of funds to be allocated away from fossil fuel companies and within the last week forced the Commonwealth Bank to close branches in Melbourne and Sydney CBD and across Australia.  And soon, the biggest pension fund in the world, the Norwegian Pension Fund, might announce they will divest from coal.

A second, and important, nail in the fossil fuel coffin was the publication of the Carbon Majors research in late 2013.  the result of 8 years of work, this study helps to solve the ‘attribution’ dilemma.  We now know that Chevron, Exxon Mobil and Saudi Aramco are each responsible for more than 3% of global historical emissions.  And that BP, Shell, Gazprom are each responsible for more than 2% of emissions.

Together the products from these 90 “Carbon Majors” are responsible for two thirds of climate pollution since the industrial revolution began.  Two thirds of the climate change we - and poor people - are experiencing today.

This work opens the way for two options.

The first is litigation.  there are legal strategies and a number of cases being prepared now to bring against the fossil fuel industry by civil society. It’s highly likely that civil society won’t be the only ones bringing cases. As attribution of specific events improves (including through the work that Oxford University are doing) the insurance industry must surely be looking to recoup some of its monumental costs for events like Hurricane Sandy - $10-28bn.  There are already examples of governments taking to courts to seek injunctions (FSMicronesia against coal power in Czech Republic), no doubt there will be other examples as governments face increasing costs.

The second option, is a proposal that CJP and the Heinrich Boll Foundation put forward roughly a year ago, that the fossil fuel industry should pay for the climate damage of their products via a global fossil fuel extraction levy paid into the international mechanism for loss and damage.

The concept of a global fossil fuel extraction levy being paid into an international compensation mechanism for loss and damage has a solid basis in law and it has precedent - including the IOPC, the oil spill regime, where companies that ship oil around the world pay a levy into an international fund that is used for compensation in the case of oil spills.

This would both put a price on carbon - and simultaneously raise significant funds for the most vulnerable communities who are facing the worst impacts of climate change.  It’s a no-brainer, really, that the fossil fuel industry, who make trillions of dollars in profits, should pay for the damages their products are wreaking, rather than the poor.  

At even a low price of carbon - say $2 a tonne of CO2 - this levy would raise $50bn a year.  If it were to increase 5-10% a year it could provide a predictable source of finance at roughly the scale necessary for climate damage in vulnerable countries.  

Of course, it needs to be embedded within an overall plan to phase out fossil fuels.  Because if Exxon Mobil, Shell, BP, Saudi Aramco want a long term future - they need to learn to do something other than extract and sell fossil fuels.  

And if governments want to avoid one of two shocks - the terrible shock of climate change impacts OR the shock of the carbon bubble bursting - then they must put in place plans to phase out fossil fuels.  

With a clear plan the UK could phase out coal by 2023 whilst ensuring a just transition for workers into, the higher employing, renewable energy sector.

To close
It’s still possible to keep warming to below 1.5 degrees - hence avoiding absolute climate catastrophe - but we are too late to prevent all climate impacts.  In order to stop climate catastrophe we have to act now.  
Slight tweaks to business as usual might bend the curve from 4.3 to 3.7 degrees.  But to ensure a planet on which we think we can survive, radical change is necessary now.  

I encourage everyone in this room, I encourage you, to think about what radical action you will take to ensure you’re on the right side of history.

          Photo Voltaic Project        
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is in Palau at Camp Katuu installing a Photo Voltaic or Solar System to serve as a test bed for Solar Power in Palau and the Micronesian Islands. Palau is a republic located near the Micronesian islands in the Pacific Ocean. Energy in Palau is driven by diesel fuel, which also drives up the cost of electricity. U.S. Pacific Command Troops are in Palau putting together a project that could mean big energy savings for the future. Produced by Tech. Sgt. Elicia Summerville. Includes soundbites from Sgt. 1st Class Daniel Husak – Prime Power Supervisor, Alpha Company, 249th Engineers – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
          First-Ever Micronesian Pioneer Trek Presents Missionary Opportunity for Pohnpeian Youth        
Sign up for Meridian’s Free Newsletter, please CLICK HERE Micronesian youth pulled bamboo travois, or sleds, along a trail through the jungles of Pohnpei during the Asia North Area’s first-ever pioneer
          Nan Madol, Micronesia        
Nan Madol is a ruined city that lies off the eastern shore of the island of Pohnpei (presently one of the four states in the Federated States of Micronesia) and used to be the capital of the Saudeleur dynasty until about AD 1500.[2] The city consists of a series of small artificial islands linked by [...]
          10 “thiên đường" đẹp mê hồn trên mặt đất        
Những vùng đất xa xôi kỳ bí không dễ tìm thấy trên bản đồ thế giới, những bãi cát trải dài, những thung lũng rực rỡ nắng vàng, những vách đá dựng đứng tráng lệ tưởng chỉ tồn tại trong mơ chính là “thiên đường trên mặt đất” vẫn còn sót lại trên thế giới này.
Cách xa khỏi nhịp sống tấp nập và ồn ào khói bụi của đô thị hiện đại, xa cả  sức ép của cuộc sống và những toan tính thường ngày, nếu bạn thá»±c sá»± muốn tìm đến một nÆ¡i hoang sÆ¡, tráng lệ, ít người biết đến thì sẽ phải vượt qua một cuộc hành trình rất dài và gian khó. Tuy vậy, đích đến sẽ là phần thưởng tuyệt vời nhất dành cho những ai thích phiêu lÆ°u mạo hiểm.

Sau đây là 10 vùng đất trong mơ vẫn còn sót lại trên thế giới này.
1. Thảo nguyên Patagonia, Chile


 

Pantagonia là một vùng đất xa xôi nằm ở phía Đông Nam lục địa Nam Mỹ, giữa Argentina và Chile, nổi tiếng với những cánh rừng bạt ngàn, những thảo nguyên hoang sơ rộng lớn và những dãy núi băng tuyệt đẹp.

Đây là nơi hội tụ đầy đủ những cảnh sắc thiên nhiên kỳ thú nhất, với những cao nguyên dạng bậc cao dần từ Đông sang Tây, bị phân cách bởi dãy núi Andes, các thung lũng trũng và thấp. Phía đông, bờ cao nguyên đổ xuống Đại Tây Dương tạo thành các bậc cao 100 - 200m, còn độ cao tối đa ở phía Tây đạt tới 2.200m.

2. Núi lửa Kauai, Hawaii


Trên quần đảo Hawaii, một bang của Mỹ, cách Honolulu 120km có một hòn đảo nhỏ gọi là đảo Kauai, đẹp như một hòn ngọc màu lục gắn trên biển xanh. Bãi biển trên đảo có một đồi cát cao 18m trên mặt biển, toàn bộ là cát trắng sạch. Cách đồi cát không xa có một bãi đá đen bởi dung nham. Dung nham bị nước biển xâm thực thành nhiều hang nhỏ. Trong đó có một lỗ huyệt giống như suối phun giãn cách, phun bọt nước trắng xóa.

Đảo Kauai phong cảnh tuyệt vời. Ngồi trên xe đi men theo khe suối sẽ thấy được cảnh điền viên êm ả. Bầu trời sau mưa bao giờ cầu vồng cũng hiện ra, đôi khi 5-6 cầu vồng đều xuất hiện, có khi 2 cầu vồng chồng lên nhau. Góc phía Đông Bắc của núi Waialeale có lượng mưa trung bình hàng năm lớn nhất thế giới, đạt 11.684mm. Càng lạ hơn nữa là dốc núi Tây Nam của Waialeale lại chỉ có lượng mưa 460mm.
3. Vườn quốc gia Kruger Park, Nam Phi


Khu rừng rậm nguyên sinh, nơi hội tụ đông đủ nhất các loài thú hoang dã và quý hiếm nhất hành tinh có thể tìm thấy ở Thornybush Game thuộc Vườn quốc gia Kruger Park.

Đi ôtô dạo quanh rừng người ta sẽ có cơ hội tận mắt nhìn thấy những chú sư tử oai phong, những nàng báo hoa thoắt ẩn thoắt hiện trên cây hay nhìn ngắm từng đàn ngựa vằn đang nhởn nhơ uống nước. Hãy thử trải nghiệm một đêm sống trong căn lều giữa thiên nhiên, chắc chắn bạn sẽ thấy thú vị.

4. Quần đảo Fernando de Noronha, Brazil


Nằm ở đông bắc bờ biển Brazil, bao quanh là Đại Tây Dương, với điều kiện khí hậu lý tưởng, quần đảo Fernando de Noronha được xem là thiên đường của nhiều loại cá tuyệt đẹp. Hàng năm, nơi đây đón nhận một lượng đông đảo du khách yêu biển và yêu môn lặn đến tham quan và du hành vào "vương quốc cá".

Quần đảo Fernando de Noronha gồm 21 đảo nhỏ nhưng chỉ có 240 người sinh sống. Bạn có thể thoải mái tắm nắng và ngâm mình dưới làn nước trong lành không chán.
5. Vùng Cotswolds, Anh Quốc


Những triền đồi đầy hoa dại trải dài, những thung lũng ngập nắng, những dòng sống hiền hòa thơ mộng chảy len lỏi trong thị trấn và những ngôi nhà tranh cổ kính, xinh xắn nằm lọt thỏm giữa các khu vườn đầy hoa trái … Cotswolds là vùng đất đặc trưng và lâu đời nhất có thể tìm thấy ở xứ sở sương mù, nơi cất giữ nền văn hóa nông trại lâu đời từ hàng ngàn năm trước.

Đến với Cotswolds người ta như lạc vào một miền đất thần tiên dường như chỉ tồn tại trong cổ tích. Sẽ không có gì đáng ngạc nhiên khi những chính trị gia hay những ngôi sao tên tuổi nhất nước Anh đều sở hữu một ngôi nhà cổ ở Cotswolds để về nghỉ vào mỗi dịp cuối tuần.
6. Isla Vieques, Puerto Rico


Chỉ cách bờ biển khoảng 10km, Isla Vieques như một vùng đất bị lãng quên trên trái đất với những khu rừng xanh tươi, bãi cát trắng dài tít tắp và những ngọn đồi nhấp nhô.

Cho đến năm 2003, hòn đảo vẫn nằm dưới sự kiểm soát của Hải quân Mỹ, nhưng giờ thì họ đã đi khỏi, thiên đường đang rộng cửa đón du khách.
7.  Công viên Algonquin, Canada



Công viên Algonquin nằm giữa Vịnh Georgian và Sông Ottawa ở trung tâm Ontario, Canada, được xây dựng từ năm 1893 với diện tích khoảng 7.653km2. Công viên được coi như một phần biên giới giữa miền Bắc và Nam Ontario và chỉ mất ba giờ lái xe từ Toronto là tới.

Nơi đây trải dài trên 200km là rừng hoang sơ với những cây thông cổ thụ. Những dòng sông, hồ, suối len lỏi trong rừng với những dãy núi đẹp như tranh soi mình xuống dòng nước trong xanh, phẳng lặng.

Công viên có hệ sinh thái với thảm động, thực vật vô cùng phong phú. Ở đây, du khách có thể khám phá những khu rừng với các cây gỗ quý như linh sam, vân sam, thông đỏ, tùng trắng, dương, sồi, lim, thích đường, tần bì và đặc biệt là cây phong.
8. Quần đảo Tristan da Cunha


Cách St. Helena 2.000km và mũi Hảo Vọng (Nam Phi) 2.789km, quần đảo xa xôi và ít người ở nhất thế giới này rất khó tìm thấy trên bản đồ thế giới. Tuy nhiên, với những bãi biển lộng gió, những vách đá bazan tráng lệ và các thung lũng hoang sơ, Tristan da Cunha sẽ là nơi lý tưởng để các đôi uyên ương chạy trốn khỏi thế giới này và tìm đến với thiên đường trong mơ.
9. Vùng núi Morzine, Pháp


Morzine là một khu nghỉ mát hàng đầu trên vùng Alpes thuộc Pháp. Mùa đông, nơi đây được xem là thiên đường cho những ai thích môn trượt tuyết. Mùa hè là thời điểm thích hợp để những người thích các môn thể thao cảm giác mạnh như: dù lượn, nhảy dù dốc, xe đạp núi, trượt thác... có thể cùng nhau tranh tài.

Khi tuyết tan, các đường trượt trở thành nÆ¡i dành cho dân thích chạy xe đạp núi.  Nếu không thích đi xe đạp, đi bộ là một cách tối Æ°u để bạn có thể ngắm nhìn thiên nhiên tuyệt đẹp nÆ¡i đây. Khi du lịch đến dãy Alpes vào mùa đông hay mùa hè các bạn vẫn có thể tận hưởng mọi thú vui tại đây.
10. Quốc đảo  Kiribati, Micronesia


Tại điểm cực đông của thế giới là một quốc đảo nằm cách Hawaii 4.000km. Bắc qua đường xích đạo, quốc đảo này bao gồm 33 hòn đảo và là nơi có khu bảo tồn sinh vật biển lớn nhất thế giới. Với những hàng dừa cao tít tắp, bãi biển trắng muốt và làn nước trong suốt, vùng đất giống như một khu nghỉ dưỡng cao cấp giúp bạn hòa nhập hoàn toàn với thiên nhiên.

Do nằm ngoài khơi xa nên thiên nhiên nơi này rất hoang sơ. Du khách có thể đến đây tận hưởng làn nước trong xanh hoặc lặn ngắm san hô.
Nguồn VTC

                  

          V63DX V6A Pohnpei Island Carolin Islands Federal States of Micronesia. From DXNews.com        
V63DX V6A. Sho, JA7HMZ will be active again from Pohnpei Island, IOTA OC-010, 24 November - 1 December 2017 as V63DX.
                  
Information Session
Ford Predoctoral Fellowships

Rising seniors are eligible to attend!

NATIONAL SCHOLARSHIPS OFFICE
2403 Marie Mount Hall
www.scholarships.umd.edu
Francis DuVinage, Director – Leslie Brice, Assistant Director

Information Session:
Tuesday, July 25, 4:10 pm
The Atlantic Building, Room 1113 - (formerly known as the Computer and Space Sciences Building)

Learn about the Ford Foundation Diversity Predoctoral Fellowship, which provides an annual stipend of $24,000 for three years and access to a large network of successful Ford Fellows. The Ford Foundation awards approximately 60 predoctoral fellowships every year. These fellowships provide three years of support for individuals engaged in research-based graduate study leading to a Ph.D.

The Ford Foundation seeks to increase the diversity of the nation’s college and university faculties by increasing their ethnic and racial diversity, to maximize the educational benefits of diversity, and to increase the number of professors who can and will use diversity as a resource for enriching the education of all students.

Interested but not able to attend? Please contact us at scholarships@umd.edu.

Eligibility to apply to a predoctoral fellowship is limited to:
 -- U.S. Citizens or U.S. Nationals,
 -- Individuals with evidence of superior academic achievement,
 -- Individuals committed to a career in teaching and research at the college or university level,
 -- Individuals planning to enroll in an eligible research-based program leading to a Ph.D. in the United States.


The following will be considered as positive factors in choosing successful candidates:
 -- Evidence of superior academic achievement
 -- Degree of promise of continuing achievement as scholars and teachers
 -- Capacity to respond in pedagogically productive ways to the learning needs of students from diverse backgrounds
 -- Sustained personal engagement with communities that are underrepresented in the academy and an ability to bring this asset to learning, teaching, and scholarship at the college and university level
--  Likelihood of using the diversity of human experience as an educational resource in teaching and scholarship.


In addition, membership in one or more of the following groups whose underrepresentation in the American professoriate has been severe and longstanding will be considered as a positive factor:
 -- Alaska Natives (Aleut, Eskimo or other Indigenous People of Alaska)
 -- Black/African-Americans
 -- Mexican Americans/Chicanas/Chicanos
 -- Native American Indians

 -- Native Pacific Islanders (Hawaiian/Polynesian/Micronesian)
 -- Puerto Ricans
          A new expedition ship Silver Discoverer joins Silversea fleet. Silver Discoverer set to sail in Polynesia, Russian Far East, Southeast Asia, Australia and New Zealand        
Silversea’s eighth ship, Silver Discoverer, to sail in Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, Russian Far East, Southeast Asia, Australia and New Zealand from March 2014

          10 preguntas y respuestas sobre el virus Zika.        
1. ¿Qué es el virus zika?
Es un virus semejante filogenéticamente a los del dengue y la fiebre amarilla. Se descubrió por primera vez en el bosque de Zika en Uganda, en 1947, en monos monitoreados científicamente para controlar la fiebre amarilla. Sin embargo, hasta 2007 era relativamente desconocido, hasta que se produjo un gran brote en la isla de Yap y en otras islas cercanas a los Estados Federados de Micronesia (al norte de Australia), con 8.187 afectados. Entre octubre 2013 y febrero de 2014 un nuevo brote llegó a la Polinesia Francesa, donde se cree que hubo 8.264 casos.

 

2. ¿Cómo se transmite?

El principal modo de transmisión es a través del mismo insecto que el dengue, el mosquitoAedes aegypti. Pero hay casos de transmisión sexual (pues permanece en el esperma durante más tiempo), perinatal (de la madre al feto) y sanguínea. El virus no se transmite por la lactancia materna.

 

3. ¿Cuáles son los principales síntomas y señales de la enfermedad?
La gran mayoría de las personas infectadas no desarrolla manifestaciones clínicas, pero, cuando sí se dan, se caracterizan por ser manchas rojas por la piel, fiebre intermitente, manchas en los ojos y dolores en los músculos, las articulaciones y la cabeza. Con menor frecuencia, se han registrado edemas, dolor de garganta, tos, vómitos y presencia de sangre en el semen. Los síntomas, en general, desaparecen de forma espontánea tras un período que puede ir de tres a siete días. Sin embargo, los dolores en las articulaciones pueden persistir durante hasta un mes.

Diez preguntas y respuestas sobre el virus zika

 

4. ¿Hay algún tratamiento para el virus zika?

No existe ningún tratamiento para la enfermedad. Los síntomas sí que pueden controlarse con el uso de paracetamol o dipirona, para manejar la fiebre y el dolor. En el caso de erupciones pruriginosas, puede considerarse el uso de anti-histamínicos. No se aconseja el uso ni la prescripción de ácido acetilsalicílico u otros fármacos antiinflamatorios, debido al aumento del riesgo de complicaciones hemorrágicas.

 

5. ¿Cuál es la relación entre el virus zika y la microcefalia?

A finales de noviembre, después de una alta incidencia de la microcefalia en algunos Estados de Brasil, donde también se produjo un aumento del número de casos de zika, el Ministerio de Salud confirmó la relación entre ambas enfermedades. La evidencia surgió tras un estudio que detectó la presencia del virus en muestras de sangre recogidas de un bebé que nació con microcefalia en Ceará y acabó muriendo. Aún no se sabe cómo actúa el virus en el organismo humano, ni qué mecanismos llevan a la microcefalia, pero se están investigando los casos.
En Brasil, el boletín epidemiológico más reciente registra 3.530 casos de microcefalia relacionados con infecciones por el virus zika entre octubre de 2015 y principios de este año en el país. Se están investigando 46 muertes de bebés con microcefalia, que posiblemente tengan relación con el virus zika.
La semana pasada, Estados Unidos registró el primer caso de microcefalia relacionada con el virus zika en Hawai. Según informó el periódico The New York Times, la madre del bebé se habría infectado cuando viajó a Brasil, en mayo del año pasado.

 

6. ¿Cuáles son las recomendaciones para las mujeres embarazadas?

En Estados Unidos, el Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades recomienda que las mujeres embarazadas no viajen a 14 países de América latina; entre ellos, Brasil, Puerto Rico y Colombia.
En Brasil, el Ministerio de Salud recomienda que las mujeres embarazadas se protejan de las picaduras de insectos. Para ello, sugiere que eviten los horarios y lugares en los que haya presencia de mosquitos, vistan ropa que proteja la mayor parte del cuerpo y usen repelentes.

7. ¿Hay alguna vacuna para prevenir la enfermedad?

No existe ninguna vacuna contra el virus Zika.

 

8. ¿Cómo prevenirla?

Como hasta el momento, el principal sospechoso de causar el virus zika es el mosquito Aedes aegypti, lo ideal es prevenir su propagación. Se trata de un insecto que también transmite cuatro tipos de dengue y chicungunya, una enfermedad que ataca las articulaciones y provoca dolores bastante intensos. El mosquito prolifera en agua estancada limpia, por lo que es importante evitar que esta se acumule en neumáticos, macetas de plantas y cualquier otro recipiente abierto. Para evitar las picaduras, use repelentes y coloque mosquiteras en las ventanas y puertas.

 

9. ¿Cuáles son los países afectados por la enfermedad?

Según la Organización mundial de la Salud, solo en 2015, se confirmaron casos de zika en nueve países de América: Brasil, Chile â€”en la Isla de Pascua—, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mèxico, Paraguay, Surinam, y Venezuela. Esta semana, las autoridades estadounidenses confirmaron el primer caso de zika en el país: un hombre que vive en Texas y que visitó El Salvador recientemente.
En Brasil, el año pasado se registraron 1,6 millones de casos probables de dengue. Como se considera que el zika tiene síntomas parecidos a los de un dengue leve, los infectados por aquella enfermedad acaban entrando en la cuenta de esa última. Colombia es otro país con un alto número de infectados: al menos 11.000 casos confirmados, según la información más reciente.

 

10. ¿El virus zika ya ha causado muertes?

En Brasil, hasta el momento, el Ministerio de Sanidad ha confirmado tres muertes posiblemente relacionadas con el virus zika: un bebé, un hombre que también tenía lupus y una chica de 16 años.


          NSF: Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG)        
NSF: Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG)

DUE: September 3, 2012

URL: http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2010/nsf10599/nsf10599.htm

Synopsis The Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) supports research and education in the Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric, and Geospace Sciences. The Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG) Program is designed to address the fact that certain groups are underrepresented in the geosciences relative to their proportions in the general population. The primary goal of the OEDG Program is to increase participation in the geosciences by African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans (American Indians and Alaskan Natives), Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians or Micronesians), and persons with disabilities. A secondary goal of the program is to increase the perceived relevance of the geosciences among broad and diverse segments of the population. The OEDG Program supports activities that will increase the number of members of underrepresented groups who:
Are involved in formal pre-college geoscience education programs;
Pursue and earn associate's, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in the geosciences;
Enter geoscience careers; and
Participate in informal geoscience education programs.

The OEDG Program offers three funding Tracks: OEDG Planning Grants; Track 1: Proof-of-Concept Projects; and Track 2: Full-Scale Projects.

          Surveys seek input on needs and resources for biodiversity data in the Pacific Islands        

To help prepare for the 2016 calls for proposals under the Biodiversity Information for Development (BID) programme, GBIF has released surveys seeking input from data holders and decision makers in the Pacific Islands—two stakeholder groups critical to the programme’s long-term success.

Data holders need resources and incentives to distribute the many types of information that they steward. Available in English and French, this survey seeks to understand the financial or technical challenges that data holders in the Pacific Islands face in sharing data and its use in research and policy.

Decision makers depend on high-quality biodiversity information to support planning and policy and to encourage world-class research. The second survey (also available in English and French versions) seeks insights into how well the information needs of decision makers in the Pacific Islands are currently served.

We invite those interested in responding to take the 12- and 13-question, 20-minute surveys, and also to share them with their contacts and networks. Wider distribution will help us gain a deeper, more practical understanding of how BID can best support data mobilization and use across the Pacific.

Those respondents who may lack sufficiently reliable Internet connectivity may download and fill out 'offline' versions of the appropriate survey in Microsoft Word:

GBIF expects to issue a call for proposals led by organizations from the ACP countries in the Pacific Islands in late August or early September 2016. Potential grantseekers can sign up to receive updates via email or visit the BID grantseekers’ site for more information as it becomes available.


European Union

 

This programme is funded by the European Union.

Images 
Aerial view of Kadavu Island, Fiji. Photo by Nick Hobgood.

Aerial view of Kadavu Island, Fiji. 2014 CC BY-NC Nick Hobgood https://flic.kr/p/puxsk5

Content GBits 

GBIF has released surveys seeking input from data holders and decision makers in the Pacific Islands to help prepare for the 2016 calls for proposals under the Biodiversity Information for Development (BID) programme.

GBIF area 
Data use 
Programme 
Organizations 
Content stream 
Post to Facebook 

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          Hallaron los restos de un avión de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en una remota isla del Pacífico        
  Por: Infobae Turistas en la República de Palau, una isla de la Micronesia en el Océano Pacífico, hallaron los restos de un avión japonés derribado durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial que sorprende por su buen estado de conservación y el contraste con la belleza paradisíaca del lugar. El hidroavión Aichi E13A, conocido en Occidente como […]
          Suicide in Micronesia: A New Twist to an Old Problem        

Father Francis X. Hezel, SJ
Former Director of Micronesian Seminar

Thursday, February 23, 2017
East-West Center

Micronesia has shown escalating rates of suicide since the late 1960s. The suicide epidemic was sometimes attributed to changes in island social organization driven by rapid modernization. During the past year, a research team directed by the speaker gathered new data on suicide in FSM, completing a database documenting a full 50 years of suicide rates on the islands. The most current information, which also includes FSM suicides on Guam, highlights recent trends in the islands, many of them encouraging. Yet, it also underscores challenges in the years ahead. Finally, analysis of the new data points to an area of inquiry that could prove promising in future research: disrupted families.

Father Fran Hezel, whose seminal books include The First Taint of Civilization, Strangers in their Own Land, and The New Shape of Old Island Cultures, has lived and worked in Micronesia since 1963—first at Chuuk’s influential Xavier High School and then as founder and Director of the church–sponsored research institution the Micronesian Seminar (MicSem) in Pohnpei. Fr. Hezel serves the Catholic Church in Guam and continues to write profusely and blogs about regional issues on a regular basis (wheresfran.org/).

Cast: East-West Center

Tags: East-West Center, Micronesia, EWC, Fran Hazel and suicide


          Guam Micronesia Mall        
Guam is tropical but definitely not a paradise. Guam is situated in the west pacific about 13 degrees north of the equator. Temperatures are hot and humid year round with temperatures in the 80';s and 90's. Trade winds blow during the dry season and offer some cooling. During the wet season, rain and thunder storms occur frequently and with intensity. They disrupt computers and cell phone service. Typhoons are always a threat. One major one occurs every 8-10 years. Minor ones occur too, as well as earth quakes. Houses are constructed like concrete bunkers to with stand the typhoons. . Windows have shutters.

Military Presence

The military dominates the island with its naval and air bases. Troops deploy from Guam. Security is tight. The military routinely changes civilian flight plans to accommodate its needs for airplanes. The island people, the Chamorro, do not like the military.

Employment


Unemployment on Guam is higher than on the U.S. mainland. Employment comes from three sources: military, tourism and Guam government. All civilian job applications must go through the Department of Administration (DOA) where they are rated for qualifications. There is much favoritism with jobs going to island relatives who are not qualified. The outsider job applicants refer to their job applications as (DOA), dead on arrival when they reach this government agency.

Traffic Congestion

Roads are poorly maintained and congested. Drivers don't follow the Rules of the Road. Accidents involving pedestrians are commonplace. The police fail to enforce traffic rules.

Phone Service

Land line phone service is unreliable. Most residents resort to cell phones. Cell phone service from Guam to the U.S. mainland is questionable at times.

Cost of Living

The cost of living is high because everything has to be imported. Gas, grocery and electricity are particularly high. Shortages occur routinely. People learn to stock up on the basics when they can.

Housing

Housing is cheap. However, this will change when the military moves its forces from Japan to Guam.

Schools

The public school system at all levels is terrible. Teachers are understaffed and underpaid. Teachers teach without the requisite degrees and some of them are hardly older than the students they teach.

Health Care

Except for the military, health care is poor as well. Patients wait a long time for appointments. The island lacks equipment such as MRI machines. Testing is done on the island, but results must be sent to the mainland for analysis.

Animal Control


Dogs roam the streets uncontrolled. If a dog is hit by a car, nothing is done to remove it. Dogs, especially black ones, are a food delicacy among some cultures on the island.

Population


The native people are called Chamorro. Other people make up the population such as Japanese, Korean, Pilipino and Vietnamese. English and Chamorro are the official languages. Guam is a territory of the U.S. It uses U.S. currency and the U.S. postal service. However, if you are going to send a package to Guam from the U.S. you need a customs form.

Tourism and recreation


Tourism is big business in Guam. Guam was once occupied by the Japanese. Japanese World War II bunkers are the biggest attraction. Parts of the island are very beautiful including the beaches and water. Guam boasts many water parks. Many hotels and apartment complexes have swimming pools. Guam Night is not so attractive due to its family destination.

Travel to Guam

Passports are required to travel to Guam SEO from the U.S. Flights typically depart from San Francisco. The first leg of the trip is San Francisco to Hawaii then, Hawaii to Guam. The whole trip takes approximately 14 hours.

Festivals and holidays

Guam Blog celebrates many festivals. Guam is Catholic and celebrates all the saints" days. It celebrates its own independence day. Very little work is done in the month of December because of the Christmas holidays.

If you are an intense, type a personality, stay away from Guam. You will be frustrated all the time. Things get done very slowly there if at all.



Guam Blog | Guam Blog | Guam Blog | Guam Blog | Guam Blog | Guam Blog | Guam Blog | Guam Blog  | Guam Blog | Guam Blog
          Where is Guam, the paradise island threatened by North Korea, and why is it important?        

Where is Guam, the paradise island threatened by North Korea, and why is it important?The apparently sudden threat by North Korean dictator, Kim Jong-un, of a missile strike on the Pacific holiday paradise island of Guam is not as obscure as it first sounds. The remote 210-square mile island in the western Pacific Ocean, known for its white beaches and crystal blue waters, is also a strategic US military outpost and host to nuclear bombers and at least 6,000 US service members. Japanese soldiers take part in joint military exercises between the US, Japan, France and UK on Naval Base Guam Credit: AP On Monday night, two US B-1 bombers flew from Guam over the Korean peninsula, joining the South Korean and Japanese airforces in joint exercises that were bound to have riled Pyongyang, which over the weekend accused America of devising a “preventive war.” The exercises are one likely reason why North Korea, located roughly 2,100 miles away to the northwest, selected the island as a potential target shortly after President Donald Trump vowed “fire and fury like the world has never seen” in response to Pyongyang’s nuclear weapons programme. An aerial view of U.S. Naval Base Guam Credit: Reuters The North’s state-run Korean Central News Agency reported on Tuesday that the pariah nation’s military may send a strong message that it can neutralise military assets on the US territory. Pacific Air Forces command, based in Hawaii, upped the rhetoric shortly afterwards, declaring “US ready to fight tonight” on its official Twitter account, linking to details of Monday’s ten hour sortie. S. Dakota #Airmen arrive on Guam; conduct #bilateral missions w/Japan & ROK--U.S. ready to #fighttonighthttps://t.co/DhOTTdNT19pic.twitter.com/HSOkYKHPQ4— PACAF (@PACAF) August 8, 2017 “How we train is how we fight and the more we interface with our allies, the better prepared we are to fight tonight,” said a B-1 pilot, quoted in an official press release. “The B-1 is a long-range bomber that is well-suited for the maritime domain and can meet the unique challenges of the Pacific.” The tense stand-off puts Guam, and its population of just over 160,000, at the centre of one of the world’s most volatile flashpoints. American military bases, including the sprawling Andersen Air Force Base and the Naval Base Guam, occupy nearly 30% of Guam’s land. Governor of Guam reassures the island's residents after North Korea threat 00:48 The island, which was captured by the US from Spain in 1898 during the Spanish-American war, is America’s most western territory but it is not a state. It has a seat in the US House of Representatives, currently occupied by Democrat Madeleine Bordallo, and it is run by an elected governor, Eddie Baza Calvo. Guam's citizens, 40% of whom are comprised of the Chamorro ethnic group, are American citizens by birth. Map: Guam in relation to North Korea Chamorros first settled the island about 4,000 years ago but over the past 400 years Guam has been ruled by Spain, the US and Japan. Located in the Micronesia region of the Pacific, it is positioned just over 3000 miles from both Sydney and Hawaii. The territory’s tropical climate, with an average temperature of 28 degrees Celsius, makes it a popular location for tourists. At a glance | Guam North Korea and Donald Trump: Timeline of tensions North Korea & Donald Trump: Timeline of tensions 02:27  



          Mission Report: Chuuk        
A new MP3 sermon from North Houston Baptist Church is now available on SermonAudio.com with the following details:

Title: Mission Report: Chuuk
Speaker: Jody Colson
Broadcaster: North Houston Baptist Church
Event: Testimony
Date: 9/11/2016
Length: 50 min. (64kbps)

Overview: Testimonies of conversions in Chuuk, Micronesia
          Community Event        
Name * What would you like to invite the community to? (Ballet performance, rugby game, chess tournament, piano recital, etc...) * Wanna give some more details? Date/Time * Where will it be held? * AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBrazilBruneiBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiComorosCongo (Brazzaville)CongoCosta RicaCote d'IvoireCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEast Timor (Timor Timur)EcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFijiFinlandFranceGabonGambia, TheGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGrenadaGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHondurasHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, NorthKorea, SouthKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMauritaniaMauritiusMexicoMicronesiaMoldovaMonacoMongoliaMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepaNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalQatarRomaniaRussiaRwandaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint VincentSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbia and MontenegroSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyriaTaiwanTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTogoTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVatican CityVenezuelaVietnamYemenZambiaZimbabwe Website Upload Flyer or Photo (optional) Prev Next Submit
          Encuentra personas mdiante su telefono y el GPS        
A continuacion les presentamos esta innovacion para localizar gente mediante la señal del celular y un GPS. Gracias a www.trackapartner.com

Debes poner el pais y el numero de telefono con el codigo de la ciudad...


Track a phone number here
Select Country:
Phone Number:
Attention:
THE USE OF THIS SYSTEM IS FOR INFORMATIVE PURPOSES ONLY, WE ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS ABUSE BY THE USER.
Welcome to Satellite Tracking
GSM mobile phone tracking system via the GPS-TRACK satellite network
Based on repeater triangulation, the system tracks mobile phones using GPS and GSM technology
We are not responsible for possible tracking errors that may occur.
Use areas
You can see where a person is; such as your wife, husband or friend in real time anywhere in the world 24/7
Copyright © www.trackapartner.com All Rights Reserved

Approximate margin of error:
10 meters (max.) for mobile phones in Europe and the U.K.
25 meters (max.) for mobile phones in the U.S.A., South America and Canada.
50 meters (max.) for mobile phones elsewhere.
This system will not work in countries without GSM technology networks.

          The Tower of Babel        
The Tower of Babel (1564) by Pieter Bruegel the elder, (1525-69)

“And the whole world had one language and of one speech.  And it came to pass as they journeyed from the east they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there.
They said to one another other, Go to, let us make bricks and burn them thoroughly. They had brick for stone, and used slime for morter.
And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.
And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men had built.
And the Lord said, “Behold the people is one and they all have one language; and this they begin to do; now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.
Go to, let us go down and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.
So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off to build the city.
Therefore is name the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.”

Genesis 11:1-9


This is the Biblical creation myth of how all the peoples of the earth came to speak different languages and cannot understand one another.

From a social constructionist view, this is an essential story for maintaining the illusion of exceptionalism that allows believers to know that, despite the fact many people in the world do not speak their language or share their symbols, believers have special understanding of The Lord’s lessons and purposes.

But the problem of shared meaning is a great deal broader and more pervasive than just shared faith.  Cultures and subcultures are established in part to concentrate meanings and beliefs.  They exist in dialectical relation to one another, and are each in tension with private, idiosyncratic meanings.  Clinicians have one language.  Organized kinksters have another.  Our separate jargons stand in relation to the larger parent culture that is part of our shared context.  Divine intervention is hardly necessary to cause us difficulties understanding one another.

This essay is going to look at some of those unshared understandings so that we might better know what the different communities mean.  Sometimes the effects are silly, like CBT translating as cognitive behavioral therapy in the clinic and cock and ball torture in the dungeon.  The real opportunities for genuine confusion are minimal given the context.  Only the willfully oppositional or the sarcastic seek to confuse the meanings.  Sometimes its political, like Polynesian activists urging the consensual non-monogamy community not to infringe on their language by calling polyamory ‘poly.’ The context overlap between Polynesia and polyamory are few and far between. And sometimes it’s a term like ‘sadism’ which has gone far beyond specific reference to the practices of the Marquis de Sade, and means a number of other things across several different contexts.


The Polynesians settled the eastern areas of the Pacific, mostly in the last 1000 years, through amazing feats of seamanship.  Mostly they were not polyamorous!

One of the consequences of the close examination and politicization of these languages is that stigmatized activities or communities have become very difficult to name satisfactorily, and the low barriers to participation that the World Wide Web has provided lubricate and publicize these discussions.  Nowhere is that more evident than in kink, which has undergone a kaleidoscopic array of name changes.  It has been called ‘The Life, The Scene, The Lifestyle, the Underground, sexual outlaws, S-M, S/M, S&M, Leather, Leather Sex, Bondage, Bondage and Discipline, Fetish, Sadomasochism, Love Bondage, and recently, BDSM followed by Kink.  Every one of these terms can be challenged on some basis.  Some terms are used by other subcultures such as prostitution or rock music.  Some are overly specific, or feature only a part of a larger community.  Some are too broad, and leave boundaries unclear.  Some changes have been advocated to choose less pejorative language, such as the drive to expunge medical terminology such as ‘sadism’ and ‘masochism’ from the community’s identity.  Some are efforts to prevent fragmentation, others are an attempt to exclude.  All of this struggle serves as background and context for individuals who choose to affiliate or not based on how they relate to and adopt the communities’ language.  The naming “Wheel of Fortune’ has stopped for now at ‘kink’, which is embraced for its generalism and its connotations in the general culture of being about minor, relatively non-pejorative difference.  It is free of medical baggage.  And it avoids privileging traditional kink activities like sadism, masochism, bondage, leather and fetish over new activities like steampunk, cosplay, furries, and activities not yet named.


The triskelion used as the logo for BDSM,...

The triskelion used as the logo for the US Department of Transportation!

Lest the reader conclude that kink community is special in these naming differences; a theme in this blog is the progression of understanding about sexual deviations, to paraesthesias, to perversions, to paraphilias has gone on in the mental health community.  These terms all refer to similar things, yet changes were made to bring them under medical authority, and to attempt to manage the stigmatizing consequences of diagnosis.  Doctors insist that the language is neutral and scientific, but are nonetheless aware of its iatrogenic consequences, and they walk a tightrope between privileged understanding, desire to avoid stigma, and the desire to have their legitimacy accepted by the larger social context where stigma is prevalent.  It turns out that when the general society is afraid and judgmental about something, terminology’s meanings drift towards the general consensus.  Perversions of reproductive purpose become moral perversions, and the pejorative properties of the term ‘perversion’ that led to the adoption of ‘paraphilia’ come to infest the replacement terminology.  In some corners of the general society, it is not possible to neutralize the language.  Stigma fighting through language alone is tricky business, even when you enjoy medical authority.

Franklin Veaux has created a wonderful glossary of kink and poly (excuse my use of poly for the more accurate but cumbersome consensual non-monogamy terminology.  In no sense am I referring to the inhabitants of Polynesia, Melanesia, or Micronesia!).  I do not intend to replicate his piece here, except to mention a few examples that I think busy clinicians mustn’t miss because many kinky clients are likely to use them.

Franklin Veaux's BDSM Glossary

BDSM is sometimes referred to as ‘the scene’, which has the attractive attribute of being vague and non-specific.  Often language is chosen because it communicates meaning to insiders that are kept opaque to the general public.  Much of this language appears to be lifted from the language of the stage. ‘Scene’ refers to kink in general, but ‘scene’ is also roughly synonymous with ‘session’.  Kinksters contract to perform scenes, or ‘play’ together.  The term ‘play’ means doing kinky behavior together and is derived from ‘sex play’, even though players may or may not regard playing as sexual behavior, and may take it very seriously indeed.  Scenes may be planned in detail, but are generally not scripted in the kind of detail that is expected in drama or stage plays.  They may or may not involve role play with characters such as Frtiz the Cat, Pinkachu, or Dracula.  In cosplay and furrie paly, some people deliberately attempt to take the roles of specific characters, and scripted dialogue sometimes plays a small part in these scenes.  But mostly players play themselves playing the roles.


It is impossible to download stock photos of cartoon furrie characters because of a serious context problem.  Can you spell "Copyright violations!"

In therapy, the wise clinician asks what the client is trying to express when certain language is used.  What does it reveal, what does it conceal, and how does this representation stand in relationship to the client’s desires and self-concept?  Sometimes the use of scene jargon is a test to see how much the clinician knows.  Perhaps it is about acceptance, and the clinician effortlessly understanding the argot is experienced as acceptance, or even sophistication and actual participation in the underground.  Sometimes the jargon is a snow job, an attempt to veneer over conflicts about which the client is defensive.  So clinicians are smart to stay abreast of the language of sexual minorities they treat.  That context frames how clients express themselves.

Sometimes our own language is a thicket, and we do not have to travel far afield to the titillating world of sexual minorities to confront a semiotic Gordian knot that requires untangling.  Take the terms ‘sadism’, ‘masochism’, and ‘sadomasochism’. 
Sadism had no standing in mental health until the work of Krafft-Ebing.  Then it was used to characterize sexual desire to harm or humiliate sexual objects.  With Freud’s popularization of the unconscious, however, the desire need not be known by the client, and its expression became generalized.  With sex in its proper Freudian role as an underlying human motivation, aggression did not need to be consciously expressed to be sadistic.  Furthermore, underlying sadistic motives could be aggressive towards others: as in traditional sadism, or internalized towards the client; as in masochism, and it became proper to speak of sadomasochism.  With the id a dark bundle of socially inappropriate impulses, just about anything could be down there, and aggression towards others that appeared sadistic on the surface might express unconscious sadistic or masochistic impulses.  So the original idea of sadomasochism, that sadism and masochism always occurred together somehow, was not remotely based upon the kind of observations of sexual sadism and masochism carefully recorded in Krafft-Ebing’s case histories.  In Freud’s view, we are all unconscious switches, alternately wielding and submitting to the lash as the occasion and internal drive states warrant.  None of this bore the slightest relationship to fluidity of BDSM expression which was then so underground and uncommon as to be largely unknown to the early 20th century psychiatric profession.  Only the most dedicated and open-minded sexologists, or the kinkiest ones, got access to the underground of their times.

Everything said above about ‘sadism’ applies with equal force to ‘masochism’.  When Freud wrote later in his career about three kinds of masochism; primary, moral, and feminine, he thought of all of them as sexual despite the fact that it was entirely uncommon for any of the three to be observed in direct sexual expression.  For psychology, masochism generally meant aggression expressed towards the ‘self’, another awkward term that is used very differently in mundane conversation than in psychology.  Indeed, in psychoanalysis, the term ‘self’ had no standing whatever as Freud went to considerable lengths to avoid the term.


Heath Ledger's breakthrough performance as The Joker.  Although commonly thought of as 'sadistic', The Joker was never depicted as sexually aroused by his psychoticly evil, mean and destructive behaviors.  Such motives were way too hot for DC Comics all the way back to Batman's origin in the 30's before the notorious comics code.
It scarcely mattered.  This pic was from a Business Insider post about how common 'sadism' is in the workplace!  PSA:  If your boss is the Joker, change your job and your medication immediately!

In kink, ‘sadism’ refers to the preference for inflicting pain on a consenting subject.  ‘Masochist’ refers to the preference for receiving pain.  In both cases, the pain in question is likely to be highly scripted:  only certain pains, inflicted under a limited set of conditions.  Nothing stoops a sadist from being submissive, or a masochist from being dominant, or from being a true algolagniac, who is turned on by giving or receiving pain.

Algolagniacs sound like switches; persons who are dominant in some conditions, but submissive in others.  But here any inference about underlying desire gets confounded by role fulfillment.  The ‘Tower of Babel’ problem not only applies to the definitions of words, but to the definitions of roles.  In mundane life, it may be properly said that most of us are ‘switches, in that we are dominant in some roles and contexts, and submissives in others.  We rarely see this need to conform in sexualized terms, and this does not really correspond to switching in a kink community.  In kink, there are people who are devoted to specific power roles, and there are a tremendous number of Veaux’s terms that refer to the various permutations of top, Dom, and Domme, switch, or sub, submissive or bottom.  I’ll spare you an exhaustive review, but provide several caveats:

•             People take roles out of availability and ability, not just out of passionate desire.
•             People are usually eager to play whatever role they are in well.
•             They are not always articulate about how and why they take the roles they do.
•             People use different criteria to tell when they are satisfied or not in their roles.

So if a person says they are a top, bottom, or switch, they may experience this is a context-dependent behavior or an essential expression of personal authenticity.  The best evidence of the nascent research on BDSM as identity or orientation suggests these power terms are the best approximation in kink of the identifications that are more extensively studied in queer theory.  So the power exchange terminology is the first place to look in treatment for signs of kink identity.

In the kink subcultures, Dom and Domme generally connote someone who is committed to the role, either socially, or in a primary relationship.  Top usually connotes a less committed or temporary assumption of the dominant role.  Likewise, for submissive and bottom.  Subs tend to be identified as submissive in a wide variety of their interactions, and bottoming is something that one might do only with certain partners or for a specific event.  Fluidity varies: some people express a lot of it, others very little.

Dominant in real life?  Most likely a model!
It is a chancy business predicting people's real life behaviors from their preferred kinky roles or identifications.

Some may debate this, but my limited observations of a few BDSM social organizations suggests that white and male privileges are modestly attenuated, but still present, and that Dominants are privileged over switches over bottoms.  This is reflected in the 2014 Consent Violations Survey.  Males and tops were least likely to report violations, switches were in the middle, and bottoms, females, and the gender fluid were most likely to report violations.  This is true despite a vast body of anecdotal evidence that in aggregate, people’s kinky roles correlate poorly with their Real Life roles.  I’m frankly more convinced by stories of top corporate execs who chose to bottom in BDSM than meek shop girls who magically transform to imposing Goddesses of the Night.  Perhaps role choice and flexibility, even in BDSM, reflects Real Life privilege behind the masks, costumes and rituals of dark theater. But it is true that the community rules for safety and anonymity make it harder to bring mundane signals of dominance and privilege into the special space of the dungeon.

Although clinicians like to be sensitive, and clients do not feel accepted when they have to explain the basic assumptions of BDSM to clinicians who haven’t taken the time and trouble to acquire the kind of basic information conveyed by this blog about The Scene, close listening is not likely to resolve all questions when the language overlaps but has specific meanings in kinky, mundane, and clinical contexts.  Hopefully, this post gives clinicians encouragement to learn kink subculture, but also to be unclear and to ask empathetic questions of their clients.  When you are puzzled and curious, it is often better to ask the clients about their feelings than to try to have the answer for them.


© Russell J Stambaugh, January 2016, Ann Arbor MI, All rights reserved
          Endangered Micronesian Recordings        
Please select the channel that the majority closely reflects your concern concerning the video, in order that we can evaluate it and decide whether or not it violates our Neighborhood Pointers or is not applicable for all viewers. Gr-St Granville, Andrew; Stark, H.M. ABC implies no `Siegel zero' for $L$-capabilities of characters with destructive discriminant. My favorites are nursery rhyme board books with one rhyme (or just some)per e-book, just like the Rhyme Along Board Ebook series by Dianne 'Quinn Burke (find them at yard gross sales!) and the newer Padded Nursery Rhyme Board Books by Sonja Rescek. Five Little Monkeys Jumping on the Mattress - Watch, read, and sing along to this nursery rhyme to find out how to rely to 5. The Dream English movies have been seen over 5 Million instances by children all around the world! It's by far the very best recording of the alphabet music that I've heard - I am certain my youngsters will take pleasure in it. We've been utilizing your other songs as...
          Collaborative Theater presents MASTERS OF THE CURRENTS        

Masters of the Currents is a collaborative theater sharing and community celebration created with the participation of the local Micronesian community. The event addresses the current tension in Hawaii surrounding its newest immigrants from Micronesia combining community-based story collection, social justice practices and devised theater techniques that will result in a world premiere professional theatre production in Hawaii.

This community-driven event is a led by Los Angeles-based TeAda Productions, in collaboration with The Alliance for Drama Education, and the Honolulu Theatre for Youth. It will premiere as part of HTY's 2017 Season in October and will also tour the neighbor islands in Spring of 2018.

ADMISSION: FREE. TICKETS: https://mocsummer2017.eventbrite.com. This collaborative theater sharing and community celebration is appropriate for all ages.

TeAda Productions' cross-disciplinary performances address health, education, and social justice issues of communities of color. TeAda's community-based projects embrace a fearless commitment to provide artists the space to explore cultural and political issues most relevant to their communities. TeAda Hawaii partners include The Alliance for Drama Education, and the Honolulu Theatre for Youth. Community engagement partners include Innocenta Sound-Kikku and the Micronesian Health Advisory Coalition, and Kokua Kalihi Valley.

Lead Artists

Leilani Chan and Ova Saopeng were raised in Honolulu, Hawaii and are currently Los Angeles-based theater artists. They have over fifteen years experience working with refugee and immigrant communities. Their engaging artistic methodology in creating new work involves sharing community based story collection methods, social justice practices and devised ensemble techniques in the process. This project is their opportunity to return to their roots, to kokua (give back), and to learn how things have changed or stayed the same. It is their intention that the process and resulting performances will set in motion more understanding, healing, reconciliation toward deep dialogue.

About the Partners

TeAda Productions is a nomadic theater of color rooted in the stories of immigrants and refugees. We are committed to healing and honoring the lives of the displaced, exploited and overlooked. For more info visit www.teada.org.

A.D.E. T-shirt Theatre led by George Kon and Jonah Moananu, is a youth theater company with a 30-year history based at Farrington High School. Their mission is to help Hawaii's youth rehearse for life to master the skills needed to win jobs, justice and joy. For more information, visit http://rehearseforlife.com

Micronesian Health Advisory Coalition/All Mike led by Innocenta Sound-Kikku and Steve Sylvan Palsis to advocates for the health and well-being of Micronesians to improve their quality of life in seeking justice and equality. For more information, visit https://www.facebook.com/allmikemhac

Honolulu Theatre for Youth, produces professional theatre and drama education programs that make a difference in the lives of young people, families and educators in the state of Hawai'i. For more info visit http://www.htyweb.org

This project was made possible with funding by the New England Foundation for the Arts' National Theater Project, with lead funding from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, National Performance Network Creation Fund, with additional support provided by the National Endowment for the Arts, Hawai'i People's Fund and Kim Coco Fund for Justice of the Iwamoto Family Foundation.

For more information, visit teada.org, or call Ova Saopeng at (310) 435-1810. Day of performance (July 15, 2017) please call Kristin Jackson at (808) 428-1625.


          Los 10 países menos poblados de Oceanía (2017)        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN Los 10 países menos poblados de Oceanía actualmente (año 2017) son, por orden (de menor a mayor población): Tuvalu, Nauru, Palaos, Islas Marshall, Micronesia, Tonga, Kiribati, Samoa, Vanuatu e Islas Salomón. A continuación se presenta un listado con los… Continue Reading

La entrada Los 10 países menos poblados de Oceanía (2017) aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          Los 10 países más poblados de Oceanía (2017)        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN Los 10 países más poblados de Oceanía actualmente (año 2017) son, por orden: Australia, Papúa Nueva Guinea, Nueva Zelanda, Fiyi, Islas Salomón, Vanuatu, Samoa, Kiribati, Tonga y Micronesia. A continuación se presenta un listado con los 10 países con… Continue Reading

La entrada Los 10 países más poblados de Oceanía (2017) aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          Â¿Cuántos países tiene Oceanía?        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN ¿Cuántos países tiene Oceanía? ¿Cuáles son? El continente oceánico está compuesto por 14 países [Países de Oceanía]: Australia, Fiyi, Islas Marshall, Islas Salomón, Kiribati, Micronesia, Nauru, Nueva Zelanda, Palaos, Papúa Nueva Guinea, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu yVanuatu. Si quieres ver los países de Oceanía en un mapa: [Mapa político de… Continue Reading

La entrada ¿Cuántos países tiene Oceanía? aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          Final Prediction- Another surprise for Argentina and their "Wild Tales"         
I'm writing this post on Day 11 of a Micronesian holiday, so there's not much Oscar buzz here.

This is definitely the closest race in years. Its also the first time in history with ZERO Western European nominees (Netherlands and Sweden came closest). Regretfully, I've only seen two of the five nominees- "Ida" and "Timbuktu" making predicting the winner even harder than usual.

First of all, I think ESTONIA's "Tangerines" has run out of steam. Despite warm reviews, they're a bit weaker than the other four AND they will be hurt by the new rule that you don't have to prove you've seen all five films. With such a close race, this will be the least-seen film (though Voters will get a screener copy) and id say they're out.

So which of the rest will it be? Let's take a quick look:

The Crowdpleaser Choice: "Wild Tales" (Argentina) hopes to follow in the footsteps of "Departures". The revenge-themed black comedy has gotten universally great reviews but some may see it as too lightweight. It will benefit from the "all voters voting" policy.

The Exotic Choice: "Timbuktu" (Mauritania) hopes to follow in the footsteps of "Tsotsi". "Timbuktu", about the 2010 Islamic fundamentalist takeover of the ancient city, is the first film directed by a Black African director (though Mauritania-born Sissako is a French citizen) to make the finals. It's exotic, it's relevant, it's universally relatable and probably deserves to win (it's miles better than "Ida").

The Boring Choice: Forgettable b&W "Ida" (Poland) hopes to follow forgettable Oscar winner "The Counterfeiters". She's the front-runner for so many reasons. It's won  the majority of precursors (except the most important one), it has a post-WWII theme (though the war has recently lost favor in this category)  and box-office is best in show. Most importantly, it's the most widely seen of the Five.

The Intellectual Choice: Golden Globe winner "Leviathan" (Russia) hopes to follow "No Man's Land" and "A Separation". It was the shock winner against "Ida" at the Globes, usually a strong tip to win the Oscar. The film also has a great backstory and a Cannes Screenplay win, though festival prizes aren't too important for oscar voters.

Final Predictions-

Argentina (35%)
Poland (28%)
Russia (20%)
Mauritania  (15%)
Estonia (2%)

Good luck to the unconventional nominees!




          Trump's Bluster On North Korea Is Only Half The Battle         

Talk of potential nuclear conflict between North Korea and the United States has ramped up dramatically over the past 24 hours, as both sides trade bellicose threats.

In response to punitive U.N. sanctions sparked by its illegal nuclear weapons program, the North Korean leadership has threatened a mid-August launch of missiles 30 or 40 kms off the coast of Guam, a US territorial outpost some 4,500km to the north of its long standing ally, Australia.

U.S. President Donald Trump has promised "fire and fury" if North Korea kept making threats, and bragged about the performance of America's nuclear arsenal.

It was a dramatic departure from the more diplomatic language of Trump's cabinet and allies, and some fear the world is marching towards Nuclear conflict.

Unconfirmed, but widely cited, intelligence indicates North Korea has up to 60 nuclear weapons under its control, and it has successfully produced a miniaturised nuclear warhead that puts it well on the path to being a fully fledged nuclear power.

In normal circumstances, North Korea would arc up and threaten its neighbours or the U.S. and would then get hit with a raft of punitive sanctions until it became relatively quiet.

But things aren't normal.

Apocalypse When?

United States detonating an atomic bomb

Probably not as as soon as you'd think, despite the bluster.

"I don't think that's going to happen," said Hugh White, Australian National University professor of strategic studies on Wednesday, referring to near term nuclear conflict in response to North Korean threats.

"I think the real question is whether or not Donald Trump has the decision-making capacity to handle the more serious question about how North Korea's ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) capability develops over the next few months."

White pointed to comments from Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, telling the ABC the Texan's "sort of reassuring remarks" were worth paying attention to. Tillerson argued the President was just using tough language, the kind North Korean leader Kim Jong Un would understand.

Defence Secretary Mattis was more blunt warning the DPRK to cease consideration of any actions "which would lead to the end of its regime and the destruction of its people."

"The DPRK regime's actions will continue to be grossly overmatched by ours and would lose any arms race or conflict it initiates," he said in a statement.

White sees big differences between what Trump and his cabinet members are saying.

"What (Trump) did yesterday, which is so alarming, was to threaten that he would strike North Korea, even if North Korea just made further threats," White told the ABC.

"Now, that's very different from threatening North Korea if it actually attacks the United States, and that's the kind of clarification that Secretary of State Tillerson was making."

Trump's presidency is just six months old and still a largely unknown quantity, White said, meaning we don't quite know if his threats will turn into bold action.

"Now, one hopes that the people around him, like Tillerson and Secretary of Defense Mattis would prevent him going too far, but there remains, in fact, the biggest risk situation in what is anyway a dangerous scenario, is that Donald Trump's decision-making would lead us over a precipice," White said.

Australia's Role

NORTHKOREA-NUCLEAR/

Under the ANZUS treaty, Australia is expected to consult if U.S. forces are attacked. The ANZUS treaty has only been invoked once -- on September 14, 2001, just days after the notorious attacks on the world trade centre.

Until (or if) that sort of moment comes again, Australia is pushing the diplomatic line.

On Monday the U.N. imposed what Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop called "the toughest and most comprehensive package of sanctions against North Korea to date".

Bishop has been on TV and radio since Wednesday pushing the diplomatic angle, while maintaining the right of nations such as the United States and South Korea to defend themselves.

"Our policy has not changed, our collective strategy has not changed, and that is to bring pressure to bear on North Korea through diplomatic and economic means, to force it to change its behaviour. That continues to be our collective strategy," she said on Thursday.

"I say that any country that has a diplomatic or economic relationship with North Korea must use that leverage to force the nation to change its illegal behaviour, and stop its ballistic missile testing and its nuclear weapons testing."

However White thinks Australians should expect their leaders will have only modest influence on what's happening in Washington.

"There's not much evidence that any of the people who work with him in the White House have much influence on (Trump), so I don't think we should expect that Malcolm Turnbull would have much say," he said.


          7 Keajaiban Alam Indonesia Yang Tidak Di Miliki Negara Lain         

1. Ubur-ubur yang tidak menyengat, Danau Kakaban, Kaltim

keajaiban dari Danau Kakaban ini adalah adanya ubur-ubur yang tidak menyengat yang tinggal di bawah airnya. Ajaibnya, ubur-ubur seperti ini hanya terdapat di dua tempat di dunia, yaitu di Danau Kakaban dan Jellyfish Lake di Palau, Micronesia di kawasan tenggara Laut Pasifik. Anda bisa berenang dan menyelam ke dasar danaunya untuk bertemu ubur-ubur unik ini.
Pulau Kakaban adalah salah satu dari total 31 pulau yang tergabung dalam Kepulauan Derawan, Kalimantan Timur. Danau Kakaban di pulau ini diklaim sebagai danau ubur-ubur terbesar di dunia. Sebabnya, terdapat 4 jenis ubur-ubur di danau ini, yaitu ubur-ubur bulan, ubur-ubur totol, ubur-ubur kotak, dan ubur-ubur terbalik. Sedangkan Jellyfish Lake di Palau hanya memiliki dua jenis ubur-ubur saja. Wow!
Danau Kakaban sendiri memiliki tekstur yang unik. Danau ini terbentuk akibat karang yang naik di atas permukaan laut dengan ketinggian hingga 50 meter. Kemudian, karang ini membuat sejumlah air terperangkap, dan terbentuklah danau.

2. Garam di atas gunung, Gunung Krayan, Kaltim

Masih di Kaltim, satu lagi keajaiban di sini adalah terdapat garam di atas gunung. Garam tersebut berada dalam sumur di Desa Long Midang, Gunung Krayan yang berjarak 100 km dari laut di ketinggian 2.400 mdpl. Ajaib!
Garam gunung yang dihasilkan di Krayan memiliki penampilan yang sama dengan garam laut, yaitu seperti pasir dan berwarna putih. Tetapi, ternyata garam gunung memiliki kandungan yodium yang lebih tinggi dibanding garam laut lho!
Proses pembuatan garam ini pun berbeda dengan garam laut. Bahan dasar berupa air sumur di Desa Long Midang, direbus satu malam hingga air mengering. Setelah kering, tertinggalkan butiran kristal yang merupakan garam basah lalu garam basah ini dimasukkan ke dalam batang bambu dan dibakar hingga bambu habis terbakar api. Sisa bakaran inilah yang merupakan garam kering yang kemudian dibungkus daun dan siap dijual.

3. Fosil penyu dan batu karang, Gua Batu Cermin, Manggarai Barat, NTT

Selain komodo, Gua Batu Cermin merupakan keajaiban dari NTT. Sebabnya, di dalam gua ini terdapat gugusan batu karang dan fosil penyu di dinding guanya. Gua Batu Cermin berada di Kampung Wae Kesambi, Kecamatan Komodo, Kabupaten Manggarai Barat, Flores Barat, NTT.
Untuk melihat keajaiban ini, Anda harus menelusuri gua sepanjang ratusan meter. Selain itu, kilauan staklatit dan staglagmit di gua ini juga unik. Tak heran, gua ini selalu menjadi agenda wajib saat berkunjung ke Flores.
Fosil penyunya dapat Anda lihat dengan menggunakan senter karena gelapnya suasana di dalam gua. Gugusan batu karang pun terlihat jelas, seperti batu karang yang ada di bawah lautan. Oleh sebab itu, batu-batu karang dan penyu yang seharusnya berada di bawah lautan, mengapa bisa berada di dalam gua di atas daratan? Inilah tanda tanya besar sekaligus menjadi keajaiban alam.

4. Pasir pantai merah muda, Pulau Komodo, NTT

Jika pantai biasanya berpasir putih atau hitam, maka pantai ini mempunyai pasir yang berwarna pink. Datanglah ke Pink Beach di Pulau Komodo. Pantai ini letaknya ada di balik bukit, sehingga sepi dan terpencil. Air laut di sekitar pantainya sangat biru jernih dan menggoda untuk diving atau snorkeling.
Warna pink di pantai ini akan terlihat lebih pekat dibanding pasir yang masih kering. Warna pinknya merupakan komposisi dari koral, pecahan kerang dan kalsium karbonat dari biota laut yang ada di sana.
Anda bisa menuju Pink Beach dari Labuan Bajo. Bersantai di pantai berenang di lautan, atau sekedar berfoto-foto di pantai yang merupakan salah satu keajaiban Indonesia ini akan menjadi pengalaman yang tak terlupakan.

5. Danau tiga warna, Ende, NTT

Satu lagi keajaiban dari Flores, yaitu Danau Kelimutu yang mempunyai tiga warna. Hitam, biru tua, dan biru, adalah tiga warna dari danau ini yang terletak di Kecamatan Kelimutu, Ende, NTT. Tak hanya wisatawan dalam negeri saja, danau ini sudah memesona hingga ke traveler mancanegara.
Keajaiban dari ketiga danau ini adalah dapat berubah warna. Bila beruntung, Anda dapat melihat warna-warna yang berubah warna, seperti warna merah menjadi hijau, dari hijau muda menjadi hijau keputih-putihan, dan lainnya. Hal ini disebabkan oleh faktor kandungan mineral, lumut dan batu-batuan di dalam kawah dan juga pengaruh cahaya Matahari.
Selain itu, masyarakat sekitar percaya bahwa perubahan warna tersebut mengandung ‘pesan’ tersendiri. Meski demikian, perjalanan menuju ke Danau kelimutu tidaklah mudah. Anda harus berjalan sepanjang 3 kilometer dan melewati 236 anak tangga untuk mencapai Puncak Kelimutu. Dari sinilah, ada keindahan dan keajaiban alam yang sangat menawan.

6. Air panas di pinggir pantai, Tidore

Pemandian air panas di kolam atau gunung, sudah biasa. Akan tetapi, di Pantai Akesahu, Tidore, Maluku Utara, terdapat pemandian air panas di pinggir pantai. Benar-benar di pinggir pantai dan di depan Anda adalah lautan. Ajaib!
Air panas Akesahu terletak sekitar 30 menit dari dari Pelabuhan Rum, pelabuhan utama di Tidore. Ajaibnya, walaupun terletak di pinggir pantai, air panas ini rasanya tawar. Ditambah dengan pepohonan rindang dan pasir pantai yang halus, mandi air panas di tempat ini benar-benar berbeda dari biasanya.
Air panas ini berasal dari sumber air panas yang terletak di dekat pantai. Merendamkan diri di air panasnya sambil menikmati suasana pantai sangatlah menyenangkan. Cukup dengan biaya Rp 2.000 saja, Anda dapat menikmati keajaiban alam ini.

7. Pasir putih di bukit Lembah Baliem, Papua

Jika selama ini Anda menggangap pasir putih hanya ada di pantai saja, maka datanglah ke Desa Aikima di Lembah Baliem, Kabupaten Jayawijaya, Papua. Di sana terdapat pasir putih yang berada di atas bukit dan berjarak ratusan kilometer dari pantai. Wow!
Anda harus mendaki bukit untuk melihat pasir putihnya dari dekat. Dari kejauhan saja, hamparan pasir putihnya sudah terlihat jelas. Warnanya mencolok dengan latar gunung hijau dan langit yang biru. Pasir itu seakan mengalir dari atas bukit. Putih dan bersih, memantulkan cahaya matahari hingga tampak bak kristal.
Berdasarkan sains, pasir putih ini ada karena bentukan alam. Dulu, Lembah Baliem adalah sebuah danau raksasa bernama Wio. Sekitar tahun 1813, terjadi gempa yang menyebabkan pergeseran dan perubahan geologi. Dari situ terbentuk pula Sungai Baliem yang meliuk di tengah lembah ini. Konon, pasir putih Desa Aikima adalah salah satu sisi danau purba tersebut.


sumber : http://pulsk.com/54249/7-Keajaiban-Alam-Indonesia-Yang-Tidak-Di-Miliki-Negara-Lain
          5 things you likely didn’t know about Guam        
Tourists stroll along a road on the island of Guam, a U.S. Pacific Territory, August 10, 2017. REUTERS/Erik De Castro

Tourists stroll along a road on the island of Guam, a U.S. Pacific Territory, Aug. 10, 2017. Photo by REUTERS/Erik De Castro

As tension escalated this week between the United States and North Korea, the world turned its attention to the U.S. territory of Guam, which North Korean state media reported had become the target of a retaliatory attack. North Korean military officials said a plan to fire four mid-range missiles about 25 miles off the island’s shores would be finalized later this month. The threat comes after President Donald Trump warned that North Korea would face “fire and fury” if it continued to threaten the United States, a warning he reiterated Thursday.

The tension comes on the heels of an intelligence report that suggested North Korea has miniaturized nuclear weapons to fit on missiles.

Guam is a relatively isolated island known for little more than its U.S. military port. Here are five things you might not know about the territory.

FILE PHOTO: Aircraft from Marine All Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 533 stand on the runway at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam September 15, 2014. U.S. Air Force/Staff Sgt. Robert Hicks/Handout/File Photo via REUTERS.

Aircraft from Marine All Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 533 stand on the runway at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. File photo by U.S. Air Force/Staff Sgt. Photo by Robert Hicks/Handout via REUTERS.

1. 7,000 U.S. soldiers are stationed in Guam.

Guam is home to U.S. Naval Base Guam and the Andersen Air Force Base. Located on the northeast side of the island, the Air Force base retains a fleet of B52 bombers and fighter jets. The naval base, located on the southwest part of the territory, has nuclear-powered submarines. About 7,000 U.S. soldiers and their families live on the island, which has a population of 160,000, according to the Associated Press. As a result, Guam’s economy relies heavily on the U.S. Armed Forces, which owns a third of the island. The tourist district, Tumon, is located between the two military bases.

President Clinton (L) squats as he examines the names of World War Two war dead on a wall at the War in the Pacific National Historical Park on the island of Guam November 23. Guam Governor Carl Gutierrez (R) and his wife Geraldine Gutierrez look on. Clinton paused to look at the name of the Governor's mother-in-law who died during a forced march by Japanese occupation troops. Clinton stopped in the U.S. territory of Guam for a six-hour visit after leaving South Korea and before returning to Washington.

Former President Clinton squats as he examines the names of World War II war dead on a wall at the War in the Pacific National Historical Park on the island of Guam in 1998. Photo by Larry Rubenstein/ Reuters

2. Those born in Guam have American citizenship.

Spain claimed Guam in 1565, more than 40 years after Ferdinand Magellan landed on the island. Spain’s colonial rule continued until the U.S. took control in 1898 during the Spanish-American War. Spain officially handed over the land under the Treaty of Paris.

Japan temporarily controlled the island after the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941, but allied forces reclaimed the territory three years later. Guam officially became a U.S. territory in 1950 and was put under the administration of the Department of the Navy.

That same year, Congress passed the Organic Act of Guam, giving Guamanians American citizenship. However, Guamanians are still not allowed to vote in the U.S. presidential election.

Guam elected its first governor in 1970 and, since 1972, has had one nonvoting delegate in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Tourists frolic on the waters overlooking posh hotels in Tumon tourist district on the island of Guam, a U.S. Pacific Territory, August 10, 2017. REUTERS/Erik De Castro

Tourists frolic on the waters overlooking posh hotels in Tumon tourist district on the island of Guam, a U.S. Pacific Territory. Photo by REUTERS/Erik De Castro.

3. Guam is closer to North Korea than it is to Hawaii.

Guam is the closest U.S. territory to North Korea at a distance of approximately 2,130 miles. That is close to half the distance between Guam and Hawaii, which sits about 3,960 miles away.

Guam is the southernmost island in what is known as the Mariana Archipelago and the largest island in Micronesia. It covers a total of 210 square miles — approximately the size of Chicago.

A statue of Guam hero Ricardo Bordallo is pictured at the entrance of the Governor's Complex on the island of Guam, a U.S. Pacific Territory, August 10, 2017. REUTERS/Erik De Castro

A statue of Guam hero Ricardo Bordallo is pictured at the entrance of the Governor’s Complex on the island of Guam, a U.S. Pacific Territory, August 10, 2017. REUTERS/Erik De Castro

4. Guam is culturally diverse.

About 40 percent of Guam’s residents are Chamorros, the name for the native people. About 24 percent are Filipino, 18 percent identify as several races, 7 percent are white, and 10 percent are of other Micronesian descent.

The official languages of Guam are English and Chamorro, which means ‘noble.’ It’s a Malayo-Polynesian language that has incorporated Spanish words over time.

A married gay man carries the rainbow and U.S. flags at a celebration rally in West Hollywood, California, following the 2015 Supreme Court decision on marriage equality. Photo by Nicholson/Reuters

A married gay man carries the rainbow and U.S. flags at a celebration rally in West Hollywood, California, following the 2015 Supreme Court decision on marriage equality. Photo by Nicholson/Reuters

5. Guam was the first U.S. territory to recognize same-sex marriage.

On June 5, 2015, Guam became the first U.S. territory to legalize same-sex marriage. District Court of Guam Chief Judge Frances Tydingco-Gatewood ruled in favor of Kathleen Aguero and Loretta Pangelinan, who became the first couple to obtain a marriage license. Three weeks later, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled same-sex marriage was legal throughout the U.S., including all its territories.

The post 5 things you likely didn’t know about Guam appeared first on PBS NewsHour.


          Micronesian Blues        
On April 1, 2010, American Heroes at the Watering Hole will feature with former Marine and deputy sheriff Bryan Vila, on his experiences as an international police trainer. Vila was a member of the US Marine Corps from 1964 to 1967. His service included a tour in Vietnam. In 1969, Bryan Vila joined the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Dept. By the time he left the Sheriff’s Dept. in 1978, he had attained the rank of sergeant. He continued this law enforcement career for “six years as a police chief helping the emerging nations of Micronesia develop innovative law enforcement strategies, and two years in Washington, D.C., as a federal law enforcement officer.” Currently, “Bryan Vila, PhD, is a professor of criminal justice at WSU Spokane. Prior to joining WSU in July 2005, he directed the Division of Crime Control and Prevention Research at the Dept. of Justice’s National Institute of Justice.” Bryan Vila is the co-author of three books: Capital Punishment in the United States: A Documentary History; The Role of Police in American Society: A Documentary History; and, Micronesian Blues: The Adventures of an American Cop in Paradise. And, the author of Tired Cops: The Importance of Managing Police Fatigue. According to the description of Micronesian Blues: The Adventures of an American Cop in Paradise, “Training competent, independent police forces in developing nations is critical to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability worldwide. Yet all too often we simply take American cops or military troops, drop them into the middle of a foreign land, and leave them to figure out the enormous challenges of cross-cultural police training on their own. Three decades ago, in the tropical island setting of Micronesia, Vila was one of these trainers. After serving as a Marine in Vietnam and then working as a street cop in the ghettos and barrios of Los Angeles for nine years, he expected the job to be a paid vacation in paradise. He couldn't have been more wrong."
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          Raffle to win Micronesian island: 'The odds are higher than any lotto'        
Remember Doug and Sally Beitz? They're the Australian couple selling off their tropical island home through a raffle. And they've sparked an absolute, global ticket-selling frenzy. The couple, who are originally from the Gold...
          King Tides and Exodus in the Marshall Islands        
With a global mean temperature rise of 1.5℃ (video, direct .mp4 link) the Marshall Islands, site of the US's Bikini Atoll nuclear weapons tests, may disappear completely. With most islands just six feet above sea level and less than a mile wide the ring of atolls is already severely affected by climate change. ⅓ of all Marshall Islanders are believed to live in the US, although they may face deportation. In recent months the residents of the Pacific island nation have been advised to cease eating fish after elevated levels of PCBs were found in the waters around the US missile base on Kwajalein Atoll. Recently, very previously, previously, previously, personal anecdotes.
          Legitimate form of life        
I tweeted this article about how Oliver Sacks conceives as difference not as a disability, but as a different set of abilities, but I wanted to share some more thoughts on it.

Maria Popova writes:

A voracious lifelong reader, Dr. Sacks had grown enchanted by the H.G. Wells short story “The Country of the Blind,” set in an isolated society where blindness prevailed for three centuries and where a lost Western traveller finds himself the aberrant one, afflicted with sight. Drawing on the Wells story, his own childhood experience of visual migraines that temporarily blunted his color perception, and his neurological work with a painter who had suddenly become colorblind, Dr. Sacks bridged two of his great literary and intellectual heroes — Wells and Darwin — and wondered whether there might exist, not in fiction but in geography, a real isolated culture where total colorblindness — or achromatopsia — had become a basic condition among the population.

Because such mutations are most easily contained in cultures isolated by sea, he reasoned that if such a society existed, it would have to be on an island. After tracking down the appropriate colleague to ask, he was surprised and thrilled to learn that one such island did indeed exist — Pingelap in the Caroline archipelago of Micronesia, where total colorblindness had been coloring the genetic pool for two centuries.
***
Like all genetic deviations from the mean, colorblindness on Pingelap had emerged due to a formidable brush with randomness. In 1775, a typhoon decimated 90% of the people living on the island. Most of the remaining survivors eventually succumbed to a slow death of starvation, so that of the one thousand islanders only twenty remained. Several centuries earlier, the original settlers had brought to Pingelap the recessive gene for colorblindness, but because the population had been large enough, the odds of two carriers marrying and the gene manifesting in their children had been fairly low. Now, with a tiny but fertile group left with no recourse but inbreeding to repopulate the island, the recessive gene suddenly flourished into growing domination and total colorblindness was soon a common condition.



Oliver Sacks writes:

Colorblindness had existed on both Fuur and Pingelap for a century or more, and though both islands had been the subject of extensive genetic studies, there had been no human (so to speak, Wellsian) explorations of them, of what it might be like to be an achromatope in an achromatopic community — to be not only totally colorblind oneself, but to have, perhaps, colorblind parents and grandparents, neighbors and teachers, to be part of a culture where the entire concept of color might be missing, but where, instead, other forms of perception, of attention, might be amplified in compensation. I had a vision, only half fantastic, of an entire achromatopic culture with its own singular tastes, arts, cooking, and clothing — a culture where the sensorium, the imagination, took quite different forms from our own, and where “color” was so totally devoid of referents or meaning that there were no color names, no color metaphors, no language to express it; but (perhaps) a heightened language for the subtlest variations of texture and tone, all that the rest of us dismiss as “grey.”

Sacks brings a colleague, Knut Nordby, who happens to also be colorblind, and experiences the island very differently than Sacks:

For us, as color-normals, it was at first just a confusion of greens, whereas to Knut it was a polyphony of brightnesses, tonalities, shapes, and textures, easily identified and distinguished from each other.

The world wasn't just tailored made for the colorblind, the colorblind people also seemed to have a unique advantage over their counterparts:

The achromatopic children seemed to have developed very acute auditory and factual memories… [They] were oddly knowledgeable too about the colors of people’s clothing, and various objects around them — and often seemed to know what colors “went” with what… We could already observe in these achromatopic children in Mand how a sort of theoretical knowledge and know-how, a compensatory hypertrophy of curiosity and memory, were rapidly developing in reaction to their perceptual problems. They were learning to compensate cognitively for what they could not directly perceive or comprehend.

The best part of the video is at 2:55 where he tells the story of them asking how the colorblind could even tell when a banana was ripe, since they couldn't distinguish between green and yellow. They brought a green banana, and they sort of contemptuously thought -- this illustrates our point, they can't tell this banana is green. But the banana turned out to be ripe. They explained -- you're narrow minded, you would have said this banana wasn't ripe because you would only be focused on color, but they were focused on everything else about the banana -- texture, smell, etc. Similarly, a lot of people who rely on empathy have a hard time understanding how those without it could make the same sorts of judgments or choices for which the empaths rely on it so heavily. Not only can we make the same judgments and choices, we sometimes can get there more accurately without the empathy, because the emotions are not clouding our moral judgment.

The video continues, we do stigmatize people because people have characteristics that put them in conflict with others, but once the population has a large percentage of that type of person, they just seem normal. I think of the debate I got in with someone about which is more dangerous -- maleness, or sociopathy. In my mind there's an easy argument to make for maleness. If you took a female empath and made her a sociopath, she would be much less statistically likely to be a violent criminal than if you made her into a man. That's just the statistical difference between males and females in terms of propensity towards violence. But of course no one seriously advocates for the elimination of men from the human race. Since they are so prevalent, we think of their violent tendencies as being rather normal.

Sacks puts it this way:

There is a sort of critical level, so that if a tenth or a quarter of the population have some condition, it has to be accepted as a legitimate form of life and won’t be marginalized and, sometimes, won’t even be noticed.


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          EU signs sustainable energy declarations with Pacific Islands        
Tuesday, 08 September 2015
Updated: 
Wednesday, 09 September 2015

European Commissioner for energy and climate action, Miguel Arias Cañete, has signed new joint declarations to reinforce cooperation on sustainable energy between the EU and four Pacific Islands: Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau and Nauru. Joint declarations with Niue and Tonga will be signed in the course of the week.

The joint declarations - signed at the Pacific Islands Forum Leaders Meeting on 8 September 2015 - aim to make the national energy sectors more sustainable by promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency measures. They also reaffirm the EU's commitment to work with the Pacific Islands to achieve this.

"Sustainable energy is the fuel for sustainable development. This is especially true in the Pacific Islands where imported fuel dependency is hampering economic growth, and where the climate change impacts are more present than anywhere else. That is why the European Union supports the Pacific counties in their efforts to develop renewable energy and boost energy savings," Arias Cañete said.

The Pacific Islands bear the brunt of the effects of climate change in particular due to rising sea levels and changing weather patterns including an increase in storms and natural disasters like cyclones, earthquakes and tsunamis.

Islands like Tonga have also been feeling the pressure of rising oil prices and have therefore agreed to cut dependence on oil imports.

Similar declarations have already been signed between Cape Verde and Austria, Luxembourg, Spain and Portugal; Ivory Coast and France; Liberia and Norway, Rwanda and Togo.

Moreover, in May this year, European Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development, Neven Mimica, signed two similar declarations to work closer with Sierra Leone and with Uganda, Germany and France on sustainable energy. These declarations reinforced political determination to work in a closer partnership to achieve a sustainable energy sector and to fight energy poverty.

The joint declarations come in the run-up to the United Nations summit on climate change which will take place in Paris this November.

Joint Declarations:
Marshall Islands
Micronesia
Palau
Nauru
Niue
Tonga

 


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          FUNDACION ONEYDA CAYETANO Y LOS HOMBRES Y MUJERES DE EDAD PLATEADA Y EDAD DORADA        

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SEÑORES EDAD PLATEADA, SEÑORES EDAD DORADA, TERCERA EDAD, CUARTA EDAD, PERSONAS DE LA TERCERA EDAD, SEÑORES ADULTOS MAYORES, ENVEJECIENTES, ADULTOS MAYORES, ANCIANOS, ABUELAS, ABUELOS, TODOS.



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Homeless in Hawaii: My "little grass shack" report

     Remember that old song describing the wonders of living in a "little grass shack" in Hawaii?  Those days are long gone.  Why?  Because there are almost no little grass shacks left in Hawaii any more (probably due to building codes) -- and as a result, there are a lot of people here who are homeless.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bMRxbFkO6gU

     On Waikiki Beach alone, I recently counted approximately 23 megalith-style high-rise hotels and/or condos.  And I might have missed some too.  Each hotel charges at least $200 a night -- but usually a whole lot more.  Two-bedroom condos here sell for a million dollars a bedroom.  What homeless person can afford that?  

     For many people in Hawaii these days, those little grass shacks have been replaced by shipping container boxes -- but this is actually a good thing.  As the State of Hawaii, like the rest of America, discovers that more and more of its citizens are becoming homeless, the government here has tried everything it can to house as many people as it can by any means that it can -- hence the wide-spread use of shipping container boxes as homes.

     According to Mike Zint, a national advocate for the rapidly increasing homeless population in America, "What does it take to get off the streets?  Money?  Affordable housing?  Employment?  Of course the answer is yes, but none of those things is the first step.  The first step is stability.  And stability is the one thing that is most commonly removed [from the homeless]."  So Hawaii is at least making an effort to get some stability into the lives of those who are forced to go homeless.  https://occupysf.net/index.php/2017/03/12/stability-first-says-homeless-leader-mike-zint/

     Hawaii also offers many boot-strap-like services to get homeless Hawaiians back on their feet.  Some of these efforts are working.  Some of them are not.  And as the native Hawaiian population becomes less and less able to afford housing in their beloved Hawaii, they are being forced to move over to the mainland in droves where the rent is cheaper.

     According to one native Hawaiian I met here, "So many of us are now moving to Las Vegas due to its lower rents and warm climate, that Las Vegas is now known as Hawaii's ninth island."

     But this migration to the mainland is also a two-way street.  "Many of the colder mainland states are purchasing airline tickets in order to send their homeless population here.  This is true.  I have seen it myself." 

       In addition, "We also have a lot of people who come here from Micronesia who get priority for our HUD housing because they can no longer live on their radioactive atolls because many of them have become really sick due to cancer from the nuclear weapons tests.  So they move them here -- out of sight, out of mind."

     Another factor in the severe limitation of affordable housing in Hawaii is the huge US military presence here.  The so-called "Pivot to Asia" apparently starts here.  "The US military is our number-one economic factor," said my Hawaiian friend.  Even greater than tourism?  Apparently so.  I saw some pretty posh military housing spread out all around the island of Oahu -- definitely not little grass shacks.

     I've been living on pineapple and macadamia nuts here for too long -- and also French fries.  Remember what happened in "The Martian"?  He lived on potatoes for a whole year because of their protein?  A whole year is too long to live on potatoes, even in beautiful Hawaii.  It's time for me to fly back home to Berkeley -- where the 1000-plus homeless population just manages to squeak by on pizza-by-the-slice.

PS:  Am currently reading a book called The Up Side of Stress, and apparently one way to reduce stress is to be altruistic.  "Caring for each other amplifies our resources," says the author.  "Human beings have a basic need to help others...and the more that they help others the happier they are because altruism both creates hope and prevents the defeat response."

     This need for hope is apparently one of the reasons why the State of Hawaii is so compassionate towards its homeless citizens.  Hawaiians try to honor the human "tend and befriend" response to stress instead of the more well-known "flight or fight" response.  Hawaii even has a word for this befriending response to stress.  It's called "Aloha".

PPS:  Remember that bumper-sticker from back in the day that read "Life is a competition.  The winners are the ones who do the most good deeds"?  Or as they said in Lawrence of Arabia, "Allah favors the compassionate".  And this truism is still true, no matter how many Americans die from lack of housing and healthcare here and how many babies our war contractors murder in the Middle East.   https://getyarn.io/yarn-clip/1a9e93f1-5667-415d-b0ab-53c169aaa2f1

     Am I pissed off by all this lack of compassion here at home and heartless slaughter in the Middle East?  Hell yeah.  Once people in power in America found out that there are huge profits to be made by stealing homes and murdering babies, there appears to be no stopping them from stealing and slaughtering again and again -- both here and abroad. 



https://www.sott.net/article/322161-80-of-Ukrainians-now-live-in-poverty-thanks-to-US-backed-revolution-of-dignity

________________________________________

Stop Wall Street and War Street from destroying our world.   And while you're at it, please buy my books!  http://straitwellbooks.blogspot.com/2016/04/our-top-best-seller-right-now-is-bring.html