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          World: Food Assistance Outlook Brief, August 2017        
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population is compared to last year and the recent five-year average. Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season. Additional information is provided for countries with large food insecure populations, an expectation of high severity, or where other key issues warrant additional discussion.


          CAN 2012 : a pesar del pitido final, aún queda por ganar el partido contra el hambre en el Sahel        

Se estima que el número de personas que necesita asistencia en la región del Sahel aumenta hasta los 11 millones, por lo que Oxfam advierte de que debe reforzarse la labor humanitaria en las próximas semanas.   

La agencia humanitaria internacional ha elogiado a los futbolistas africanos por unirse al llamamiento a la comunidad internacional para que actúe rápidamente, con el fin de prevenir un empeoramiento de la crisis alimentaria que se avecina la zona.

Con motivo de la Copa Africana de Naciones, estrellas del fútbol de la talla de Moumouni Dagano de Burkina Faso, Demba Ba de Senegal, Seydou Keïta de Malí y Lawali Idrissa de Níger, entre otros,  se han unido a Oxfam para dar más visibilidad a la crisis alimentaria que amenaza la región de África del Oeste, conocida como el Sahel, y, con ello, apoyar la lucha contra el hambre en sus propios países y lograr  salvar vidas y los medios de subsistencia de millones de africanos.   

En un contexto en el que, según  las estimaciones oficiales, el número de personas que necesitará asistencia en los próximos seis meses se acerca a los 11 millones y los recursos necesarios con los que poder dar una respuesta ascienden a 700 millones de euros, Oxfam advierte de que la acción de la comunidad internacional en la región deberá incrementarse.  

Al Hassan Cissé, asesor de Políticas de Seguridad Alimentaria de Oxfam en África del Oeste, ha afirmado: “La potencial dimensión de la crisis que se avecina en el Sahel ya la conocemos, por lo que es ahora el momento de movilizar los recursos para proteger la vida y el sustento de millones de personas y proteger a los niños de la desnutrición. Cada mes de retraso se traducirá en un empeoramiento de la situación para las comunidades más vulnerables y conllevará el aumento del coste de la respuesta. Aunque apreciamos señales alentadoras de algunos donantes aportando ya fondos, se necesita mucha más ayuda si actuamos acorde con la dimensión y la velocidad requeridas  para evitar lo peor”.

La semana pasada la Comisión Europea aumentó su aportación para ayuda humanitaria en la región a 123,5 millones de euros y Alemania anunció un nuevo apoyo de 12 millones de euros, así como  Australia, con  8 millones de euros. Otras promesas de ayuda, también aplaudidas por Oxfam, han sido anunciadas por países como Francia y Reino Unido, con 17 y 8 millones de euros, respectivamente.

Oxfam está proporcionando agua y saneamiento, así como un apoyo esencial para proteger los medios de vida de las comunidades afectadas por la situación en todo el Sahel, incluyendo a los refugiados de Malí en Níger que han huido del conflicto en su país durante la semana pasada.

Cuando la Copa Africana de Naciones ha llegado a su final y la situación en la región amenaza con empeorar, los futbolistas siguen manifestando su apoyo para ganar el partido  contra la hambre. Demba Ba jugador del equipo senegalés, y del equipo de Newcastle United, ha señalado: "Es nuestro deber  comprometernos para garantizar que el hambre no sea una opción en el siglo XXI. Todos nosotros tenemos que actuar con determinación y coraje para defender a nuestros hermanos y hermanas a lo largo y ancho del Sahel”.

La crisis que se avecina en esta zona africana se debe principalmente a las bajas precipitaciones, que provocaron una caída del 25% en la producción de cereales en la última cosecha, así como a la subida del precio de los alimentos, que ha sido de hasta un 90 por ciento si se compara con el promedio de los últimos cinco años.

El Sahel es una región crónicamente vulnerable a las amenazas externas, como la sequía. Ante este contexto, Oxfam demanda inversiones a largo plazo para incrementar la resiliencia de las comunidades para que puedan hacer frente a las malas temporadas, con el fin de prevenir futuras crisis.

Más información

La respuesta de Oxfam ante la crisis alimentaria en el Sahel

Spanish
Pull quotes: 
Cada mes de retraso se traducirá en un empeoramiento de la situación para las comunidades más vulnerables y conllevará el aumento del coste de la respuesta
Quotee's organisation: 
Asesor de Políticas de Seguridad Alimentaria de Oxfam en África del Oeste
Notas a los editores: 

Imágenes : http://www.flickr.com/photos/letstacklehunger/
En caso de utilizar las imágenes, por favor mencionar Oxfam en los créditos.

Web de la campaña de la región del Sahel. 
http://www.letstacklehunger.org 
http://www.taclonslafaim.org

Videos disponibles en inglés:

  • Video Sahel (4 teams): http://bit.ly/zn5vhU
  • Video Etalons Burkina Faso: http://youtu.be/ofnsnjosDEw
  • Video Aigles du Mali: http://bit.ly/zLxkxq
  • Video MENA Niger: http://bit.ly/w2GMnK
  • Video Lions Senegal: http://bit.ly/zEMrhM
  • Video Demba Ba et Armand Traoré http://bit.ly/zBwDnl
Contacto para medios: 

Charles Bambara - Sénégal (Dakar): cbambara@oxfam.org.uk - +221 77 639 4178

Irina Fuhrman - Mauritanie ifuhrmann@intermonoxfam.org - +222 48021965

Ian Bray - Oxford - ibray@oxfam.org.uk +44 (0)7721 461339

Magali Rubino - Paris - mrubino@oxfamfrance.org +33 630466604

Space only: 
Quotee: 
Al Hassan Cissé

          Copa Africana de Naciones: 25 futbolistas se unen a Oxfam para ganar el partido al hambre        

A pocas horas del inicio de la CAN, Copa Africana de Naciones 2012, los futbolistas Seydou Keita de Mali, Charles Kaboré de Burkina Faso, Demba Bâ de Senegal y Lawali Idrissa de Níger y sus compañeros de equipo se solidarizan con los millones de personas que se enfrentan al hambre en la región del Sahel. Los futbolistas hacen un llamamiento a la comunidad internacional, convencidos de que “Juntos podemos ganar el partido al hambre”.

Los equipos de Burkina Faso, Mali, Níger y Senegal, determinados a hacerse con la victoria y compartirla con sus seguidores y sus naciones, piden a los gobiernos y a la comunidad internacional que muestren igual determinación para proteger a esta misma población de la crisis alimentaria que amenaza la región. En el Sahel, millones de personas, entre ellos un millón de niños y niñas, tendrán que hacer frente a una grave crisis si no se reacciona rápidamente.

Los futbolistas de los cuatro equipos de los países sahelianos que participan en la CAN han realizado un video y una serie de fotografías con la ONG internacional Oxfam y sus socios locales, en las que solicitan que se actúe de forma inmediata para poder salvar miles de vidas. Las imágenes serán difundidas por distintos medios de comunicación durante la competición.

La crisis se puede explicar por el descenso en la pluviometría en 2011 que ha provocado la caída en un 25% de la cantidad cosechada -comparado con el año anterior-  y por el contexto global de alza de precios de los alimentos, que en algunas regiones han llegado a duplicarse. En Mauritania, Chad o Níger, se empiezan a observar desplazamientos de la población y de los pastores en búsqueda de pasto para el ganado.

La estrella del futbol maliense, el jugador del FC Barcelona Seydou Keita ha dicho:  “Reaccionando a tiempo, podremos impedir que la crisis afecte a muchas personas, entre ellas numerosas mujeres, quiénes normalmente son las primeras víctimas de las crisis alimentarias. También podremos ayudar a millones de niños y niñas evitando que caigan en la malnutrición y dándoles la oportunidad de crecer con buena salud y una educación sólida”.

La última crisis en la región que data de 2010 afectó a 10 millones de personas. La petición que hacen los jugadores de futbol llega tras las declaraciones de los responsables políticos y gubernamentales, que en Chad, Níger, Burkina Faso, Mauritania y Mali se han comprometido a desarrollar y aplicar planes nacionales de urgencia en colaboración con la ayuda internacional.

Todavía se puede salvar a la población, según el portavoz de Oxfam Eric Hazard “A pesar de que la situación en el Sahel es grave, aún estamos a tiempo de evitar lo peor. Si comparamos con años anteriores, esta vez las informaciones han llegado meses antes de que la crisis se establezca, lo que significa que podemos actuar ahora mismo para salvar vidas y proteger los recursos de la población. En este sentido, aplaudimos el compromiso de los futbolistas en África, quienes apelando a una acción urgente para “Ganar el combate contra el hambre”, reafirman su solidaridad con sus naciones.

Más información

Informe (en inglés): Escaping the Hunger Cycle: Pathways to resilience in the Sahel

La respuesta de Oxfam ante la crisis alimentaria en el Sahel

Spanish
Main picture: 
Moussa Sow y Armand Traoré, de Senegal. Foto: Oxfam
Pull quotes: 
Reaccionando a tiempo, podremos impedir que la crisis afecte a muchas personas, entre ellas numerosas mujeres, quiénes normalmente son las primeras víctimas de las crisis alimentarias.
Quotee's organisation: 
Futbolista, FC Barcelona
Notas a los editores: 
  • Link a las fotos: http://www.flickr.com/photos/letstacklehunger/ - Mención de crédito © Fotos Oxfam al publicarlas
  • Web sobre la campaña en la región del Sahelhttp://www.letstacklehunger.org / http://www.taclonslafaim.org
  • Equipos y futbolistas participantes en la campaña: LES AIGLES DU MALI : Seydou Keita (Barcelona, España), Mahamane Traore (Metz), Cédric Kanté (Panathinakos, Grèce), Drissa Diakite (Nice), Modibo Maiga (Sochaux), LES ETALONS du BURKINA FASO : Charles Kaboré (OM)- Alain Traoré (AJ Auxerre)- Moumouni Dagano , Capitaine (Al-Khor Sports Club)- Jonathan Pitroipa (Stade rennais FC)- Bertrand Traoré (Chelsea) Les MENA du NIGER: Lawali Idrissa, capitaine (AS FAN)- Kamilou Daouda (Sfax)- Boubacar Talatou (Orlando Pirates) LES LIONS DE LA TERANGA, SENEGAL : Mamadou Niang (capitaine)  Turquie , Fenerbahçe - Demba Bâ (Grande Bretagne , New Castle)- Moussa Sow (France, Lille)  - Amara Traoré (coach), Ablaye Sarr (coach adjoint)- Jacques Faty  (Turquie, club Sivasspor )- Omar Daff (France, Stade Brestois)  -  Souleymane Diawara (France, OM)  - Armand Traoré  (Grande Bretagne, Queens Park Rangers Football Club )- Lamine Sané (France, Bordeaux)- Rémi Gomis (France, FC Valenciennes)  - Souleymane Camara (France, Montpellier HSC)
Contacto para medios: 

Contactos para medios:

  • Charles Bambara (Dakar): cbambara@oxfam.org.uk / +221 77 639 4178
  • Irina Fuhrman (Ouagadougou): ifuhrmann@intermonoxfam.org / +226 75420508
  • Anna Ridout (Oxford): aridout@oxfam.org.uk / +44 (0)7766 443506
  • Magali Rubino (Paris): mrubino@oxfamfrance.org / +33 630466604
  • Mahmat Ibrahim Saleh (N’Djamena): medmgrtd@intermonoxfam.org / + 235 6620 2845
  • Patrick Ezeala (Dakar): PEzeala@OxfamAmerica.org / + 221 33 869 0290
Space only: 
Regions and Countries: 
Summary picture: 
Armand Traore se une al partido contra el hambre. Foto: Oxfam
Quotee: 
Seydou Keita

          Questioning Authority in the Pursuit of Islamic Learning        
Shaykh Muhammad al-Hasan Wald al-Dadaw (b.1383/1963) (sometimes spelt: Muhammad al-Hassan al-Amin Walid al-Didu/Dedew al-Shanqiti) is a contemporary Mauritanian scholar who is rarely described without resorting to superlatives. He is certainly one of the most impressive ‘ulama of his generation. Of Bedouin heritage, his austere Mauritanian visage belies a gentle demeanor. Yet this polymathic scholar’s intellectual […]
          Mauritania: coup attempt        
none
          â€œWe eat couscous with roots because European boats take the fish”        
By Juan Luis Sánchez / Translation: Nerea Alonso Fishermen from Mauritania and Senegal demand that the European Union put an end to the “looting” of their coasts. “I think it is fine that European fishermen emigrate to Africa looking for work, but we want a fair deal”, Karim says. 67% of European boats outside of [...]
          South Sudan begin first World Cup qualifying campaign with draw        
South Sudan earned a draw in their World Cup qualifying debut, holding Mauritania 1-1 on Thursday, a day after the game began and was then abandoned because of heavy rain. The score was unchanged from when it was stopped after 10 minutes of play on Wednesday at the National Stadium. Boubacar Bagili had scored in the third minute for Mauritania. Dominic Abui Pretino equalised with South Sudan's first goal in World Cup qualifying, giving the world's newest nation hope ahead of the return leg in Mauritania...
          FIFA chief Infantino promises Africa World Cup dream        

Nouakchott (AFP) – FIFA president Gianni Infantino vows to honour a promise to hike Africa’s World Cup finals berths to nine or ten during a visit to the impoverished West African state of Mauritania this week. “We want everyone to have the right to dream and how better to do that that taking part in a major event such as a World Cup,” Infantino told a press conference. During last year’s hotly contested FIFA elections Infantino promised African federation chiefs that if elected he would increase the continent’s meagre five World Cup berths in a new look competition featuring 48

The post FIFA chief Infantino promises Africa World Cup dream appeared first on World Soccer Talk.


          Killing us softly         

A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

“We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

“Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

Housebound in China 

A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

“Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

Beyond the silo

Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

“Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

“Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

Mounting evidence 

Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
 

Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

Asia worst affected

The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

 

WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

Filling the gaps

Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

“We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

“Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

A change in the air

Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

• Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
• WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
• The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

Three responded.  

A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

gh/ha/bp

*Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

**The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

For more: 

The relationship between household air pollution and disease

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

Particulate air pollution and lung function  

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
 

101285 200901271.jpg Analysis Health Killing us softly Gabrielle Babbington IRIN HONG KONG Congo, Republic of Djibouti DRC Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda Angola Botswana Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cape Verde Chad Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Colombia Haiti United States Bangladesh Cambodia Indonesia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam
          Jordan Peele, Viola Davis, Steve Bannon Make Time’s 100 Most Influential People List        

Time Magazine has revealed its 100 Most Influential People List of 2017 — Jordan Peele, RuPaul, Riz Ahmed, Constance Wu and Steve Bannon are just a few who have made the comprehensive list.

The list is broken up into five categories: Pioneers, Artists, Leaders, Titans and Icons. In the first category, names like Samantha Bee, Ivanka Trump, Jared Kushner, Peele and Ahmed make the list, while in the Artists list, Emma Stone, Ryan Reynolds, Leslie Jones, Ava Duvernay and Sarah Paulson are listed.

In the Leaders category, we see people like Donald Trump, Kim Jong Un, Julian Assange and Elizabeth Warren, while the Titans list bears names like LeBron James, Jason Blum and Tom Brady.

Lastly, the Icons list features Simone Biles, Ashley Graham, Fan Bingbing, Colin Kaepernick and Margaret Atwood.

Each person on the list, which includes 40 women, is introduced in a profile written by a notable figure, such as Lena Dunham, Barry Jenkins, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lin-Manuel Miranda, Leonardo DiCaprio, Oprah Winfrey, Taylor Swift, Helen Mirren, Brie Larson, Martin Scorsese, Cate Blanchett, Arianna Huffington, Kamala Harris, Paul Ryan, John McCain, John Cusack, Sheryl Sandberg, Stephen Colbert, Harvey Weinstein and Meryl Streep.

“Some years the list has the feel of a loose, lively dinner party, people who mostly don’t know each other but would get along if they did. This year is a bit more complicated,” Time editor-in-chief Nancy Gibbs wrote in her essay introducing the 2017 list. “These past 12 months have sharpened our edges as political debates in the U.S. and Europe, the Middle East and Asia, turned jagged and primal and seem almost perfectly designed to divide us more deeply.”

See the full list below.

Biram Dah Abeid, Mauritanian politician, activist

David Adjaye, architect

Riz Ahmed, actor

Thelma Aldana, Attorney General of Guatemala

James Allison, immunologist

Guillem Anglada-Escudé, Natalie Batalha and Michaël Gillon, astronomers

Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks

Margaret Atwood, novelist

Stephen Bannon, White House Chief Strategist

Cindy Arlette Contreras Bautista, activist

Samantha Bee, actor, comedian

Fatou Bensouda, Chief Prosecutor, International Criminal Court

Jeff Bezos, CEO, Amazon

Simone Biles, gymnast

Bob Bland, Tamika Mallory, Carmen Perez and Linda Sarsour, organizers, Women’s March

Jason Blum, director

Tom Brady, football player, New England Patriots

Gretchen Carlson, advocate for workplace equality, former Fox News anchor

Chance the Rapper, rapper

George Church, geneticist

James Comey, director, FBI

James Corden, host, The Late Late Show with James Corden

Viola Davis, actor

Rodrigo Duterte, President of the Philippines

Ava DuVernay, director

Daniel Ek, co-founder and CEO, Spotify

Theo Epstein, president of baseball operations, Chicago Cubs

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, President of Turkey

Fan Bingbing, actor

Bob Ferguson, Attorney General of Washington

Melinda Gates, philanthropist

Donald Glover, actor, writer, rapper

Ashley Graham, model

Glenda Gray, physician and researcher

Kirsten Green, founder, Forerunner Ventures

Gavin Grimm, activist

Demis Hassabis, artificial intelligence pioneer

LeBron James, basketball player, Cleveland Cavaliers

Barry Jenkins, director

Leslie Jones, comedian, actor

Colin Kaepernick, football player

Alicia Keys, singer

Kim Jong Un, Supreme Leader of North Korea

Jared Kushner, White House senior adviser

John Legend, singer, songwriter

John Lewis, U.S. Congressman, 5th District of Georgia

Leila de Lima, Philippine opposition senator

Jean Liu, president, Didi Chuxing

Demi Lovato, singer

Barbara Lynch, chef, restaurateur

Kerry James Marshall, artist

General James Mattis, Secretary of Defense, U.S.

Theresa May, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Conor McGregor, mixed martial artist

Rebekah Mercer, Republican donor

Alessandro Michele, designer, Gucci

Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India

Neymar, soccer player

Sandra Day O’Connor, former Supreme Court Justice, founder, iCivics

Sarah Paulson, actor

Jordan Peele, actor, comedian, filmmaker

Tom Perez, chairman, Democratic National Committee

Ben Platt, actor

Pope Francis, Pontifex

Reince Priebus, White House Chief of Staff

Vladimir Putin, President of Russia

Ryan Reynolds, actor

Margot Robbie, actor

RuPaul, television personality

Raed Saleh, head of Syria’s White Helmets

Juan Manuel Santos, President of Colombia

Chuck Schumer, U.S. Senator, New York

Vijay Shekhar Sharma, entrepreneur, founder, Paytm

Ed Sheeran, singer, songwriter

Cindy Sherman, photographer

Raf Simons, designer, chief creative officer, Calvin Klein

Qasem Soleimani, commander of Iran’s Quds Force

Evan Spiegel, CEO and co-founder, Snapchat

Emma Stone, actor

Donald Trump, President of the United States

Ivanka Trump, White House special assistant

Dr. Celina Turchi, infectious disease expert

Bernard J. Tyson, CEO, Kaiser Permanente

Hamdi Ulukaya, entrepreneur, CEO, Chobani

King Maha Vajiralongkorn, King of Thailand

Guus Velders, atmospheric chemist

Margrethe Vestager, antitrust czar, European Union

Jeanette Vizguerra, activist

Wang Qishan, senior leader, Communist Party, China

Elizabeth Warren, U.S. Senator, Massachusetts

Colson Whitehead, novelist

Constance Wu, actor

Xi Jinping, President of the People’s Republic of China, General Secretary, Communist Party, China

Janet Yellen, chair, Federal Reserve

Yuriko Koike, Governor of Tokyo

Related stories from TheWrap:

Time Magazine Asks 'Is Truth Dead?' in Trump Era

Donald Trump Slams Time Magazine for 'Person of the Year' Snub

Time Magazine Names New Film and TV Critics (Exclusive)


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The CIRI Human Rights Data Project has released its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2011.  The CIRI Project’s data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org.

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a variety of purposes.  The project is co-directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University), Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut), and Dr. K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). 

This data release has also been accompanied by a number of changes at the CIRI Project.  A new country was added to the data for 2011 (South Sudan), and, reflecting the addition of a new co-director (K. Chad Clay) in Fall 2012, the project’s citation has changed.  Perhaps most importantly, CIRI’s release schedule has changed.  In the future, data updates will be issued annually in January to cover the year that began two years previous.  As such, the 2012 ratings will be released in January 2014.

Below, we present four stories from the 2011 data:


THE BEST AND WORST OF 2011

All 14 of CIRI’s individual indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world.  The best score a country can receive is 30, representing high respect for all 14 human rights; the worst score is 0, representing very low respect for all 14 human rights.  The world average was 17, and the USA scored 24 (tied for the 7th highest score, but still ranking behind 37 countries).  Below are the best and worst of 2011.

Top 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Luxembourg [30]
Netherlands [29]
New Zealand [29]
San Marino [29]
Andorra [28]
Australia [28]
Denmark [28]
Iceland [28]
Norway [28]

Bottom 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Iran [1]
Eritrea [2]
Saudi Arabia [2]
Burma [3]
China [3]
Libya [3]
Yemen [3]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea [4]
Syria [4]


STABILITY & CHANGE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index measures government respect for the freedoms from torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, and disappearance. It varies from 0 (no respect for physical integrity rights) to 8 (full respect for physical integrity rights).  Overall, government respect for physical integrity declined in 2011, as the mean score on the physical integrity rights index fell from 5.01 in 2010 to 4.82 in 2011.  In particular, respect for physical integrity rights saw the following dramatic changes in 2010-2011:

Largest Declines in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Bahrain [-5]
Djibouti [-3]
Egypt [-3]
Republic of Korea [-3]
Libya [-3]
Mauritania [-3]
Oman [-3]

Largest Improvements in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Panama [+4]
Croatia [+3]
Belarus [+2]
Nepal [+2]
Togo [+2]

Further, as these lists suggest, it would appear that changes in government respect for physical integrity rights in 2011 were not evenly distributed across the globe.  Indeed, as demonstrated below, South Asian states experienced a net improvement in average government respect for physical integrity, while some of the largest declines in government respect for physical integrity rights were concentrated in the Near East & North Africa:

Average Change in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights by Region
Africa [-0.04]
East Asia & the Pacific [-0.12]
Europe & Eurasia [0]
Near East & North Africa [-1.37]
South Asia [+0.25]
Western Hemisphere [-0.11]






THE “ARAB SPRING” & HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NEAR EAST & NORTH AFRICA

Beginning in Tunisia in December 2010, the wave of demonstrations, protests, and conflicts known as the “Arab Spring” swept through the Arab world in 2011.  What effect did this have on respect for human rights in the Near East and North Africa (as defined by the US State Department)?  Table 1 displays the change in the overall human rights score, as well as in the CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index, from 2010 to 2011. 

 
As can be seen, most states in the region demonstrated reduced respect for human rights in 2011, particularly those states that experienced some of the highest levels of unrest that year, e.g. Bahrain, Libya, and Egypt.  Of course, other states, like Syria, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Iran, already had extremely low scores on our indicators and thus, had little room to move down.  On the other hand, Tunisia experienced a large increase in its overall human rights score, owing to the overthrow of its government early in the year and the elections held in October.  However, this was not enough to overcome the high level of physical integrity rights abuse that accompanied the protests early in the year, which led to a decrease in respect for physical integrity rights from an already low score of 3 in 2010 to 2 in 2011.
 
STABILITY & CHANGE IN WOMEN’S RIGHTS
 
CIRI also annually codes two measures of internationally-recognized women’s rights: women’s political rights and women’s economic rights.  The women’s political rights measure is aimed at capturing the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy the rights to vote, to run for political office, to hold elected and appointed government positions, to join political parties, and to petition government officials.  The women’s economic rights measure captures the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy equal pay for equal work, free choice of profession or employment, the right to gainful employment, equality in hiring and promotion, job security, freedom from discrimination by employers, freedom from sexual harassment, and the right to work in dangerous professions, including working at night and working in the military and police forces.
 
Our two measures of women’s rights moved in opposite directions in 2011.  While women’s political rights improved for the second straight year, women’s economic rights suffered a setback after two consecutive years of improvement.  Indeed, this is in keeping with these measures’ performance over time.  As shown in the graph below, respect for women’s economic rights has lagged behind respect for women’s political rights consistently since 1981.  However, that gap has widened with time, as respect for women’s political rights has consistently grown while respect for women’s economic rights has remained relatively flat.
Note: The shapefile used to construct the above map comes from Weidmann, Kuse, and Gleditsch’s cshapes, version 0.4-2.  The map was made using Pisati’s spmap package in Stata 12.1.  Another version of this post can be viewed at the The Quantitative Peace.

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Cats Hd Wallpapers Biography
The HD Cat has two estrus periods, one in December–February and another in May–July.[59] Estrus lasts 5–9 days, with a gestation period lasting 60–68 days.[60] Ovulation is induced through copulation. Spermatogenesis occurs throughout the year. During the mating season, males fight viciously,[59] and may congregate around a single female. There are records of male and female wildcats becoming temporarily monogamous. Kittens usually appear in April–May, though some may be born from March–August. Litter size ranges from 1-7 kittens.[60]
Kittens are born blind and helpless, and are covered in a fuzzy coat.[59] At birth, the kittens weigh 65-163 grams, though kittens under 90 grams usually do not survive. They are born with pink paw pads, which blacken at the age of three months, and blue eyes, which turn amber after five months.[60] Their eyes open after 9–12 days, and their incisors erupt after 14–30 days. The kittens' milk teeth are replaced by their permanent dentition at the age of 160–240 days. The kittens start hunting with their mother at the age of 60 days, and will start moving independently after 140–150 days. Lactation lasts 3–4 months, though the kittens will eat meat as early as 1.5 months of age. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of 300 days.[59] Similarly to the housecat, the physical development of African wildcat kittens over the first two weeks of their lives is much faster than that of European wildcats.[47] The kittens are largely fully grown by 10 months, though skeletal growth continues for over 18–19 months. The family dissolves after roughly five months, and the kittens disperse to establish their own territories.[60] The species' maximum life span is 21 years, though it usually only lives up to 13–14 years.[59]
The Hdcat's distribution is very broad, encompassing most of Africa, Europe, and southwest and central Asia into India, China, and Mongolia.[2]
The northern African subspecies, F. s. lybica, occurs across northern Africa, extending around the Arabian Peninsula's periphery to the Caspian Sea, encompassing a wide range of habitats, with the exception of closed tropical forests. It occurs in small numbers in true deserts such as the Sahara, particularly in hilly and mountainous areas, such as the Hoggar. In North Africa, the subspecies occurs discontinuously from Morocco through Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and into Egypt. It occurs throughout the savannahs of West Africa, ranging from Mauritania on the Atlantic seaboard, eastwards to the Horn of Africa, Sudan and Ethiopia. In the south, F. s. lybica is replaced in all East and southern African countries the southern F. s. cafra. The border range between the two subspecies encompasses Tanzania and Mozambique. The Asiatic wildcat, F. s. ornata, ranges from the eastern Caspian into western India, and north to Kazakhstan and into western China and southern Mongolia. The Chinese F. s. bieti is indigenous to western China, and is particularly abundant in the Quinghai and possibly Sichuan provinces. The European subspecies, F. s. silvestris, was once very widely distributed in Europe, being absent only in Fennoscandia and Estonia. However, between the late 1700s and mid 1900s, the species underwent declines and local extirpations, resulting in a fragmentation of its range. It is now extinct in Holland, and possibly extinct in the Czech Republic. It is considered regionally extinct in Austria, though vagrants from Italy are spreading into Austrian territory. In the Pyrenees, the wildcat occurs from sea level to 2,250 m. It is possible that in some areas, including Scotland and Stromberg, Germany, pure wildcats have crossbred extensively with domestic cats. The only island in the Mediterranean to house wildcats is Sicily, with other populations in Sardinia, Corsica and possibly Crete possibly being descended from feral populations introduced there from Neolithic times.[2]The Hdcat is considered an icon of the Scottish wilderness, and has been used in clan heraldry since the 13th century.[82] The Picts venerated wildcats, having probably named Caithness (Land of the Cats) after them. According to the foundation myth of the Catti tribe, their ancestors were attacked by wildcats upon landing in Scotland. Their ferocity impressed the Catti so much, that the wildcat became their symbol.[84] A thousand years later, the progenitors of Clan Sutherland, equally impressed, adopted the wildcat on their family crest.[12][84] The Chief of Clan Sutherland bears the title Morair Chat (Great Man of the Cats). The Clan Chattan Association (also known as the Clan of Cats) is made up of 12 different clans, the majority of which display the wildcat on their badges.
Cats Hd Wallpapers 
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          Amazigh Festival Tackles Big Questions        
There is a fascinating array of academic experts participating in the International Festival of Amazigh Culture and today they showed that they weren't backing away from contentious issues
Michael Willis identified the antagonism between Islamists and Amazigh movement

The day started with an address by Maatti Kabbal from the l’Institut du Monde Arabe in Paris. His topic was "A Critique of Extreme Reason."

This was followed by a panel discussion on Amazigh Culture in North Africa, with Jilali Saib from the University of Mohammed V in Rabat, Amazigh activist Meryam Demnati from the Observatory of Amazigh Rights in Rabat., Madina Touré from Nouakchot University in Mauritania and Slimane Douih from the Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University in Fez.

"Don't forget our African heritage"- Slimane Douih 

Slimane Douih, who comes from the area of the Moroccan Sahara, made the point that while much of the discussion centres around the common belief that majority of North Africa's population is believed to be Amazigh in origin, but, due to Arabisation most ethnic Amazigh identify as Arabised Amazigh. Douih challenged this by pointing out that much of the rock art and cave paintings point to a very strong African element. He made the point that while much of Amazigh culture and history is now recognised, that the African component is totally ignored. He also pointed out that his study of the Saharan Hassani language is not an Arabic language but rather linked to Amazigh. Likewise social customs and dance, show a particularly strong African rather than Arabic influence.

After a coffee break and much discussion, came a presentation by Michael Willis (Oxford University) on the topic; Enemies Allies or Competitors? Islamist-Amazigh Movement Relations in Morocco and Algeria. Willis started by saying that following the arrival of the Arabs in the 7th century, there has been a strong belief that Morocco and Algeria are Arab cultures. He pointed out that Islamists and Amazigh view each other as a threat. From the Islamist perspective pluralism is a threat to Islam and that, at root, the movement is post-colonial secularism.

On the other hand, the Amazigh movement sees a different kind of colonialism; saying that Arabisation, in the form of dress, customs and language, is being promoted by various Arab countries outside the Maghreb.

Willis says, that while there is antagonism between the two groups, there have been moves to build bridges. Much of this has come from the state who have a desire to use the Amazigh movement as a bulwark against Islamism. In the process, he claims, many Amazigh activists have been coopted by state institutions. During the recent tensions in the Riff region there was a coming together of the Islamists and Amazigh, though, as Willis points out, the Hirak movement is a social one rather that simply Amazigh or Islamist.

Long time Amazigh Activist Meryam Demnati

Speaking with The View From Fez, Meryam Demnati agreed and pointed out that it was a common problem with the mass media who see things in simplistic terms.

One irony Willis highlighted, was that when Morocco's Islamist PJD party came to power it was presented with the task of implementing the Amazigh policies enshrined in the new constitution - policies that they had been fighting against.

The conference winds up tomorrow after another full day of discussion. It is very much worth attending.



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          International Festival of the Amazigh Culture - Program Update        
logo fondation esprit de fès sais logoAF[2]


The International Festival of the Amazigh Culture


13th Edition


Merinides Hotel, Fès

International Festival of Amazigh Culture in Fez July 14-16
Douzi, Senhaji and Tiskat sing love and brotherhood
From 14 to 16 July, the city of Fez will host the thirteenth edition of the International Festival of Culture Amazigh under the theme "Amazighity and cultural diversity confronting extremism". Numerous Moroccan and European artists will take part in this edition, including  Abdelhafid Douzi, the star of classical Amazigh song Hadda Ouakki, Moroccan singer Ibtissam Tiskat, Saïd Senhaji, Aïcha Tachinouite, Hassan El Berkanai, Italian artist Laura Conti, in addition to the star of Flamenco dance Monica Arrabal and other musical and artistic activities.
The forum will provide an opportunity for experts, researchers and civil society actors to discuss current issues related to peace, dialogue and cultural diversity and its role in addressing all forms of extremism, and in the consolidation of democracy, coexistence, tolerance and the culture of solidarity.
At the same time, the festival will organize workshops on storytelling, painting, as well as poetry readings and art exhibitions, and book and carpet exhibits.
During the opening ceremony of the festival, which will take place on Friday 14 July afternoon, a vibrant tribute will be paid to Mr. Mohamed Kabbaj Founding President of the Fez-Sais Association and the Spirit of Fez Foundation, and a tribute will be paid to the thinker Ahmed El Khamlichi, director of Dar Al Hadith Al Hassania, and to the eminent Belgian-Moroccan writer Issa Aït Belize, in recognition of their many praiseworthy contributions to social and cultural development of Morocco. In the evening in Bab Makina, three concerts will be held, including that of Aicha Tachinouite, the Catalan group Monica Arrabal and Said Senhaji.
Many writers, thinkers, and researchers will participate in this great cultural event, namely Jean-Marie Simon, France, Saad Eddine Ibrahim of Egypt, Alfonso de Toro of Germany, Roberto Tonini of Italy, Hubert Haddad of France, Nizar Abdelkader (Lebanon), Michael Willis (Great Britain), Johan Goud (Netherlands), Ahmed Assid, Abdelkader Benali, Mohammed Taifi, Mohammed Nedali (Morocco) and many more!
All in all, this thirteenth edition of the Fez Festival of Amazigh culture will be rich and varied, and a good opportunity for all the young people and the inhabitants of the Fes-Meknes region, to enjoy the highlights of the Festival: debates and music concerts in the heart of the medina of Fez, an imperial and marvellous historical city.

Programme of the Forum


Amazighity and Cultural Diversity Confronting Extremisms


Friday, July 14


17:00:   Arrival of participants
17:30:   Opening of the Forum and the Festival  
             Opening remarks


19:00 Tribute to the Honourable:  Mohammed Kabbaj, Ahmed El Khamlichi, and
           Issa Ait Belize


18: 30   Keynote 1: «The Weaving of languages" (in French)
                                    Hubert Haddad (Writer)


19:20 Reception and a Tour of Expositions


Saturday, July 15
Morning


9:00 – 9:30
Room 1


              Keynote 2:   Criticism of Extreme Reason
                                       Maati  Kabbal (Institute of The Arab World, Paris)
                                         Moderator: Fatima Sadiqi
9 :30 – 10 :30
Room 1


First Session:      Insights on Some Apects of the Amazigh Culture in North Africa
                                  Moderator: Issa Aït Belize


Speakers:  
Jilali Saib (Mohamed V University, Rabat)
Meryam Demnati (Amazigh Observatory of Rights and Freedoms, Rabat)
Madina Touré (Nouakchot University, Mauritania)
Slimane Douih (Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez)


10:30 – 11:00 Debate


11:00 – 11:30


              Keynote 3: Enemies, Allies or Competitors? Islamist-Amazigh Movement Relations in Morocco and Algeria
                             Michael J. Willis (Oxford University, United Kingdom)
                               Moderator: Moha Ennaji

11 : 30 – 11 : 50   Coffee break


Room 1
11 : 50 – 12 :50


Second Session : Reflections on the Theories of Cultural Studies and                        
                                  Globalization
                                    Moderator:  Alfonso de Toro
Speakers :  
Mohamed Taifi (University of Virginia, USA)
Issa Aït Belize (Moroccan-Belgian Writer, Brussels)
Bouthaina Ben Kridis (University of Carthage, Tunisia)
Alberto Tonini (University of Florence, Italie)


12: 50 – 13: 15 Debate


15:30 – 16:15  


Room 1


Third Session:          Literature, Art and Cohabitation
Moderator: Mohamed Fousshi
Speakers :
Enza Palamara (François Rabelais University, Tours, France)
Ali Fertahi (Moulay Slimane University, Béni-Mellal)
Juliane Tauchnitz (University of Leipzig, Germany)


16:15 –16 :45  Debate


16 :45 – 17 :15


                              Keynote 4: Alfonso de Toro (University of Leipzig,  
                                                     Germany)                                        
                                           Culture as a Weapon against Extremism
      Moderator : Jilali Saib


17:15 – 18:05   Coffee break


18 :05- 19 :35  
Room 2


Parallel Session: Painting Workshop on "Fighting Extremism"
Hosted by Khadija Madani Alaoui and Tarek Sadki (University of Fez)


18 :05 - 18:50  
Room 1


Fourth Session:   Multiculturalism, Multilingualism and Extremism
                                  Moderator:   Juliane Tauchnitz


Speakers:
Nizar Abdelkader (Lebanon)
Fatima Sadiqi (International Institute for Langues and Cultures, Fez)
Belkacem Boumedini (Mustapha STAMBOULI University, Mascara, Algeria)
Nebia Dadoua Hadria (CRASC. Oran, Algeria)


18:50 -19:20 Debate



Sunday, July 16th


9 :00 – 12 :00


Room 2


Parallel Session: Story-telling Workshop on "Fighting Extremism"
Facilitated by: Jean-Marie Simon (Stories lighter, France and Mohammed El Alami, University of Fez)


Room 1
9 :00 – 10 :00


Fifth Session:   Amazigh, Religion and Democracy
                               Moderator: Meryam Demnati
Speakers:
Johan Goud  (University of Utrecht, Holland)
Yahya Belaskri (France)
Moha Ennaji (International Institute for Langues and Cultures, Fez)


10 :00 – 10:30  Debate


10 :30  - 11 :00


                     Keynote 5: Equality values in Amazigh Culture
                 Ahmed Assid (Amazigh Observatory of Rights and Freedoms, Rabat)
Moderator: Mohamed Nedali


11 :00 – 11:20  Coffee break
11 :20 – 12:35


Sixth Session:     Radicalization of Youth and Extremism
                                Moderator : Nizar Abdelkader


Speakers:
Abdelkader Benali (Moroccan-Dutch writer)
Bruce Maddy-Weitzman (Senior Research Fellow)
Jean-Marie Simon (France)


12:35 - 13: 05   Debate


13: 05 – 13:35   Programmed speech: Saad Eddine Ibrahim (Ibn Khaldoun
   
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Kuburan Jangkar Kapal, Portugal


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Kuburan Taksi, Cina


9 Kuburan Terunik di Dunia - Kuburan Taksi, Cina

Lokasi kuburan bangkai taksi ini terletak di pertengahan kota Chingqing, Cina. Alasan taksi-taksi ini dibuang sebenarnya cukup klasik, yaitu polusi udara serta adanya alternatif mobil yang lebih murah dan ramah lingkungan.

Kuburan Booth Telepon Umum, Inggris

9 Kuburan Terunik di Dunia - Kuburan Booth Telepon Umum, Inggris

Lokasi salah satu kuburan terunik di dunia ini berada di anatara Ripon dan Thirsk, dekat perkampungan Carlton Miniott, Inggris. Alasan penggunaan telepon genggam merupakan salah satu yang paling berpengaruh dalam pembuangan booth-booth telepon ini. Namun, kerajaan Inggris tidak sepenuhnya melupakan telepon umum, pihak kerajaan hanya mengurangi jumlahnya serta menggantinya dengan yang lebih canggih.

9 Kuburan Terunik di Dunia - Kuburan Booth Telepon Umum, Inggris

Nah, itu dia gan 9 kuburan unik yang tersebar di penjuru dunia. Mungkin, tempat-tempat itu bisa jadi salah satu alasan agan-agan mengunjungi negara-negara tersebut.

Sumber: _http://www.theworldgeography.com/2012/11/object-graveyards.html_

          Inilah Arti Cantik Dari Berbagai Negara        
Jepang
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Di Jepang, kulit itu adalah kunci dari kecantikan. Wanita di Jepang mempunyai kulit lembut & cantik tanpa bekas, terutama di wajah mereka. Hal ini disebabkan karena wanita Jepang suka mengkonsumsi makanan & minuman yang mengandung collagen. Di Jepang, collagen sangat mudah ditemukan di supermarket, bahkan sudah banyak restaurant yang menyediakan makanan yang mengandung collagen. Tujuan mereka mengkonsumsi collagen adalah agar kulit mereka tetap halus, karena collagen adalah protein utama yang menyusun 75% area kulit dan berfungsi memberikan kekuatan dan kehalusan pada kulit. Oleh karena itu, kulit yang sehat sangat dipengaruhi oleh kadar kolagen yang mencukupi. Rusaknya kolagen maupun penurunan produksinya mengakibatkan timbulnya kerutan dan munculnya kulit tua.



Kulit wanita di Jepang memang halus, tapi tetap saja belum terasa lengkap tanpa rambut yang lurus, karena rambut lurus di Jepang juga dianggap cantik, dan kebanyakan rambut-rambut wanita Jepang itu memang lurus-lurus. Rambut lurus memang diibaratkan dengan gadis cantik di Jepang, dan sejujurnya, saya juga suka wanita yang berambut lurus. Ternyata Jepang memang mempunyai teknik pelurusan rambut yang sangat menganggumkan, dan teknik tersebut dipakai hampir di seluruh dunia.




Taboo


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Kulit yang cantik dan rambut yang lurus memang cantik di Jepang, tapi tidak semuanya sependapat, karena masing-masing wanita dari negara lainnya mempunyai kriterianya tersendiri. Di National Geographic channel's show Taboo, ada arti kecantikan yang mungkin sangat ekstrim bagi kita semua.


Di Burma dan Thailand, anggota dari suku kayan memulai ritual kecantikan mereka dari waktu muda. Pada saat umur 5 tahun, mereka sudah memakai gelang berbentuk melingkar di sekitar lehernya. Gelang leher tersebut terus ditambahkan seiring dengan pertumbuhan mereka, dan hal tersebut membuat leher mereka semakin panjang seperti layaknya leher jerapah. Bagi mereka, leher yang panjang dengan gelang yang bersinar adalah tanda kedudukan dan keagungan mereka. Berat gelang leher tersebut bisa mencapai 22 pounds atau sekitar 10,5 kilo.


Bagi saya hal tersebut sangat ekstrim, tapi ada seorang wanita yang mengatakan,"jika saya melepaskan gelang-gelang ini dari leher saya, maka saya tidak akan terlihat cantik lagi, seperti saat saya memakainya".




India


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Wanita di India mencampur turmeric, lemon, dan honey untuk dioleskan ke kulit mereka, pada hari-hari perayaan seperti pernikahan atau acara keluarga. Mereka selalu memakai perhiasan, dan baju yang berwarna terang serta tanda merah di dahi mereka pada saat-saat tertentu. Tanda merah di dahi mereka biasa disebut kumkum dan mereka berpikir hal tersebut membuat mereka semakin menarik.


Hampir di seluruh dunia tahu, bahwa wanita di India memiliki kulit & rambut yang indah, dan hal tersebut telah membantu para wanita di AS(Amerika) yang ingin memanjangkan rambut mereka dengan teknik catok rambut. Apa hubungannya rambut indah di India dengan para wanita di AS? Sekitar 25% rambut palsu di AS didatangkan dari hasil pengorbanan wanita-wanita di India. Para wanita di India mengorbankan rambut mereka untuk upacara keagamaan Hindu, dan mereka percaya bahwa dewa mereka sangat suka rambut.


Kuil Hindu tersebut otomatis kedatangan banyak rambut, Lalu untuk apa semua rambut tersebut? ternyata rambut tersebut mereka jual ke pasaran, dan meraup keuntungan sebanyak 18 juta dollar per tahun (1 $ = Rp 10.340). Selain cara di atas, ada juga wanita yang dengan sengaja menjual rambutnya, dengan cara memotongnya sendiri atau mengumpulkan rambut-rambutnya yang telah rontok ke dalam kaleng atau tempat penyimpanan rambut. Lucunya, pada saat mendengar hal tersebut, seorang wanita yang hadir di Oprah pun terkejut karena kebetulan ia juga memakai cara extension. Memang wanita AS tidak tahu dari mana rambut tersebut berasal, tapi seorang ahli penata rambut mengatakan bahwa kualitas yang paling bagus mutunya adalah rambut orang India.




Iran

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Bagi wanita di Iran, kecantikan adalah memiliki hidung mancung yang mungil. Para wanita di Iran sangat suka dengan hidung mungil nan indah, karena para wanita di Iran biasanya memakai pakaian yang menutupi tubuhnya dari ujung rambut hingga kaki, kecuali wajah. Tapi Pertanyaannya "Apakah semua orang memiliki hidung cantik & mungil?" jawabannya "Tidak". 



Sesungguhnya kebanyakan wanita di Iran memiliki hidung yang besar, dan oleh karena itu, mereka rela melakukan segala cara untuk memperbaiki hidung mereka. Biasanya mereka melakukan operasi untuk memperindah hidung mereka, dan karena itu, negara Iran menjadi negara dengan jumlah operasi hidung terbanyak di dunia. Ternyata selain untuk kecantikan, operasi mereka juga menentukan status atau kedudukan, dan biasanya mereka memakai semacam plester di hidung mereka sebagai tanda bahwa hidung mereka telah dioperasi. Lucunya, banyak wanita di Iran yang memakai plester hidung walaupun mereka tidak melakukan operasi. Wanita Iran yang hadir di acara Oprah pun mengatakan, "Saya mempunyai seorang dosen yang memakai plester di hidungnya hingga 3 tahun walaupun ia tidak melakukan operasi". Saya tertawa ketika mendengar hal tersebut, tapi mau gimana lagi? sebab hanya wajahnnya saja yang dapat menjadi tempat memamerkan kecantikannya.




Brazil


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Brazil adalah negara pengkonsumsi pil diet terbesar di dunia, karena para wanita di Brazil ingin mempunyai tubuh yang langsing. Selain memakan pill diet, para wanita brazil juga suka fitness & melakukan operasi. Seperti halnya wanita-wanita di Iran yang suka melakukan operasi hidung, wanita-wanita di Brazil juga sering melakukan operasi plastik. Operasi plastik di Brazil adalah operasi plastik terbanyak di dunia, sampai-sampai banyak majalah di Brazil yang khusus membahas tentang operasi plastik. Operasi dan kecantikan memang sangat penting di Brazil dan anehnya, anda bisa melakukan operasi di Brazil dengan mencicil/kredit, Jadi anda tidak akan terkejut orang miskin juga bisa operasi di Brazil. Para wanita Brazil menghabiskan 3/4 gajinya hanya untuk perawatan kecantikan.




Indonesia

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Rahasia Kecantikan di Indonesia adalah langsing. Di Indonesia terdapat metode melangsingkan badan pasca hamil dengan memakai stagen. Stagen dililitkan di tubuh, untuk menekan perut dan pinggang yang besar setelah hamil. Memakai stagen membuat sang pemakai sedikit merasa sakit, karena tekanan yang diberikan stagen cukup keras.





Ethiopia


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Di Ethiopia, cantik itu adalah bekas luka cakar. Luka bekas di Ethiopia bukanlah luka yang tidak disengaja, justru mereka sengaja membuatnya sendiri dengan cara menyayat perut mereka. Mereka berpendapat bahwa luka tersebut dapat memuaskan lelaki, dan semakin banyak luka, maka semakin cantik. Biasanya luka cakar tersebut dibuat sejak mereka masih kanak-kanak.




France

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Di Paris, cantik adalah langsing, anggun, cantik, dan berkelas. Di Paris, para wanita menghabiskan banyak waktunya untuk perawatan kecantikan. Karena wanita Paris langsing-langsing, mereka hanya menyediakan baju dengan ukuran 12 untuk wanita. Anehnya, menurut mereka, umur 60 tahun adalah saat wanita Paris paling cantik.





Mauritania

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Hampir di semua negara menganggap cantik itu ibarat dengan langsing , tapi di negara bagian Afrika barat, Big is Beautifull. Mauritania negara berpasir yang terletak di sebelah barat laut Afrika. Arti kecantikan sangat berlawanan di Mauritania, dimana besar itu lebih baik(Sexy) dari pada langsing.



Semakin Besar(Gendut) seorang wanita, maka semakin banyak pria yang suka, jika semakin langsing maka semakin tidak laku. Mendengar hal tersebut, berbahagialah si Oprah, dan seluruh wanita di dunia yang kelebihan bobot. Karena semakin gendut, semakin banyak yang suka, maka sejak kecil anak-anak perempuan mereka diberi makan-makanan, dan susu onta yang berlemak tinggi secara berlebih.


Karena berlebihan, anak-anak tersebut muntah, tapi malah diberi lebih banyak lagi. Makanya tidak heran, makanan di sana mengandung banyak lemak dan tak ada yang menjual makanan diet atau pil diet di Mauritania. Lucunya, pria di Mauritania haruslah kurus atau langsing, lalu si Oprah bersorak untuk ke dua kalinya, "Hidup Mauritania, saya senang jika saya dilahirkan di sana", dan si Oprah terus menerus menyebut Mauritania, hingga para penonton di Oprah pun tertawa, mendengar hal tersebut saya pun ikut tertawa karena tingkah Oprah.


Sumber
          PROFIL GURU MULIA AL-HABIB ALI BIN ABDURRAHMAN AL-JUFRI         


PROFIL GURU MULIA AL-HABIB ALI BIN ABDURRAHMAN AL-JUFRI

 

Penampilan Fisik Al-Habib Ali Al-Jufri

Penampilan fisiknya mengagumkan: tampan, berkulit putih, tinggi, besar, berjenggot tebal dan rapi tanpa kumis. Wajar jika kehadirannya di suatu majelis selalu menonjol dan menyita perhatian orang.

Tetapi kelebihannya bukan hanya itu. Kalau sudah berbicara di forum, orang akan terkagum-kagum lagi dengan kelebihan-kelebihannya yang lain. Intonasi suaranya membuat orang tak ingin berhenti mengikuti pembicaraannya. Pada saat tertentu, suara dan ungkapan-ungkapannya menyejukkan hati pendengarnya. Tapi pada saat yang lain, suaranya meninggi, menggelegar, bergetar, membuat mereka tertunduk, lalu mengoreksi diri sendiri.

Namun jangan dikira kelebihannya hanya pada penampilan fisik dan kemampuan bicara. Materi yang dibawakannya bukan bahan biasa yang hanya mengandalkan retorika, melainkan penuh dengan pemahaman-pemahaman baru, sarat dengan informasi penting, dan ditopang argumentasi-argumentasi yang kukuh.

Wajar, karena ia memang memiliki penguasaan ilmu agama yang mendalam dalam berbagai cabang keilmuan, ditambah pengetahuannya yang tak kalah luas dalam ilmu-ilmu modern, juga kemampuannya menyentuh hati orang, membuat para pendengarnya bukan hanya memperoleh tambahan ilmu dan wawasan, melainkan juga mendapatkan semangat dan tekad yang baru untuk mengoreksi diri dan melakukan perubahan.

Itulah sebagian gambaran al-Habib Ali bin Abdurrahman al-Jufri, sosok ulama dan dai muda yang nama dan kiprahnya sangat dikenal di berbagai negeri muslim, bahkan juga di dunia Barat. Ia memang sosok yang istimewa. Pribadinya memancarkan daya tarik yang kuat. Siapa yang duduk dengannya sebentar saja akan tertarik hatinya dan terkesan dengan keadaannya. Bukan hanya kalangan awam, para ulama pun mencintainya. Siapa sesungguhnya tokoh ini dan dari mana ia berasal? 


Kelahiran dan Nasab Al-Habib Ali Al-Jufri

Al-Habib Ali al-Jufri lahir di kota Jeddah, Arab Saudi, menjelang Fajar, pada hari Jum’at 16 April 1971 (20 Shafar 1391 H). Ayahnya adalah al-Habib Abdurrahman bin Ali bin Muhammad bin Alwi al-Jufri, sedangkan ibundanya Syarifah Marumah binti Hasan bin Alwi binti Hasan bin Alwi bin Ali al-Jufri.

Di masa kecil, ia mulai menimba ilmu kepada bibi dari ibundanya, seorang alimah dan arifah billah, Hababah Shafiyah binti Alwi bin Hasan al-Jufri. Wanita shalihah ini memberikan pengaruh yang sangat besar dalam mengarahkannya ke jalur ilmu dan perjalanan menuju Allah.


Pendidikan dan Guru-guru Al-Habib Ali Al-Jufri

Setelah itu ia tak henti-hentinya menimba ilmu dari para tokoh besar. Al-Quthb al-Habib Abdul Qadir bin Ahmad Assegaf adalah salah seorang guru utamanya. Kepadanya ia membaca dan mendengarkan pembacaan kitab Shahih al-Bukhari dan Shahih Muslim, Tajrid al-Bukhari, Ihya’ Ulumiddin, dan kitab-kitab penting lainnya. Cukup lama al-Habib Ali belajar kepadanya, sejak usia 10 tahun hingga berusia 21 tahun.

Ia juga berguru kepada al-Habib Ahmad Masyhur bin Thaha al-Haddad, ulama terkemuka dan penulis karya-karya terkenal. Diantara kitab yang dibacanya kepadanya adalah Idhah Asrar `Ulum al-Muqarrabin.

Prof. Dr. As-Sayyid Muhammad bin Alwi al-Maliki juga salah seorang gurunya. Kepadanya ia mempelajari kitab-kitab musthalah hadits, ushul, dan sirah. Sedangkan kepada al-Habib Hamid bin Alwi bin Thahir al-Haddad, ia membaca al-Mukhtashar al-Lathifdan Bidayah al-Hidayah.

Ia pun selama lebih dari empat tahun menimba ilmu kepada al-Habib Abu Bakar al-`Adni bin Ali al-Masyhur, dengan membaca dan mendengarkan kitab Sunan Ibnu Majah, ar-Risalah al-Jami`ah, Bidayah al-Hidayah, al-Muqaddimah al-Hadhramiyyah, Tafsir al-Jalalain, Tanwir al-Aghlas, Lathaif al-Isyarat, Tafsir Ayat al-Ahkam, dan Tafsir al-Baghawi.

Pada tahun 1412 H (1991 M) al-Habib Ali mengikuti kuliah di Fakultas Dirasat Islamiyyah Universitas Shan`a, Yaman, hingga tahun 1414 H (1993 M). Kemudian ia menetap di Tarim, Hadhramaut. Di sini ia belajar dan juga mendampingi al-Habib Umar bin Hafidz sejak tahun 1993 hingga 2003. Kepadanya, al-Habib Ali membaca dan menghadiri pembacaan kitab-kitab Shahih al-Bukhari, Ihya’ Ulumiddin, Adab Suluk al-Murid, Risalah al-Mu`awanah, Minhaj al-`Abidin, al-`Iqd an-Nabawi, ar-Risalah al-Qusyairiyyah, al-Hikam, dan sebagainya.

Selain kepada mereka, ia pun menimba ilmu kepada para tokoh ulama lainnya, seperti asy-Syaikh Umar bin Husain al-Khathib, asy-Syaikh as-Sayyid Mutawalli asy-Sya`rawi, asy-Syaikh Ismail bin Shadiq al-Adawi di al-Jami` al-Husaini dan di al-Azhar asy-Syarif, Mesir, juga asy-Syaikh Muhammad Zakiyuddin Ibrahim. Disamping itu, al-Habib Ali juga mengambil ijazah dari 300-an orang syaikh dalam berbagai cabang ilmu.    


Dakwah Al-Habib Ali Al-Jufriy

Berbekal berbagai ilmu yang diperolehnya, ditambah pengalaman berkat tempaan para gurunya, ia pun mulai menjalankan misi dakwahnya. Aktivitas dakwahnya dimulai pada tahun 1412 H/1991 di kota-kota dan desa-desa di negeri Yaman. Ia kemudian berkelana dari satu negeri ke negeri lain. Perjalanannya ke mancanegara dimulai pada tahun 1414 H/1993 dan terus berlangsung hingga kini.

Berbagai kawasan negara dikunjunginya. Misalnya negara-negara Arab, yakni Uni Emirat Arab, Yordania, Bahrain, Arab Saudi, Sudan, Suriah, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mesir, Maroko, Mauritania, Jibouti.

Negara-negara non-Arab di Asia, diantaranya Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapura, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka. Di Afrika, diantaranya ia mengunjungi Kenya dan Tanzania. Sedangkan di Eropa, dakwahnya telah merambah Inggris, Jerman, Prancis, Belgia, Belanda, Irlandia, Denmark, Bosnia Herzegovina, dan Turki.

Ia pun setidaknya telah empat kali mengadakan perjalanan dakwah ke Amerika Serikat; pertama tahun 1998, kedua tahun 2001, ketiga tahun 2002, dan keempat tahun 2008. Disamping juga mengunjungi Kanada

Perjalanan dakwahnya ke berbagai negeri membawa kesan tersendiri di hati para jama’ah yang mendengarkan penjelasan dan pesan-pesannya. Di Jerman, ia membuat jama’ah masjid sebanyak tiga lantai menangis tersedu-sedu mendengar taushiyahnya. Orang-orang yang tinggal di Barat, yang cenderung keras hatinya, ternyata bisa lunak di tangan al-Habib Ali.

Di Amerika ada yang merasa bahwa memandang dan berkumpul bersama al-Habib Ali al-Jufri selama satu malam cukup untuk memberinya tenaga dan semangat untuk beribadah selama tiga bulan. Di Inggris ia terlibat pelaksanaan Maulid Nabi di stadion Wembley. Di Denmark ia  mengadakan jumpa pers dengan kalangan media massa.

Di Darul Musthafa, Tarim, Hadhramaut setiap tahun, bulan Rajab-Sya`ban, ia menjadi pembicara rutin Daurah Internasional. Ia pun merangkul para dai muda di Timur Tengah, serta membimbing dan memberikan petunjuk kepada para pemuda yang berbakat. Ia suka duduk bersama para pemuda dan mengadakan dialog terbuka secara bebas.

Dalam berdakwah, ia aktif menjalin hubungan dengan berbagai kalangan masyarakat. Ia memasuki kalangan yang paling bawah, seperti suku-suku di Afrika, hingga kalangan paling atas, seperti keluarga keamiran Abu Dhabi. Ia berhubungan dengan kalangan awam hingga kalangan yang paling alim, seperti asy-Syaikh Muhammad Said Ramadhan al-Buthi (mufti de facto negeri Syria), asy-Syaikh Ali Jum`ah (mufti Mesir), dan ulama-ulama besar lainnya.

Banyak sekali bintang film, artis dan aktris, para seniman, di Mesir yang bertaubat di tangannya. Artis yang sebelumnya “terbuka” jadi berhijab, yang dulunya aktor jadi berdakwah.

Kini ia pun secara rutin tampil di televisi. Penyampaian dakwahnya menyentuh akal dan hati. Cara dakwahnya yang sejuk dan simpatik, pandangan-pandangannya yang cerdas dan tajam, pembawaannya yang menarik hati, membuatnya semakin berpengaruh dari waktu ke waktu.

Kemunculan al-Habib Ali di dunia dakwah membawa angin segar bagi kaum muslimin, terutama kalangan Sunni. Cara dakwahnya berbeda dengan dakwah kalangan yang cenderung keras, kasar, dan kering dari nilai-nilai ruhani, serta cenderung menyerang orang lain, dan banyak menekankan pada model konflik ketimbang harmoni dengan kalangan non-muslim. Bahkan mereka memandang masyarakat muslim sekarang sebagai reinkarnasi dari masyarakat Jahiliyah.


Tragedi Kartun Nabi

Beberapa waktu lalu koran Denmark kembali menampilkan kartun Nabi. Berbeda dengan reaksi sebagian kalangan muslim yang penuh amarah dan tindak kekerasan di dalam menanggapinya, al-Habib Ali al-Jufri dengan kesejukan hatinya serta ketajaman pandangan, pikiran, akal, dan mata batinnya telah melakukan serangkaian langkah yang bervisi jauh ke depan. Ia berharap, langkah-langkahnya akan berdampak positif bagi kaum muslimin, terutama yang tinggal di negara-negara Barat, serta akan menguntungkan dakwah Islam di masa kini dan akan datang.

Bukannya melihat kasus ini sebagai ancaman dan bahaya terhadap Islam dan muslimin, al-Habib Ali justru secara cerdas melihat hal ini sebagai peluang dakwah yang besar untuk masuk ke negeri Eropa secara terbuka, untuk menjelaskan secara bebas tentang Rasulullah Saw. dan berdialog dengan penduduk serta kalangan pers di sana tentang agama ini dan tentang fenomena muslimin. Singkatnya, ia justru melihat ini sebagai peluang dakwah yang besar.

Tentu saja cara pandang al-Habib Ali juga disebabkan pemahamannya yang sangat dalam tentang karakter masyarakat Barat. Salah satu karakter terbesar mereka adalah mempunyai rasa ingin tahu yang besar, berpikir rasional, dan memiliki sikap siap mendengarkan. Karakter-karakter umum ini, ditambah sorotan perhatian kepada Rasulullah Saw., merupakan peluang besar untuk memberikan penjelasan. Mereka ingin tahu tentang Nabi Saw., berarti mereka dalam kondisi siap mendengarkan. Mereka rasional, berarti siap untuk mendapatkan penjelasan yang logis.

Apabila kita bisa menjelaskan tentang Nabi Saw. dan agama ini kepada mereka dengan cara yang menyentuh akal dan hati mereka, maka kita justru akan bisa mengubah mereka. Dari yang anti menjadi netral, yang netral menjadi pro, yang pro menjadi muslim, yang antipati menjadi simpati, yang keras menjadi lembut, yang marah menjadi dingin, yang acu menjadi penasaran. Sekaligus pula mencegah simpatisan menjadi oposan, pro menjadi anti dan seterusnya.

Karena karakter masyarakat Barat yang terbuka, toleran, lebih bisa menerima keanekaragaman budaya, maka peluang dakwah terbuka bebas. Inilah ranah ideal untuk dakwah Islamiyah. Tentu saja ini bagi para da`i yang berfikiran terbuka, berakal lurus dan tajam, cerdas memahami situasi kondisi, dan memiliki dada yang cukup lapang dalam menerima tanggapan negatif, serta giat melakukan pendekatan yang konstruktif dan positif, serta memiliki akhlak yang mulia. Di sinilah al-Habib Ali al-Jufri masuk dengan dakwahnya yang dialogis. 


Terjalinnya Silaturahim dan Bersatu dalam Mahabbah

Tentu saja untuk berani melakukan dialog dengan pers Barat dibutuhkan kecerdasan dan keluasan berpikir serta pemahaman atas pola berpikir masyarakat Barat. Al-Habib Ali dan para dai ini, selain sangat memahami masyarakat Barat, juga memiliki tim khusus yang melakukan penelitian-penelitian secara ilmiah dan mendetail tentang subyek apapun yang dibutuhkan.

Ketika melihat berbagai reaksi yang ada atas kasus kartun Nabi, al-Habib Ali menemukan satu benang merah: “Semua kelompok dalam masyarakat Islam marah”. Kemarahan yang mencerminkan masih adanya sisa-sisa mahabbah kepada Nabi Saw. ini bersifat lintas madzhab, lintas thariqah, lintas jama’ah, bahkan lintas aqidah.

Al-Habib Ali melihat ini sebagai peluang pula untuk menyatukan visi kaum muslimin dan menyatukan barisan mereka. Kalau kaum muslimin tak bisa bersatu dalam madzhab, thariqah, bahkan aqidah, mereka ternyata bisa disatukan dalam mahabbah dan pembelaan terhadap Nabi Saw.

Langkah al-Habib Ali tidak berhenti di sini. Ia membentuk sekelompok dai yang dikenal dengan akhlaqnya, keterbukaan pikiran dan keluasan dadanya, serta kesiapannya untuk melakukan dialog secara intensif dan bebas dengan masyarakat Barat. Kemudian ia bersama kelompok dai ini mengadakan safari intensif keliling Eropa bertemu dengan kalangan pers dan berbagai kalangan lainnya untuk memberikan penjelasan.

Al-Habib Ali dan para dai tersebut mengambil momen ini untuk memupuk cinta muslimin kepada Rasulullah Saw., untuk menghidupkan lagi tradisi-tradisi yang lama mati, dan untuk mengajak muslim berakhlaq mulia sebagaimana akhlaq Nabinya, sambil mengingatkan kaum muslimin yang berdemo agar menjaga adab dan akhlaq Nabi Saw.

Ia juga menyeru kepada kaum muslimin untuk memanfaatkan momen ini dengan menghadiahkan buku-buku tentang Nabi Muhammad Saw. kepada para tetangga dan kawan-kawan mereka yang non-muslim, serta untuk membuka topik untuk menjelaskan kepada mereka tentang Rasulullah dan kedudukan beliau di lubuk hati kaum muslimin.

Bukan hanya itu. Ia pun memanfaatkan momen ini untuk menyatukan dai-dai sedunia dalam satu shaf dan mempelopori berdirinya organisasi dai sedunia. Yang menarik, dalam semua tindakan dan langkahnya ini, ia senantiasa menggandeng, berkoordinasi, dan bermusyawarah serta melibatkan para ulama besar dunia, seperti asy-Syaikh Muhammad Sa`id Ramadhan al-Buthi, asy-Syaikh Ali Jum`ah (mufti Mesir), dan ulama-ulama besar lainnya. Sehingga gerakan ini menjadi gerakan kolektif, milik bersama, bukan milik al-Habib Ali saja.

Sebagai salah satu dampak dari gerakan ini adalah terjalinnya silaturahim dan tersambungnya komunikasi yang sebelumnya terputus atau kurang intensif di antara para ulama dan dai muslimin karena mereka menjadi giat berkomunikasi lintas madzhab, pemikiran, kecenderungan pribadi, bahkan lintas aqidah.

Gerakan yang dipelopori al-Habib Ali ternyata mampu mengikat sejumlah besar pemuka Islam dari berbagai latar belakang yang berbeda ke dalam satu shaf lurus yang panjang untuk bersama-sama menanggapi sebuah isu internasional dengan satu suara bulat yang tidak terpecah-pecah.  Kita berharap, ini tidak akan berakhir, bahkan justru menjadi sebuah awal dari persatuan ulama dan dai-dai muslimin. Aamiin yaa Ilaahanaa Ilaahal Ma’buud.

Disadur dari berbagai sumber

Sya’roni as-Samfuriy, Indramayu 10 Rabi’ul Awwal 1434 H

          El Secretario General llama al pueblo mauritano a trabajar para promover la unidad nacional        
Tras la celebración el sábado pasado de un referendo constitucional que abolió el Senado en Mauritania, el Secretario General de la ONU, pidió a todas las partes interesadas que aborden los desacuerdos de manera pacífica, dentro de los límites de la ley y de los derechos a la libertad de reunión y expresión.
          it takes two – waande kadde & top wzn        

Starting off this new year with two new releases: Waande Kadde, dreamy acoustic Pulaar music from the villages of Fouta Toro, and Top WZN, synth, drum machines, and electric tidnit from the capital city of Mauritania. While they are immediately sonically different, they bear more similarities than one may suspect. Both are from the extreme […]

The post it takes two – waande kadde & top wzn appeared first on sahelsounds.


          nouakchott wedding songs        

In 2011, I traveled to Nouakchott, the capital city of Mauritania to record wedding music. Over the course of six months, I went to a variety of weddings: from the luxurious, high end invitations in the chic neighborhoods of Tevragh Zeina, to the ramshackle tent affairs in far flung suburbs with names like Falluja. Through […]

The post nouakchott wedding songs appeared first on sahelsounds.


          Esteri di gio 24/11        
..1-Francia: le primarie del centrodestra condizionati dal voto degli ultra cattolici. Questa sera ultimo duello tv tra Fillon e Juppé prima del ballottaggio di domenica. ..2-” sono Pronto a sfidare Angela Merkel”. Martin Schulz lascia la presidenza dell'europarlamento e torna in Germania in vista delle politiche del 2017. ..3-Sviluppo e violazione dei diritti umani. Etiopia, un gigantesco cantiere off limits. Il rapporto di Re: Common...( Intervista a Giulia Franchi – Re Common ) ..4-Fuga da Haifa, migliaia di persone evacuati al ..terzo giorno di vasti incendi. ( Eric Salerno ) ..5-Le minoranza etniche nell'Ue. Paesi baltici tra integrazione e russofobia. ( Cristina Carpinelli) ..6-World music: in Mauritania parole e suoni urbani vengono creati attraverso gruppi Whatsapp. ( Marcello Lorrai ) ..7- Steven Gerrard si ritira: la leggenda del Liverpool dà l'addio al calcio a 36 anni. ( Dario Falcini )
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Africa        
Africa is the second-largest continent in the world.Here is the list of 55 countries in Africa and their capitals.
Africa
Africa






S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Algeria
Algiers
2.
Angola
Luanda
3.
Benin
Porto-Novo
4.
Botswana
Gaborone
5.
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou
6.
Burundi
Bujumbura
7.
Cameroon
Yaoundé
8.
Cape Verde
Praia
9.
The Central African Republic
Bangui
10.
The Comoros
Moroni
11.
Cote d'Ivoire
Yamoussoukro
12.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa
13.
Djibouti
Djibouti
14.
Egypt
Cairo
16.
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
17.
Eritrea
Asmara
18.
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
19.
Gabon
Libreville
20.
The Gambia
Banjul
21.
Ghana
Accra
22.
Guinea
Conakry
23.
Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
24.
Chad
N'Djamena
25.
Kenya
Nairobi
26.
Lesotho
Maseru
27.
Liberia
Monrovia
28.
Libya
Tripoli
29.
Madagascar
Antananarivo
30.
Malawi
Lilongwe

31.
Mali
Bamako
32.
Mauritania
Nouakchott
33.
Mauritius
Port Louis
34.
Morocco
Rabat
35.
Mozambique
Maputo
36.
Namibia
Windhoek
37.
Niger
Niamey
38.
Nigeria
Abuja
39.
The Republic of the Congo
Brazzaville
40.
Rwanda
Kigali
41.
Sao Tome and Principe
São Tomé


42.
Senegal
Dakar
43.
The Seychelles
Victoria
44.
Sierra Leone
Freetown
45.
Somalia
Mogadishu
46.
South Africa
Pretoria
47.
Sudan
Khartoum
48.
Swaziland
Mbabane
49.
Tanzania
Dodoma
50.
Togo
Lomé
51.
Tunisia
Tunis
52.
Uganda
Kampala
53.
Western Sahara
Laayoune
54.
Zambia
Lusaka
55.
Zimbabwe
Harare

          Dynaflex appointed authorized representative for TGI ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses in Middle East & Africa        
TGI's factory in Ilmenau

Ilmenau — 22 June 2012 — Dynaflex Corporation, the authorized importer, stockist & representative in India for ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH, has been allotted by TGI the additional territories of the Middle East & Africa to cater to requirements of their ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses in the region. With this appointment, Dynaflex Corporation will now export Ilmadur Gauge & Sight Glasses to Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kurdistan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Northern Cyprus, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Comoros, Djibouti, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan & Sahrawi.

ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses are manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH at it's Ilmenau plant. ILMADUR gauge and sight glasses are manufactured from borosilicate “I-420” material developed and patented by TGI particularly to produce high-quality sight glasses.

About TGI
Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH is a leading manufacturer of laboratory and household glassware, sight and gauge glasses, pressed technical glasses, glass tubes, capillaries & rods in Ilmenau, a town located in the district of Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany.

About Dynaflex Corporation
Dynaflex Corporation is a leading importer and one of the largest stockists in the world of technical & safety glasses from the leading manufacturers in Europe & the USA. Most of the products are again re-exported to South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, North & South Americas & Europe.

Contact
To learn more about this topic, please contact
Dynaflex Corporation, Media Relations
Tek Towers (DOXA)
No.11, Rajiv Gandhi Salai (OMR)
Thoraipakkam
Chennai 600097, INDIA
pr@dynaflex.asia


          The Grinch’s not-so-festive guide to food ration cuts        

Across much of the world, the festive season is a time of indulgence. But what if you’re too busy fleeing violence and upheaval, or stuck in a refugee camp on reduced rations?

It’s been a hard year for the most vulnerable among us. This is partly due to tightening aid budgets, but it’s also the result of there simply being so many more people in crisis who need help.

“It's not just a question of falling donor funding; most donors have continued to be generous, providing funds at relatively consistent levels for years,” World Food Programme spokeswoman Challiss McDonough told IRIN.  “But the number of [those in need] is much larger.”

A prime example is Uganda, where 602,000 South Sudanese refugees are sheltering. As a result of the conflict in neighbouring South Sudan, “we are now supporting nearly twice as many refugees as we were just six months ago”, explained McDonough.

WFP, as the global emergency food responder, is feeling the strain. “I'd say there are probably very few countries where we have not had to make some kind of adjustment to our assistance plans because of a lack of funding,” said McDonough.

The following is a not-so-festive guide to where WFP has been forced to make cuts to already minimal food rations in Africa. It includes some non-refugee national programmes, which have also been impacted by funding shortfalls.

Burkina Faso

Rations have been reduced and cash assistance suspended for the 31,000 Malian refugees in Burkina Faso. As a result, about a quarter of refugees do not have enough food to meet their basic nutritional needs.

“Most refugees in the camps depend solely on humanitarian assistance to survive,” said WFP country director Jean-Charles Dei. “When assistance is interrupted or insufficient, the food security and nutrition situation dramatically deteriorate, especially for women, children, and elderly people.”

Burundi

Lack of funding has impacted a range of activities targeting vulnerable communities. Food-for-training for Congolese refugees and Burundian migrants expelled from Tanzania and Rwanda has been suspended. The number of children reached through an anti-stunting campaign has been reduced by 70 percent, with the programme halted entirely in Ruramvya and Rutana provinces.

Cameroon

Monthly food rations for Central African Republic refugees in Cameroon was cut by 50 percent in November and December. The 150,000 refugees are entirely dependent on international aid.

In May, WFP also halted its meals programme to 16 primary schools in northern Cameroon due to a lack of funding.

Central African Republic

WFP has been unable to assist more than 500,000 people in urgent need of aid and has been forced to halve the amount of food it has provided to those it can reach. Emergency school meals have been suspended in the capital, Bangui, and rations to displaced people in the violence-hit central town of Kaga Bandoro have been slashed by 75 percent. “WFP needs to urgently mobilise flexible contributions to cover for distributions from January onwards,” the agency has warned.

Chad

For the past two years, refugees in Chad have survived on monthly rations well below the minimum requirement. For some, the cuts have been by as much as 60 percent. A joint assessment released in November by WFP and the UN’s refugee agency, UNHCR, found more than 40 percent of the 400,000 refugees in Chad are malnourished and the majority of children are anaemic.

Ethiopia

Since November 2015, ration cuts have affected more than 760,000 refugees, the bulk of them from South Sudan and Somalia. Although there was an improvement in general food rations from June this year, UNHCR has warned that households still face difficulties. The cuts have, in particular, affected children aged under the age of five, with global acute malnutrition above the 15 percent emergency threshold in 10 out of 22 assessed refugee camps.

Gambia

All nutrition and livelihood related activities have been suspended due to a lack of funding.

Kenya

In December, WFP cut monthly rations by half for the 400,000 refugees in Kenya’s Dadaab and Kakuma camps. It warned that unless urgent new funding is received, it will completely run out of food by February. Most refugees in Dadaab have already had their rations cut down to 70 percent of June 2015 levels, and UNHCR has warned of a likely increase in malnutrition as a result of the new squeeze.

Human Rights Watch said in a statement: “Given Kenya’s threat to deport Somalis has already triggered illegal forced refugee return, the UN ([World] Food Programme’s decision to further reduce refugee food rations could not have come at a worse time.”

Malawi

Ration cuts to 27,000 refugees meant that at the beginning of 2016 they were only receiving 40 percent of the recommended minimum number of daily kilocalories. Those shortages began six months earlier. By March, only three out of seven food items – maize, beans, and cooking oil – were being supplied. The Dzaleka camp hosts people mainly from the Great Lakes and Horn of Africa regions, with new arrivals escaping unrest across the border in Mozambique.

Mauritania

In November, WFP halved food rations to 42,500 Malian refugees. Without fresh funding, it says it will be forced to suspend general food distributions, including cash transfers, from next month. A school meals programme for vulnerable Mauritanian children has also been put on hold and will only partially resume in January.

Rwanda

A nationwide prevention of stunting programme for children aged six-23 months, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers has been discontinued due to limited funding.

Somalia

WFP will “significantly scale down” its livelihoods programmes in December 2016. If no additional resources are confirmed, it will only be able to continue with minimal programmes (mainly nutrition) from February 2017. WFP is targeting 1.4 million vulnerable Somalis in food-insecure areas.

Uganda

Rations have been cut by 50 percent for some 200,000 refugees who arrived in Uganda prior to July 2015. Low levels of funding, together with the large numbers of new arrivals fleeing fighting in South Sudan has left WFP workers “with no choice but to re-prioritise their focus on those refugees in greatest need.” The humanitarian response to South Sudanese refugees in Uganda was already severely underfunded even before the latest outbreak of violence in Juba in July.

(TOP PHOTO: Residents of an IDP camp in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo receive food rations distributed by WFP. WFP)

oa/ag

Residents of an IDP camp in North Kivu receive food rations distributed by WFP News Aid and Policy Food The Grinch’s not-so-festive guide to food ration cuts Obi Anyadike IRIN NAIROBI Africa Burundi Central African Republic Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Uganda Malawi Burkina Faso Cameroon Chad Gambia Mauritania
          Mauritania Abolishes The Senate For Being Too Costly        
Mauritania Abolishes The Senate For Being Too Costly
Mauritania Abolishes The Senate For Being Too Costly
Mauritania has joined Senegal in abolishing the Senate, its upper legislative chambers. It was one of the decisions made by voters in a referendum conducted on Saturday. The voters also voted to change their national flag, the electoral commission announced on Sunday, i...
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          Songs We Love: Noura Mint Seymali, 'Na Sane'        
It was just two years ago that Mauritanian vocalist Noura Mint Seymali hit the international scene — but now, it's hard to imagine the scope of African music without her. The singer and her band blow listeners away with giddily woozy and dreamlike vocals; blistering guitar played by her husband, Jeiche Ould Chighaly; and the grounding elements of Ousmane Touré's bass and Matthew Tinari's drums. Now, Seymali is about to release her second internationally available album, Arbina . She's kicking things off with a video — for her song "Na Sane" — that gives audiences abroad a little glimpse of her native land, which is wedged between the Berber and Arab countries of northwestern Africa and the sub-Saharan south. The desert stretches over the vast majority of Mauritania's territory and is capped by the Richat Structure, a famous "bull's-eye" — also known as the "Eye of the Sahara" — that astronauts can see from space . Just over 4 million people live in this country that is nearly twice as
          Business Game Changers Radio with Sarah Westall: On the Brink of WWIII - Why the U.S. is in Syria and How it Dominates Militarily with Space Technology        
EpisodeWorld War III is building up in the Middle East as 20 countries participate in a military “exercise” dubbed “Northern Thunder”. The exercise includes 350,000 soldiers, 20 thousand tanks, 2450 warplanes, and 460 military helicopters supplied by Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Bahrain, Senegal, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Kuwait, the Maldives, Morocco, Pakistan, Chad, Tunisia, Comoro Islands, Djibouti, Malaysia, Egypt, Mauritania, and Mauritius. While this is occurring, Turkey has been bom ...
          El Movimiento de Solidaridad con el Pueblo Saharaui reivindica en Madrid el derecho a la autodeterminación y la independencia         



Este 13 de noviembre se cumplen 40 años de los Acuerdos de Madrid, por los que el Estado español dejó sus territorios del Sáhara Occidental en manos de Marruecos. En este marco, se celebra en Madrid la 40ª Conferencia Internacional de Apoyo y Solidaridad con el Pueblo Saharaui (EUCOCO). Una delegación de IU Aragón participará en los actos
ARAINFO REDACCIÓN | 13/11/2015 *Fotos: RASD-TV, EUCOCO, Carlos Cristóbal, Legdad Mohamed, Cheja, Ahmed Muley Ali
El Movimiento de Solidaridad con el Pueblo Saharaui reivindica en Madrid el derecho a la autodeterminación y la independencia
Este 13 de noviembre se cumplen 40 años de los Acuerdos de Madrid, por los que el Estado español dejó sus territorios del Sáhara Occidental en manos de Marruecos. Ni la ONU ni el Derecho Internacional consideran válidos dichos acuerdos. En 1991 se pactó un alto el fuego auspiciado por la ONU, que estableció una misión en la zona para preparar la celebración de un referéndum. A día de hoy la consulta sigue sin celebrarse y los saharahuis denuncian el abandono internacional.
En este marco, se celebra en Madrid, el 13 y 14 de noviembre, la 40ª Conferencia Internacional de Apoyo y Solidaridad con el Pueblo Saharaui (EUCOCO). Una cita anual que convoca cada año el Movimiento de Solidaridad con el Pueblo Saharaui.
IU Aragón participa en la manifestación estatal de apoyo al Pueblo Saharaui
Desde Izquierda Unida hacen un llamamiento a la participación en la manifestación convocada este sábado en la capital castellana en solidaridad con el Pueblo Saharaui, dentro de los actos del EUCOCO. Una delegación de IU Aragón, encabezada por su portavoz en las Cortes, Patricia Luquin, formará parte de la marcha reivindicativa que partirá a las 13.00 horas de Atocha y finalizará en la plaza de la Provincia, frente al ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores.
Al mismo tiempo, esta manifestación pretende conmemorar el 40 Aniversario de la lucha por la autodeterminación del Pueblo Saharaui. Una conmemoración que tendrá lugar también en la Conferencia Internacional de Apoyo y Solidaridad con el Pueblo Saharaui y en la que participará la diputada como miembro de la Ponencia Paz para el Pueblo Saharaui de las Cortes de Aragón.
“El objetivo principal de esta 40ª EUCOCO es reivindicar el derecho del Pueblo Saharaui a la autodeterminación e independencia, además de contribuir al proceso de paz para avanzar en la resolución del conflicto con el gobierno marroquí”, explica Luquin.
En el 40 aniversario de los Acuerdos de Madrid entre el Estado español, Marruecos y Mauritania, Izquierda Unida advierte que el Gobierno español, como potencia administradora, no puede transferir un territorio no autónomo a una potencia ocupante, sino que, desde el punto de vista de la legalidad internacional, “está obligada a concluir el proceso de descolonización”, por lo que la diputada de IU reitera que la cuestión del Sáhara Occidental hoy continúa siendo “un problema de descolonización”.
Marruecos, explica, “no es la potencia administradora, sino la ocupante”, tal y como lo demuestran las resoluciones 3437 y 3519 de la ONU. Y pese a que el Estado español “ha venido vulnerando sistemáticamente la legislación internacional”, al “no asumir sus responsabilidades” y “cooperar” con Marruecos como “aliado fundamental”, el Sáhara Occidental, afirma, “sigue siendo, jurídicamente hablando, un territorio cuya administración le corresponde al Gobierno español”.
La parlamentaria de IU, que recuerda los 40 años de sufrimiento del pueblo saharaui que sobrevive bajo ocupación marroquí o en los campamentos de refugiados de Tindouf, exige una solución “una solución justa y duradera del conflicto basada en el ejercicio del derecho de autodeterminación”, muestra su preocupación por las “por las continuas violaciones de los derechos humanos en el Sáhara Occidental” y reclama “la liberación de todos los presos políticos saharauis”.




          Miles de activistas se manifiestan por un #SaharaLibre en la marcha estatal de Madrid         

Poemario por un Sahara Libre


Manifestación 10 de noviembre en Madrid











Unas mil personas, convocadas por las asociaciones solidarias con el Sáhara, marcharon hoy por el centro de Madrid en una manifestación protagonizada por los cooperantes Enric Gonyalons y Ainhoa Fernández, liberados en julio tras 271 días de secuestro, y en la que se pidió al Gobierno un papel más activo en el conflicto. 

Una marcha en Madrid exige el fin de de las constantes trabas que pone Exteriores para viajar a los campamentos de refugiados. "Que deje de crear alarmismo", dicen al ministro
PUBLICO  PATRICIA CAMPELO Madrid 10/11/2012
Con el impulso que ha dado la visita del representante personal del secretario general de la ONU para el Sáhara, Christopher Ross, a las ciudades ocupadas y a los campamentos de refugiados, miles de personas se han manifestado hoy en Madrid en solidaridad con el pueblo saharaui.
Después de 38 años de conflicto, el encuentro de Ross con saharauis que viven a ambos lados del muro minado levantado por Marruecos para separar el Sáhara ha supuesto un paso esperanzador. "Es la primera visita que hace el delegado de la ONU a los territorios ocupados después de que Marruecos le retirara su confianza", explica a pie de manifestación Brahim Gali, representante de los jóvenes saharauis (UJSARIO) en Europa.
Este factor, junto con el descontento provocado por los últimos acontecimientos -como la expulsión de 18 activistas españoles que trataron de llegar a El Aaiún esta semana- , ha sido clave para explicar la masiva participación. Así opina también José Taboada, presidente de la Coordinadora Estatal de Asociaciones de solidaridad con el Sáhara (CEAS). "La solidaridad va en aumento, al igual que la impaciencia; la visita de Ross es un paso esperanzador y demuestra que la ONU se impone y Marruecos lo ha podido vetar". Y, ¿cuál es el mensaje que le llevan al ministro Margallo?: "Vamos a decirle que no vamos a abandonar a los saharauis, que no sean utilizados como moneda de cambio y se reconozca que son parte de nuestra historia". "También, que no puede crear alarma social", añade Taboada en referencia a la alerta del ministerio de Exteriores que puso en duda la seguridad en los campamentos de refugiados el pasado verano.
El mismo mensaje trae desde Valdepeñas Carmen Arraque, miembro de la asociación local Hausa, y madre de acogida de tres jóvenes saharauis. Carmen lleva más de 15 años viniendo a la manifestación que recuerda el traspaso de soberanía que hizo España del Sáhara a Marruecos y Mauritania, el 14 de noviembre de 1975, en virtud de unos acuerdos ilegales a efectos de la comunidad internacional. "He ido varias veces a los campamentos de refugiados y no tengo ningún miedo, me siento muy segura allí", confiesa. Con los jóvenes saharauis que pasaron los veranos en su casa de niños mantiene una relación constante, sigue apoyándoles y asegura que siempre les ha animado a que estudien "sin abandonar su causa".
Y que es muchos ven en los jóvenes saharauis la resolución de un conflicto enquistado desde hace casi cuatro décadas. "Sin el fervor revolucionario de la juventud, no hay esperanza", entona Brahim Gali a mitad del recorrido de la manifestación que termina frente al ministerio de Exteriores. "Como joven, sé que el futuro está en nuestras manos, y tenemos que seguir reivindicando lo que nos arrebataron hace 38 años". "Hace cinco días terminó una ronda de negociación, y se están dando pasos hacia adelante", asegura.
Los logros que identifica Gali tienen que ver con la educación, la cultura y el aspecto político y económico. Un ejemplo es el veto de la Unión Europea a renovar el acuerdo de pesca con Marruecos e impedir así que los barcos faenen en aguas del Sáhara, cuyo pueblo que no se beneficia de esa pesca.
Morir por falta de medicinas
Gali es médico y trabaja en España, pero utiliza sus vacaciones para ejercer en los centros de atención sanitaria de los campamentos de refugiados. Además del caso de Ahmed Moulay, fallecido esta semana de cáncer sin cuidados paliativos, destaca otros casos de saharauis que están muriendo por falta de recursos farmacéuticos. "El año pasado falleció una niña de cuatro años porque no había antídoto contra la picadura que recibió de una serpiente", lamenta. "Faltan muchos recursos, como insulina para diabéticos o incluso leche para niños intolerantes a la lactosa".
Los motivos que han llevado al joven saharaui Jatri, nacido en los campamentos de refugiados, tienen que ver con la esperanza de alcanzar "un futuro mejor". Jatri hizo un curso de comunicación y trabajó en la Radio Nacional de la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática (RASD) en Rabuni, la capital administrativa del Sáhara refugiado. Lleva dos meses en España y es la primera vez que acude a la manifestación. Observa atónito el torrente de gente con banderas de su pueblo que sube por la calle Atocha hasta la sede de Exteriores.
"Esto le viene muy bien a la causa", augura. Tiene esperanzas incluso en el gobierno del PP. "Hasta ahora no han hecho nada, pero hay un nuevo equipo; vamos a ver".
Entre los más de 7.000 asistentes, según CEAS y las organizaciones convocantes, también se encontraba Lafkir Kaziza, el joven saharaui que inició una huelga de hambre el pasado verano frente a la embajada de Marruecos en Madrid. Kaziza pidió entonces libertad para los presos políticos saharauis y, aunque la iniciativa no logró su propósito y su salud quedó resentida, asegura que volvería a hacerlo. "Fue una denuncia pública por la libertad, y lo repetiré siempre que sea necesario", sentencia apostado tras una pancarta que sostiene con dificultad porque aún tiene el brazo afectado por una paliza que recibió de la policía de Marruecos. Ahora vive en Valladolid: "No podría volver a las ciudades ocupadas, allí mi vida corre riesgo".
A la histórica protesta que se realiza cada año en Madrid desde hace dos décadas llegan personas solidarias con el Sáhara procedentes de numerosas ciudades españolas. El itinerario, como en anteriores convocatorias, ha terminado frente al ministerio de Exteriores donde los actores Carlos Bardem y Rosa María Sardá han leído un manifiesto de apoyo al pueblo saharaui.
El delegado del Frente Polisario en España, Bucharaya Beyún, ha reclamado al Gobierno español que asuma su responsabilidad histórica. "España no estaba legitimada para entregar el Sáhara en 1975, por lo que sigue siendo la potencia administradora", ha recordado. Asimismo se ha referido a la expulsión de los 18 cooperantes españoles y ha señalado que "si hubieran sido ciudadanos franceses no habría pasado lo mismo". "No se puede contentar a Marruecos en detrimento del pueblo saharaui", ha sentenciado.
Por su parte, Taboada anunció que no van a cesar los viajes a los campamentos pese a la alerta de seguridad. "Vamos a seguir yendo a las jaimas con nuestras familias saharauis". Y le ha recordado al PP que cuando estaba en la oposición hablaba de los derechos de este pueblo "y al llegar al Gobierno parece que se les olvida".
Los aplausos más calurosos han ido para los cooperantes Enric Gonyalos y Ainhoa Fernández, secuestrados en Rabuni en octubre de 2011 y puestos en libertad tras nueve meses de cautiverio. "Ratificamos nuestro compromiso con el pueblo saharaui y anunciamos que muy pronto volveremos a los campamentos", ha señalado Gonyalos. El cooperante andaluz Pepe Oropesa, el único español que decidió permanecer en los campamentos este verano tras la repatriación de doce españoles, ha incidido en la seguridad asegurando que "más de uno hubiera hecho lo que yo".
Por último, la cantante saharaui Mariem Hassan ha puesto, con su música, las notas finales a la manifestación que ha reclamado un año más la autodeterminación del Sáhara.
Madrid, 10 de noviembre de 2012 (EFE).- Unas mil personas, convocadas por las asociaciones solidarias con el Sáhara, marcharon hoy por el centro de Madrid en una manifestación protagonizada por los cooperantes Enric Gonyalons y Ainhoa Fernández, liberados en julio tras 271 días de secuestro, y en la que se pidió al Gobierno un papel más activo en el conflicto.
Los manifestantes, más de un millar, según la Policía Nacional, recorrieron el centro de Madrid hasta llegar a la sede del Ministerio de Exteriores donde entregaron un comunicado en el que se pide al Gobierno "que no abandone al pueblo saharaui", "ni esgrima la defensa de los intereses españoles en Marruecos como excusa para adoptar un silencio cómplice ante las violaciones de derechos humanos".
Durante la marcha, el cooperante Enric Gonyalons, que ha ido en la cabecera de la manifestación -seguido de cerca por Ainhoa Fernández- ha querido transmitir su apoyo inequívoco al pueblo saharaui y al campamento de refugiados de Tinduf (Argelia) donde, junto a su compañera Ainhoa, fue capturado en octubre de 2011.
Gonyalons ha reclamado al Gobierno que mantenga la ayuda al Sáhara "por responsabilidad histórica".
Por su parte, el delegado saharaui para España y miembro del Secretariado Nacional del Frente Polisario, Bucharaya Beyun, ha subrayado que el Ejecutivo español "no puede mirar hacia otro lado" y ha instado al Gobierno de Mariano Rajoy a tener un papel "más activo y participativo" en el conflicto.
"Nos sentimos abandonados por el Gobierno español" ha dicho Beyun, quien también ha asegurado que "ni los gobiernos de izquierdas ni de derechas asumen sus responsabilidades con el Sáhara".
En la cabecera de la manifestación por un "Sahara libre" se encontraba el presidente de la Coordinadora Estatal de Asociaciones Solidarias con el Sáhara (CEAS), José Taboada, que ha valorado el hecho de que 37 años después de la firma de los acuerdos de Madrid -14 de noviembre de 1975, que supusieron el "abandono" del Sáhara por parte del Gobierno de España- "la gente se sigue solidarizando con esta causa".
Taboada ha señalado que los saharauis llevan "37 años en crisis" y ha apelado al "profundo sentimiento" de los españoles con la difícil situación en la que viven los refugiados en los campamentos saharauis.
Finalmente, Taboada ha apelado al Gobierno a que lidere una "posición pacífica y justa y que defienda un referéndum que decida la autodeterminación y la descolonización de este pueblo".
En la marcha también han participado los actores Pilar y Carlos Bardem y Rosa María Sardá y estos dos últimos han leído el comunicado final. En la cabecera de la marcha también se encontraba la diputada de UPyD Irene Lozano. EFE


          10 Keajaiban Alam di Dunia        

10 Keajaiban Alam

alam memang tak pernah habis membuat kita terkagum-kagum, berikut beberapa keajaiban alam yang terdapat di beberapa negara :

1. The Wave. Between Arizona and Utah – USA
Ada di perbatasan arizona dan utah. terbuat dari pasir yang berumur 190 juta tahun yang berubah menjadi batu.
 

2. Antelope Canyon. Arizona – USA  
 
berada di Navajo Land, dekat Page, Arizona di Amerika Selatan.Antelope Canyon atau Tebing Antelope adalah sebuah tebing yang menjadi tempat kunjungan favorit para fotografer dan menjadi tempat para wisatawan untuk melihat pemandangan luar biasa. Antelope Canyon terletak di area barat daya Amerika, tepatnya di sebelah utara Arizona. Antelope Canyon adalah keajaiban alam yang terbentuk dari pengikisan batu, air dan angin. Antelope Canyon asal mulanya adalah gunung batu yang terbelah. Kesan pertama ketika melihat tempat ini seperti memasuki gua kecil yang tinggi. Namun ketika masuk, ternyata di dalamnya cukup luas. Di Antelope Canyon dapat terlihat cahaya yang masuk dari celah-celah. Baik dari lekukan, kedalaman, maupun warna yang ada pada bebatuan yang mempunyai bentuk yang berbeda. Cahaya yang masuk memantul ke bebatuan-bebatuan yang ada sehingga menghasilkan warna yang berbeda-beda.
Pemandangan di Antelope Canyon begitu indah. Antelope Canyon mampu memanjakan mata para turis, terutama para fotografer yang giat mengabadikan pemandangan-pemandangan indah. Antelope Canyon adalah surga bagi para fotografer. Perpaduan cahaya yang masuk di antara kawah-kawah ini mampu membuat orang-orang yang melihatnya akan berdecak kagum. Dulu tempat ini tidak begitu ramai dikunjungi karena letaknya cukup terpencil. Bahkan banyak fotografer yang berusaha menyembunyikan tempat-tempat indah di daerah ini. Namun seiring waktu berlalu, tempat ini telah menjadi salah satu objek wisata di Arizona. Silakan mampir ke Antelope Canyon bagi yang ingin memanjakan mata dengan pemandangan-pemandangan indah.
 

3. Great Blue Hole (Belize)  
 
Berada di jarak 60 mil dari kota Belize. lingkaran yang berdiameter 0.4 kilometer. tempat yang enak untuk diving. dalamnya sekitar 480 kaki atau 145 meter. karena kedalamannya itulah warna nya jadi biru tua.
 

4. Crystal Cave of the Giants (Mexico)
 
Terletak di dalam pertambangan di Chihuahua Mexico. warna dan bentuknya bermacam-macam. warnanya ada yang emas dan silver.
 

5. Eye of the Sahara (Mauritania)
 
Berada di baratdaya gurun sahara. berdiameter 30 mil sehingga terlihat jelas dari angkasa.
 
 
6. Blue Lake Cave (Brazil)
 
 
Mato Grosso do Sul di Brazil ini memiliki banyak sekali danau dan gua bawah tanah yang indah: Gruta do Lago Azul, Gruta do Mimoso, Aquário Natural. Gua Danau Biru “Gruta do Lago Azul” (Blue Lake Cave) adalah monumen alami yang dibentuk dengan indah oleh alam melalui stalaktit, stalagmit dan danau indah biru yang besar. Kecantikan danau ini luar biasa, dan warna biru-nya yang menjadi pusat perhatian dan keindahan danau yang ada.
 

7. Giants Causeway (Ireland)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Di daerah ini ada sekitar 40.000 tiang batu basalt saling tumpang tindih. Secara geologis, hal ini terjadi karena ledakan gunung berapi, yang terletak di daerah pantai utara Irlandia. Uniknya, hampir semua tiang memiliki enam sisi, walaupun terkadang ditemukan juga tiang dengan sisi empat, atau bahkan lima, tujuh dan delapan. Tiang tertinggi adalah 12 meter dan tebal formasi ini dapat mencapai 28 meter.
 

8. Hell Gate (Uzbekistan)
 
 
Biasa disebutkan “the door to hell”. terletak di dekat kota kecil, Darvaz. 35 tahun yang lalu, tim geologis sedang menggali untuk mencari sumber gas. namun yang mereka temukan adalah sebuah goa besar yang berapi. dikirakan goa ini akan terus membakar gas selamanya.
 

9. Wave Rock (Australia)
 
 
Terbuat alami dengan sendirinya. diberi julukan “Wave Rock” karena bentuknya menyerupai ombak. tingginya bisa mencapai 15 meter dan panjangnya sampai 110 meter.
 

10. Chocolate Hills (Philippines)
Luasnya mencapai 50 kilometer persegi. terletak di Bohol, Filipina. Diperkirkan terbentuk karena aktifita vulkanik.
 
 
sumber : kuntil-lepas.com

          Cost Obsessions Map: From Prostitutes To Nose Jobs, The Most Researched Purchases Online By Country        
“How much does ___ cost?” is an apparently very interesting lens through which to judge countries – or more specifically, the obsessions of their (would-be) residents. From “prostitutes” in Thailand, to “kidneys” in Iran, and even “slaves” in Mauritania, a new report published by Fixr.com compiles the most popular auto-completed searches on Google in relation to every country around the world. See also: Best Countries: The Cheapest, Safest, And Friendliest Places For Freelancers (Or Anyone) To Live And Work Using ... [read more]
          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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false/fake ID card of United Kingdom sell false/fake ID card of United States sell false/fake ID card of Uruguay sell false/fake ID card of Uzbekistan sell false/fake ID card of Vanuatu sell false/fake ID card of Vatican City sell false/fake ID card of Venezuela sell false/fake ID card of Vietnam sell false/fake ID card of Yemen sell false/fake ID card of Zambia sell false/fake ID card of Zimbabwe
          Países que já foram governados por ditadores        

® Alemanha (1933-1945)

® Argélia (1965-1994)

® Argentina (1976-1983)

® Áustria (1933-1938), (1938-1945)

® Bangladesh (1975-1979) , (1982-1990) e (1997)

® Bolívia (1971-1985)

® Brasil (1937-1945) e (1964-1985)

® Burkina Faso (1966-1991)

® Burundi (1966-1993)

® República Centro-Africana (1966-1993) e (2003-2005)

® Chile (1973-1989)

® China (1916-1927 ou 1920-1922)

® Colômbia (1953-1957)

® Cuba (1933-1959) e (1959-presente)

® República do Congo (1968-1992)

® República Democrática do Congo (1965-1997)

® República Dominicana (1889-1899) e (1930-1961)

® El Salvador (1931-1979)

® Equador (1972-1979)

® Espanha (1923-1930) e (1939-1975)

® Etiópia (1974-1991)

® Filipinas (1972-1981)

® França (1799-1814) e (1814-1815)

® Guatemala (1970-1985)

® Guiné (1984-1991)

® Guiné Equatorial (1968-1982)

® Haiti (1957-1990)

® Honduras (1963-1974)

® Indonésia (1967-1998)

® Iraque (1958-1968)

® Itália (1922-1943)

® Japão (1932-1945)

® Libéria (1980-1990)

® Madagáscar (1972-1975)

® Mauritânia (1978-1992) e (2005-2007)

® México (1853-1855) e (1876-1910)

® Nicarágua (1967-1979)

® The parents of murdered hostage Kassig believe that "good will prevail" 

The parents of a US medic beheaded by Islamic State (IS) militants have paid tribute to their son, saying they will learn in time to forgive his captors.
"Our hearts are battered, but they will mend. The world is broken, but it will be healed," said Ed and Paula Kassig, parents of Abdul-Rahman Kassig.
Mr Kassig, 26, is the fifth Western hostage to be killed by IS.
Western intelligence officials are working to identify militants seen in a video showing his beheading.
A French prosecutor said one militant was Maxime Hauchard, 22, and another Frenchman might have been present. A third militant was reported to be a Briton.
"Our beloved son... no longer walks this earth," Ed Kassig told reporters on Monday. "Our hearts, though heavy, are held up by the love and support that has poured into our lives these last few days."
The couple asked for prayers for their son on Monday, as well as for those held against their will in Iraq, Syria and around the world.
  An undated family photo from Kassig's youth
Peter Kassig fishing with his father, Ed Kassig, near the Cannelton Dam on the Ohio River in Indiana - 2011 Kassig with his father, fishing on the Ohio River in Indiana in 2011
"Lastly, please allow our family the time and privacy to mourn, cry, and yes, forgive, and begin to heal," Mr Kassig added.
The IS video released on Sunday shows a masked man standing over a severed head, which the White House later confirmed was Kassig's.
He was captured by IS, which controls large parts of Syria and Iraq, in October 2013 while travelling to Deir Ezzour in eastern Syria.
line
Analysis: Frank Gardner, BBC security correspondent
The 16-minute video posted online by IS, while graphically sadistic, also reveals a wealth of detail about the perpetrators and their whereabouts. This is deliberate. IS is effectively taunting the Western-led coalition that is arranged against it, saying this is who we are, come and get us if you dare.
Intelligence agencies will be using facial recognition software to identify those involved in the mass beheading, matching their real names and origins to their adopted battle names. IS has even put a place name on the video, Dabiq in northern Syria - a place where according to Islamic hadith, an apocalyptic battle will be fought between Muslims and non-Muslims.
The one person who keeps his identity concealed is the suspected British jihadist known in the UK media as "Jihadi John". He is believed to be from London and both the FBI and MI5 almost certainly know who he is but for reasons known to them, they are not revealing it.
line
US Secretary of State John Kerry said in Washington: "[IS] leaders assume that the world will be too intimidated to oppose them. But let us be clear: We are not intimidated."
UK Prime Minister David Cameron said that he was "sickened" by the news of the killing.
"[IS] will be defeated, and these sick and barbaric terrorists will face the justice they deserve" he said at a speech in London on Monday.
The latest IS video also shows the beheading of 18 Syrian captives, who are identified as army officers and pilots.
They are said to have been taken from Tabqa air base last August. They are mostly from the Alawite religious sect and come from Latakia and Tartous, according to UK-based monitoring group the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
Unlike previous videos released by IS, the latest shows the faces of many of the militants and specifies its location - Dabiq in Syria's Aleppo province.
Reyaad Khan, Nasser Muthana and Abdul Rakib Amin Nasser Muthana (centre) appeared in an earlier video, aimed at recruitment
French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve said earlier that Maxime Hauchard, who was born in 1992 and was originally from the Eure region, "had gone to Syria in August 2013 after a stay in Mauritania in 2012".
A third militant was reported to be a Briton, although the father of Nasser Muthana, 20, denied it was his son.
The Daily Mail had earlier reported Ahmed Muthana as saying "it looks like my son".
The man in question stands to the right of another man, who is suspected to be British militant nicknamed "Jihadi John".
He is dressed in black with a balaclava, while the rest of the militants wear army fatigues.
"Jihadi John" has been shown in previous IS videos of the beheadings of the other Western hostages - Britons Alan Henning and David Haines, and US journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff.
line
Abdul-Rahman Kassig appeared in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley in May 2013

          Jean - 5T0JL.....SK        


Una mala noticia para este 10 de agosto 2017 la muerte de Jean 5T0JL. Un tipo peculiar defensor aférrimo de las buenas artes telegráficas, que nos ha dejado. Sus pensamientos en Qrz sobre la buena práctica telegráfica, tenía buenos defensores, pero también gente que lo criticó hasta la saciedad. 

Jean iba a estar como invitado de la anunciada operación internacional que se va a desarrollar desde Mauritania como 5T5OK el próximo setiembre ( si no hay cambios ), seguiremos las evoluciones. DEP.


73´s, Luis EA1CS
          Ciao Manu Chao...        
Jose-Manuel Thomas Arthur (Manu) Chao (Parijs, 21 juni 1961) zingt in het Frans, Spaans, Arabisch, Portugees, Wolof (taal die gesproken wordt in Senegal, Gambia, en Mauritanië) en Engels. Doordat hij Spaanse ouders had werd hij tweetalig opgevoed.

Als tiener speelde hij in diverse bandjes, waaronder Les Hot Pants. Hoewel dit punkbandje enkele onderscheidingen kreeg, slaagden ze er niet in om door te breken. Dat lukte wel met de band Mano Negra. Hun eerste single, Mala Vida, werd opgenomen op een klein Frans label, maar dankzij het succes ervan kreeg Mano Negra een contract bij Virgin. Vooral in Europa en Zuid-Amerika was Mano Negra populair. Albums als Puta’s Fever, Patchanka en Casa Babylon stonden begin jaren negentig in veel landen in de albumcharts. Ook de single King Kong 5 was een wereldwijde hit. De band slaagde er echter niet in om in de Verenigde Staten door te breken.

In 1992 had Chao met enkele leden van Mano Negra de nieuwe band Radio Bemba Sound System opgericht. Dit leidde tot ruzies binnen Mano Negra, waarna de band uit elkaar viel...
Op Clandestino (1998), het solo-debuut werd de Spaanse taal afwisseld met Frans en Engels. De verkoopcijfers waren aanvankelijk laag, maar na een jaar werd het album in veel landen toch een succes.
Chao maakt muziek in een genre dat eind jaren '90, mede onder zijn invloed, ontstaan is: "Mestizo". Chao's teksten hebben vaak een politieke, linkse inslag. Zo samplede hij zapatista-woordvoerder Marcos op het album Radio Bemba Sound System.

Zijn live-optredens zitten ergens tussen het laidback-geluid van zijn soloplaten en de gekte van zijn vroegere band Mano Negra in. Chao tourt het liefst in de derde wereld, en hij doet dat met veel plezier gratis. Europa tourt hij even af voor het geld... Een alternatieve vorm van ontwikkelingssamenwerking?

Manu Chao - Clandestino [1998]
1. "Clandestino" – 2:28
2. "Desaparecido" – 3:47
3. "Bongo Bong" – 2:38
4. "Je Ne T'Aime Plus" – 2:03
5. "Mentira ..." – 4:37
6. "Lagrimas De Oro" – 2:58
7. "Mama Call" – 2:21
8. "Luna Y Sol" – 3:07
9. "Por El Suelo" – 2:21
10. "Welcome To Tijuana" – 4:04
11. "Dia Luna ... Dia Pena" – 1:30
12. "Malegria" – 2:55
13. "La Vie A 2" – 3:01
14. "Minha Galera" – 2:22
15. "La Despedida" – 3:10
16. "El Viento" – 2:26
h**p://team.fatal1ty.free.fr/Damn%20That%20Music%20Made%20my%20Way/Manu%20Chao/clandestino/

Manu Chao - Proxima Estacion Esperanza
1. Merry Blues
2. Bixo
3. Eldorado 1997
4. Promiscuity
5. La Primavera
6. Me Gustas Tu
7. Denia
8. Mi Vida
9. Trapped By Love
10. Le Rendez-vous
11. Mr Bobby
12. Papito
13. La Chinita
14. La Marea
15. Homens
16. La Vacaloca
17. Infinita Tristeza
h**p://team.fatal1ty.free.fr/Damn%20That%20Music%20Made%20my%20Way/Manu%20Chao/Esperanza/

Manu Chao - La Radiolina (2007)
1. 13 Días (2:36)
2. Tristeza maleza (2:54)
3. Politik Kills (3:09)
4. Rainin in Paradize (Scheps version) (3:41)
5. Besoin de la lune (1:54)
6. El kitapena (1:55)
7. Me llaman Calle (3:14)
8. A cosa (2:14)
9. The Bleedin Clown (Scheps version) (1:54)
10. Mundorévès (1:48)
11. El hoyo (3:22)
12. La vida tómbola (3:16)
13. Mala fama (4:07)
14. Panik Panik (1:46)
15. Otro mundo (3:09)
16. Piccola radiolina (1:08)
17. Y ahora qué ? (Bonus Track) (1:46)
18. Mama cuchara (Bonus Track) (1:43)
19. Siberia (Bonus Track) (2:04)
20. Soñe otro mundo (Bonus Track) (1:23)
21. Amalucada vida (Bonus Track) (2:23)
h**p://team.fatal1ty.free.fr/Damn%20That%20Music%20Made%20my%20Way/Manu%20Chao/La%20radiolina/

          Mauritania: The treatment of sexual minorities by society and the authorities, including laws, state protection and support services (2015-July 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Mauritania: Prevalence of forced marriage and its legal status; state protection; whether a woman can refuse a forced marriage (2015-July 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Guatemala Quetzal(GTQ)/Mauritania Ougulya(MRO)        
1 Guatemala Quetzal = 48.66445 Mauritania Ougulya
          World Links: Tsvangirai’s Wife Killed in Car Crash; U.S.-Syria Talks to Begin        
Asian markets tumble a day after Wall Street’s drop to a 12-year low. NATO revives full diplomatic relations with Russia, which were cut off in August 2008 on account of Russia’s war with Georgia. The wife of Zimbabwean Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai is killed in a car accident; the prime minister himself suffers slight injuries. Mauritania expels its [...]
          Mauritania: Release Biram Dah Abeid        

In November 2013, I attended a meeting in Dakar, Senegal that addressed how to memorialize slavery as part of an African Union Human Rights Memorial. The trip included a visit to Gorée Island, the notorious site from which untold numbers of African were sent to the Americas against their will as part of the [...]

          Post '¿te gustaría participar en el Proyecto Descubridores? Sección Expediciones Exploramagazine'        
Autor: ExploraMagazine, con fecha 18/01/2013 10:45

Hemos creado una nueva sección en explora magazine: "Expediciones".<br>Ahí haremos un seguimiento en directo de viajes y expediciones de todo tipo, que puedan ser de interés para todos vosotros.<br>Comenzamos con el proyecto descubridores, una expedición que recorrerá la selva de Darien en Panamá tras los pasos de Núñez de Balboa, 500 años después de convertirse en el primer europeo en llegar al océano pacífico.<br>¿Te gustaría formar parte del Proyecto descubridores? En explora magazine te explicamos como hacerlo. Date prisa, solamente quedan unos días!! Visita http://www.exploramagazine.com/?cat=74<br>Poco a poco iremos sumando nuevos viajes. Estad atentos porque este año 2013 promete!!<br>Recordad que explora magazine lo hacemos entre todos: si estás pensando en cruzar los pirineos, ascender el mont blanc, recorrer mauritania en bici o escalar el capitán en Yosemite no dudes en escribirnos a info@exploramagazine.com para compartir tu proyecto con todos nosotros.<br>Nos vemos en Explora Magazine!!!<br><br><br><br> Ver post | Ver más blog
          Fortune Of Africa Air Flight Status        
Africa is gifted by nature offering plenty of opportunities to tourists. Africa has rich cultural heritage and natural beauty as indicated below in the following country tourism profiles: Algeria Egypt Malawi Sierra Leone Angola Equatorial Guinea Mali Somalia Benin Eritrea Mauritania South Africa Botswana Ethiopia Mauritius South Sudan Burkina Faso Gabon Morocco Sudan Burundi Gambia ...
          List of African Countries by region        
List of countries of East Africa Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda Seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe List of countries of West Africa Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Nigeria Guinea Guinea Bissau Ivory Coast Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Senegal Sierra Leone Togo List of countries of ...
          Arrival of Sports Equipment for our program in Mali         
We are pleased to inform that the donation campaign of sports equipment organized in cooperation with the Council of Madrid, as a result of the Solidarity Sports Program, and the Marca Sports Cafe has had a successful outcome. The material has been delivered to the Pere Michel Centre that the Salesians have in operation in the capital, Bamako.

It was possible to transport a total of 15 cubic meters of material for football, basketball, track and volleyball practice and which shall be distributed in various centers in Mali and Senegal. The route was made by road through Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania and Mali to reach it’s destination.

We wish to recall that a publicity campaign took place in collaboration with various restaurants such as Marca Sports Cafe and the contributions of young people in the Community of Madrid who at their school donated sporting clothes that were obsolete and too small. The UEFA also collaborated and donated materials for this campaign. Sport & Cooperation Network collaborates with the Salesians in Mali since 2012 and the objective of the program is to ensure that young people enjoy a safe area to receive an education while having fun. In Senegal we have carried out the construction and start up of three sports centers in Dakar, Thies and Tambacounda, with the training of youth leaders through sport.



          Llegada de Material Deportivo para programa en Malí        

Tenemos la satisfacción de informar que la campaña de donación de material deportivo impulsada en colaboración con la Comunidad de Madrid, fruto del programa Deporte Solidario de Madrid, y los restaurantes Marca Sports Café ha llegado a buen puerto. El material ha sido entregado en el Centro Pere Michel que los salesianos tienen en funcionamiento en la capital, Bamako. 
Se han podido transportar un total de 15 metros cúbicos de material para la práctica del fútbol, baloncesto, atletismo y voleibol y que será distribuido en diversos centros de Malí y Senegal. La ruta se ha hecho por carretera atravesando Argelia, Marruecos, Mauritania y Malí para llegar a su destino.
Recordamos que la campaña se impulsó en colaboración con diversos restaurantes Marca Sports Café y con las aportaciones de jóvenes de la Comunidad de Madrid que en su escuela donaron las prendas deportivas en desuso, por quedarse pequeñas. También hemos contado con la colaboración de UEFA que ha donado igualmente material para esta campaña. Red Deporte y Cooperación colabora con los Salesianos de Malí desde el año 2012 y el objetivo de los programas es garantizar que los jóvenes gozan de un espacio seguro donde recibir una educación en valores a la vez que se divierten haciendo lo que más le gusta. En Senegal hemos llevado a cabo la construcción y puesta en marcha de una red de tres centros deportivos en Dakar, Thies y Tambacounda, con programas de formación de líderes juveniles a través del deporte.



          Africa goes to Washington        
    Tom: I can’t tell you how many times your father and I have discussed your future.
    Michael: You and my father discussed myfuture?
Tom: Yes, many times.
 Michael: But I’ve got my own plans for my future.
                                                                                                             The Godfather

Africa went to Washington last week and The Washington Post had a field day with the assembled delegates, or at least their consorts. Leading the pack was Mrs Biya – ‘The first lady of Cameroon and her hair have touched down in D.C.’ – which extolled the achievements of Madam’s ‘bouffant’, which was ‘a beauty school master’s thesis in contradictions,’ somehow managing to be ‘short andlong, rebellious yet elegant, unruly but controlled.’ Mauritania’s ‘chic’ Lady Tekber Mint Melainine Ould Ahmed managed to make ‘wearing aviators at night look cool.’ Not to be outdone was the Rwandan president’s daughter, who towered above everyone else and so could afford a more demure look. Sadly, our own Patience wasn’t in attendance, although this might have been just as well.
 
It seems that some serious discussions did occur in the course of the three days, things like encouraging ‘progress in key areas that Africans define as critical for the future of the continent,’ things like ‘expanding trade and investment ties,’ things like ‘engaging young African leaders, promoting inclusive sustainable development, expanding cooperation on peace and security, and gaining a better future for Africa’s next generation,’ in the words of the White House press release.
 
These are all doubtless laudable ambitions but not a few raised sceptical voices. One of them, Mukoma Wa Thiong’o, likened the event to ‘a father calling his children to discuss their futures,’ which some thought a cheap jibe. Another, Mo Ibrahim, the British-Sudanese businessman who offers an annual $5mn reward for African leaders who pass the sobriety test, i.e. leave office without falling or being pushed (but which, significantly, has not been awarded in the last two years). As he bluntly put it:
 
Everywhere in Africa there are Chinese businesspeople, there are Brazilian businesspeople. None of us went to Brazil or to Asia or to China to tell them, look, come and invest in Africa. They found out themselves and they come and invest. That’s how basic business people behave. Why do we need to come and inform these misinformed American businesses? You know, you guys invented Google. Use it please.

China, as everyone pointed out, was the great bugbear behind this sudden rush to do something about Africa, as indeed Obama confirmed in an interview with The Economist of London the previous week: ‘My advice to African leaders is to make sure that if, in fact, China is putting in roads and bridges, number one, that they're hiring African workers; number two, that the roads don't just lead from the mine to the port to Shanghai.’ The US, by contrast, doesn’t ‘simply want to extract minerals from the ground for our growth’ but to ‘build genuine partnerships that create jobs and opportunity for all our peoples and that unleash the next era of African growth.’ Not everyone was convinced. A sulking Zimbabwe, one of the three countries barred from dinner on account of its human rights record, understood the gathering to be ‘America pursuing its interests, afraid that China has made headway,’ according to a statement by that country’s information minister.
 
But there was also something about Obama needing to leave behind an African legacy, which seems to have become de rigueur for American presidents. Both his predecessors had staked their own claims, Clinton by negotiating the African Growth and Opportunity Act, George W. Bush by throwing money at HIV/AIDS (along with his country’s pharmaceutical industry), yet neither had their successor’s continental roots, and which Obama himself was now –belatedly - claiming: ‘I also stand before you as a man from Africa. The blood of Africa runs through our family.'
 
Unfortunately, the blood line didn’t extend beyond the distinguished guests. At the closing press conference, to which he turned up over an hour late, the White House press corps was given front-row seats while the African journalists ‘scrabbled for space behind the cameras’ and never got a chance to ask any questions before Oga was ‘whisked out of the building,’ leaving one of the African journalists to wonder, ‘What did we come all this way for?’
 
In fact, much the same question might have been asked by the assorted heads of state (and their consorts) had they been able to see beyond the fancy dinner. When all the noise had died down, Obama announced a $14bn investment pledge by US companies. To put this into context, the US has blown $104bn in Afghanistan alone, but the real question is: Was it necessary for all those African heads of state – and never mind the journalists - to travel to Washington en masse in order to secure such a risible sum, less even than the former Central Bank governor accused our very own NNPC of purloining under the leadership of a minister known for her financial recklessness?
 
One wonders for how long we here in Africa will continue to look to the foreigner to save us from ourselves. Five centuries and more of slavery, colonialism and exploitation – whether from Europe, the US or China – have still not convinced us that the solutions to Africa’s many problems lie with us, not them. To that end, we have been given all the resources we need, the very resources Europe, the US and China are here for in the first place. That our heads of state – and their consorts – even honoured the invitation to have dinner in the White House is a measure of how far we still have to go. Well, so be it. One day we will wake up to the realisation that we need our own plans for our future. Until that day, we will continue to go a-begging in the vain hope that foreigners really do have our best interests at heart.
 
© Adewale Maja-Pearce


Adewale Maja-Pearce is the author of several books, including Loyalties
and Other Stories, In My Father's Country, How many miles to Babylon?, A
Mask Dancing, Who's Afraid of Wole Soyinka?, From Khaki to Agbada,
Remembering Ken Saro-Wiwa and Other Essays, A Peculiar Tragedy, and
Counting the Cost, as well as the 1998 and 1999 annual reports on human
rights violations in Nigeria. He also edited The Heinemann Book of African
Poetry in English, Wole Soyinka: An Appraisal, Christopher Okigbo:
Collected Poems, The New Gong Book of New Nigerian Short Stories,
and Dream Chasers. The House My Father Built, a memoir, will be
published later this year.

Click here to see Maja-Pearce's
amazon.compage: http://www.amazon.com/Adewale-Maja-Pearce/e/B001HPKIOU
          Anti-jihad nel Sahel        
Il testo dell’accordo con cui l’Onu autorizza la forza multilaterale nel Sahel non presenta molte novità. Le Nazioni unite riconoscono l’importanza del legame tra traffici illeciti e terrorismo, limitandosi a “salutare” la formazione della nuova forza di sicurezza dei paesi del G5 del Sahel (Burkina Faso, Ciad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger) che utilizzeranno le proprie forze di […]
          PERAN AL-MUWAHHIDUN DALAM PROSES ISLAM        
 BAB I
Pendahuluan
            Afrika utara merupakan daerah yang berperan penting dalam penyebaran Islam di Afrika ke wilayah Eropa. Pada abad 12  muncul dinasti yang kuat dan besar di wilayah Afrika Utara yaitu dinasti Muwahidun. Dinasti ini bermula dari gerakan agama-politik berkembang untuk memajukan peradaban yang tidak ada banding dalam sejarah dinasti di Afrika Utara. Selanjutnya, banyak tantangan yang dihadapi salah satunya pada saat menghadapai pasukan Kristen yang berusaha mengusir umat muslim dari Andalusia.
            Dalam tulisan ini dibahas bagaimana proses berdirinya dan bagaimana peran abu abdullah muhammad ibnu tumrat, kemudian penjelasan mengenai perkembangannya, dan sebab-sebab kemunduran dinasti muwahidun





BAB II
Pembahasan

A.    Latar Belakang Berdirinya
            Dinasti Muwahhidun bermula dari sebuah gerakan agama-politik yang didirikan oleh seseorang dari kalangan orang-orang Berber di Mauritania, Ia adalah Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Tumart. Dia  mengumumkan dirinya sebagai khalifah sekaligus mahdi di dekat sungai Nafis. Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Tumart adalah anak seorang penyala lampu masjid, dengan postur tubuh jelek, kecil, dan berwajah buruk menjalani kehidupan sebagai seorang pertapa, yang menentang musik, minuman, dan segala bentuk permainan yang melalaikan. Masa mudanya ia belajar berbagai macam ilmu pengetahuan di Cordova, Kairo dan Baghdad pada ulama yang terkenal seperti al-Ghazali, al-Tartusi, dan lain-lain.
            Gerakan Muwahhidun diprakarsai oleh Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Tumart. Ia menuduh raja Murabbitun salah karena menyimpang dari agama Islam dan menjauhi dari Sunah Rasul. Banyak orang bersimpati padanya, ia mengajarkan kepada sukunya, dan suku lain di Maroko, doktrin tauhid ke Esaan Tuhan, dan konsep spiritual tentang Tuhan. Langkah ini merupakan bentuk protes pada paham antropomorfisme berlebihan yang telah menyebar dikalangan umat Islam. Karena itu, para pengikutnya disebut Al-Muwahhidun.[1]Atas kritiknya terhadap raja Murabbitun tersebut dia dianggap berbahaya dan diusir dari Maroko.
            Pada 1130 M, ibnu Tumart digantikan oleh sahabat sekaligus jenderalnya Abd Al-Mu’minin ibn Ali, anak seorang pembuat tembikar dari suku Zanatah yang menjadi khalifah pandiri dinasti Muwahhidun, dinasti terbesar yang pernah lahir di Maroko dan tak tertandingi dalam sejarah Islam Afrika. Pada tahun 1146-1147 M Dinasti Murabitun beserta pasukannya hancur setelah 11 bulan dikepung oleh pasukan Abd al-Mu’minin dekat Talimcen serta menguasai Fez, Ceuta, Tangier, dan Agmat. Keturunan terakhir Murabitun dibunuh oleh al-Mu’minin meski masih bayi yang tak berdosa yang bernama Ishaq Ibn Ali. Setelah musnahnya semua keturunan Murabitun, Maroko sekarang menjadi ibukota Muwahhidun.  
           
B.      Perkembangan
            Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Tumart dan Abd Al-Mu’minin ibn Ali adalah peletak lahirnya Dinasti Muwahhidun. Setelah menumbangkan perlawanan dari pasukan Murabitun dan menguasai Maroko serta sekitarnya kini giliran Andalusia yang menjadi bidikannya. Pada 1145 M al-Mu’minin mengirim satu pasukan ke Andalusia yang kala itu sedang kacau, pertikaian politik, dan perampokan. Pasukan ini, dalam waktu lima tahun, berhasil menaklukan seluruh wilayah muslim di semenanjung ini. Hanya kepulauan Balearic termasuk  ke dalam emiret Umayyah sejak 903 yang selama beberapa tahun disisakan di tangan penguasan Murabitun terakhir.[2]Abdul Mu’min membangun Andalusia dengan teratur, makmur dan sejahtera.[3]Penaklukan wilayah tidak hanya di Andalusia saja tapi juga di daerah Afrika juga, 1152 M Aljazair di taklukkan, 1158 M Tunisia jatuh ke tangan Muwahhidun dan 1160 M Tripoli masuk daerah penguasaan dinasti yang baru berkembang itu. Selain itu juga berhasil menguasai kerajaan Hammadiayah Bejaya, Ziridiyah di Ifriqiyah, mengusir orang-orang Kristen dari pelabuhan-pelabuhan yang dikuasai, dan berhasil membuat dirinya sebagai penguasa seluruh negeri diantara Teluk Sidra dan Samudra Atlantik. Pada gilirannya terbentuklah dinasti Al-Muwahhidun yang kuat dengan ibukota di Sevilla.[4]
            Setelah wafatnya al-Mu’minin pada tahun 1163 M. digantikan Abu oleh Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (1184-1199), yang seperti kebanyakan Berber merupakan putra dari seorang budak Kristen. Naiknya al-Mansur ke singgasan ditandai dengan pendirian menara, yang disebut Giralda, sebagai pelengkap untuk masjid besar. Masjid yang dimaksud mulai dibangun pada 1172 dan rampung pada 1195, dan saat ini di ubah menjadi katedral. Di Maroko dia juga membangun Ribath al-Fath, yang mencontoh Iskandariyah, dan di Maroko ia membangun sebuah rumah sakit yang oleh tokoh sezamannya, al-Marrakusyi, dianggap sebagai bangunan yang tak ada bandingnya di dunia.
            Perhatian utama para khalifah Muwahhidun di Andalusia  adalah memenangi Perang Suci melawan Kristen, namun keinginan itu tidak berhasil dicapai. Kekalahan talak di Las Navas de Tolosa pada 1212 M membuat mereka di usir dari semenanjung itu. Pertempuran ini yang oleh orang Arab di sebut Perang al-Uqob (bukit), berkobar disuatu tempat kira-kira 119 km arah timur Cordova. Tentara Kristen yang terdiri pasukan Aragon bersama rajanya, pasukan Navarre beserta rajanya, dan satu unit pasukan elit Portugal bersama bebeapa orang kesatria, dipimpin Alfonso VIII dari Castile, yang diantaranya laskarnya adalah tentara Salib Prancis.
            Khalifah Muhammad al-Nasir (1199-1214), putra al-Mansur memimpin pasukan Arab. Dalam perang itu, hanya 1.000 orang tentara Islam yang behasil lolos dari sekitar 600.000 tentara yang berhasil meloloskan diri. Al-Nasir sendiri menyelamatkan diri ke Maroko, dan meninggal disana dua tahun kemudian. Bersamaan dengan itu, berakhirlah kekuasaan Muwahhidun di Andalusia. Semua kawasan Andalusia muslim berada dibawah kaki para penakluk. Lambat laun Andalusia muslim terpecah menjadi sejumlah wilayah yang dikuasai raja-raja Kristen dan beberapa raja kecil Muslim. Diantara semua itu, Nasiriyah dari Granada merupakan negeri yang paling menonjol, dan menjadi representasi akhir dari otoritas muslim disemenanjung itu.
            Dari sisi kemajuan peradaban, kemajuan dalam bidang arsitektur, dekorasi dan seni bangunan lainya dapat disksikan sampai sekarang. Dalam bidang intelektual, nama-nama tokoh seperti Ibnu Batutah, Ibnu Khaldun dan Ibn Zuhr telah menjadi simbol dari kemajuan peradaban islam di daerah tersebut. Selain tokoh tersebut hidup jga ilmuan lainnya seperti Ibn Hasan, Hasan ibn Haisyam 965-1039 M, Ibn Bajjah W. 1138, Ibn Rusyd 1126-1198 M, Ibn Arabi 1165-1240 M, dan masih banyak lagi yang membawa kajayaan Islam.

C.    Sebab-sebab Kemunduran
            Setah kekelahan dalam perang melawan Kristen daerah kekuasaan Muwahhidun pecah menjadi daerah-daerah kecil yaitu: Dinasti Nashriyah (1232-1492 M) di Granada, Dinasti Bani Mariniah di Maroko, dan Hafsidiyah di Tunis. Salah satu diantara akhir dari kemunduran kekuasaan al-Muwahhidun ditandai dengan munculnya Zagmahrasan ibn Zaiyyan di Tlencen (Tilingsan), yang pada tahun 1236 M mendirikan dinasti Abdul Wadiyah yang independen. Pada tahun berikutnya Abu Zakaria Yahya, Gubernur Ifriqiyah, menyatakan kemerdekaanya dan mendirikan dinasti Hafsyiyah. Akhirnya ibu kota al-Muwahhidun jatuh ketangan Mariniyah pada tahun 1269 M, dan dengan demikian berakhirlah dinasti al-Muwahhidun.

BAB III
Penutup
            Dari paparan di atas dapat kita simpulkan bahwa Dinasti Muwahidun bermula dari gerakan politik agama oleh Ibn Tumart. Setelah meninggal dunia dia digantikan oleh al-Mu’minin yang berhasil mnumbangkan Murabitun di Afrika dan Andalusia. Pada masa Mu’minin lah Murabitun mendapat serangan dari Kristen dan akhirnya daerah kekuasaanya terpecah-pecah menjadi dinasti-dinasti kecil, yang akhirnya hancur karena serangan dari Kristen sampai juga jatuhnya Granada.

Daftar Pustaka
Karim, M. Abdul, Sejarah Pemikiran dan Paradaban Islam.Yogyakarta: Pustaka Publiser. 2007
Maryam, Siti dkk, Sejarah Peradaban Islam Dari Masa Klasik Hingga Modern. Yogyakarta: Lesfi. 2004
 Hitti, Philip K. History of The Arabs. Jakarta: Serambi. 2005

Hasan, Hasan Ibrahim, Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Islam.Yogyakarta: Kota Kembang. 1997
Hamka. Sejarah Umat Islam. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang. 1975 Jilid II



[1]Philip K. Hitti, History of The Arabs. (Jakarta: Serambi. 2005).,Hlm 694.
[2]Philip K. Hitti, History of The Arabs. Hlm. 696
[3]Abdulm Karim, Sejarah Pemikiran dan Peradaban Islam. (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Book Publisher. 2007). Hlm. 244
[4]Sujadi dalam Siti Maryam dkk, Sejarah Peradaban Islam dari masa Klasik hingga Modern.(Yogyakarta : LESFI. 2004),.Hlm 229.

          On the eve of History...        
I know, I know, many Americans, even some of those who look like epidermally, will say that I have absolutely nothing to say about the US 2008 elections, and on some level they are right. I am, after all, not a citizen of this country. But I have lived here for over 8 years now, and that should count for something, shouldn’t it? And the United States having the position it has in the world, the contentious History it has, and more importantly, the ethnic and demographic make-up that we all know, make an American election something to behold for the entire world.

Even more so this year. Even more so because of a young Senator from Illinois with a funny name – by American standards, with a father from the motherland, a mother from the winter-lands, and a family tree spanning continents – who dared to challenge the status-quo, and challenge the USA to live-up to the fullness of its noble and laudable proclaimed ideals: equality, freedom, and justice for ALL.

As I sat with my friends Jake, Remi and Jill, watching Barack Obama accepting the nomination of his party to run for the presidency of the USA, I couldn’t help but to shed a tear or two. Of joy, of course, but a joy that came as a healing balm for a series of pains. See, most of my fairer-skinned (I mean White) friends understand much of the Historic nature of Obama’s candidacy. What many do not get, it seems to me, is how profound the possibility of a President Obama touches my very being – and the very being of intellectual Black people around the world, Liberal or Conservative.

See, I was born at an American-missionary-run hospital in Kimpese, a laid-back town of Kongo-central province, DRCongo, Africa, to two loving parents, a loving family of 6 siblings, and in relative privilege (at least the last two thirds of my life) within my own society. I was never the stereotypical poor village-kid from Africa, although my parents were, and they are extremely proud of their rural roots. I was raised to recognize, acknowledge and respect the cultural background of the people I met, but never to hold it against them, when forming my opinion of them. I was taught to treat people as individuals first, not as mere representatives of a particular group (race, gender, ethnic group, religion, orientation, etc), and I try to do that in my daily life.

Yet, despite my international upbringing, despite all that my parents have painstakingly done to ensure that I experience a world where I am judged for the content of my character, the very high level of melanin in my skin is constantly – sometimes more directly than others – thrown back in my face like an indictment of my very soul, like a shameful disease that I should somehow be shameful and atone for, as long as I live.

Racism – whether overt, indirect, or internalized - is not simply about hatred, see. For the victims of racism, it is about the erosion of the foundations of our dignity. You know:
  • when you are tailed and followed around the store at Dillards’ here in the United States,
  • or when people switch sidewalks as you walk towards them, 
  • or when you are presumed dumber and less knowledgeable,
  • or when you are repeatedly singled-out as a potential criminal through profiling,
  • or when you enter a convenience store, and the White, or Arab, or South- Asian teller cannot help but to look towards his gun-rack to make sure the gun is easily accessible,
  • or when people in Berlin, Germany refuse to believe that you are an American citizen,
  • or when you are refused entrance into a plush restaurant in Harare, Zimbabwe,
  • or when taxis refuse to stop for you in Casablanca, Morocco, or right here in New York City,
  • or when you are seen as slave-material in Mauritania,
  • or when you are called a monkey, a gorilla, or a savage in Chennai, India, or in Shanghai, China,
  • or when you are vilified verbally and/or abused physically in front of your own children,
  • or when, in my 99.9% Black Congo, you are barred access to a hotel by a security guard, who simply cannot conceive that a fellow high-melanined person could have any business in the 5-star hotel he guards, simply because that person is wearing flip-flops, jeans and a t-shirt, instead of the Western business attire which even Westerners don’t wear in Africa most of the time, because it makes no sense with the climate there,
when all this - and other things - occur to you simply because of your DNA, something you had absolutely no hand in, tell me it does not affect your dignity, and your self-esteem. Tell me it does not start to raise unholy questions in one’s mind, which are extremely hindering to daily life.

Keeping strong, and staying proud of our Black roots, and learning to find and value the power, the dignity and the rich History of our African ancestry, and doing all that while staying civil to all others, and not holding the prejudices of some against all others, is a daily struggle for me, and I dare say for most Black people. We all have different ways to cope with it (blissful and willful ignorance, or outright anger, or intellectual research and response, or active struggle, or depression, or suicide, etc), but it is a constant struggle, all over the world.

And that, among many things (the fact that I have progressive convictions would be one of them), is why I shed a tear for Barack Obama’s nomination. Obama, a proudly self-identified Black man is poised to become arguably the most powerful person on the planet. And mind you, he is not just any Black man. No, he is an intelligent, knowledgeable, scholarly, charismatic, articulate, shrewd, methodical, worldly, Harvard Law man, who has masterfully and legitimately made his case for the presidency, to a people whose racial majority considered him and his "kind" subhuman only a century or so ago... I mean, wow!!! I mean Woooooooooow!!!!!

Barack Obama’s candidacy has dealt – and will continue to deal – so many mighty blows to harmful stereotypes about Black people the world over, that all of us Blacks, Whites, Hispanics, Asians, will end-up benefiting from it. Because aside from being “Black”, Barack is also Bi-racial. He not only embodies in him the pride of Blackness, but also the wonders that this world can produce when we all work together. And that is a lesson the entire world needs.

But, let us be clear. The “change we need”, the “change we can believe in”, is not just his DNA, and his worldwide family tree. It is definitely partly that, yes. But it is also, and maybe more importantly, the fact that attached to this wonderful biography, comes a philosophy that seeks to attempt to put into practice in the United States, and around the world, the principles that made his existence possible; the fullness of the noble ideals that those people in Philadelphia 200 years ago claimed to believe in, and put on paper: freedom, equality and justice for ALL.

I support Barack Obama because he is socially progressive, and economically common-sensical. I expect from Barack Obama a greater capacity for understanding cultural and regional nuances in Foreign policy. I admire Barack Obama, and Michelle Obama, because they had the temerity and the courage - and my friend Hillary M. added the "audacity of hope" - not to let society’s low expectations for their "kind", hinder their own high ambitions. I am proud of Barack Obama because, win or lose, he has ALREADY proven to the world, that I am neither more nor less able, neither more nor less intelligent, neither more nor less competent, neither more nor less human than others, because of my skin-color. And for that, I will be forever grateful to him. I was always proud to be who I am, despite the tribulations. But he made me that much prouder.

And so we are now, November 3rd, 2008, one day before a potential dramatic and everlasting change in the History of this country, and the History of the world. People, do you realize this? I mean, do you realize this? Don’t get me wrong, it’s not yet in the bag. Obama can still lose this election. As he says himself, “never underestimate the ability of Democrats to screw this up”. But people, we are that close!!! I am young, and I honestly never thought I would see the day in my lifetime where this is even this close!! Please call your friends who are citizens and tell them to go vote for this man. This country needs to do better. The world can do better. We can all work harder, work smarter, and do better.

YES WE CAN!!
          EURAMES Info Service 23/2017        
CONFERENCES
 
1. Conference: "The Battle of Yarmuk (636 CE): Rethinking ‘Conquest’ in the Late
Antique Near East from Byzantium to Islam", University of Tuebingen, 16-17 June
2017
 
2. International Workshop: "Dialogues in Late Medieval Mediterranean: The Cultural
Legacy of Western Islamic Societies", Lisbon, 20 June 2017
 
3. Conference of the International Qur’anic Studies Association (IQSA), Beït
Al-Hikma, Carthage, Tunisia, 4-6 July 2017
 
4. Expert Workshop: “From Neoliberal to Socially-Just Reconstruction – The Role of
Civil Society in Shaping Post-Conflict Reconstruction Policies in Iraq, Syria,
Yemen, and Libya”, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Beirut, 19-20 September 2017
 
5. Conference: "Eastern Coins in the Early Modern World - Antiquarianism and the
Oriental Artifact 1500-1800", Trujillo, Spain, 26-29 September 2017
 
6. International Conference: "Academic Theses in Qur´anic Studies: West and Muslim
World in Comparison", Istanbul, 23-26 November 2017
 
7. Symposium: “Tourism: The Phenomenon and its Socio-Economic Consequences”,
Tunisian-Mediterranean Association for Historical, Social and Economic Studies &
Tunisian World Center for Studies, Research, and Development, Beja, Tunisia, 28-30
November 2017
 
8. Conferences of the ARAM Society for Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 2018-2020, Oxford
University
 
 
POSITIONS
 
9. Chair in the Early Modern History of the Mediterranean (c. 1450-1700), European
University Institute, San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy
 
10. Visiting Scholars at the Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations, Aga
Khan University, London
 
11. Post-Doctoral Fellowship: “Jewish Life in Modern Islamic Contexts”, Katz Center
for Advanced Judaic Studies, University of Pennsylvania, 2018–2019
 
12. Copy Editor for the International Qur’anic Studies Association (IQSA)
 

OTHER INFORMATION
 
13. BRAIS - De Gruyter Prize for the Study of Islam and the Muslim World
 
14. Cape Town Summer School on Critical Muslim Studies: “Decolonial Struggles and
Liberation Theologies"
 
15. Articles on: "Deconstructing Unitary Statehood: Hybrid Security in Africa and
the Middle East" for Special Issue of "Small Wars and Insurgencies"
 
 
If you want to distribute an announcement via DAVO-Info-Service (about 1500
recipients) and EURAMES Info Service (more than 6000 recipients, only English and
French announcements), please apply the usual format of the text with no more than
50 words and no attachment. Please send only the most important information to
and refer to further details with a link to the respective
website or an email address.
 
Best regards,
 
Guenter Meyer, Centre for Research on the Arab World (CERAW), University of Mainz
 
 
____________________
 
 
CONFERENCES
 
1. Conference: "The Battle of Yarmuk (636 CE): Rethinking ‘Conquest’ in the Late
Antique Near East from Byzantium to Islam", University of Tuebingen, 16-17 June
2017

The organizers of this conference are aiming to bring together, among others,
Byzantinists and Arabists and engage in a shared debate on the history and reception
of the events attached to a specific memory space.

Information:
https://networks.h-net.org/node/73374/announcements/182545/battle-yarmuk-636-ce-rethinking-%E2%80%98conquest%E2%80%99-late-antique-near
 
 
_____________
 
 
2. International Workshop: "Dialogues in Late Medieval Mediterranean: The Cultural
Legacy of Western Islamic Societies", Lisbon, 20 June 2017

The main goal will be to analyze the Islamic cultural legacy in a comprehensive
approach, from the multidisciplinary fields of History of Art, Architecture,
History, Archaeology, Philosophy, Music and History of Religions. The participant
researchers are from Portugal, Spain, Italy, Argentina, Switzerland, United States
and Mauritania.

Deadline for registration: 18 June 2017. Information:
http://iem.fcsh.unl.pt/section.aspx?kind=noticia&id=1263
 
 
_____________
 
 
3. Conference of the International Qur’anic Studies Association (IQSA), Beït
Al-Hikma, Carthage, Tunisia, 4-6 July 2017
 
The meeting will focus on the following three areas: Epistemology: The Place of the
Qurʾanic Studies in Islamic sciences; Methods and Tools (Presuppositions,
Applications and Purposes); Themes and Interpretations: Qurʾanic polemics.
 
Information:
https://iqsaweb.wordpress.com/2017/05/30/2017-international-meeting-tunisia/
 
 
_____________
 
 
4. Expert Workshop: “From Neoliberal to Socially-Just Reconstruction – The Role of
Civil Society in Shaping Post-Conflict Reconstruction Policies in Iraq, Syria,
Yemen, and Libya”, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Beirut, 19-20 September 2017

Interested academics, researchers and civil society representatives from Iraq,
Syria, Yemen, and Libya (or with significant research/ professional experience on
these countries) are invited to submit abstracts.

Deadline for abstracts:  2 July 2017. Information:
http://www.fes-syria.org/index.php?id=61
 
 
_____________
 
 
5. Conference: "Eastern Coins in the Early Modern World - Antiquarianism and the
Oriental Artifact 1500-1800", Trujillo, Spain, 26-29 September 2017

Organized by Martin Mulsow (Erfurt) and Stefan Heidemann (Hamburg), the conference
will explore the early beginnings of western ‘Orientalism’ with an artefact,
comparatively abundant in Europe: coins.

Deadline for abstracts: 15 July 2017. Information and contact:
or
 
 
_____________
 
 
6. International Conference: "Academic Theses in Qur´anic Studies: West and Muslim
World in Comparison", Istanbul, 23-26 November 2017

Masters and Doctoral theses in the field of Qur'anic Studies in the West and Muslim
world will be evaluated.  The ultimate goal in this conference is to determine the
scientific quality and standards of post-graduate academic studies for Qur'anic
Studies in Universities.

Deadline for abstracts: 30 June 2017.
Information: http://www.conference.tefsir.gen.tr/en/
 
 
_____________
 
 
7. Symposium: “Tourism: The Phenomenon and its Socio-Economic Consequences”,
Tunisian-Mediterranean Association for Historical, Social and Economic Studies &
Tunisian World Center for Studies, Research, and Development, Beja, Tunisia, 28-30
November 2017
 
The theme could be approached from different perspectives, which include the
phenomenon of tourism; the economic dimension of tourism; the socio-cultural
dimension of tourism.
 
Deadline for abstracts: 30 June 2017. Information:
http://www.isa-sociology.org/uploads/imgen/478-cfp-10thconference-2017.pdf
 
 
_____________
 
 
8. Conferences of the ARAM Society for Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 2018-2020, Oxford
University

Information on all conferences:
http://aramsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Forthcoming-Conferences-1.pdf
 
 
_____________
 
 
POSITIONS
 
9. Chair in the Early Modern History of the Mediterranean (c. 1450-1700), European
University Institute, San Domenico di Fiesole, Italy

Candidates should have a distinguished record of scholarly publications and
experience in postgraduate teaching and doctoral supervision.

Deadline for application: 28 July 2017. Information:
http://www.eui.eu/Documents/ServicesAdmin/AcademicService/JobOpportunities/2017/HEC2-2017.pdf
 
 
_____________
 
 
10. Visiting Scholars at the Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations, Aga
Khan University, London

Applicants should have experience in one of the following research themes: The
Construction of Knowledge about Muslim Cultures and Societies; Understanding the
Processes of Social Change in Muslim Cultures and Societies; Governance for the
Public Interest in Muslim Contexts.
 
Deadline for application: 15 June 2017. Information:
http://www.aku.edu/vacancies/pages/job-detail.aspx?JobID=3912&Title=Call%20for%20Visiting%20Scholars%202017/18
 
 
_____________
 
 
11. Post-Doctoral Fellowship: “Jewish Life in Modern Islamic Contexts”, Katz Center
for Advanced Judaic Studies, University of Pennsylvania, 2018–2019

The fellowship will support scholarship on Jewish life, culture and thought as these
have developed in modern times across North Africa, the Levant, the Arabian
Peninsula, and Central and South Asia.

Deadline for application: 31 October 2017. Information:
http://katz.sas.upenn.edu/fellowship-program/next-year
 
 
_____________
 
 
12. Copy Editor for the International Qur’anic Studies Association (IQSA)

Applications are invited for a copy editor for freelance contract work on IQSA’s
three scholarly publication projects: JIQSA (annual journal), ISIQ (monograph
series), RQR (monthly review of books). This is a deadline-driven position with
overlapping seasonal workflows where diverse specialized texts require detailed
technical editing in short turnaround times.

Position open until filled. Information:
https://iqsaweb.wordpress.com/2017/05/26/iqsa-job-vacancy-copy-editor/
 
 
_____________
 
 
SONSTIGE INFORMATIONEN / OTHER INFORMATION
 
13. BRAIS - De Gruyter Prize for the Study of Islam and the Muslim World

The prize will be awarded to the best English-language doctoral thesis on the study
of Islam and the Muslim world, past and present. Applicants can be based in any
country, and manuscripts will be assessed on the basis of scholarly quality and
originality. The award includes publication of the winning manuscript and a prize of
£1,000.

Deadline for submissions: 1 September 2017. Information: http://www.brais.ac.uk/prize
 
 
_____________
 
 
14. Cape Town Summer School on Critical Muslim Studies: “Decolonial Struggles and
Liberation Theologies"
 
The Summer School is an attempt to situate the conversations on Islam and
Decoloniality more firmly in the Global South.

Deadline for application:  11 August 2017. Information: https://criticalmuslimct.com/
 
 
_____________
 
 
15. Articles on: "Deconstructing Unitary Statehood: Hybrid Security in Africa and
the Middle East" for Special Issue of "Small Wars and Insurgencies"

The main focus is on the multi-actor and multi-level nature of security governance
across the Middle East and Africa, sidestepping the application of fictitious
notions of state unitary actorness and absolute monopoly of violence.

Deadline for abstracts: 30 June 2017. Information:
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/fswi20/current; contact Ruth Hanau Santini
and Abel Polese

          The Latvian Presidency's plans        
In case anyone has missed it (make that most people rather than anyone), Latvia has taken on the rotating presidency of the European Union. So, naturally, their representatives have been presenting plans for the next six months and, we have to assume, somewhere among those plans there is the usual one about cutting red tape and encouraging business and entrepreneurship.

Here is what the Minister of Agriculture Janis Duklavs said to the Committee for Fisheries (PECH) in the European Parliament:
Multiannual management plan for Baltic Sea cod, Baltic herring and sprat stocks is the first multiannual fishing plan of the new generation. This file is essential for ensuring sustainability of the stocks and at the same time offers more predictability and certainty to the industry. The proposal is therefore on the top of the Presidency’s priorities.

Proposal for Regulation on introduction of the landing obligation: the Latvian Presidency will be fully involved in the outstanding work on the new rules. The obligation to land some fish species entered into force on 1 January this year, but fishermen still have no clear rules on the application. The EU institutional agreement on this file should be completed as soon as possible.

External dimension of fisheries (sustainable fishing partnership agreements with third countries, negotiations with coastal states and representation in international organizations): the Minister underlined the importance of fisheries agreements for a viable and competitive EU fishing fleet in high-seas. It is expected that the work on negotiations for agreements with Mauritania, Kiribati, Seychelles and other countries would be smoothly continued in the first half of 2015.

Let us note immediately the reference to the "competitive EU fishing fleet". Whether it is competitive or not is irrelevant. Nothing much in the EU is competitive, after all. The point is that it is an EU fishing fleet. Or, let me spell it out, for the benefit of politicians, should they bother to read this blog, no amount of reforming has changed the fact that the UK (and that would have been true for a Scotland "independent within the EU) has no fishing fleet of its own while the country remains part of the Common Fisheries Policy, that is, part of the European Union.

That, of course, applies to the internal arrangements as well. Decisions will be taken for political reasons at the centre and relayed down to the regional institutions for them to implement. That, in essence, is the extent of those much-vaunted reforms.



                  

          A Brief History of Islam        

The Spread of Islam

From the oasis cities of Makkah and Madinah in the Arabian desert, the message of Islam went forth with electrifying speed. Within half a century of the Prophet's death, Islam had spread to three continents. Islam is not, as some imagine in the West, a religion of the sword nor did it spread primarily by means of war. It was only within Arabia, where a crude form of idolatry was rampant, that Islam was propagated by warring against those tribes which did not accept the message of God--whereas Christians and Jews were not forced to convert. Outside of Arabia also the vast lands conquered by the Arab armies in a short period became Muslim not by force of the sword but by the appeal of the new religion. It was faith in One God and emphasis upon His Mercy that brought vast numbers of people into the fold of Islam. The new religion did not coerce people to convert. Many continued to remain Jews and Christians and to this day important communities of the followers of these faiths are found in Muslim lands.

Moreover, the spread of Islam was not limited to its miraculous early expansion outside of Arabia. During later centuries the Turks embraced Islam peacefully as did a large number of the people of the Indian subcontinent and the Malay-speaking world. In Africa also, Islam has spread during the past two centuries even under the mighty power of European colonial rulers. Today Islam continues to grow not only in Africa but also in Europe and America where Muslims now comprise a notable minority.

General Characteristics of Islam

Islam was destined to become a world religion and to create a civilization which stretched from one end of the globe to the other. Already during the early Muslim caliphates, first the Arabs, then the Persians and later the Turks set about to create classical Islamic civilization. Later, in the 13th century, both Africa and India became great centers of Islamic civilization and soon thereafter Muslim kingdoms were established in the Malay-Indonesian world while Chinese Muslims flourished throughout China.

Global Religion

Islam is a religion for all people from whatever race or background they might be. That is why Islamic civilization is based on a unity which stands completely against any racial or ethnic discrimination. Such major racial and ethnic groups as the Arabs, Persians, Turks, Africans, Indians, Chinese and Malays in addition to numerous smaller units embraced Islam and contributed to the building of Islamic civilization. Moreover, Islam was not opposed to learning from the earlier civilizations and incorporating their science, learning, and culture into its own world view, as long as they did not oppose the principles of Islam. Each ethnic and racial group which embraced Islam made its contribution to the one Islamic civilization to which everyone belonged. The sense of brotherhood and sisterhood was so much emphasized that it overcame all local attachments to a particular tribe, race, or language--all of which became subservient to the universal brotherhood and sisterhood of Islam.

The global civilization thus created by Islam permitted people of diverse ethnic backgrounds to work together in cultivating various arts and sciences. Although the civilization was profoundly Islamic, even non-Muslim "people of the book" participated in the intellectual activity whose fruits belonged to everyone. The scientific climate was reminiscent of the present situation in America where scientists and men and women of learning from all over the world are active in the advancement of knowledge which belongs to everyone.

The global civilization created by Islam also succeeded in activating the mind and thought of the people who entered its fold. As a result of Islam, the nomadic Arabs became torch-bearers of science and learning. The Persians who had created a great civilization before the rise of Islam nevertheless produced much more science and learning in the Islamic period than before. The same can be said of the Turks and other peoples who embraced Islam. The religion of Islam was itself responsible not only for the creation of a world civilization in which people of many different ethnic backgrounds participated, but it played a central role in developing intellectual and cultural life on a scale not seen before. For some eight hundred years Arabic remained the major intellectual and scientific language of the world. During the centuries following the rise of Islam, Muslim dynasties ruling in various parts of the Islamic world bore witness to the flowering of Islamic culture and thought. In fact this tradition of intellectual activity was eclipsed only at the beginning of modern times as a result of the weakening of faith among Muslims combined with external domination. And today this activity has begun anew in many parts of the Islamic world now that the Muslims have regained their political independence.

The Rightly guided Caliphs

Upon the death of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, the friend of the Prophet and the first adult male to embrace Islam, became caliph. Abu Bakr ruled for two years to be succeeded by 'Umar who was caliph for a decade and during whose rule Islam spread extensively east and west conquering the Persian empire, Syria and Egypt. It was 'Umar who marched on foot at the end of the Muslim army into Jerusalem and ordered the protection of Christian sites. 'Umar also established the first public treasury and a sophisticated financial administration. He established many of the basic practices of Islamic government.

'Umar was succeeded by 'Uthman who ruled for some twelve years during which time the Islamic expansion continued. He is also known as the caliph who had the definitive text of the Noble Quran copied and sent to the four corners of the Islamic world. He was in turn succeeded by 'Ali who is known to this day for his eloquent sermons and letters, and also for his bravery. With his death the rule of the "rightly guided" caliphs, who hold a special place of respect in the hearts of Muslims, came to an end.

The Caliphate

Umayyad

The Umayyad caliphate established in 661 was to last for about a century. During this time Damascus became the capital of an Islamic world which stretched from the western borders of China to southern France. Not only did the Islamic conquests continue during this period through North Africa to Spain and France in the West and to Sind, Central Asia and Transoxiana in the East, but the basic social and legal institutions of the newly founded Islamic world were established.

Abbasids

The Abbasids, who succeeded the Umayyads, shifted the capital to Baghdad which soon developed into an incomparable center of learning and culture as well as the administrative and political heart of a vast world.

They ruled for over 500 years but gradually their power waned and they remained only symbolic rulers bestowing legitimacy upon various sultans and princes who wielded actual military power. The Abbasid caliphate was finally abolished when Hulagu, the Mongol ruler, captured Baghdad in 1258, destroying much of the city including its incomparable libraries.

While the Abbasids ruled in Baghdad, a number of powerful dynasties such as the Fatimids, Ayyubids and Mamluks held power in Egypt, Syria and Palestine. The most important event in this area as far as the relation between Islam and the Western world was concerned was the series of Crusades declared by the Pope and espoused by various European kings. The purpose, although political, was outwardly to recapture the Holy Land and especially Jerusalem for Christianity. Although there was at the beginning some success and local European rule was set up in parts of Syria and Palestine, Muslims finally prevailed and in 1187 Saladin, the great Muslim leader, recaptured Jerusalem and defeated the Crusaders.

North Africa And Spain

When the Abbasids captured Damascus, one of the Umayyad princes escaped and made the long journey from there to Spain to found Umayyad rule there, thus beginning the golden age of Islam in Spain. Cordoba was established as the capital and soon became Europe's greatest city not only in population but from the point of view of its cultural and intellectual life. The Umayyads ruled over two centuries until they weakened and were replaced by local rulers.

Meanwhile in North Africa, various local dynasties held sway until two powerful Berber dynasties succeeded in uniting much of North Africa and also Spain in the 12th and 13th centuries. After them this area was ruled once again by local dynasties such as the Sharifids of Morocco who still rule in that country. As for Spain itself, Muslim power continued to wane until the last Muslim dynasty was defeated in Granada in 1492 thus bringing nearly eight hundred years of Muslim rule in Spain to an end.

After the Mangol Invasion

The Mongols devastated the eastern lands of Islam and ruled from the Sinai Desert to India for a century. But they soon converted to Islam and became known as the Il-Khanids. They were in turn succeeded by Timur and his descendents who made Samarqand their capital and ruled from 1369 to 1500. The sudden rise of Timur delayed the formation and expansion of the Ottoman empire but soon the Ottomans became the dominant power in the Islamic world.

Ottoman Empire

From humble origins the Turks rose to dominate over the whole of Anatolia and even parts of Europe. In 1453 Mehmet the Conqueror captured Constantinople and put an end to the Byzantine empire. The Ottomans conquered much of eastem Europe and nearly the whole of the Arab world, only Morocco and Mauritania in the West and Yemen, Hadramaut and parts of the Arabian peninsula remaining beyond their control. They reached their zenith of power with Suleyman the Magnificent whose armies reached Hungary and Austria. From the 17th century onward with the rise of Westem European powers and later Russia, the power of the Ottomans began to wane. But they nevertheless remained a force to be reckoned with until the First World War when they were defeated by the Westem nations. Soon thereafter Kamal Ataturk gained power in Turkey and abolished the six centuries of rule of the Ottomans in 1924.

Persia

While the Ottomans were concerned mostly with the westem front of their empire, to the east in Persia a new dynasty called the Safavids came to power in 1502. The Safavids established a powerful state of their own which flourished for over two centuries and became known for the flowering of the arts. Their capital, Isfahan, became one of the most beautiful cities with its blue tiled mosques and exquisite houses. The Afghan invasion of 1736 put an end to Safavid rule and prepared the independence of Afghanistan which occured fommally in the 19th century. Persia itself fell into tummoil until Nader Shah, the last Oriental conqueror, reunited the country and even conquered India. But the rule of the dynasty established by him was short-lived. The Zand dynasty soon took over to be overthrown by the Qajars in 1779 who made Tehran their capital and ruled until 1921 when they were in turn replaced by the Pahlavis.

India

As for India, Islam entered into the land east of the Indus River peacefully. Gradually Muslims gained political power beginning in the early 13th century. But this period which marked the expansion of both Islam and Islamic culture came to an end with the conquest of much of India in 1526 by Babur, one of the Timurid princes. He established the powerful Mogul empire which produced such famous rulers as Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan and which lasted, despite the gradual rise of British power in India, until 1857 when it was officially abolished.

Malaysia And Indonesia

Farther east in the Malay world, Islam began to spread in the 12th century in northem Sumatra and soon Muslim kingdoms were establishd in Java, Sumatra and mainland Malaysia. Despite the colonization of the Malay world, Islam spread in that area covering present day Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Phililppines and southern Thailand, and is still continuing in islands farther east.

Africa

As far as Africa is concemed, Islam entered into East Africa at the very beginning of the Islamic period but remained confined to the coast for some time, only the Sudan and Somaliland becoming gradually both Arabized and Islamized. West Africa felt the presence of Islam through North African traders who travelled with their camel caravans south of the Sahara. By the 14th century there were already Muslim sultanates in such areas as Mali, and Timbuctu in West Africa and Harar in East Africa had become seats of Islamic leaming.

Gradually Islam penetrated both inland and southward. There also appeared major charismatic figures who inspired intense resistance against European domination. The process of the Islamization of Africa did not cease during the colonial period and continues even today with the result that most Africans are now Muslims carrying on a tradition which has had practically as long a history in certain areas of sub-Saharan Africa as Islam itself.

Islam in the United States

It is almost impossible to generalize about American Muslims: converts, immigrants, factory workers, doctors; all are making their own contribution to America's future. This complex community is unified by a common faith, underpinned by a countrywide network of a thousand mosques.

Muslims were early arrivals in North America. By the eighteenth century there were many thousands of them, working as slaves on plantations. These early communities, cut off from their heritage and families, inevitably lost their Islamic identity as time went by. Today many Afro-American Muslims play an important role in the Islamic community.

The nineteenth century, however, saw the beginnings of an influx of Arab Muslims, most of whom settled in the major industrial centers where they worshipped in hired rooms. The early twentieth century witnessed the arrival of several hundred thousand Muslims from Eastem Europe: the first Albanian mosque was opened in Maine in 1915; others soon followed, and a group of Polish Muslims opened a mosque in Brooklyn in 1928.

In 1947 the Washington Islamic Center was founded during the term of President Truman, and several nationwide organizations were set up in the fifties. The same period saw the establishment of other communities whose lives were in many ways modelled after Islam. More recently, numerous members of these groups have entered the fold of Muslim orthodoxy. Today there are about five million Muslims in America.

Aftermath of the Colonial Period

At the height of European colonial expansion in the 19th century, most of the Islamic world was under colonial rule with the exception of a few regions such as the heart of the Ottoman empire, Persia, Afghanistan, Yemen and certain parts of Arabia. But even these areas were under foreign influence or, in the case of the Ottomans, under constant threat. After the First World War with the breakup of the Ottoman empire, a number of Arab states such as Iraq became independent, others like Jordan were created as a new entity and yet others like Palestine, Syria and Lebanon were either mandated or turned into French colonies. As for Arabia, it was at this time that Saudi Arabia became finally consolidated. As for other parts of the Islamic world, Egypt which had been ruled by the descendents of Muhammad Ali since the l9th century became more independent as a result of the fall of the Ottomans, Turkey was turned into a secular republic by Ataturk, and the Pahlavi dynasty began a new chapter in Persia where its name reverted to its eastern traditional form of Iran. But most of the rest of the Islamic world remained under colonial rule.

Arab

It was only after the Second World War and the dismemberment of the British, French, Dutch and Spanish empires that the rest of the Islamic world gained its independence. In the Arab world, Syria and Lebanon became independent at the end of the war as did Libya and the shaykdoms around the Gulf and the Arabian Sea by the 1960's. The North African countries of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria had to fight a difficult and, in the case of Algeria, long and protracted war to gain their freedom which did not come until a decade later for Tunisia and Morocco and two decades later for Algeria. Only Palestine did not become independent but was partitioned in 1948 with the establishment of the state of Israel.

India

In India Muslims participated in the freedom movement against British rule along with Hindus and when independence finally came in 1947, they were able to create their own homeland, Pakistan, which came into being for the sake of Islam and became the most populated Muslim state although many Muslims remained in India. In 1971, however, the two parts of the state broke up, East Pakistan becoming Bengladesh.

Far East

Farther east still, the Indonesians finally gained their independence from the Dutch and the Malays theirs from Britain. At first Singapore was part of Malaysia but it separated in 1963 to become an independent state. Small colonies still persisted in the area and continued to seek their independence, the kingdom of Brunei becoming independent as recently as 1984.

Africa

In Africa also major countries with large or majority Muslim populations such as Nigeria, Senegal and Tanzania began to gain their independence in the 1950's and 1960's with the result that by the end of the decade of the 60's most parts of the Islamic world were formed into independent national states. There were, however, exceptions. The Muslim states in the Soviet Union failed to gain their autonomy or independence. The same holds true for Sinkiang (called Eastem Turkestan by Muslim geographers) while in Eritrea and the southern Philippines Muslim independence movements still continue.

National States

While the world of Islam has entered into the modern world in the form of national states, continuous attempts are made to create closer cooperation within the Islamic world as a whole and to bring about greater unity. This is seen not only in the meetings of the Muslim heads of state and the establishment of the OIC (Organization of Islamic Countries) with its own secretariat, but also in the creation of institutions dealing with the whole of the Islamic world. Among the most important of these is the Muslim World League (Rabitat al-alam al-Islami ) with its headquarters in Makkah. Saudi Arabia has in fact played a pivotal role in the creation and maintenance of such organizations.

Revival and Reassertation of Islam

Muslims did not wish to gain only their political independence. They also wished to assert their own religious and cultural identity. From the 18th century onward Muslim reformers appeared upon the scene who sought to reassert the teachings of Islam and to reform society on the basis of Islamic teachings. One of the first among this group was Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, who hailed from the Arabian peninsula and died there in 1792. This reformer was supported by Muhammad ibn al-Sa'ud, the founder of the first Saudi state. With this support Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab was able to spread his teachings not only in Arabia but even beyond its borders to other Islamic lands where his reforms continue to wield influence to this day.

In the 19th century lslamic assertion took several different forms ranging from the Mahdi movement of the Sudan and the Sanusiyyah in North Africa which fought wars against European colonizers, to educational movements such as that of Aligarh in India aiming to reeducate Muslims. In Egypt which, because of al-Azhar University, remains to this day central to Islamic learning, a number of reformers appear, each addressing some aspect of Islamic thought. Some were concerned more with law, others economics, and yet others the challenges posed by Western civilization with its powerful science and technology. These included Jamal al-Din al-Afghani who hailed originally from Persia but settled in Cairo and who was the great champion of Pan-Islamism, that is the movement to unite the Islamic world politically as well as religiously. His student, Muhammad 'Abduh, who became the rector of al-Azhar. was also very influential in Islamic theology and thought. Also of considerable influence was his Syrian student, Rashid Rida, who held a position closer to that of 'Abd al-Wahhab and stood for the strict application of the Shari'ah. Among the most famous of these thinkers is Muhammad Iqbal, the outstanding poet and philosopher who is considered as the father of Pakistan.

Reform Organizations

Moreover, as Western influence began to penetrate more deeply into the fiber of Islamic society, organizations gradually grew up whose goal was to reform society in practice along Islamic lines and prevent its secularization. These included the Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan al-muslimin) founded in Egypt and with branches in many Muslim countries, and the Jama'at-i Islami of Pakistan founded by the influential Mawlana Mawdudi. These organizations have been usually peaceful and have sought to reestablish an Islamic order through education. During the last two decades, however, as a result of the frustration of many Muslims in the face of pressures coming from a secularized outside world, some have sought to reject the negative aspects of Western thought and culture and to return to an Islamic society based completely on the application of the Shari 'ah. Today in every Muslim country there are strong movements to preserve and propagate Islamic teachings. In countries such as Saudi Arabia Islamic Law is already being applied and in fact is the reason for the prosperity, development and stability of the country. In other countries where Islamic Law is not being applied, however, most of the effort of Islamic movements is spent in making possible the full application of the Shari'ah so that the nation can enjoy prosperity along with the fulfillment of the faith of its people. In any case the widespread desire for Muslims to have the religious law of Islam applied and to reassert their religious values and their own identity must not be equated with exceptional violent eruptions which do exist but which are usually treated sensationally and taken out of proportion by the mass media in the West.

Education and Science in the Islamic World

In seeking to live successfully in the modern world, in independence and according to Islamic principles, Muslim countries have been emphasizing a great deal the significance of the role of education and the importance of mastering Western science and technology. Already in the 19th century, certain Muslim countries such as Egypt, Ottoman Turkey and Persia established institutions of higher learning where the modem sciences and especially medicine were taught. During this century educational institutions at all levels have proliferated throughout the Islamic world. Nearly every science ranging from mathematics to biology as well as various fields of modern technology are taught in these institutions and some notable scientists have been produced by the Islamic world, men and women who have often combined education in these institutions with training in the West.

In various parts of the Islamic world there is, however, a sense that educational institutions must be expanded and also have their standards improved to the level of the best institutions in the world in various fields of leaming especially science and technology. At the same time there is an awareness that the educational system must be based totally on Islamic principles and the influence of alien cultural and ethical values and norms, to the extent that they are negative, be diminished. To remedy this problem a number of international Islamic educational conferences have been held, the first one in Makkah in 1977, and the foremost thinkers of the Islamic world have been brought together to study and ponder over the question of the relation between Islam and modern science. This is an ongoing process which is at the center of attention in many parts of the Islamic world and which indicates the significance of educational questions in the Islamic world today.

Influence of Islamic Science and Learning Upon the West

The oldest university in the world which is still functioning is the eleven hundred-year-old Islamic university of Fez, Morocco, known as the Qarawiyyin. This old tradition of Islamic learning influenced the West greatly through Spain. In this land where Muslims, Christians and Jews lived for the most part peacefully for many centuries, translations began to be made in the 11th century mostly in Toledo of Islamic works into Latin often through the intermediary of Jewish scholars most of whom knew Arabic and often wrote in Arabic. As a result of these translations, Islamic thought and through it much of Greek thought became known to the West and Western schools of learning began to flourish. Even the Islamic educational system was emulated in Europe and to this day the term chair in a university reflects the Arabic kursi (literally seat) upon which a teacher would sit to teach his students in the madrasah (school of higher learning). As European civillization grew and reached the high Middle Ages, there was hardly a field of learning or form of art, whether it was literature or architecture, where there was not some influence of Islam present. Islamic learning became in this way part and parcel of Western civilization even if with the advent of the Renaissance, the West not only turned against its own medieval past but also sought to forget the long relation it had had with the Islamic world, one which was based on intellectual respect despite religious opposition.

Conclusion

The Islamic world remains today a vast land stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, with an important presence in Europe and America, animated by the teachings of Islam and seeking to assert its own identity. Despite the presence of nationalism and various secular ideologies in their midst, Muslims wish to live in the modern world but without simply imitating blindly the ways followed by the West. The Islamic world wishes to live at peace with the West as well as the East but at the same time not to be dominated by them. It wishes to devote its resources and energies to building a better life for its people on the basis of the teachings of Islam and not to squander its resources in either internal or external conflicts. It seeks finally to create better understanding with the West and to be better understood by the West. The destinies of the Islamic world and the West cannot be totally separated and therefore it is only in understanding each other better that they can serve their own people more successfully and also contribute to a better life for the whole of humanity.


          Africa: On the Situation in Mali        
Press Statement
Heather Nauert
Department Spokesperson
Washington, DC
July 31, 2017


The United States condemns recurring violations of the ceasefire that have occurred in Mali between signatory armed groups to the 2015 Algiers Peace Accord. We urge the parties to end hostilities immediately and to strictly comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law and to respect human rights, particularly with respect to civilians and prisoners. We are greatly disturbed at reports of reprisal killings of civilians and the discovery of unmarked grave sites in the areas of conflict. We welcome the inquiries led by the UN peacekeeping mission, the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA). If the allegations prove true, the perpetrators must be brought to justice.

We applaud efforts to bring the parties together to agree to a cessation of hostilities, and we deplore the parties’ failure to do so. We call on all parties to redouble their efforts to abide by the ceasefire and fully implement the Algiers Peace Accord. The United States stands with the people of Mali as they work to build a country that is peaceful, prosperous, and united.‎ The United States also supports the efforts of the Group of Five Sahel states (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger) in creating a Joint Force and undertaking other actions to address threats that destabilize Mali and other parts of the sub-region and make lasting peace that much more elusive.


          usulan sin Sulu "part II"        





In nukilan ini kiyawa daing ha buk siyulat hi Bro. Neldy “Sulu Archipelago: The Islands of Pearls and its Philosophy Behind” bilang padduman ha buk siyulat hinda Bro. Neldy ha Sinūg in gulalkabtangan (title) niya “Nusulan sin Sulu Tattap Mahardika’” (History of Permanent Independent Sulu). TIBAHAGIAN II




Maubuh Beach in Sulu
Maubu Beach

TAU NAGHUHULA’

In tau Sulu pagtawagun Tausug, masuhul pagtwagun Tau Tabu’ pasalan sin panghati sin Arab sin Sug laung na Suq in maana “Tabu” atawa “Lungan Tabu’”. In Tausug tanyag hulubalang iban giyulal pihak landu’ maisug sumagawa bang palawumun in lawan niya in Tausug bugaan sabab mabuga sila pa Tuhan iban mabuga maghinang mangi’ amun manjari makamudarat sin iman nila pa tunggal Allah. In Tausug imisug iban timawakkal misan masalay jasad ha ngan sin pagbaugbug sin hula’ iban kalimayahan nila daing ha panindas sin dāyu. In pagtawag sin tau Mindanao iban Bisaya ha Tausug “Sulug” nagdarā maana “Sug sin Dagat”. Biya’ sin Sinulog Festival “biya’ sapantun anud Sug sin Dagat” ha Cebu ‘Sugbu’ City, Visayas, Pilipinas daing ha parkataan sin tau Cebu iban Ilonggo ‘sulug’ in maana niya Sug sin Dagat [1].
In Tausug pagtawagun da isab Suluano iban Joloano sin Tagalog ha Luzon, Pilipinas iban Kastila hatiniya tau daing ha Sulu atawa Jolo. Laung na in parkataan Jolo kiyawa daing ha parkataan sin Lannang “huliang” atawa “huliaw”, in hatiniya “malingkat”, marai’ ha pangatud nila in Tausug malingkat, marayaw iban baing murahun. Kiyawa da isab kunu’ in parkataan Jolo daing ha ha’lu atawa hallu amun hipagbabayu sin Tausug di’ katu’liran sin Kastila hangkan nahinang Jolo.
Kabakan da isab daira in ngan Jolo ha MCDowell, Sadlupan Virginia, Himpunan sin Hula’ Milikan (West Virginia, United States of America), sa’ bukun tantu bang in daira ini kiyawa daing ha ngan Jolo amun ha Kapūan Sulu. In pagtawag sin tau sadlupan ha Tausug “Sulus”. Pagtwagan pa in Tausug, Moro Sulu atawa Tausug Moro sin Kastila sīngud sila ha Moors sin Morocco iban Mauri sin Mauritania, hatiniya in Moro laung na “Biya’ Moor”. In the Tausug mapantuk ha pagtulak-tulak sambil in Kappal bubunu’ sin Kastila di Makaatu’ sin Banug nila.
Awal Tau SuluKiyabayta in tau nakauna ha Lupa’ Sug timampat ha Maimbung in ngan hi Indira Suga. In Tausug himpunan sin Awal Pihak:
1. Tau Buranun2. Tau Taguima3. Tau Baklaya4. Tau Banjar5. Tau Dampuan
In Tau Buranun/Budanun/Tau Bud – amun awal tuud naghuhula iban ugduk hula’ ha kabudburan sin Sulu, in hambuuk amuna in Maimbung.
In Tau Taguima/Tagime/Tagimaha – Tau Gimba ha Sinug. In Taguima, Tagime iban Tagimaha ngan awal sin Pū Basilan kiyawa’ daing ha ngan hi Datu Taguime, pangtungud hi Sultan Kudarat sin Mindanao amun nagnanakura’ sin wayi pa Kastila. In puuna dairah niya ‘Pasangen’ bihaun Isabela City, Uleyan hambuuk pa ngan awal sin Basilan kiyawa’ daing ha ngan sin Bud ha gi’tung sin Pū, giyantian pa Matangal daing ha Bud Matangal ha Tuburan, Tagime [2] in puuna dairah.
In Basilan kiyawa’ da isab daing ha ngan hi Datu Bantilan iban basi’ iban batu balani. Laung sin kaibanan magsasalasila atawa magnunusulan in Taguima, Tagime iban Tagihama datung daing ha Uttara-subangan sin Ginlupaan Mindanao amun pagiyanun Butuan City ampa himula’ pa Buansa bihaun Jolo. Manjari bunnalun in panayma’ nila ini sumagawa manjari da isab putingun sabab in pagdagang nakauna madtu-mari ha Ginlupaan Mindanao iban Kapūan Sulu amun nagpalawak sin pagdagang iban sin Lannang ha hika 13 iban 14 abad (13th and 14th centuries) iban in tau Butuan marai daing Basilan atawa Buansa. Misan hadja in ngan Butuan timingug na daing ha Bahasa Sug.
In Tau Baklaya – kiyakahagad daing ha Sulawesi, Indonesia timampat ha Patikul hangkan marai’ aun tanjung ha gi’tung sin Sulawesi pagnganan “Tanjung Sulu” [3].
In Tau Banjar – kiyakahagd daing ha Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia ha Banjarmasin [4], tanyag ba sambil pa bihaun hambuuk pihak ha Sabah, Borneo, Perak, Malaysia.
In Tau Dampuan atawa Tau Champa – in Champa hambuuk hula’ taganusulan ha Indochina, amun Vietnam. Dampuan kunu’ in siyupuhan sin aymuka iban bantuk sin bayhu sin Tausug [5]. In Champa hambuuk awal pamarintah bihaun Sātan iban gi’tung sin Vietnam [6], Cambodia [7] iban Sātan Annam [8]. In Dampuan daing da isab ha tau awal sin Papua New Guinea [9].
Ha tahun 900, kusug sin pagdagang nakataabbit magpindah hula’ ha manga tau daing ha Champa, pagtawagun Orang Dampuan, pa Kapūan Sulu, nakapamikit pa the Buranun amun purul tau awal iban ugduk hula’ sin Sulu. Lamud ha pagpindah hula’ ini in daing ha Banjarmasin, pagtawagun Orang Bandjar nakapamikit da isab ha tau Sulu, nagdara adat sin tau India. Subay kahatihan iban di’ kalupahan in tau Champa iban tau sin Banjarmasin daing ha līuran sin Austronesia [10].Tau Sulu Bihaun1. Tausug2. Badjao3. Sama4. Yakan5. Jama Mapun
Tausug in in pihak mataud ha ginlupaan sin Sulu pagtwagun Suluk sin Malayu (Brunie iban Malaysia), Yakan [11] pagtawagun Sameacas [12] sin Kastila nakahula’ ha Basilan, Sama daing ha Sama-sama daing da isab ha parkataan Tagalog ‘pakisama’ hatiniya maluhay dahun magbagay-bagay, kamatauran naghuhula’ ha pū Tawi-Tawi , Jama Mapun pagtawagun Kagayan naghuhula’ ha in Cagayan de Sulu/Tawi-Tawi atawa Mapun “sadlupan”, Tawi-Tawi, marai’ bang ha parkataan Sinug in maana sin mapun “mahapun”. In Badjao ngan sin katan tarbilang ha pihak sin Sama, daing ha parkataan sin Brunie iban Malaysia Berjau [13]. Kabakan da isab in manga Badjao ha pasisilan sin Australia, Borneo, Indonesia, iban Sabah, Malaysia.
In tau Kapūan Sulu pagtawagun daing ha ngan sin hula iban pū nila biya’sin Parianun, Tau Pangaturan; naghuhula’ ha pū Pangutaran, Tau Tapul daing ha pū Tapul, Tau Siasi daing ha pū Siasi, Tau Tawi-Tawi daing ha pū Tawi-Tawi. Tau Lugus daing ha pū Lugus, Tau Pandami, daing ha pū Pandami, iban Tau Pata daing ha pū Pata iban Luwaan kiyakahagad daing ha dugu Sama-Caucasian (Australia), Pala-u ngan daing ha tau guwa’ daing ha kahalan iban daing ha hula’ Republic of Palau sumagawa in sila in katān “Tausug” tau iban citizen sin kapūan Sulu iban Sabah; hambuuk bangsa ha jaman sin kusug sin Sultaniyah sin Sulu.
Pangaddatan sin Tausugv Mabaugbugv Maisugv Mapatay ha ka-Islamv Maaddatv Matawwakalv Masipug Mangayuv Masipug manghuwat-huwatv Mapangandulv Mapasu' atayv Baing Murahunv Baing lasahun
Bahasa Sug
In manga bahasa sin Sulu amuna in Bahasa Sug iban Sinama. In bahasa sin Yakan, Jama Mapun, Bajau, Sama, Pangutaran iban Bangingi daing ha kaginis sin Sinama atawa Siama. In Bahasa Sug bissara ha Kapūan Sulu, Palawan, Mindanao, Sabah Malaysia iban Borneo Indonesia. In Bahasa Sug guwa’ daing ha bahasa Malayo-Polynesian umanggil pa bahasa sin Visayas; amun Cebuano, Boholano, Ilonggo, Higaunon, Hiligaynon iban Waray-waray iban bahasa ha Mindanao; biya’ sin Butuanon, Tandaganon, Cantilanon, Kamayo, Surigaonon, Kaagan, iban Sangir. Aun da isab parkataan ha Bahasa Sug kabakan ha Bahasa Melayu, Arab iban Sanskrit. Sumagawa in Bahasa Sug aun bidda’ niya iban sin kaibanan manga bahasa amun nakadihil martabbat ha Tausug.
In pagusal atawa pagbissara sin Bahasa Sug pagtawagun Sinug amun nabahagi ha dugaing ginisan bahasa amun kabiyaksahan paggulalun Parianun iban Gimbahanun. Aun da isab aliyan ha Bahasa Sug magbidda daing ha pasisilan, kapūan iban hula’; biya’ na sin Sinugan Tapul, Sinugan Luuk, Sinugan Parang, Sinugan Pata, Sinugan Siasi, Sinugan Patikul, Sinugan Lugus, Sinugan Indanan, Sinugan Tungkil, Sinugan Sama iban Sinugan Sabah. Aun pasisilan ha Lupa’ Sug magsibu’ in aliyan. In Bahasa Sug pagiyanun lingua franca, hatiniya iyuusal sin katan pihak iban tiyayma’ “Bahasa Kabangsaan” atawa “Bahasa humput sin Hula’” sin Sultaniyah sin Sulu iban Sabah. Iban in Bahasa Sug lamud ha nagpasangput laas tanda-kapurul sin pagpulitik iban pagagama.[1]Hawkins, Joyce M, 2006. “Kamus Dwibahasa Oxford Fajar, Inggeris-Melayu, Melayu-Inggeris”, Edisi Keempat, Selangor, Malaysia.
[2] Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia, Sulook in relation to Islam and Sufism.
[3]Asreemoro, 2007. “Tausug dan Kesultanan Sulu”, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[4] Tampat piyagbunuan pagtawagun “the battle of the clouds or the Bud Dajo Massacre” ha Tausug lamud in manga bata-bata iban kababaihan sin sundalu Milikan ha petsa 5 sin March tahun 1906 ha babaan hi General Leonard Wood. In Bud Dahu solfataric cinder cone pagtawgun in kaibanan bud biya’ Bud Tumantangis, Bud Datu, Bud Kaha, Bud Sinumaan iban kaibanan pa ha Sulu, pyroclastic volcano magusbu abuh basaltic, kiyabayta miyustak sin tahun 1641 iban 1897. A biophysical Assessment of the Philippine of the Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecorregion - WWF Philippines, 2003. In cinder cone Bud Dahu kiyabayta aun phreatic bustak ha 1641 and 1897.
[5]Tampat piyagbunuan ha Tausug sin petsa 11 1913 sin sundalu Milikan ha babaan hi General John Pershing. Biyutang ha www.vikingsword.com Ethnographic Arms & Armor Forum, ha waktu sin bunu’ ini hi general Pershing nagpara sult ha asawa niya imiyans "the fighting was the fiercest I have ever seen." The Moro fought like devils. "They are absolutely fearless, and once committed to combat they count death as a mere incident."
[6]Micheal Schück Montemayor, 2005. “Captain Herman Leopold Schück: The Saga of a German Captain in 19th century Sulu-Sulawesi Seas”. University of the Philippines Prees, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Pg 82.
[7]Business - ExxonMobil plans oil exploration project in Sulu - INQUIRER.net Article by Lira Dalangin-Fernandez, First Posted 03:26:00 06/14/2008, and Exxon Mobil's proposed Sulu oil Explo opposed, MindaNews, Tuesday, 24 June 2008 10:34.
[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hikaru_Sulu. George Takei recalled Gene Roddenberry wanted the character to represent all of Asia, which symbolized the peace of the Trek universe in spite of the numerous wars in the continent. Roddenberry did not want a nationally specific surname, so he looked at a map and saw the Sulu Sea "He thought, 'Ah, the waters of that sea touch all shores”, and “that's how my character came to have the name Sulu.
          Hacked By HolaKo        
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          Euromed Postal 2017 joint stamp set from Malta : Trees in the Mediterranean        
Émission commune Euromed Postal 2017 à Malte : arbres de la Méditerranée

Le 10 juillet 2017 (le 9 juillet tombant un dimanche) a été retenu comme date d'émission d'un timbre commun entre plusieurs pays méditerranéens, intitulé "Euromed Postal" avec pour thème cette année les "arbres de la Méditerranée".
Après un motif commun en 2014, les "bateaux de la Méditerranée" en 2015 et les "poissons de la Méditerranée" en 2016, les administrations postales participantes ont émis cette année des timbres différents consacrés à des espèces d'arbres typiques du pourtour de la mer Méditerranée.
Ces différents pays sont membres de l'Union Postale pour la Méditerranée (PUMed), une union restreinte de l'UPU, créée en 2011 et qui comprend actuellement les opérateurs postaux de 18 pays du bassin méditerranéen (Croatie, Chypre, Égypte, Espagne, France, Grèce, Italie, Jordanie, Liban, Libye, Malte, Maroc, Monaco, Palestine, Slovénie, Syrie, Tunisie, Turquie) ainsi que le Portugal et la Mauritanie.
July 10, 2017 (July 9 being a Sunday) was chosen as the date of issue of a joint stamp between several Mediterranean countries, entitled "Euromed Postal" with this year a theme devoted to the "Trees in the Mediterranean". 
After a common design in 2014, the "boats of the Mediterranean" in 2015 and the "fish of the Mediterranean" in 2016, the participating postal administrations issued this year different stamps dedicated to typical tree species around the Mediterranean Sea.
These countries are all members of the Postal Union for the Mediterranean (PUMed), a restricted union of the UPU, created in 2011 and currently including 18 postal operators of Mediterranean countries (Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Spain, France, Greece, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Palestine, Slovenia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey) as well as Portugal and Mauritania.


J'ai eu la chance de recevoir le FDC officiel ci-dessus (avec TAD du bureau postal de Marsa) concernant les 2 timbres Euromed Postal (conception : Richard J. Caruana) émis par la poste maltaise ce 10 juillet 2017. Merci beaucoup Silvan !
Ces 2 timbres évoquent les rares emplacements sur l'île de Malte où poussent des cyprès de l'Atlas (Tetraclinis articulata), l'arbre national depuis 1992, dans la région de Maqluba à Qrendi (sud de l'île) sur le timbre à 3,63€ (envoi recommandé jusqu'à 30g en Europe, tirage : 40000) et dans la région de Mellieħa (nord-ouest de l'île) sur le timbre à 0,10€ (tirage : 100000).
La chapelle médiévale St Matthew (San Mattew Iż-Żgħir) est représenté sur le timbre consacré à Qrendi alors que l'église paroissiale de Mellieħa (fin du 19ème siècle) figure dans le fond sur l'autre timbre.
Malte est, avec une partie du sud de l'Espagne, le seul pays européen où on peut observer ce cyprès de l'Atlas (originaire d'Afrique du nord), faisant partie d'un projet de reforestation, en particulier dans la réserve Foresta 2000 (nord-ouest de l'île de Malte).
Sauf erreur, à jour, 8 autres administrations postales ont émis ce même type de timbre Euromed Postal cette année : Slovénie, Grèce, Chypre, Liban, Portugal, Croatie, France, Tunisie (sans mentionner le logo officiel).
I was lucky enough to receive the official FDC above (with cancellations from Marsa) regarding the two Euromed Postal stamps (design: Richard J. Caruana) issued by the Maltese Post on July 10, 2017. Thank you very much Silvan!
These two stamps evoke the rare locations on the island of Malta where the Araar or Sandarac Tree (Tetraclinis articulata), the national tree since 1992, grow in the area of ​​Maqluba in Qrendi (south of the island) on the € 3.63 stamp (registered mail up to 30g in Europe, print run: 40,000) and in the region of Mellieħa (northwest of the island) on the € 0.10 stamp (print run: 100,000).
The medieval St Matthew chapel (San Mattew Iż-Żgħir) is depicted on the stamp dedicated to Qrendi, while the parish church of Mellieħa (late 19th century) appears in the background on the other stamp.
Malta, together with a part of southern Spain, is the only European country where this Sandarac Tree (native to North Africa) can be observed. It is part of a reforestation project, especially on the Foresta 2000 reserve (north-west of the island of Malta).
Unless I'm mistaken, 8 other postal administrations have issued the same type of Euromed Postal stamp this year: Slovenia, Greece, Cyprus, Lebanon, Portugal, Croatia, France, Tunisia (without mentioning the official logo). 
 

          El Aid al-Adha        

Abro la ventana. Llegan los sonidos de la calle, coches, un gallo, niños… y el balar de los corderos. En estos momentos, o en los que precederán, millones de corderos serán sacrificados en los países musulmanes. Son las Fiestas del Aid, la Fiesta del Cordero, la mayor festividad de los musulmanes.

Por primera vez en mi vida me pilla cerca, tan cerca que si voy a la cocina, puedo escuchar a los vecinos de al lado, preparando un lugar en la escalera común, para matar a sus corderos. De momento se oye el balar nervioso de los animales que saben, que está próxima su hora.

 

Los vecinitos de al lado, también están ahí; esos niños y niñas jugaban con los corderos blancos antes de ayer.



Si miro por la terraza, veo otra familia, que en la azotea de su edificio, están también preparando todo para sacrificar el cordero.

Y siguen y siguen balando, entran sus sonidos por la ventana, junto al de los coches, al de la lluvia… Y en un cierto momento, quedará todo en silencio.

Las familias se juntarán, comerán prácticamente hasta reventar, compartirán, se harán visitas entre ellos y lucirán sus mejores galas. Son 4 días de fiesta en los que se para el mundo musulmán.

Los corderos han alcanzado precios desorbitados.. de 400 a 700 euros aproximadamente.... más que lo que cobra mucha gente mensualmente por su trabajo. Los de los campamentos vienen de Mauritania, delgados y casi famélicos tras el largo viaje por el desierto. Los de Argel, están más gorditos. Quiénes no puedan comprar un cordero... matarán una cabra. Hay una muy reducida minoría que no celebra esta fiesta con sacrificios.

Entra el aire fresco por la ventana. Se siguen oyendo balar a los corderos. Hoy es día de fiesta.

 

Blanco y sangre.

 


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          Destinos Clandestinos        
El último cayuco del que tenemos noticia ha llegado a la Isla del Hierro con 123 personas a bordo, dos de ellas muertas. Había al menos 28 niños de a bordo. Al Hierro iba también desde Mauritania el cayuco en el que el periodista francés Dominique Mollard se embarcó para...
          Jewellery billboard thinks stoning women is funny        


My colleague Katie sent me this abomination of a billboard, via Fast Company, with a simple comment: "ugh."

Spicer Greene Jewelers has already taken a beating/earned hordes of free media for this, so at the risk of helping them sell more rings to people without souls, I'll just add the following:

Death by stoning is still practised in several countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, whether legally or illegally. Women are frequently sentenced to stoning for offences against puritanical sexuality laws and customs.

Here's an infographic by the Thompson Reuters Foundation, to help this sink in:



But hey, let's make light of violence against women to sell jewellery to men.



          Sejarah Dakwah “Sejarah Islam di Afrika”         

Makalah
Sejarah Dakwah
“Sejarah Islam di Afrika”
Dosen Pengampu:
Syahri Saoma. S.Sos. I


 









Oleh:
Novar mandahari
STAI Luqman al-Hakim Hidayatullah Surabaya
Jl. Kejawan Putih, Tbk. VI
2013/2014

DAKWAH ISLAM DI AFRIKA
A.PENDAHULUAN

Islam merupakan agama  yang tersebar dipertengahan bumi ini yang terbentang dari tepi laut sfrika sampai laut pasifik selatan,dari padang rumput siberia sampai ke pelosok asia tenggara –bangsa berber afrika barat,sudan, afrika timur yang berbahasa swahili, bangs arab timur tengah bangsa turki, irania,bangsa turki dan persi yang tinggal di asia tengah .dari sisi latar etnis, bahasa, adat, organisasi politik, dan pola kebudayaan dan teknologi mereka menampilkan keragaman kemanusiaan, namun islam menyatukan meraka .meskipun seringkali tidakmenjadi totalitas kehidupan meraka, namun islam terserap dalam konsep, aturan keseharian, memberikan tata ikatan kemasyarakatan, dan memenuhi hasrat mereka meraih kebahagiaan hidup. lantaran keragaman tersebut,islam berkembang menjadi keluarga terbesar ummat manusia .
Dalam kajian makalah kali ini kami akan mengfokuskan pembahasan tentang sejarah masuknya islam di afrika, yang di dalamnya terdapat beberapa kawasasan atau wilayah jajahan/dakwah islam ke berbagai kerajaan di wilayah-wilayah afrika. Dalam kajian yang akan kami presentasikan ini akan sangat menarik, karna didalamnya terdapat perlawanan, pembrontakan uamat kristen terhadap ummat islam pada awal masuknya islam di afrika













1. Islam masuk ke Afrika
Agama Islam masuk ke daratan Afrika pada masa Khalifah Umar bin Khattab, waktu Amru bin Ash memohon kepada Khalifah untuk memperluas penyebaran Islam ke Mesir lantaran dia melihat bahwa rakyat Mesir telah lama menderita akibat ditindas oleh penguasa Romawi dibawah Raja Muqauqis. Sehingga mereka sangat memerlukan uluran tangan untuk membebaskannya dari ketertindasan itu. Muqauqis sesungguhnya tertarik hendak masuk Islam setelah menerima surat dari Rasulullah SAW. Namun, karena lebih mencintai tahtanya maka sebagai tanda simpatinya beliau kirimkan hadiah kepada Rasulullah SAW.[1]
Selain alasan diatas Amru bin Ash memandang bahwa Mesir dilihat dari kacamata militer maupun perdagangan letaknya sangat strategis, tanahnya subur karena terdapat sungai Nil sebagai sumber makanan. Maka dengan restu Khalifah Umar bin Khattab dia membebaskan Mesir dari kekuasaan Romawi pada tahun 19 H (640 M) hingga sekarang. Dia hanya membawa 400 orang pasukan karena sebagian besar diantaranya tersebar di Persia dan Syria. Berkat siasat yang baik serta dukungan masyarakat yang dibebaskannya maka ia berhasil memenangkan berbagai peperangan. Mula-mula memasuki kota Al-Arisy dan dikota ini tidak ada perlawanan, baru setelah memasuki Al-Farma yang merupakan pintu gerbang memasuki Mesir mendapat perlawanan, oleh Amru bin Ash kota itu dikepung selama 1 bulan. Setelah Al-Farma jatuh, menyusul pula kota Bilbis, Tendonius, Ainu Syam hingga benteng Babil (istana lilin) yang merupakan pusat pemerintahan Muqauqis[2]. Pada saat hendak menyerbu Babil yang dipertahankan mati-matian oleh pasukan Muqauqis itu, datang bala bantuan 4.000 orang pasukan lagi dipimpin empat panglima kenamaan, yaitu Zubair bin Awwam, Mekdad bin Aswad, Ubadah bin Samit dan Mukhollad sehingga menambah kekuatan pasukan muslim yang merasa cukup kesulitan untuk menyerbu karena benteng itu dikelilingi sungai. Akhirnya, pada tahun 22 H (642 M) pasukan Muqauqis bersedia mengadakan perdamaian dengan Amru bi Ash yang menandai berakhirnya kekuasaan Romawi di Mesir.


2. Perkembangan Islam di Afrika
Pemabahasan mengenai masuk dan berkembangnya Islam di Afrika mencakup beberapa wilayah negara yaitu Mesir, Libia, Tunisia, Aljazair, Maroko, Mauritania, Nigeria, Mali, Pantai Gading, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Zambia dan lain-laannya. Namun yang akan dibahas kali ini hanya sebagiannya saja.
a. Mesir
Mesir adalah kawasan Afrika pertama yang menerima masuknya Islam di benua ini, penduduknya lebih kurang 42 juta jiwa, dimana sekitar tigs jutanya beragama Kristen selebihnya beragama Islam. Bahkan, di kota Iskandariyah hingga kini masih terjaga segala macam kebesaran umat Nasrani Orthodox tanpa diganggu keberadaannya oleh umat Islam. Di Mesir terdapat delapan universitas diantara yang termashyur ke seluruh dunia ialah Al-Azhar di Kairo yang didirikan oleh Bani Fathimiyah pada tahun 972 M. Disana banyak mahasiswa-mahasiswa yang belajar dari seluruh dunia termasuk dari Indonesia yang kebanyakan mendapat beasiswa untuk belajar ilmu agama maupun pendidikan umum seperti kedokteran, tekhnik dan lain-lainnya.
Sementara itu, perluasan pengaruh Islam di kawasan Tunisia telah terjadi sejak pemerintahan Khalifah Usman bin Affan tahun 23-35 H (644-656 M) oleh Panglima Abdullah bin Sa’ad bin Abi Sarah dengan menghancurkan tentara Romawi yang telah jatuh reputasinya. Sehingga pasukan Abdullah bin sa’ad dengan mudah menguasainya. Sedang masuknya Islam ke Maghribil Aqsha atau Afrika Utara sesudah berdirnya daulah Bani Umayah dibawah pimpinan Khalifah Walid bin Abdul Malik, yang memberikan tugas tersebut kepada Panglima Musa bin Nushair yang akhirnya ditunjuk sebagai gubernur wilayah itu.[3]
b. Maroko
            Maroko adalah sebuah negara yang merdeka yang mempunyai kemampuan bertahan sebagai sebuah rezim otoritasnya didasarkan kombinasi antara symbol khilafah dan sufi, meskipu Negara ini sangat kesulitan dalam mempertokoh otoritasnya di wilyah pedesaan atau pedalaman. Adapun kelas politik menengah, Maroko seperti kebanggaan  tuan tanah bangsawan, yang mana pada masyarakat timur tengah lainnyamereka menghendaki kekuasan yang memeusat. Adapun posisi bangsa Maroko pertama berlangsung dalam bentik pemberontakan Abdullah Karim di wilayah penduduk Spanyo.
Abdullah Karim adalah seorang intelektual, smua memiii karir sebagai Qodi, guru besar dan sebagai editor surat kabar telegram, ia mengetahui benar kultur bangsa Spanyol dan memiliki banyak koneksi  dengan pihak Eropa.
c. Nigeria
Nigeria terletak di sebelah barat Afrika termasuk negara yang kaya minyak yang diekspor ke Amerika Serikat terbesar kedua setelah Saudi Arabia. Penduduknya terdiri atas macam-macam suku bangsa berjumlah ± 90 juta dan 75 % beragama Islam selebihnya Kristen maupun Animisme. Negeri-negeri yang menikmati pengaruh Islam di kawasan Afrika dan hingga kini penduduknya mayoritas beragama Islam antara lain Maroko, Sudan, Al-Jazair, dan Ethiopia.
d. Libya
Negeri Mouamar Ghadafi ini merupakan kawasan terpanas di Timur Tengah, dengan luas 1.795.540 km berpenduduk ± 3 juta jiwa terdiri dari bangsa Arab, Barbar serta Palestina hampir seluruhnya beragama Islam. Rakyat hidup dari sektor pertanian, dan setelah ditemukan sumur-sumur minyak berkualitas tinggi sebagian penduduknya menjadi tenaga kerja dalam industri ini[4], selebihnya mengandalkan tenaga-tenaga asing.
Yang menarik, geliat dan semarak dakwah di Libya, menular ke sejumlah negaraberpendudkan asli Afrika lainnya. Menurut Mahmud, Pimpinan Jam’iyah al Dakwah  al Islamiyah al Alamiyah Libya, di Afrika, ribuan penduduk memelu Islam setiap harinya melalui usaha dan bimbingan Moammar Khadafi. Tahun lalu sembilan juta penduduk di beberapa negara di Afrika memeluk islam. Tahun lalu setelah berziarah  Mogadishu, sebanyak 43.000 penduduk masuk Islam dari satu Negara.   


e.Al-Jazair
            Pada abad 16, Abdul Qadir yang ayahya pemimpin thariqat berusaha mendirikan sebuah Negara muslim, pada tahun 1832 ia memproklamirkan sebagai amir al mukmin dan sebagai sultan bangsa arab mengklaim dirinya bertanggung jawab dalam menerapkan hukum Islam di wilayah kekuasaannya. Abdul qadir mengembangkan sebuah administrasi hirarkis bagi negaranya dan ia mengangkat sejumlah khalifah, pejabat militer financial dan pejabat peradaban.
f. Tunisia
            Pada abad ke 8 pembentukan organisasi muslim di negara Tunisia mempunyai problem yang sama seperti yang di alami oleh imerpremium Usmani dan Mesir, menghadapi ekonomi eropa yang sedang sedang berkembang psat dan kemunduran kemunduran internal dari Negara Tunisia.
            Program program reformasi keseluruhan di dasarkan pada prinsip bahwasanya pemerintah yang baik merupakan landasan bagi vitalitas social dan ekonomi dan secara politk upaya reformasi ini  bergantung kepada dukungan pihak ulama yang mana khyar al din berusaha mempengaruhi mereka agar menerima tehnik tehnik pemerintah. Eropa walaupun secara politk relatif tenang, para pejabat dan para ulama Tunisia bangkit untuk menentang pemerintah prancis, dan munculah generasi generasi baru dari para pemuka nasional dari kalangan birokratik yang terdidik secara moderen, sbagaimana yangterjadi di dalam masyarakat Utsmani.[5]
3. Kelebihan dan Tantngan Dakwah di Afrika
1. Kelibihan Dakwah di Afrika
a. Politik
            Dalam bidang politik tersebut, di Afrika banyk juga tokoh muslim yang menduduki jabatan tetinggi di negaranya. Sebut saja seperti Muammar Khadafi, yakni beliau sebagai pemimpin muslim konteporer Libya banyak berubah setelah Muammar Khadafi menguasai politik libya. Dimana sistem monarik di gati menjadi anakronisme politik.
            Revolusi Khadfi dianggap sebagai salah satu conyoh paling awal dalam pembaharuan politik Islam, sejak Libya merdeka pada tahun 1960 selain dari Khadafi juga ada. Pemimpin negara Ghabon serta negara lainnya di Afrika , sehingga hal tersebut smakin memudahkan penyebaran ajaran Islam di benua Afrika.[6]
            Keputusan paling awal rezim ini menyangkut masalah  referensi nasionalis dan isam, serta aturan aturan subtansi. Diantaranya diberlakukan kembali hukum pidana atas Al qur’an serta pelanggaran alkohol dan klub malam mengindikasikan pengakuan terbuka terhadap islam sebagai kekuatan pembimbing dalam kekuatan politik negara.
b.Ekonomi
            Afrika selatan adalah sebuah negara maju dengan [enduduk yang berpendapatan sederhana. Negara ini kaya dengan bahan bahan tambang, terutama yang bernilai tinggi sperti, emas, platinum dan berlian. Ia juga mempunyai sistem keuangan, perundangan, telkomunisasi, energi infrastruktur yang maju dan moderen. Dengan kekayaan yang di miliki Afrika tersebut, semakin membuat hubungan antara Afrika dengan negara negara islam di luar benua Afrika lebih dekat untuk mejalankan dakwah di Afrika tersebut.
2. Tantangan  Dakwah di Afrika
            Didalam melakukan dakwah   islam tentunya akan banyak mengalami tantangan dan hambatan yang akan di hadapi. Bgitu pula dengan dakwah yang dilakukan oleh para juru dakwah yang ada di benua Afrika.
            Berbagai negara di Afrika pun menyampaikan kndisi dan tantanga dakwah yang mereka hadapi di benua itu. Negara negara di Afrika umumnya menghadpi tantangan dalam pengembangan pendidikan Islam dan membutuhkan bantuan kemanusiaan. Para misionaris islam ketika memasuki  benua Afrika menemukan fakta yang menejutkan yaitu sedemikian luasnya Islam di benua ini.
            Penyebaran Islam di Afrika tidak dilakukan secara sistematis oleh kaum muslimin dan para muballiqh Islam. Politik kolonialisme dan penjajahan terhadap berbagai wilayah Afrika oleh Belgia, Portugis, Prancis, dan Inggris dalam waktu yang sangat lama memberikan kesempatan yang luas bagi para misionaris untuk menyebarkan ajaran Kristen di benua ini.[7]
            D
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualifying Review: Kekana takes the spotlight, Cape Verde beaten        
Hlompho Kekana lit up Saturday's action in Africa Cup of Nations qualifying by scoring from his own half in South Africa's 2-2 Group M draw at Cameroon. Bafana Bafana were without a win heading into the clash in Limbe and were unable to pick up their first three-point haul despite Kekana's remarkable strike. Tokelo Rantie gave the visitors the lead after 17 minutes, but Cameroon – coached for the first time by Hugo Broos – hit back through Sebastien Siani before half-time. Kekana put the South Africa back in front after spotting the goalkeeper off his line, before Nicolas Nkoulou headed what could prove to be a hugely significant leveller. The result lifts South Africa off the bottom of the group, but they remain five points adrift of leaders Cameroon and four behind Mauritania at the midway point, with the 13 group winners and two best runners-up progressing to the tournament. Top-ranked African side Cape Verde suffered a setback as they lost 1-0 at home to Morocco, who go three points clear at the top of Group F following Herve Renard's first game in charge. Democratic Republic of Congo leapt from third to first in Group B thanks to a 2-1 home win against Angola, while Senegal maintained their 100 per cent record by beating Niger 2-0. That win sends them six points clear of their three Group K rivals, with Namibia having claimed a 3-1 victory at Burundi. Jonathan Pitroipa netted the only goal from the penalty spot as Burkina Faso replaced 10-man Uganda at the top of Group D and Seychelles got the better of Lesotho 2-0. In the day's remaining fixture, Mauritius beat Rwanda 1-0.
          CAF World Cup Qualifying Review: Nigeria and Ghana held        
Ghana have left themselves with work to do in the return leg of their second-round World Cup qualifying tie after being held to a 0-0 draw in Comoros. Comoros struck the post and had an effort ruled out for offside, while the visitors' best efforts came late in the game as Emmanuel Agyemang-Badu and Andre Ayew rattled the woodwork. Nigeria will empathise with Ghana after failing to beat Swaziland in a disappointing encounter in Lobamba as neither side managed to find the net. Kenya recorded a narrow home win over Cape Verde Islands, with Michael Olunga's ninth-minute strike making the difference. Senegal, meanwhile, pulled off a superb comeback to get a 2-2 draw against Madagascar after falling two goals behind. Faneva Andriatsima opened the scoring in the 27th minute before Njiva Rakotoharimalala made it two at the hour mark, but Moussa Konate and Sadio Mane eventually salvaged a draw for the visitors. Libya proved to too strong for Rwanda at the Stade Olympique in Sousse, Tunisia, with Faisal Saleh deciding the game from the spot early in the second half. Elsewhere, South Africa recorded a 3-1 win over Angola at the Ombaka National Stadium in Benguela. Gelson gifted the hosts an early lead, but Tokelo Rantie and Thamsanqa Gabuza helped South Africa to a 2-1 lead at half-time, with Andile Jali putting the match from 12 yards in the 80th minute. Niger stood no chance against Cameroon as three goals in the space of five minutes before the break effectively decided the match in Niamey. Stephane M'Bia opened the scoring in the 36th minute, before Vincent Aboubakar and Edgar Salli made it 3-0. Ivory Coast did just enough to record a vital away win over Liberia, with former Anderlecht striker Gohi Bi Zoro Cyriac scoring the only goal of the game in the dying minutes of the first half. Finally, Tunisia came from behind to beat Mauritania 2-1 on their own turf. Oumar N'Diaye gifted Mauritania the lead halfway through the first half, yet Wahbi Khazri and Yasin Chikhaoui turned things around after the interval.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualifying Review: South Sudan make history, Liberia shock Tunisia        
South Sudan earned their first ever competitive victory with a 1-0 win over Equatorial Guinea in their Africa Cup of Nations qualifier on Saturday. The minnows joined the ranks of international football in 2012 and had not found the net since a 3-1 defeat to Kenya in November 2013, but Atak Lual's 52nd-minute strike was enough to seal a 1-0 win in Juba. The momentous result lifts Lee Sung-Je's side to second place in Group C ahead of Benin’s clash with Mali on Sunday. There was similar joy for Liberia, who shocked Group A rivals Tunisia with a 1-0 victory despite being without first-choice goalkeeper Nathaniel Sherman, who reportedly suffered a serious eye injury after inadvertently barging into a glass door at the team's hotel. But a Francis Forkey Doe strike in the 11th minute proved decisive, in the first international match to be held in Monrovia since the lifting of the Ebola ban. Ghana, runners-up to the Ivory Coast in 2015, look well-placed for another finals berth after preserving their 100 per cent record in Group H by edging to a 1-0 win over Rwanda thanks to Mubarak Wakaso's superb 88th-minute free-kick. Morocco were more emphatic in securing their second win in Group F, brushing aside Sao Tome and Principe 3-0. In Group K, Senegal took advantage of Burundi's 2-0 win over Niger with 2-0 win away to Namibia, courtesy of goals from Premier League stars Cheikhou Kouyate and Sadio Mane – a win that leaves them three points clear at the top. Meanwhile, three-time champions Nigeria were held to a disappointing 0-0 draw at Tanzania and could be knocked off the top of Group G should Egypt beat Chad on Sunday, while South Africa's difficulties in Group M continued with a 3-1 defeat to Mauritania. A solitary 25th-minute strike from Tonny Mawejje saw Uganda rise to the top of group D with a 1-0 win away to Comoros, overtaking Burkina Faso, who slumped to a 1-0 defeat at Botswana. Elsewhere, 10-man Seychelles lifted themselves off the bottom of Group J with a 1-1 draw to Ethiopia, while Group E remains wide open after Congo's 1-1 draw with Guinea Bissau.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualifying Review: Adebayor makes triumphant return        
Togo striker Emmanuel Adebayor put his differences with the national team behind him, scoring the winner to earn his country a 2-1 success over Liberia in African Cup of Nations qualifying. The Tottenham forward was axed from the squad to face Ghana in a friendly on Monday, after reportedly failing to report for the team's training camp. Adebayor has since made up with head coach Tom Saintfiet, however, and his decisive strike in Sunday's Group A fixture can only have helped repair the relationship further. Togo fell behind to William Jebor's effort three minutes before half-time, but Sadat Ouro-Akoriko equalised shortly after the hour and then Adebayor snatched the winner three minutes from time. Cameroon were grateful to Vincent Aboubakar's last-minute effort for their 1-0 win over Mauritania which enabled them to go top of Group M, while Ghana had no such problems in seeing off Mauritius 7-1. Asamoah Gyan and Jordan Ayew both scored twice for this year's beaten finalists, while the other game in Group H saw Rwanda claim a 1-0 win at Mozambique. Seven-time champions Egypt were comfortable 3-0 winners over Tanzania as they got their Group G campaign off to a strong start - Rami Rabia, Basem Morsi and Mohamed Salah all finding the net. In Group B, goals from Firmin Mubele and Joel Kimwaki earned Democratic Republic of Congo a 2-1 home success over Madagascar. Ethiopia also prevailed by the same scoreline, Gatoch Panom and Saladin Said on target as they overcame Lesotho in Group J. The game between Congo and Kenya finished 1-1, as did the clash involving 2015 hosts Equatorial Guinea and Benin. Elsewhere, Souleymane Sacko's penalty earned Niger a 1-0 victory over Namibia in Group K, and another game was decided by a spot-kick as Ramadan Alagab's successful attempt saw Sudan defeat Sierra Leone 1-0.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualification Preview: Egypt, Nigeria target AFCON return        
Hector Cuper's first key assignment as Egypt coach begins on Sunday as the seven-time continental champions begin qualification for the Africa Cup of Nations. Egypt were absent from the most recent AFCON after bowing out in qualification, with the former Inter boss appointed in March. Cuper's men are at home to Tanzania, while the other fixture in Group G sees 2013 champions Nigeria host Chad. Stephen Keshi's men also failed to qualify for this year's competition and the Super Eagles' qualification build-up has been marred by reports of a bust-up between the coach and midfielder John Obi Mikel. "I don't have a problem with Mikel," Keshi responded this week. "I spoke with him before I invited his fellow players for this game. We don't need him at this moment. In September we might need his services if he is available." Ghana will be heavy favourites to move into the next round from Group H as this year's beaten finalists welcome Mauritius while group rivals Mozambique and Rwanda meet in Maputo. Holders Ivory Coast travel to hosts and automatic qualifiers Gabon for a friendly without influential midfielder Yaya Toure with Sierra Leone and Sudan looking to get some early momentum in the only three-team group. George Weah junior - son of the legendary Liberia striker - could make his international debut for James Debbah's men when they face Togo in Lome. Elsewhere in Group A, Africa's lowest-ranked side Djibouti will hope to pull off a surprise result against Tunisia while Aliou Cisse takes charge of his first competitive Senegal match against Burundi in Dakar. The former Senegal international has been keen to play down his side's favourites tag, but will nonetheless be confident following March's friendly win over Ghana. Group K's other fixture sees COSAFA Cup winners Namibia travel to Niger, while there are also away trips for Libya, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, who travel to Morocco, Guinea and Malawi. Group M favourites Cameroon and South Africa face Mauritania and Gambia, with Cape Verde Islands hosting Sao Tome e Principe and Guinea-Bissau taking on Zambia. Elsewhere, Uganda and Burkina Faso entertain Botswana and Comoros, and Congo and Congo DR take on Kenya and Madagascar. In Group C, Equatorial Guinea - hosts of 2015's competition - welcome Benin as Mali face South Sudan. Guinea-Bissau meet Zambia in Ndola with Algeria taking on Seychelles and Lesotho travelling to Ethiopia.
          "A long torture trip was being prepared..."        
Extracts of Mohamedou Ould Slahi's Guantanamo diary are read by Stephen Fry, Colin Firth and others as part of the Guardian's Guantanamo Diary series. Previously on Metafilter. Slahi, who is from Mauritania, has been detained by the United States in Guantanamo Bay since 2002, and has not been charged with any crime. In 2010, a US federal court ordered his release. He's still there. The Guardian will be publishing his memoirs as a book.
          Daftar Keanggotaan di WOSM         
Albania Beslidhja Skaut Albania
Algeria Scouts Musulmans Algériens
(Algerian Muslim Scouts)
Angola Associação de Escuteiros de Angola (AEA)
(Scout Association of Angola)
Argentina Scouts de Argentina
(Scouts of Argentina)
Armenia Hayastani Azgayin Scautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun (HASK)
(Armenian National Scout Movement)
Australia Scouts Australia
Austria Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs
(Scouts and Guides of Austria)
Azerbaijan Azerbaican Skaut Assosiasiyasi
(The Association of Scouts of Azerbaijan)
Bahamas The Scout Association of the Bahamas
Bahrain Boy Scouts of Bahrain
Bangladesh Bangladesh Scouts
Barbados Barbados Boy Scouts Association
Belgium
Belize The Scout Association of Belize
Benin Scoutisme Béninois
(Benin Scouting)
Bhutan Bhutan Scout Tshogpa
Bolivia Asociación de Scouts de Bolivia
(The Scout Association of Bolivia)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Council of Scout Associations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana The Botswana Scouts Association
Brazil União dos Escoteiros do Brasil
(Brazilian Scouts Association)
Brunei Darussalam Persekutuan Pengakap Negara Brunei Darussalam
(Brunei Darussalam National Scout Association)
Bulgaria Organizatsia Na Bulgarskite Skauty (OBS)
(Organization of Bulgarian Scouts)
Burkina Faso
Fédération Burkinabé du Scoutisme
(Scout Federation of Burkina Faso)
  • Les Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses du Burkina Faso (The Scouts and Guides of Burkina Faso)
  • Les Scouts du Burkina Faso (The Scouts of Burkina Faso)
Burundi Association des Scouts du Burundi
(Scout Association of Burundi)
Cameroon Les Scouts du Cameroun/Boy Scouts of Cameroon
Cambodia National Association of Cambodian Scouts
Canada Scouts Canada, with which is affiliatedAssociation des Scouts du Canada
Cape Verde Associação dos Escuteiros de Cabo Verde (A.E.C.V.)
(Scout Association of Cape Verde)
Chad
Fédération du Scoutisme Tchadien
(Scout Federation of Chad)
  • Eclaireurs du Tchad
  • Scouts du Tchad (Scouts of Chad)
Chile Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Chile
(Guide and Scout Association of Chile)
China, Scouts of Scouts of China
Colombia Asociación de Scouts de Colombia
(Scout Association of Colombia)
Comoros Wezombeli (Association Nationale du Scoutisme Comorien)
(The National Scout Association of Comoros)
Congo, The Democratic Republic of The Fédération des Scouts de la République démocratique du Congo
(The Scout Federation of the Democratic Republic of The Congo)
Costa Rica Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Costa Rica
(Association Guides and Scouts of Costa Rica)
Côte-d'Ivoire
Fédération Ivoirienne du Scoutisme
(Scout Federation of Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Les Eclaireurs Laïcs de Côte d'Ivoire
  • Les Eclaireurs Unionistes de Côte d'Ivoire (Unionist Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Les Scouts Catholiques de Côte d'Ivoire (The Catholic Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
Croatia Savez Izvidaca Hrvatske
(The Scout Association of Croatia)
Cyprus Cyprus Scouts Association
Czech Republic Junák-Svaz Skautu a Skautek
Denmark
Fællesrådet for Danmarks Drengespejdere
(The Danish Scout Council)
Dominica The Scout Association of Dominica
Dominican Republic Asociación de Scouts Dominicanos
(Dominican Scout Association)
Ecuador Asociación de Scouts del Ecuador
(Scout Association of Ecuador)
Egypt Egyptian Scout Federation
El Salvador Asociación de Scouts de El Salvador
(Scout Association of El Salvador)
Estonia Eesti Skautide Ühing (Estonian Scout Association)
Ethiopia Ethiopia Scout Association
Fiji Fiji Scouts Association
Finland Suomen Partiolaiset-Finlands Scouter
France
Scoutisme Français
(French Scouting)
Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France (EEUF)(Unionist Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (EEDF) (Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Israélites de France (EEIF) (Jewish Guides and Scouts de France)
 Scouts et Guides de France (SGdF) (Scouts and Guides of France)
Scouts Musulmans de France (SMdF) (Muslim Scouts of France)
Gabon
Fédération Gabonaise du Scoutisme
(Scouting Federation of Gabon)
Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses Unionistes du Gabon (Unionist Scouts of Gabon)
Eclaireuses-Eclaireurs du Gabon (Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Scouts et Guides Catholiques du Gabon (Catholic Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Gambia The Gambia Scout Association
Georgia sakartvelos skauturi modzraobis organizatsia
(Georgian Organization of the Scout Movement)
Germany
Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände (RdP)
(Scout Federation of Germany)
Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (BdP) (Guides and Scout Union)
Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg (DPSG) (German Saint George Scout Association)
Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (VCP) (Christian Guide and Scout Association)
Ghana The Ghana Scout Association
Greece Soma Hellinon Proskopon
(Scout Association of Greece)
Grenada The Scout Association of Grenada
Guatemala Asociación de Scouts de Guatemala
(Scout Association of Guatemala)
Guinea C National Scout Association of Guinea
Guyana The Scout Association of Guyana
Haiti Scouts d'Haïti
(Scouts of Haiti)
Honduras Asociación de Scouts de Honduras
(Scouts Association of Honduras)
Hong Kong The Scout Association of Hong Kong
Hungary Magyar Cserkészszövetség
(Hungarian Scout Association)
Iceland Bandalag íslenskra Skáta
(Icelandic Boy and Girl Scout Association)
India The Bharat Scouts and Guides
Indonesia Gerakan Pramuka
(Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Movement)
Ireland Scouting Ireland
Israel
Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel
(Israel Boy and Girl Scouts Federation)
The Arab School Scout Association
The Druze Scouts Association
The Hebrew Scout Association
The Israel Catholic Scouts Association
  • The Israeli Arab Scouts Association
      The Orthodox Scout Association
taly
Federazione Italiana dello Scautismo
(Italian Scout Federation)
Associazione Guide e Scouts Cattolici Italiani (AGESCI) (Association of Catholic Guides and Scouts of Italy)
Corpo Nazionale Giovani Esploratori ed Esploratrici Italiani (CNGEI) (National Corps of Italian Boy Scouts and Girl Guides)
Jamaica The Scout Association of Jamaica
Japan Scout Association of Japan
Jordan Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides
Kazakhstan Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan (OSMK)
Kenya The Kenya Scouts Association
Kiribati Kiribati Scout Association
Korea, Republic.of Boy Scouts of Korea
Kuwait Kuwait Boy Scouts Association
Latvia Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrala Organizacija
(The Scout and Guide Central Organization of Latvia)
Lebanon Fédération du Scoutisme Libanais
(Lebanese Scout Federation)
One of the associations in the Federation is:
Independence Scouts
Lesotho Lesotho Scouts Association
Liberia Boy Scouts of Liberia
Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya
Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement
Liechtenstein Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins
(Scouts and Guides of Liechtenstein)
Lithuania Lietuvos Skautija (Lithuanian Scouting)
Luxembourg
Lëtzebuerger Guiden a Scouten (LGS) (Guides and Scouts of Luxembourg)
Macedonia, The former Yugoslav
Republic of
Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija
(The Scout Association of The former Yugoslave Republic of Macedonia)
Madagascar
Firaisan'ny Skotisma eto Madagasikara
(Scout Federation of Madagascar)
Tily Eto Madagasikara (Christian Scouts of Madagascar)
Antilin'i Madagasikara (Catholic Scout Association of Madagascar)
Kiadin'i Madagasikara (Scouts of Madagascar)
Malawi Scout Association of Malawi
Malaysia Persekutuan Pengakap Malaysia
(The Scouts Association of Malaysia)
Maldives The Scout Association of Maldives
Malta The Scout Association of Malta
Mauritania Association des Scouts et Guides de Mauritanie
(The Scout and Guide Association of Mauritania)
Mauritius The Mauritius Scout Association
Mexico Asociación de Scouts de México, A.C.
(Scout Association of Mexico)
Moldova, Republic of Organizatia Nationala A Scoutilor Din Moldova
(The National Scout Organization of Moldova)
Monaco Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco
(Association of Scouts and Guides of Monaco)
Mongolia Mongoliyn Skautiyn Holboo
(The Scout Association of Mongolia)
Montenegro Association of Scouts of Montenegro
Morocco Fédération Nationale du Scoutisme Marocain
(National Federation of Moroccan Scouting)
Mozambique Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique
(League of Scouts of Mozambique)
Namibia Scouts of Namibia
Nepal Nepal Scouts
Netherlands Scouting Nederland
(Netherlands Scouting)
New Zealand Scouting New Zealand
Nicaragua Asociación de Scouts de Nicaragua
(Scout Association of Nicaragua)
Niger Association des Scouts du Niger
(Scouts Association of Niger)
Nigeria Boy Scouts of Nigeria
Norway
Speidernes Fellesorganisasjon
(The Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Norges Speiderforbund
(Norwegian Guide & Scout Association)
(YWCA-YMCA Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Oman The National Organisation for Scouts & Guides
Pakistan Pakistan Boy Scouts Association
Palestinian Authority Palestinian Scout Association
Panama Asociación Nacional de Scouts de Panamá
(National Scout Association of Panama)
Papua New Guinea The Scout Association of Papua New Guinea
Paraguay Asociación de Scouts del Paraguay
(Scouts Association of Paraguay)
Peru Asociación de Scouts del Perú
(Scout Association of Peru)
Philippines Boy Scouts of the Philippines
Poland Zwiazek Harcerstwa Polskiego (ZHP)
The Polish Scouting and Guiding Association
Portugal
Federação Escutista de Portugal
(Scout Federation of Portugal)
Associação dos Escoteiros de Portugal (AEP) (The Scout Association of Portugal)
Corpo Nacional de Escutas (CNE) (Escutismo Catolico Portugues) (The Catholic Scout Association of Portugal)
Qatar Qatar Boy Scouts Association
Romania Cercetasii României
(The National Scout Organization of Romania)
Russian Federation Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators (RAS/N)
Rwanda Association des Scouts du Rwanda
(Scout Association of Rwanda)
San Marino Associazione Guide e Esploratori Cattolici Sammarinesi
(The Catholic Guide and Scout Association of San Marino)
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Boy Scouts Association
Senegal
Confédération Sénégalaise du Scoutisme
(Senegalese Scout Confederation)
Eclaireurs du Sénégal (Scouts of Senegal)
Les Scouts du Sénégal (The Scouts of Senegal)
Serbia Scout Association of Serbia
Seychelles The Scout Association of Seychelles
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Scouts Association
Singapore The Singapore Scout Association
Slovakia Slovensky skauting
(Slovak Scouting)
Slovenia Zveza tabornikov Slovenije
(Scout Association of Slovenia)
South Africa South African Scout Association
Spain
Federación de Escultismo en España (FEE)*
(Scouting Federation in Spain)
Federación de Asociaciones de Scouts de España
(ASDE) (Scouts of Spain)
Movimiento Scout Católico (MSC) (The Catholic Scout Movement) *with which is affilliated:
Federació Catalana d'Escoltisme i Guiatge (FCEG) (The Federation of Scouts and Guides in Catalonia)
Acciò Escolta de Catalunya
Escoltes Catalans
Minyons Escoltes/Guies Sant Jordi de Catalunya
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Scout Association
Saint Lucia The Saint Lucia Scout Association
Saint Vincent and The Grenadines The Scout Association of Saint Vincent & The Grenadines
Sudan Sudan Boy Scouts Association
Suriname Boy Scouts van Suriname
(Boy Scouts of Suriname)
Swaziland Emavulandlela Swaziland Scout Association
Sweden
Svenska Scoutråde t
(The Swedish Guide and Scout Council)
Frälsningsarméns Scoutförbund
(Salvation Army Guide and Scout Association)
KFUK- FKUMs Scoutförbund
(Swedish YWCA-YMCA Guide and Scout Association)
Nykterhetsrörelsens Scoutförbund
(Swedish Temperance Guide and Scout Association)
SMU-Scout
(Guide and Scout Organization of the Swedish Covenant Youth)
Svenska Scoutförbundet
(Swedish Guide and Scout Association)
Switzerland Swiss Guide and Scout Movement
Syrian Arab Republic Scouts of Syria
Tajikistan Ittihodi Scouthoi Tochikiston / Associatsia Skautov Tadjikistana
(Scout Association of Tajikistan)
Tanzania, United Republic of Tanzania Scouts Association
Thailand The National Scout Organization of Thailand
Togo Association Scoute du Togo
(Scout Association of Togo)
Trinidad and Tobago The Scout Association of Trinidad & Tobago
Tunisia Les Scouts Tunisiens
(The Scouts of Tunisia)
Turkey Turkiye Izcilik Federasyonu
(Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey)
Uganda The Uganda Scouts Association
Ukraine National Organization of Scouts of Ukraine
          MEMORANDUM BY THE SAHRAWI GOVERNMENT:THE QUESTION OF WESTERN SAHARA        


MEMORANDUM BY THE SAHRAWI GOVERNMENT

THE QUESTION OF WESTERN SAHARA



September 2009

1. Western Sahara (the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic) is located in northwest Africa and covers an area of 266,000 square kilometres. It is bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the northeast and Mauritania to the East and southeast and has a 1,200-kilometre-long Atlantic Ocean coastline. The Saharawi Republic was proclaimed on 27 February 1976; its capital is El Aaiún.

2. In the pre-colonial times, the Saharawi lived as one independent community and developed their own cultural forms of expression and socio-political organisations; it was these idiosyncratic elements that constituted the distinctiveness of the Saharawi society over the centuries. The Saharawi are known for being a tolerant, open and peaceful society that has never been involved in any form of political or religious extremism.

3. Western Sahara is the last African decolonisation case in the agenda of the United Nations Africa, and it has been on the UN list of the Special Committee of 24 since 1963 when it was under Spanish colonial rule. The General Assembly has since consistently recognised the inalienable right of the Saharawi people to self-determination and independence, and called for the exercise of that right in accordance with General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV) containing the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

4. It was in this context that the UN repeatedly called on Spain, the administering power of Western Sahara, to decolonise the territory by means of organising a self-determination referendum for its people. Spain, however, failed to assume its responsibilities, and instead handed over the territory to both Morocco and Mauritania that militarily invaded and occupied the territory in 1975. The occupation was in contradiction of numerous UN resolutions and the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice (ICJ).

The historic ruling of the ICJ, issued on 16 October 1975, affirmed unequivocally that:

“The materials and information presented to it [the Court] do not establish any tie of territorial sovereignty between the territory of Western Sahara and the Kingdom of Morocco or the Mauritanian entity. Thus the Court has not found legal ties of such a nature as might affect the application of General Assembly resolution 1514 (XV) in the decolonisation of Western Sahara and, in particular, of the principle of self-determination through the free and genuine expression of the will of the peoples of the Territory”.

5. Moreover, in line with the General Assembly Resolution 2625 (XXV), which stipulates that “no territorial acquisition resulting from the threat or use of force shall be recognised as legal”, the UN has neither approved the occupation nor recognised the legality of the Moroccan annexation of Western Sahara. More precisely, in its Resolutions 34/37 of 21 November 1979
and 35/19 of 11 November 1980, the General Assembly deeply deplored the aggravation of the situation resulting from “the continued occupation of Western Sahara by Morocco.”

6. It is thus natural for the efforts aiming at settling the question of Western Sahara to have as ultimate objective the enabling of the Sahrawi people to decide their future by means of a free and fair referendum on self-determination.

African Union and the United Nations efforts and mediations

7. Following a 16 years protracted war, the two parties to the conflict, Morocco and the Frente POLISARIO, accepted the UN-OAU jointly elaborated Settlement Plan that was approved by the Security Council in its Resolutions 658 (1990) and 690 (1991). The plan provided for the entry into force of a ceasefire to be followed by a free and fair referendum on self-determination, without any administrative or military constraints, in which “the Saharawi people would choose between independence and integration into Morocco”( Para 4 and 6 of the Peace Plan, S/21360). It was also agreed that the electoral body for the referendum will be based on the last Spanish census of the indigenous population made in 1974 ( Para 53, S/21360).

8. The ceasefire entered into force on 6 September 1991. However, the referendum has not been held yet, due to the delaying tactics and obstructions made by Morocco that, from day one, used all means to undermine the peace process. Morocco also exhibited the same obstructionist attitude towards the Houston Agreements that were negotiated and signed by both parties in September 1997 under the auspices of James Baker III, the then Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General for Western Sahara.

9. At the request of the Security Council, following Morocco’s rejection of the Settlement Plan, Baker put forward The Peace Plan for Self-determination of the People of Western Sahara (Baker Plan), which was supported by the Security Council in its Resolution 1495 (2003). The plan envisaged four to five years period of self-governance for the territory at the end of which a referendum would be held in which not only indigenous Saharawi but also Moroccan residents in the territory since December 1999 would participate. As a gesture of goodwill, the Frente POLISARIO accepted the plan despite the risks it involved, but Morocco rejected it out of hand.

10. Morocco’s main objection was that the plan included independence as one of the ballot options. However, the Secretary-General in his report of 16 October 2004 stated that the “United Nations could not sponsor a plan that excluded a referendum with independence as an option while claiming to provide for the self-determination of the people of Western Sahara” (para.14). The Secretary-General and his Personal Envoy, James Baker III, were of the view that it was inconceivable for a referendum on self-determination organised by the UN not to include the option of independence.

11. In fact, the reason behind Morocco’s reneging on its commitments and its unwillingness to allow any referendum on self-determination for the Saharawi people is the fact that it knows too well that the territory is not Moroccan and that any free and fair referendum on self-determination, to be held even with the participation of the Moroccan settlers residing in the territory, will definitely lead to the independence of Western Sahara.

In an interview with the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), broadcast in August 2004, James Baker III revealed the reason behind Morocco’s change of heart and its rejection of the referendum saying that “The closer we got, the more nervous I think the Moroccans got about whether they might not win the referendum.”


Morocco’s rejection to peace


12. Since its rejection of the Baker Plan in 2004, Morocco repeatedly declared that it was willing to accept a solution to the question of Western Sahara only “within the sovereignty of Morocco”. In this context, on 11 April 2007, it presented to the UN a proposal aiming at granting “autonomy” to the territory of Western Sahara “within Morocco’s sovereignty and territorial unity”.

13. Presented as a major concession, this project, which puts aside all the achievements made so far by the UN to settle the conflict, is another delaying tactic by Morocco that aims at gaining recognition by the international community of its colonial fait-accompli in Western Sahara. In other words, the recognition of Moroccan “sovereignty” over a Non-Self-Governing Territory without meeting the requirements of the UN doctrine and practice relating to decolonisation.

14. The Saharawi Government and the Frente POLISARIO have underlined on countless occasions that the Moroccan project is bound to fail, for it is based on totally unacceptable premises:

a) First, the proposal evidently departs from the assumption that Western Sahara is already an integral part of Morocco’s territory. This assumption is clearly unfounded since, from the viewpoint of international legality, Morocco does not exercise any legal territorial sovereignty or even administering power over Western Sahara. As the Secretary-General stated in his report of 19 April 2006 (para. 37), “no member State of the UN recognises Morocco’s sovereignty over Western Sahara.” Moreover, as clearly established in General Assembly Resolutions 34/37 (1979) and 35/19 (1980), Morocco is only an occupying power in Western Sahara.

b) Second, Morocco once again ignores the fact that Western Sahara is still considered by the UN as a question of decolonization whose final status must be decided by its indigenous people, not by the occupying power.

c) Third, by declaring that autonomy is the only solution, Morocco is prejudging the will of the Saharawi people by limiting from the outset their choice to autonomy. This clearly violates the sacrosanct principle applicable to Non-Self-Governing Territories, as enshrined in General Assembly Resolutions 1514 (XV) and 1541 (XV), that requires the free and genuine expression of the will of the people concerned through a popular consultation that necessarily includes the option of independence.

d) Fourth, the Moroccan approach deliberately ignores the Saharawi national reality, the long struggle of the Saharawi people for freedom as well as their strong attachment to independence that has been manifested daily for over thirty years. Furthermore, ,it ignores the fact that the Saharawi Republic (SADR) has been recognized by the African Union as full Member State and has today diplomatic relations with dozens of countries in the world.

e) Fifth, the project is also dangerous. Indeed, willing to impose an autonomy-based solution on a people who are fundamentally hostile to any form of Moroccan domination or control and that have fought the Moroccan occupation for over three decades, is taking deliberately the risk to increase the tension, and create an intolerable situation that would jeopardise the stability of the territory and the region and undermine the chances for a just and final settlement of the conflict.

15. In order to overcome the deadlock already caused by Morocco, the Frente POLISARIO presented to the UN, on 10 April 2007, a proposal titled “Proposal of the Frente POLISARIO for a mutually acceptable political solution that provides for the self-determination of the people of Western Sahara” (see the annex). The proposal is based on two pillars:

a) It stresses the need for the referendum on self-determination that would include the options already agreed by the two parties (independence, integration, autonomy) and endorsed by the Security Council in numerous resolutions.

b) Should the referendum lead to the independence of Western Sahara, the Frente POLISARIO will be ready to negotiate with Morocco the establishment of strategic relations between the two countries in all domains, particularly those that are or could be a cause of real or assumed concern to Morocco.



16. On 30 April 2007, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1754 (2007) in which it took note, in the preamble, of the two proposals and called upon both parties, Morocco and the Frente POLISARIO “to enter into negotiations without preconditions in good faith with a view to achieving a just, lasting and mutually acceptable political solution, which will provide for the self-determination of the people of Western Sahara” (OP2).

17. In this context, under the UN Secretary-General’s auspices, delegations from the Frente POLISARIO and Morocco met at Greentree Estate in Manhasset, New York, on 18-19 June 2007. A second round of negotiations between the two parties was also held in Manhasset on 10-11 August 2007. In October 2007 and April 2008, the Secretary-General submitted his reports to the Security Council in which he insisted on the fact that the two parties should enter into substantial negotiations and that the two proposals should be the basis for the negotiations. A third and fourth round of negotiations took place in Manhasset on 7-9 January and 16-18 March 2008. The Security Council adopted Resolution 1783 (2007) and 1813 (2008) in which it reiterated the substance of Resolution 1754 (2007).

18. The Frente POLISARIO came to the four rounds of negotiations encouraged by the same sense of earnestness and good faith with which it participated in the preceding process of negotiation led by James Baker III. On the four occasions, it has fully cooperated with the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General for Western Sahara in the discussion of all issues including the confidence-building measures (CBMs), which he proposed in the second round with a view to creating a positive climate between the two parties. It is regrettable, however, that the Moroccan delegation rejected to discuss the Sahrawi proposal and the proposed CBMs, exhibiting once again its unwillingness to move the negotiation process forward.

19. A fifth round of formal negotiations is expected to take place at some time in the future. The finality of the recent round of informal talks held in Austria in August 2009 is precisely to pave the way to the fifth round. The Saharawi Government and the Frente POLISARIO have always underlined that the negotiations process underway should not become an objective in itself and consequently should not be emptied of its main content and ultimate goal, namely providing for the right of self-determination of people of Western Sahara. Moreover, they are hopeful that Morocco would one day cease its dilatory manoeuvres and engage, in good faith, in the effective implementation of the Security Council and General Assembly Resolutions which continue to support the inalienable right of the Saharawi people to self-determination and independence.

20. Since the sixty-third session of the General Assembly (2008), major events have taken place.

21. The UN Secretary General has, in early August 20098, decided to appoint Ambassador Christopher Ross (USA), as his new Personal Envoy for Western Sahara in replacement of Mr. Peter Van Walsum. Mr. Ross undertook two regional visits (January and June 2009) which allowed him to discuss with the leadership of the two parties, Morocco and the F. Polisario, as well as with the leaders of the two observers, Algeria and Mauritania, the prospects of progress for the stalemated peace process.

With the support of UNSC resolution 1871 (2009), and the generous cooperation of the Government of Austria, both parties held, from 10 to 12 August 2009, informal conversations under the auspices of the UNSG Personal Envoy, in Durnstein (Austria) aimed at preparing the grounds for the fifth round of formal negotiations.

The conversations did not lead to a tangible progress beyond the fact that the atmosphere and climate were positive. It was once again apparent that Morocco’s intransigent position which it has already exhibited in Manhasset continues to impede any substantial progress toward a peaceful and lasting resolution of the conflict. Both parties agreed however to continue the negotiations in a date and location that the UNSG Personal Envoy will determine. A report by the UNSG to the UNSC is expected to be finished before the end of April 2010.


The Renewal of African Union Position

22. Meanwhile, the Saharawi people is pursuing the implementation of its national strategy in defence of their legitimate right to be a free and sovereign nation, a process that should not be halted by the lack of progress in the negotiations with the occupying power. The Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) has actively participated in all summits and meetings of the African Union.

It is worthy to recall that the Special Summit of Heads of States and Governments of the African Union (AU) on conflicts in Africa, held at Tripoli (Libya), Aug 31, 2009, adopted an important decision on Western Sahara, which “Calls for the intensification of the efforts towards the holding of a referendum to enable de people of Western Sahara to choose between the option of independence and that of integration into the Kingdom of Morocco". [Special Session. AU Summit; 31 august 2009, Tripoli, Libya.]

By adopting this position, the AU intends to support the commendable efforts undertaken by the UN in the peace process in Western Sahara, which the AU is the initiator and co-sponsor.

It is clear for the African Union that Morocco’s position constitutes the major obstacle to peace. In his report to this special session, the chairman of the AU Commission, Jean Ping, said that the Western Sahara conflict is ''still at an impasse,” because, he said, “polarization of the positions of the parties and, more recently, because of Morocco's insistence that its autonomy proposal is the only basis for negotiations with the Polisario, although the Security Council of the UN has noted the proposals of the two parties, as submitted in April 2007.''


The SADR has been consolidating its relations with a high number of friendly countries in the world, mainly in Africa, Caribbean area, Latin America, Asia and South East pacific region.. It has been actively present in Latin America and Africa on the occasion of important events that took place in the two continents. In tandem with these diplomatic achievements, several ambassadors accredited to the SADR have presented to the Saharawi President their Letters of Credentials in the Saharawi liberated territories. The Frente POLISARIO has also become an observer member of the Socialist International.

23. The Saharawi liberated territories, over which the SADR exercises its full sovereignty, have assumed an increasing importance in the overall policies of the Saharawi Government. Significant political, social, economic and cultural events have taken place in those territories, especially in Tifariti where the 12th Congress of the Frente POLISARIO and the 35th anniversary of the foundation of the Frente POLISARIO as well as opening sessions of the Saharawi Parliament were all held there. Hundreds of foreign delegations and dignitaries as well as international media took part in those events.

The Saharawi Government is undertaking great efforts to provide the necessary infrastructure and security conditions for the Saharawi population living in those territories, while undertaking consistent efforts in coordination with friendly countries and neighbours to prevent and eventually to disrupt any illegal activities related to internationally organized crime. It has actively participated, given the long experience of its military forces, in the consolidation and effectiveness of regional security structures in conformity with its obligations as a full Member of the African Union.

Landmines

24. After signing the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment for Adherence to a Total Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines in 2005, the SADR has destroyed the major part of its antipersonnel mine stockpile, and facilitated mine action activities in the liberated territories. The SADR has also declared its commitment to the Ottawa Treaty on banning antipersonnel mines. It should be recalled, however, that Morocco continues to use this lethal weapon (more that 5 million o personal landmines planted in the territory) in the areas under its occupation whilst refusing to adhere to Ottawa Treaty.

UNHCR activities in Western Sahara


25. The UNHCR sponsored exchange programme of visits between Saharawi families separated by the Moroccan occupation is still running albeit at a slow pace. It is regrettable that Morocco has obstructed for an extended period of time the visits to be conducted by land, and continues to block other confidence-building measures adopted by the Security Council such as cultural seminars and postal services. The recent visit in September 2009 to the region of the President of the UNHCR, Mr. Gutierres, was critical in the decision of the international community to increase the amount of humanitarian programs for the Saharawi refugees and certainly helped to overcome Morocco’s obstructions with regard the program of family visits by land.


Human Rights Violations by Morocco in Western Sahara

26. MINURSO was established in 1991 for two inseparable purposes: first, to monitor the ceasefire between Morocco and Frente POLISARIO forces; and second, to organize a referendum for the self-determination of the people of Western Sahara by which they will freely choose between independence and integration into Morocco. Eighteen years later, due to Moroccan obstruction, no such referendum has taken place.

27. Until the fundamental right of self-determination of the Saharawi people is secured, the United Nations has a responsibility to protect the population of the Western Sahara pursuant to its clearly defined obligations towards Non Self-Governing Territories, as set out in Article 73 of the Charter of the United Nations. It is worthy to recall that Members of the United Nations have accepted as a ‘sacred trust the obligation to promote to the utmost…the well-being of the inhabitants of these territories’ and to ensure ‘their just treatment and their protection against abuses’. These fundamental Charter obligations include the provision of basic human rights.

28. A human tragedy keeps on unfolding in our country since 1975 whose cruellest chapters are gradually overcoming the breach of the imposed silence. Moroccan news paper, Al Jarida Al Oula published in 2008 summer what a Member of Morocco delegation in Manhasset negotiations confessed to a Moroccan Official investigative body: “There are several people (…) three or four officers from the (Moroccan) Army that have committed what can be called war crimes off the battlefield, and many civilians were thrown off helicopters or buried alive on account of being Saharawi”.


29. Hundreds of Saharawi have been detained, made to face unfair trials and 32 political detainees, whose names and data were transmitted to the UNSG personal Envoy, are still imprisoned in Moroccan detention centres where the cruellest methods of physical and physiological torture are practiced with impunity. The entire occupied territories continue to be under a military siege and a total media blackout, whilst Moroccan authorities deny access to NGOs, international media and observers.

30. The recent wave of repression undertaken in September 2009 by Morocco forces in Bojador, Aaiun and Smra left dozens of victims, manly women and young ladies, like the famous human right activist, Sultana Kahaya. Torture, abuses, arbitrary detention, have been in situ graphically documented.( www.spsrasd.info; www.arso.org,).

31. It should be recalled in this regard that on 8 September 2006, the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) delivered a report expressing serious concern at the human rights situation in Western Sahara, and documenting incidents of arbitrary arrest, harassment, and intimidation of human rights activists, including excessive use of force against peaceful demonstrators. While the report, unfortunately, has not been yet made public, it linked clearly the egregious and brazen human rights abuses in the occupied territory to the denial of the Saharawi people’s inalienable right to self-determination. The High Commissioner therefore recommended that the United Nations should institute a capacity to monitor human rights in the occupied Territory.

32. The findings of the OHCHR and recommendations were confirmed by a similarly critical reports published by Human Rights Watch in December 2008, [Human Right Watch, Human Rights in Western Sahara and in the Tindouf Refugee Camps, 19 December 2008] and by the European Parliament fact-finding Mission of February 2009, which documents Morocco’s systematic and abusive efforts to suppress political dissent in the occupied Territory.

33. According to Human Rights Watch, these efforts are manifested by ‘arbitrary arrests, unfair trials, restrictions on associations and assemblies, and through police violence and harassment’.

The report also finds that Moroccan security forces ‘arbitrarily arrest demonstrators and suspected Saharawi activists, beat them and subject them to torture, and force them to sign incriminating police statements, all with virtual impunity; and the courts convict and imprison them after unfair trials’, all in violation of Morocco’s obligations as a signatory to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

In light of these grave findings, Human Rights Watch recommends that the Security Council should ‘expand the mandate of MINURSO to include human rights monitoring and reporting in both Western Sahara and in the POLISARIO-administered camps in Algeria’.

34. In his reports to the Security Council on 14 April 2008 (S/2008/251), and S/2009/200 0f April 14, 2009 the Secretary-General noted that, while MINURSO has no staff dedicated to human rights monitoring, “it is the duty of the United Nations to uphold human rights standards in all of its operations, including its operations related to Western Sahara”

35. The F. Polisario urged the Security Council to act upon the recommendations of the High Commissioner and establish a human rights component within the MINURSO mandate to protect, promote and monitor the human rights situation of the Saharawi people as long as the conflict over the decolonization of Western Sahara remains unresolved.

The UNSC, because of Morocco’s rejection which was supported by a European Permanent Member historically known by its negative interference in the decolonization process of Western Sahara, made a reference to the importance of the “human dimension of the conflict” in its latest resolution(S/1871/2009 of April30, 2009) ,thus failing to adopt a more clear recommendation with regard human rights monitoring system in Western Sahara, despite the efforts undertaken by several UNSC members.

Our hope is that the United Nations will address responsibly the long-standing and systematic denial of the human rights of the Saharawi people, and pave the way towards securing a democratic and legitimate process of self-determination in the Western Sahara.


Exploitation of Saharawi natural resources

36. In the meantime, the Moroccan authorities continue to illegally and massively exploit the natural resources of Western Sahara. The UN legal department opinion of January 29, 2002 stated clearly that any extraction of these resources is illegal since Morocco has no legitimate authority to engage in such exploitation.

37. Morocco claims that it has developed the territory. It is a classic “argument “used by all colonial powers. However, the revenues (Five billion USD) that the occupying power extracts from exploiting the Saharawi rock phosphate (3,500,000 tonnes annually at a price of about US$ 300 per tonne) and the fish industry, for example, go solely to the regime.

They are then used to buy more weapons and reinforce the presence of more than 130,000 of its soldiers stationed in the occupied territory, to sustain economically the needs of more than 300.000 Moroccan settlers, whilst the socioeconomic situation in the occupied territories is deteriorating, with an unemployment rate that exceeds 35 %. UN Member states should not participate directly or indirectly, in these illegal activities. In this connection we urge the EU to reconsider the chapters affecting Western Sahara coasts in the Fishery agreement it has signed with Morocco. The EU should keep its proclaimed reputation not to engage in agreements with countries that are violating international law and human rights.


Conclusions

38. For United Nations, Western Sahara remains a colonial case to which the UN doctrine and practice relating to decolonisation must be applicable. This means that the Saharawi people have an inalienable right to self-determination and independence to be exercised in a free, fair and democratic referendum on self-determination. Morocco, which has already recognized from 1966 to 1973 in statements before UN the right of independence of Western Sahara and has accepted many peace plans based on the option of independence, should cooperate with the international community to put an end to its expansionist colonial war.

39. Over thirty years of institution and nation-building have made the Saharawi nation an irreversible reality. The Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic is a fully-fledged State that exercises its full sovereignty over the Saharawi liberated territories and has the administrative and political capacity to handle its own affairs and conduct its international relations. Indeed, the establishment of an independent Saharawi State in Western Sahara, as a result of a genuine democratic process, is the sine qua non for a secure, prosperous and integrated Maghreb.

40. Today finding a just and final settlement of the question of Western Sahara in line with international legality is not only necessary but also possible. The Settlement Plan, the Houston Accords, the Peace Plan for Self-determination of the people of Western Sahara and the Manhasset negotiation process can provide, at any moment, if the political will exists, an appropriate and honourable framework to settle the conflict.

41. The Saharawi Government and the Frente POLISARIO, in keeping with the Security Council position, are ready to work and cooperate with the UN Secretary-General in order to achieve a mutually acceptable political solution which will provide for the self-determination in Western Sahara through the free and genuine expression of the will of the Saharawi people. We are strongly committed to give all chances to the current negotiating process.

42. However , as long as Morocco continue to feel that it has both a veto power to disrupt UN efforts and a guarantee of impunity with regard its policy of violations of human rights in the territory, the chances for the peace process to succeed will continue to be under a great and clear danger.

September 2009




Annex

Morocco’s Commitments:

1. On 7 July 1966, the Representative of Morocco, Mr. Day Ould Sidi Baba, stated before the meeting of the Committee of the 24, gathered in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia, that: “I ask for the independence of Western Sahara as soon as possible and this should be an authentic independence, hence we can get over the actual impasse...” [Statement by Mr. Day Ould Sidi Baba, of Morocco; Committee of 24, meeting in Addis Ababa, on 7 June 1966]

2. In the same year, on 13 October 1966, the Moroccan Foreign Minister, Mr. Charkawi, stated before the 21st session of the General Assembly, that: “Morocco supports a real independence for Western Sahara, putting the future of the region in the hands of its sons which in the context of liberty will decide freely on their self-determination...” [Statement by Mr. Mohamed Charkhawi, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Morocco; 21st Session of the General Assembly,13 October 1966]

3. Four years later, King Hassa