â€œMalawi” é português, sim        
Um leitor se espantou ao ver, em bons veículos de imprensa, notícias em português sobre a República do “Malawi”. A pergunta é: os nomes de países não têm de ser traduzido para o português?  E, se sim, como se deveria escrever – e pronunciar – em português o nome do Malawi? “Maláui”? “Malauí”? “Malávi”? Em publicações anteriores, […]
          Gigantic hippo gets terrifying close to safari speedboat        
Don’t tell this hippo he’s slow. Riding in a speed boat in the Kafue National Park in Zambia, a videographer captured the terrifying moment when a gigantic hippopotamus got way too close for comfort, according to the Daily Mail. Uploaded to Facebook by Michael Varndell, the managing director at tour company Malawian Style, the video starts with...
          Words Across the World!        

The words have arrived from our pen pals in Malawi! (I say “our” because I have a pen pal, too.) Thousands of Austin area students in 160 classrooms have read Laugh with the Moon, and now they are corresponding … Read the rest


          Words Across the World        

BookPeople, the Austin Independent School District, and Penguin Random House are joining forces to launch Words Across the World. This program encourages cross-cultural exploration through reading and writing. As we speak, thousands of students in Malawi and Austin are … Read the rest


          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. To get the additional information and place the order just visit our website: http://www.salepassportsfake.cc www. salepassportsfake.cc >> Contact e-mails: General support: support@salepassportsfake.cc Technical support: admin@salepassportsfake.cc ----------------------------- Keywords: buy fake passport of Afghanistan buy fake passport of Albania buy fake passport of Algeria buy fake passport of Andorra buy fake passport of Angola buy fake passport of Antigua & Deps buy fake passport of Argentina buy fake passport of Armenia buy fake passport of Australia buy fake passport of Austria buy fake passport of Azerbaijan buy fake passport of Bahamas buy fake passport of Bahrain buy fake passport of Bangladesh buy fake passport of Barbados buy fake passport of Belarus buy fake passport of Belgium buy fake passport of Belize buy fake passport of Benin buy fake passport of Bhutan buy fake passport of Bolivia buy fake passport of Bosnia Herzegovina buy fake passport of Botswana buy fake 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          World: FPMA Bulletin #7, 10 August 2017        
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat rose further in July on quality concerns, particularly for higher protein wheat, although upward pressure was limited by prospects of ample global supplies. Export prices of maize remained generally unchanged, while a slowdown in demand capped gains in rice quotations.
  • In East Africa, prices of cereals in most countries declined signi cantly for the second consecutive month in July with the new harvests, but remained generally higher than a year earlier. However, in Ethiopia, prices of maize surged further and reached record levels, underpinned by uncertain prospects for the 2017 crops.
  • In the CIS, prices of staple potatoes declined sharply from the record or near-record highs of June in most countries of the subregion with the beginning of the new harvest. Prices, however, remained higher than in July last year after the sharp increases of the past months.

          World: Food Assistance Outlook Brief, August 2017        
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population is compared to last year and the recent five-year average. Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season. Additional information is provided for countries with large food insecure populations, an expectation of high severity, or where other key issues warrant additional discussion.


          Church plant sale raises cash for Malawi orphans        
OUR Lady’s Portico Church Hall in Eccleston will be holding a plant sale on Saturday 7 May at noon.
          The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Malawi        

The impact of the financial crisis on Malawi has so far been limited. The financial sector is small and less sophisticated, with two (out of nine) commercial banks dominating the banking sector. Foreign direct and portfolio investment levels are very low. However, most commercial banks have reported difficulties accessing foreign credit lines. Furthermore, exchange rate movements in the west are having a negative impact on foreign aid inflows to Malawi.


          Elephant Caught In Snare Is Miraculously Saved        

More than 200 square miles of land in southern Africa is dedicated to Malawi’s Liwonde National Park. The International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), which helps safeguard the park’s wildlife, calls the area a “haven” for over 500 elephants, more than 600 bird species, and countless hippopotamus, rhinoceros, and other mammals, fish and reptiles. But this haven […]

The post Elephant Caught In Snare Is Miraculously Saved appeared first on Wildlife Insider.


          Thousands Face Hunger and Pray for Enough Rain in Malawi        

It is 9 am in the morning but the scorching sun makes it feel like mid-afternoon. This type of weather is what experts are calling El Nino; a heat wave that is affecting countries in southern and eastern Africa. Since El Nino hit, Malawi has experienced no rain for at least three weeks, leaving people […]

The post Thousands Face Hunger and Pray for Enough Rain in Malawi appeared first on Inter Press Service.


          Comment on Dark horses in Malawi’s cash-gate scandal by Start making Money Now        
Dark horses in Malawi’s cash-gate scandal | Wa Symon
          Malawi School Lunch - Nsima and Beans        
Country: Malawi

Contents: Nsima (equivalent to finely ground grits), kidney beans, and African cabbage

Source: Rebecca M.

Notes: "Here’s the lunch we served in school in Malawi, in a little village a few hours outside of Lilongwe called Chim’wang’ombe. Their lunch is nsima (which is equivalent to finely ground grits), kidney beans, and African cabbage (which has a pleasant spicy bite to it). Each child shares a plate of food with one other child."
          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

          Goderich Festival of Arts & Crafts: Day One Discoveries        
At 10am this morning I went to work on the Square, and upon witnessing all the ongoing commotion out the window as I scooped icecream and made lattes, I decided that I would go ahead and take a wander through the Festival of Arts & Crafts, which is lining the inside of our quaint little Courthouse Square, a little later in the evening when the sun started going down and things got a little more slower.

The phenomenal colours, patterns, and textures of the Japanese Shino Pottery of Chica Pottery really caught my eye. As I regarded these beautiful pieces, Erin Grace Harder of Sparta, Ontario came forward to tell me a little bit about them. She creates the rectangular trays, while her mother helps her with the bowls and cups. They are cone 10 reduction gas fired and are oven, microwave, and dishwasher safe and each set is completed with a pair of chopsticks. It always brings a smile on my face to see young artists that are eager to tell others about their work, and she has even more reason to be excited about it as the money she raises by selling her work at the festival this weekend is going towards a missions trip to Malawi, Africa at the end of July. So make sure to check out her booth this weekend!

Goderich Town Square has been bustling and busy since early this morning. Just ask Betty Nelson-Daniel of Mocking Bird from Midland, Ontario. When speaking to her late this evening, she told me that they started setting up around 6am this morning. Mocking Bird was one of the first few booths to really catch my eye, that's for sure. The dolls that she creates are theatrical and graceful, and their feet suggest a definite ballet inspiration. Their heads and beaks are built layer upon layer with paper and are hard to the touch. Their bodies start as metal armatures and dimension is built with layers of fabrics, leather, branches, ribbons, trimmings, and all sorts of found objects. Don't be afraid to touch them, though, she says - they may look delicate, but when you hold them up close you can really see all the detail that goes into them. She has been creating these dolls for over thirty years and she has really honed her skill - the detail in each piece is astonishing, and they are definitely something you need to see up close, this weekend!

I was infatuated with the earthy scents wafting from Jennifer Jansen's booth - From The Blue House. Located in Creemore, Ontario, she creates handcrafted soap from natural ingredients, and even features Creemore Springs Lager in some of these body products. When I asked her about it, she says that the Lager creates a wonderful lather, which is especially great in her shaving soaps. Warm chai spices like cinnamon and cloves as well as patchouli and lavender filled my nose - I told her that I'd be back. And I certainly will be, with scents like that.

If you guys are in Goderich, Ontario this weekend, make sure to stop by the Square and take in all the wonderful sights at the Goderich Festival of Arts & Crafts. There are many talented artisans, including the ones I spoke about above, showcasing their various talents. They'll be open from 10am to 5pm on Saturday, and 10am to 4pm on Sunday.

          Killing us softly         

A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

“We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

“Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

Housebound in China 

A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

“Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

Beyond the silo

Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

“Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

“Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

Mounting evidence 

Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
 

Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

Asia worst affected

The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

 

WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

Filling the gaps

Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

“We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

“Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

A change in the air

Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

• Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
• WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
• The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

Three responded.  

A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

gh/ha/bp

*Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

**The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

For more: 

The relationship between household air pollution and disease

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

Particulate air pollution and lung function  

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
 

101285 200901271.jpg Analysis Health Killing us softly Gabrielle Babbington IRIN HONG KONG Congo, Republic of Djibouti DRC Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda Angola Botswana Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cape Verde Chad Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Colombia Haiti United States Bangladesh Cambodia Indonesia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam
          Lettuce Prey        
I've been updating some of the info pages on the wiki... writing down some of the initial info (with pictures) of some of the Lettuce varieties I'm growing for seed this Autumn. The aim is to record much better notes on the habits, uses and cultivation of the numerous Lettuce varieties I grow over time. We'll see how that works out. I'm notorious for forgetting to keep those things up to date. Usually I'll notice a bunch of interesting stuff while my hands are all muddy and I'm having too much fun in the garden to go inside, wash up, fire up the computer,... so my observations get abandoned by the wayside.

Some of you may remember that I had ideas some years ago of growing organic-quality Lettuce seed as a commercial enterprise, but those plans -- indeed the Lettuces themselves -- were brought to nought by the Great Drought of 2008-10. Well, I still like the idea, and, although rain has been a little scarce in the past couple of months1, I'm trying once again to build up my Lettuce seed stocks to the point where I can produce decently large quantities of seed. Summer is, as always, too hot, and many of the Lettuce varieties bolt to seed early from the heat and don't produce viable seed as a result. So early-Spring and Autumn are my best chance at growing Lettuce seed.

Some of the varieties are new to me: Malawi, Lital, Lavi and Vulcan. Seed was acquired from friends and barter, and started in late February, and the first-to-seed varieties are just producing flower spikes about now. Others are old friends: Forellenschluss and Cimmaron, but my current seed stocks are getting too old to be reliable, so in dire need of refreshing.

I do wish I'd had bed space for growing more varieties, but I don't so that's about as many as I can manage whilst maintaining adequate isolation distances between the varieties. I've also managed to stagger them in time where I've been forced to place different varieties rather closer together than I'd prefer, and, given that Lettuces are mostly self-pollinating, I think I'm pretty safe for keeping these varieties pure.

I do need your help though!  Can anyone help me identify this beautiful Lettuce? I thought it might be "Merveille des Quatre Saisons" ("Marvel of 4 Seasons" - and ancient French2 heirloom, famed for its ability to withstand a wide range of weather conditions and temperatures) but it doesn't form a head, which my online researches tell me MdQS does. Leaves are quite large and broad, rumpled, fleshy textured and delicious even when very mature. But I'm stumped for a variety name. Any ideas?

[1] ...and as I write this, it has started drizzling. Hooray!
[2] Who woulda guessed?
          128 - Daliso Chaponda (Live at Darlington Comedy Festival)        

Is Daliso Chaponda Malawi’s only professional comic? Methodical to a fault and gleefully non-improvisational, Daliso talks us through the crafting of his unbreakable jokes. A truly global act, he explains what it’s like to be a headliner on one continent and a road act on another…

Support the podcast at www.comedianscomedian.com

Just For Laughs, Eddie Murphy, The Colbert Report, Malawi, Politics, Roger Ebert


           World AIDS Day Programming        
Today, on World AIDS Day, GLAAD’s Entertainment Team takes time to celebrate the future and hope for a better tomorrow while raising awareness about the very real disease that is HIV and AIDS. Sundance Channel features four cinematic salutes to this cause, beginning with the television premiere of the amazing documentary, Where the Water Meets the Sky. Morgan Freeman narrates this clever film about 23 women from the small East African nation of Zambia who, with the help of two teachers, use filmmaking as a tool to speak about their lives, the effect AIDS has had on each of them and their communities and ultimately, to challenge the silence of the local traditions. Where the Water Meets the Sky touches upon the human and courageous nature of these young women who took the risk to share the truth about AIDS in their community and share their stories with the world.
 Where the Water Meets the Sky

Where the Water Meets the Sky

From writer-producer Madonna comes the premiere of I Am Because We Are, a call to action about Africa’s Malawi orphans. Also on Sundance, French filmmaker Andre Techine's drama The Witness followed by writer-director Thom Fitzgerald’s The Event, starring Parker Posey as an assistant D.A. investigating the deaths of AIDS patients in NY. Showtime’s programming starts with the Emily Abt documentary, All of Us, about the Ethiopian-American HIV/AIDS activist Dr. Mehret Mandefro and his work educating at-risk patients in the Bronx about health, relationships, and the human spirit. Love in a Time of HIV depicts HIV positive people in all walks of life, from a 27 year old in Cape Town, South Africa to a mother and daughter in New York City to a young straight couple in London. BET has joined with Alicia Keys to present a special episode of their signature show, 106 & Park. Keys and special guests will encourage teens to get tested and discuss why knowing your status is so important.  Keys’ organization Keep a Child Alive is dedicated to giving treatment, care and financial support to children and families affected by HIV/AIDS in Africa and India. Her live sold out Nokia show will be available on You Tube at 8pm, for free, also in support of World Aids Day. In an interesting local news story, Cambridge Community Television will darken its Channel 10 and display a continuous scroll of the names of Cambridge, MA community members lost to HIV/AIDS. The names have been collected over the years and community members are urged to call or email names of loved ones and friends lost to the disease. A few times every hour commemorative pieces performed by local artists will be shown as well. Held every year on December 1, World AIDS Day reminds our global community that this epidemic is real, still relevant, and people need to aware of it. For more information on how to get involved with this event check out www.worldaidsday.org.
December 1, 2009

           Communication technology, gender and development in Malawi         
Kaimila-Kanjo, Grace (1992) Communication technology, gender and development in Malawi. Masters thesis, Concordia University.
          Interview with Christine Gorman        
Christine Gorman speaks with senior editor James Stubenrauch and editor-in-chief Diana Mason about the work of nurses in the African country of Malawi.
          Re:Politics - USA        
Oh... you don't say Cathrine:
Spoiler:
Despite Clinton claims, 2012 email had classified marking
Hillary Clinton, from the moment her exclusive use of personal email for government business was exposed, has claimed nothing she sent or received was marked classified at the time.

But a 2012 email released by the State Department appears to challenge that claim because it carries a classified code known as a “portion marking” - and that marking was on the email when it was sent directly to Clinton’s account.

The “C” - which means it was marked classified at the confidential level - is in the left-hand-margin and relates to an April 2012 phone call with Malawi's first female president, Joyce Banda, who took power after the death of President Mutharika in 2012.

"(C) Purpose of Call: to offer condolences on the passing of President Mukharika and congratulate President Banda on her recent swearing in."

Everything after that was fully redacted before it was publicly released by the State Department -- a sign that the information was classified at the time and dealt with sensitive government deliberations.

A US government source said there are other Clinton emails with classified markings, or marked classified, beyond the April 2012 document.

A January 2014 federal government training manual, called "Marking Classified National Security Information," provides a step-by-step guide for reviewing classified information, and allocating classified codes or "portion markings."

"This system requires that standard markings be applied to classified information...Markings shall be uniformly and conspicuously applied to leave no doubt about the classified status of the information, the level of protection required, and the duration of classification."

It adds, "A portion is ordinarily defined as a paragraph, but also includes subjects, titles, graphics, tables, charts, bullet statements, sub-paragraphs, classified signature blocks, bullets and other portions within slide presentations, and the like."

"Portion markings consist of the letters “(U)” for Unclassified, “(C)” for Confidential, “(S)” for Secret, and “(TS)” for Top Secret."

Congressman Mike Pompeo, who sits on the House Intelligence Committee, has read the 22 Top Secret emails too damaging to national security to release, and routinely reviews classified documents.

While he could not speak directly to the April 2012 email, he said, "I've seen information like that often. Often certain parts of a particular message will be unclassified and other parts will be classified and they are almost always marked paragraph by paragraph."

Pompeo added, “If, in fact, it is truly marked confidential that would.. and she read it, that made it to her, that would conflict with what she had previously said."

On Wednesday, Clinton told Bret Baier on Special Report, “the fact is, nothing that I sent or received was marked classified, and nothing has been demonstrated to contradict that. “

Meantime, Clinton confidante Sidney Blumenthal, who spoke to Fox News as part of a book tour to promote his new biolgraphy, "A Self-Made Man: The Political Life of Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1849,"said that the Romanian hacker known as Guccifer -- who claimed to breach Clinton's personal server - may have worked for foreign intelligence.

"Marcel Lazar is a Romanian. He worked from a Russian server. He may well be part of a Russian information operation," Blumenthal explained.

While he said there's no way Lazar compromised Clinton's emails, the hacker told Fox News in a telephone interview before reaching a plea deal with the Justice Department that it was "easy for me, for everybody” to access the Clinton server.

Given more than 2,100 classified emails were on the server, Fox asked Blumenthal if he had a security clearance to handle such material. "I was her friend, and I had no security clearance, nor did I seek it, nor did anyone ever send me anything that was classified. So I had no access to, nor did I send or receive any classified material."

Blumenthal said he expects FBI Director James Comey to publicly confirm that Clinton and her aides did not deliberately compromise the nation's secrets.

"This is the question that is at the center of the Department of Justice FBI investigation: Whether anybody had intent, criminal intent to put classified information outside of the system. I believe that was not the case, and I think then, that we will see a statement coming from the FBI stating that, saying that... I assume that the FBI has an interest in - James Comey, the FBI Director has an interest in acting promptly to resolve this remaining question. But I feel confident about the resolution, " Blumenthal said.

Asked about the April 2012 email, and how the campaign could reconcile the classified marking with Clinton’s public statements, spokesman Brian Fallon did not directly address the issue. "This email was just a request for Secretary Clinton to make a phone call to express condolences over the passing of the President of Malawi. The fact that this email was classified after the fact suggests again that agencies in the government tend to err on the side of classifying even routine matters of diplomacy."

Intent doesn't matter Blumenthal.

Seems to me that the FBI investigation is leaking already...

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Originally posted by the Coalition Against Tyhphoid. 

The abuse and misuse of antibiotics has led to the creation of bacterial strains that are resistant to standard medication, requiring more expensive and risky treatments for some diseases. Typhoid, a bacterial infection transmitted through contaminated food and water, is one of those diseases.

Typhoid is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi and kills more than 200,000 people each year. The H58 strain of Salmonella typhi is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria that has emerged over the past 20 years. Originating in Southern Asia, H58 can now be found in areas in sub-Saharan Africa that were previously not typhoid endemic. Since the emergence of this strain, MDR typhoid has skyrocketed in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, a study conducted by the Wellcome Trust in Malawi found MDR typhoid cases increased from 6.8 percent in 2010 to 97 percent in 2014. Genomic sequencing revealed that 47 percent of the MDR strains were a direct result of the H58 strain of typhoidOriginally ou

A similar study in Kenya covering 20 years of blood culture isolates (isolates are pure parts of a bacteria that have been “isolated” through the blood culture process in order to be analyzed for sensitivity to antibiotics) showed that 73.3 percent of isolates were able to be treated by antibiotics prior to 1993. But within the last seven years, this has changed, with only 22.8 percent of isolates able to be treated by antibiotics. The influx of MDR typhoid in Kenya is also attributed to the spread of H58.

MDR bacteria is not new to the global health community. The most well-known examples of a disease becoming resistant to first-line antibiotics are MDR tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Despite the emergence of these dangerous strains, global investment in tuberculosis has primarily focused on treatment, rather than prevention, to control the disease. Treatment for MDR-TB is now 50 to 200 times more expensive and the disease takes three times longer to cure than normal tuberculosis.

The typhoid community must learn from the tuberculosis experience. Without preemptive action, MDR typhoid could be the next deadly threat to global health. The current trends of H58 typhoid transmission show that this strain is not only stable, but also being transmitted to new countries. Typhoid can and must be addressed in a preventative manner to restrict the spread of MDR strains. Vaccines are available to prevent typhoid, but are currently underutilized in endemic countries. These vaccines, along with a new conjugate vaccine currently in development, have the potential to stop the spread of MDR strains and reduce the cost, impact and human suffering brought about by the disease.

The growing problem of drug resistance is finally getting the attention it deserves at a global level. At last year’s World Health Assembly, a Global Action Plan for Antimicrobial Resistance was launched. In April at a United Nations assembly, leaders discussed the implications of drug resistance on attaining the Sustainable Development Goals. The upcoming United National General Assembly in September will feature discussion of the system-wide reform needed to address the increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance.

This global attention is essential; however, more is needed. Beyond international meetings and the creation of new action plans, the global community must invest in surveillance, prevention and education to track transmission patterns and target intervention to high-risk groups. These measures are essential to stop the advancement of MDR typhoid to additional communities and countries, and to ensure it does not become a worldwide threat.


          Strain Review - Malawi Gold and Lashkar Gah        

If you manage to lay your hands on some genuine Malawi Gold from East Africa, lucky you. It’s a rare commodity these days as most of the stuff is cultivated domestically, though is never quite the same as the real deal. The reason being that traditionally, Malawi Gold has always been cured by being wrapped tightly in banana leaves. The result is an aroma, texture, taste and overall quality that’s really hard to get right yourself – even if you do stock up on banana leaves. Nevertheless, however you grow, cure and consume Malawi Gold, you’ll be more then glad you made the effort – it’s a wicked Sativa strain.

 

The fragrance is one that brings together plenty of sweet fruitiness, with a tropical freshness that’s immediately uplifting. The same can also be said on all accounts for the flavour, which is underpinned by a very slight bitterness that adds a little extra depth. In medical cannabis circles, Malawi Gold has made a name for itself in the treatment of poor appetite, stress and anxiety. As for recreational use, Malawi Gold hits hard with an instant uplifting high that often develops into insatiable laughter. Suffice to say, it’s just about as good as a strain gets for social occasions.

 

This is a pure Sativa strain and therefore demands a good amount of space if looking to grow at home. The plants tower in height and have flowering times that can go on as long as 15 weeks. On the plus side, if you have the space and the patience to stick with it, you might well be rewarded with glorious buds up to 60cm in length. THC concentrations go as high as 18% and yields often top 750g for every square metre. On the downside, it can be tricky to provide them with optimum growing conditions and it’s a challenge to balance the humidity Malawi Gold craves, without running the risk of mould and mildew.

 

Lashkar Gah
If you’re out for a pure Indica strain that’s easy to grow, a joy to smoke and never overpowering, chances are you’ll be right at home with Lashkar Gah. A direct descendant of the legendary Landrace strain, Lashkar Gah takes its name from the region in Afghanistan it originally came from.

 

On the nose, Lashkar Gah is all about those classic, pungent and unmistakable earthy tones, with a good dose of spice and a hint of fresh pine. All of these notes translate beautifully when smoked, with predominantly skunky flavour profile and a lingering aftertaste. Though intense and heavy, the smoke is also surprisingly refreshing with a very light citrus back-note.

 

Perhaps the best way of describing the high to expect from Lashkar Gah is ‘consistent’. Far from the rollercoaster ride of ups and downs you’d expect elsewhere, a good few hits will gradually bring on a sense of complete and utter contentment, along with the kind of body and mind sedation that’s pure Heaven. The effect on the body is powerful, but made so much more pleasant with a feeling of peace and serenity that relaxes the heart, soul and mind. THC concentrations in the region of 12% make Lashkar Gah a light and controllable choice for newcomers and seasoned cannabis users alike.

 

In medical circles, Lashkar Gah has built a strong name for itself as an effective treatment for anxiety, stress, insomnia and muscle pains.

 

Home growers will need to provide Lashkar Gah plants with plenty of light and warmth for optimum yields, similar to those of its native Afghanistan. As such, outdoor growing is pretty much out of the question, unless you happen to live somewhere consistently warm and sunny. Still, give it what it needs and you can expect yields in the region of 450g for every square metre, not to mention a final product that’s nothing short of moreish.

 

 

 

 

 


          #StopXenophobia - Jane Linley-Thomas cries        
East Coast Radio — Jane Linley-Thomas interviewed a Malawian man living in Durban who is terrified for his life following this week's barbaric xenophobic attacks. Jane cannot hold back her tears at the end, as she hears about the hardships and heartbreak he, and others like him, are going through.
          Religion News Summary: Hurricanes Are Not Caused by Marriage Equality Elections        

GLAAD’s Religion, Faith & Values program works to elevate LGBT-affirming voices of faith in mainstream, regional, and community media. To find out more, visit www.glaad.org/faith. For additional religion and faith updates, be sure to subscribe via our online registration form. We welcome suggestions at faith@glaad.org.

After Hurricane Sandy (which was totally not God’s punishment for marriage equality), the LGBT Religion News Summary is back! Election Day was an amazing moment in LGBT history, and leaders from diverse faith traditions spoke out in support of marriage equality across the country: Catholics in Maine, the nephew of Harvey Milk, a Baptist minister in Maryland, and Methodists in Minnesota.

Read more election news on GLAAD’s website.

While religious advocates for equality celebrated the progress made in the U.S. after the election, a stunning article about the underground gay community in Pakistan that has no legal protection against hate crimes, and a story about a gay Muslim Indonesian man highlight the work that still remains, both domestically and abroad.  

Check out what our Director of Religion, Faith, and Values had to say about an article about the ex-gay movement that appeared in the New York Times.

The documentary about Bishop Gene Robinson—Live Free or Die—made its television debut on PBS. Bishop Robinson (who just got an award!) will be retiring at the end of the year to work in D.C. Meanwhile, the Diocese of South Carolina succeeded from the Episcopal Church recently over the issue of same-sex blessings and gay ordination. In other news, a Jewish day school severed its charter with the Boy Scouts because of the organization’s policy against gay troop leaders, a gay seminarian left the Methodist church so he could be a pastor, and a Muslim man placed third in Mr. Gay Netherlands.

 

Baptist

Black Churches

Catholic

Christian

Episcopal

Evangelical

International

Jewish

Lutheran

Marriage Equality

Methodist

Metropolitan Community Churches

Mormon

Muslim

Presbyterian

Seventh Day Adventist

Unitarian Universalist

United Church of Christ

November 20, 2012
Issues: 

           Financial liberalization and industry structure nexus: an investigation using dynamic heterogeneous panels from Malawian data         
Kabango, Grant Peter (2009) Financial liberalization and industry structure nexus: an investigation using dynamic heterogeneous panels from Malawian data. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow.
          UN Women Announces 16 Steps Policy Agenda | Say NO - UNiTE        
UN Women Announces 16 Steps Policy Agenda | Say NO - UNiTE


In her first message for the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, since UN Women became operational earlier this year, Executive Director of UN Women, Michelle Bachelet outlines a comprehensive policy agenda to end violence against women globally. Focusing on the three critical pillars of prevention, protection and provision of services, Ms. Bachelet’s call for action, urges world leaders to mobilize political will and investment to ensure that women can live a life without violence.

16 Steps Policy Agenda to End Violence against Women

1. Ratify international and regional treaties …
that protect the rights of women and girls, and ensure that national laws and services meet international human rights standards.
2. Adopt and enforce laws…
to end impunity, bring perpetrators of violence against women and girls to justice and provide women with reparations and remedy for the violations perpetrated against them.
3. Develop national and local action plans…
for ending violence against women and girls in every country that bring the government, women’s and other civil society organizations, the mass media and the private sector into a coordinated, collective front against such human rights violations.
4. Make justice accessible to women and girls …
by providing free legal and specialized services, and increasing women in law enforcement and frontline services.
5. End impunity towards conflict-related sexual violence …
by prosecuting perpetrators in conflict and post-conflict contexts and fulfilling survivors’ right to comprehensive reparations programmes that are non-stigmatizing and have a transformative impact on women and girls’ lives.
6. Ensure universal access to critical services…
at a minimum, women’s and girls’ emergency and immediate needs should be met through free 24-hour hotlines, prompt intervention for their safety and protection, safe housing and shelter for them and their children, counseling and psycho-social support, post-rape care, and free legal aid to understand their rights and options.
7. Train providers of frontline services…
especially the police, lawyers and judges, social workers and health personnel to ensure that they follow quality standards and protocols. Services should be confidential, sensitive and convenient to women survivors.
8. Provide adequate public resources…
to implement existing laws and policies, recognizing the devastating costs and consequences of violence against women not only for the lives directly affected, but to society and the economy at large, and to public budgets.
9. Collect, analyze and disseminate national data…
on prevalence, causes and consequences of violence against women and girls, profiles of survivors and perpetrators, and progress and gaps in the implementation of national policies, plans and laws.
  • Gender-based violence study in Morocco reveals that approximately 60 percent of Moroccan women have experienced some form of violence recently, and violence against women is three times more likely in urban areas than in rural ones.
  • Together for Girls, a global effort to prevent sexual violence against girls, of which UN Women is a partner, makes an urgent call for national surveys. The alarming finding in Swaziland—one-third of girls have experienced sexual violence—spurred a national education campaign, strengthening of the capacity of police to respond to sexual violence, and the establishment of a child-friendly court. For more information about Together for Girls, click here.
  • Access data on prevalence, laws and more at Progress of the World’s Women and Violence against Women Prevalence Data: Surveys by Country.
10. Invest in gender equality and women’s empowerment…
to tackle the root causes of violence against women and girls. Strategic areas are girls’ secondary education, advancing women’s reproductive health and rights, addressing the inter-linkages of violence with HIV and AIDS, and increasing women’s political and economic participation and leadership. Gender equality and ending violence against women must be placed squarely at the heart of achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
  • Up to three quarters of women and girls worldwide experience physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. The MDGs and Gender Series cautions, unless violence against women is curbed, meeting all of the eight Millennium Development Goals will be impossible.
11. Enhance women’s economic empowerment…
by ensuring women’s rights to own land and property, to inheritance, equal pay for equal work, and safe and decent employment. Women’s unequal economic and employment opportunities are a major factor in perpetuating their entrapment in situations of violence, exploitation and abuse.
  • In a land torn apart by years of bitter conflict, the daily struggle to survive is an ongoing battle. Feeding the family is a constant challenge. Bread Winner, Bread Maker tells the story of some inspirational women who are bringing hope to thousands in the occupied Palestinian territory.
  • Millions of women work overseas each year and endure abuse and exploitation. On the Move: Nepal’s Women Migrant Workersfight for their rights.
12. Increase public awareness and social mobilization…
to stop violence against women and girls, and to enable women and girls subjected to violence to break the silence and seek justice and support.
  • With over 2 million actions and 600 partners, Say NO – UNiTE to End Violence against Women offers a global platform for information, action and social mobilization. Visit www.saynotoviolence.org and post your action today!
13. Engage the mass media…
 in shaping public opinion and challenging the harmful gender norms that perpetuate violence against women and girls.
14. Work for and with young people as champions of change…
 to end violence against women, and ensure that educational systems empower girls and boys to transform and build gender relations based on harmony, mutual respect and non-violence.
15. Mobilize men and boys…
 of all ages and walks of life to take a stand against violence against women and girls, and foster equality and gender solidarity.
16. Donate to the UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women..
 the only grant-making fund in the world exclusively dedicated to channeling expertise and financial support to national, local and grassroots efforts.
  • It’s the 15th anniversary of the UN Trust Fund—since its establishment, the UN Trust Fund has supported 339 programmes in 127 countries and territories, relying on voluntary contributions. Please help us make the world a safer place for women and girls by sending a donation today!

Related links: Download the 16 Steps to End Violence against Women.



          Dartmouth Backtracks On Tengatenga Appointment        
The appointment of Malawi bishop Dr. James Tengatenga as dean of Dartmouth College’s Tucker Foundation has been rescinded, amid criticism of Tengatenga’s previous statements against homosexuality. Dartmouth president Philip Hanlon said in a statement that the growing concern over Tengatenga’s appointment made him rethink the decision to hire the Anglican bishop to lead the college’s social justice foundation. Hanlon wrote, “…It has become clear to me that Dr. Tengatenga’s past comments about homosexuality and the uncertainty and controversy they created have compromised his ability to serve effectively as dean of Tucker.” The Anglican bishop opposed the 2003 election of openly gay N.H. Bishop Gene Robinson and spoke out against homosexuality. He has since portrayed himself as a mediator between increasingly inclusive Western churches and the anti-gay tradition of African churches and said that his views on homosexuality have evolved.
          TB Joshua in trouble over Ex malawi president's death        

Former ruling party in Malawi are currently pushing for the Probe of TB Joshua over the death of his friend and the late President of Malawi, Bingu wa Mutharika. www.naijanelly.blogspot.com

Late Mutharika Is A Frequent TB Joshua's Visitor
In a report from Nyasa Times, President Joyce Banda announced an inquiry to probe the circumstances around the controversial leader's death on April 5, including the medical attention he received. TB Joshua prophesised Mutharika's death. The new Malawian leader frequents Nigeria to visit the prophet.

DPP spokesman Nicholas Dausi, has insisted that TB Joshua should be quizzed. Mutharika died in a sudden cardiac failure on April 5 exactly two months before this date in which TB Joshua said an old African president would die in two months' time.

"We must find out how he can foretell those things," Dausi, Mwanza Central MP told Parliament. According to Saint Francis of Assisi, thus not Godly. It is not an exhaustible instrument of life," said Dausi, known for his penchant of quoting medieval or great authors and academicians.

Dausi made the call during his contribution to the budget statement, saying Malawians should also take interest on how some TV stations like Emmanuel TV and TB Joshua knew of Mutharika's demise.

DPP leader in Parliament Dr George Chaponda is on record telling the House that the probe should "include interviewing those who were celebrating after the death of the late President and slaughtering cows."

Chaponda said the inquiry committee should be independent and come out with objective findings and will not be used as an instrument for impunity or retribution." But the Mutharika family led by Bingu's brother, Thyolo East DPP MP Peter Mutharika, has rejected an inquiry, saying facts around his death after a heart attack were already known.

New Malawian President Banda Supports TB Joshua Probe Peter Mutharika said the probe is "nonsensical" and that it was an "unjustified satanic mechanisation to advance personal and political agendas". But President Banda has justified the probe said the late president was no longer a family member but a Head of State.

"All we are trying is to find out what happened, not who killed him. Is there anything we could have done to avoid his death, did he receive enough attention, why were there three different signs of date of death?" said Banda.

Sources say Mutharika family want to sweep under the carpet some "embarrassing" private issues surrounding the late president's death and the failed plot to install Peter as Head of State

.(credit: Nyasa Times)

It looks like Mr TB is using all his prophecies to get relevance or something.

There should be limit to everything in life.

There are some prophecies you don't tell if God is not releasing you to.
Sent from my BlackBerry wireless device from MTN

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           Almost 70 public servants fired for corruption in Malawi         
Agricultural ministry employees have been accused of having run a scheme of inflated salaries or payments for nonexistent workers between 2012 and 2014
          US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen        

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen : Photo Gallery

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN
US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen. Ng Eng Hen

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN
US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN
US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN
US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN
US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN
US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN
US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN
US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen

Cutting Navy While Obama Pivots To Asia Does Not Add Up
Cutting Navy While Obama Pivots To Asia Does Not Add Up

Cutting Navy While Obama Pivots To Asia Does Not Add Up

Cutting Navy While Obama Pivots To Asia Does Not Add Up

WASHINGTON: The US plays a

SeaWaves Magazine
SeaWaves Magazine

SeaWaves Magazine

SeaWaves Magazine

Ng is in the United States on

List of Singaporeans
List of Singaporeans

List of Singaporeans

List of Singaporeans

Ng Eng Hen said Dr Patrick Tan

Pacific Sentinel
Pacific Sentinel

Pacific Sentinel

Pacific Sentinel

The US plays a "dominant role"

Be 'Dominant' In Pacific, But Make Nice With PRC, Singaporean MoD ...
Be 'Dominant' In Pacific, But Make Nice With PRC, Singaporean MoD ...

Be 'Dominant' In Pacific, But Make Nice With PRC, Singaporean MoD ...

Be 'Dominant' In Pacific, But Make Nice With PRC, Singaporean MoD ...

To Asia Does Not Add Up

Property Highlights of Singapore: 10 October 2007
Property Highlights of Singapore: 10 October 2007

Property Highlights of Singapore: 10 October 2007

Property Highlights of Singapore: 10 October 2007

MANPOWER Minister Ng Eng Hen

Does US Navy Need More Ships to Counter China?
Does US Navy Need More Ships to Counter China?

Does US Navy Need More Ships to Counter China?

Does US Navy Need More Ships to Counter China?

United States diplomatic

North America - LM Receives $1.05… - Navy Begins… - Canada's Sweet ...
North America - LM Receives $1.05… - Navy Begins… - Canada's Sweet ...

North America - LM Receives $1.05… - Navy Begins… - Canada's Sweet ...

North America - LM Receives $1.05… - Navy Begins… - Canada's Sweet ...

which he said showed U.S.

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN
US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

US EXPECTED TO KEEP UP ASIAN MILITARY PRESENCE: NG ENG HEN

Singapore welcomes the United States' continuing commitment to the Asia-Pacific, visiting Defence Minister Ng Eng Hen has said, noting that he thought the US would keep up its presence even in the face of proposed defence budget cuts.

US expected to keep up Asian military presence: Ng Eng Hen : Videos

Part 1 - The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (Chs 01-03)
Part 1 - The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (Chs 01-03)

Part 1 - The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (Chs 01-03)

met sy voete, hy gooi sy kop, hy wieg en swaai heen en weer, hy het 'n verskrompelde-up gesiggie, onweerstaanbaar komiese, en, toe hy' n ... Rated: 3.1632652     Duration: 7012 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Tue, 06 Dec 2011 15:00:08 PST

Part 2-B - Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift (Chs 05-08)
Part 2-B - Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift (Chs 05-08)

Part 2-B - Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift (Chs 05-08)

het ernstig berispe om die tuinier op grond van sy hond. Maar die ding was 'n gedempte up, en nog nooit bekend by die hof, vir die meisie was ... Rated: 3.2222223     Duration: 5570 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Wed, 13 Jul 2011 06:53:52 PDT

Part 1 (Chs 01-07) - A Room with a View by EM Forster
Part 1 (Chs 01-07) - A Room with a View by EM Forster

Part 1 (Chs 01-07) - A Room with a View by EM Forster

te help, "sê Mej Bartlett. "So jy dink ek behoort hul aanbod aanvaar het? Jy voel ek eng en verdagte is? " "Glad nie," ... Rated: 2.8285713     Duration: 9699 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Mon, 28 Nov 2011 09:25:35 PST

Part 09 - Sons and Lovers by DH Lawrence (Ch 13)
Part 09 - Sons and Lovers by DH Lawrence (Ch 13)

Part 09 - Sons and Lovers by DH Lawrence (Ch 13)

weet nie. Liefde maak versmoor my in die dag. " "Maar dit is nie nodig wees altyd lief-up," het sy gesê. "Dit is altyd is ... Rated: 1.6153846     Duration: 5961 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 02 Dec 2011 01:54:25 PST

Adventure 04 - The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Adventure 04 - The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Adventure 04 - The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

, is nou vertel al die bestellings te kry vir vlieg- papier en vir bewaring van jou hen- fazant se lewe. " As ek loer uit die lees van ... Rated: 4.030303     Duration: 2386 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Sun, 12 Jun 2011 16:53:41 PDT

Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars
Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars

Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars

director Tyler that's gig. Kardashian's up, saw set added misses friendship. *eyebrows aised* then looked camera Kim, "Keep chin up ... Rated: 1.7115717     Duration: 58 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 15 Apr 2011 10:18:37 PDT

Tanya Roberts Outrageous Love & Friendship Sam Botta-Live Fearless-Chris Shining,Executive Producer
Tanya Roberts Outrageous Love & Friendship Sam Botta-Live Fearless-Chris Shining,Executive Producer

Tanya Roberts Outrageous Love & Friendship Sam Botta-Live Fearless-Chris Shining,Executive Producer

Tanya Roberts: My man died 18 months ago after 25 years of a beautiful marriage, I grew up with him, and he did adore me, I adored him, and that ... Rated: 1.9666137     Duration: 54 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 10 Feb 2012 03:34:03 PST

Part 9 - Chapter 43 - A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court by Mark Twain
Part 9 - Chapter 43 - A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court by Mark Twain

Part 9 - Chapter 43 - A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court by Mark Twain

was marsjeer teen ons! Voorwaar, dit was meer as wat ek gereken het. Ek het my 52 seuns eng, kyk hoe hulle gesigte, hul wandel, hul bewusteloos ... Rated: 5     Duration: 1629 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Sun, 27 Nov 2011 10:09:46 PST

Part 1 - The War of the Worlds by HG Wells (Book 1 - Chs 1-12)
Part 1 - The War of the Worlds by HG Wells (Book 1 - Chs 1-12)

Part 1 - The War of the Worlds by HG Wells (Book 1 - Chs 1-12)

bekommernisse hulle is onder die loep geneem het en bestudeer, miskien amper so eng as 'n man met 'n mikroskoop kan bestudeer die ... Rated: 3.3     Duration: 7961 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Mon, 06 Feb 2012 22:38:25 PST

Part 3 - The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper (Chs 11-14)
Part 3 - The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper (Chs 11-14)

Part 3 - The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper (Chs 11-14)

aan die suidelike beëindiging. Op 'n strook van die land, wat verskyn uit sy stand te eng is om so' n leër te bevat, maar wat in waarheid ... Rated: 3.3703704     Duration: 8299 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Mon, 14 Nov 2011 14:38:31 PST

Part 8 - The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (Chs 29-31)
Part 8 - The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (Chs 29-31)

Part 8 - The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (Chs 29-31)

, meneer. Ek is 'n eerlike man, en ek is sterk en gewillig - " Die ander was eying hom eng. "Het jy drink?" Het hy gevra. " ... Rated: 2.925926     Duration: 6364 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Tue, 06 Dec 2011 13:11:22 PST

Part 4 - Triplanetary by EE Smith (Chs 13-17)
Part 4 - Triplanetary by EE Smith (Chs 13-17)

Part 4 - Triplanetary by EE Smith (Chs 13-17)

hom 'n bietjie trek? " "Nog nie, laat voel hom 'n bietjie voor ons dwing om 'n close-up. Ons het baie van die massa. Kyk wat ... Rated: 2.1707318     Duration: 8369 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Tue, 07 Feb 2012 01:21:05 PST

Part 3 - Tess of the dUrbervilles by Thomas Hardy (Chs 15-23)
Part 3 - Tess of the dUrbervilles by Thomas Hardy (Chs 15-23)

Part 3 - Tess of the dUrbervilles by Thomas Hardy (Chs 15-23)

en dit speel die harp - nooit sê baie vir ons. Hy is 'n pa'son se seun, en is te veel up wi sy eie gedagtes om meisies op te let. Hy is ... Rated: 2.9534883     Duration: 8037 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Wed, 05 Oct 2011 18:43:26 PDT

Part 1 - The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper (Chs 01-05)
Part 1 - The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper (Chs 01-05)

Part 1 - The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper (Chs 01-05)

is nie meer waar nie, en dit is die waarste ding in die natuur. Hulle noem hierdie up-stroom die gety, wat is 'n ding gou verduidelik, en ... Rated: 2.9024391     Duration: 7818 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Mon, 14 Nov 2011 14:09:51 PST

Part 06 - The Man in the Iron Mask by Alexandre Dumas (Chs 30-35)
Part 06 - The Man in the Iron Mask by Alexandre Dumas (Chs 30-35)

Part 06 - The Man in the Iron Mask by Alexandre Dumas (Chs 30-35)

sterf as jy wil, maar nie sonder eer en sonder voordeel na Frankryk sterf nie. Cheer up, Raoul! nie laat my woorde treur jy, ek is lief vir jou en ... Rated: 3.4     Duration: 7375 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Sun, 04 Dec 2011 01:15:08 PST

          Madonna darf zwei weitere Kinder adoptieren        
Madonna will offenbar zwei Töchter aus Malawi adoptieren. Die Behörden haben ihr dafür nun offiziell die Erlaubnis gegeben. Die Sängerin wäre dann sechsfache Mutter.
          Madonnas Malawi-Connection        
Vier Kinder hat sie bereits, nun will Popstar Madonna weitere Kinder im afrikanischen Malawi adoptieren - sagt jedenfalls ein Sprecher der dortigen Justiz. Die Version der Sängerin klingt jedoch anders.
          Erpressung statt Freundlichkeit        
Sie kommt unangekündigt. Sie nimmt sich selbst zu wichtig. Ihre Projekte scheitern. Für ihre Wohltätigkeitsarbeit in Malawi ist Madonna bereits mehrfach kritisiert worden. Nun spricht die Regierung des afrikanischen Landes von Erpressung. Die Popdiva vermutet eine Kampagne.
          â€žSie ließ Arme für sich tanzen“        
Madonna wollte ihren Adoptivkindern deren Heimat Malawi zeigen und nach ihren Schulprojekten sehen - von dem Besuch war die Regierung gar nicht begeistert. Am Ende behandelten die Behörden die Popdiva nur noch wie eine gewöhnliche Touristin: VIP-Status ade.
          Nyheter i lager        
Malawi: Placidochromis   phenochilus whitelips Mdoka 8-10cm Ps. saulosi 5-7cm Aul. sp. firefish 8-10cm Labeotropheus fulleborni Katale OB +M-cat 8-10cm Lab. trewavasae F1 white belly Chiufo 8-10cm Tropheops OB+ M-cat Crocodile rocks 8-10cm Metriaclima zebra Yellow Tanzania OB+M-cat 8-10cm Metr. zebra Redtop yellow chin Lundo OB+M-cat 8-10cm Cynotilapia afra Eduardi 5-7cm Copadichromis azereus Mbenji 6-10cm …
          Nytt i lager        
Malawi: Lab. golden 5-7cm Ps. demasoni 4-5cm C. moori 5-6cm Ps socoloffi 5-7cm Tropheops redtop Chilumba 5-7cm Mel. johanni estern 6-7cm Copadichromis azereus Mbenji VF. 8-12cm Ps. saulosi 6-7cm S. fryeri OB. 8-10cm Metriaclima zebra gul Tanzania M-cat+OB hona 7-10cm Tanganyika: Tropheus Bulu Point ”körsbär” F1 5-6cm Mastacembelus 10-15cm Tropheus Pemba orange 5-6cm Enantiopus Kilesa …
          Nytt i lager        
Malawi: Otopharynx tetrastigma 6-8cm Copadichromis mloto fluorecent 7-10cm Metriaclima zebra Mbenji M-cat+ OB hona 8-12cm Labeotropheus trewavasae ”whitebelly ”Chiufo OB-hona VF. hane 7-10cm Tanganyika: Ctenochromis horei 6-8cm Tropheus Ikola ”kejsare” F1 6-7cm Tropheus ”bärnsten” Kasakalawe 7-10cm Tropheus Maswa F1 4-6cm Tropheus moori orange Pemba 4-6cm Xenotilapia papilio Masalaba 4-6cm Haplochromis burtoni 5-7cm Paracyprichromis nigripinnis blue …
          Lista pÃ¥ nya fiskar + Malawirea        
Malawi: Labidichromis caruleus ” golden” 6-9cm Pseudotropheus saulosi 6-8cm Tanganyika: Altolamprologus calvus black Lupota VF. 6-8cm Altolamprologus compressiceps goldhead Kambwimba VF. 6-8cm Julidochromis dickfeldi Moliro VF. 6-8cm Lepidolamprologus kendalli Kasanga VF. 9-12cm Tropheus moori red rainbow ”blue blaze” Kasanga VF. 7-10cm Synodontis Polli white 8-10cm Synodontis petricola 8-10cm Neolamprologus caudopunctatus yellow Kapampa 4-5cm Andra ciklider: Geophagus …
          Fisklista        
Malawi: Labeotropheus fuelleborni Tchalo 5-7cm Ps. saulosi 4-6cm Protomelas spilonotus ”Chiriwa! 7-9cm Metriaclima zebra Kawanga gold F1. 5-6cm Pseudotropheus elongatus Chailosi 5-6cm Aulonocara Usisya 6-7cm Labidochromis Hongi ”sunflower” 7-10cm Labeotropheus trewavasae occra 7-10cm Cyrtocara moori 15-20cm Aul. sp. firefish 6-8cm superred. Aul. röd OB. superred. 6-8cm Aulonocara Mbenji 8-10cm Dimidochromis compressiceps 5-6 och 8-10cm Nimbochromis linni …
          Masuka Bwenji!! — Blantyre, Malawi        
Around the world in about 350 days
          14 July 2014 – Big Lottery Fund Awards £4.2m for International Projects        

The Big Lottery Fund’s International Communities Programme has awarded £4.2 million to nine UK-based not-for-profit organisations in support of their work in disadvantaged communities abroad. The funding will support projects in Columbia, Honduras, Liberia, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, Sierra Leone, DR Congo, and Namibia. One of the organisations to benefit from this week’s funding is Children […]

The post 14 July 2014 – Big Lottery Fund Awards £4.2m for International Projects appeared first on Make it happen.


          June 2011 Highlights        
Interim editor-in-chief Shawn Kennedy and clinical editor Christine Moffa discuss the highlights of the June issue of the American Journal of Nursing, which features two CE articles:  original research of nurses’ attitudes towards advocating for safe practices that was used to support passage of whistleblower protections in Nevada, and a review of the evidence around menopausal hormone therapy.  Other articles include a piece on the rise of pertussis infections, and article on managing Kawasaki Disease, a piece on improving the nursing workforce in Malawi, a historical piece on the Italian device to protect the identify of unwed mothers giving their children up for adoption, and of course, News, Drug Watch, Art of Nursing, and Reflections. There’s also a podcast with the nurses portrayed on our cover – Anne Mitchell and Vicki Galle - the Texas nurses who were arrested for whistleblowing against unsafe medical practice.
          June 2009 Highlights        
Editor-in-chief Diana Mason presents the highlights of the June issue of AJN. There are two featured CE articles: a comprehensive article on pulse oximetry guidelines, and a case study on asphyxia due to inspissated secretions, along with a review of poor oral hygiene in long-term care. Other features include a photo essay on Malawi, Africa, including an audio interview with the photojournalist Christine Gorman, and news reports on retail clinics appealing to the underinsured, school nurses responding to the influenza A (H1N1) outbreak, new studies on reproductive cancer screening, and more.
          Let’s Count the Lies in Christie’s Attack on Clinton        

In his convention speech Tuesday night, New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie roused the Republican delegates with a bill of indictment against Hillary Clinton’s record and character as the nation’s top diplomat. He was clearly staking his bid for a Cabinet post in the Trump administration, but his reading seemed more like an audition for the role of Reverend Parris in a summer-stock production of The Crucible.

“Lock her up!” “Burn the witch at the stake!” roared the crowds that night, as they had the night before, and Christie fit right in.

But let’s examine his monologue in a way that no one else, least of all Christie, has done: as a serious, substantive list of charges. In this light, he wouldn’t make it as an assistant district attorney in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, much less as attorney general of the United States.

Christie began with Libya, a weak spot for the Democratic contender. The U.S. intervention in that country’s civil war, with the resulting ouster of Muammar Qaddafi, did turn out disastrously, and, as secretary of state, Hillary Clinton was the Obama administration’s most avid advocate of supporting the rebels militarily. But it’s over-the-top to pronounce her “guilty,” as Christie did, “for ruining Libya and creating a nest for terrorist activity.”

For one thing, Clinton was far from alone in pushing for armed intervention. Christie didn’t mention this (and I doubt anyone else will this week), but Donald Trump also favored U.S. military action, saying, “If you don’t get rid of Qaddafi, it’s a major, major black eye for this country.” Recall the context: The besieged Qaddafi was threatening to exterminate tens of thousands of his own citizens; the Arab League, in a near-unprecedented move, unanimously beseeched the United States for help; NATO expressed eagerness to dive in; and the U.N. Security Council drafted a resolution.

Obama agreed (yes, with a push from Clinton and National Security Adviser Susan Rice) to send in U.S. air power but only if the European allies, who had more stake in the conflict, restored order and cleaned up afterward. The leaders of France and Italy agreed. The first part of the operation succeeded. The problem was that France and Italy proved unable or unwilling to do their parts in the “post-combat phase.” As a result, the place fell apart, and terrorists moved in to fill the vacuum. But is Libya worse off than it would have been had Qaddafi remained in power? Unclear. Regardless of the answer, is Hillary Clinton to blame for the ensuing anarchy? Marginally, at most.

At least a real debate could be had about Libya. (Not that Christie contributed to one.) The rest of his speech was flooded with falsehoods.

“In Nigeria,” Christie told the crowd, “Hillary Clinton amazingly fought for two years to keep an al-Qaida affiliate off of the terrorist watch list,” and, “as a result of this reckless action by the candidate who is the self-proclaimed champion of women all around the world,” the terrorists abducted hundreds of schoolgirls.

The truth is the Nigerian government, a U.S. ally, strenuously opposed efforts to put Boko Haram—the al-Qaida affiliate—on the watch list, arguing that doing so would elevate the group’s stature. A letter to Secretary of State Clinton, signed by 25 Africa specialists, including the U.S. ambassador to Nigeria under President George W. Bush, urged her not to place the group on the watch list. Doing so, the letter stated, “would internationalize Boko Haram, legitimize abuses by Nigeria’s security services, limit the State Department’s latitude in shaping a long-term strategy, and undermine the U.S. government’s ability to receive effective independent analysis from the region.” There was an internal debate over the matter, but the State Department’s counterterrorism bureau took the Nigerian government’s side.

Even so, in June 2012, Clinton put the three alleged leaders of Boko Haram on the terrorist watch list—which sparked a process leading to the designation of the entire group in 2013, not long after she left government service. In any case, there is no evidence that putting Boko Haram on the watch list earlier would have prevented the abductions.

Christie then moved on to China, claiming that Clinton “praised the Chinese government for buying our debt to finance Barack Obama’s bloated stimulus plan.” Quite apart from the issue of whether the stimulus plan was bloated, this is how debt-financing works, and this particular feature of Chinese-American relations long precedes—and will long follow—Clinton’s tenure as secretary.

Then came Syria where, according to Christie, Clinton lauded President Bashar al-Assad as “a different kind of leader” and “reformer.” Now, Christie added, there are “400,000 dead at the hands of the man that Hillary defended,” betraying herself as “an awful judge of the character of a dictator and butcher.”

Again, Christie distorted the facts. In March 2011, Assad started arresting protesters who were inspired by the Arab Spring. On CBS’ Face the Nation, host Bob Schieffer asked Clinton why the U.S. wasn’t sending in airstrikes, as it had in Libya. After all, Assad’s father had “killed 25,000 people at a lick” in similar circumstances 30 years earlier. Clinton replied (emphasis mine):

Well, if there were a coalition of the international community … the passage of a Security Council resolution … a call by the Arab League … but that’s not going to happen because I don’t think that it’s yet clear what will occur, what will unfold. There is a different leader in Syria now. Many of the members of Congress of both parties who have gone to Syria in recent months have said they believe he’s a reformer.

Two things are worth highlighting. First, Clinton said no one knew how the Syrian protests or Assad’s crackdown would unfold, so talk of airstrikes was premature. Second, she didn’t say that Assad was “a different kind of leader” but rather “a different leader” from his father. (Which was true at the time: He hadn’t yet approached, much less surpassed, Hafez al-Assad in brutality.) Third, she didn’t call Assad a reformer; rather, she quoted members of a bipartisan congressional delegation as calling him a possible reformer.

She was a little off in this assessment. As PolitiFact found in its research, the Democrats on the trip to Syria (including the inveterate optimist then–Sen. John Kerry) came back hopeful about Assad’s leadership; the Republicans were more skeptical. Still, Bashar was Western-educated, seemed to be more civilized than his father; he hadn’t yet revealed his true colors or maybe even decided what they were. Hope was in the air, though it turned out to be illusory. But it’s going way too far to say Hillary Clinton called Assad a reformer.

Then Christie came to his party’s bête noir—the nuclear deal with Iran, which he called “the worst nuclear deal in history … a deal that will lead to a nuclear Iran and an Israel that will be less safe,” a deal that has already made America “less safe and less respected.” This is the season’s big lie since, in fact, the deal has proved successful: Iran has dismantled the vast bulk of its centrifuges, unloaded its enriched uranium, and let in cameras and inspectors, just as the deal mandated. Iran is much farther away from a nuclear bomb and Israel much safer, as a result. (Recent reports of a “secret side-deal” are neither new, secret, nor invalidating of this assessment.)

But the relevant point, in this context, is that Hillary Clinton had nothing to do with the Iran nuclear deal. She helped set up the sanctions against Iran, which, some believe, played a role in bringing Iran to the negotiating table. But it’s not true that she “launched the negotiations,” as Christie put it, nor that she “helped cut” the deal. The talks didn’t begin until after she left the State Department; her successor, John Kerry, ran the talks from start to finish. If this were a trial, any judge would dismiss this count out of hand.

Christie then denounced Clinton for her “reset” policy in Russia, which he claimed “deleted in four years the safety and security it took us to build in 40 years.” Here, Christie was treading on shaky ground, given Trump’s outspoken admiration of Vladimir Putin and his desire to restore U.S.–Russian relations—his own “reset,” plus some.

But Christie was not just impolitic: He was also wrong. For as long as Dmitry Medvedev was Russian president, the reset policy accomplished quite a bit. Washington and Moscow signed the New START nuclear arms-reduction treaty, cooperated in measures to counter terrorism and nuclear proliferation. At Obama’s request, Medvedev even canceled a contract to sell advanced air-defense missiles to Iran, at a considerable financial loss, because the missiles would have made it harder for the United States or Israel to bomb Iran’s nuclear reactors if the showdown with Tehran had come to that. All this went up in smoke with the re-emergence of Putin and his nostalgia for the days of empire. Even so, it’s nutty to say that these renewed tensions, whatever their cause, have “deleted” the gains yielded by 40 years of U.S. security policy.

While he was on the subject of Communist leaders, Christie then claimed Clinton “supported concessions to the Castro brothers” by “ending the embargo” against Cuba while getting “almost nothing in return.” Again, Christie is confused by chronology: The diplomatic gambit to reopen relations with Cuba took place well after Clinton left the State Department. And, in any case, the embargo has not been lifted.

Finally, Christie brought up Clinton’s emails, saying that she “cared more about protecting her own secrets than … protecting America’s secrets” and that “her selfish, awful judgment” made “our secrets vulnerable.” I have already been over this overhyped issue in some detail. Suffice it to say that neither FBI Director James Comey nor any other investigator found the slightest evidence that her email led to the improper disclosure of any secrets. Even the missives containing Top Secret material—all eight of them, only one of which she sent—dealt with matters known to the entire world (CIA drone strikes in Pakistan and Yemen) or not terribly important (a conversation with the president of Malawi).

Christie concluded his speech, as if addressing a jury of her peers, “Time after time, the facts and just the facts lead you to the same verdict. … In Libya, Nigeria: guilty. In China and Syria … ”

 The crowd screamed, “Guilty!”

 â€œIn Iran and Russia and Cuba … ”

“Guilty!” they roared again.

“And here at home, for risking America’s secrets to keep her own and lying to cover it all up … ”

“Guilty!”

Chris Christie had taken the stage 20 minutes earlier with the end of his political career in sight, panting into the final months of his final term as New Jersey governor, saddled with unspeakably low ratings, denied his dream of a spot on the ticket with Trump after months of a lapdog’s humiliation. He mustered his case for the candidate nonetheless, on an issue about which he knows next to nothing, and incited the mob passion despite his placement on the schedule just before 10 p.m. That is, just before the three networks started covering the proceedings, a prime time that Trump had allotted to his least-known son and Ben Carson—Carson, of all Trump’s discarded rivals!—who wound up straying off-script to denounce Hillary Clinton as a disciple of Lucifer, outdoing even Christie’s gamest efforts at pandering.

If Trump is elected president, he might nominate Christie to be his attorney general. If Clinton is elected, we may never hear of Chris Christie again. As Christie said, at one point in his speech, “You’re the ones who will decide.”

Read more Slate coverage of the 2016 campaign.


          The Hillary Clinton Email Scandal Was Totally Overblown        

The fuss over Hillary Clinton’s email has now proved to be one of the most overhyped news stories of this overhyped news season. Look at Tuesday’s statement by FBI Director James Comey. Ignore his self-righteous, scolding tone. Read the facts he’s uncovered, place them in context, and the conclusion is inescapable: As Gertrude Stein once said of Oakland, California, there’s no there there.

Let’s review the numbers.

Examining the 30,000 emails that Clinton turned over, the FBI agents found 110—the back and forth of 52 email chains—that contained classified information. Of these, just eight had material that she should have known was “top secret”; 36 of them had “secret” information; and eight more had stuff that she should have been known was “confidential.”

The agents also scrounged through the bits and pieces of 30,000 more emails that she didn’t turn over and found three—three!—that contained classified information: one secret and two confidential.

About those first 30,000 emails, the ones Clinton turned over, the FBI handed them out to auditors at other agencies that might have an interest in the matter, and after months of review they “up-classified” 2,000 emails to confidential. In other words, when Clinton wrote or received those 2,000 emails, she and her correspondents would have had no reason to suspect they were jotting down classified facts. But the reviewers have declared them classified retroactively. Your taxpayer dollars at work.

As anyone who’s ever had a security clearance will tell you, the labels secret and confidential mean next to nothing. When I worked on Capitol Hill in the late 1970s, the government gave me a secret clearance on my first day of work, pending the investigation into my worthiness to hold a top secret badge. As far as anyone knew, I might have been a Soviet spy, carting out confidential and secret documents every night and making copies for my handler. But they also knew the risk was low because there was nothing in those documents that the Soviets would have paid a dime for. The same is true of our various adversaries and stuff marked secret today.

Top secret information is another matter, but the stuff that showed up in Clinton’s private email wasn’t so special. Seven of the eight email chains dealt with CIA drone strikes, which are classified top secret/special access program—unlike Defense Department drone strikes, which are unclassified. The difference is that CIA drones hit targets in countries, like Pakistan and Yemen, where we are not officially at war; they are part of covert operations. (Defense Department drone strikes are in places where we are officially at war.) But these operations are covert mainly to provide cover for the Pakistani and Yemeni governments, so they don’t have to admit they’re cooperating with America. Everyone in the world knows about these strikes; nongovernment organizations, such as New America, tabulate them; newspapers around the world—including the New York Times, where some of the same reporters are now writing so breathlessly about Clinton’s careless handling of classified information—cover these strikes routinely.

The other top secret email chain described a conversation with the president of Malawi. Conversations with foreign leaders are inherently classified.

In other words, even if Russian, Chinese, Iranian, or Syrian spies had hacked into Clinton’s email servers, and if they’d pored through 60,000 emails and come across these eight chains that held top secret material, they would not have learned anything the slightest bit new or worthy of their efforts. The FBI’s discoveries should be viewed in that context.

Did she commit a crime? Would anyone else—a lower-ranking official, someone who’s not a presidential candidate, someone who’s not named Clinton—have been charged with a crime? Absolutely not. And Comey said as much. “Our judgment,” he said, “is that no reasonable prosecutor would bring such a case.” In the annals of the Justice Department’s history, he went on, “we cannot find a case that would support bringing criminal charges on these facts.”

There are a few federal statutes dealing with the mishandling of classified information. Some are defined as misdemeanors, some as felonies. But all of them require the finding of an “intent” to mishandle information—and most of them involve an intent to share the information with people (usually, but not always, foreign agents) who are not cleared to see it. As Comey said of the Clinton case, “We do not see these things here.”

Several news stories have likened Clinton’s actions to those of retired Gen. David Petraeus, but the situations are very different. Petraeus showed a notebook containing highly classified information—names of agents, code words, and ongoing tactical operations in the U.S. war in Afghanistan—to Paula Broadwell, who was writing a book about him. Later, when the FBI asked him if he had done this, he initially said he hadn’t. The first act might have been a misdemeanor or a felony; the second, lying to an FBI agent, is usually a felony. For reasons that are still mysterious, Petraeus was charged with a misdemeanor. (The FBI reportedly recommended charging Petraeus with a felony, but then–Attorney General Eric Holder downgraded the charge. Unlike the Clinton case, no Republican lawmaker called for the appointment of a special prosecutor; nor did Donald Trump accuse Petraeus of bribing Holder, as he accused Clinton of bribing Loretta Lynch.)

Almost every news story on the FBI’s findings has reported that Comey contradicted Clinton’s long-held public rationale for keeping a private email server in the first place—that she did so as a matter of “convenience.” Yet, the stories point out, Comey said that Clinton had several servers and mobile devices in her time as secretary of state. It wasn’t convenient, after all! But they should have read Comey’s next sentence: “As new servers and equipment were employed, older servers were taken out of service, stored, and decommissioned.” In other words, by Comey’s own words, Clinton did not operate several servers or mobile devices simultaneously. Maybe “convenience” was a phony excuse, but it was not contradicted by Comey.

Comey also said that while no criminal behavior had been found, other officials who have done what Clinton did “are often subject to security or administrative sanctions.” He did not provide examples. Eugene Fidell, a Yale University law professor who has handled many cases involving the military and secrets, said in a phone conversation on Tuesday that he could not think of any cases in which officials were charged with any sort of offense for mishandling classified information, except when it was leaked to someone—usually a journalist or foreign agent—who wasn’t cleared to see it. “To prosecute someone criminally or politically for something like this,” Fidell said, “would go beyond the pale.”

The FBI director was certainly right in saying that Clinton and her colleagues were “extremely careless” in their handling of classified information. As rare and uninteresting as their discussions of such material were, they shouldn’t have done any of it on a private email server. There is evidence that the Russians tried to hack into her private account; there is no evidence that they succeeded nor would there necessarily be any evidence if they had.

But Clinton’s actions didn’t break the law or damage national security. It has been widely reported that several senior officials have sometimes used their private computers and servers to conduct official business. Did their emails contain classified information, unwittingly or no? It’s hard to say: Nobody has investigated them.

And yet, here is New York Times political reporter Patrick Healy, in a front-page news analysis, paraphrasing Comey’s rebuke of the current presumptive Democratic candidate for president: The FBI director, Healy wrote, “basically just called her out for having committed one of the most irresponsible moves in the modern history of the State Department.” I defy anyone to pore through the most scathing passages of Comey’s remarks and find anything that remotely resembles this description.

The Hillary email scandal has been brewing for a long time. Like the Benghazi scandal, this one has fizzled out, and one can imagine the frustration of reporters and politicians who had been savoring a climax that just didn’t come through. The Times published three front-page stories and two more on the inside that said basically nothing that everyone didn’t already know: Yes, the Clintons are slippery, they have an unpleasant record of doing things their way, they have a problem when it comes to trustworthiness. Beyond that, there’s nothing here, folks, move along.


          New documentary at SXSW traces William Kamkwamba’s journey from rural Malawi to the TED Stage        
William Kamkwamba built a windmill out of spare parts to provide electricity for his family in rural Malawi, after seeing a similar design in a library book. It’s an incredible story — one that set TEDGlobal 2007 ablaze. Now, Kamkwamba is the subject of a new documentary, William and the Windmill, which makes its world []
          Helping Malawi's Animals Back Into the Wild        
The vervet monkey is on its back on a portable table when we first catch a glimpse of him. Amanda Salb, a veterinarian, holds the primate, as another vet carefully injects the animal's upper eyelid with tuberculin. The monkey doesn't flinch. It is fully sedated.  "We are conducting a quarterly check-up and checking for TB," Salb says after removing her mask.  The vervet is one of hundreds of animals at the Lilongwe Wildlife Trust in the Malawian capital.

http://tinyurl.com/jf9ksl3


          Descuben en Mozambique un bosque        

Descubierto en Mozambique un bosque que atesora nuevas especies

El territorio fue hallado por un científico británico cuando buscaba zonas boscosas en Google Earth

EFE - Londres - 24/12/2008

 


Una expedición dirigida por un científico británico ha descubierto un bosque perdido en la cima de un monte en Mozambique, un territorio que alberga en su interior nuevas especies animales y vegetales. El hallazgo de este bosque, conocido por los nativos del lugar pero que no se encuentra en los mapas, demuestra que "aún quedan cosas por descubrir y documentar en el mundo", ha declarado el botánico Jonathan Timberlake, líder de la expedición al Monte Mabu mozambiqueño.

El pasado octubre, un equipo internacional de expertos se desplazó al Mabu para explorarlo, por primera vez, desde el punto de vista ecológico. Los científicos se enteraron de la existencia de esa zona boscosa a través de un miembro del equipo, el zoólogo británico Julian Bayliss, quien la localizó por Internet. En 2005, Bayliss, que tiene su base en Mozambique, buscaba en Google Earth bosques a cierta altura para integrar en proyectos de conservación cuando se topó, vía satélite, con una masa de vegetación no identificada. Tras varios viajes de reconocimiento, Bayliss preparó el terreno para que 28 exploradores de seis países africanos y europeos, con Timberlake a la cabeza, se desplazaran al territorio para examinarlo.

"Se trata de un bosque de media altitud de unos 60 kilómetros cuadrados, situado entre los 1.000 y los 1.600 metros de altura de la montaña (que tiene unos 1.700 metros)", ha explicado el jefe de la expedición. "Hay árboles altos de hoja perenne, muchas lianas, monos, pájaros volando alto, pequeños antílopes, camaleones pigmeos...", ha contado el experto, fascinado por su descubrimiento.

El equipo halló en ese bosque al menos tres nuevas especies de mariposa, una de ellas una cymothoe marrón y amarilla; una especie inédita de víbora, de la familia de lasatheris, y una orquídea polystachya songaniensis que se pensaba que sólo existía en Malawi. Los botánicos trajeron 500 muestras de plantas que tardarán varios meses en clasificar y de las que, según ha dicho Timberlake, "es posible que salgan dos o tres especies nuevas".

El bosque del Monte Mabu debe su inadvertida existencia en parte a los efectos del conflicto en la antigua colonia portuguesa. Una guerra civil de 1975 a 1992 destrozó los accesos y aisló esa zona del norte de Mozambique, al tiempo que provocó la marcha de sus pobladores, excepto algunos que optaron por refugiarse en el bosque. Actualmente, los antiguos habitantes están repoblando la zona y "existe el peligro de que la presión para generar campos de cultivo acabe con la biodiversidad", advierte Timberlake.

Para evitar la destrucción del entorno, el equipo liderado por Timberlake, que trabaja en colaboración con el Instituto de Investigación Agrónoma de Mozambique, Birdlife International y la fundación de conservación de la montaña Mulanji de Malawi, planea publicitar su descubrimiento e involucrar a las autoridades mozambiqueñas. El botánico británico cree que la solución más viable no es convertir el bosque en un parque natural, sino protegerlo mientras permanece integrado en su entorno. Para Timberlake, uno de los aspectos más importantes del hallazgo, además de confirmar la existencia de un mundo por explorar, es que pone de manifiesto "la importancia de la botánica en los proyectos de conservación", a menudo marginada en favor del estudio de, por ejemplo, los grandes mamíferos.





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Ir al Sitio principal Escritos críticos / Ensayos
www.majfud.50megs.com
Reflexiones sobre nuestro tiempo
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          Positive changes        
Finally, I’m getting the chance to write up my visit to Malawi.  I have been on a self-imposed blogging ban until I finished my unit 1 assignment for SQH.  I handed it in on Monday, a couple of days early which must be a first.  It was basically in three parts; a contextualised discussion of […]
          Guide to Malawi: Everything you need to visit independently        

I traveled to Malawi for work a long time ago so when I got the opportunity to get a guest writer write an updated guide to Malawi, I was very excited to bring this small but beautiful country to your screen

The post Guide to Malawi: Everything you need to visit independently appeared first on Once In A Lifetime Journey.


          Harnessing the press to get Malawi talking about its forthcoming universal pension        
In October 2015, HelpAge was asked by our partner the Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability and Social Welfare in Malawi to carry out a universal pension feasibility study in collaboration with the Malawi Network of Organisations for Older People (MANEPO). Nearly a year later, with the report ...

          Madonna tells AP work good distraction from split        
NEW YORK – Madonna's marital breakup is tough, but she says she's grateful that her heavy workload "provides a distraction that keeps me going."

"I'm sad about my personal life, but I feel very blessed and very lucky that I have the opportunity to do what I do in my professional life," Madonna told The Associated Press in an interview Sunday. "It would be horrible if I was just thinking about getting a divorce and had nothing to do."

Last week, Madonna and Guy Ritchie were granted a preliminary decree of divorce after eight years of marriage.

Among her current projects is promoting her documentary "I Am Because We Are," which explores the impoverished African nation of Malawi, where more than 1 million children are orphaned by AIDS. The film has its TV premiere on Sundance Channel Dec. 1.

Tags: , ,

          Madonna and Guy Ritchie announce their divorce        
LONDON - After countless denials of domestic trouble, Madonna and Guy Ritchie announced Wednesday they are divorcing after nearly eight years of marriage.

The couple's announcement brings to an end a showbiz union that spanned the Atlantic and dominated the gossip columns.
Madonna — "Madge" to the British press — and her filmmaker husband were always greater tabloid fodder in England, where they lived. The pop star seemed to take to English life, spending much of her time at the couple's 1,200-acre country estate in Wiltshire, and to some ears, adopting a slight British accent.
But in recent years, reports began to accumulate that they were on the rocks. Over the summer, Madonna was linked — unfairly, she said — to the breakup of New York Yankee Alex Rodriguez and his ex-wife Cynthia.
The couple issued a brief statement by their representatives Wednesday, asking for respect from the press for their family's sake.
A financial settlement has not been agreed by the wealthy couple, who also must decide child custody issues.
Madonna and Ritchie, director of "Snatch" and "Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels," married in December 2000 at Skibo Castle, in the Scottish Highlands. The couple have two children: Rocco, 8, and David Banda, 3, who was adopted from Malawi in 2006. Madonna also has a 12-year-old daughter, Lourdes, from her relationship with personal trainer Carlos Leon.
The couple are reportedly worth some $525 million, the bulk of that belonging to Madonna. Ritchie has an estimated $35 million fortune. They own homes in London, Los Angeles and New York, and the retreat in Wiltshire.
"Who would have thunk it?" Madonna told Vogue magazine in an interview published in August 2005. "The last thing I thought I would do is marry some laddish, shooting, pubgoing nature lover and the last thing he thought he was going to do was marry some cheeky girl from the Midwest who doesn't take no for an answer!"
In the documentary "I'm Going to Tell You a Secret," Madonna gets behind the bar at a London tavern and offers to get a beer for Ritchie. He grins at her and says, "Please, Mrs. Ritchie, you get in there and pull me a pint."
Madonna was to perform concerts Wednesday and Thursday in Boston as her "Sticky and Sweet" tour continued. Ritchie's latest movie, "RocknRolla," recently opened to mixed reviews.
In London, Ritchie's mother, Lady Amber Leighton, told reporters that the family wouldn't be making any statement to the media.
Lawyers said the couple would likely try to come to an agreement before heading to court.
"The judgment of the court would be to try and assess what they came in with and divide what they built up fairly equally," said David Allison, a lawyer with Family Law in Partnership, a London firm.
The needs of the couple's children will also be factored by the court, as they were in Britain's most recent high-profile celebrity divorce, the battle between former Beatle Paul McCartney and model Heather Mills. In that case, McCartney and Mills fought over money and custody of their young daughter.
Mills received 24.3 million pounds in the divorce after four years of marriage.
"The needs of children figure quite highly, and that was one of the reasons Heather Mills got a gigantic amount of money, despite the fact that the bulk of Sir Paul's money was made before the marriage," Allison said.
The Sun newspaper splashed the split across its front page Wednesday, under the headline: "We're Divorcing."
Madonna, who was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame last year, has found lesser success as a screen star, starring in the musical "Evita" and the comedy "Desperately Seeking Susan." Her most notable collaboration with Ritchie was the panned 2002 film "Swept Away."
She married Sean Penn in 1985, but they divorced four years later.




          Rihanna Is Working Hard To Improve Education For Malawi's Children, One Bicycle At A Time        

          Kirim SMS Gratis Menggunakan Gmail Ke Hp Telkomsel dan Indosat        

Kalau Anda penggemar layanan SMS, ada kabar gembira. Mulai hari ini, Anda tidak perlu mengeluarkan uang lagi untuk membeli pulsa sebelum mengirim SMS. Karena dengan Gmail, Anda bisa mengirimkan SMS secara gratis. Memang bukan layanan yang gres, tetapi diperkirakan masih banyak orang yang belum mengetahui tentang layanan ini. Dengan SMS in Chat, pengguna dapat mengirim dan menerima SMS dari akun Gmail.



Awalnya, layanan nilai tambah ini hanya bisa dipakai untuk nomor-nomor Amerika Serikat (+1) saja. Tetapi, baru-baru ini Google membukanya di sejumlah negara, termasuk Indonesia, Ghana, Israel, Malawi, Nigeria, Zambia, Uganda, Tanzania, Arab Saudi, Senegal, Palestina, hingga Kenya. Di Indonesia, hanya dua operator yang mendukung layanan SMS gratis ini di Indonesia, yaitu Telkomsel dan Indosat. Meski kuotanya dibatasi 50 SMS per hari, Google cukup membantu pelanggan, terlebih lagi bagi yang kerap mengirimkan SMS internasional.

Sebagaimana diketahui, tarif SMS internasional Telkomsel adalah Rp600, sementara Indosat Rp500 per SMS, kecuali seluruh negara di Eropa, Fiji, Papua Nugini, Senegal & Uni Emirat Arab dikenakan biaya Rp1.200 per SMS. Dibandingkan dengan SMS in Chat di Gmail, tentu sangat terasa. Apalagi, setelah 24 jam, kuota SMS akan kembali ke 50.

Instalasinya sangat mudah. Di Gmail, terdapat fitur Google Labs. Di dalamnya, Anda mengaktifkan fitur SMS (text messaging) in Chat dan SMS in Chat gadget dengan mengklik Enable. Jika sudah, geser mouse ke bawah dan klik Save Changes. Instalasi selesai. Di sebelah kiri inbox Gmail Anda akan muncul tabulasi ‘Send SMS’.

Untuk menggunakannya juga mudah. Masukkan nomor tujuan dengan kode negara (misalnya, +62811890xx), kemudian Enter. Anda akan diminta memasukkan detail kontak. Setelah kontak diregistrasi, akan ada pop-up window layaknya Gtalk. Selesai. Anda bisa mengirimkan SMS sepuasnya, maksimal 50 kali dalam sehari. Selamat mencoba!





sumber:http://ruanghati.com/2011/03/30/kirim-sms-gratis-menggunakan-gmail-ke-hp-telkomsel-dan-indosat/

          Esteri di gio 27/10        
1-Il sogno di Erdogan. Un nuovo Impero Ottomano, fin dove possibile...L'attivismo turco in Siria e in Iraq (Mensur Akgun, analista turco).2-Il premio Sakharov a due donne yazide, Nadia Murad e Lamiya Aji...Entrambe sfuggite all'ISIS. L'intervista a Nadia Murad di Bianca Senatore. 3-Il governo polacco osservato speciale dalla commissione UE per la riforma del Tribunale Costituzionale. Lo scontro con Varsavia va ben oltre quello con l'Ungheria di Orban (Matteo Tacconi).4-Trump e il sessismo nella campagna elettorale americana. Le ultime convulsioni del potere bianco e maschile. L'intervista alla scrittrice Rebecca Traister di Roberto Festa.5-World Music. L'album prodotto nella prigione di Zomba, in Malawi (Marcello Lorrai)
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Africa        
Africa is the second-largest continent in the world.Here is the list of 55 countries in Africa and their capitals.
Africa
Africa






S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Algeria
Algiers
2.
Angola
Luanda
3.
Benin
Porto-Novo
4.
Botswana
Gaborone
5.
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou
6.
Burundi
Bujumbura
7.
Cameroon
Yaoundé
8.
Cape Verde
Praia
9.
The Central African Republic
Bangui
10.
The Comoros
Moroni
11.
Cote d'Ivoire
Yamoussoukro
12.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa
13.
Djibouti
Djibouti
14.
Egypt
Cairo
16.
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
17.
Eritrea
Asmara
18.
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
19.
Gabon
Libreville
20.
The Gambia
Banjul
21.
Ghana
Accra
22.
Guinea
Conakry
23.
Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
24.
Chad
N'Djamena
25.
Kenya
Nairobi
26.
Lesotho
Maseru
27.
Liberia
Monrovia
28.
Libya
Tripoli
29.
Madagascar
Antananarivo
30.
Malawi
Lilongwe

31.
Mali
Bamako
32.
Mauritania
Nouakchott
33.
Mauritius
Port Louis
34.
Morocco
Rabat
35.
Mozambique
Maputo
36.
Namibia
Windhoek
37.
Niger
Niamey
38.
Nigeria
Abuja
39.
The Republic of the Congo
Brazzaville
40.
Rwanda
Kigali
41.
Sao Tome and Principe
São Tomé


42.
Senegal
Dakar
43.
The Seychelles
Victoria
44.
Sierra Leone
Freetown
45.
Somalia
Mogadishu
46.
South Africa
Pretoria
47.
Sudan
Khartoum
48.
Swaziland
Mbabane
49.
Tanzania
Dodoma
50.
Togo
Lomé
51.
Tunisia
Tunis
52.
Uganda
Kampala
53.
Western Sahara
Laayoune
54.
Zambia
Lusaka
55.
Zimbabwe
Harare

          Esteri di mar 29/04        
1-Crisi ucraina: la Russia denuncia il ritorno della cortina di ferro. ..2-Iraq, vigilia delle elezioni legislative...La sicurezza è la prima preoccupazione della popolazione...( Da Baghdad Laura Silvia Battaglia) ..3-Eurocrisi, in spagna la disoccupazione al 26 %...inoltre ci sono quasi due milioni di nuclei familiari nei quali tutti i membri sono senza lavoro. ..4-Disoccupazione, Bce, TTIP : seconda parte dell'intervista a Martin Schulz ( Piero Bosio) ..5-Pesticidi killer delle api in piante vendute in Europa. ..Greepeace punta il dito sulle grandi multinazioanli della chimica.( Intervista a Federica Ferrario, responsabile campagna Agricoltura di Greenpeace Italia ) ..5-Nessuna notizia dal mondo: lo studio sulla radio in italia pubblicato sull'European Journal of Communication. ..( Tiziana Bonini ricercatore in media studies all’Università Iulm di Milano ) ..6-Land grabbing : il patto stato – multinazionali contro i contadini africani. Il caso del Malawi...(Marta Gatti ) ..
          FR. JACK SOULSBY S.M        
Spiritual Renewal

 Fr Jack has been working full time in spiritual renewal and evangelisation in both Catholic and Ecumenical circles since 1980 and has ministered in 98 nations in the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. 






In the footsteps of St.Paul

He has toured PNG with a Pentecostal pastor,
- preached at open air crusades in Nigeria and Ghana, 
- taken groups of Australians to large ecumenical renewal conferences in USA, 
- led pilgrimages to Europe , the Holy Land,
- embarked on an " Aids safari " in Uganda, 
- held healing services for lepers in Sudan, 



ministered to 
- Mozambican refugees in Malawi, 
- Liberian refugees in Sierra Leone, 
- Sudanese war victims in Kenya, 
- genocide victims in Rwanda, 



trained evangelists in a number of nations, 
- introduced and encouraged renewal in nations as Namibia, Botswana, Ethiopia, Uganda, Marshall Islands, the Philippines, Malaysia, Pakistan, Belarus, and East Timor





 

 Several Groups
- have been initiated in Australia to conduct praise and worship, 
- run Life in the Spirit Seminars, 
- help Ugandan orphans, 
- redeem Sudanese slaves and much more



Ministries available from Fr.Jack include
-RETREATS,

-CONFERENCE INPUT
-LIFE IN THE SPIRIT SEMINARS
-GIFT CLINICS
-SCHOOL OF EVANGELISATION & CRUSADES




Fr Jack is a native of Cornwall U.K. who resides in Brisbane, Australia . He is a former Civil Engineer , and is a member of the society of Mary.


          The Grinch’s not-so-festive guide to food ration cuts        

Across much of the world, the festive season is a time of indulgence. But what if you’re too busy fleeing violence and upheaval, or stuck in a refugee camp on reduced rations?

It’s been a hard year for the most vulnerable among us. This is partly due to tightening aid budgets, but it’s also the result of there simply being so many more people in crisis who need help.

“It's not just a question of falling donor funding; most donors have continued to be generous, providing funds at relatively consistent levels for years,” World Food Programme spokeswoman Challiss McDonough told IRIN.  “But the number of [those in need] is much larger.”

A prime example is Uganda, where 602,000 South Sudanese refugees are sheltering. As a result of the conflict in neighbouring South Sudan, “we are now supporting nearly twice as many refugees as we were just six months ago”, explained McDonough.

WFP, as the global emergency food responder, is feeling the strain. “I'd say there are probably very few countries where we have not had to make some kind of adjustment to our assistance plans because of a lack of funding,” said McDonough.

The following is a not-so-festive guide to where WFP has been forced to make cuts to already minimal food rations in Africa. It includes some non-refugee national programmes, which have also been impacted by funding shortfalls.

Burkina Faso

Rations have been reduced and cash assistance suspended for the 31,000 Malian refugees in Burkina Faso. As a result, about a quarter of refugees do not have enough food to meet their basic nutritional needs.

“Most refugees in the camps depend solely on humanitarian assistance to survive,” said WFP country director Jean-Charles Dei. “When assistance is interrupted or insufficient, the food security and nutrition situation dramatically deteriorate, especially for women, children, and elderly people.”

Burundi

Lack of funding has impacted a range of activities targeting vulnerable communities. Food-for-training for Congolese refugees and Burundian migrants expelled from Tanzania and Rwanda has been suspended. The number of children reached through an anti-stunting campaign has been reduced by 70 percent, with the programme halted entirely in Ruramvya and Rutana provinces.

Cameroon

Monthly food rations for Central African Republic refugees in Cameroon was cut by 50 percent in November and December. The 150,000 refugees are entirely dependent on international aid.

In May, WFP also halted its meals programme to 16 primary schools in northern Cameroon due to a lack of funding.

Central African Republic

WFP has been unable to assist more than 500,000 people in urgent need of aid and has been forced to halve the amount of food it has provided to those it can reach. Emergency school meals have been suspended in the capital, Bangui, and rations to displaced people in the violence-hit central town of Kaga Bandoro have been slashed by 75 percent. “WFP needs to urgently mobilise flexible contributions to cover for distributions from January onwards,” the agency has warned.

Chad

For the past two years, refugees in Chad have survived on monthly rations well below the minimum requirement. For some, the cuts have been by as much as 60 percent. A joint assessment released in November by WFP and the UN’s refugee agency, UNHCR, found more than 40 percent of the 400,000 refugees in Chad are malnourished and the majority of children are anaemic.

Ethiopia

Since November 2015, ration cuts have affected more than 760,000 refugees, the bulk of them from South Sudan and Somalia. Although there was an improvement in general food rations from June this year, UNHCR has warned that households still face difficulties. The cuts have, in particular, affected children aged under the age of five, with global acute malnutrition above the 15 percent emergency threshold in 10 out of 22 assessed refugee camps.

Gambia

All nutrition and livelihood related activities have been suspended due to a lack of funding.

Kenya

In December, WFP cut monthly rations by half for the 400,000 refugees in Kenya’s Dadaab and Kakuma camps. It warned that unless urgent new funding is received, it will completely run out of food by February. Most refugees in Dadaab have already had their rations cut down to 70 percent of June 2015 levels, and UNHCR has warned of a likely increase in malnutrition as a result of the new squeeze.

Human Rights Watch said in a statement: “Given Kenya’s threat to deport Somalis has already triggered illegal forced refugee return, the UN ([World] Food Programme’s decision to further reduce refugee food rations could not have come at a worse time.”

Malawi

Ration cuts to 27,000 refugees meant that at the beginning of 2016 they were only receiving 40 percent of the recommended minimum number of daily kilocalories. Those shortages began six months earlier. By March, only three out of seven food items – maize, beans, and cooking oil – were being supplied. The Dzaleka camp hosts people mainly from the Great Lakes and Horn of Africa regions, with new arrivals escaping unrest across the border in Mozambique.

Mauritania

In November, WFP halved food rations to 42,500 Malian refugees. Without fresh funding, it says it will be forced to suspend general food distributions, including cash transfers, from next month. A school meals programme for vulnerable Mauritanian children has also been put on hold and will only partially resume in January.

Rwanda

A nationwide prevention of stunting programme for children aged six-23 months, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers has been discontinued due to limited funding.

Somalia

WFP will “significantly scale down” its livelihoods programmes in December 2016. If no additional resources are confirmed, it will only be able to continue with minimal programmes (mainly nutrition) from February 2017. WFP is targeting 1.4 million vulnerable Somalis in food-insecure areas.

Uganda

Rations have been cut by 50 percent for some 200,000 refugees who arrived in Uganda prior to July 2015. Low levels of funding, together with the large numbers of new arrivals fleeing fighting in South Sudan has left WFP workers “with no choice but to re-prioritise their focus on those refugees in greatest need.” The humanitarian response to South Sudanese refugees in Uganda was already severely underfunded even before the latest outbreak of violence in Juba in July.

(TOP PHOTO: Residents of an IDP camp in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo receive food rations distributed by WFP. WFP)

oa/ag

Residents of an IDP camp in North Kivu receive food rations distributed by WFP News Aid and Policy Food The Grinch’s not-so-festive guide to food ration cuts Obi Anyadike IRIN NAIROBI Africa Burundi Central African Republic Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Uganda Malawi Burkina Faso Cameroon Chad Gambia Mauritania
          Windmills        
A couple of days ago, in the way that one does on the Internet, I stumbled into the extraordinary story of William Kamkwamba, who built a windmill from scrap and spare parts to provide electricity to his home. He was 14, living in an isolated village in a rural district of Malawi.  He worked from [...]
          Vocational Training In Tanzania – Who Benefits More        

Tanzania is a tropical country located in East Africa and is neighbors with Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, and Malawi. Tanzania’s economy revolves mainly around agriculture. Other factors that contribute to the economy are natural gas and tourism. Once children reach mid-teen years or even before, they stop attending school. A Broader View, the non-profit […]

The post Vocational Training In Tanzania – Who Benefits More appeared first on Volunteer Abroad News.


          Disaster Relief Charity, ShelterBox USA, to be Highlighted on the ABC Show Shark Tank        

ShelterBox to be highlighted on Shark Tank when they revisit solar lantern manufacturer LuminAID and showcase their recent trip to Malawi to see the real-time impact during a disaster deployment.

(PRWeb January 05, 2016)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/01/prweb13148858.htm


          An Interview with Oscar Joyo        
Matthew J recently caught up with the artist Oscar Joyo for an interview. Oscar is a visual artist born in Malawi and now resides in Chicago, Illinois. In the interview, he talks about his inspiration for his art and he talks about what his typical day looks like
          Rwanda, because i Rwanna!        
Like all things, this also started off with music. We jammed a bit through the day as we were waiting to go to the airport. I only flew at: 1 am.



So i hit a couple snags, including im like 20kg's over weight, not me personally, my bags that i must take to Rwanda. but me and Jay went to the bar, had a drink, and they decided that i only had to pay in R200, reduced from R1400, dunno how that happenend. but i was ok with it.


This airport is tooooo funny! only 3 doors.... Arrival, Departures and VIP. Still, it gets confusing for some of these guys. The one guy got on the plane and came and sat in front of me. Then another guy gets there and he tells the dude, "hey, you're in my seat..." and guy just responds, "I want to sit here so, who's goin to assist you to get me off this chair?", so the guy had to go find an open spot. WTF!!! I couldnt believe what a cunt this guy was!! Its not the movies... anyhoo, then i decided i will be the MOST annoying person this guy had ever sat in front of... hahaha!! he had an awful time!! believe me... feet to the face!

This guy picked me up at the airport. I spoke like 30min to this dude, fukn talking about SA and Rwanda all kinds of crap, only to find out he's French and hasn't understood a word ive said!! hahahahahaha!! i felt like a douch!

Where i stayed...




This is how you get around in Kigali, via Moto taxi, its pretty rad, but these dudes dont give a fuk about traffic, they'll hit any car and just gun away... pretty dangerous at times...






I just burst out laughing the whole ride, cus it was that or crying...


I met some dudes from Kigali and they took me around to the shops... everything is sooo clean, it looks rough here... but its so clean, i felt guilty throwing a cigarette on the ground... i dont easily feel guilty.. not even if ive ruined someones life.




Got into a random car with these peeps and they took me to go see the Hotel Rwanda, they were so proud of it... to be honest, i havnt seen the movie... i was jus like... uhm... thats nice.




Me and this dude snuck in some local booze called UG, it tasted like really awfull Gin. cus, they dont ever sell shooters, they dont even have shot glasses, wtf, so i told these dude, lets go buy something and drink our own shots.




Really small old dudes are cool?


We got pretty trashed and went to the next place where i wasnt allowed to take photos, it was super dodgy, i guess there were some people there that dont want their faces seen....


almost got in a fight but i just jumped on a Moto taxi and gunned back to the hotel.


I was so proud of myself when i finally found my room keys!! it took me super long!!


(I dont know how they expect me to get over my hangover with a fruit juice that small...)


My favourite chilling place... good food... lots of foreigners... even watched the SA vs Pakistan cricket match there.






This place is fukn busy all the time... just masses of people!! everywhere!!






On my way back to SAFA!




There was a medical emergency so we stopped the plane on the way back in Malawi, obviously you aren't allowed to just go land in any country... so we sat in Malawi for 4hours with the pilot filling out paperwork.... Mr. Hand wasn't too happy, so i organized him about 10 of these mini red wines to keep him from slappi people.


I pretended i was a giant... that was kinda fun.


Mr. Hand says: Thanks Frannie! rad trip! now go get me another one!!! He was super pissed by then b.t.w....
          Partnership leads the way to capacity during ALFS 2017        
Senior military leaders from the U.S., United Kingdom, France, Brazil and 38 nations across the African continent converged in "The Warm Heart of Africa" for an opportunity to strengthen partnerships. Gen. Griffin "Spoon" Phiri, Malawi Defence Force chief of defense welcomed African Land Forces Summit 2017 attendees during an introductory session and opening ceremony, May 8, in Lilongwe, Malawi.
          Malawi and U.S. planners lead way to African Land Forces Summit 2017        
Fifteen U.S. Army Africa and 23 Malawi Defense Force planners met here Dec. 5-9, 2016, to continue their collaboration in support of the upcoming African Land Forces Summit 2017 to be held in May.
          Malawi hosts multinational planning event for African Land Forces Summit 2017        
"To fail to plan is to plan to fail. You people here are the success of this summit," said Malawi Defense Forces Col. Cleveland Kachala. Kachala opened the initial planning event for the African Land Forces Summit 2017 by welcoming planners from U.S. Army Africa and the Malawi Defense Forces in Lilongwe, Malawi, Oct. 18. ALFS is an annual, weeklong seminar bringing together land force chiefs from across Africa for candid dialog to discuss and develop cooperative solutions to regional and trans-regional challenges and threats.
          Southern African, USARAF leaders discuss regional concerns during SA16        
Military leaders from Southern African countries and U.S. Army Africa attended a regional leader symposium Aug. 11 at the Malawi Armed Forces College in Salima, Malawi as part of Southern Accord 2016.
          Team from 75th Training Command provides vital feedback for SA16 success        
Two officers from 1st Brigade, Great Lakes Division, 75th Training Command travelled to Malawi to assist with Southern Accord 2016 in Salima, Malawi, August 1-12.
          SA16 table top exercise enables disaster relief capabilities        
The Malawi Department of Disaster Management Affairs (DODMA) and members of the Malawi Defense Force (MDF) participated in its first disaster relief table top exercise in Lilongwe, Malawi, August 7-9.
          9BEB shares knowledge with Malawi Armed Forces College        
U.S. Soldiers supporting Southern Accord 2016 presented approximately 100 manuals spanning ten different topics to leaders of the Malawi Armed Forces College (MAFCO) in Salima, Malawi, Aug. 9. Senior representatives of 9th Brigade Engineer Battalion, 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division out of Fort Stewart, Georgia handed over Army Doctrine Publications and Army Doctrine Reference Publications on various subjects such as leadership and unified land operations.
          Beyond the Accord: Partnership strengthens through Malawi senior NCO course        
U.S. Army Sgt. Maj. Jerryn D. McCarroll, security cooperation division sergeant major for U.S. Army Africa, is in Malawi to support Southern Accord 2016 and uses this time to meet with leaders, instructors and prior students from the sergeant major course he helped establish at the Malawi Armed Forces College in Salima, Malawi in 2014. SA16 is a USARAF-led, annual combined military exercise to improve readiness, promote interoperability, build capacity and strengthen partner relationships between the U.S. and Southern African nations.
          US Army Africa, Malawi synchronize efforts leading up to Southern Accord 2016        
LILONGWE, Malawi -- U.S. Army Africa and military planners from Malawi worked with representatives from five countries this week to complete the final planning for Southern Accord 2016 here April 11-16. Military members from the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the 75th Training Command, The Land Operations Support Command of the Royal Netherlands Army, and USARAF planners worked together for several months to synchronize efforts for this year's command-post exercise scheduled for August 2016.
          Top searches (31/Dec/2016) Part24        
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          Sustainable, Organic, Fair-Trade: A Conversation with Nigel Melican [ii]        
by CINNABAR

EDITOR'S NOTE: At the 2010 World Tea Expo, Cinnabar of gongfugirl.com spoke at length with Nigel Melican of Teacraft Ltd on the topics of sustainable, organic, and fair-trade tea. What follows here is Part II of a three-part transcript of that conversation. Part I can be read by clicking here.

~~~~~ · ~~~~~

Cinnabar: When a farm changes over from chemical fertilizer to organic fertilizer, does that decrease the yield enormously?

Nigel Melican: A lot depends on conditions. I warn people to expect at least a 30% drop in yield. If you've got access (and you shouldn't go into it if you haven't got access) to farm-animal manure, or suitable green sources of fertilizer like compost, then gradually you build it up again. It will never build back up to the level that you get with intensive chemical fertilizer, though. The world average for made tea is about 1000-1200 kilos a hectare. When I went into tea first 30 years ago, the people I was working with -- the good ones -- were getting 2.5 tons a hectare. Now they're getting 4.5-5 tons a hectare.

C: Mostly because of the improvements in fertilizer?

NM: No, improvements in management. The improvements in fertilizer came in around about the ‘80s or ‘90s, but all the way along, people were improving different things. First they brought in herbicides. What they'd been doing was weeding by hoeing, which destroys roots. As soon as you stop hoeing and put herbicides onto weeds, you get a huge jump in your yield. Now the herbicides are banned and you've got to use husbandry practices like planting more densely. All the time they're improving, research and development is improving practices, and the yield responds, productivity responds. With good clones, good practice, good fertilizer, intensive farming, you can get 11 tons a hectare ... it's been done. It’s not the world averages, though, and on an organic farm you'd never do that.

C: An organic farm would never reach that yield?

NM: Never say never, but it's unlikely. It would be theoretically possible. I would like the challenge ... but I don't think anyone's going to pay me to do it. There's an awful lot of bunk talked about organic. The purists say, “yes, it must be absolutely organic, and the phase of the moon has got to be right.” But to the plant, an organic nitrogen molecule or atom is totally similar to an inorganic one. The plant can't tell the difference.

C: I guess there are really two focuses of organic farming. I wasn't even thinking about how it affects the end product, because it seems like that's not the same conversation. The impact on the land is quantifiable and obvious, but the land doesn't know the difference between a molecule of nitrogen, whether it’s certified organic or not, right?

NM: No the land won't, but -- and this is why there's the argument -- people say that organic meat tastes better than inorganic meat, and often it does, because the guy who grows organic takes better care of his animals, is a better animal husband, and that shows up, and it's the same with plants.

C: And that's clearly the case with tea. If you're using practices that end up contaminating the end product with dangerous toxic chemicals, the end product is going to taste bad, so that's not going to fly.

NM: Ultimately you're right, but if you had -- God forbid -- tea contaminated with mercury you wouldn't taste it, and similarly, many of the ways that you fertilize don't have an effect on taste. Where you do have an effect with organic on tea is that you're putting on less nitrogen. Nitrogen leads to fast growth, and fast growth tends to be more about kilograms than it is about quality ... so slow growth, as in the spring flush. Everyone says, go for the spring flush. That's because it's growing slowly, and the quality is definitely better. So organic should come out with slower growth.

C: But in reality, the quality of a lot of product that's labeled as organic tea is terrible.

NM: Yes.

C: I've had some organic tea that was awful, nearly undrinkable. I don't know why that was, but I suspect that it's coming from sources that aren't terribly knowledgeable about tea production.

NM: People are struggling because they're not doing organic very well. There are some good ones, and there are a lot of people struggling. The example I gave of the company that cut out fertilizer to cut cost and got organic certification, they're not doing the best job in the world.

C: Is it that they don't know the best way to grow tea?

NM: I think they know the best way, but they're not doing it. I've had some of their tea and it was not so good. I've also had some of their tea and it's been excellent.

C: My understanding, gained through what I’ve been told in a number of places, is that some of the small estates and small individual tea farms in China, as one example, are growing their tea organically partly because they can't afford expensive chemical fertilizers, so they're using traditional agriculture, which is, by definition organic, but they won’t ever be able to say that their tea is organically produced even though it is.

NM: Yes, well they certainly won't be certified, so they can't be officially organic. And yet, for thousands and thousands of years they've been organic ... and balanced organic. They're sustainable and organic, because they recycle everything back to the land.

C: Traditionally, sustainable agriculture is what works. If you're a small farmer you need to create a system of growing that you can keep going and recycling.

NM: As a small farmer you need to, because you have no choice. Unilever has done it, but they don't have to do it.

C: What are Unilever plantations in India like today?

NM: Unilever doesn't own any farms in India anymore, not one single one.

C: All of their tea farms are in Africa now?

NM: Yes, the ones they have, and they've sold a lot of the ones in Africa too. They've gotten out of vertical production. The second biggest tea company in the world, Tata, has done exactly the same. They've gotten rid of their tea farms in India -- and they're an Indian company! What happened in India was that all tea plantations laid down by the British 150 years ago ... after independence the government saw them as being exploitative and they created all sorts of rules about how the workers on the estate had to be looked after. The plantation owners had to give them subsidized food, and decent housing, and community hospitals and schooling, and what they call the social cost of growing tea under those conditions got out of hand. The responsibility of maintaining an estate that might have a couple thousand workers, with a family structure of 30 thousand or so becomes really high. I worked with an ex-Assam planter in Papua New Guinea, and he had been like the mayor of a city. He had 30,000 people under his control!

C: That's workers, and worker's families?

NM: That's right, and he was the magistrate, he was the mayor, he was the employer. He had all these responsibilities. Companies like Unilever and Tata said it was okay when everyone was in the same boat, but then what happened was that people started growing tea without the factory and selling tea to factories that didn't have any estate of their own. They were called “bought-leaf factories,” and they had no social costs. People want to grow tea on their own, that's their choice ... no subsidy. So they were selling tea to the bought-leaf factory at about half the cost that Unilever could make tea cost, so Unilever said, “how about we offer the plantations to the workers, and we'll buy the tea, and we'll help with the transition to owning their own factory and plantation.” So, all these huge tea gardens are now owned by Indian smallholders.

C: They're still selling the tea to Unilever, but Unilever doesn't own the factories or the plantations.

NM: And the price of tea has come down effectively to the bought tea factory level.

C: Then in the meantime has Unilever started new plantations in Africa that they run?

NM: No they haven't started any new ones. I don't think they're ever going to start any new ones.

C: They're mostly just buying from plantations that are owned by other people?

NM: That's right, and where they have plantations they maintain them. There's not a great deal of interest in being a huge plantation owner anymore for all the social reasons I've just gone through. But where they've got them and can't sell them, like in Kenya, they keep them on. I wouldn't be too surprised to find them selling them eventually, because there is a lot of interest in buying plantations in Africa, there are Indian interests. An Indian company, McLeod Russel, which is now the biggest tea-plantation-owning company in the world, has just bought four plantations in Uganda from Finlays. Finlays traditionally was a plantation company, only now ... I think they have a few left in Darjeeling, but very few.

C: That's a big shift in the whole industry in terms of who owns the base level tea production. Was the majority of that shift in the past ten or twenty years?

NM: Within the last ten. The Indians have been coming over to Africa and buying up the tea estates in Uganda, Rwanda and anywhere else they can find. The Chinese are also coming in, but not buying tea estates. They're building a huge tea-extract factory in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and also, one of the deals that the Chinese bring to the table is that they build parliament buildings for all these little countries. Malawi's parliament building was built by the Chinese, or at least heavily funded by the Chinese, and they throw in universities.

C: Speaking of China and tea in Africa, I've read in a number of places that the greatest importer of Chinese tea is Africa because the traditional forms of tea drinking in Africa use Chinese green teas.

NM: But that's mostly north of the Sahara.

C: Yes, but it's interesting because the tea drinking in Africa and the tea growing in Africa have nothing to do with each other, even though they’re on the same continent.

NM: Well, most of the North Africans don't consider themselves African at all. They have a different heritage.

C: But even in Senegal and Gambia there's the Ataya tea drinking tradition which uses Chinese green tea, and those countries have little to no cultural or ethnic connection with North Africa.

NM: Yes, but that's not a tea-growing area either.

C: No, but I can imagine a gradual shift in production of the southern African tea production to start producing more green tea and to sell to this huge market that's closer at hand.

NM: Yes, and 20 years hence it may well happen. The Chinese are drinking more of their own tea, and the rise in the middle class means you get more of the local market. India has gone from drinking none of the tea grown there 100 years ago to 80% of its tea now.

C: I remember those figures from your talk during the Expo. Do you know what current Chinese consumption of its own tea is?

NM: I could look up figures for you, but it's probably about 60-70% [actually 83% in 2009]. That’s traditionally, not as retail packed tea, but the retail packers are coming in. Unilever is big in China, selling packed tea.

C: Are Unilever and the other big companies selling packaged tea that they're buying from Chinese production factories?

NM: Some of them. I did a project in the ‘80s in China looking for a factory for Unilever to acquire to do tea growing and packing in China for sale. They didn't go ahead with actually buying the factory, but they certainly went ahead with the packing factory in the ‘90s. They're even selling slimming tea now in China.

C: What would you say the difference is between sustainable farming versus organic and fair-trade? I mean, I understand what the difference is as expressed in the marketing language, but more specifically ...

NM: Well, sustainable really means that you're not using things up. Just as with organics, there are sustainability purists who say you should never use anything that can't be replaced. And there are the sustainable realists who say we should at least eke out the non-renewable resources where we can, and wherever we can we'll use renewable fuels, and if it's not renewable we'll go very carefully how we use it and how much of it we use. You have to draw that distinction. My camp is the realistic sustainability one.

C: You can't set up restrictions that are so harsh that it makes it impossible to produce anything.

NM: People do.

C: I know they do, but they shouldn't because ultimately it won't work.

NM: I'll give you an example of the dilemma that you might get into. I was working with a new tea grower in Hawaii -- not one of the small guys that we've seen at the Expo, but someone who wanted to do it on a hundred-acre scale, 200-acre scale. He wanted to be organic, said the production must be organic. He was a berry farmer on the mainland, and he always had an organic farm, and he wanted to have an organic tea farm. So we started off and sourced his tea and his raw materials from Africa and got it planted, and his soil was not acid enough, which is unusual for Hawaii, but this was an old sugar-cane plantation and they'd put down a lot of chalk, to benefit the sugar cane. This was 20 years ago, but it was still there. The normal way that you'd acidify soil for tea is to put sulfur on it. Sulfur is recognized by the organic people; they're happy with it. So he goes off to his supplier and when he sees the sulfur that he's offered, he says, "where does it come from?" and they say it's a by-product of the petrochemical industry, and he throws his hands up in horror! So we look and see what else we can get. It's possible to get sulfur which is rock sulfur, mined sulfur. The dilemma is, would you rape the countryside with big holes, ripping out rock sulfur, or would you use a by-product of the petrochemical industry that has to go somewhere, and is at least greening the petrochemical industry at least a little bit?

C: Why would the organic regulations say that you couldn't use petro-chemical by-products?

NM: the regulations don't say that you shouldn't, but they would prefer that you use the natural sulfur.

C: "Organic" meaning that you take it from the earth regardless of consequences? That makes no sense.

NM: No it doesn't make a lot of sense. That's why I say that sustainability and organic should be done with some degree of realism.

C: None of the national or international organizations that are promoting organic farming are really thinking in terms of sustainability, are they? I prefer not to make such a broad statement, but it seems like the focus is on something that's almost more conceptual than practical.

NM: Absolutely, yeah that is the focus, because it's all mediated in glass palaces in Europe or America and the people there don't get out in the field a lot, and don't see the issues directly and they have a set of ethics that they want to plant.

C: I could tell that, just listening to the people in the panel discussion talk about it. They haven't all stood in a tea field. The way some of them were talking about the agriculture, they didn't really understand how it worked. That distance from agriculture and the people directly involved in it also manifests into a somewhat condescending tone among some of the organizations promoting the organic, fair-trade and sustainability agendas. Even the representative from Utz was talking about teaching the farmers like they were five-year-olds and their organization was going to come in and teach them the right way to do things.

NM: Absolutely right. David Walker, President of Walker Tea, LLC, was telling someone a couple of days ago about how he represents a couple of coffee growers in Kenya and helps them get product to market. He was saying that some of these USAID people will come over and say to the Kenyans, “we're going to teach you how to grow coffee the way the Americans like it.” [laughs] He took one of these coffee industry advisors aside, put his hand on his shoulder and said "these people have been growing coffee for three or four hundred years. They know how to grow coffee. You tell them how you want it. They can do it, but don't go telling them that you're going to teach them, because you are not.” So there's a lot of that element of “experts who know best.”

C: Yes, it can be really preachy. The attitude about it is very removed from the reality of actual workers and actual plantation owners and actual growers, and for that matter, from the science of it, how things work. Although, I will say that the Rainforest Alliance was a little less like that because they seem like they're a little bit more direct about how they get things done.

NM: Of all the [certification] bodies, they're the one I have the most time for. The one that started up in the UK, the “Ethical Tea Partnership,” or ETP, has almost collapsed because the Rainforest Alliance has a much more sensible view of things. Unilever used to be in the Ethical Tea Partnership and I think they pulled away, because they were being targeted, which they didn’t really care for. They had done so much of their own sustainability work that they went in with the Rainforest Alliance and that has bolstered the Rainforest Alliance so much; it's given them so much of a head start.

C: Obviously, the Rainforest Alliance is concerned with forests, and the land around forests, and that pretty much covers the whole tea industry worldwide, doesn't it?

NM: Well, in that Unilever is one of the big people getting certification and they buy from all countries, virtually, yeah, they’re in all countries. And yes, there are people certifying in Indonesia, certifying in Tanzania, in Kenya, and Rwanda and India. I think it’s been a very good strategic alliance, for the Rainforest Alliance to go with Unilever.

[[to be continued]]
          Cichlids, species and trees        
Lake Malawi, in south-eastern Africa, is famous for its large diversity of cichlid fishes. Indeed, it sometimes seems to have more biologists studying these fish than there are actual fish in the lake, even though there are allegedly hundreds of cichlid fish species in that lake. In this sense, it is somewhat similar to Lake Baikal, in southern Siberia, home to the sole species of freshwater seals.

The cichlid biologists are interested in describing the extensive fish diversity, pondering its origin, and thus its contribution to the study of speciation. After all, we are talking about what is usually claimed to be "the most extensive recent vertebrate adaptive radiation". So, we are talking here as much about population genetics as we are about ichthyology.


Inevitably, the genome biologists have been spotted in the vicinity of the lake; and we now have a preliminary report from them:
Milan Malinsky, Hannes Svardal, Alexandra M. Tyers, Eric A. Miska, Martin J. Genner, George F. Turner, Richard Durbin (2017) Whole genome sequences of Malawi cichlids reveal multiple radiations interconnected by gene flow. BioRxiv 143859.
These authors summarize the situation like this:
We characterize [the] genomic diversity by sequencing 134 individuals covering 73 species across all major lineages. Average sequence divergence between species pairs is only 0.1-0.25%. These divergence values overlap diversity within species, with 82% of heterozygosity shared between species. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that diversification initially proceeded by serial branching from a generalist Astatotilapia-like ancestor. However, no single species tree adequately represents all species relationships, with evidence for substantial gene flow at multiple times.
The last sentence seems to be somewhat disingenuous. How could a single tree be expected to describe this scale of biodiversity? Any rapid radiation of diversity is unlikely to be completely tree-like. The increase in diversity can be modeled as a tree, sure, but it is very unlikely that there will be instant separation of the taxa, and so the tree model will be ignoring a large part of the evolutionary action. There will, for example, be ongoing introgression between the diverging taxa, as well as hybridization due to incomplete breeding barriers. These avenues for gene flow can best be modeled as a network, not a tree.

The issue here is that the authors write the paper solely from the perspective of an expected phylogenetic tree, and then feel compelled to explain why they do  not produce such a tree. Indeed, the authors present their paper as a study of "violations of the species tree concept".

For data analysis, they proceed as follows:
To obtain a first estimate of between-species relationships we divided the genome into 2543 non-overlapping windows, each comprising 8000 SNPs (average size: 274kb), and constructed a Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogeny separately for each window, obtaining trees with 2542 different topologies.
So, only two sequence blocks produced the same tree, presumably by random chance. An example "tree" for 12 OTUs is shown in the diagram. It superimposes a possible mitochondrial trees on a summary of the "genome tree".

Example phylogeny from Malinsky (2012)

The authors continue:
The fact that we are using over 25 million variable sites suggests these differences are not due to sampling noise, but reflect conflicting biological signals in the data. For example, gene flow after the initial separation of species can distort the overall phylogeny and lead to intermediate placement of admixed taxa in the tree topology.
Note that gene flow is seen to "distort" the phylogeny rather than being an integral part of it. In this case, "phylogeny" apparently refers solely to the diversification part evolutionary history, rather than to the whole history.

The ultimate questions from this paper are: "what is a species concept?", and "what is a species tree?". The authors write a lot about species and trees, and yet their data provide very clear evidence that both "species" and "tree" are very restrictive concepts for studying the cichlids of Lake Malawi.

Coincidentally, another recent paper tackles the same problems:
Britta S. Meyer, Michael Matschiner, Walter Salzburger (2017) Disentangling incomplete lineage sorting and introgression to refine species-tree estimates for Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes. Systematic Biology 66: 531-550.
The authors describe their work, on the same fish group but in a lake further north-west, as follows:
Because of the rapid lineage formation in these groups, and occasional gene flow between the participating species, it is often difficult to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of species that underwent an adaptive radiation. In this study, we present a novel approach for species-tree estimation in rapidly diversifying lineages, where introgression is known to occur, and apply it to a multimarker data set containing up to 16 specimens per species for a set of 45 species of East African cichlid fishes (522 individuals in total), with a main focus on the cichlid species flock of Lake Tanganyika. We first identified, using age distributions of most recent common ancestors in individual gene trees, those lineages in our data set that show strong signatures of past introgression ... We then applied the multispecies coalescent model to estimate the species tree of Lake Tanganyika cichlids, but excluded the lineages involved in these introgression events, as the multispecies coalescent model does not incorporate introgression. This resulted in a robust species tree.
Once again, phylogeny = species tree.


          Di Negara Ini Anda Tidak Boleh Kentut di Tempat Umum        
Di Indonesia, sengaja mengentuti orang lain memang kurang ajar, namun tidak dikatakan melanggar hukum. Lain lagi soalnya jika kentut sembarangan di sebuah negara di Afrika yang bernama Malawi. Kentut sembarangan bisa berakhir mendekam di bui.
Sejak tahun 2011 lalu, Malawi menggodok kebijakan yang melarang kentut di depan umum. Alasan yang dikemukakan adalah karena kentut merupakan salah satu bentuk polusi udara. Terang saja kebijakan ini mendapat perlawanan keras dari sebagian masyarakat di sana.

Malawian Air Fouling Legislation adalah nama peraturan perundangan yang memuat larangan kentut sembarangan tersebut. Salah satu pasal berbunyi bahwa setiap orang yang merusak suasana di sembarang tempat sehingga membahayakan kesehatan masyarakat atau mengganggu lingkungan atau pengguna jalan dihukum bersalah atas kejahatan ringan.
Pasal tersebut diintrepretasikan sebagai larangan kentut di sembarang tempat. Begitu beritanya dimuat Reuters, peraturan ini segera mengundang kecaman dunia internasional. Pemerintah Malawi segera membuat kesepakatan dengan media untuk tak lagi memuat berita kentut. Kabar mengenai larangan kentut pun hingga kini entah bagaimana perkembangannya.
Jika peraturan ini diberlakukan, tentunya orang jadi lebih berhati-hati saat kentut, atau sebisa mungkin menahan kentutnya agar tidak keluar. Padahal kentut merupakan proses alami yang terjadi di dalam tubuh layaknya buang air. Menahan kentut juga bisa berakibat buruk bagi kesehatan.
"Sebenarnya tidak perlu dibuat larangan seperti ini karena pada dasarnya kentut itu proses alami tubuh. Setiap orang yang ingin kentut tentu bisa mengondisikan supaya kentutnya tidak mengganggu orang lain, misalnya jika sedang di tempat umum bisa pergi ke tempat yang sedang tidak ada orang dan mengeluarkan kentut secara perlahan sehingga tidak bunyi dan jika bau tidak akan mengganggu orang lain," kata dr Ari Fahrial Syam, SpPD-KGEH, MMB, FINASIM, FACP, praktisi klinis dari Universitas Indonesia, Jumat (19/4/2013).
Untungnya, Indonesia dan kebanyakan negara di dunia tidak menganggap kentut sebagai ancaman kesehatan masyarakat. Bahkan larangan merokok di tempat umum yang jelas-jelas membahayakan kesehatan saja masih belum sepenuhnya ditegakkan, bagaimana bisa menegakkan larangan kentut sembarangan?
(detik/20/4/13)



          Andritz Bags Two Hydropower Contracts worth US$55 mn        
Small hydropower provides renewable source of electricity which can be used both on-grid and off-grid. Increasing demand for electricity has propelled the growth of the global small hydropower market. Small hydropower is built either with the flow of river or with the help of existing dams. Turbines, transformers, generators, and reservoirs are the various parts of a small hydropower system. Hydroelectric energy is the cleanest form of energy and this fact has pushed its generation across nations. Currently, hydropower accounts for around 20% of the global electricity supply.  Some of the key players in the global small hydropower market are Ontario Power Generation Inc., Siemens AG, Voith GmbH, Andritz Hydro GmbH, StatKraft, and others. The key players are also involved in rehabilitation projects associated with hydropower projects. Andritz Hydro has recently taken up one such rehabilitation projects in Malawi and New Zealand. The Austria-based small hydropower manufacturer has won contract from Mighty River Power Ltd. in New Zealand to work on three power generating units at the 78- MW Aratiatia hydroelectric project. Andritz Hydro will design, deliver, and install three generators and will provide components for the plant’s turbines.  The 50-year old plant is expected to gain reliability and efficiency with the help of these generators. On the other hand, in Malawi, Millennium Challenge Account has contracted Andritz to refurbish the 38-MW Nkula A hydro project. Under the contract, Andritz will modernize the plant’s powerhouse, gates, penstocks, and intake structures as well as new turbine runners, generators, a high-voltage hybrid switching station, and a control system. According to Andritz, the total value of both the projects is worth US$55 mn. Repairs at both the plant sites are expected to be over by 2018. 

Original Post Andritz Bags Two Hydropower Contracts worth US$55 mn source Twease
          The British Roots of the Afrikaner Designation.         
The term Afrikaner - as anyone studying its roots knows - is a political term that was first used to describe a political abstraction within a political context during the late 19th cent & was initiated by a Cape organization composed of Cape Dutch intellectuals & two individuals from Holland. As such, this term was significantly influenced by the British colonial power. The following are some quotes further outlining this fact. 

Quote: [ Another point of grotesque confusion that we need to clear up, is that Boers are not "Afrikaners". None of your co-workers seem to have any understanding of this. All Boers are aware of the systematic subterfuge and distortion of "identity" that has been the result of the makings of the Broederbond and the National Party, based upon the then image of the British imperialist gentleman. This artificial identity was meant to wean away the Boers from their strong identity, from their history, from their nationalism, and thus weaken them. ]

From: Professor Dr. Tobias Louw. Open Letter to the Institute for Security Studies. September 16 2003.





Quote: [ As a point of departure it should be stated that Cape Afrikaners, upon encountering British occupation, possessed only a rudimentary collective consciousness. The process of collective consciousness formation among them took place largely, as we have seen, under the aegis of British rule. Generations of Afrikaners had been born as British subjects before this process matured in the 1870s in ethnic political mobilization. British colonial experience, with all its contradictory ramifications, left a deep impression on their evolving collective consciousness. The manifestations of loyalty by the Afrikaner Bond serve as clear evidence thereof. It may sound somewhat speculative, but the admiration and love for the Queen may suggest that she played a role in the formation of Cape Afrikaner group identity and consciousness. They seem to have adopted Queen Victoria as a collective mother figure. Praising and congratulating the Queen on her birthday in 1890, the Z A suggested that if a president were to replace the Queen, the centrifugal forces in the Cape would increase. Cape Afrikaners seemed to have internalized their imperial monarchical experience. Beyond that, it was the balance of their colonial experience which influenced their disposition. ]

From: Page 61. Cecil Rhodes and the Cape Afrikaners. Mordechai Tamarkin.


 

Quote: [ THE "AFRIKANERS"

7.1 Thus at the time of the ending of the Second Anglo Boer War, there were three distinct ethnic groupings amongst the broad White population of South Africa:

(i) the internationally recognized and indigenous Boer people;
(ii) the Cape Dutch Settlers, loyal to the British Empire; and
(iii) the English speaking White settlers, also loyal to the British Empire.

7.2 The British Empire realized that it had to bring the Boers under control for once and for all, and therefore devised a plan to neutralize the Boer Republics - a plan to make them join up with the other two White segments of their colonies in South Africa.

7.3 The British masters of Southern Africa therefore engineered the National Convention of 1908, which saw the creation of the Union of South Africa. This union consisted of the former Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, and the two former Boer Republics. This union was not merely a geographic convenience, but a deliberate plan to try and destroy the independence minded Boers by mingling them with the Cape Dutch & English settlers.

7.4 It is worth noting that the British Empire used their technique in other parts of Africa as well -reference can be made to the short lived federation of Nyasaland (Malawi); Northern Rhodesia (Zambia); and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) to name but one.

7.5 The prime representative of the British Empire in South Africa, Sir Alfred Milner, put it this way: "The new tactic (to subjugate the Boers) must be to consolidate the different areas of British South Africa into one nation. Although unification will be initially put the Boers into political control of the entire South Africa, it will, ironically, eventually lead to their final downfall."

7.6 This was of course precisely what happened - but not until a new name had been developed for the new "nation" which Milner spoke about. They could not continue to call the new nation a "Boer" state, because the Boers had been subjugated. They could not call it a "Cape Dutch" state, as the Dutch colonialists were now British colonialists, and they could not call it a British state, for obvious reasons. The answer then was to give a general term to all White inhabitants of the new union - "Afrikaners". Although the word originally meant "African" it was politicized by a group of Cape Dutch propagandists under one SJ du Toit in 1880 (the same year the Boers took up arms to fight the British colonialists) in literature of the time. It was then decided to try and blend the Boers into the Cape Dutch and English speaking White populations but calling them all Afrikaners instead of referring to their real ethnic bases.

7.7 This then is how the world began to hear of "Afrikaners" - although only 80 years ago there was no such word in the international vocabulary.

7.8 By forcing the Boers into the Union of South Africa, the British made them co- responsible for the policy of racial segregation, which had of course been established and legislated by the British colonial government.

7.9 The new "Afrikaners" - in fact a coalition of Cape Dutch, English speaking Whites and some Boers - tried as best they could to come to grips with the racial and geographic legacy left to them from the British colonial times - and it was from this disaster that the policy of Apartheid was developed.

7.10 It is of supreme importance to note here that the Boers were dragged unwillingly into the Union of South Africa - and at the first opportunity which presented itself they tried to extricate themselves by force of arms. This was the unsuccessful 1914 Boer rebellion, which ended when some Boer war era generals were killed or imprisoned by the pro-British Union of South Africa government.

7.11 It is thus unfair of the international world to regard the "Boers" as having been responsible for what happened in South Africa during the second part of the 20th century - the Boers were just as much victims of the colonial powers as were any other indigenous people of Africa. ] Source: [ http://www.arthurkemp.com/whoaretheboers.htm ]

From: The Boers of Southern Africa. Arthur Kemp.



          South African govt ignores Jihad camps        

Let me see if I get this.  The SA government via Crime Intelligence could entrap a bunch of concerned citizens in the “Boeremag” saga, keep these guys locked up for more than 10 years while their farce of a trial is going on with SAPS intelligence officer testifying how the state manipulated and set up these guys, but they ignore known Al Qaeda terrorist camps?

Sounds like a typical anti-white, anti-Boer day in South Africa.

jihad from Eye Witness News:

JOHANNESBURG - It has emerged that the police's specialised unit, Crimes Against the State (CATS) and the State Security Agency (SSA) have uncovered Al Qaeda linked military training camps operating in South Africa, but are doing nothing about them.

The year-long investigation by the Daily Maverick revealed inaction by the police despite incriminating evidence about the training camps and those who set them up.

State intelligence agencies started monitoring the activities soon after the World Trade Centre attack on September 11, 2001 but ceased their surveillance in 2010.

After nearly a decade of top secret surveillance and intelligence gathering, it has emerged that state intelligence has even stopped spying on known military training camps.

The Daily Maverick investigation found camps setup near Erasmia, east of Pretoria, on a farm in the Klein Karoo and attempts to create one at a golf estate along the Garden Route in Tsitsikamma.

The camps are equipped with training facilities and barracks which are believed to sleep mostly Pakistani and Malawian immigrants.

The operations are said be led by Johannesburg dentist, Junaid Ismail Dockrat and his cousin, Muslim cleric Farhad Ahmed Dockrat who have been identified as Al Qaeda financiers, recruiters and facilitators.

The pair dismissed the Tsitsikamma claims saying it emanated from a disgruntled former employee.

The Hawks declined to explain why their operation was halted, saying they do not comment on ongoing investigations.

United States and British intelligence agencies regard South Africa as an international terrorist halfway house.

For nearly a decade South Africa's intelligence agencies had been spying on Islamic military training camps and those linked to them, but this was all stopped in 2010, without an explanation.

In addition to the camps, undercover intelligence operatives in conjunction with the South African Revenue Service (Sars) have established that more than R9 million has been smuggled to terrorist organisations in the last two years.

In October 2008, SARS traced an amount of more than R31 million which was smuggled overseas by a Pakistani group.

(Edited by Tamsin Wort)


          JTI persuades Malawi in Tobacco Industry Reformations        
JTI Leaf Malawi - Malawi’s leading Tobacco Company partnered with its country’s government in the drive to transform the tobacco industry. It has committed with Malawi Government, its stakeholders, and growers for the same cause. This transformation is alleged to reinforce Malawi’s socio-economic development.  Malawi’s Minister of Agriculture Allan Chiyembekeza toured the JTI’s offices, and viewed the state-of-the-art facilities and warehousing and processing factories in Kanengo, while Fries Vanneste, company’s Managing Director spoke in the capital. Fries Vanneste added that his company realizes the importance of tobacco industry to the country and therefore, over the years they have made attempts to reform a number of aspects in this industry. They have collectively gathered various policies and regulations that directly cause an impact on the agricultural sector. Due to this, they have mapped out ways to address this issue and provide a win-win situation for government, growers, and other buying companies in the industry.  JTI is currently into designing a new marketing scheme known as contract farming. It is a Facilitated Farming Scheme that supports Malawi’s tobacco marketing system as the Integrated Production System. This scheme is a healthy way of profiting the growers with different farm inputs through technical guidance and loan financing. Under this scheme, tobacco buyers also agree with the recipients in providing them quantities of tobacco in advance to produce per year.  The contract farming scheme is a catalyst for promoting agricultural practices, improving quality of product, ensuring farming enterprises, and other social responsibilities. Minister of Agriculture Allan Chiyembekeza thanked JTI for investing in Malawi. He said this kind of an investment from investors such as JTI is a good sign for the country and its growing economy. The Malawi government is in the pursuit of creating an enabling industrial environment that permits the private sector to expand and flourish. 

Original Post JTI persuades Malawi in Tobacco Industry Reformations source Twease
          Five Videos Of The Botswana Music & Dance Group "Dikakapa"        
Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post provides information about the Botswana music and dance group "Dikakapa". This post also includes five videos of that group and selected comments from all but one of these videos discussion thread. Most of the selected comments provide information about what the individual songs mean.

The content of this post is presented for folkloric, cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the performers who are featured in these videos. In addition, thanks to 4thejuice, the publisher of these videos on YouTube.

****
INFORMATION ABOUT DIKAKAPA
From https://www.musicinafrica.net/directory/dikakapa
"Dikakapa is a traditional music group from Gaborone, Botswana made up of nine members who are mainly members of the Botswana Defence Force, except for its two female members. Members include Dragon, Comeback, Jumbo, Ngo, Suzzi, Stsuatsue, Skuta, Esa, Fix-Stena, Tshumu, Tshutshu, Katli. The group came to the music scene in 2006 and has since made an impact in the country. They draw their musical inspiration from artists such as Seragantswana, Scar,Vee, Gong Master and Extra Musica.

As of July 2016 they were not signed to any record label. Their debut album ‘Selempu-re ya kae Batswana’ earned them a mark. Some of the songs are their own compositions but they also modify and record some common songs to suit their style."
-snip-
I didn't include any of these comments below, but it should be noted that a number of comments to some of the discussion threads of videos that are showcased below (but particularly Dikakapa-Pula) expressed their regret that "Gong Master" had left Dikakapa. I'm not sure when that happened.

****
SHOWCASE VIDEOS
Example #1: Dikakapa-O tswa kae



4thejuice Published on Apr 26, 2008

Gake rate metsamao ya gago...
-snip-
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread (These comments are numbered for referencing purposes only.)

1. SBUDEX, 2011
"What they sayin...? Bt she's kinda Hot. :P"

**
2. Loasa, 2011
"@SBUDEX The whole song is one of those dreaded 'traditional interventions' that has come about as a result of the girl spending too much time away from home. As its tradition, the other guys are probably her uncles who've been called to help put her in a righteous path . The father is basically saying 'I don't like your behavior.if you're truly my child, you'll listen and obey me. I want you to grow up into a proper woman,someone worth marrying.You're breaking my heart my child.'"

**
3. kenn Gondwe, 2015
"Hey Guys, Am a Malawian-Zambian born and found this song the best. I just love it even when i can understand the langauge. Help me with the basic meaning of the song and how i can get their music on CD. Please.

**
Reply
4. Morebodi Modise, 2015
"+kenn Gondwe The group is called Dikakapa and they are from Botswana singing in Setswana. The song is about a rebellious young girl whom her grand-parents are rebuking her for misbehaving, particularly of sleeping out late, not respecting her virtue as a potential wife."

**
5. adnissak ordep, 2016
"let's keep our music, dance and African tradition now and for the future generations."

**
Badisa Bonamelo, 2016
"Edmore is a story of a girl who does not behave well and always uncontrollable and does not listen to her parents she says i am coming from wherever i want at anytime"

****
Example #2: Dikakapa-Pula



4thejuice Published on Apr 27, 2008

pula naa naa!retlaa dika re kotshe!
-snip-
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread (These comments are numbered for referencing purposes only.)

1. Kat LaFrance, 2010
"Beautiful. Thanks so much for sharing with the world!"

**
2. janny dada, 2012
"love love this video.thnx 4 the upload.made me all teary.love Africa...my mother land.my African people love u all.from East to west to North to south, Central etc

**
[The following comment is written in response to several comments that “pula” means something different in Romanian]

3. TheTassmanian, 2013
"hahaha, i get what you mean i checked from google translate. Pula is simply rain in Setswana, pula na na means it should rain.. they are basically saying it should rain so they may eat and have full tummies.

**
[This is written in response to questions about what the song means in English]

4. Costain Oaitse Kebatlege, 2014
"my English is not that good but I'll try; they are saying, rain come down so that we can have plenty of food to eat and have our stomachs full. the man is saying, we'll eat porridge. and then they keep on repeating..."

**
5. Christine Amann, 2015
"This sounds like it is music from botswana. The comments talk about ssestwana. What is the difference?"

**
Reply
6. Amogelang Moeng, 2015
"+Christine Amann SeTswana is a language spoken in Botswana ma'am"

**
7. Maipelo Molathiwa, 2016
"pula means rain,the song is all about being happy tat year because it is raining, and we will have better harvest"

****
Example #3: Dikakapa-Mmalobeto



4thejuice Published on May 15, 2008

basha reja maswe!reja ntshothwane mogodu wa peba!
-snip-
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread (These comments are numbered for referencing purposes only.)

1. justice bapadile, 2012
"he is saying he dates older women becoz his agemates go out with older men, who have cars and money"

**
Reply
2. Obakeng Modise
"banna ba ba tona. elder man took my girlfriend so im consoling myself by dating older woman"

****
Example #4: Dikakapa-Tsala



4thejuice Published on May 15, 2008

ao tsala yame!
-snip-
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread (These comments are numbered for referencing purposes only.)
1. Gofha Ronald Molale, 2011
"this song talks about how some FRIENDS-'TSALA' are good for nothing..and the back up singers confirms this by saying..."Oh wel my friend,yes,you my friend!""

**
2. Agustin Pius, 2013
"Real African dance in an African setting even though I don't understand a word.

**
3. Pious Chavula, 2013
"Tell me what does this song say. I like ghe dancing."

**
Reply
4. Tlhabo I AM, 2013
"He is singing about his friend who betrayed him and then laughed at him when he was in trouble. He basically tells this "friend" of his to stop laughing because what comes around goes around. The language is seTswana from Botswana!!!!"

****
Example #5: Dikapakapa selempu



petrose taole Published on Jun 19, 2017

****
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          Yvonne Chaka Chaka - Mamaland (information, video, comments)        
Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post showcases a video of 1990s song "Mamaland" by South African singer Yvonne Chaka Chaka.

Information about Yvonne Chaka Chaka is included in the summary of this video.

Selected comments from this video's discussion thread are included in this post.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to Yvonne Chaka Chaka for her musical legacy and thanks to all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publisher of this video on YouTube.

****
SHOWCASE VIDEO: Yvonne Chacka chacka – Mamaland



yaz oshea Published on Mar 10, 2011

Yvonne has been on the forefront of South African music for over 15 years and still going strong.

Yvonne Chaka Chaka is always spinning gold. In 1985, when she was only 19 years old, Phil Hollis of Dephon Records discovered her in Johannesburg. Soon after she was introduced to record producers Rick Wolfe and Attie van Wyk. Her debut album "I'm in Love With a DJ" was released. It became tremendous hit.

Songs like "I'm burning Up" |"I'm in Love With a DJ"| "I Cry for Freedom" |"Makoti" |"Motherland" and the ever-popular, "Umqombothi" immediately insured Yvonne's status as star in South Africa music scene. Continuing to release hit after hit, her subsequent award winning albums were : "Burning Up" |"Sangoma" |"Who's The Boss" "Motherland" |" Be Proud to be African"| "Thank You Mr DJ" |"Back on my Feet"|"Rhythm of Life" |"Who's got the Power" |"The Best Of Yvonne Chaka Chaka" |"Bombani ( Tiko Rahini)| "Power of Afrika"|"Yvonne and Friends" and "Kwenzenjani"..

For her artistic achievement Yvonne has won the "Ngomo Award" (the "Grand Prix Pan African de la Chanson" in Zaire), as well as the "FNB/SAMA Awards" for the best female singer. Yvonne has also worked with noted producers Sello 'Chicco' Twala and Gabi LeRoux. The African Music Encyclopedia says of Yvonne, "Chaka-Chaka's powerful alto voice, along with her finely-crafted and arranged material, account for her wide popularity."
-snip-
Statistics (as of July 27, 2017 at 8:07 AM)
total views: 1,418,900
likes: 3,420 ; dislikes: 257
total # of comments: 556

****
SELECTED COMMENTS FROM THIS VIDEO'S DISCUSSION THREAD
These selected comments document commenters' high opinions of Yvonne Chaka Chaka and this song.

These selected comments also are a small sample of the expressions of affection that commenters wrote about their own African nation as well as expressions of a desire for African unity. In addition, these selected comments demonstrate the wide reach of recorded music from a specific African nation throughout the entire African continent.

Numbers are assigned for referencing purposes only.

2013
1. Chica Delarosa
"I Love my Mamaland Congo/Afrika"

**
2. Kweku Takyi-Annan
"Africa/Ghana"

****
2014
3. lord isaac
"This song give me power when i hear it.....because i remember where i come frome, i really miss you mama Africa... for Africa forever..!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

**
4. Anna Andreas
"I am born free ,but i am great fan of old school .BIG FAN OF IVONNE CHAKA CHAKA LOVE FROM NAMIBIA."

**
5. Sydonia3 years ago
My grandma had the entire VHS of all her songs! This was all that played in our house. 1997, good times

****
2015
6. abdiaziz ahmed osman
"southafrica people dont respect othere african people they kill them naglet them they forget there fredome were give by othere african country shame to south african people i heat them"
-snip-
"Heat" here is a typo for "hate".

**
Reply
7. Solomon Modisha, 2016
"+abdiaziz ahmed osman please don't "heat" us man, not all South Africans are xenophobic.come to the Madiba land you will see."

**
Reply
8. raan chol, 2016
"+Solomon Modisha I know majority of South African people are good people who love Africa and their African brothers and sisters. When the apartheid was being practiced, all African people were supporting brothers and sister from South Africa but the incident that happened in South Africa by killing other Africa is big embarrassment and betrayal to all Africa people in this world."

**
9. Gabriel Komango
"my land.... TANGANYIKA / TANZANIA"

**
10. Shell Winchester
"mama land África, my first mama i really miss you, and i love you so much... Áfricaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa... Angolaaa!!!"

**
11. Vidakon Jemusse
"Chokwe at Gaza, South of Mozambique,.... Makweniu wa Maxangane..... Peace From Mozambique"

**
12. Ismael Botan
"My mamaland somalia africa am proud to be african where our culture teach us to respect the old and the young ones am realy proud of whom i am"

**
13. hlaloso moreri
"my mamaland-Botswana/Africa"

**
14. M.S K
"Zambia✊ Africa Mamaland"

**
15. Evans Machera
"A celebratory song by African greatest song bird."

**
16. Silver Back
"One Love mama Africa. From S.Leone Westside Africa."

**
17. thadmans
"Africa is indeed our mamaland. Travelled from Kenya to RSA in June for the first time and still felt that I was still at home."

**
18. Bint Mohammed
"Ethiopia , Africa mamaland"

**
19. Martila Omba
"I luv my mamaland Congo DRC/Zambia"

****
2016
20. Nona Ford
"This song reminds me of those turn up weddings and parties!"

**
21. Chol Akuany
"My Mamaland Africa, Yvone Chacka Chacka has said it all. Stop fighting yourselves my people. Why is this tribal division among some Africans tribes? South Sudan, Dinka and Nuer used to inter-marry and did barter trade with one another until the money came along which in turn made some individuals like Riek Machar lust for even more. The 1991 & 2013 episodes are just examples. Greed is dividing my people and blinding them from realizing the truth. And what is the truth? There is no truth when you pick up a gun and kill innocent people. To the peaceful African nations, I thank you for being there for Africa, our Mamaland"

**
Reply
22. ntege samuel, 2017
"Chol Akuany
Also i wish S. Sudan people can wake up & stop murdering Ugandans like insects. We have taken you in as refugees & no one has been killed in here by a Ugandan. I the same way you should treat us well. Stop hooliganism its not the way to go in this modern era. If Ugandans werent good to you then you wdnt have come in here. Ugandan are peaceful & hospitable....& so should be you S. Sudanese. Treat us well...we sell food to you not because there no other markets but we know you are a desert helpless country. Finally we wish you well S.Sudan no matter how you kill us in your land."

**
23. Loice Mukandi
"Oh yes my mama land lots of love from Zimbabwe"

**
24. Jossey Kibebe
"you are such amazing lady,queen of africa i like the song truely africa is our mother land,it is our home and we are home to stay,lets practice peace,love and unity to our mother land God bless africa"

**
25. GLORIA 256
"Am from Uganda and I love Africa ma mama land God bless South Africans the freedom fighters 👏👏👏👏👏"

**
26. Social Streaming
"Stop killing, stop killing, it's our motherland Africa, very iconic music!"

27. Baba Theo Chriss
"Am Tanzanian my mamaland country. proud to be African.."

**
28. Daniel Boateng
"Her songs really contributed South Africa freedom. Big up Yvonne"

**
29. Givemore Chiguvare
"YAAAH wenever i go to a NEW AFRICAN PLACE I PLAY THIS ONE."

**
30. migxgy
"Always played this song at parties"

**
31. morenikespring #apple
"these were our beyonces"

**
32. Rufus J. Kerkulah
"From Gbarnga, Bong County, Liberia to South Africa with love."

**
33. Kenny Chukwu
"In character, in manner, in style, in all the things, the supreme excellence is simplicity. Like all magnificent things, she is an epitome of beauty and class. #Naija."

**
34. Jacob Paulo
"my thanks giving from Angola, love this song so much Chaka"

**
35. thamsanqa nyathi
"I waz young by then in rural areas listening to radio 2 before it waz named radio Zimbabwe,gne are the day's"

**
36. BE8Y LUBEGA
"I miss my mama land, just thought of Chaka Chaka one of the music icons of the 90s. Missing you Africa..."

**
37. Annah Makhoshi
"I am happy to be at African. I'm coming from Ghana I love south Africa it make me happy here"

**
38. Kbc Construction
"the time wen she was young looking good that we fighting apartheid in Namibia remind me my fellow whose gone with war"

**
39. samantha gloria
"Kbc Construction She still looks good,watched her on BBC hard talk one day ago"

**
40. jimmy heguye
"♨❤ l should give huge all Mother in Village!😀&dance with them😀My heart fired to Mother land home village! l feel so much to them!"

**
41. rumbie portia
"My roots are here in Africa....nyc song"
-snip-
“nyc song” = “nice song” and not New York City song

**
42. Regina Drescher
"Those were the good old days were no internet or mobile existed,millenials will never know how good it felt. Thank you Yvonne,you have no idea how many hearts you changed during your time.I give thanks to you..Thank you princess of Africa"

**
43. Femme Fatale
"yvonne chaka chaka in ZAÏRE ♥♥"

**
44. Bertin Ngindu
"So proud to be an African...my mamaland Tanzania/DRC"

**
45. Sidiki Fofana
"I am not from sudafrika but I love it realy all afrika are brothers"

****
2017
46. Charles Lotara
"Those were more than just musicians but were iconic freedom fighters through their songs! You made us proud of our motherland, we love you, we love Africa!"

**
48. James Ndula
"Yvonne was actually asking African countries to stop fighting and unite to become one, unfortunately that didn't happen"

**
49. Gabriel Mandlenkosi Vundla
"africa start from cape town to cairo,so all countries which are in this continent must get united not fight,nigerians are my brothers,zimbabweans are my sisters,so stop fighting guys"

**
50. polycap orina
"produced at the height of Racism...I listened to this as a kid,And will still bomb to hit"

**
51. stephen mugisha
"mam land so great,am Rwanda and proud to be so, i love ur music!!!"

**
52. Chris Tifana chikafa Tifana
"Yoh! aunt you suppose to continue singing please, i like all your songs maam"

**
53. Sebongile Nkachela Baggio
"my mamaland a better land, my home town. before cell phones take over"

**
54. Julius Chacha
"I remember those days 1992 when my uncles used to play kinanda."

**
55. jiya jalaqsan
"I love my motherland in somali"

**
56. Onasis Kanika Since88
"Am from Zambia Africa is my motherland let's not kill each other Africa unite. One love brothers and sisters"

**
57. Mula chain
"I am proud to be Congolese (DRC)"

**
58. ispm quartoano
"sory abaut my inglish im Mozambican. I love this song i rember my infacnc 7 year s old mamaland from Yvone .i never forget you."

**
59. Gisele Belole
"part of the video done in Kinshasa -Zaïre (DRC)"

**
60. Vannuge Jiiko
"I remember this song when I was young back in Malawi I feel so emotional now I miss you mama land the warm heart of Africa"

**
61. Vhuramai Chimbindi
"its true this Africa is our mama land why are we fighting for. lets not divide our selves"

**
62. maikano Rabe
"You contributed a lot in saving south Africa from the apartheid ruling. Great and tremendous zulu voice. It me remembered Dabezitao un Chakra zulu movie."

**
63. james pa92
"Childhood jam!!!"

**
64. Tracy Justice
"my mama land Tanzania, proud to be Tanzanian watching from the USA"

**
65. Lucy Leopold
"i real mic my home town my mama land Tanzania...from sweden"

**
66. JDOUG757
"being a black american, I envy u guys so much. we don't know where we are from. we are so lost...MAMA AFRICA I LOVE YOU!!! I MISS U!!!"

**
67. Willy Kabuya EL GANADOR
"i love africa proud To be congolese. my land"

**
68. Vivi Cruz
"Hi, I'm Cape Verdean, I love this rhythm, how I wanted to understand the lyrics, Kisses"

**
Reply
69. Tonny Okello
"Ni we nakupenda , ni we Mamaland - It a swahili phrase that translates literally : It is you I love, it is you my motherland."

**
70. Lionel Pessi Aka El Vomito
"BURUNDI forever"

**
71. mike koechner
"my mama land Kenya. watching from Doha Qatar. I miss my home Africa..."

**
72. OMBENI MIHWELA
"i love and i proud with african mucian who was sing the song of liberazation"

****
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Visitor comments are welcome.
          Where can I study through an ASU program?        

The Center for International Studies offers programs in:

  • Austria
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  • Bulgaria
  • China
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          Rev. Steve Eason: Time to leave, teach other clergy what he's learned in Charlotte        

Scandal. Burnout. Illness. Division.

Those are the reasons you hear most these days when a senior pastor exits a big church before reaching retirement age.

But the Rev. Steve Eason says his decision to leave Myers Park Presbyterian Church next April is a “good news story.”




“No hidden agenda,” Eason, 60, told me after emailing his decision to the church’s 4,700 members this week. “Nothing is wrong here at the church. It’s not a story of burnout. This change is coming out of a position of strength and gratitude.”

After 12 years of leading one of Charlotte’s most prominent – and most generous – churches, Eason said he’s being called to take what he’s learned and share it with other clergy.

As director of consulting services with Atlanta-based Macedonian Ministries, he’ll teach, coach and organize workshops for ministers of various denominations.

It’s a group that desperately needs more support in an age when men and women of the cloth are called on to be there 24/7 for others.

“We’re in a situation where clergy are dropping out of this profession at an alarming rate,” Eason said. “Or not going into it at all.”

So Eason will try to pass along to his next flock – a group ranging from Catholic priests to Pentecostal preachers – what he’s learned about preaching, empowering lay people and more.

He’ll take his leave from a Charlotte house of worship that’s now the biggest Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) church in North Carolina and the fourth largest in the country. 

It’s one that’s blessed with enviable demographics: The largest age group at Myers Park Presbyterian, Eason said, is those between 30 and 40. That means young families with kids – a good predictor of growth into the future.

And it has deep pockets: members include developer Johnny Harris, former Bank of America CFO (and now top Carlyle Group executive) Jim Hance, and the Belks, the department store family.

But it’s also a church that gives in a big way: Under Eason’s leadership, it completed a $30 million capital campaign, then spent $11 million on everything from affordable housing in Grier Heights, a low-income neighborhood in Charlotte, to clean water projects in Malawi and the Congo.

“It’s a great witness for a church to make in this culture,” Eason said. “We didn’t raise that to spend it all on ourselves. I’m proud how mission-minded this church is.”

Eason also likes how Myers Park Presbyterian has weathered the intra-denominational battle over ordaining gays and lesbians – a change that prompted some big conservative churches to leave the PC (USA).

“We have conservatives, moderates and liberals, and they all end up together at the Communion table,” he said of his Charlotte church. “We disagree on things, but we don’t fragment and fight. … My job has been to not polarize the congregation.”

Eason will be around for seven more months, long enough, he said, to pastor his Charlotte flock through one more Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter.

But the grieving has begun. Eason said he’s already gotten “a flood of affirming emails.”

The good feelings are mutual. “You have taught me so much,” Eason told members, “that I now can share with others.”

I’ll leave the last words to evangelist-author Leighton Ford, who’s been attending Myers Park Presbyterian with his wife, Jean (Billy Graham’s sister) for 20-plus years.

“He’s going to be terribly missed,” Ford said. “He’s loved. And the gift he’s given us – the clear, compelling preaching of Christ – has drawn in so many people.”

-- Tim Funk


          Career Opportunities With VSO ( United Kingdom, Kenya, Zambia, Malawi, Pakistan)        
ShareSocial Accountability Programme Manager Kenya, 9 Aug 2017 Programme Development and Partnership Adviser( livelihoods & resilience) Cambodia, 10 Aug 2017 Senior Programme Manager – Health, HIV & AIDS and ICS Malawi, 12 Aug 2017 Programme Manager Zambia, 13 Aug 2017 Fundraising Officer For New Products and Digital Fundraising United Kingdom, 13 Aug 2017 Evaluation consultant to conduct a project impact […]
          Mabadilliko ya tabianchi yameathiri uchumi wa Malawi-Benki ya dunia        
Shirika la fedha duniani, IMF na benki ya dunia wanafanya kazi kwa pamoja ili kusaidia nchi ya Malawi kukabiliana na athari za mabadiliko ya tabianchi. Mabadiliko ya tabianchi yameathiri pakubwa uchumi wa Malawi katika kipindi cha miaka miwili baada ya mafuriko yaliyofuatiwa na ukame mbaya zaidi kuwahi kushuhudiwa katika historia ya nchi hiyo. Kwa mujibu [...]
          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Innovative policy to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV shows positive impact - Press Release        
The number of pregnant and breastfeeding women in Malawi with HIV who started life-saving antiretroviral treatment increased by more than 700 percent in one year, according to a study in CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The new treatment option, called Option B+, offers all pregnant or breastfeeding women infected with HIV lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART), regardless of the stage of their HIV infection.
          Madonna Cuts Charitable Giving by Two-Thirds, Makes Sean Penn’s Haiti Group New Cause Over Kabbalah, Africa        
Madonna– a lot has been made of the new medical building opened in her name this year in Malawi, home of her

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          Malawi - Volunteer at Teaching and Sports Projects        

Join like-minded volunteers  in Malawi and give your vital contribution to improve the level of education, and help the current teachers improve their English and way of teaching or join a diverse Medical Volunteer Project which has huge potential to improve the level of primary health care that is currently provided in the rural communities in Malawi


          William Kamkwamba is Coming to Maker Faire Africa        
A young Malawian built a windmill from scratch to help power the lights in his rural home, his name is William Kamkwamba. We’re very excited to announce that William Kamkwamba, sponsored by his organization Moving Windmills, will be coming to Maker Faire Africa. I first met William at TED Africa two years ago in Arusha, […]
          New Things        
We have some new things - the boat is feeling more and more like a home. Each new addition reflects the current economic climate. 

A broomstick and string 'wardrobe'. The string was fivepence a piece from the Crick boat show last year, the broom handle was 20p in a garage sale in Bradford upon Avon. The hooks attaching it to the ceiling were found in one of those icecream tubs that is hiding under the sink of every rented property in the country - the ones with the radiator key, curtain hooks, assorted knobs, and a locked padlock in. 


A little set of shelves to put a laptop on whilst we watch films and to keep a few books and bits on (including a great little lamp from Simone's mum.) We made these, and a second little set of shelves for the bedroom, out of the old shelves that used to be where the 'wardrobe' now is.


 A new sofa, which was rescued from Gumtree and then re-covered with a Chitenje I bought in Malawi. The awful futon that used to be here was taken to pieces and the ends used to make a shelf for the coal to sit under, and the ends of the broomhandle - there's enough timber left to make a new set of bookshelves. Simone is hard at work on her PhD. She is definitely not on facebook.


          New International Airstrip for Lake Malawi        
The Makokola airstrip on the Southern Shore of Lake Malawi is now Malawi’s fourth international airport. This will make combinations between Zambia’s South Luangwa National Park and Lake Malawi even easier. For clients that, after an exhilarating but tiring safari in the South Luangwa, wish to relax and recuperate on Lake Malawi’s beautiful sandy beaches, […]
          Malawi Tourist Board Finalist        
Malawi has been nominated as an awards finalist in the Best African Tourism Board in Africa category in the 2012 Safari Awards. One of Africa’s most picturesque and compact countries, Malawi is in good company with other finalists in the group including safari industry giants of South Africa, Kenya, Botswana and Namibia. This is a […]
          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          â€œRelación de la violencia y la inmigración en la frontera USA-México, en ambos Nogales”        
Por Presbítero Viliulfo Valderrama [PDF format] [Return to homepage]

Fr. Viliulfo Valderrama is originally from the State of Puebla in Mexico.
In 1990 he was invited to have a pastoral experience in the border city San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora Mexico, where he felt the call to work with the Hispanic migrant Church in the USA. He was ordained priest for the diocese of Tucson in 1996. Among other pastoral activities he has collaborated with the Jesuits in the Kino Iniciative in Tucson to promote the human dignity of the undocumented migrants. He coordinates humanitarian help to deported migrants in Nogales Mexico; and works with several groups defending and promoting human rights.


I. LA PAZ QUE NOS ROBARON





El entorno es violento;
El grito por la vida se oye desesperado.
La ola
de violencia que azota la comarca
deshace los discursos de la paz,
silencia los sermones del amor;
opaca los rayos del bien;
el
prejuicio y la intolerancia
encuentran sus epicentro en el corazón,
aquel sagrado recinto
ahora envenenado por el odio.
¿Es que acaso la
Civilización del Amor
es solo un sueño, una vana quimera,
o una ilusión
de infantiloides?
Los seguidores de Cristo elevan sus plegarias al
Altísimo y le preguntan:
¿acaso tus Hijos se han vuelto locos?
¿porqué
se destruyen unos a otros?
Y el Altísimo usa su alfabeto: el
silencio, más elocuente que el trillado discurso.
¿Quien nos robo la
paz? insiste el conturbado espíritu.
Y Dios, con una lágrima en los
ojos, solo recoge a los caídos.
Por P. Viliulfo Valderrama

II. PERCEPCION DE LA REALIDAD: (VER)

a. Reflexión pastoral: La frontera de Ambos Nogales

Un grupo de feligreses de san Felipe de Jesús en Nogales, Arizona, aceptaron la invitación de llevar alimentos a sus compatriotas que diariamente son deportados en la garita Mariposa, de la zona fronteriza de Nogales, al otro lado de la frontera. Nadie sabia que esperar; en el grupo todos se veían con animo y con el firme deseo de vivir la caridad, y solidarizarse con los hombres y mujeres que cada día son aventados a los basureros de la marginación, en un país como México, que lo ha despojado de todo, menos de su deseo insaciable de buscar nuevos horizontes.

Cruzamos finalmente la frontera, con algunos víveres y, al llegar al lugar de la cita, guiados por nuestro líder, todos contemplamos atónitos el estremecedor panorama. Es una verdadera tragedia que en una frontera internacional como esta -con una línea divisoria de 3,138 Km. (1950 millas)- el gobierno no tenga un lugar digno para recibir a los compatriotas que fracasaron en su intento de cruzar el desierto, arriesgando sus vidas, en busca de un porvenir mas digno para sus hijos. (Las estadísticas muestran que un 30% de la población mexicana depende de las remesas). El lugar era totalmente improvisado; había una carpa vieja, con una mesita, unas cuantas sillas, un refrigerador pequeño e insuficiente, un trailer de la cruz roja, con algunos medicamentos.

Con mas ánimos que recursos, un grupo de voluntarios esperaban ahí, como cada día, con la esperanza de que algún “buen samaritano” les tienda la mano. Un grupo cristiano repartía folletos con el salmo 23; también se habían dado cita los “coyotes”, para vender nuevamente la idea del “sueno americano”, a los desesperanzados transeúntes. La frase evangélica de que “el trigo y la cizaña crecen juntos” ahí cobraba vida.

El encargado aseguraba que era imposible ahuyentar a los “coyotes”. Su preocupación era mas bien otra: con un solo carro es difícil canalizar a los deportados a los distintos albergues –hay solo cuatro en la ciudad, y solo uno del gobierno- que están llenos hasta el tope. Las deportaciones se suelen realizar en la mañana, y en la tarde. En la tarde se deportan a mujeres y niños, lo cual es un riesgo mayor: las mujeres y los niños son más vulnerables y están expuestos a mayores abusos. En ese momento llego un grupo de migrantes recién deportados. Se les ofreció comida y agua, y la mayoría rehusó la oferta, por lo menos al principio. El aguijón de la desesperanza esta profundamente clavado en sus corazones. Unos de ellos decían: “Ni hambre tenemos”, (quizás su hambre mas grande es que se les haga justicia). Otro, con lagrimas en los ojos pedía una oración.

Una familia estaba ahí, esperando su turno para cruzar; cuando se intento persuadirlos de que no lo hicieran; de que el desierto es mortal, su argumento fue lapidante: “de cualquier manera, morimos lentamente en nuestro pueblo”.

¿Que más podemos hacer? decían en el grupo, ¿como podemos ayudar más eficazmente? Muy buena pregunta. Por ahora nuestra labor es asistencial, aunque uno sabe que el problema es estructural y endémico, que requiere soluciones de raíz. Los migrantes enfrentan varios retos: son expulsados del país con el hombre más rico del mundo. Aquí son rechazados por una sociedad que ve la emigración como una invasión masiva. Y en la frontera son presa fácil del abuso y la extorsión. Pero México es el primero en violar sus derechos, por la falta de oportunidades. Los datos revelan que 18 millones 790 mil mexicanos – el 18.2 %- sufren de “pobreza alimentaria”, la peor forma de marginación, porque quienes la padecen no alcanzan a cubrir lo mínimo para comer y nutrirse. Además, 25 millones 950 mil mexicanos padecen pobreza de capacidades -insuficiencia del ingreso para adquirir la canasta alimentaria y pagar los gastos en salud y educación-, y 49.7 millones sufren pobreza de patrimonio.

El papa Juan Pablo II exclamo ante las autoridades mexicanas: “Respetad al hombre, ¡El es imagen de Dios! El papa Paulo VI califico al sistema económico de “desventurado y nefasto, de inicuos resultados”. Los migrantes son, como dijera el documento de Puebla, los “rostros sufrientes de Cristo”, que han sido alcanzados por el aguijón de la pobreza, “el mas devastador y humillante de los flagelos”. Dicen los obispos latinoamericanos: Vemos, a la luz de la fe, como un escandalo y una contradiccion la creciente brecha entre ricos y pobres”. Por eso es una lastima que en la frontera se aplacen acuerdos bilaterales que salvaguarden la dignidad; y que una reforma migratoria integral, que conviene a ambos países, todavía sea cuestión de retórica; es mas vergonzoso que México tenga al hombre mas rico del mundo, -que suma 68,800 millones de dólares en su haber- extinguiendo con ello a la clase media.

Los políticos mexicanos se sienten indignados por la idea de un muro fronterizo militarizado, pero no con la idea de que 10 familias mexicanas poseen el 60 % de los bienes. Hoy ya nadie discute que es la corrupción y el abuso de nuestro sistema lo que ha generado la pobreza extrema. Es cierto que el ser humano tiene derecho a emigrar; pero ningún ser humano debe ser obligado a emigrar. México, con su cultura de corrupción, obliga a los mexicanos a emigrar, y esa es una violación a la dignidad humana. Los mexicanos que viven legal o ilegalmente en los Estados Unidos -unos 21 millones- son la clase media que México ya no tiene, porque la expulso de su territorio. Irónicamente, y en un gran gesto de solidaridad humana, son la clase que mantiene la estabilidad económica del país –por ejemplo, los datos revelan que en el 2006 se enviaron 26 billones de dólares a México. Pero “los hijos de la tinieblas son más astutos que los hijos de la luz” (Lc.16, 1-13): conviene al sistema, seguir generando pobreza, porque esta a su vez genera cuantiosas ganancias; y hoy es ya más redituable la emigración de los pobres que la industria petrolera.

En el análisis final, podemos establecer que la emigración desde Latinoamérica al “norte” va a continuar, a menos que cambien los sistemas económicos de ambos países. En la arena pública hay que luchar por una política migratoria mas humana y honesta. En la esfera de la fe, hay que reconocer a los “rostros sufrientes de Cristo”, que viven en la frontera y que mueren en el desierto; y hay que hacer algo por ellos. Leonardo Boff dice: “nuestro sueno no reside en una sociedad pobre, o una sociedad rica, sino en una sociedad justa, fraterna, solidaria, democrática y sensible al misterio que atraviesa la existencia humana”. (Articulo de Viliulfo Valderrama publicado en el periódico "The New Vision" de la diócesis de Tucson en Noviembre del 2007)

b. Los síntomas de la dialéctica violencia-inmigración

1. Aumento preocupante de asesinatos en la zona fronteriza debido a conflictos entre los carteles de las drogas. Los carteles, sin ningún tipo de ética ni sentido de respeto por la dignidad de las personas, se pelean las plazas, enfrentándose unos a otros mediante tiroteos en las vías publicas, y poniendo en peligro las vidas de los ciudadanos en transito.

2. Aumento considerable del contrabando de drogas y armas en la zona americana de la frontera. Aun con todas las aparentes medidas de ambos gobiernos, el hecho palpable es que las drogas y las armas esta disponibles, al mejor postor. Las drogas vienen del sur; las armas van hacia el sur. Los jóvenes son una población con altos niveles de vulnerabilidad. En la última semana de Octubre del 2010 un joven de la parroquia de san Felipe de Jesús fue asesinado cruelmente con varios balazos en el cerebro en Tucson y, dos días después, el cuerpo sin vida de su novia fue encontrado en un terreno baldío contiguo al aeropuerto con marcas de tortura. Estos hechos son el pan de cada día. Muchos jóvenes, incluyendo menores de edad, son presa fácil del contrabando de drogas. En Tucson, hace solo unos días (el 8 de enero 2011) hubo un caso que conmovió a la nación entera: El joven Jared Lee Loughner, de 22 anos de edad intento asesinar a la congresista Gabrielle Giffords en una reunión política y en su fallido intento asesino a 8 personas, entre ellas se encontraban el juez federal John Roll y la niña de 9 años Christine Taylor Green.

3. Las estadísticas sobre el crimen han generado un clima de tensión permanente en la ciudadanía. El diario Imparcial de la zona, en su edición del 11 de Enero del 2011, señalo que el 2010 cerró con 600 homicidios intencionales en el estado de Sonora. De ellos, 412 fueron con arma de fuego. Los años anteriores arrojaron estas cifras: en el 2009 hubo 498 muertos; en el 2008 hubo 393 homicidios; 308 en e l 2007 y 238 en el 2006. La cifra es ascendente. En el 2010, después de Hermosillo, Sonora, Nogales, Sonora tuvo la incidencia más alta de crímenes en el estado: 202 muertes violentas. Ni los operativos policiales ni la militarización de de la zona con soldados federales parece poner un freno a la cifra ascendente de crímenes violentos. Incluso, se dice que, desde el 2007 han sido asesinados 10 mexicanos colaboradores de la DEA y 51 contactos del FBI (Revista Proceso, num. 1783).

4. La violencia del crimen organizado en esta zona ha aumentado su brutalidad. Las decapitaciones y la colocación de los cuerpos desmembrados en los lugares públicos son un común denominador.

5. Aumento considerable de la adicción a las drogas en la zona americana de esta frontera. La misma proliferación de centros de rehabilitación en la zona indica que se trata de responder a una realidad social que es cada vez más demandante.

6. Crisis económica grave en los pequeños negocios fronterizos que ven una considerable disminución en el número de turistas que cruzan la frontera para ir de compras al territorio mexicano. Esto en buena parte es debido a la tendencia sensacionalista del periodismo actual y a comunicados del gobierno americano a sus conciudadanos alertándolos de la violencia en México.
7. Sofisticación de los métodos para la infiltración y tráfico de droga hacia los Estados Unidos usando nuevas tecnologías de vanguardia y con ofrecimientos monetarios mayúsculos para extorsionar a las autoridades de ambos países.

8. La cotidianidad de la muerte, la violencia, el robo, el secuestro, etc. propiciado por la falta de censura a la prensa, que conduce a una insensibilización de la población. Para muchos jóvenes, ver morir a alguien no espanta ni aterroriza. Como dice Alejandra Lajaous en su articulo Violencia y Medios (revista Este país, numero 237): “No informar es malo, pero hacerlo con morbo y fuera de contexto es desinformar” La prensa sensacionalista desinforma.

9. El sentido de frustración de las autoridades, las cuales sienten que están perdiendo la guerra contra el tráfico y consumo de drogas.

10. El sentimiento colectivo de que en la “frontera no hay ley”, lo cual causa gran temor entre los ciudadanos que los paraliza y les impide desplazarse con facilidad para el ejercicio de sus tareas cotidianas.

11. La falta de un discurso permanente contra la violencia -sus posibles causas e implicaciones morales- presente en la iglesia católica, la cual generalmente solo se pronuncia públicamente después de algún suceso violento por medio de alguna carta pastoral en la que se exhorta a los ciudadanos a rezar por las victimas.

12. La falta de una pastoral migratoria integral en las parroquias de la frontera que capacite y eduque a los agentes de pastoral en el tema de la doctrina social de la iglesia católica. Pastoralmente, en la frontera cada párroco hace lo que puede, y hay otras situaciones en que el mismo párroco no cree que la iglesia debería inmiscuirse en “asuntos de política”. Un cierto tipo de tendencia conservadora en algunos sectores del clero frena la propagación de la doctrina sobre los derechos humanos desde la perspectiva de Cristo.

13. El surgimiento de un sentimiento xenofóbico, antiinmigrante en ciertos grupos de poder, lo cual ha conducido a elaborar propuestas de ley tendenciosas con un corte racista, según la critica internacional, violatorias de los derechos humanos.

14. Falta de ecumenismo en las diferentes iglesias, que no están muy abiertas a la creación de proyectos de defensa de los derechos humanos que agrupen a líderes cristianos en un solo frente, para combatir la violencia.

III. ANALISIS DE LA REALIDAD. JUZGAR / DISCERNIR

a. Reflexión pastoral: La meta-compasión de Jesús y el proyecto Kino

Uno de los términos bíblicos mas fascinantes en profundidad filológica es el termino griego splangnizomai. Dicho termino se encuentra en el clásico texto mateano que describe la compasión de Jesús frente al sufrimiento de su pueblo: “Viendo a la muchedumbre, Jesús tuvo compasión porque estaban vejadas y abatidas…”. (Mt 9,36). En castellano no existe una traducción exacta del término. La palabra latina “compasión” es limitada y no capta su riqueza.

Mas aun, la explicación de splangnizomai es difícil de entenderse en la mentalidad occidental.
Ante el sufrimiento, Jesús experimento un movimiento visceral; un dolor de extrañas; los síntomas de un ataque de pánico; un derrumbamiento psíquico y fisiológico; un agudo dolor como de parto complicado. La versión anglosajona del “He had pity” presenta la misma complicación. Si se castellanizara el término se tendría que decir que Jesús tuvo metacompasión o megacompasión. Cuando Jesús contemplo la degradación del hombre, creado a imagen y semejanza de Dios, sintió un torbellino en sus entrañas. Niveles profundos de sufrimiento hacen sufrir al mismo Dios. Es como decir que Dios no solo tiene corazón sino también extrañas. Así es Dios, y en su infinita ternura, siente que se le derriten las entrañas ante el sufrimiento, incluso el del mas insignificante de los gusanos. Esta metacompasión podría compararse con misericordia (miserere=miseria y cordia=corazón) que es “sentir la miseria del otro en nuestro corazón”, lo cual es ya un avance. Pero el término griego es más rico en su contenido.

Pues bien, los seguidores de Cristo, que son llamados a servir a los migrantes deportados, deben sentir esta dinámica del espíritu. Su labor humanitaria no es solo un apostolado mas, con tintes filantrópicos. Es una experiencia mística: descubren los rostros sufrientes de Cristo, que se presenta disfrazado a la vera del camino, para ver si los epulones de hoy lo descubrimos. Tenemos el privilegio –y desafió- de estar tan cerca del escenario donde se violan los derechos humanos a cada instante. Si no se es capaz de descubrir a ese Cristo deprimido, cansado, hambreado y deshidratado, entonces el culto al Dios de la vida se torna idolátrico (porque no aterriza en un compromiso con la dignidad de la vida).

A ellos, el instinto los obliga a cruzar el desierto, con el deseo firme de llevarles un pedazo de pan a sus hijos, que esperan en algún rincón de latinoamérica. A nosotros la metacompasión de Jesús debe inspirarnos a acompañarlos en su jornada. La pastoral migratoria es un ministerio sui generis; un apostolado por excelencia; es un imperativo moral y categórico. No se puede bajar la guardia ni un solo instante. No se debe huir al compromiso. El proyecto Kino, aun con sus matices ignacianos, es un proyecto de la iglesia universal. No es exclusivo de la Compañía de Jesús. Nos interpela a todos. Debe unir a todas las espiritualidades, incluso a las de los grupos parroquiales mas contemplativos. Las misioneras de la Eucaristía –por ejemplo-no solo ven la presencia real de Cristo en la Hostia consagrada, sino también en el Cristo disfrazado de angustia, de depresión, de desesperación y de desesperanza.

El proyecto Kino servirá de catalizador del compromiso de los grupos apostólicos, del clero diocesano, y de los laicos. Es un grito profético para saltar de la apatía e indiferencia religiosa a la metacompasión de Jesús. En la frontera hay mucho por hacer para frenar la agonía de Cristo. El proyecto Kino es una invitación a ser contemplativos en la acción. Todos debemos unirnos para vivir el ideal del evangelio en su opción por los ultrajados de la zona. A cada instante se puede ver el rostro pálido de Cristo: en jóvenes deprimidos, en niños desorientados, en mujeres mancilladas, en hombres heridos y llagados. Para ellos no hay una repatriación digna. Son empobrecidos en el país del hombre más rico del mundo. Y son rechazados en el país más poderoso del planeta. El aguijón de la desesperanza esta clavado en sus corazones. ¿Y que ha hecho la iglesia católica para aliviar su dolor? ¿Qué hacen los gobiernos para mitigar sus llantos?

En la iglesia y en la humanidad hay un patrimonio humanitario vasto en contenidos éticos, que debiera usarse con el mismo ardor del papa León XIII. Claro, el fenómeno migratorio es complejo y ello exige una pastoral orgánica en la que se involucre toda la iglesia. Una sola persona, o grupo no es la solución. Un individuo podría caer en la fatiga de la compasión, porque los desafíos son interminables. Hay que recordar el adagio evangélico: “Los hijos de la tinieblas son mas astutos que los hijos de la luz”. . El mal puede contrarrestar las buenas intenciones de la iglesia. Por eso, debe haber un excelente enlace entre la iglesia de las comunidades expulsoras, de las de transito y de las de destino. La iglesia de los pueblos expulsores debe promover mejor la doctrina del destino universal de los bienes, y proveer análisis de la realidad menos funcionalista –“hay pobres y hay ricos”- y mas dialécticos –“hay pobres porque hay ricos”.

¿Como se explica que en los continentes más católicos del mundo, existan las diferencias sociales más aberrantes? La denuncia profética en esos entornos es un imperativo de la fe.

En los pueblos de paso es necesario crear una cultura de la acogida, basada en la metacompasión de Jesús. Es evidente que en México –país de transito- a cada minuto se violan los derechos de los migrantes centroamericanos. Los albergues y centros de hospitalidad son primordiales. Ahí, los laicos juegan un papel primordial, y pueden recuperar la dimensión mística de la justicia social: Cristo es el viandante asaltado a la vera del camino.

En los lugares de destino –Estados Unidos, Canadá, Europa- es necesaria una pastoral de la bienvenida, de la integración, de la inculturación, del respeto al extranjero, para ayudarles a no estar condenados al anonimato y las tinieblas. Al final de cada jornada, los defensores de los derechos humanos tendrán que reflexionar en el poema del Malawi que dice:

• “Tenia hambre, y ustedes han fundado un club con fines humanitarios, en donde se discute sobre la falta de alimentos. Les estoy agradecido.
• Estaba en la cárcel, y ustedes han ido a la iglesia a rogar por mi liberación. Les estoy agradecido.
• Estaba desnudo, y ustedes han examinado las consecuencias morales de mi desnudez. Les estoy agradecido.
• Estaba enfermo, y ustedes han caído de rodillas para agradecer al señor el haberme dado la salud.
• Vivía sin techo, y ustedes me han predicado los recursos del amor de Dios.
Parecen tan piadosos, tan cerca de Dios. Pero todavía tengo hambre, estoy todavía solo, desnudo, enfermo, prisionero y sin techo, tengo frío…” (Articulo del P. Viliulfo Valderrama publicado en el periódico "The New Vision" de la diócesis de Tucson)

b. Diagnostico de un problema complejo en la frontera de Nogales

La frontera entre Nogales, México y Nogales, Arizona, -conocida como “ambos Nogales”- siempre ha estado expuesta a niveles considerables de violencia: narcotráfico, prostitución, violencia domestica, secuestro, adicciones, etc. En el pasado remoto, esta frontera era conocida como “la frontera blanca”. Hoy Nogales, Sonora, es considerado como uno de los lugares más violentos de México (el 2010 arrojo el saldo de 202 muertes violentas) y también es conocido en el mundo por los “narcotuneles”. La mayoría de los medios de comunicación atribuyen la ola de violencia incontrolada a las guerrillas entre los carteles de las drogas por el control absoluto de esta zona.

Arizona es un estado de transito –mas que de destino- para miles de hispanos, provenientes de todas las latitudes de latinoamérica; unos en busca del “sueño americano”; otros huyendo de regímenes totalitarios o guerrillas en sus respectivos países; y otros simplemente para escapar al fantasma de la pobreza extrema. Hubo hace tiempo un acontecimiento que favoreció el clima anti-inmigrante que ahora impera en el estado, y ha agitado las aguas de la intolerancia: el asesinato del ranchero Robert Krentz, supuestamente perpetrado por un inmigrante indocumentado en Marzo del 2009 en el condado de Cochise. El asesinato de Krentz se ha convertido en un detonante para seguir con el debate sobre los inmigrantes que inició con la aprobación de la ley SB1070 en abril del 2010, y que permite que la policía del estado de Arizona pueda detener a cualquier inmigrante que sea sospechoso de estar ilegalmente en el país. La representante demócrata del estado de Arizona, Gabrielle Giffords, pidió el despliegue de elementos de la Guardia Nacional de inmediato, después del asesinato. El 25 de mayo, el gobierno de Obama anunció que desplegaría 1,200 miembros de la Guardia Nacional a la frontera con México para ayudar en los esfuerzos de luchar contra el tráfico de drogas y reforzar las labores de inteligencia. Andy Krentz, el hijo mayor de Robert, concluyo que su padre fue asesinado por un inmigrante ilegal. Nunca se supo que había sucedido realmente. Las teorías más realistas señalan que Robert Krentz pudo haber sido asesinado por un miembro de un cartel de las drogas. Sin embargo, los rancheros de la zona se reunieron para protestar contra las fallas del gobierno de Estados Unidos para frenar la violencia en la frontera.

La ley de Arizona SB1070 del 2010, también conocida como “Ley del odio” es una ley del estado de Arizona que ha recibido la atención nacional e internacional y ha provocado una controversia considerable ya que criminaliza a los inmigrantes sin documentos y considera sospechosos de crímenes a todos los que por su aspecto puedan parecer inmigrantes, ya sean ciudadanos norteamericanos o inmigrantes legales o ilegales. Aunque dicha ley ha sido temporalmente suspendida, ha generado un clima de intolerancia en el estado y ha afectado la economía del estado. Todo el país ha sido testigo de los boicots a Arizona, que han causado pérdidas económicas millonarias.

El análisis de la realidad de esta zona fronteriza nos lleva entonces a identificar algunas de las causas de la exacerbada violencia que se ha gestado en esta parte del país. Algunas de ellas son exclusivas de esta región. Otras son de carácter universal, que generan violencia en todos los lugares del globo terráqueo.

1. En EEUU el discurso político se ha polarizado tanto que ha perdido la ética del respeto a los ideales del otro. Los políticos suelen ver al partido político opuesto, no como un oponente, sino como un enemigo cuyo discurso es mentiroso.

2. La politización del fenómeno migratorio en EEUU ha frenado el establecimiento de una reforma migratoria integral que beneficie a ambos países.

3. El paradigma del neoliberalismo económico –que obstaculiza una repartición de los bienes para todos- sigue generando los más altos niveles de pobreza endémica en el entorno latinoamericano.

4. El surgimiento de una especie de neo xenofobia se propaga en ciertos sectores de la población, promovida por grupos radicales con una ideología anti inmigrante.

5. En México, hay una contradicción entre los reportes oficiales sobre el combate al crimen y las drogas y los reportes de la prensa. Por ejemplo, según la revista Cambio, cifras oficiales del gobierno mexicano señalan que en México hay 13 homicidios por cada cien mil habitantes, mientras que en Brasil hay 13, y en países como Honduras, Guatemala y el Salvador hay más de 70. Los reportes oficiales son triunfalistas. Los de la prensa son derrotistas. Ejemplos de algunos encabezados de la prensa mexicana: “Puñaladas a la justicia”, “Blindar a México”, “Un país doblegado”, etc.

6. Como dice Juan Villoro (citado por Alejandra Lajaous, en la revista Este país, numero 237, en su articulo Violencia y Medios): “el narcotráfico suele golpear dos veces: en el mundo de los hechos y en el mundo de las noticias, donde rara vez se encuentra una discurso oponente. La televisión acrecienta el horror al difundir en ‘close up’ y cámara lenta crímenes con diseño de autor”.

7. La pérdida de una cultura de la denuncia en México, que obstaculiza la persecución del delito, y termina en una institucionalización de la impunidad.

8. En la iglesia, la falta de una pastoral migratoria integral en las parroquias de la frontera que capacite y eduque a los agentes de pastoral en el tema de la doctrina social de la iglesia Católica. Pastoralmente, en la frontera cada párroco hace lo que puede, y hay otras situaciones en que el mismo párroco no cree que la iglesia debería inmiscuirse en “asuntos de política”. Un cierto tipo de tendencia conservadora en algunos sectores del clero frena la propagación de la doctrina sobre los derechos humanos desde la perspectiva de Cristo.

9. Falta de ecumenismo en las diferentes iglesias, que no están muy abiertas a la creación de proyectos de defensa de los derechos humanos que agrupen a líderes cristianos en un solo frente en aras a combatir la violencia endémica.

10. Un desconocimiento total en la población sobre el fenómeno de la violencia en la frontera, que lleva a ciertos individuos o círculos de poder de la sociedad americana, a buscar respuestas fáciles o culpar a los inmigrantes indocumentados, señalándolos como los responsables principales del clima violento en que se vive.

11. La pobreza endémica del entorno latinoamericano es la causa principal de los grandes flujos migratorios y expone a altos niveles de violencia en su transito hacia el país del norte.

12. La violencia no es la causa última de la inmigración, ni la inmigración de los hombres es la razón última de la violencia. Existe una alta correlación entre ambas, pero no una relación de causa-efecto. Desde una perspectiva dialéctica se podría afirmar que la violencia en la frontera USA/México agita las aguas de los flujos migratorios y estos, a su vez, favorecen la creación de un escenario propicio para la generación de los más diversificados tipos de violencia. La declaración de ilegalidad de la migración genera vulnerabilidad en los migrantes. Pero también, la ilegalidad de la migración los convierte a estos en mercancía humana disponible ante los que tienen poder.

IV. COMO AFRONTAR EL FENOMENO DE LA DIALECTICA MIGRACION-VIOLENCIA. ACTUAR

a. Reflexión Pastoral: un visado para el mundo

“Laissez faire, laissez passer” -dejar hacer, dejar pasar- reza el ya tradicional grito de batalla del neo-liberalismo económico, que postula al libre mercado como mejor garante del desarrollo económico. Sin embargo, la brecha entre ricos y pobres se acrecienta cada día, mientras que las fronteras del primer mundo se cierran a los flujos migratorios. Lo nefasto de la globalización es que esta erizada de fronteras y barreras. Pasan las mercancías, pero no pasan los hombres. Y este nuevo año trae consigo grandes desafíos – la ominosa opresión y grave inseguridad. Nuestro planeta esta marcado por masivas olas migratorias -hay 250 millones de migrantes. Como los animales, los hombres emigran en busca de un “hábitat”, que garantice la supervivencia de su especie. Los hombres van en busca de una vida mejor, o mejor dicho, van en busca del capital, saqueado de sus países de origen por el paradigma económico neoliberal.

En este contexto mundial, grupos internacionales defensores de los derechos humanos se dieron cita en Ecuador, Quito, en el mes de Octubre del 2010 para el IV Foro Social Mundial de las Migraciones. El tema del foro fue: “Pueblos en movimiento por una ciudadanía universal, derrumbando el modelo, construyendo actores”. En esa jornada de una semana hubo grandes denuncias, propuestas, e intercambio de experiencias. Todas las ponencias estuvieron centradas en el tema candente del momento: la movilidad humana y sus repercusiones. Los conferencistas representaban a diferentes organizaciones mundiales, y también grupos católicos de derechos humanos hicieron acto de presencia. Entre los temas sometidos al debate destacan: las violaciones a los derechos humanos en las fronteras internacionales; los grupos migratorios mas vulnerables; la crisis económica mundial y su impacto en la migración; las nuevas formas de esclavitud humana y servidumbre; racismo, discriminación y xenofobia; criminalización de la migración; la crisis del paradigma neoliberal; la necesidad de crear una teología cristiana mas encarnacionista y solidaria con los pueblos migrantes, etc. Hubo propuestas dignas de elogio: sobre la abolición mundial de la prostitución; sobre la creación de un “tribunal internacional de la consciencia de los pueblos en movimiento”; sobre el establecimiento de una ciudadanía universal. Al final quedo la sensación de que cada quien, en su respectivo lugar de origen, esta llamado a anunciar la grandeza del hombre, y a denunciar todo aquello que la explote y denigre.

En México, la violación de los derechos humanos es desafiante. La cinta cinematográfica titulada “Infierno” es una cruda radiografía de una enfermedad social crónica que amenaza la estabilidad social: la violencia exacerbada. Y ¿que decir de las violaciones a los derechos humanos en la frontera sur de México? Según informes de Amnistía Internacional, 6 de cada diez mujeres que cruzan el territorio nacional en busca del “sueño americano” sufren abuso sexual. El filme “Los invisibles” denuncia los abusos y vejaciones a los migrantes centroamericanos (youtube/losinvisiblesfilm.com).

En la frontera México-Estados Unidos, aun con el espíritu antiinmigrante que impera, los defensores de derechos humanos predicen una reforma migratoria integral. Se estima que hay en EEUU 10.3 millones de personas con una situación migratoria irregular. Deportarlos a todos es una misión imposible que, según los analistas, costaría además 65 mil millones de dólares. Esta claro: una reforma migratoria beneficiara a ambos países. La iglesia Católica asume la responsabilidad de seguir promoviendo la solidaridad y el respeto a la dignidad de los migrantes.

La ayuda asistencial a los despojados y la denuncia tajante de la pobreza endémica seguirán siendo mecanismos que vayan de la mano. En ser compasivos nos jugamos el ser o no ser cristianos. En respetar los derechos humanos nos jugamos el ser o no ser democráticos. En el análisis final, hay que decir que el racismo es una falta de evolución y desarrollo de la consciencia humana.

Querámoslo o no, estamos llamados a la integración. La diversidad gana terreno, pero la existencia nos aglutina. Es posible, necesario y urgente crear un nuevo mundo. El universo es nuestro país, y el mundo es la casa común de la humanidad. Desde el espacio exterior no se ven las fronteras. Solo se ve un hermoso planeta azul que alberga a una maravillosa civilización.

Nuestro derecho natural es ser ciudadanos del universo. Algún día el propuesto “tribunal internacional de la consciencia de los pueblos”, tendrá que establecer un “visado para el mundo”, y que todo ser humano sea libre de vivir en donde quiera. Y desde una teología llana y solidaria con nuestro pueblo, hay que rezarle al Cristo “migrante” de Esquipulas, o a la virgen “sin papeles” del Quinche, o al Cristo “mojado” de Los Ángeles. Ellos nos llaman a ser libres y a vivir con dignidad. (Articulo de Viliulfo Valderrama publicado en el periódico "The New Vision" de la diócesis de Tucson en Enero del 2011)

b. ¿Como debemos afrontar el desafió en ambos Nogales?

He aquí algunas de las propuestas concretas en esta zona fronteriza:

1. Debemos de usar todos nuestros recursos para promover una reforma migratoria integral. Los expertos señalan que una reforma migratoria disminuiría los niveles de violencia que se generan en las ciudades fronterizas. Los trabajadores migrantes estarían menos expuestos a los abusos y vejaciones de sus derechos y serian menos vulnerables. La iglesia podría jugar un rol importante en este proceso de denuncia.

2. Debemos crear una consciencia de clase en la comunidad hispana por medio de la cual esta adquiera un poder sociopolítico relevante, que se ponga de manifiesto en las urnas. Hay miles de hispanos residentes que no han podido cambiar la cultura del abstencionismo y creen que su participación en las urnas electorales no causaría ningún impacto en el devenir social y político del país.

3. Cada diócesis debería tener un “Plan Integral de Pastoral Migratoria”, que compile los principios fundamentales de la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia, y que estos se conciertan en “instrumento de evangelización”. Asimismo, es necesario contar con un sacerdote o laico encargado de la pastoral migratoria que promueva dicho plan en las parroquias mediante talleres, simposios, o cursos de pastoral de la movilidad humana.

4. Debemos unirnos en un movimiento ecuménico para crear en esta region el tribunal internacional de la consciencia de los pueblos en movimiento. En ese tipo de organizaciones pueden participar los principales lideres de la comunidad que muestren un compromiso autentico en el mejoramiento de la existencia humana.

5. Debemos humanizar el periodismo. Carlos Soria, en su obra “La ética de las palabras molestas” señala: evitar la exaltación de la violencia es informar desde la perspectiva de las victimas, no desde la perspectiva de los violentos. Y también es informar de aquello que los violentos no quieren que se sepa. Un exceso de informaciones violentas, o la intensidad de la información de la violencia pueden insensibilizar a los ciudadanos. La insensibilidad trivializa la violencia, produce hastío social, vuelve indiferentes a las sociedades y enerva los mecanismos de respuesta social”.

6. A nivel periodístico, todas las diócesis deberían de tener un periódico, o boletín informativo y formativo que contenga reflexiones sobre la dignidad humana y que denuncie las violaciones a los derechos humanos.

7. La iglesia católica debe ser más profética. Así lo exigen las circunstancias. No debe tener miedo de anunciar y denunciar el mensaje de Cristo en este ambiente violento. Hablando del pueblo mexicano, los obispos señalan: “Hay una creciente manifestación de superficialidad en su experiencia de fe y una religiosidad popular sumamente confusa”. (Documento “Que en Cristo nuestra paz México tenga una vida digna, numero 107”. Y de las autoridades dicen: “El signo mas elocuente de esto es la corrupción generalizada que se vive en todos los ámbito”. (Numero 103)

c. Conclusión final a la luz del magisterio de la iglesia en México

¿A que podemos comprometernos los ciudadanos y los cristianos, que somos los actores principales de este momento histórico que se vive en la frontera entre México y Estados Unidos?

O ¿Cuáles podrían ser algunas estrategias preventivas de la violencia en nuestra región? La respuesta no es fácil para nadie. El mal y el bien coexisten. El trigo y la cizaña crecen juntos.

Desde una perspectiva teológica, nunca podremos erradicar el mal que existe en el mundo. Pero si podemos hacer algo al respecto para concientizar a nuestra comunidad sobre la gran necesidad de tener una sociedad:
• más tolerante y menos prejuiciosa;
• que dé la bienvenida al extranjero;
• que proteja la dignidad de los mas vulnerables;
• que renuncie a la violencia física como medio eficaz de resolución de conflictos.

En ser compasivos nos jugamos el ser o no ser cristianos. En respetar los derechos humanos nos jugamos el ser o no ser democráticos. San Agustín decía: Dios, que habita en ustedes, los cuidara por medio de ustedes”. Todos somos responsables de prevenir la violencia en nuestro entorno creando y fomentando una cultura de la tolerancia y de la paz.

Entre los logros ya alcanzados en la frontera de ambos Nogales están los siguientes:
1. El 12 de Diciembre del 2009, los obispos de Arizona publicaron el documento “Me acogiste” (“You welcomed me”) en el que hacen un llamado profético a todos los católicos para que le den la bienvenida a los extranjeros, sin importar su situación migratoria, y condenan las actitudes xenofóbicas hacia los migrantes.

2. La diócesis fronterizas de Ambos Nogales se han unido en el proyecto “diócesis sin fronteras” por medio del cual se ofrecen espacios de reflexión y acción para los agentes de pastoral y miembros del clero mas involucrados en la propagación de la doctrina social de la iglesia.

3. En la frontera de ambos Nogales surgió la “Iniciativa Kino” bajo los auspicios de la Compañía de Jesús, y en coordinación con las diócesis de Tucson y Hermosillo. Tiene como finalidad:

i. la documentación y defensa de los derechos humanos,
ii. la ayuda asistencial a los migrantes deportados en el lado mexicano en un comedor y albergue,
iii. la propagación de la doctrina social de la iglesia,
iv. la investigación científica del fenómeno migratorio y
v. la incidencia social y el cabildeo.

4. Existe en la diócesis de Tucson una oficina de justicia social que esta al tanto de todos los acontecimientos relacionados con el tema migratorio y que ofrece asesoría y apoyo a las parroquias.

5. En la zona fronteriza de ambos Nogales hay una proliferación sin precedentes de grupos civiles que velan por la defensa de los derechos humanos.

6. En la frontera de ambos Nogales existen grupos de pastoral migratoria que ofrecen ayuda asistencial humanitaria a los migrantes deportados de una manera organizada.

7. Hay grupos civiles que han empezado campañas intensas para informar correctamente a la ciudadanía sobre los mitos y realidades de la violencia en la frontera.

8. Existe en Nogales un programa que informa a los jóvenes adolescentes sobre las consecuencias del tráfico y consumo ilegal de drogas. Este programa se ofrece también en las iglesias del condado.

9. El proyecto “Diócesis sin Fronteras” organiza periódicamente eventos de tipo espiritual y pastoral en los que participan agentes de pastoral de ambas diócesis.

Finalmente, en su carta pastoral “Que en Cristo, nuestra paz, México tenga vida digna” los obispos mexicanos señalan: “Consideramos que lo primero que hay que hacer para superar la crisis de inseguridad y violencia es la renovación de los mexicanos. La novedad de nuestra vida en Cristo dará origen a formas nuevas de relacionarnos con las personas con las que convivimos día con día…La primera e inaplazable tarea es la formación integral de la persona…Hoy como nunca es una exigencia invertir todos los recursos a nuestro alcance en la formación de las personas y en la promoción de condiciones de vida dignas para todos”. (“Que en Cristo Nuestra Paz, México tenga vida digna”, CONFERENCIA DEL EPISCOPADO MEXICANO)


Bibliografía:

1. CONFERENCIA DEL EPISCOPADO MEXICANO: “Que en Cristo Nuestra Paz, México tenga vida digna”.

2. DE MAULEON, Héctor: “Marca de Sangre”, Editorial Planeta Mexicana, México, DF.


3. FUENTES, Carlos: “La Frontera de Cristal”, Santillana Ediciones, México, D.F.

4. SMITH SEMPRUN, Jaime: “¿Que no esta pasando? El dolor de la sociedad”, Editorial McGraw-Hill/Interamericana de España, Madrid.

5. REVISTAS: Proceso, Cambio y Este país y diario el Imparcial.

***All rights reserved by the Mexican American Catholic College

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Guido Studtrucker hat das Beispiel Becken 32694 am 02.08.2017 um 23:09:07 Uhr geändert. Das Malawiaquarium hat eine Größe von 300 Litern (120x50x50).
          Das Malawiaquarium Ybbstal meets Malawi von DER YBBSTALER wurde am 02.08.2017 um 16:09:17 Uhr geändert.        
DER YBBSTALER hat das Beispiel Ybbstal meets Malawi am 02.08.2017 um 16:09:17 Uhr geändert. Das Malawiaquarium hat eine Größe von 608 Litern (170x65x55).
          Das Malawiaquarium Tanzania Lakeside von Gederner wurde am 02.08.2017 um 15:04:53 Uhr geändert.        
Gederner hat das Beispiel Tanzania Lakeside am 02.08.2017 um 15:04:53 Uhr geändert. Das Malawiaquarium hat eine Größe von 300 Litern (120x50x50).
          Das Malawiaquarium 720 Liter Mbuna Becken von Daniel Hausener wurde am 02.08.2017 um 11:13:30 Uhr geändert.        
Daniel Hausener hat das Beispiel 720 Liter Mbuna Becken am 02.08.2017 um 11:13:30 Uhr geändert. Das Malawiaquarium hat eine Größe von 720 Litern (200x60x60).
          Neues Aquarium von Daniel Hausener         
Daniel Hausener stellt das Beispiel 720 Liter Mbuna Becken mit 720 Litern vor. Das Malawiaquarium hat die Abmessungen 200x60x60.
          Das Malawiaquarium Malawi Saulosi Artenbecken von Ashdre wurde am 31.07.2017 um 19:18:17 Uhr geändert.        
Ashdre hat das Beispiel Malawi Saulosi Artenbecken am 31.07.2017 um 19:18:17 Uhr geändert. Das Malawiaquarium hat eine Größe von 240 Litern (121x41x55).
          Madonna’s Malawi charity collapses over ‘mismanagement’ (NYT)        
Madonna’s high-profile charity in Malawi has collapsed, amid allegations of lavish spending on cars, salaries and a golf course membership, and $3.8 million spent on a girls’ school that won’t be built, The New York Times reported. Signs of upheaval had marred the charity, Raising Malawi, for months. The newspaper reported that the foundation’s board
          Young Malawian girls benefit from peer HIV prevention program        
16-year-old Doreen Chatsika speaks about what she learned about HIV prevention in the Sisters to Sisters program in Malawi.
          Teen girls educate their peers on HIV prevention in Malawi        
Peer educator Sibongile Nkosi speaks with UNICEF Radio about a programme working to achieve the MDG target on HIV/AIDS in Malawi.
          Jane’s Digital Diary: Malawian girls’ rights on the line        
Voices of Youth and UNICEF Radio Digital Diarist Jane Kachitenji, 20, reports from the front lines of girls’ rights in Lilongwe, Malawi.
          LEDS Project Manager, Low-Emissions Development - Malawi - Winrock International - Little Rock, AR        
Knowledge of the forestry and agricultural sectors and climate change policies. Given their overwhelming contribution to total GHG emissions in Malawi, the...
From Winrock International - Sat, 15 Apr 2017 11:27:29 GMT - View all Little Rock, AR jobs
          TerraSonic 03-29-2014 with Joel Davis        
Playlist:

Quantic- Duvid feat Pongo Love - Magnetica
Luisa Maita- LeroLero DJrupture Remix - Remixed
Tinariwen- Timadrit In Sahara - Emmaar
- voicebreak -
Muslimgauze- Nehru Jacket - Madrass Sitar Burner
DJ Drez- Malawi Freestylin feat Joshua Chirwa - Sound Ambassador 12 12 12
Susheela Raman- Sharabi - Queen Between
Sheela Bringi- Bhajamana Ram - Incantations
Pimenton- Freud Criminal - Electrocachengue
- voicebreak -
Boris Kovac La Campanella- On Eastern Path - Eastern Moon Rising
Various Artists- Emir Kusturica The No Smoking Orchestra Lost In The Supermarket - Another World Is Possible
MusiOTunya- Mwana Osauka - Give Love To Your Children
Seun Anikulapo Kuti Egypt 80- Ohun Aiye - A Long Way To The Beginning
- voicebreak -
Mulatu Astatke The Heliocentrics- Live From Tigre Lounge - Inspiration Information 3
David Starfire- Ya Habibi feat Natacha Atlas Gaudi Remix - Ascend Remixes


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/81/playlistDate/2014-03-29
          MGWCC #208 -- Friday, May 25th, 2012 -- "Lost Island"        
Good afternoon, crossword fans -- welcome to Week 208 of my contest. If you're new to the contest and would like to enter, please see the site FAQ on the left sidebar for instructions.

THE WEEK BEFORE LAST WEEK'S RESULTS:


OK, I'm back from my honeymoon and within about a week of getting caught up on work and life. So please bear with me -- I'm behind on sending prizes and answering e-mails, but will be back on track soon.

I forgot to pick a winner to MGWCC #206, so let's do it now: the winner of an autographed copy of Natan Last's new book Word, whose name was chosen at random from the 168 correct entries received, is James Hopkin of Orinda, Calif.

LAST WEEK'S RESULTS:


"Oh, It's a Clue!" read the title of last week's puzzle, and indeed the five theme answers were actually clues leading to a linked group of alternate answers. They were:

HIGHLANDER = [SUV MADE BY TOYOTA]
BRAZIL = [LUSOPHONE NATION]
HOLA = [GRANADA GREETING]
BROCCOLI = [FOOD WITH FLORETS]
RICHARD GERE = [PRETTY WOMAN STAR]

Solvers noticed the clueyness of these five answers, and 90 of them found the common strain among the five: another Toyota SUV is the SEQUOIA, another Lusophone nation is MOZAMBIQUE, another Granada greeting is BUENOS DIAS, the other main food with florets is CAULIFLOWER, and the other main star of "Pretty Woman" was JULIA ROBERTS.

What do those five have in common? They're "supervocalics," or words/phrases that contain each of the five main vowels exactly one time. The only cabinet department with this same quality is EDUCATION, which was last week's contest answer. Note that the title is supervocalic itself.

LABOR was an interesting try submitted by 36 solvers. The logic is that Toyota also makes an SUV called the LANDCRUISER, ANGOLA is a Lusophone country, BUENOS DIAS is the same greeting in Spanish, OREOS may be said to have a design with florets on them, and the other star of "Pretty Woman" was of course Julia ROBERTS. Take those emboldened five letters above and you've got LABOR.

Two problems, though: that an Oreo's design features "florets" is highly debatable -- I can find a small handful of sites that refer to the cookie's design with that specific word, but it wouldn't make many people's list of "food with florets" so it'd be an unreasonable thing to expect a solver to find. And then choosing the R over the J is arbitrary in JULIA ROBERTS, since the clue references RICHARD GERE full name, not simply GERE. So no dice, but I'll admit that was pretty close (and completely unnoticed by me until people began submitting it).

Jonathon Brown sends this slice of irony from his Peace Corps post:

Oh no! I wasn't able to do the puzzle this week because I spent the
entire weekend overlanding in the back of pick-up trucks and other
vehicles one good bump from falling apart on my way to and from
Malawi. Of course the EDUCATION volunteer in MOZAMBIQUE would be
denied internet access this week due to travel!

This week's winner, whose name was chosen at random from the 90 correct entries received, is Andrew Sackman of Tallahassee, Fla.

THIS WEEK'S INSTRUCTIONS:

This week's contest answer is a famous one-named person.
E-mail it to me at crosswordcontest@gmail.com by Tuesday at noon ET. Please put the contest answer in the subject line of your e-mail.

To print the puzzle out, click on the image below and hit "print" on your browser. To solve using Across Lite either solve on the applet below or download the free software here, then join the Google Group (1,725 members now!) here.




Solve well, and be not led astray by words intended to deceive.



          Comment on estou intrigada com a histórian toda by Angela Bonoso        
Estou cansada desse "namoro"! Madonna devia pegar o michê e passar uma temporada no Malawi, cuidando das criancinhas pobres.....
          Exercise Your Right For Health Freedom Now!        
Humanitarian, Jim Humble
Breakthrough: The Miracle Mineral Supplement of the 21st Century


This Breakthrough can save your life, or the life of a loved one.

Please read.

This is an image of a model of a chlorine dioxide ion (CLO2 ). It is the secret to this new mineral. It is the most powerful killer of disease pathogens known to mankind, and that is a known fact.


The answer to AIDS, hepatitis A,B and C, malaria, herpes, TB, most cancer and many more of mankind's worse diseases has been found. Many diseases are now easily controlled. More that 75,000 disease victims have been included in the field tests in Africa. Scientific clinical trials have been conducted in a prison in the country of Malawi, East Africa.

Separate tests conducted by the Malawi government produced identical 99% cure results. Over 60% of the AIDS victims that were treated in Uganda were well in 3 days, with 98% well within one month. More than 90% of the malaria victims were well in 4 to 8 hours. Dozens of other diseases were successfully treated and can be controlled with this new mineral supplement. It also works with colds, flu, pneumonia, sore throats, warts, mouth sores, and even abscessed teeth (it's the only thing that controls and cures abscessed teeth).

The inventor believes that this information is too important to the world that any one person or any group should have control. The free e-book download gives complete details of this discovery. Please help make sure that it gets to the world free. There are many medical facts that have been suppressed and this invention must not be added to that list. The name of the e-book is The Miracle Mineral Supplement of the 21st Century. This book tells the story of the discovery, and how to make and use it. This book can save your life. Give it a try.

Download Part I FREE

Although Part I of the e-book tells everything, there is a second Part that gives more details and covers the data more thoroughly. There is a small charge for the second book to cover the distribution. Extra money from these sales will go towards humanitarian efforts in Africa, which will in the long run benefit the world.


Humanitarian, Jim Humble's very important message to Americans, and to the world, for 2009:

MMS and Freedom Strategy
Please understand, if we don’t do something right away we will lose the right to use MMS, and worse, the right to even use Vitamin C, other vitamins, minerals, and most other nutrients without a prescription from a Doctor. The MMS won’t even be available through a doctor.

Of course, the government may ax our operation at any time, but the actual date we already have is December 31, 2009. That’s when the Codex law is supposed to go into effect. That’s the date when we lose the right to all vitamins and minerals except through a doctor.

Freedom comes at the price of forever vigilance and it seems that health freedom comes at the same price, and so far we haven’t paid it. On the 31th of December 2009, if nothing is done, not only do we lose the right to have vitamins, but the law will read that all food that is shipped more than a small number of miles must be irradiated. So, most of our food will have most of the food value destroyed before it gets to us. If things continue as they are, it will have happened without even a whimper from us.

If you want to check my accuracy go look on the Internet. Search Google for Codex Alimentarius, but don’t get mixed up and read Codex Sinaiticus. That’s a Christian Bible written in Greek. In Google you will see Codex Alimentarius is the first listing when you search Google for Codex. It is the official site of WHO (the World Health Organization). It’s that organization that is pushing the Codex law on us. It’s a United Nations group. Just start reading about it. You will see.

But you see, it’s our fault. We are allowing them to do it. We are not protecting our freedoms. As it sets, most of us watch the boob tube with a can of beer in one hand; with confidence that nothing out side of our house will ever hurt us. But that has always been just an illusion. So let me suggest one course of action that you can take that will also make a difference in our situation. AND you really can make a difference in people’s lives.

Everyday people call me and email me about how MMS is making a difference in their lives. I’ve had more than 2000 phone calls in the last year from people taking MMS, and more than 8000 emails. More than ½ million people are now using MMS, but that’s not nearly enough to ensure that they will not be able to stop it. Anyone that you know that is sick from almost anything you can think of can be helped with MMS.

You can make a difference in people’s lives right now merely by telling them where to buy my book or where to buy MMS. Ninety five people out of a hundred who read this Web Site knows at least one person who can be helped with MMS. That means you. If you stop and think, you will think of at least one person you know that has some kind of a disease, maybe you know a lot more people. You can make a difference mere by saying, “Hey, read this book.” I’m talking about, The Miracle Mineral Supplement of the 21st Century. I’m not getting rich. I’m not selling MMS in the US.

The money from my book finances the continued MMS Movement as I talk with people and encourage people throughout the world to use it and help others. There are several ways you can do this. Number one way is merely by telling people. If they are sick visit them. If they are in the hospital, visit them and mention MMS and that they can use some soon as they are out of the hospital, or if you got the guts you could see that they get some anyway. You can make some up (activate it with citric acid) add some juice to it, and put it in a coke bottle. It will last for at least 8 hours in a coke bottle. Be a worker for mankind for a while, at least until we have beaten the enemy. MMS will not interfere with their medication or hurt them. Just start with a small dose of one drop or so.

The next way is to join my Web Site as an Affiliate. You can get paid eleven dollars (50%) from each book you sell and you don’t have to collect the money or deliver the book. We need you, your country needs you, and mankind needs you. We have a true emergency. Learn about it. There are those among the elite that want to kill 80% to 90% of mankind. It’s no secret. They state it openly. We may be the first to go. All the new diseases that are being created are part of that project. MMS is effective against most of those diseases when the correct protocol is used. To become an affiliate click here http://www.miraclemineral.org/idevaffiliate/index.php .

Further strategy: Once people realize that MMS actually works they won’t put up with being denied it by the government. So that means we have got to get it out to millions of people. People really want to be healthy. That’s part of being happy. If 50% of the people who come to this site were to go sell 10 books, and convince those people that they should sell 10 books, that would do the job. But that won’t happen unless people wake up. Some people are beginning to wake up. How about you?

Do you realize the severity of the situation? If you do, you will help, because your life is on the line. At the very least, your way of life is on the line. You could live out the rest of your life as a slave. That might be possible. But I guarantee that millions of lives are on the line and possibly yours, but there is no doubt at all that your way of life is on the line.

You will eat food that has little nutritional value, and your doctor will only be able to prescribe small amounts of vitamins and minerals. MMS will be considered a terrorist offense to even have it in your house. It would be up to 20 year offense to have bottles of MMS present. They like long sentences because prisons are profit making operations. Guess who pays the profit, YOU, the public. America has a higher percentage of people in prison than any other country in the world.

But nutrition is just a tip of the iceberg. Using the new terrorists laws the government is confiscating billions of dollars of property, houses, cars, businesses, bank accounts, and other assets, and once confiscated they do not return them even if you are not guilty. There are no court orders, no jury, and no warrants. It doesn’t matter if you are guilty of not, they don’t really care. They have your property and that’s it. The records of all there on the Internet under the dot gov Web Sites.

Look under the new terrorists enacted laws. You may think it only happens to your neighbor or the guy down the street, but all you neighbor has to do is call the FBI and say he thinks you are dealing drugs. That’s all it takes. You lose everything just like in Germany with Hitler.

There are many other groups and speakers now speaking out and there are those working to overcome this situation every day. I’ll work with any of those that I can. Please help me contact those groups. The problem is now and has always been people who believe that freedom is free and that they don’t need to take part in obtaining the freedom. Take part now. Become a part of the answer instead a part of the problem. People want many things and they follow many dreams, but they will always spend their last dollar on their health and their life. Being alive and healthy is the most important part of life. Once the people see what MMS will do they simply will not allow the government to take it away from them. Just let me point out, at this time, the MMS movement can be one of the more important programs for getting our freedom back.

Jim Humble

"Chlorine dioxide is the most powerful killer of germs known to man,” states American Society of Analytical Chemists. Chlorine dioxide has been used in water supplies (completely different from chlorine normally used) throughout the world for over 50 years because it only oxidizes the anaerobic microorganisms. No side effects have been reported in hundreds of thousands of clinical trials and tests. It will not oxidize healthy cells or good bacteria unlike oxygen, ozone, or hydrogen peroxide. It is the only highly selective oxidizer known for inside the human body where it has activity against virus, bacteria, fungus, parasites, and heavy metals. It differentiates “enemies” by their acidity and “friendlies” by their alkalinity thus setting the immune system free of constraints. Excellent supplement for dieting. For internal cleansing MMS is unsurpassed.


Resources:

          Malaria Vaccine for Children's Lives        
Introduction:
Millions of children's lives could be saved by a new vaccine shown to halve the risk of malaria in the first large-scale trials across seven African countries.The long-awaited results of the largest-ever malaria vaccine study, involving 15,460 babies and small children, show that it could massively reduce the impact of the much-feared killer disease. Malaria takes nearly 800,000 lives a year - mostly children under five. It damages many more.The vaccine has been in development for two decades - the brainchild of scientists at the UK drug company GlaxoSmithKline, which has promised to sell it at no more than a fraction over cost-price, with the excess being ploughed back into further tropical disease research.
Keywords: immunization, vaccination
"This data brings us to the cusp of having the world's first malaria vaccine, which has the potential to significantly improve the outlook for children living in malaria endemic regions across Africa," said GSK's chief executive, Andrew Witty.
"The addition of a malaria vaccine to existing control interventions, such as bed nets and insecticide spraying, could potentially help prevent millions of cases of this debilitating disease. It could also reduce the burden on hospital services, freeing up much-needed beds to treat other patients who often live in remote villages, with little or no access to healthcare."
Mitchell said a vaccine "offers real hope for the future", adding: "An effective, long-lasting and cost-effective vaccine would make a major contribution to malaria control … but we must not lose sight of the fact that over 2,000 people die from malaria every day and they need help now. Britain's focus remains on driving down this terrible loss of life by preventing and treating malaria with the tools we have now and tackling resistance."
Small-scale studies, in a few hundred children, have shown promising results in the past, but a trial of this size is needed to prove the vaccine's usefulness across populations. It is being carried out in Burkina Faso, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania.
The early data from five- to 17-month-old children is the first of three important results; the outcome from the vaccination of newborn babies will be published next year. These figures are crucial, because the malaria vaccine needs to be incorporated into the infant immunisation schedule, alongside the usual diphtheria and measles jabs. Earlier small-scale trials suggest the results in six- to 12-week-old babies will also show around 50% protection.
The third important outcome, on how well the protection lasts, will not be known until 2014. The data so far, over 22 months, suggests there may be a drop in the numbers protected from severe malaria.
The WHO has said that if the results are satisfactory, it will recommend its use and the vaccine may begin to be rolled out as early as 2015, but it will need to be used in conjunction with all the other existing tools of malaria prevention, such as bed nets and insecticide spraying on the inside of homes.
Questions remain over the price of the vaccine and whether donors will be willing to pay. Dr Regina Rabinovitch, from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, declined to say if they would fund it, saying they would want to look at the final data on efficacy, duration and safety. "Would I prefer to see a 100% effective vaccine? Certainly," she told a press conference.
Witty says he is exhorting everybody involved in the vaccine's production to pare their costs to the bone. "We are absolutely dedicated to making it as low as possible," he said.
Bill Gates said a vaccine is the simplest, most cost-effective way to save lives. "These results demonstrate the power of working with partners to create a malaria vaccine that has the potential to protect millions of children from this devastating disease," he said.

Severe malaria affects the brain, kidneys and blood and can kill. Most children still suffered malaria, but fewer and less serious bouts. For every 1,000 children who received the vaccine there were 750 cases of malaria over a year, compared with 1,500 per 1,000 children who were given a dummy jab. Side-effects were roughly the same in both the vaccine and placebo groups and relatively high, at around 20%, but investigators say this has to do with other health problems among rural African children.

by Omicsjournals
          Dark Star Safari: Overland from Cairo to Cape Town        
Dark Star Safari: Overland from Cairo to Cape Town
author: Paul Theroux
name: Thaths
average rating: 3.96
book published: 2002
rating: 2
read at: 2017/02/26
date added: 2017/02/25
shelves: africa, travel, history, did-not-finish
review:
Ugh! I really tried my best to like this book. But Theroux did not make it easy. While it is clear that Theroux likes Africa and Africans and has a genuine connection to the continent, he also comes across as a whining, complaining, middle-aged sour puss. I gave up reading the book at the Malawi section. His insistence, every couple pages, about (a) How is he is better than typical tourists, (b) How Western Aid has been wasted on Africa, (c) How Africa has gotten worse in the 30 years since he lived there, (d) How everything (Farms, Railways, Ferries, etc.) is deteriorating.

Theroux is a smart, worldly-aware person. Surely he knows about Africa being the chessboard for the superpowers during the Coldwar. He complains about the Soviet-and-Chinese-backed economic mis-steps in Ethiopia, Tanzania, etc. But does not pause to acknowledge that Kenyatta and Moi were kept in power in a one-party state with the full support of Western powers. The author, blithely, ignores the genuine developments in Africa (internet access, mobile phones).

I am afraid this is my first and last Theroux.

          Â¿Que debo hacer para que un Documentos surta efecto en el Exterior?        


La Legalizacion

La legalización es dar fé de la firma del funcionario público que autoriza el documento, sin prejuzgar la forma y el contenido del mismo. La Legalización de los Documentos Extranjeros es imprescindible para que surta efectos en cualquier País de que se trate. Y salvo que exista Convenio, Tratado o Acuerdo internacional que exima de su legalización, la misma se hará conforme a uno de los dos procedimientos siguientes dependiendo del país que expida el documento:

A) Apostilla de La Haya. De acuerdo con el Convenio de La Haya, de 5 de octubre de 1961, la única formalidad que se exige para los documentos procedentes de los Estados parte de dicho Convenio es el sello de La Apostilla que coloca la autoridad competente del Estado del que emana el documento y surte efectos directamente ante cualquier autoridad en el País en el que se pretenda utilizar con validez.

B) La Vía Diplomática. Es el procedimiento a utilizar para la legalización de los documentos extranjeros de Registro Civil, Notariales y Administrativos expedidos en países no firmantes del Convenio de La Haya.

¿Qué es La Apostilla?
La Apostilla de La Haya es un método simplificado de legalización de documentos a efectos de verificar su autenticidad en el ámbito internacional. Físicamente consiste en una hoja que se agrega a los documentos que la autoridad competente estampa sobre una copia del documento público. Proviene del Convenio de La Haya del 5 de octubre de 1961, también conocida como la Convención de la Apostilla, firmado en La Haya, Países Bajos, que suprime el requisito de legalización de los documentos públicos extranjeros. Entró en vigor el 24 de enero de 1965. Sólo tiene validez entre los países firmantes de este tratado, por lo que si el país donde se necesita utilizar el documento no pertenece a él, entonces será necesaria una Legalización Diplomática.
De acuerdo con el artículo 6 del Convenio, Venezuela designo como autoridad competente para expedir el sello apostilla al Ministerio De Relaciones Exteriores.
Todo documento que presente el sello de la apostilla, en Venezuela o en cualquier país parte del convenio, surte efectos legales sin necesidad de ser legalizado.  

¿En qué consiste?
Consiste en certificar que la firma y el sello de un documento público ha sido puesto por una autoridad competente. Al igual legalización, únicamente certifica que la firma o sello que muestra el documento fue emitido por un funcionario público en ejercicio de sus funciones, pero no certifica la validez del contenido del mismo. Sirve para que un documento nacional sea reconocido en un país extranjero. En principio, se reconoce en aquellos países que hayan firmado un tratado internacional, conocido como la Convención de la Haya, para disminuir así los trámites necesarios para el reconocimiento de estos en países diferentes al que fue emitido.

Documentos que se consideran Públicos:
Los documentos emanados de una autoridad o funcionario vinculado a una jurisdicción del Estado, incluyendo los provenientes del ministerio público, o de un secretario, oficial o agente judicial; b) los documentos administrativos; c) los documentos notariales; d) las certificaciones oficiales que hayan sido puestas sobre documentos privados, tales como menciones de registro, comprobaciones sobre la certeza de una fecha y autenticaciones de firmas. Pero la Convención no se aplica a los siguientes documentos: a) los documentos expedidos por agentes diplomáticos o consulares; b) los documentos administrativos que se refieran directamente a una operación mercantil o aduanera.

Miembros de la Convención de la Haya:
Actualmente existen 92 miembros de la Convención de la Apostilla: Albania, Alemania, Andorra, Antigua y Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bahamas, Barbados, Bielorrusia, Bélgica, Belice, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Islas Cook, Corea, Croacia, Chipre, República Checa, Dinamarca, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eslovaquia, España, Estados Unidos de América, Estonia, Fiji, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Granada, Honduras, Hungría, India, Islandia, Irlanda, Israel, Italia, Japón, Kazakstán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Malawi, Malta, Islas Marshall, Mauricio, México, Moldova, Mónaco, Montenegro, Namibia, Nueva Zelanda, Niue, Noruega, Países Bajos, Panamá, Polonia, Portugal, República Dominicana, Reino Unido, Rumania, Federación Rusa, Saint Kitts y Nevis, Santa Lucía, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Samoa, San Marino, Serbia, Sudáfrica, Surinam, Swazilandia, Suecia, Suiza, Antigua República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Tonga, Trinidad y Tobago, Turquía, Ucrania y Venezuela.

MINISTERIO DEL PODER POPULAR PARA RELACIONES EXTERIORES
Es la autoridad competente para expedir el sello apostilla al Ministerio De Relaciones Exteriores, de conformidad con el artículo 6 del Convenio de la Haya..

Los Documentos a ser legalizados ó apostillados por el M.P.P.R.E, deben previamente ser presentados ante las siguientes instituciones:

DOCUMENTOS DE ESTUDIOS:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Títulos
● Diplomas
● Programas
● Constancias
● Notas Certificadas
● Actas de Grado
● Documentos de Educación Básica, Media y Superior

1. Departamento de Legalización del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación


2. Departamento de Legalización del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación Superior.

Los Títulos emitidos por Universidades Privadas en todo el Territorio Nacional que vengan debidamente refrendados por el Ministro del Poder Popular para la Educación Superior, o en su defecto por el funcionario en quien se haya delegado la firma, se legalizarán directamente ante este Despacho.

DOCUMENTOS CIVILES:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Matrimonio
● Buena Conducta
● Carta de Soltería
● Actas de Nacimiento
● Antecedentes Penales
● Defunción Sentencias de Divorcio
● Otros Documentos inherentes al Registro Civil.
1. Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Interiores y Justicia


CERTIFICADOS DE SANIDAD ANIMAL O VEGETAL:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Traslados de Animales y Plantas.

1. Ministerio de Producción y Comercio
2. Servicio Autónomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria (SASA)

DOCUMENTOS LABORALES O DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Constancias de Trabajo.
● Cotizaciones del Seguro Social
1. Ministerio del Trabajo

DOCUMENTOS DE TRANSITO Y TRANSPORTE:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Registro Automotores
● Licencias de Conducir.
● Cartas Consulares
1. Ministerio de Infraestructura
2. Dirección de Transito Terrestres

DOCUMENTOS RELATIVOS A SALUD:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Certificados e Informes Médicos.
● Titulos de Postgrado realizados en centros Hospitalarios.
1. Ministerio de Salud

CERTIFICADOS COMERCIALES:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Origen, antigüedad, envejecimiento de invención.
● Calidad y apto para el consumo humano.
Ministerio de Producción y Comercio
Ministerio de Salud

 BASE LEGAL
    * Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela.
    * Convenio para Suprimir la Exigencia de Legalización de los Documentos Públicos Extranjeros.
    * Código Civil.
    * Ley Orgánica para la Protección del Niño y del Adolescente.
    * Decreto con Rango y Fuerza de Ley sobre Simplificación de Trámites Administrativos.
    * Reglamento Orgánico del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores.




          July 2011 Nursing Board Exam Passers (Letter M)        
July 2011 Nursing Board Exam Passers (Letter M):

20938 MAABA, IRIS MARIE BOLAÑOS
20939 MAABA, MADELL MACABARE
20940 MAAC, AIZELLE ISAGA
20941 MAAGMA, CHRISNARINE CONDEZ
20942 MAALA, CATHERINE MAE CORTEZ
20943 MAALA, PRECIOUS IGNACIO
20944 MAALAT, BRYAN LESTER VERDE
20945 MAALIW, MARIA CARMELA USERO
20946 MAALLO, MAESHEILLE VENUS PEPITO
20947 MAAN, CIPRIANO OBLEFIAS
20948 MAARAT, DAN GABRIEL BECERRO
20949 MAATA, CHRISA MAE PANSIB
20950 MAATA, NICOLETTE KAY DOMINGO


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:421 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

20951 MABAD, IAN MARK MAGBANUA
20952 MABAGOS, MANUELA FERNANDEZ
20953 MABAGOS, YVES PAUL GERARD CALDERON
20954 MABALA, MARY ROSE COLLAMAT
20955 MABALATAN, JACLYN RUTH BUAN
20956 MABALAY, ANNE THERESE CHICO
20957 MABALE, CHARMAINE ZEN LOMONSOD
20958 MABALO, VANESSA BARLOLONG
20959 MABANAG, CARREI CYRELL RAMOS
20960 MABANAG, KARINA GALIL FIGUERAS
20961 MABANAG, KRISTINE JANE BARREDO
20962 MABANAG, MARIA ALLYNNE JULIAN
20963 MABANAG, ROSELYN OQUENDO
20964 MABANGLO, JODAN MORTA
20965 MABANGLO, KEN RENDYL CHANTIOCO
20966 MABANSAG, APRIL JOY RAFON
20967 MABANTA, ALLAN OSTENIANE
20968 MABAO, MARIA KATRINA JUANITE
20969 MABATO, BEVERLY ANN MENGULLO
20970 MABAZZA, KAREN REYES
20971 MABBAYAD, CATHERINE ABBACAN
20972 MABBORANG, PRECIOUS QUIJANO
20973 MABESA, DALE ANTHONY TACUYAN
20974 MABIA, MARIA JUNESSA ANISCAL
20975 MABILANGAN, PAULINE CARLA VILLANUEVA
20976 MABILING, GEISHA MONIQUE TABUGARA
20977 MABINI, GINELYN NALLARES
20978 MABISCAY, JOHN DESSON BURLAT
20979 MABOLO, JENIN FELIX
20980 MABOLO, MATTHEWS LOUIE ROJAS
20981 MABULAY, CAROL JOY PAMATIAN
20982 MABULAY, JICA BABAYSON
20983 MABULAY, JUNE PAMATIAN
20984 MABULAY, KRISTINE POCOT
20985 MABULAY, MARIA KATHLEEN ANGELA SARIT
20986 MABUNGA, ESTLIMAE GANGOSO
20987 MABUTAS, AISHIA MICA NEBREJA
20988 MABUTAS, ANA LUISA LAUREN ILANO
20989 MABUTAS, AUSTIN ANGELO IBAMIT
20990 MABUTAS, IONA MAE TEODORO
20991 MABUTAS, JOHN PAUL ROSARIO
20992 MABUTI, ALJON CAYABAS
20993 MABUTI, CAROL ANGELI TOMAS
20994 MACA-AYAN, AL-ANBARI AGUAM
20995 MACAALAY, JEASSEL MOULIC
20996 MACABABAT, CHARMAGNE MICARSOS
20997 MACABABBAD, LILET CAUILAN
20998 MACABABBAD, RUTH DOLLETE
20999 MACABALE, ROSE MAE AVERILLA
21000 MACABALI, CATHERINE GARCIA


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:422 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21001 MACABALI, MA LOURDES FELICIANO
21002 MACABALLUG, KATRINA BACUD
21003 MACABANDO, ALLYANA JEHAN MACADATO
21004 MACABARE, AARON JAY CINCO
21005 MACABARE, AIRA JESSA CINCO
21006 MACABATO, INTIZAR MACALABA
21007 MACABEBE, KRISTIN ANN PENUELA
21008 MACABENTA, MANILYN PERMEJO
21009 MACABINTA, JUN FREY ALAGENIO
21010 MACABIO, LOVELLE RUPIDO
21011 MACABONTOC, AUGIE SAMSON
21012 MACABUHAY, JOANNA MARIE VALDEZ
21013 MACABUHAY, MELODINA LAUSE
21014 MACACUNA, MUAMMAR TALICOP
21015 MACADAEG, KENNETH ULIBAS
21016 MACADANGDANG, LYNDON SANTOS
21017 MACADANGDANG, OLIVE TUGADE
21018 MACADANGDANG, SUZETTE JOY GERONIMO
21019 MACADAY, ELLA MAE GO
21020 MACADO, JOSIE RHEY HALAGO
21021 MACAGAAN, NAILAH LIMBA
21022 MACAGBA, DIANE ANGELIQUE LOPEZ
21023 MACAGBA, NICOLE MARIE CREENCIA
21024 MACAHILIG, JOHN CHARLES FRANCISCO
21025 MACAHITO, MARGARET MENDOZA
21026 MACAIBAY, DOLORES GALARITA
21027 MACAILING, RUSHIEL GALEDO
21028 MACAIRAN, JANET LAGMAN
21029 MACAIRAN, RIELLY MARZALL ESPINOSA
21030 MACAIRAP, LEVITA BAGRO
21031 MACALABO, BAISHA PANIM
21032 MACALAGAY, ANGELIQUE TANGLAO
21033 MACALALAD, DENISE DIANNE ADANO
21034 MACALALAD, ENRICO JOSEPH MAGLAYA
21035 MACALALAD, JOYCELYN GUEVARRA
21036 MACALALAD, ROSELLE CAFUIR
21037 MACALALAD, SHIENA JANE VILLANO
21038 MACALALAG, LUCELLE MARIE MAKABENTA
21039 MACALAM, JONNAMAE DE ASIS
21040 MACALANDA, RODOLFO JR LOZANO
21041 MACALANDONG, RAKIM ZERNA
21042 MACALANGGAN, JUHANAH BALT
21043 MACALE, DERRICK ESQUIERDO
21044 MACALINAO, JEHROME CANDELARIO
21045 MACALINAO, MARIA JOAN LISING
21046 MACALINAO, MAY ANN ESPAÑOLA
21047 MACALINCAG, HERLLAN CO
21048 MACALINGA, CHRISTOPHER JAY VILLANUEVA
21049 MACALINO, HAYDEE BAUTISTA
21050 MACALINO, MARIA ROSARIO CANLAS


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:423 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21051 MACALINO, MARY BERNADETTE UMALI
21052 MACALINO, RUTH ESPIRITU
21053 MACALINTAL, BYRON LOUIE CAPILI
21054 MACALINTAL, JAY JUSTIN MERCADO
21055 MACALINTAL, MARICRIS ROBERTO
21056 MACALINTAL, MICHELLE VALENCIA
21057 MACALINTAL, PAUL ALEXIS VILLAMOR
21058 MACALINTAL, VENICE ARLYN LLAMAS
21059 MACALNAS, ALIBASHER DEREPOSUN
21060 MACAM, JEMAR LUCANDO
21061 MACAM, JULIE ANNE SANTOS
21062 MACAMOS, MADONNA DAYRIT
21063 MACAN, MARK CHRISTOPHERSOON DADANG
21064 MACANAN, MARK KING OCHOA
21065 MACANAS, MITCHIE PACHECO
21066 MACANDILE, JAN KENNETH LANTIN
21067 MACANLALAY, LIEZEL LAGANCIA
21068 MACANLALAY, RHUDELYN MORALES
21069 MACAPAGAL, ALLAN DARAY
21070 MACAPAGAL, ARLENE DELA CRUZ
21071 MACAPAGAL, CRISTEL MERCADO
21072 MACAPAGAL, DIANA JEAN JUAN
21073 MACAPAGAL, DON RICHARD JUGO
21074 MACAPAGAL, HAZEL MARIE TURLA
21075 MACAPAGAL, KHIMBERLY LANSANGAN
21076 MACAPAGAL, MARK LESTER DINGLASAN
21077 MACAPAGAL, MARLON TIAMZON
21078 MACAPAGAL, NORMAN MALONZO
21079 MACAPALLAG, ANGELIE SIBAL
21080 MACAPIL, KATHERINE IVY HUQUERIZA
21081 MACAPINLAC, CHRISTIAN JEJJ DEL ROSARIO
21082 MACAPOBRE, BIANCA MAE BUDIONGAN
21083 MACARAEG, APRIL KISSES GARCIA
21084 MACARAEG, GENEVIEVE MARIE CALMA
21085 MACARAEG, JESSICA MANUEL
21086 MACARAEG, LUCKY VEE MANUEL
21087 MACARAEG, MARY JOE TORRALBA
21088 MACARAEG, NORDELYNNE ALLUVIDA
21089 MACARAEG, PEPITO JR FERNANDEZ
21090 MACARAEG, RACHEL NOCETE
21091 MACARAEG, REYCEL CLATARO
21092 MACARAEG, RICHARD JOSEPH MUÑOZ
21093 MACARAEG, SHYDEE FABELLON
21094 MACARAIG, ELOISA CASTILLO
21095 MACARAIG, JEHMA SUAREZ
21096 MACARAIG, MARY ROSE MAALIHAN
21097 MACARAIG, RUBIE COMIA
21098 MACARANAS, FIEL NOE ALMONIDA
21099 MACARANAS, GLORIA ESTRADA
21100 MACARANAS, PAUL ANTHONY CHAVEZ


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:424 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21101 MACARANDAN, JAIRO JAY SECO
21102 MACARAYA, RYAN JAY MANAGBANAG
21103 MACARILAY, CHRISTOPHER VAN LIGSAY
21104 MACARILAY, PATRICK JOHN CO
21105 MACARIMBANG, NAJIB CRUZ
21106 MACARIO, ANTHONY SALAMAT
21107 MACARIO, JOENIL VELOSO
21108 MACARIO, MA JESSIE SANCHEZ
21109 MACARSE, ROMEREI BAJELOT
21110 MACARUBBO, SHAYNE DICIANO
21111 MACAS, ERLIN GRACE JACULAN
21112 MACASA, MICHELLE ILUSTRE
21113 MACASAET, CHRIZZA MARIE MILLANO
21114 MACASAET, ROMY III MENDOZA
21115 MACASAQUIT, MA CELINE ORDOÑEZ
21116 MACASAYA, MAR-BEE
21117 MACASAYON, JORNALIZA DUMATO
21118 MACASERO, AIZA LAÑOJAN
21119 MACASIEB, MAY GARCIA
21120 MACASIL, MICHELLE ANN BADAJOS
21121 MACASILHIG, ELJUN CRIS CUENCA
21122 MACASINAG, EFREN JOHN QUIRINO
21123 MACASINDIL, SAMINA FLORESCA
21124 MACASINDIL, SITTIE ASIAH DALIDIG
21125 MACASINDIL, SITTIE ASLIAH DALIDIG
21126 MACASLING, SHEENA PONOC
21127 MACASO, MICHELLE LUNA
21128 MACASO, RAHNEE MAE REBOLLOS
21129 MACASO, RUTH OCAMPO
21130 MACASO, SHEENA ANNE JOY LAUMAN
21131 MACASPAC, RUSVOLT JOHN PALISOC
21132 MACASU, DONNA MARIE FONTANILLA
21133 MACATANGAY, ANGELICA GARCIA
21134 MACATANGAY, BABY LYN ABELARDO
21135 MACATANGAY, ERIC WELSON ESTELEYDES
21136 MACATANGAY, FIEL JANSSEN ATIENZA
21137 MACATANGAY, LOUIGI GARI BAUAN
21138 MACATANGAY, ROSSENI LANDICHO
21139 MACATBAG, IRISH DIANE MICLAT
21140 MACATIAG, AIJILETH LLUSALA
21141 MACATLANG, SHERLYN ASPERA
21142 MACATO, RYAN RODA
21143 MACATOL, JENNY ROSE CARMEN MACHADO
21144 MACATON, NAGDIR BILLY
21145 MACATOON, JAMILA REBECCA DE ERIO
21146 MACATUAL, KEEMREE ANHAO
21147 MACATUGGAL, IRENE PILLOSO
21148 MACATUGGAL, JERMAINE CARONAN
21149 MACATULA, EDGERSON YARUT
21150 MACATULAD, AKISAN DALOPE


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:425 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21151 MACATUMBAS, MATT LAURENCE HERMOSO
21152 MACATUNO, IRWIN LUSTER TAPALES
21153 MACAVINTA, JOSEPH CELRIN III VILELA
21154 MACAWILE, MARIA NICOLE CARPESO
21155 MACAWILE, MICHELLE ALBUTRA
21156 MACAWILI, JONABETH BECHAYDA
21157 MACAYA, APRIL ANN RAMIREZ
21158 MACAYA, RAMON JR RANER
21159 MACAYAN, KIM IAN JOSEPH GINGCO
21160 MACAYANA, CLARISSA YRREVERRE
21161 MACAYANA, TENNIE IRYLL BICAS
21162 MACAYAON, KRISTINA BIANCA ELAMPARO
21163 MACAYRAN, SHERINNA MARIE CORDA
21164 MACEDA, RHEA AMOR
21165 MACEO, CAMILLE PAULINE DE LAS ALAS
21166 MACEREN, LUKE QUINCY PONLA
21167 MACEREN, MARK VINNIE PONLA
21168 MACEREN, ROEL ZAPICO
21169 MACFEDEN, VANESSA CALMA
21170 MACHACON, GERALD PAUL MAGADANG
21171 MACHON, CHARMAINE GETALADA
21172 MACIAS, RHONA MAE YUNGOD
21173 MACINAS, GLENNRICH RAMIREZ
21174 MACK, KEVIN TEOPE
21175 MACNI, VANESSA GARCIA
21176 MACOTOCRUZ, EMIEROSE DUHAYLUNSOD
21177 MACOY, DUDITH ANN ESPARES
21178 MACROHON, CARIZZA CANDRA REI LONTOC
21179 MACROHON, GEONA ANN MAKILING
21180 MACROHON, JOANNA MAE PASION
21181 MACROHON, JOHANNAH MARIE AMORA
21182 MACROHON, MONIQUE ORTIZ
21183 MACROHON, STEPHEN DAVE COLIS
21184 MACTAL, NOVI ANGELES
21185 MACTAL, ROSE MICHAELA GONZALES
21186 MACUJA, MAGIL POSTRADO
21187 MACUSI, JAQUELINE BATES
21188 MACUTAY, ARMIE MAE JANORAS
21189 MACUTAY, KAREN JOY ALARIAO
21190 MACUTO, DAISY JANE HALLERA
21191 MACWES, BEVERLY GRACE POTINGAN
21192 MADALI, BENJAMIN JR MULA
21193 MADAMBA, ALYSA CASSANDRA CARULLO
21194 MADAMBA, CYRILL ZOFLOR AZNAR
21195 MADAMBA, JULIUS AQUI CARLO COLOMA
21196 MADAMBA, SUNSHINE QUIBEL
21197 MADAMBA, TINA MAUREEN PRIETO
21198 MADANAY, KRISTINE JOIE SOLPICO
21199 MADANGUIT, MARVIN COMIDOY
21200 MADANI, HUSAM IBRAHIM ZAINUDDIN


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:426 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21201 MADANNY, JONALYN MADIANO
21202 MADARANG, CARLO FRANCISCO TOBIAS
21203 MADARANG, EUNICE RUTH VALMONTE
21204 MADARCOS, KAREN PAGTACONAN
21205 MADARICO, ELAINE JOY HUERVANA
21206 MADARIETA, ROBERT CHARLES KIMSENG
21207 MADARIMOT, JASSIN MAE TORREGOSA
21208 MADAS, MA KATRIN AGUERRA
21209 MADAYAG, KRISZEL ANCHETA
21210 MADAYAG, MA FATIMA JOY ALAM
21211 MADAYAG, PEARL ROSE ORPIA
21212 MADDARA, MARIVIC GATAN
21213 MADDARA, RYAN JAY BINALAY
21214 MADDAWIN, JENIFER DOMINGO
21215 MADDUMA, GABBY JOHN SOABAS
21216 MADDUMA, NICOLLE ANNE ABAÑO
21217 MADEJA, JENNIFER BANTUGAN
21218 MADELO, GINALYN GAÑO
21219 MADELO, MARILYN BAYOCOT
21220 MADELOSO, RAISSA CATRIZ
21221 MADELOZO, DIVINA GRACIA CULAGBANG
21222 MADERA, EDGAR PAUL RICAFORTE
21223 MADERA, JONALYN EFERICTO
21224 MADERAL, ADRIAN REY PABILLAR
21225 MADERAL, ALYSSA BIANCA JARDEL
21226 MADERAZO, CESAR ABOLIZO
21227 MADERAZO, ROM JERICCO MENDOZA
21228 MADERIA, MERLYN MIRANDA
21229 MADI, JO-ANN VALEROS
21230 MADILO, MA ANGELICA GUTIERREZ
21231 MADIO, JANE CABUTEN
21232 MADJANI, OMAR HASAN
21233 MADJUS, TINA MARIE MONDEJAR
21234 MADLA, LEO ROSE RAMOSO
21235 MADLANGBAYAN, BENJIE ASIS
21236 MADLANGBAYAN, JESUS II GIRON
21237 MADLANGBAYAN, MARICAR ANTONIO
21238 MADLANGBAYAN, REX NARVAEZ
21239 MADOLORA, SONIA LUBAN
21240 MADRAMA, SHAHARA DEL ROSARIO
21241 MADRAZO, ANGELA GUANLAO
21242 MADREDEO, RONALYN BALINGBING
21243 MADRELEJOS, MA JESSICA GUTIERREZ
21244 MADRIAGA, CLAIRE CADA
21245 MADRIAGA, JEWEL HORTELANO
21246 MADRIAGA, KAREN JOY STA CLARA
21247 MADRIAGA, MARY GRACE PIGA
21248 MADRIAGA, MICHELLE CALIXTO
21249 MADRIAGA, RACHEL BASALLO
21250 MADRIAGA, ROBERT PHILIP OCAMPO


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:427 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21251 MADRIAGA, RODRIGO JR CARDANO
21252 MADRID, ANA CATHERINE VALERA
21253 MADRID, ANGELICA CANTILLANA
21254 MADRID, CASSIUS CLAY BAYACA
21255 MADRID, CLAIRE AVES
21256 MADRID, CLARISSE LEGASPI
21257 MADRID, GILBERTO JR BAUTISTA
21258 MADRID, JANA LOU CLEMENTE
21259 MADRID, JANETTE MAGLACION
21260 MADRID, JUDY ANN PAGUIO
21261 MADRID, KIM DELANEY DE GUZMAN
21262 MADRID, LEVIN KIM GINGCO
21263 MADRID, LOVELY MAE CADIZ
21264 MADRID, LYZA CUARESMA
21265 MADRID, MA AIZA BARRA
21266 MADRID, NIÑA MARIE REDOBLE
21267 MADRID, NOEMIE BLESSIE VALENZUELA
21268 MADRID, RENNIE ROSE VISTAN
21269 MADRID, SIMON JIGIAN CUBIAS
21270 MADRID, WINGELYN MANAOG
21271 MADRIDEJOS, HERMAFE PERUCHO
21272 MADRIDEJOS, JANINA MARIE LORICA
21273 MADRIGAL, MARILOU PLANAS
21274 MADRIGUERA, DIANE LOREN FLORES
21275 MADRIO, ANALYN GALPO
21276 MADRIÑAN, EVAN LOUISE GRAFIL
21277 MADRIÑAN, ROSENET TURNO
21278 MADRIÑAN, VON CHRISTOPHER CALIBO
21279 MADRONA, ALVIN GALINATO
21280 MADRONA, RETCHIE JACOB GANDA
21281 MADRONIO, CAMILLE BENITEZ
21282 MADRONIO, ERICKZON DIOZON
21283 MADRONIO, LYNDELL VILLALUNA
21284 MADRONIO, ROMELIA RENOVALLEZ
21285 MADROÑO, ERIKA JOY COLEGADO
21286 MADUGAY, KRISTINE CANAO
21287 MADURO, ANNA CECILIA MARFIL
21288 MAESTRADO, BRIDGET REYES
21289 MAESTRE, MARIA JESSA SONALAN
21290 MAESTRE, ROSE LYN MOLINA
21291 MAESTRO, ELISHA IRAH DURON
21292 MAG-AWAY, RUTH MAE CAGUL
21293 MAGA, MARIE ROSE ENCINARES
21294 MAGA, MICHAEL ANGELO PASCUAL
21295 MAGABILIN, NIA MAY SALANDRON
21296 MAGABO, VERONICA SIMBULAN
21297 MAGABULO, KHARLO PEÑAFLOR
21298 MAGADA, JOY SAPDIN
21299 MAGADAN, ANA LOU JUMAMIL
21300 MAGAHIS, MAY IRISH MAYANI


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:428 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21301 MAGALANG, MEAR PARAGAS
21302 MAGALASIN, MA LAREMA DELA CRUZ
21303 MAGALGALIT, REISHEEL TAULI
21304 MAGALING, DAISY BAUTISTA
21305 MAGALING, MARIA ANDREA MONTALBO
21306 MAGALLANES, ANGELA MARIE INTAL
21307 MAGALLANES, CHARLON JONEL SITSON
21308 MAGALLANES, JAYRUS ROMERO
21309 MAGALLANES, JOEL BAÑGA
21310 MAGALLANES, LEILANI ABAPO
21311 MAGALLANES, MA CHARISSE MUTIA
21312 MAGALLANES, MCCHARLES SAN PABLO
21313 MAGALLANES, MICHAEL VISITACION
21314 MAGALLANES, MONERA ROSSE MUTIA
21315 MAGALLANES, NICO JOHN FERNANDEZ
21316 MAGALLANES, PEACHY MARIE MENCIAS
21317 MAGALLANES, SHEENA BACOTACION
21318 MAGALLANES, TAUREAN MAE INFANTE
21319 MAGALLANO, MARY GRACE ACEDO
21320 MAGALLON, CLAUDETTE TIPKELAN
21321 MAGALLON, JO CHRISTINE LABRADOR
21322 MAGALLONES, CHERRY ROSE QUIBLAT
21323 MAGALONA, ALYSSA BIANCA PAGULAYAN
21324 MAGALONA, JUAN ANTONIO EUDELA
21325 MAGALONA, MARXANNDRA ARMONIO
21326 MAGALONA, TITO JR HERRERA
21327 MAGALONG, J B KATRINA BIBAT
21328 MAGALONG, JHAY-AR COLLADO
21329 MAGANA, JAMA NAVA NUÑEZ
21330 MAGANA, ROBERT BAYLON
21331 MAGANA, ROWENA ADEL
21332 MAGANIS, SARAH JOY INGAL
21333 MAGANNIG, GERALD AGGALUT
21334 MAGANTE, ROXANNE MARIE RAGUS
21335 MAGAO, AUDILYN AMOYO
21336 MAGARANG, EMILY PAMLIAN
21337 MAGARO, MARY MERSANETH DAGUIMOL
21338 MAGARU, MARIA KARISSA YVETTE MALTO
21339 MAGARZO, ANNIELYN TATING
21340 MAGARZO, CHENEE VENTURA
21341 MAGASO, APRILAINE MAGBANUA
21342 MAGASO, MA ELMELEN VINLUAN
21343 MAGAT, CAMILLE ALONZO
21344 MAGAT, CRISTEL GRACE SABINO
21345 MAGAT, DIVINA TOLENTINO
21346 MAGAT, JED ANGELO VICTOR MERCADO
21347 MAGAT, JOSE CARLO DE CASTRO
21348 MAGAT, JOSE RUSSELL DE CASTRO
21349 MAGAT, JOSEPH PATRICK ALEJO
21350 MAGAT, MARIA ELIZABETH SELIBIO


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:429 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21351 MAGAT, MARY LOURAINE BALLESTEROS
21352 MAGAT, MAUREEN GORDO
21353 MAGAT, MONALYN BASSIG
21354 MAGAT, ROCHELLE FRANCES MORETO
21355 MAGAWAY, JULIE ANNE MARIE DELAN
21356 MAGAWAY, SUSANA MAY COLLANTES
21357 MAGAYANES, ANGELO EDUARDO DADOR
21358 MAGAYANES, KRISTIA EIRENE ELINON
21359 MAGBALETA, MARIE NIECEL MALATAG
21360 MAGBANLAG, VANESSA SEGURITAN
21361 MAGBANUA, ANNA ROMELLA PACETE
21362 MAGBANUA, CONN CLARENCE GOMEZ
21363 MAGBANUA, DAVE CHRISTIAN JASA
21364 MAGBANUA, IRIZ APRIL JARANGAN
21365 MAGBANUA, JOANNA MARI ROBLES
21366 MAGBANUA, MARIA SCACY MENIZ LUCES
21367 MAGBANUA, PRECIOUS CASTRONUEVO
21368 MAGBANUA, RACHEL PANERGALIN
21369 MAGBANUA, RENANTE VELASCO
21370 MAGBANUA, RJ DEL ROSARIO
21371 MAGBANUA, ROSANA DIAMANTE
21372 MAGBANUA, STEPHANIE GANCIA
21373 MAGBERO, JAN LOUIE RETULIN
21374 MAGBITANG, JOHN CARLO TORRES
21375 MAGBITANG, KATHERINE PAJARILLAGA
21376 MAGBOJOS, SARAH RICELYN DE GUZMAN
21377 MAGBOO, DIANA AYAPANA
21378 MAGBOO, MARIA VICTORIA ALEIZA SALVADOR
21379 MAGBOO, MATT MELVIN CARAIG
21380 MAGBUAL, EUGINA MARIE TINIO
21381 MAGBUJOS, MARIANNE LOPEZ
21382 MAGCALAS, ALLAN MERCADO
21383 MAGCAMIT, ANGELICA AMISTAD
21384 MAGCANAM, MA HAZEL MAGBANUA
21385 MAGCANLAS, JOSEPHINE DELA CRUZ
21386 MAGCAYANG, MAE ANN LORENZO
21387 MAGCULANG, DESIREE AMOR RUIZ
21388 MAGDADARO, KHAREN ANN BANDA
21389 MAGDADARO, PINKY JANE COGTONG
21390 MAGDALES, KATHLEEN GOMEZ
21391 MAGDALUYO, RACHELLE DELA PEÑA
21392 MAGDALUYO, SHIERA JOY OSANO
21393 MAGDAMIT, JENNIFER ARIATE
21394 MAGDANGAL, KENNRICK GLENN GARCIA
21395 MAGDANGAL, MA HONEYLYN MORCOSO
21396 MAGDAONG, NERILYN ISIP
21397 MAGDARAOG, ABIGAIL CABALQUINTO
21398 MAGDARAOG, AIZA SERRANO
21399 MAGDARAOG, LALAINE GEVEROLA
21400 MAGDATO, MARIJOY LLOVIT


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:430 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21401 MAGDAY, JOYCE PAMO
21402 MAGDAY, MARIE JOY MICULOB
21403 MAGDAYAO, JOHN DELFIN AUSTRIA
21404 MAGDAYAO, ROMALOU MAY BALLANO
21405 MAGELNA, OMAR ALINSAY
21406 MAGGAY, HEIDI CUSTODIO
21407 MAGGULING, PERLA KOTANG
21408 MAGHANOY, GIL DELLO JR PAGULAYAN
21409 MAGHANOY, LORE JAY DANAO
21410 MAGHANOY, MICHELLE BURANDAY
21411 MAGHARI, THESSA PEARL DUMADA-UG
21412 MAGHINAY, GLAIZA BACON
21413 MAGHIRANG, KRISTINE DUNGO
21414 MAGHOPOY, GLORLYN CLAVERO
21415 MAGHUPOY, CARLA ROXAS
21416 MAGI, CAIRONISA SUMAGAYAN
21417 MAGIN, RASPBERRY MANZANO
21418 MAGISAN, GRATITUDE KAYAT
21419 MAGISTRADO, BLANCH RAVAGO
21420 MAGISTRADO, JENNIFER ANI
21421 MAGISTRADO, PAUL KENNETH ACOSTA
21422 MAGISTRADO, RHINA OLIVARES
21423 MAGISTRADO, RICA RIE SANCHEZ
21424 MAGKACHI, ABEGAIL MOLING
21425 MAGKAWAS, JOSEPH FERDINAND TAPIA
21426 MAGLAHUS, BERRY CLEE QUIAO
21427 MAGLAHUS, IAN GILLIES DIEZ
21428 MAGLALANG, FRANZ MARIE RAZON
21429 MAGLALANG, MA CAESARIA ESCAL
21430 MAGLALANG, MARK LORENZ REYES
21431 MAGLALANG, MARY MAY NUQUI
21432 MAGLANGIT, ANTHONY VARQUEZ
21433 MAGLANGIT, DARYL FLORENCE ARAÑA
21434 MAGLANQUE, FATIMA DIMAFELIX
21435 MAGLAQUE, MARIE THONYLYN DIVINAGRACIA
21436 MAGLAQUI, HARMONI ARNAIZ
21437 MAGLASANG, JEFFREY PASAGAD
21438 MAGLASANG, MARIA MERCEDES CABRERA
21439 MAGLASANG, NOEL ORIT
21440 MAGLASANG, PRINCESS VILLADOLID
21441 MAGLATANG, DESY JANE ELDUCAL
21442 MAGLENTE, MARCO CUMBE
21443 MAGLENTE, SAM LOSYL OLANO
21444 MAGLEO, MICHELLE TAMAYO
21445 MAGLILONG, ZELINA ANNE ESMAEL
21446 MAGLINAO, KAREN ABELLERA
21447 MAGLINAO, TARYN DALE VALESCO
21448 MAGLONZO, ANTHONY CLARK ABUTAN
21449 MAGMOYAO, MURIEL DALAPUS
21450 MAGNABIJON, CLEA ROSE ARBOLEDA


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:431 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21451 MAGNABIJON, MICHELLE LAURENTE
21452 MAGNAYE, ARELYN PORILLO
21453 MAGNAYE, EMILY DELA CRUZ
21454 MAGNAYE, JOHN PAUL SAQUIDO
21455 MAGNAYE, RACHEL NAVARRO
21456 MAGNAYE, RAINIER GONZALES
21457 MAGNAYE, REI NIKOLAI TICOBAY
21458 MAGNAYE, RENZ KRISZAR NERI
21459 MAGNAYON, ROVIANN PANTALEON
21460 MAGNO, ALVIA DE LEON
21461 MAGNO, ARCHIE MALIWAT
21462 MAGNO, ARJAY BALIDO
21463 MAGNO, CARRIE JOYCE VITO CRUZ
21464 MAGNO, CELYN SY
21465 MAGNO, HERBETHSON JIMENEZ
21466 MAGNO, JESSICA ELE
21467 MAGNO, JONILYN ALVIOR
21468 MAGNO, KHARINA BEA BAUTISTA
21469 MAGNO, KRIS MARISON VIDAL
21470 MAGNO, KRISTINE MAY PANGANDIAN
21471 MAGNO, LEIGH ANNE LUSANTA
21472 MAGNO, LESTER JAN GARCIA
21473 MAGNO, MARGARITA MANALO
21474 MAGNO, MARIA JENNA PEARL TAN
21475 MAGNO, MARIEL KATHERINE RAMOS
21476 MAGNO, MOSES HENRY II VIDAL
21477 MAGNO, PAMELA SEVILLA
21478 MAGNO, RONMAR VERSOZA
21479 MAGNO, SHIELA BAUTISTA
21480 MAGNO, SHINDI
21481 MAGNO, VINCE REYES
21482 MAGO, FLOREN BALON
21483 MAGO, GREATEL TAPILOT
21484 MAGO, JHONNA JURADO
21485 MAGO, MARIEFEE RUFFA MARAÑA
21486 MAGO, MARILYN ESPALMADO
21487 MAGO, MICHELLE ANN CAUDEL
21488 MAGOS, FRIA MARIE SOQUINTA
21489 MAGPALE, JHON WILKEN MAGDAY
21490 MAGPALI, MARY JANE JOKICO
21491 MAGPANTAY, CARLA CORPUZ
21492 MAGPANTAY, CHRISTEENE MACALINTAL
21493 MAGPANTAY, CRIZZA VICEDO
21494 MAGPANTAY, JAMEL ANJO CATILO
21495 MAGPANTAY, LARA ALEXA MALVEDA
21496 MAGPANTAY, MARIA LEANY DIOKNO
21497 MAGPANTAY, MARIE KATHLEEN VIEL VILLANUEVA
21498 MAGPAYO, KIMBERLEY DE GUZMAN
21499 MAGPAYO, MARK LLOYD PANLAQUI
21500 MAGPAYO, QUEENIE ALICE DIESTO


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:432 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21501 MAGPILI, JIM CARLU ESTARIS
21502 MAGPOC, CARMELA ROSE COLLERA
21503 MAGPOC, NERIZZA DE GUZMAN
21504 MAGPUSAO, LORRAINE MAY OBASAN
21505 MAGPUYO, KRISTEAN QUIRANTE
21506 MAGQUILAT, MARRIANNE ALOJADO
21507 MAGRACIA, MA LUZ POJA
21508 MAGRIÑA, FRANZ MAYBELLE CAPILI
21509 MAGSAKAY, KLARRISSE ANN MARIANO
21510 MAGSALIN, FRANKLIN CARAMAY
21511 MAGSALIN, GLADDYS MAY DISQUITADO
21512 MAGSALIN, MARICEL VEGA
21513 MAGSANOC, JAMAILA MENESES
21514 MAGSAYO, PEDRITO JR JACOBO
21515 MAGSAYSAY, RACHEL ANNE RAGAY
21516 MAGSINO, GELYNN ALEXA GANANCIAL
21517 MAGSINO, JUSTINE NICOLE JUINIO
21518 MAGSINO, LORD JIM GONZALES
21519 MAGSINO, MELDRICK ARJAY ATIENZA
21520 MAGSINO, MITCHELL GATDULA
21521 MAGSIPOC, MARICHU CORNELIO
21522 MAGSISI, MARY ANN SALES
21523 MAGSOMBOL, CARMINA CASILAO
21524 MAGSOMBOL, MICHELLE CUEVAS
21525 MAGTAGAD, DEVIELYN ALVISO
21526 MAGTAGÑOB, NOEL JOHN ALINDOGAN
21527 MAGTAJAS, CHERIELOU GONZALES
21528 MAGTALAS, DONNA JANE GATBONTON
21529 MAGTANG, JUMEL TRISTAN SANTOS
21530 MAGTANGOB, ERWIN CORTES
21531 MAGTANGOB, MA DYESABEL VEGA
21532 MAGTIBAY, LULLETTE TUBO
21533 MAGTOLES, APRIL LAPAZ
21534 MAGTOTO, MARGARETTE ANNE TAN
21535 MAGTOTO, NICOH RAY SUAN
21536 MAGTOTO, RALPH ROGER SUAN
21537 MAGTOTO, ROSE ANN SISON
21538 MAGTULIS, ANN SALVE PECAOCO
21539 MAGUAD, DAYNE CHRISTY SANTIAGO
21540 MAGUINSAY, LYKA J ACOYMO
21541 MAGULING, JOYCE ANNE EMOLIAP
21542 MAGUSIB, DARYL GABRIEL
21543 MAHAMOD, DIMAS SAHI
21544 MAHAYAG, CZARINA MARI ENOJO
21545 MAHIDLAWON, REGGIE ALESNA
21546 MAHILAGA, JOANNA MARI ANTONINO
21547 MAHILOM, MARK KENNETH ATOK
21548 MAHILUM, FRENZ ALO
21549 MAHILUM, JOVILYN MONTAÑEZ
21550 MAHINAY, ANN MARGRET BANQUE


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:433 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21551 MAHINAY, CHRISTA MARIAN MENDOZA
21552 MAHINAY, DAINA BENSURTO
21553 MAHINAY, DENNIS JAY SIADOR
21554 MAHINAY, ERAH CLAIRE CAIÑA
21555 MAHINAY, IRISH KAYE AVEDAÑO
21556 MAHINAY, JOHANNA TORMIS
21557 MAHINAY, STEVEN JAO
21558 MAHINO, JAN RITCHY CEPE
21559 MAHUSAY, GENESI PADILLA
21560 MAHUSAY, SHARDAINE NALL
21561 MAICO, NEAL ALILIN
21562 MAIDIN, SHERLY KANI
21563 MAIGUE, WENDELL CELINO
21564 MAILED, MARY ANNE MEDRANO
21565 MAING, MERYL SWEET SAUBAN
21566 MAIQUEZ, CHRISTINE MAE ORILLOSA
21567 MAIQUEZ, THEA ANGELIC RIMAS
21568 MAISOG, JULIE MAE SUMASTRE
21569 MAIZO, CHRISTINE ANDOS
21570 MAJAIT, JOANNA FLOR
21571 MAKALUTANG, NHOR JABAR ALI
21572 MAKILAN, JAMES DEMASUPIL
21573 MAKILAN, JOAN MARIE DITCHELLA
21574 MAKILING, MARIA ROXAN CIMAFRANCA
21575 MAKILING, ROMANIA SANTONIL
21576 MAKINIKA, CHRISTIAN MAHADALI
21577 MALA, KATHERINE ANN CABATO
21578 MALABAG, MONICA CORTEZ
21579 MALABANAN, ANDREA BLANCA MACALALAD
21580 MALABANAN, FERNAN DUALAN
21581 MALABANAN, GIANN VANESSA ABROGINA
21582 MALABANAN, GODFREY DE GUZMAN
21583 MALABANAN, HERWIN JOSEPH SANDRO
21584 MALABANAN, JONA GUINTO
21585 MALABANAN, JUNEL SUERTE FELIPE
21586 MALABANAN, LEA LOVELLE MAALIHAN
21587 MALABANAN, LYZA KIRSTIE SUERTEFELIPE
21588 MALABANAN, MARGERY ANN CORO
21589 MALABANAN, MEYAN ROSE VICENTE
21590 MALABANAN, MIKAELA MARIA ERICO
21591 MALABAR, MARIA NERISSA POSON
21592 MALABATO, JUVY CAGAY-AN
21593 MALABE, XENIA ANNE JAMORABON
21594 MALABON, LORENA MAE PILAPIL
21595 MALABON, LORY MAE PILAPIL
21596 MALABOSA, WENDA MEI DUERME
21597 MALABUG, MARVIN ANGELO TRESPICIO
21598 MALABUNGA, RALFH ERRALD MANUEL
21599 MALABUYO, CZARMAINE ZARATE
21600 MALABUYO, MA GLEAN PLACENTE


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:434 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21601 MALABUYOC, KRISTINE ESTOLE
21602 MALACAD, MAYRELL MESTIOLA
21603 MALACAMAN, JEFFREY TAMBONAN
21604 MALACAT, FREDERICK JR MAGBOJOS
21605 MALAG, MARY JANE VINLUAN
21606 MALAGA, APRIL JOY CASTILLON
21607 MALAGA, CONRAD STEVE MAGANON
21608 MALAGGAY, RUBY CLAIRE PATAL-O
21609 MALAGIOK, HECEL SUNSHINE MEQUILA
21610 MALAGUEÑO, JILL CUEBILLAS
21611 MALAGUM, JADELYN ANN NAMOCOT
21612 MALAIBA, MA FRANCESCA MANGILIN
21613 MALALIS, MARESIL CADIZ
21614 MALALUAN, GLENN ESPINOSA
21615 MALALUAN, LYNBE FERMO
21616 MALALUAN, MERY GRACE ALCAZAR
21617 MALALUAN, MICKELLE KENN PEREZ
21618 MALALUAN, SARAH JANE LETRERO
21619 MALANA, GIAN FRANCO AQUINO
21620 MALANA, HAIZEL PARIÑAS
21621 MALANA, LOPE JR RECAÑA
21622 MALANAY, WILBERT SANTOS
21623 MALANG, DIANE JEWELL RAMIREZ
21624 MALANG, JAMILLE CARIAGA
21625 MALANG, LORIEBETH PUZON
21626 MALANSING, MARTINA MANIKAN
21627 MALANSING, MATRINA MANIKAN
21628 MALANTA, ERNEST RAMON GUIAOAN
21629 MALANUM, JEFFRY ORIETA
21630 MALANUM, RIZA ANDREA CENDAÑA
21631 MALANYAON, FRANCIS JOSEPH ENDOZO
21632 MALAPAD, LOU MARIE MARIANO
21633 MALAPAD, RODELENE PANGAN
21634 MALAPIRA, FRELHEN ABBIE BAUTISTA
21635 MALAPIRA, MARIA FRANCESCA CUEVAS
21636 MALAPIT, ABIGAIL EDURISE
21637 MALAPIT, REMMAR ALUYEN
21638 MALAPITAN, CHRISTIA MARIA MAGSINO
21639 MALAPO, MIRIAM LLANTO
21640 MALAQUE, DIORELLE ROSE GEALAN
21641 MALAQUE, JESS WILMAR OTERO
21642 MALARAN, MARIA IRIS SEBUCO
21643 MALATA, CHARMAINE REÑA
21644 MALATA, JOEL JR GANA-AN
21645 MALATE, ALVIN LOPEZ
21646 MALATE, ANGELINE KRISTINE DESABILLA
21647 MALATE, ASIEL ANN JUICO
21648 MALATE, MICHELLE MARIANO
21649 MALATE, YOLLYAL BALDOVIA
21650 MALATEO, CAMILLE LONOGAN


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:435 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21651 MALATEO, KRISTYL LAW BALANGTAD
21652 MALAVEGA, JECEL MINDANAO
21653 MALAVEGA, MA ALEXANDRA THERISE MALAGKIT
21654 MALAWIS, AUDREY GRACE BACQUIAN
21655 MALAYA, RICHELLE NAVARRO
21656 MALAYAG, CARIECRIS GEMINA PANAL
21657 MALAYAN, RAY MARC HUSSEIN BIGORNIA
21658 MALAYANG, WENDY LIE ORTEGA
21659 MALAYBALAY, ALDRINEIL PANGANIBAN
21660 MALAYO, NICOL JAY MOSCOSO
21661 MALAZARTE, BEVVY PHILINE TORALLO
21662 MALAZARTE, GRETCHELLE ALINDAJAO
21663 MALAZARTE, MAELIZA ANN SACAY
21664 MALAZARTE, ROSENDA POLIDO
21665 MALAZZAB, MARIA CRISTINA PAYOT
21666 MALBAS, KRISTINE JOY PINEDA
21667 MALBATAAN, GLENELLE EUNICE BATION
21668 MALBOG, HELEN PASUNTING
21669 MALCAMPO, JAN LOVELY PANGANIBAN
21670 MALCO, CHRISTIAN ANDALIS
21671 MALDIA, ARIANNE GONZALES
21672 MALDISA, NADZZIDA HADJAIL
21673 MALE, HYLINE EDULAN
21674 MALECDAN, DAVID TANGIB
21675 MALECDAN, FLORENCE MAE LAWAGAN
21676 MALECDAN, FRANCES OLLIE MACLI-ING
21677 MALENAB, MONCHERI MENDOZA
21678 MALGAPO, JONATHAN FELICIANO
21679 MALGAPO, MARJORY JANE VILLAR
21680 MALIAO, RODEL SILAGAN
21681 MALIBIRAN, SHARAH JANE CALMA
21682 MALIBUNAS, REYNALYN GLORIA
21683 MALICAD, ROYMON MANAGUELOD
21684 MALICAY, JOSHUA ELUMBARING
21685 MALICDEM, MAC DEXTER GUMAPOS
21686 MALICSE, ARTHUR VIVEN BARTOLOME
21687 MALICSE, JINKIE JUMANG-IT
21688 MALICSE, JULIUS MANDING
21689 MALICSE, OPHALYN JAN COLONGAN
21690 MALICSE, WILLIAM CHARLES BARTOLOME
21691 MALIG, ABEGAIL CAPUNO
21692 MALIG, DANIEL GARCIA
21693 MALIG, FRANCIS JEROME AJEJANDRINO
21694 MALIG, ROMELDA UDTUHAN
21695 MALIG-ON, CINDY LICO
21696 MALIG-ON, MARIA BELLA DALAGAN
21697 MALIGALIG, IRIC JOHN MATALOG
21698 MALIGAYA, ANNA MARIE OLIVERIO
21699 MALIGAYA, OLAN PERI SERRANO
21700 MALIGLIG, STEPHANIE ANN GONZALES


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:436 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21701 MALIGON, SAMANTHA FAYE ESPINA
21702 MALIGRO, MARIJOE WONG
21703 MALIGSA, PRINCESS EVE TORREGOSA
21704 MALIJAN, JAYE-KASCYNNAH GREFALDEO
21705 MALIJAN, JESUS III BATILES
21706 MALIJAN, ROSA MAE GELITO
21707 MALIKSI, KATHLEEN LEIRA OLIVA
21708 MALIMBAN, MARIA KRISTINE FLORENTINO
21709 MALIMUTIN, SHERYL ANN JAVIER
21710 MALINAO, CECILLE MARIE AGRAVIO
21711 MALINAO, CHRISTOPHER VIRGELIO GIGHE
21712 MALINAO, EDSEL JAMES ADDAUAN
21713 MALINAO, LEEVY DIOSO
21714 MALINAO, RAYMUND ANTHONY CATALAN
21715 MALINAO, RONILYN BANGCORE
21716 MALING, ANELYN REMEGIO
21717 MALINIAS, APRIL CRYSLIN CORPUZ
21718 MALINIAS, JILLIAN KRISTIE LIZARDO
21719 MALINIS, NAPH BOYLE JASMIN
21720 MALIQUID, NICOLE ANGELENE BANIQUED
21721 MALIT, DIANNE LUCILLE SAYAT
21722 MALIT, GEMORI RIVERA
21723 MALIT, MARY ROSE BAUTISTA
21724 MALITING, JENNIFER JUCUTAN
21725 MALIWANAG, MARY CHRISTINE TAN
21726 MALIWAT, MICHELLE CAYABYAB
21727 MALLA, ANN JESSICA BROQUEZA
21728 MALLA, MICHAEL CESARIO
21729 MALLANAO, GLERIZE ANNE SANCHEZ
21730 MALLARE, AMELIA ESTIGOY
21731 MALLARE, JUSSEIN VITUG
21732 MALLARE, RACHELLE DE CASTRO
21733 MALLARI, AEROLLE JANE YUMUL
21734 MALLARI, ARAM LEE DE LEON
21735 MALLARI, ARNEL BAGANG
21736 MALLARI, AVEGAIL MIRANDA
21737 MALLARI, CLARICE CASTRO
21738 MALLARI, DHENSON MAGAT
21739 MALLARI, DIOSDADO DELA CRUZ
21740 MALLARI, ERICA ROSE ANNE JUMARANG
21741 MALLARI, EVELYN FRANCISCO
21742 MALLARI, HANNAH KATRINA CANLAS
21743 MALLARI, JEAN WIZA NG
21744 MALLARI, JHOANNA MAE LERIT
21745 MALLARI, JOMIN ALEXIS PINEDA
21746 MALLARI, JOMIN ALOYSIUS PINEDA
21747 MALLARI, JOSE LORENZO II HERNANDEZ
21748 MALLARI, LEAH THERESA LANDICHO
21749 MALLARI, LERMAE PIEDAD
21750 MALLARI, MA PATRICIA PORCIUNCULA


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:437 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21751 MALLARI, MARIA PATRIZCIA PINEDA
21752 MALLARI, MELVIE TECSON
21753 MALLARI, NAVIÑA JOY CRUZ
21754 MALLARI, NEIL PATRICK ROMERO
21755 MALLARI, NICO VERNI MATEO
21756 MALLARI, RIA BRIONES
21757 MALLARI, RON MICHAEL SANTOS
21758 MALLARI, ROXANNE BARRION
21759 MALLILLIN, ABBEY JANE CANTOR
21760 MALLILLIN, KRISTINE JOYCE ALVARO
21761 MALLO, ZENRA MAE APOLINARIO
21762 MALLON, KATHERINE ALAMAN
21763 MALLONGA, MARIFE DALAGAN
21764 MALLORCA, ALDRIN NIÑO PANGILINAN
21765 MALLORCA, JENILYN TRINIDAD
21766 MALLORCA, MAVIE JOY PINEDA
21767 MALLORCA, MISHAEL DIAZ
21768 MALLORCA, PHIL SANVER BALANAY
21769 MALOCO, MAVIL VILLAREAL
21770 MALOLES, KRISHNA KAYE MALIJAN
21771 MALOLOS, JAMES ANDREW DELA ROSA
21772 MALOLOS, JOHN NICO VILLANUEVA
21773 MALOLOT, ERVILLO JR CARIN
21774 MALOLOT, MARICEL DANO
21775 MALOLOY-ON, JULIETA EBREO
21776 MALOLOYON, JEMBER JON IBARRETA
21777 MALOMA, MARK ANGELO CAPILI
21778 MALON, DOLLY KLARIZZE GEMENIANO
21779 MALON, SALIP YANG JR ALMONTE
21780 MALONA, KARL CEDRIC OBARRO
21781 MALONES, LELANIE JAZEL PALEC
21782 MALONES, RONEL AGUSTIN
21783 MALONG, BON LOUIE UDAYAN
21784 MALONG, EDISON TORRES
21785 MALONG, VALIRENE ELAMPARO
21786 MALONJAO, MARIA KATHRINA BERINO
21787 MALONZO, CHARO TAGURA
21788 MALONZO, DIANNE JOYCE BUNDAC
21789 MALONZO, DORIS HENRIETTA GALICINAO
21790 MALONZO, GUIA SOLON
21791 MALONZO, JOANA MARIZ HERNANI
21792 MALOTO, MADELLIN JAVIER
21793 MALQUED, BLESS FORTES
21794 MALSI, ANTHONY JAMES FERMIN LUMABAN
21795 MALTE, LIEZL PARAICO
21796 MALTO, ELAIZE QUIZON
21797 MALTO, JESSICA NOVA
21798 MALTO, MARIOL IMPERIAL
21799 MALTU, JEENDEE ASENTISTA
21800 MALUBAG, MICHAEL ANGELO CANILLAS


Roll of Successful Examinees in the
NURSE LICENSURE EXAMINATION
Held on JULY 2 & 3, 2011
Released on AUGUST 19, 2011 Page:438 of 752


Seq. No. N a m e

21801 MALUBAY, ALYSSA MARIZ UY
21802 MALUBAY, JOHN JEROME CO
21803 MALUBAY, JOHN TEDDY HERRERA
21804 MALUENDA, JANINE SARAH HAMOY
21805 MALULAN, JOANA MARIE CABALHIN
21806 MALUNAO, VIVA REYZIEL ALCOS
21807 MALUTO, ELAINE JHANE RUBELLE STA TERESA
21808 MALUTO, EMILEE JOICE ROCHELLE STA TERESA
21809 MALUTO, EVAN MAE DESCALLAR
21810 MALUYA, DAPHNE CLAIRE GOOPIO
21811 MALUYO, APRIL ANN LUCAS
21812 MALVAR, CYERWIN MONIQUE TALUSAN
21813 MALVAR, LYNDLE ANGELICA DE LEON
21814 MALVAR, MARIA ROSELLA LANDAYAN
21815 MALVAR, YVONNIE MADRIÑAN
21816 MAMA, NORLAILY BACARAT
21817 MAMA, PRINCESS ESNAIRA ABDULA
21818 MAMA, RIZZA MAJALIA ANDAYA
21819 MAMA, SITTIE JAMILLE ALI
21820 MAMAC, PAMELA BACOLOT
21821 MAMAID, LOVELY ANN RUIZ
21822 MAMAID, ROSEBELLE REYES
21823 MAMALAC, PRINCESS DOAH SAJAR MALASIGAN
21824 MAMAN, RADZMAHAL MUKARAM
21825 MAMANGUN, KATHLYN JOYCE MAPAQUIT
21826 MAMANSAG, AIZA MENO
21827 MAMAOAG, THERESE RACHELLE HOJILLA
21828 MAMARADLO, MA KRISSA FERNANDEZ
21829 MAMARIL, AIBEE BRILLANTES
21830 MAMARIL, CARLO JED ARINAZA
21831 MAMARIL, CLARK PECSON
21832 MAMARIL, CRISELA MICHELE CORPUZ
21833 MAMARIL, DHECYLEN ALBANDIA
21834 MAMARIL, ELLA ROSE QUITLONG
21835 MAMARIL, IRIS GARCIA
21836 MAMARIL, JEROME HERNANDEZ
21837 MAMARIL, MAR JORIE DAYRIT
21838 MAMARIL, MARIA FENELLA ESPINO
21839 MAMARIL, MENANDRO JOSE COLLANTES
21840 MAMARIL, MICHAEL CASTRO
21841 MAMARIL, STEFFI ANNE BALDERAS
21842 MAMARINTA, ABDULLAH MACAAYONG
21843 MAMASIG, MARK JOSEPH CRISTOBAL
21844 MAMAUAG, STEPHANY RAE SORIANO
21845 MAMAUAG, VICKY JANE ORPRECIO
21846 MAMAWAN, ERWINA ADOPTANTE
21847 MAMBUAY, HANNAN USMAN
21848 MAMBUAY, IAN JAY BIÑAS
21849 MAMERTO, CRISTINE MAE CONCEPCION
21850 MAMIGO, DIANA AUBREY EMBAJADOR


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Seq. No. N a m e

21851 MAMILOTO, DANICA MENDIOLA
21852 MAMING, MUSTAPHA JR SY
21853 MAMISAY, RALSTON PETER MENESES
21854 MAMITAG, MICHILLE NARVAS
21855 MAMMAG, MAZYRA LAGAYAN
21856 MAMOLANG, EUGENE JR FLORES
21857 MAMOLO, EDDIELIN DICDICAN
21858 MAMPAY, CHRISTINE BARGUYO
21859 MAMPOLINO, JESSAMIN VENTURA
21860 MAMUAD, MA SYRILLE ARUCAN
21861 MAMUAD, MARIEL AGTAGMA
21862 MAMUNGAY, FE MARIE BESWILAN
21863 MAMURI, MARK ANTHONY GAFFUD
21864 MAMURIC, REMILYNE SIMANGAN
21865 MAMUYAC, RUTH CONOS
21866 MANA-AY, MARK JOSEPH SOQUEÑA
21867 MANA-AY, REGINE DIANNE SONGALIA
21868 MANABAT, ANALIZA MALLARI
21869 MANABAT, CARLOS JR BUENAVENTURA
21870 MANABAT, CHRISTINE JOY SANTILLAN
21871 MANABAT, ELLORA ANNE GARCIA
21872 MANABAT, JENNICA FAE VERDE
21873 MANABAT, MARIA CLARITA AGULTO
21874 MANABAT, RIA CRUZ
21875 MANACIO, MARIANE JOY OBERIANO
21876 MANACMUL, AU-AL IV ROXAS
21877 MANACMUL, OISHANE REYNANTE
21878 MANACNIS, GLADYS CERVANTES
21879 MANAGASE, CYNTETCHIE ALBUERA
21880 MANAGTAG, GENEVIEVE LUIS
21881 MANAGUIT, ELKIE JANE VALENCIA
21882 MANAHAN, BERNADETTE CATIIS
21883 MANAHAN, CAREN JOY AVILA
21884 MANAHAN, HAZEL ANNE AZARCON
21885 MANAHAN, JESSICA MARCELINO
21886 MANAHAN, MAE JURIS SALANDANAN
21887 MANAHAN, RALEIGH MYRON GUPIT
21888 MANAHAN, REYCHEL MAGSINO
21889 MANAHAN, ROMEL MAQUILING
21890 MANAHAN, RUSSELE KASSANDRA ROSALES
21891 MANAHAN, TEMMY ESTRELLA
21892 MANAHAN, VICTOR ALEX TRINIDAD
21893 MANAIG, JOCELYN CASACOP
21894 MANAIG, ROMIL TIONGCO
21895 MANALAD, CORNELIA ROCILLO
21896 MANALANG, GLENN DALE PINEDA
21897 MANALANG, MA RICA PEÑAFLOR
21898 MANALANG, MARIA ROSALIE ALMEYDA
21899 MANALANG, MARLON ALCASID
21900 MANALANG, MARY LARAINE CO


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Seq. No. N a m e

21901 MANALANG, PAMELA BIANCA PAPA
21902 MANALANG, PRECY VITANGCUL
21903 MANALASTAS, ANGELINE PINEDA
21904 MANALASTAS, ANGELYN VIRAY
21905 MANALASTAS, ANN JELLYN SAN MIGUEL
21906 MANALASTAS, DINA MAGAT
21907 MANALASTAS, GERLYN PECSON
21908 MANALASTAS, JENALYN AGA
21909 MANALASTAS, MARIJOE ALVAREZ
21910 MANALASTAS, NANCY GERONIMO
21911 MANALASTAS, ROSETTE VILLAREAL
21912 MANALAYSAY, KRISTOFFER SANTOS
21913 MANALAYSAY, MARIA KRISTINA ELAINE DIZON
21914 MANALILI, ANN KIMBERLY BUCAR
21915 MANALILI, APRIL ROSS PASCUA
21916 MANALILI, CHEENEE PABUSTAN
21917 MANALILI, DANICA BULALACAO
21918 MANALILI, DANIELLA CAGUING
21919 MANALILI, FRANMAR ROGADO
21920 MANALILI, JAIRUZ ESTABILLO
21921 MANALILI, JOHNALD PULIDO
21922 MANALILI, MARY ROSE TAMONDON
21923 MANALILI, MICHELLE ANNE TUPASI
21924 MANALO, ALEXANDRA FRANCO
21925 MANALO, ALYSSA ESMERALDA
21926 MANALO, ANA MARIE MORADA
21927 MANALO, ANNALIZA DE GUZMAN
21928 MANALO, ANTHROSAL MAGTOTO
21929 MANALO, APRIL GENERAOLE
21930 MANALO, BEATRICE MARIEL BARACEROS
21931 MANALO, CHERRY ANN PEREZ
21932 MANALO, CHRISTINE BERNADETTE VILLANUEVA
21933 MANALO, DANICA HAZEL MAGTIBAY
21934 MANALO, DEBBIE ROBLES
21935 MANALO, ERICA JOY BAUTISTA
21936 MANALO, FRANCES MARGARET MAE VICENCIO
21937 MANALO, GEMALYN ARCINUE
21938 MANALO, JEAN ROSE MENDEZ
21939 MANALO, JESSICA DELOS SANTOS
21940 MANALO, JILLA MAE GUYAMIN
21941 MANALO, JOAN CUETO
21942 MANALO, JOHN IVAN IGLESIA
21943 MANALO, JULIUS ROCILLON
21944 MANALO, LHEE MAYRENE SIÑO
21945 MANALO, MA SOL ANGELIE POLCA
21946 MANALO, MAEREEN MALLARI
21947 MANALO, MARIA CECILIA CAJUGUIRAN
21948 MANALO, MARIAN MARIZ DE GUZMAN
21949 MANALO, MARJORIE KEI GALICIA
21950 MANALO, MARK TY


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Seq. No. N a m e

21951 MANALO, MARK DAVID RUIZ
21952 MANALO, MARVIN PUMATONG
21953 MANALO, MARWYN CHESTER CARLOS
21954 MANALO, PRINCESS AIKO DINGAL
21955 MANALO, RICKY MARION ASUNCION
21956 MANALO, RIZZA DE TORRES
21957 MANALO, RON MICHAEL
21958 MANALO, TRINA JEAN RIVERA
21959 MANALO, UDAHLEEYA ABEL
21960 MANALO, ZOSIMO DELA CRUZ
21961 MANALOCON, HEDJARA DERICO
21962 MANALON, CZARINA JEAL MAREE WALESON
21963 MANALON, LOREEZ ANNE PLACIDO
21964 MANALOTO, CHRISTINE MARIE GARCIA
21965 MANALOTO, LADY ANGELICA VALERA
21966 MANALUSAN, MARIFE ARAGONCILLO
21967 MANAMTAM, MARY JOY COBILLA
21968 MANAMTAM, SARAH JEAN GONZALES
21969 MANANES, JENIFER ROSE
21970 MANANES, JENNIFER MARIE SANTOS
21971 MANANGAN, CATHERINE ALVARADO
21972 MANANGAN, CHENEE ROSE BALBUENA
21973 MANANGAN, DOMENICK CAACBAY
21974 MANANGAN, GIAN CARLO SEMBRANA
21975 MANANGAN, MAYE RICA TUCAY
21976 MANANGHAYA, MARK JOHNEDEL TARUC
21977 MANANGO, JEFERLYNNE PRINCESS CLARO
21978 MANANKIL, MYLENNE MANGILIT
21979 MANANQUIL, AILEEN SANTOS
21980 MANANQUIL, MA KRISTINA CARLA TOLENTINO
21981 MANANQUIL, MARK LEXTER MONTALVO
21982 MANANSALA, ANNE SHEILA MANANSALA
21983 MANANSALA, ELETTRA CARANDANG
21984 MANANSALA, KATHRINE JOYCE
21985 MANANSALA, KEVIN EDWARD KINATADCAN
21986 MANANSALA, MONICA MANZANO
21987 MANANSALA, RAFAEL NICO DIMZON
21988 MANANSALA, RHEGINE SUNGA
21989 MANANSALA, YVETTE REYES
21990 MANAOG, LLOYD ADRIAN ODRON
21991 MANAOIS, CARISSA BORLONGAN
21992 MANAOIS, CASELYN DE LEON
21993 MANAOIS, CHARMAINE ABALOS
21994 MANAOIS, DANICHA HOGAZA
21995 MANAOIS, ELLINOR TAGUDIN
21996 MANAOIS, FATIMA LAGASCA
21997 MANAOIS, KAREN JOY GUTIERREZ
21998 MANAOIS, RANJYLIANA CORNEL
21999 MANAPOL, ALJOHN CHICO
22000 MANARANG, HENIE JR UNDAZAN


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Seq. No. N a m e

22001 MANARANG, JOANNE JELICA FLORES
22002 MANARANG, KIM CARLOS JOHN RIVA
22003 MANARANG, MAY PEARL TAN
22004 MANARANG, SALLIE ANNE FIGUEROA
22005 MANARASAL, MISHAEL PALOS
22006 MANAS, RUBY RIANNA GAMBOA
22007 MANASAN, ROLANDO JR MANAPUL
22008 MANATAC, RHIAN MAR DAYTOC
22009 MANATAD, JUREAL PHILIP WASIL
22010 MANATAD, KARREN CABUCOS
22011 MANATAD, MARITHA DACULLO
22012 MANATAD, MYRA PULPUL
22013 MANAUIS, SAMPAGUITA TUBBAN
22014 MANAWAS, GLORY GRACE TANDAGAN
22015 MANAYAN, KATHRYN HAZE ROQUE
22016 MANAYAN, MA JAMELA BANGLOY
22017 MANAYAN, SHERYLL JOY BUTED
22018 MANAYOBA, KRISTINA ANTONIO
22019 MANAYON, GERALYN INOT
22020 MANCAO, LUCIA GUZMAN
22021 MANCENIDO, JOAN PEREIRA
22022 MANCENIDO, MARCLENE CASTILLO
22023 MANCERA, IMEE ASONG
22024 MANCERA, LIZA MARIE PRADO
22025 MANCERA, STEPHANIE MEÑADO
22026 MANCIA, JENIE MAE DOMINGUEZ
22027 MANCIA, PETER DESPI
22028 MANCILE, BENJIEROSE RONQUILLO
22029 MANCILLA, DARWIN CAPARAS
22030 MANDA, ZARINA FULLON
22031 MANDAC, PRINCESS FEBE ORTAL
22032 MANDAHUYAN, MICHAELLA BARRADAS
22033 MANDAL, LILY GRACE MOLETA
22034 MANDAL, MARVIN MIKKO LEGAYADA
22035 MANDANE, CHEYA TAN
22036 MANDANG, JAN RHEA ALDA LABIAL
22037 MANDAP, ANGELICA MARIE ROXAS
22038 MANDAP, JUAN PAOLO CARDIÑO
22039 MANDAPAT, BANJO DEOLA
22040 MANDAPAT, BOBET HITEROZA
22041 MANDAWE, TRIXY MAE DEMETERIO
22042 MANDIA, JOHN MICHAEL PRADO
22043 MANDIA, MARICHRIS CRUZ
22044 MANDIGAL, SHEENA JANE AGUILAR
22045 MANDIGMA, CONTESSA STARSKY MALALUAN
22046 MANDIGMA, RONA PANGANIBAN
22047 MANDING, MA PAMELA MALATE
22048 MANDING, MARGIE CERRERO
22049 MANDOL, KATHRYN REA BAYRON
22050 MANDOLADO, MARIDEL SEBULLEN


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Seq. No. N a m e

22051 MANDRAS, MARK ACOSTA
22052 MANDREZA, ANGELEE MANUEL
22053 MANEJE, SHEILLA MAE CORDERO
22054 MANERA, MICHAEL RYAN ABAGON
22055 MANESE, BERNADETTE BERNARDO
22056 MANESE, ROSENIE JOY AGUIRRE
22057 MANESE, XYZA VERNADETTE ESGUERRA
22058 MANG-OSAN, DOVIE PEARL BATIAGAO
22059 MANGA, JON CARLO BURCE
22060 MANGA, ROSLYN BLESS TANGALIN
22061 MANGABAT, ANA ANGELICA RADO
22062 MANGABAT, DORIE MAE GALIMBA
22063 MANGABAT, GREG ALEKSIE BERMUDEZ
22064 MANGABAT, MICZAR FLORES
22065 MANGADA, MANUEL DELOS SANTOS
22066 MANGADLAO, DIANA ROSE BALONGKIT
22067 MANGADLAO, JURLYN GOLORAN
22068 MANGADLAO, NITCHELLE CONOL
22069 MANGAGAO, ZARINA LANDICHO
22070 MANGAHAS, ANNA VENNESSA KHRISTINA GUINTO
22071 MANGAHAS, DAWN RODRIGO CURIA
22072 MANGAHAS, GWEN ELIYA GUBALLA
22073 MANGAHAS, IVY ROSE DELA CRUZ
22074 MANGAHAS, JAN MICHAEL YAMIT
22075 MANGAHAS, MARIA KRISTINA AREVALO
22076 MANGAHAS, MARIFE LAZAGA
22077 MANGALIAG, REMLE ROSARIO
22078 MANGALINDAN, JANETTE MALLARI
22079 MANGALINDAN, JUSTYNE YAMBAO
22080 MANGALLAY, LERMA OTICAO
22081 MANGALOG, JACKIELYN DAILAY
22082 MANGALONZO, NORBERT JUNE TURALBA
22083 MANGANSAKAN, FARISHA DADIGAN
22084 MANGAO, JERROLD TALAIN
22085 MANGAOANG, HYACINTH MARIE QUIDULIT
22086 MANGAOANG, RIKKI MONIQUE APIGO
22087 MANGAPOT, MARIBEL MONCES
22088 MANGARING, LYZA MORENTE
22089 MANGARON, HYACINTH GERALI
22090 MANGASEP, KRISTINE MAY PAGLINAWAN
22091 MANGAWANG, DESIREE JOY LIMON
22092 MANGAWANG, JONADAB BOLIS
22093 MANGAYA, GIL JR TEODOSIO
22094 MANGAYA-AY, GIO RAY TORRES
22095 MANGAYA-AY, MA MELODY ADLAON
22096 MANGCUCANG, MA LILET LICON
22097 MANGIBIN, JENILYN QUINDIAGAN
22098 MANGILI, JACKIE LOU LIWALIW
22099 MANGINSAY, YNNEB REINE HALOC
22100 MANGIO, MARYJOY MONZOR


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Seq. No. N a m e

22101 MANGLALLAN, JEAN RG CRUZ
22102 MANGLICMOT, RAIZY VALERIE REYES
22103 MANGLIGOT, ALGENE AEIJ CARIDAD
22104 MANGLINONG, CHARMAINE FAYE BURGOS
22105 MANGMANG, MARIE CRIS BALUCAN
22106 MANGOBA, CINDY ROTH MANES
22107 MANGONON, DEBORAH SORIANO
22108 MANGONON, LAIZA CAMILLE CARDINES
22109 MANGONON, MARY ANN MANAOIS
22110 MANGONON, RYAN CHRISTOPHER VILLANUEVA
22111 MANGOSONG, KATHERINE SABOCOR
22112 MANGROBANG, JUICY ESMERIA
22113 MANGSI, RAQUILEN MAGAN
22114 MANGUBAT, ANNA KATRINA TOMAS
22115 MANGUBAT, ILYN BORINAGA
22116 MANGUBAT, IVAN CLINT PELLERIN
22117 MANGUBAT, JOHN BERNARD CASTILLO
22118 MANGUBAT, JOSEPH ANTHONY FRANCISCO
22119 MANGUBAT, KRISTINA MARI MORALES
22120 MANGUBAT, MANILYN MONTALBO
22121 MANGUBAT, RAIZA NANCY DY
22122 MANGUBAT, ROBERT JONES SINABUEN
22123 MANGUDADATU, NOVA JOY LIZADA
22124 MANGUIAT, KRISTALEEN MAE VERGARA
22125 MANGUIAT, MARIE KRISHNA MARCELO
22126 MANGUIL, JOEL MUGAR
22127 MANGUILIMOTAN, OMAR PILAPIL
22128 MANGUIOB, MARY GOLD BENDANILLO
22129 MANGULABNAN, ABRELYN VILLACORTA
22130 MANGULABNAN, AREM NICHOL MICLAT
22131 MANGULABNAN, CIARA FAYE BAUTISTA
22132 MANGULABNAN, CYRINE GAN
22133 MANGULABNAN, ERVICK MAGAWAY
22134 MANGULABNAN, JESICA CAPUZ
22135 MANGULABNAN, JOSEPH BULACAN
22136 MANGULABNAN, MA MICHELLE SENEZ TARCULAS
22137 MANGULABNAN, SHALA POLICARPIO
22138 MANGUNAY, JUMBO OCAMPO
22139 MANGURALI, RACHEL MARIE MAGHIRANG
22140 MANGWAG, REYZELYN BINAG
22141 MANGYAO, EVELYN MANZANO
22142 MANIACUP, ELAIN ZETA LONTOC
22143 MANIACUP, OSCAR JR ESCOTO
22144 MANIAGO, ALFRED THEODORE CARREON
22145 MANIAGO, AXEL ROSE GULAPA
22146 MANIAGO, ERWIN JOHN NAZERRE DE GUZMAN
22147 MANIAGO, PAULA GENE BELDUA
22148 MANIAGO, RUTCHI REPATACODO
22149 MANIAGO, SHEILA MARIE PAGADOR
22150 MANICAT, MADELYN LITA


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Seq. No. N a m e

22151 MANICDAO, MARIA THERESA PAHITA
22152 MANICDO, JHONA MARIE PODILLANA
22153 MANIEGA, NEZZA RAMOS
22154 MANIEGO, LYNJOY PAYUMO
22155 MANIGBAS, APRIL WINE YOGI SAYAS
22156 MANIGO, WILLIE JOHN DELA PEÑA
22157 MANIGOS, LEA RULONA
22158 MANIGQUE, CAROLINE UNAJAN
22159 MANIGSACA, RODELYN LOOD
22160 MANIKAN, MARIELLE THEA ARDONA
22161 MANILA, GARLAND BANIQUED
22162 MANILA, IAN JAY PILI
22163 MANILA, KRISTEL JOY CARAAN
22164 MANILA, SIGRID EURIZ
22165 MANILAO, ARNEL KURT KINFIA
22166 MANIMTIM, GRACE MONEBA
22167 MANIMTIM, JAYSON MINGOY
22168 MANINANG, DECEL GRACE BAUTISTA
22169 MANINANG, ETHEL RENANGELENE MENESES
22170 MANINANG, JOEL NICOLAS
22171 MANINANG, KATRINE NOELA TIGNO
22172 MANINANG, KAYZELLE DE JESUS
22173 MANINANG, MARK JOSEPH TAYAWA
22174 MANINANG, SHARIME TORRES
22175 MANINGAS, GLAIZEL REYES
22176 MANINGAS, ROCHELLE ANNE MENPIN
22177 MANINGDING, MARVIC SAYA
22178 MANIO, DENISE MARIE IBITA
22179 MANIPOL, GEMMA PRADO
22180 MANIPOL, KRIZIA KATRINA AMANTE
22181 MANIPOL, PAUL MARVIN LOPEZ
22182 MANIPON, MARILOU VILLAS
22183 MANIQUEZ, GRETCHEN SIAPNO
22184 MANIQUIS, ELDON JOHN JOSEPH INGUSAN
22185 MANIQUIS, JAMIE MARIANNE CANLAS
22186 MANIQUIZ, CATHLENE MACASU
22187 MANIQUIZ, DOLOR ROMERO
22188 MANIQUIZ, ENRICO PUNZALAN
22189 MANIQUIZ, JENNIFER DEL ROSARIO
22190 MANIQUIZ, MARIE KRIS BARRIOS
22191 MANIQUIZ, MELISSA CHUA
22192 MANIT, DANHIL RAMOS
22193 MANITI, CHARMAINE HERRERA
22194 MANITO, JOBELLE VENTURA
22195 MANITO, ROXANNE CATAINA
22196 MANIULIT, JOE ANNE MAE ANDAL
22197 MANIWANG, IAN KENNETTE PAQUEO
22198 MANJARES, JOANN TOLEDO
22199 MANJARES, MELODY BIAG
22200 MANKO, AIELEEN KADON


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Seq. No. N a m e

22201 MANLA, RALPH JOSEPH SERQUIÑA
22202 MANLANAT, JACQUELINE TAGANAS
22203 MANLANGIT, FRANCES AIMEE UCHI
22204 MANLANGIT, JIELOU
22205 MANLANGIT, JUAN MARCO BAUTISTA
22206 MANLANGIT, LESLIE JOY MAZO
22207 MANLANGIT, NICOLE FALLER
22208 MANLANGIT, PATRICK TAOPO
22209 MANLAPAO, MA ALISHA TECSON
22210 MANLAPAS, LIEZL CABALLERO
22211 MANLAPAZ, ARREM IBE
22212 MANLAPAZ, CHRISTIAN ALJOY FERNANDEZ
22213 MANLAPAZ, KIM JEROME ANGELES
22214 MANLAPAZ, MICAELA ALEXIS MANLICLIC
22215 MANLAPAZ, MICHELLE MARTINEZ
22216 MANLAPAZ, TERRY KEITH CASTRO
22217 MANLAPID, PAULINA POBLETE
22218 MANLAPID, RAFAEL LOPEZ
22219 MANLAPIG, MA ISABELLE KAGAWAN
22220 MANLEGRO, KEZIA ANGELICA OPALLA
22221 MANLICLIC, ARLEY DIMAL
22222 MANLICLIC, MA LOURDES PASCUAL
22223 MANLIGAS, VALERIE MAE RAMOS
22224 MANLIKLIK, JELLY ACE MERIALES
22225 MANLINCON, DARYL JOHN TRINIDAD
22226 MANLOGON, GEROME
          More women in politics        
English

Once in a while, Africa produces talented women politicians who, despite the odds, overcome the obstacles that impede their success in the political arena.

Some of the African women who have shattered the glass ceiling include Liberia’s president, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf; former president of Malawi, Joyce Banda; Mauritius’s president, Ameenah Gurib-Fakim; and former interim president of the Central African Republic, Catherine Samba-Panza.


          Madonna wins damages over MailOnline story about her adopted daughters        
Madonna has accepted undisclosed damages from Daily Mail owner Associated Newspapers over a report on the two young sisters the singer adopted earlier this year. Twin sisters Stella and Estere brought the number of Malawian children adopted by Madonna to four. The popstar objected to a MailOnline report from January, before the adoption of the […]
          Comment on Online discussion: Addressing gender stereotypes in the classroom: how to achieve a conducive environment for adolescent girls’ learning by Hendrina Doroba        
Thank you very for your comments. Here is just one example of a success story in Malawi. Designed to address quality of teaching in Africa institutions through teachers’ training, the FAWE Gender-Responsive Pedagogy (GRP) model aims to train teachers to inspire hope, ignite the imagination, and instil a love of learning in both female and male learners. GRP training make teachers become more gender aware and also to adopt teaching practices that promote equity and equality in the treatment and participation of boys and girls in curriculum activities. The model, which started as a pilot intervention in a few schools in a few countries, has been acknowledged by Ministries of education in a number of countries in Africa, some of who have taken a step further and integrating it in pre and in-service teacher training institutions. Since 2005, over 12,500 teachers have experienced this teacher training curriculum model. When FAWE introduced the GRP in Teacher Training Colleges in 2009, thanks to UNICE ESARO financial support, the Ministry of Education’s was to experiment its effectiveness in enhancing teachers’ pedagogical skills with the aspiration to enable them address girls’ lower performance, create gender responsive teaching and learning environments, and to build the capacity of school managers for them to transform management practices so that they account for the needs of both sexes. A year later, the GRP attracted funding from GIZ and the Ministry of education with technical support from FAWE Malawi, integrated the GRP in all pre-service teacher training colleges in Malawi. Since then, there has been a very positive change at TTC level in terms of ensuring that both male and female student teachers are treated equally and fairly and are equipped with gender responsive pedagogical skills. This has encouraged both male and female student and teachers to take up more challenging position in the student body. This change is challenging the culture perceptions which divides roles and responsibility according to gender and discourages females to take up leadership position. The implementation of the GRP model in primary and secondary schools, and teacher training colleges (TTCs) made some positive impacts in the country. Among them: Teachers, tutors and head teachers directly exposed to FAWE’s GRP training had changed their attitudes and practices and had become more gender-sensitive, there was a positive change in the gender dynamics in schools as the behavior and attitudes of girls and boys in the classroom became more gender responsive – the girls actively participated in the classroom discussions and there was an increase in their confidence levels -,there was also an increase in girls’ enrolment and enhanced demand for admission in the colleges. “When I plan my lessons, I do it with the girls and boys in mind. If I have six questions, three will be for boys and three for girls. My learners know there is no escape in answering the questions posed”. – Charity from Salima LEA Primary School, Malawi Through this project, head teachers and teachers became more supportive as they continued to partner with the communities in provision of school facilities for girls. The girls also gained more confidence and discussed the issues of growing up more freely. Both learners and teachers understood each other which led to respect of all and reduced abuse of girls with consequent enhanced retention of girls. Another example see the link http://www.nyasatimes.com/malawi-educationists-impressed-with-girls-enrollment-in-karonga/
          Comment on Online discussion: Addressing gender stereotypes in the classroom: how to achieve a conducive environment for adolescent girls’ learning by Hendrina Doroba        
Gender Responsive Pedagogy in Teacher training colleges. For 2016 GEM Report, the Case for Malawi and Ethiopia are worth following up. In Malawi thanks to the financial support from UNICEF ESARO and GIZ FAWE’s GRP has been introduced in All teacher training colleges. In Ethiopia the FAWE GRP has been adopted and integrated in teacher training curricula and also translated in Amharic. The GRP has also been integrated in the teacher training work of like-minded partners like the Aga Kahn Foundation schools in East Africa and in Ethiopia, schools supported by David Lucile and Packard Foundation. Part of the story for Malawi is told in this link: http://www.nyasatimes.com/malawi-educationists-impressed-with-girls-enrollment-in-karonga/
          The Lower River        
The Lower River
author: Paul Theroux
name: Rachel
average rating: 3.57
book published: 2012
rating: 3
read at: 2012/08/21
date added: 2012/09/09
shelves: 2012, conversati-ohm, fiction, kindle
review:
Lower River was Conversati-ohm's (one of my monthly book clubs) August pick. We had a robust discussion about it even though not everyone liked it. I had mixed feelings about it myself. I didn't care for most of the characters and that made it hard to like the book overall. Ellis is so selfish and self-righteous that I couldn't bring myself to have any sympathy for him when his trip to Malawi didn't go as planned. At one point, he needs a letter delivered and something extremely awful happens to the deliverer. When Ellis goes to see the person who was supposed to deliver the letter after the awful thing happens, all he can ask about is whether the awful thing happened before the letter got to its destination. That scene literally made me sick to my stomach.

However, Ellis's selfishness did make me think a lot about Westerners coming to "help" people in third-world countries. What is the true motivation for helping? Is everyone helping out of the goodness of their hearts or because of the feelings of superiority one might get from helping? Are we giving them the help they need or the help WE THINK they need?

Even though I didn't really enjoy reading this book, it did end up being a good book for discussion purposes and one that I thought about for a while after I finished it.


          Guatemala Quetzal(GTQ)/Malawi Kwacha(MWK)        
1 Guatemala Quetzal = 97.526 Malawi Kwacha
          The Journey to Life: Giving Birth in Africa        
A beautiful photo essay by Paolo Patruno following mothers through the journey of giving birth in Africa and highlighting the difficult reality of this journey. In Malawi … the words for pregnancy in the local language—’pakati’ and ‘matenda’—translate into ‘between life and death’ and ‘sick’. While documenting the lives of these mothers, I saw things that […]
          African Union-International Criminal Court-Stand-Off: Justice and Peace Paradigms        
A Speech by Dr Gorden Moyo made at the Bulawayo Agenda Dialogue Series-23 June 2015

The current stand-off between the African Union (AU) and the International Criminal Court (ICC) requires us to reflect on a number of epistemic questions from the side of subalterns and victims of impunity in Africa whose voices have been silenced and invisibilized by their own leaders in the name of juridical sovereignty, jaundiced nationalism, and African solidarity. Over the last few years, AU has been accusing the ICC for bias, skewed, and selective prosecution of African leaders. Thus, the crucial question before us today is whether or not the ICC is indeed a neocolonial court or the accusation is a guise deployed by some African leaders to evade the wrath of the law? Or it’s the Imperial East versus Imperial West but both abusing the AU and ICC? These questions are screaming for answers. To be sure, this presentation seeks to expose the hypocrisies and posturings of some disfiguring African leaders who are responsible for genocide and mass atrocities against their own people and yet cry foul against the ICC.

Dr. Gorden Moyo revealed what might read as 'the real reason'
 behind  agitation for AU pull out of ICC.
To begin with, both AU and ICC were political products of the post cold war politics of the 1990s. Of course, each had its own complex gestation period. For instance, the ICC’s biography is traceable to the Nuremberg trials of the end of World War II in 1945 while the AU’s zygote is connected to the end of Apartheidism in South Africa in 1994 though its predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was conceived in 1963.

In many ways the 1990s was a lost decade in Africa. Its ugliest historical markers include among others; the internecine conflicts in Sudan, Somalia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, DRC, Rwanda and Uganda which collectively claimed millions of innocent lives, civilians, women and children. Most of these conflicts are still lingering on to this day. Clearly, the OAU was at the time inadequate to protect the victims of violence, arson and murder perpetrated by both state actors and non-state actors. No wonder why the signing of the AU Constitutive Act in Lome (2000) which transformed the OAU to AU was greeted with celebrations across Africa. The transformation was celebrated because it promised the end of an era of impunity in Africa. The provisions on promotion and protection of human and peoples’ rights, and the right of AU to intervene in member states in respect of grave circumstances of gross violation of human rights gave hope to the long suffering victims of impunity.

Like the OAU, the United Nations Security Council failed , at critical times in history, to act decisively to protect the vulnerable against human rights and violent abuses not just in Africa but also in countries across the globe such as East Timor, Chechnya, Yugoslavia, Poland, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Kosovo, Lebanon, Bosnia and Israel/Palestine. It was within this backdrop that the ICC was established at the tail end of the 1990s to address the issues of impunity at international level. Thus, the ICC came into force in July 2002 four years after the signing of the Rome Statute in 1998. Currently 123 countries are State Parties to the Rome Statute. Out of them 34 are African States, 19 are Asia-Pacific States, 18 are from Eastern Europe, 27 are from Latin American and Caribbean States, and 25 are from Western European and other States. These figures demonstrate the popularity of the ICC in African, Latin American and Caribbean States a region which constitutes the bulk of the Global South.

 The key objective of the ICC is very specific. It is to prosecute executive leadership comprising of presidents, prime ministers, senior military officials, senior government officials and other top ranking officials charged for gross violation of human rights. Specifically, in terms of the Rome Statute, Article 5, ICC has jurisdiction over crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide and aggression. The Rome statute article 26 reserves no immunity even for the seating Heads of States and Governments. Prior to ICC, these serious crimes were prosecuted through ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals such as the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). ICC was not therefore meant to substitute the then existing international criminal justice system but to compliment it. To date, ICC has managed to prosecute, try and sentence two former heads of states that is, Liberia’s Charles Taylor and the late Serbia’s Slobodan Milosevic.

Currently, there are 32 cases before the ICC, all from eight African countries that is, DRC, Uganda, Cote d’voire, Sudan, Kenya, Libya, Central Africa Republic and Mali. This scenario has given reason to some members of the AU to claim that ICC is a neocolonial court or an ‘imperial master exercising imperial power over African subjects’. Subsequently, AU has passed a raft of resolutions from March 2009 to date which call upon all member states not to cooperate with the ICC regarding the arrest of the President of Sudan, Omar al Bashir who is accused of genocide and mass atrocities against his own people in the Darfur region.

 Furthermore, AU has in the past also called for the suspension of the ICC proceedings against the President of Kenya, Uhuru Kenyatta and his Deputy William Ruto who, along with five others were charged for crimes against humanity including murder, forceful removal of populations, mass rape and other sexual crimes in the aftermath of the 2007 general elections in Kenya. Besides calling for non-cooperation with ICC, AU has stopped the setting up of the ICC Liaison Office in Addis Ababa. Moreover, some leaders like the current chairman of the AU Mugabe and the African National Congress (ANC) leadership are now calling for the complete pull-out of all African States Parties (ASP) from Rome Statute. It should be noted that along with countries such as Sudan and Libya, Zimbabwe is not a State Part of the ICC.

There is no doubt that the ICC should concern itself with the gross violation of human rights in countries such as Israel/Palestine, Syria, Ukraine, and Iraq and others where there are gross violations of human rights. We argue that it is crucially important that all cases of impunity are stopped, be it in Africa, Asia or Europe. In that context, ICC should always remind itself that it was founded with the conviction that there should be no impunity for anybody anywhere in the world. We also believe that the fight against impunity and concern for well-being of the most vulnerable are values central to humanity irrespective of geography, history, race and position in global hierarchies of power. The failure to deal with cases outside Africa has given the blood thirsty African despots scapegoat to rationalise and justify their vampirical desires and negative escapades against their own people.

It cannot be doubted that ICC has many shortcomings but its characterisation as unfairly targeting Africans is not backed by facts. For instance, of the eight cases before ICC four were referred by Africa itself i.e. DRC, Uganda, Central Africa Republic and Mali. On the other hand, Sudan and Libya were referred by the United Nations Security Council in terms of the United Nations Charter, Chapter VII read together with Rome Statute, Article 16, while Kenya and Cote d’voire were referred in terms of the Rome Statute, Article 15 which stipulate that the prosecutor may initiate investigations proprio motu on the basis of information on crimes within the jurisdiction of the ICC.
Discussant, Irene Petras of Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human
Rights raised the need for Civil Society to push for people
centred regional bodies
Not surprisingly, only those governments which stood to benefit from referring their cases to ICC did so. In fact  they referred their political opponents for prosecution by ICC. On the other hand, where the seating government was the perpetrator no cases have been referred to ICC to date. It would be unrealistic to expect the perpetrating government to refer cases of impunity to ICC. In this regard, if the ICC was to rely on government referrals, then the ICC would degenerate into the justice of the powerful, hence the justification of referrals by the Security Council and the chief prosecutor’s own initiative.  For the record, the current ICC chief prosecutor is a Gambian woman Fatou Bensouda who took over from Luis Moreno Ocampo from Agentina -both from the Global South and not from the imperial West.

While the ICC has not prosecuted cases in the Global North, it is clear that those that have been charged in Africa have a case to answer. Therefore the accusation that ICC is a selective, skewed, biased and even condescending court does not pass the evidence test. The truth of the matter is that some African presidents who are in the forefront of vilifying the ICC are themselves guilty of impunity, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide and they are looking for political and ideological sanctuaries to hide, prevent and escape justice. Oddly enough, in all the resolutions and decisions of the AU Assembly on ICC since the al Bashir indictment in 2009 there has not been a single mention of the rights of victims of impunity.

 Instead, all the decisions of the AU Assembly are couched around the issue of immunity of the seating Heads of States and Governments. In fact, the AU decisions are inscripted in what Enrique Dussell terms the ‘nationality of power’ wedded with ‘coloniality of power’ a situation where the ordinary masses are subalternised and peripherised into zones of non-being.  In the eyes of some leaders such as Sudan’s al Bashir, Gambia’s Yaya Jameh, Eritrea’s Afwerki and Zimbabwe’s Mugabe, killability and dispensability of human life are part of pan-Africanism. This abysmal thinking suggests that the rights of the victims of impunity must be silenced and disciplined in the name of faked stability and negative peace. Hence the people who complain about bias of the ICC are African dictators-the perpetrators and not the victims, who are relieved that at least ‘somebody in the ICC is paying attention to their plight’.

Evidently, the AU pull-out campaign headed by Mugabe seeks to disable the ICC from indicting more fraudsters running the African states. It is also meant to completely relegate the epistemic and ontological wounds inflicted on African people by their leaders to archival dustbins. More cynically, the perpetrators expect to be deified and iconised as heroes and victors against neocolonialism and neoimperialism. Mugabe is actually experienced in this art of political deception. After presiding over the Gukurahundi mass killings of approximately 20 000 innocent civilians of Ndebele ethnic group in Matabeleland and Midlands Provinces in the 1980s, Mugabe preached unity and peace as substitutes for justice and thought he had got away with it.

However, three decades after the scourge of Gukurahundi together with Murambatsvina crimes against humanity, the stubborn facts about Mugabe’s impunity continue to haunt him and his lieutenants up to this day. No wonder why Mugabe gets livid about the idea of arresting seating presidents by the ICC. Chinua Achebe was right when he remarked that ‘an old woman is always uneasy when dry bones are mentioned in a proverb’. To avoid the possibilities if not reality of his own indictment, Mugabe has had to specifically assign one of his deputies Mr Report Phelekezela Mphoko to traverse the breadth and width of the country denying the truth of Gukurahundi. Sadly, Report Mphoko is not doing a very good job for Mugabe. Instead, he has angered the victims, survivors and the communities where mass atrocities actually took place. He has actually rekindled the memories of the torture survivors who are now exploring various ways of redress. Report Mphoko is better advised to read the recently declassified South African Foreign Affairs documents which reveal how some ‘high ranking’ ZANU PF officials negotiated with Apartheid South African Defence Forces in 1983 to cooperate in their efforts to keep ZAPU from supporting the African National Congress (ANC) operatives in Zimbabwe. Never mind Mugabe’s pretentions of pan-Africanism, he was an Apartheidist in nationalist aprons.

While the AU’s idea that cases of gross violation of human rights in Africa should be prosecuted, tried and sentenced in Africa by either national criminal justice system or by the African Court of Justice (ACJ) in conjunction with the African Human and Peoples’ Rights Court (AHPRC) may sound plausible, logical and pan-African, as mentioned earlier, it should never escape our minds that the perpetrators of these crimes are  almost invariably the seating Heads of States and Governments who enjoy immunity in their countries and have a tendency of long distance rulership. For this reason, it is near impossible that the victims will ever see justice if all serious cases were to be referred to internal or regional justice systems.

 Moreover, issues of solidarity between and among African governments also impede on justice. The case of the former president of Chad, Hissene Habre who is accused of the killings and torture of approximately 40 000 innocent citizens of that country is a classical one. To be sure, the victims of Habre’s brutal killings have been fighting for more than two decades to bring him to justice but the Senegalese government which gave Habre asylum in 1990 protected him from internal criminal justice and from extradition. Until the new president of Senegal, Macky Sall elected in 2012 arrested Habre, the man was living a largely untroubled life in Dakar until then.

 Similarly, the former president of Ethiopia, Mengistu Haile Marrime who is in asylum in Zimbabwe for over two decades now is accused of Operation ‘Red Terror’ which left thousands of people dead in his country. His victims are unlikely to find justice as the perpetrator is well protected by his comrade in blood. We should therefore excuse those who view the AU as a ‘Dictators Club’ that is interested in protecting its own interests as opposed to protecting the interests of the vulnerable, the victims and the subalterns.

While the imperial claims by AU may invoke pan-African spirit and liberation struggle memories in Africa, it should be noted that the Security Council which referred both Libya and Sudan to the ICC consists of five permanent members that is, UK, France (signatories of the Rome Statute), Russia, China and USA (are not). Each of these countries has veto powers on all issues brought to the attention of the Security Council. In the African liberation lexicon and paradigm both China and Russia are not imperialists since they supported the liberation movements to decolonise Africa from the Western imperialists. Assuming China and Russia are anti-imperialists as Mugabe and company suggest, then this claim begs the question why either of the two countries did not veto the Security Council Resolution 1593 which compelled Sudan to cooperate with the ICC?

We submit here that both Russia and China are new economic imperialists. For instance, China like all imperialist powers imports cheap raw materials from Africa; exports finished products to Africa; exploits its own and other countries cheap labour; it invests and seeks to control infrastructure in Africa such as highways, airports, ports, and telecommunications; it is a creditor; and it uses its political clout to bribe political leaders to protect its economic interests. Just like the Western imperialists which pampered the Mobutus, Idi Aminis and Bokassas of this world, China has a weird reputation of protecting despots and perpetrators of gross violation of human rights. In Zimbabwe they have constructed a personal residence for Mugabe, a military defence college and a conference centre for the ruining party ZANU PF. Moreover, the Chinese have also invested heavily in the First Family businesses such as the Gushungo Dairy Estate and the Mazowe Business Hub but nothing for the ordinary citizens except the looting of their natural resources, destruction of the their textile and clothing industry leaving them unemployed and impoverished.

While the Chinese did not oppose the Security Council resolution, they have been working behind the scenes with some African leaders to undermine and defy the resolution to arrest al Bashir. For record, at the time of al Bashir’s formal indictment by ICC in March 2009, Sudan was the third largest recipient of Chinese investment behind Angola and South Africa. China’s business interests in Sudan include among others: dam construction (Merowe Dam where China’s Exim- Bank is providing USD$530 million); power generation (El Galil Power Station); Railways (Railway connecting Port Sudan to Khartoum); and petroleum industry. Moreover, Sudan was one of the few countries to be visited by the then Chinese President Hu Jintau in February 2007. All this indicates the strategic value that Sudan is to China. While there is nothing inherently wrong with the above investments, it is worth noting that they are the very reasons why China is protecting al Bashir from ICC.  A good number of African Heads of States and Governments have been bribed to support the Sudanese president. In this context, the lives of the Darfurans do not matter as long as al Bashir continues to be the conveyor belt of African resources to feed the over a billion Chinese.

To this extent, the Mugabe-led faction of the AU should be thoroughly analysed and its pretentions and guises exposed. It is this component of the AU which is screaming about the neocolonial exigencies of the West while shielding the new imperialists from the East with impunity. The new economic imperialists of the East dine and wine with dictators to protect their excesses, and as a quid pro quo the imperialists loot African resources with impunity. They are no less worse than their Western counterparts.

In this regard, the 25thAU Summit in South Africa in June 2015 will be remembered in the annals of history as full of contradictions, ambiguities, dichotomies, and frictions. South Africa which for years was on the frontline fighting Apartheidism will have to extricate itself before the bar of history, the bar of public opinion and the bar of its own conscience how it found itself in defence of despotism and impunity if it hopes to regain its confidence from the victims of impunity; regain its former venerated place on matters of moral leadership; and African conscience inaugurated by its founding icon the late Mandela. That evil triumphed in the AU when a South African national was the chairperson of the AU Commission in a Summit hosted by South Africa flies on the face of South Africa’s proud history against impunity. It should be known that the only benefactors of South Africa’s inaction regarding the arrest of al Bashir when he was present on its territory is al Bashir himself along with all other African despots who have albatrosses of crimes hanging on their necks. Sadly, justice once again lost on the altar of impunity masquerading as peace project.

In concluding, we would like to call upon all peoples of conscience in Zimbabwe, Africa and Diaspora to denounce the Mugabe-led pull out campaign.  We also call upon all progressive African leaders to distance themselves from Mugabe-AU’s paradigms of violence; neo-populism guised as pan-Africanism; and despotism disguised as Afro-radicalism. There is no need for countries and leaders without skeletons in their cupboards to be banded together with dictatorships by default. It is in this context, that we applaud Malawi, Botswana and others for resisting the posturings of dictatorships who ganged up against the victims of impunity by embracing the non-cooperation axiom of the Mugabe faction of the AU. Africa and the World should listen to the clarion call of the victims of gross violation of human rights who want both peace and justice in equal measures.

I thank you


          Christine Represents! In Malawi and Ethiopia Africa        
Hi Joey! I just returned from a mission trip to Malawi, Africa. GMG sticker was with my passport…can’t leave home without it! Christine On my way to Malawi Africa I stopped in Ethiopia. GMG goes global! Christine Filed under: Gloucester Bumper Sticker Tagged: Africa, Christine, Ethiopia, Malawi, Sticka
          Fortune Of Africa Air Flight Status        
Africa is gifted by nature offering plenty of opportunities to tourists. Africa has rich cultural heritage and natural beauty as indicated below in the following country tourism profiles: Algeria Egypt Malawi Sierra Leone Angola Equatorial Guinea Mali Somalia Benin Eritrea Mauritania South Africa Botswana Ethiopia Mauritius South Sudan Burkina Faso Gabon Morocco Sudan Burundi Gambia ...
          List of African Countries by region        
List of countries of East Africa Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda Seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe List of countries of West Africa Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Nigeria Guinea Guinea Bissau Ivory Coast Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Senegal Sierra Leone Togo List of countries of ...
          List of countries of Africa by Region        
The countries of Africa by region are as follows; Angola Cameroon Central African Republic Chad DR. Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Republic of Congo Sao Tome and Principe Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe  Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Sudan Tunisi Botswana Lesotho Maurtius NamibiaSouth ...
          Columbia Nursing Nairobi Summit: Setting a Clinical Research Agenda for Africa        

This milestone conference, sponsored by Columbia University School of Nursing and the Columbia Global Centers | Africa (Nairobi), in collaboration with nursing and midwifery experts from Kenya, Malawi and South Africa, brings together for the first time nurse and midwifery leaders from 13 sub-Saharan African nations with the goal of creating an action plan that identifies knowledge gaps in clinical care and greater use of scientifically-informed health care practices.

(PRWeb July 06, 2015)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/07/prweb12831191.htm


          Resoluciones de Naciones Unidas sobre los derechos del niño. Noticias de la especial situación de Irak        
Aquí vemos resoluciones de la ONU que pueden guiar para la comprensión del problema y sobre como hacer resoluciones en modelos de naciones unidas. Especialmente se tiene en cuenta la situación de los niños de Irak para iluminar la problemática

Julio Daniel Nardini

GENERAL
A/54/601
30 de noviembre de 1999
ESPAÑOL
Original: ÁRABE




Quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones
Tema 112 del programa

Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño


Informe de la Tercera Comisión


Relator: Sr. Naif Bin Bandar Al–Sudairy (Arabia Saudita)


I. Introducción
1. En su tercera sesión plenaria, celebrada el 17 de septiembre de 1999, la Asamblea General, por recomendación de la Mesa, decidió incluir en el programa del quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño” y asignarlo a la Tercera Comisión.
2. La Tercera Comisión examinó el tema en sus sesiones 23ª a 28ª, 35ª, 41ª y 43ª, celebradas los días 27 a 29 de octubre y 1°, 5, 10 y 11 de noviembre de 1999. La reseña de las deliberaciones de la Comisión figura en las actas resumidas correspondientes (A/C.3/54/SR.23 a 28, 35, 41 y 43).
3. Para su examen del tema la Comisión tuvo ante sí los siguientes documentos:
a) Informe del Secretario General relativo a la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265);
b) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía (A/54/411);
c) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados (A/54/430);
d) Carta de fecha 17 de mayo de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Bangladesh ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el Programa del Siglo XXI por la Paz y la Justicia aprobado por la Conferencia del Llamamiento por la Paz, celebrada en La Haya del 12 al 15 de mayo de 1999 (A/54/98);
e) Carta de fecha 28 de septiembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Islandia ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite la Declaración de los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los países nórdicos contra la utilización de niños soldados (A/54/419);
f) Carta de fecha 15 de octubre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Sudáfrica ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el comunicado de la reunión de Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores y Jefes de Delegación del Movimiento de los Países No Alineados celebrada en Nueva York el 23 de septiembre de 1999 (A/54/469–S/1999/1063);
g) Carta de fecha 3 de noviembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Turquía ante las Naciones Unidas (A/54/528–S/1999/1126).
4. En su 23ª sesión, celebrada el 27 de octubre, formularon declaraciones introductorias el Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados, la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, el Director General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, el Director de la oficina de Nueva York del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y la Directora Ejecutiva del UNICEF (véase A/C.3/54/SR.23).



II. Examen de propuestas


A. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46
5. En la 35ª sesión, celebrada el 5 de noviembre, el representante de Namibia, en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Angola, Argelia, la Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaiyán, las Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Botswana, el Brasil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, Chile, China, Chipre, Colombia, el Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Cuba, Dinamarca, el Ecuador, Eritrea, Eslovenia, Etiopía, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Fiji, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Ghana, Grecia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Ecuatorial, Guyana, Haití, Hungría, Indonesia, Irlanda, Islandia, las Islas Salomón, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburgo, Malasia, Malawi, Malí, Mauricio, Mónaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, Papua Nueva Guinea, el Paraguay, el Perú, Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Democrática del Congo, la República Dominicana, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Rumania, Rwanda, Santa Lucía, el Senegal , Seychelles, Singapur, Sudáfrica, Suecia, Suriname, Swazilandia, Tailandia, Ucrania, el Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe presentó el proyecto de resolución titulado “La niña” (A/C.3/54/L.46). Posteriormente Antigua y Barbuda, Australia, Belarús, Belice, Camboya, España, Granada, Jamaica, la India, Madagascar, Panamá, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, San Marino, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Uganda y Uzbekistán, se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
6. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución I).


B. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3.54/L.49
7. En la 41ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, el representante de Finlandia en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Argelia, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bangladesh, Belarús, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, China, Chipre, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Dinamarca, Egipto, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, España, Estonia, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, la Federación de Rusia, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Guinea, Hungría, la India, el Iraq, Irlanda, Islandia, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kazajstán, Kenya, Kirguistán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Madagascar, Malasia, Malí, Malta, los Estados Federados de Micronesia, Mónaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, el Pakistán, el Perú (en nombre de los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas que pertenecen al grupo de Estados de América Latina y el Caribe), Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Checa, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, Rumania, San Marino, el Senegal, Sierra Leona, Sudáfrica, Sudán, Suecia, Tailandia, Túnez, Turquía, Ucrania y Uzbekistán presentó un proyecto de resolución titulado “Los derechos del niño” (A/C.3/54/L.49). Posteriormente, Camboya, el Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Ecuatorial, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Mozambique, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Swazilandia, el Togo, Uganda, y Zimbabwe se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
8. En la 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Secretaria del Comité leyó una declaración del Contralor sobre las consecuencias para el presupuesto por programas del proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).
9. En la misma sesión, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución II).
10. Tras la aprobación del proyecto de resolución, formularon declaraciones los representantes de Singapur, los Estados Unidos de América y el Uruguay (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).



C. Proyecto de decisión propuesto por el Presidente
11. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, a propuesta del Presidente, la Comisión decidió recomendar a la Asamblea General que tomara nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265) (véase el párrafo13).



II. Recomendaciones de la Tercera Comisión
12. La Tercera Comisión recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe los siguientes proyectos de resolución:



Proyecto de resolución I

La niña


La Asamblea General,

Recordando su resolución 53/127, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y todas las resoluciones anteriores sobre la cuestión, incluidas las conclusiones convenidas de la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 7 (E/1999/27), cap. I, secc. B.IV., en particular las pertinentes a la niña,

Recordando también todas las conferencias anteriores pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo., así como el reciente examen y evaluación al cabo de cinco años de la ejecución del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo,

Profundamente preocupada por la discriminación contra las niñas y la violación de sus derechos, como consecuencia de lo cual las niñas suelen tener menor acceso que los niños a la educación, la nutrición y la atención de la salud física y mental y disfrutar de menos derechos, oportunidades y beneficios de la niñez y la adolescencia y con frecuencia son víctimas de diversas formas de explotación cultural, social, sexual y económica y de violencia y prácticas perjudiciales como el infanticidio, el incesto, el matrimonio precoz, la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto y la mutilación genital femenina,

Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr la igualdad de género de modo de asegurar un mundo justo y equitativo para las niñas,

Observando con profunda preocupación que en situaciones de pobreza, guerra y conflicto armado las niñas figuran entre las víctimas más perjudicadas, lo cual limita sus posibilidades de pleno desarrollo,

Observando con preocupación que la niña ha pasado además a ser víctima de enfermedades venéreas y de contaminación con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, lo que afecta la calidad de su vida y la deja expuesta a mayor discriminación,

Tomando nota de que en 1999 se cumple el décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo. y el vigésimo aniversario de la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer Resolución 34/180, anexo.,

Reafirmando la igualdad de derechos de mujeres y hombres consagrada, entre otros instrumentos, en el Preámbulo de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño,

1. Subraya la necesidad de que se materialicen de manera cabal y urgente los derechos que se garantizan a la niña en todos los instrumentos de derechos humanos, en particular la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño3 y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer4, así como la necesidad de que esos instrumentos sean ratificados universalmente;

2. Insta a todos los Estados a que tomen todas las medidas necesarias y adopten las reformas jurídicas para garantizar el disfrute pleno y en condiciones de igualdad por parte de la niña de todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, a que tomen medidas eficaces contra las violaciones de esos derechos y libertades y a que utilicen los derechos del niño como base de las políticas y los programas relativos a la niña;

3. Insta a los Estados a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes que estipulen que sólo se podrá contraer matrimonio con el libre y pleno consentimiento de los futuros cónyuges, a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes relativas a la edad mínima para expresar consentimiento y contraer matrimonio y a que eleven la edad mínima para contraer matrimonio cuando sea necesario;

4. Insta además a los Estados partes a que cumplan las obligaciones que han contraído en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer, así como el compromiso de llevar a la práctica la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer Informe de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, Beijing, 4 a 15 de septiembre de 1995 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.96.IV.13), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo I.;

5. Insta asimismo a todos los Estados a que promulguen y apliquen leyes que protejan a las niñas contra todas las formas de violencia, con inclusión del infanticidio y la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto, la mutilación genital femenina, la violación, la violencia en el hogar, el incesto, el abuso sexual, la explotación sexual, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, y a que establezcan programas y servicios de apoyo médico, social y sicológico adecuados a la edad, seguros y confidenciales para ayudar a las niñas que son objeto de actos de violencia;

6. Exhorta a todos los Estados y a las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que, en forma individual y colectiva, sigan aplicando la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, en particular los objetivos estratégicos relativos a la niña;

7. Insta a los Estados a que adopten medidas especiales para proteger a los niños y, en particular, a las niñas, de la violación y de otras formas de abuso sexual y violencia por motivos de sexo en situaciones de conflicto armado, prestando especial atención a las niñas refugiadas y desplazadas, y a que, al ofrecer asistencia humanitaria, tengan en cuenta las necesidades especiales de las niñas;

8. Insta además a los Estados a que formulen planes, programas o estrategias nacionales completos, multidisciplinarios y coordinados, para eliminar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas, a los que deberán dar amplia difusión y en los que habrán de fijar objetivos y calendarios para la aplicación, y procedimientos nacionales eficaces para hacer cumplir las normas pertinentes mediante mecanismos de supervisión en que intervengan todas las partes interesadas, incluidas las consultas con las organizacio- nes de mujeres, y a que, al hacerlo, tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones relativas a la niña formuladas por la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la violencia contra la mujer, con inclusión de sus causas y consecuencias;

9. Exhorta a los gobiernos, a la sociedad civil, incluidos los medios de difusión, y a las organizaciones no gubernamentales a que fomenten la educación en materia de derechos humanos y el pleno respeto y disfrute de los derechos humanos de la niña mediante, entre otras cosas, la traducción, la producción y la difusión en todos los sectores de la sociedad, y en particular entre los niños, de material informativo sobre estos derechos adecuado a la edad de los destinatarios;

10. Pide al Secretario General que, en su calidad de Presidente del Comité Administrativo de Coordinación, vele por que todas las organizaciones y los órganos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, tanto por separado como colectivamente, en particular el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, tengan en cuenta los derechos y las necesidades particulares de la niña en sus programas de cooperación por países, de conformidad con las prioridades nacionales y con el Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo;

11. Pide a todos los órganos creados en virtud de tratados sobre derechos humanos, procedimientos especiales y otros mecanismos relativos a los derechos humanos de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos y a la Subcomisión de Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos que adopten permanente y sistemáticamente una perspectiva de género en la ejecución de sus mandatos e incluyan en sus informes análisis cualitativos sobre violaciones de los derechos humanos de la mujer y la niña, y alienta a aumentar la cooperación y coordinación a ese respecto;

12. Exhorta a los Estados y las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que movilicen todos los recursos, el apoyo y la acción necesarios para alcanzar las metas y los objetivos estratégicos y aplicar las medidas que se proponen en la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer;

13. Destaca la importancia de realizar una evaluación sustantiva de la aplicación de la Plataforma de Acción dentro de una perspectiva del ciclo de vida, de modo de determinar cuáles son las lagunas y los obstáculos con que se ha tropezado en el proceso de puesta en práctica y plantear nuevas medidas para el logro de las metas de la Plataforma de Acción;

14. Insta a los gobiernos, los organismos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en particular la División para el Adelanto de la Mujer de la Secretaría, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y las organizaciones de mujeres a que procuren que en los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General titulado “La mujer en el año 2000: igualdad entre los géneros, desarrollo y paz en el siglo XXI”, se tomen debidamente en cuenta las necesidades en los derechos de la niña y se los integre en todas las actividades;

15. Pide al Secretario General que vele por que se evalúen concretamente las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en el examen de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social Informe de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, El Cairo, 5 a 13 de septiembre de 1994 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.95.XIII.18), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo. que se realizará en junio del año 2000;

16. Pide además al Secretario General que, en consulta con el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Banco Mundial, vele por que se preste atención especial a las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en todos los preparativos a escala nacional, regional e internacional, incluido el informe sobre Evaluación de la Educación para Todos en el año 2000 Véase A/54/128–E/1999/70. y el programa del Foro Mundial de la Educación, que se celebrará en abril de 2000;

17. Pide asimismo al Secretario General que se asegure de que las necesidades y los derechos de la niña se tengan en cuenta en la labor preparatoria del período extraordina- rio de sesiones de la Asamblea General sobre el seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia que se celebrará en el año 2001, entre otras cosas, presentando a la Asamblea General un informe completo basado en las experiencias y resultados de los exámenes de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer y el Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social, y en la labor preparatoria del Foro Mundial de la Educación.



Proyecto de resolución II

Los derechos del niño
La Asamblea General,
Recordando sus resoluciones 53/127 y 53/128, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y la resolución 1999/80 de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, de 28 de abril de 1999 Véase Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 3 (E/1999/23), cap. II, secc. A.,
Teniendo presente la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo., destacando que las disposiciones de la Convención y otros instrumentos pertinentes de derechos humanos deben constituir la norma en la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño y reafirmando que el interés superior del niÃ