ã€Œå‘½ã®ãƒ“ザ」で世界に知られる杉原千畝の記念館に行ってきた(リトアニア・カウナス)        
リトアニアで約6000人もの命を救った「命のビザ」を発行したことで知られる日本人、杉原千畝。彼に関して学べる「杉原千畝記念館」がリトアニア・カウナスにあると聞き、行ってきました。   リトアニアの杉原千畝記念館へ こんにちは!自称マジシャンせがわーる...続きを読む
          EU energy ministers reject a bad deal on biofuels but status quo is even worse        
Brussels -  European energy ministers today rejected by a blocking minority a political deal to amend the EU biofuels policy. The rejected agreement, struck by the Lithuanian Presidency of the EU, would have limited the use of food-based biofuels that are eligible to count towards carbon reduction targets [1] to 7% of transport fuel – a cap close to the original 2020 target. The deal would have also mandated just the reporting of biofuel emissions from indirect land-use change (ILUC) [2] with a wid...
          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
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          Video from South Korean launch of new iPad        

Today Apple launched the new iPad in an additional 12 countries around the world. While eleven of the countries -- Brunei, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Malaysia, Panama, St Maarten, Uruguay and Venezuela -- are relatively small markets, the new iPad also went on sale in South Korea, one of the most technologically advanced countries on the planet and one of the major tech markets in Asia. Check out the video below, first posted by Apple 2.0, to see South Korean Apple fans lining up for the new tablet at a local Apple reseller.

Apple's new iPad international rollout isn't done for the month either. One week from today on Friday, April 27, Apple will begin selling the new iPad in an additional nine countries: Colombia, Estonia, India, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, South Africa and Thailand. The new iPad will then be available in 56 countries around the world.


          New iPad launching in 21 additional countries this month        

Apple today issued a press release announcing the new third-generation iPad will go on sale in another twleve countries starting on Friday, April 20. Notably, one of the twelve is the important South Korean market. The other eleven countries include Brunei, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Malaysia, Panama, St Maarten, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Then one week later on Friday, April 27, Apple will begin selling the new iPad in an additional nine countries: Colombia, Estonia, India, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, South Africa and Thailand. Both the Wi-Fi and 4G models will be on sale and available through Apple's online store and at select Apple Authorized Resellers.

The new iPad will be available in 56 countries around the world as of April 27th.


          iTunes Match launches in 19 more countries, shows Latin America some love from the cloud        
iTunes MatchOnce Apple let the iTunes Match genie out of the bottle it has actually been pretty quick to spread the love to our international friends. Australia, Canada, the UK and a host of other European nations came online last month, now a sizable chunk of Latin America (along with a few EU stragglers) are joining the party. In total, 19 new countries were added to the list this week, headlined by Central and South American nations like Argentina, Guatemala, Venezuela and Nicaragua. With a few Eastern Block countries, including Lithuania and Latvia, also being added to the list, Apple has increased the total number states where iTunes Match is available to 37. Now Apple just has to start getting a few of the Asian and African areas where the iPhone is available on board and it can officially call Match a global service. To see if your country is invited hit up the more coverage link.
          iPhone in 29 new countries; unlocked in Hong Kong        

Our sister site Engadget reports that Apple is now offering unlocked iPhones in Hong Kong via its online store. HK$5,500 (≈ US$700) will buy you an 8GB model, HK$6,200 (≈ US$800) gets you 16GB.

The Apple Store's terms and conditions limit sales to individuals in Hong Kong only, but who knows what the gray market will bring.

Three Russian carriers will also begin selling unlocked iPhones on October 3, with the 8GB model selling for over US$900.

In related news, 29 new countries will begin selling the iPhone, some today: Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Madagascar, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Nicaragua, Niger, Panama, Qatar, Senegal, South Africa, Turkey and Venezuela.

[Via IGM.]


          Kew Gardens ’17: Persona Non Grata        
Japanese diplomat Chiune “Sempo” Sugihara was forbidden entry by the Soviets, expelled by the Germans, and demoted by his own foreign ministry. Those events certainly buttress a favorable judgement from history, but they did not do his career any favors. Sugihara was ill-advisedly principled throughout his diplomatic tenure, but his decision to issue travel visas to Jewish refugees while serving as the Japanese consul in Lithuania earned him recognition as one of the Righteous Among the Nations at Yad Vashem. Sugihara’s pre-war exploits and wartime heroics are chronicled in Cellin Gluck’s Persona Non Grata: The Chiune Sugihara Story (trailer here), which screens during the first ever Kew Gardens Festival of Cinema.

Fluent in Russian and well educated in Russian history, Sugihara aspired to a Russian posting. However, his intelligence gathering in Manchuria, with respect to the disposition of the Northern Manchuria Railroad, bitterly antagonized the Soviets. As a result, he was declared persona non grata before he was even posted to Russia. Instead, Sugihara was dispatched to Lithuania, a convenient vantage-point for watching the Soviets.

Initially, Kaunas is quite pleasant for Sugihara and his wife Yukiko. He quickly comes to an arrangement with Pesh, a maybe not-so-former Polish intelligence officer, who helps Sugihara keep tabs on the Russians and Germans, in exchange for the occasional travel document. By the time Jewish refugees, primarily but not exclusively from Poland start flooding Kaunas, Sugihara heads the only still functioning quasi-neutral consulate. Although the Tripartite Pact is an acknowledged inevitability, Sugihara starts issuing travel visas to the refugees, as quickly as he and his staff can stamp them.

Not surprisingly, the Foreign Ministry is less than ecstatic over his actions, but they transfer him to a sensitive posting in Germany anyway. Obviously, saving thousands of lives is a big deal, but there is even more to his story. In fact, the Prussian section is unexpectedly fascinating, because it offers up a very different perspective on the War.

Through Sugihara’s Cassandra-like warnings to his superiors, Gluck and co-screenwriters Tetsuro Kamata and Hiromichi Matsuo suggest Japan always considered Russia their natural enemy, which made the Molotov-Ribbentrop non-aggression pact awkward, but ironically desirable. According to the film, they were counting on Germany’s help against the Americans and British in the Pacific, but when Hitler attacked Russia, it consigned them to facing the Yanks (and Brits) alone, thereby sealing their fate. Apparently, his analysis of German intentions did not sit well with the National Socialists, who also declared Sugihara persona non grata.

Admittedly, a figure like Sugihara would be intimidating to portray, but Toshiaki Karasawa largely plays it safe (and rather stiffly). However, Koyuki is terrific as Yukiko, Sugihara’s wife and his conscience when he needs it. She perfectly delivers a pivotal exchange—too quiet and humanistic to be called a big speech—that could earn her award consideration if anyone picks up Gluck’s film. Borys Szyc is also compulsively watchable as the slightly roguish but deeply earnest Pesh.

The fact that Persona Non Grata has not screened more widely at festivals is absolutely baffling. After all, it addresses the Holocaust, as well as a past refugee crisis, which offers the appeal of contemporary relevancy. It also happens to be a good film. Unfortunately, it might be too smart for its own good. Highly recommended for the heart and mind, Persona Non Grata screens this Wednesday afternoon (8/9) as part of the inaugural Kew Gardens Festival of Cinema.
          Our ongoing commitment to support computer science educators in Europe        

The need for employees with computer science (CS) and coding skills is steadily increasing in Europe—by 4 percent every year between 2006 and 2016 according to DigitalEurope.  But educators are struggling to keep up with the demand, often because they lack the professional development, confidence and resources to successfully teach their students. 

Because of these challenges, we’re working to increase the availability of quality computer science education and access to CS skills by empowering CS teachers globally. We’ve recently launched new support in Europe, the Middle East and Africa through CS4HS, a program to fund universities and nonprofits designing and delivering rigorous computer science professional development for teachers.

We’re excited to be working with 79 organizations worldwide, and 28 in the EMEA region, who are committed to increasing the technical and teaching skills of educators, and building communities of ongoing learning. We believe that these organizations are committed to delivering high-quality teacher professional development programs with a deep impact in their local community and a strong potential to increase their reach.

Classroom image

Growing the community of computer science educators  

Over the past 10 years, CS4HS has contributed $10 million to professional development (PD) providers around the world to help develop and empower teachers—like Catrobat, a non-profit initiative based at Graz University of Technology in Austria who created a free online course for students and teachers, and the University of Wolverhampton, who created a free MOOC to empower teachers of computing to teach programming in the new computing syllabuses in England, among others.

We’re excited to support new and future CS educators around the world. Even though computer science is a relatively new discipline for most schools, the enthusiasm is growing and teachers have a critical role to play in fueling their students’ interest and participation. These grants will help universities and nonprofits reach educators with PD opportunities that enhance their CS and technical skills development, improve their confidence in the classroom, and provide leadership training so that they can be advocates for CS education in their communities.

2017 awardees in EMEA

Asociatia Techsoup Romania

Ideodromio, Cyprus

Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Informatica, Italy

Lithuanian Computer Society

Dublin City University, Ireland

Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland

EduACT, Greece

Graz University of Technology, Austria

University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Asociatia Tech Lounge, Romania

Association Rural Internet Access Points, Lithuania

University of Wolverhampton, UK

Universidad de Granada, Spain

University UMK Toruń, Poland

Hasselt University, Belgium

Jednota školských informatiků, Czech Republic

University of Lille - Science and Technology, France

University of Roehampton, UK

University of Urbino, Italy

ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Vattenhallen Science Center, Lund University, Sweden

University College of Applied Sciences, Palestine

Hapa Foundation, Ghana

Let’s Get Ready, Cameroon

Swaziland Foundation for STEM Education

Laikipia University, Kenya

Mobile4Senegal

Peo Ya Phetogo in partnership with University of the Western Cape & Mozilla Foundation, South Africa

To discover more about CS opportunities near you, explore our educator resources, student programs and resources, and tools.



          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 08-21-2015 with DJ Segue        
Playlist:

Alison Randall- Episode 153 The Psychedelic Christian Pastor John Rydgren - Rev Hellbound Alleees Mondo Diablo
Dday One- Fall Forward Alpha - Wavelengths Split with Glen Porter
Glen Porter- Dream Theta - Wavelengths Split with Dday One
Dday One- Between Poles Beta - Wavelengths Split with Glen Porter
Flako- The Odd Beautiful - Natureboy
Lilacs Champagne- 09 Moroccan Handjob -
Lilacs Champagne- 02 Lilacs -
Beat Spacek- I Want You - Modern Streets
Roger Robinson- Move Way Babylon - Dis Side Ah Town
Chrissy Zebby Tembo Ngozi Family- Gone Forever - My Ancestors
Fulgeance DJ Scientist- From Lithuania with Love Instrumental - The Soviet Tape Vol 1
Romare- Motherless Child - Motherless Child
DJ Shadow Cut Chemist- Timmy Thomas Sexy Woman - Product Placement Breaks
Flying Lotusmpleecious- The Aynsley Dunbar Retaliation Watchn Chain Camel - Flying Lotusmpleecious
Calibro 35- Come Un Valzer - Sogni Di Gloria
Big Youth- Money Caan Buy Love feat Beenie Man Tafari Tarrus Riley - Lov3
GERGAZ- Lightning Owla Two - Beat Garden Compilation 4
Sherwood Pinch- Different Eyes - Late Night Endless
Paul White- Ride With Me - Paul White The Purple Brain
DJ Madd- Fort Greene Funk - RF Unlimited EP
KUTMAH- DARKENING OF THE LIGHT - BLKSMR
Nadastrom- Raphaels Word - The Life And Times Of Raphael De La Ghett
MR Bird vs Tosses Varvez Marie Queenie Lyons See And Dont See- Space Reality Tosses Varvez mix - Space Reality
BOCA 45- 45 Live - Dig Eat Beats Repeat
- 03 Puerto Rican Cousins Produced By Gordon Voidwell And Alex Kestner -
DJ Shadow Cut Chemist- Newcleus Destination Earth - Product Placement Breaks
Cut Chemist- Eye on the Gold Chain - The Litmus Test
Paul White- Mind The World - Paul White The Purple Brain
- 11 Misirlou The Devils Anvil -
Fumaa Preta- Perdidos - Fumaa Preta
Syl Johnson- Is It Because Im Black - The Complete Twinight Singles
Gerald Short- Up There Spiritual Jazz Mix - Up There Spiritual Jazz Mix
Chrissy Zebby Tembo Ngozi Family- Feeling Good - My Ancestors
Death- Politicians in My Eyes - Politicians in My Eyes 7
MIA- Swords - Matahdatah Scroll 01 Broader Than a Border
Kill Money Presents- Cooking with Keith - Keith Floyd
Mute Speaker- Snake Head - Radio Bokor
Fulgeance DJ Scientist- Rubber Kalinka - The Soviet Tape Vol 1
Cut Chemist- Bunkys Pick - The Litmus Test
Mute Speaker- Bandit Country - Radio Bokor
Mecca83- The Inbetween - Expansion Sound Vol2
Mute Speaker- Plou Dom Ray - Radio Bokor
Ackryte- Hand in Hand - Expansion Sound Vol2
Taiwan MC- 09 Roll It Up Numa Crew remix - Heavy This Year Remix
Doc Mastermind- Fckyewtrapmuik - Expansion Sound Vol2
Sub- 09 - Webdigga WB 40 Loops rare breaks Vol7
Paul White- One Eye Open - The Strange Dreams Of Paul White
LOrange Kool Keith- Twenty Fifty Three feat Mr Lif - Time Astonishing
Mute Speaker- Demons Lament - Radio Bokor
Paul White- Pride - Paul White The Purple Brain
Machinedrum- Stirrin - Gunshotta Ave EP Released Oct 14th 2013 on Ninja Tune
Mute Speaker- Nou Dtee Bompot - Radio Bokor
Compa- Kingdom - Kingdom Bass Drum Version
Chancha Via Circuito- Sauce King Coya Remix - Amansara Remixed
Kiddus I- Graduation In Zion - Rockers Graduation In Zion 1
Zodiac- Scorpio The Passionate Hero - Cosmic Sounds
Flying Lotus- Turtles - Youre Dead
Dbruit Alsarah- Alhalim - Aljawal
Ghostface Killah - Deaths Invitation Interlude feat Rza - Adrian Younge presents 12 Reasons To Die II
Dirty Filthy Mud- Forest Of Black - The Psychedelic Experience Vol2
The Electric Prunes- Are You Lovin Me More But Enjoy It Less - The Electric Prunes


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2015-08-21
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-06-2014 with 99 & Barry        
Playlist:

Andre Williams- Stuck In The Middle - Life
Meshugga Beach Party- Shalom Alechem - Twenty Songs Of The Chosen Surfer
Marlin Wallace And The Corillians- The Thing From Another World - Outer Space
James Blood Ulmer- TV Blues - New York Noise Vol 3
Lou Reed- Charleys Girl - Coney Island Baby
The Stooges- 1970 - Fun House
- voicebreak -
Mati Zundel- El Alto De La Paz - Amazonico Gravitante
Various Artists- Bugz In The Attic Zombie - Red Hot Riot
Nile Rodgers Roy Hargrove Money Mark- Zombie Pt 2 - Red Hot Riot
Medeski Martin Wood Nels Cline- Mezcal - Woodstock Sessions Vol 2
Captain Beefheart The Magic Band- Run Paint Run Run - Doc At The Radar Station
- Day Tripper - Change The Beat The Celluloid Records Story 19791987
Pascal Comelade- The Sheik Of Araby - September Song
Carla Kihlstedt- 50 Miles - 2 Foot Yard
Sun City Girls- The Imam - Funeral Mariachi
Violent Femmes- Add It Up - Violent Femmes
RX- Imagine - The Party Party
Mylab- Pop Client - Mylab
Matheatre- The Electricity Song - CSections
Thinking Fellers Union Local 282- Wonderbrad Display - Lovelyville
Lamatumb- Circus Magnificus - A rbita Da Banda Hipntica
- voicebreak -
Lee Morgan- Cornbread - Cornbread
- Serenade To A Cockoo - Lithuanian Jazz 19291980
Various Artists- Dorit Chrysler Spring Breeze - 4 Women No Cry Vol 2
Takeo Toyama- Bobbin - Etudes
Various Artists- Marimba De La Direccion De Seguridad Publica De Chiapas - Latinamericarpet Exploring The Vinyl Warp Of
- voicebreak -
People Like Us- Crazy - All Together Now
Phaser Rock- Fire And Rain - All Fired Up
Messer Chups- Voodoo Man - Bermuda 66
Beat Circus- The Gem Saloon - Dreamland
Residents- Picnic Boy - Commercial Album
Satanicpornocultshop- Tea With Red King Pt1 Feat Government Alpha - Orochi Under The Straight Edge Leaves
Eilert Pilarm- Suspicios Mind - Eilert Is Back
Various Artists- Sirba - Greatest It
- voicebreak -
Sex Mob- Down On The Farm - Sex Mob Meets Medeski Live In Willisau
Screamin Jay Hawkins- Feast Of The Mau Mau - Spellbound
- No Return - Twisted Tales From The Vinyl Wasteland Vol 5
- He Needs Me - Popeye Soundtrack
Andre Popp And His Orchestra- Perles De Cristal - Delirium In HiFi
- Love Me Tender - The Memorial Elvis Project
Meridian Brothers- Cancin De Invierno - Devocin Works 20052011
Heliocentrics- Sirius B - Out There


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-06-06
          Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian        

Pengundian babak kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2018 akan dilakukan Sabtu malam, sekitar pukul 23.00 WIB. Di bawah ini adalah daftar unggulan dan berbagai skenario buruk maupun baik yang bisa menimpa negara-negara asal sepakbola: Inggris, Wales, Skotlandia dan Irlandia Utara.

Berita Bola: Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian
Pot 1: Jerman, Belgia, Belanda, Portugal, Romania, Inggris, Wales, Spanyol, Kroasia
Pot 2: Slovakia, Austria, Italia, Swiss, Republik Ceko, Prancis, Islandia, Denmark, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Pot 3: Ukraina, Skotlandia, Polandia, Hungaria, Swedia, Albania, Irlandia Utara, Serbia, Yunani
Pot 4: Turki, Slovenia, Israel, Republik Irlandia, Norwegia, Bulgaria, Kepulauan Faroe, Montenegro, Estonia
Pot 5: Siprus, Latvia, Armenia, Finlandia, Belarusia, Makedonia, Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Moldova
Pot 6: Kazakhstan, Luksemburg, Liechtenstein, Georgia, Malta, San Marino, Andorra
Inggris dan Wales tidak mungkin bertemu dalam satu grup karena mereka sama-sama tim unggulan yang masuk dalam Pot 1.
Namun, mereka masih bisa ketemu dengan negara tertentu dari Pot 2 seperti Italia (saat ini peringkat 17 di dunia) atau Perancis (peringkat 22), sementara tandang ke negara-negara tertentu seperti Swedia, Polandia atau Ukraina bisa menjadi laga yang sulit.
Wales, Irlandia Utara dan Skotlandia bisa saja masuk ke dalam grup yang berisikan lima tim, bukan enam – yang dapat membantu peluang mereka lolos ke putaran final di Rusia.
Tim-tim Eropa akan dibagi ke dalam sembilan kelompok – tujuh grup dengan enam tim dan dua grup hanya beranggotakan lima tim.
Berikut adalah skenario terbaik dan terburuk dari empat negara asal sepakbola itu.
Inggris
Tiket impian:
Inggris, Islandia, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova, Andorra
Skenario terburuk:
Inggris, Italia, Swedia, Turki, Finlandia, Kazakhstan
Wales
Tiket impian:
Wales, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Wales, Prancis, Ukraina, Turki, Siprus, Georgia
Skotlandia
Tiket impian:
Skotlandia, Wales, Islandia, Estonia, Lithuania
Skenario terburuk:
Skotlandia, Jerman, Italia, Turki, Makedonia, Kazakhstan
Irlandia Utara
Tiket impian:
Irlandia Utara, Rumania, Islandia, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Irlandia Utara, Spanyol, Prancis, Republik Irlandia, Belarusia, Malta

          Strong Learning, Inc. - Bessie's Pillow {Homeschool Review}        

Bessie's Pillow




I love history, I love biographies, and I enjoy reading historical fiction.  We have been reading Bessie's Pillow during our read aloud time and it fits all three of those!  A special thanks to Strong Learning, Inc. for giving us the opportunity to do a review for their book.  Bessie's Pillow is classified as historical fiction, and is based on the true story of Bessie Markman Dreizen.  It is written by Bessie's granddaughter, Linda Bress Silbert, who is also the owner of Strong Learning, Inc.  I would recommend this book for middle/highschoolers and up, but in saying that I also read this to my 9 year old.

Strong Learning, Inc.

Boshka Markman is a Jew from Vilna, Lithuania.  In 1906, at the age of 18, she is one of hundreds of thousands of Jewish immigrants who, with the help of her father and mother, leaves Europe alone to escape persecution by going to America.  Boshka is a strong, independent woman in her time. Once in America, her name is changed to Bessie.

I cried as she said good-bye to her family (I remember those feelings), my daughter's ears perked up at the slightest hint of romance (typical teenage girl!), and my son enjoyed learning more about NYC.  My kids enjoyed this book, and often requested that I read it to them (and it wasn't to get out of their schoolwork!).  Just a little disclaimer, there were a few things (or words) that I skipped over as I could see them coming as I read, mostly so I didn't have to explain to my son.  Nothing bad, just not for little ears.

Bessie's Pillow is written in first person, which makes me feel like she's sitting across the table from me telling me her story.  She left her family and home and travelled first class by ship to America.  She arrives at Ellis Island and it explains the sights of the time.  We now have Ellis Island on our bucket list.  I've always wanted to go there, but after reading Bessie's Pillow I really want to go there.  What an amazing feeling it must have been to step off the boat on to Ellis Island with other immigrants and have that new sense of freedom.  As an immigrant to Australia, I remember stepping off the plane.  I remember my surroundings, the weather, and the feeling of exhaustion and excitement.

The book continues to talk about Bessie settling in to America and the many adventures that awaited her.  I struggle with writing book reviews because I so badly want to tell you more, but then  you'd have no reason to buy a copy for yourself!  If you enjoy historical fiction, if you are interested in immigration, if you are fascinated with NYC, no matter the if, I think you'll enjoy this book!
Strong Learning, Inc. also has a page called Discover Bessie's America.  I have enjoyed going through the links on this page and learning more about the history of the time period.  You can find links for European Immigration, Food and Recipes, Movies, News, Radio, US Presidents, and more.
We were given a PDF copy of the book, but I plan to buy a hard copy to add to our library.  With immigration being in the news on a daily basis these days, I'd encourage you to get a copy and read it together as a family.  It may even encourage you to trace your own family history!


Watch the clip below for a little excerpt of the book.

Find Bessie's Pillow on Facebook and Twitter.

For more reviews of Bessie's Pillow click below.
Bessie's Pillow {Strong Learning, Inc. Reviews}

Crew Disclaimer



          What next for Eastern Europe?        
While President Trump tweets, the United States and Russia drift towards war over Syria, and the new Thirty Years War between Shi'ite and Sunni continues on many fronts, another critical drama is playing out in the Eastern half of the European continent.  I find it particularly interesting because it is a replay of the drama I described about 40 years ago in my first book, Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War, which is linked at left and available as an e-book.

For the first few centuries of the modern era the peoples of Eastern Europe lived under large empires.  The Ottoman Empire had reached Europe in the 15th century and eventually included what is now Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Rumania, some of the nations of the former Yugoslavia, and Hungary.  The Tsar of Russia ruled what are now the Baltic States and, by the 19th century, Poland.  The Holy Roman Empire--which in 1806 became the Austrian Empire, and in 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Empire--included parts of Poland and the present-day Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia and Slovenia.  All these peoples, to varying degrees, developed nationalist movements during the 19th century.

The enormous strain of the First World War proved too much not only for the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires, but also for the German Empire.  The Allies--France, Britain, Italy and eventually the US as well--sponsored the claims of some of the national movements in their territory.  In January 1918, in his Fourteen Points, Woodrow Wilson endorsed an independent Poland and autonomy (not independence) for the peoples of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires.  When those nations collapsed ten months later, various national movements proclaimed new states.

As the brilliant but eccentric English historian A. J. P. Taylor noted in 1961, the post-1919 settlement in Eastern Europe reflected the astonishing fact that both Germany and Russia had been defeated. Only that allowed for the re-creation of an independent Poland, the new states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia,a larger Rumania, independent Poland and Finland, and the three Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.  It seemed in 1918-9 that things might go even further and that Ukraine might become independent as well, but the Bolsheviks managed to secure control over it in the Russian civil war.  These states were economically and politically weak.  Nearly all of them initially formed some kind of democratic government, encouraged down that path by the western powers.

In the short run, several of the new states--Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania--were threatened by Hungary, which had lost huge territories at the peace conference, while in the long run Czechoslovakia and Poland had to worry about a resurgent Germany. France, eager to cement its status as the leading power in Europe, offered all those states some kind of alliance.  Clearly the French would have trouble defending them once the Germans or Russians regained their military strength, but the French were counting on keeping the Germans weak.  The alliances faced no serious threats until after the rise of Hitler.

By then all these countries had undergone profound political changes.  While all of them had begun as democracies, only Czechoslovakia, Finland and the Baltic States were still electing their governments by the early 1930s--the rest had come under some form of authoritarian rule.  The agricultural states among them, as I showed in my book, came under German influence after 1935 because the Germans, desperate for food, offered them a market for their produce.  In 1938 Hitler managed to destroy Czechoslovakia when the French abandoned their alliance.  In 1939-40, Hitler and Stalin concluded the Nazi-Soviet Pact. They partitioned Poland and the Soviets incorporated the Baltic States.  Hungary and Rumania became allies of Hitler while Yugoslavia was occupied by the Italians and the Nazis.  In 1945,  the whole region (except Finland) came under Soviet occupation and the USSR installed Communist governments.

The collapse of the USSR in 1991--77 years after the start of the First World War--started this process over again.  Once again, as in 1919, the entire region was liberated from foreign rule.  This time the proliferation of new states has gone much further, with Czechoslovakia and former Yugoslavia giving way to no less than 8 new states, and not only the Baltic States, but also Ukraine and Belarus, becoming independent.  Once again the new states established various forms of democracy.  And once again, powerful nations from outside the region offered them alliances. NATO, led by the US, offered membership to virtually every new state in the region, including the Baltic states--after initially promising the new Russian government not to do so.  The EU also offered many of them membership, choosing to ignore the enormous economic and cultural differences that still divide Europe somewhere around the frontiers of Germany and Poland.

Germany is no longer an imperialist nation, although it leads the EU and played a key role in its enlargement.  Russia once again went through a chaotic period but by 2000 it was recovering its strength under Vladimir Putin.  He is clearly determined to reassert Russian influence--if not more--over many of the states of the former USSR.  Belarus lost any real independence very quickly, and Putin is actively contesting the West in a bid for influence in Ukraine, and using the Russian military at the border to do so. He also very obviously has designs on the Baltic states, which are extremely vulnerable militarily.  And while Putin cannot offer these states markets the way the Germans did 80 years ago, he can provide them with energy.

And once again, democracy has proven fragile in Eastern Europe.  Rightist parties now lead the governments of Hungary, Poland, and some of the other states of the region. The governments of the Czech Republic and Slovakia are weak and subject to corruption and outside influence.  These nations face a choice between  western-style democracy--which is having enormous problems in the west--and Russian-style authoritarianism.  It is not at all clear which path they shall take.

Only a gigantic war settled the question of Eastern Europe's future 80 years ago.  Such a war does not seem in prospect now, but limited wars, such as a lightning Russian occupation of one or more Baltic states, cannot be ruled out.  Russian and NATO aircraft are constantly confronting one another in the region.  The Russians also seem to be using cyberwar against Ukraine, and they may use it elsewhere. To reach a new equilibrium diplomatically would require a level of statesmanship which is not apparent on the world scene.  Nearly thirty years ago, when the Soviet empire collapsed, I commented frequently that this time, Eastern Europe had taken a new shape without a new world war.  Now it seems that the process may involve a larger conflict--albeit of a possibly different kind.
          Translate your favorite with Google        
Sebelumnya telah diuraikan perihal Priority Inbox, dimana fitur ini bekerja pada Gmail dan saat ini Ambae.exe berkesempatan menggunakannya bersama others AMBAE. Lebih awal disampaikan bahwa Google mengeluarkan 2 (dua) fitur terbarunya. Yang akan diuraikan di bawah ini adalah Google Translate dengan fitur yang lebih hebat. Bagi sobat Googler, Google Translate bukanlah hal baru, tapi mungkin saja masih ada rekan-rekan yang ingin mengetahuinya dari awal terutama Ambae.exe yang masih awam.

Layanan ini diperkenalkan pada tahun 2007 dan mulai memasukkan Bahasa Indonesia ke dalam pilihan bahasa yang bisa diterjemahkan sejak 25 September 2008. Adapun sasaran utama dari Google Translate yakni untuk menerjemahkan bagian teks atau halaman web dalam satu bahasa ke bahasa lain.


Lalu mengapa diklaim memiliki fasilitas canggih dibanding penerjemah lainnya...? Tidak seperti layanan terjemahan lain seperti Babel Fish dan AOL yang menggunakan SYSTRAN, Google menggunakan perangkat lunak terjemahan sendiri. Itulah hebatnya mbah Google, si empunya tidak mau meminjam apapun dari pihak lain. Kalau perlu Sergey M. Brin dan Lawrence E. Page membeli produk pihak lain agar bisa menguasai dunia maya.

Lanjut fren, satu persatu kita bahas perihal Translate milik mbah Google. Dukungan Google Translate mencakup :
- Google Translate versi standar
- Google Search
- Google Toolbar
- Google Chrome
- Google Labs
- Google Mail (Gmail)
- Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
- Google Talk
- Google Groups
- Google Moderator
- Google Docs (Google Documents)
- Google Video (YouTube)
- Google Mobile
- Google Android
- Google Web Element
- Google AJAX API
- Google Toolkit

A. Google Translate versi standar

Steps A1
Kunjungi Google Translate, lalu ketik atau paste karakter, kata maupun kalimat yang ingin diterjemahkan. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan yang akan digunakan dan klik Translate. Tukar arah terjemahan dengan mengeklik tombol Swap languages.


Steps A2
Klik Listen untuk mendengarkan terjemahan versi suara Google. Klik Read phonetically untuk membedakan suara/lafadz dari yang diperdengarkan Google. Metode Read phonetically memanfaatkan sistem notasi fonetis (International Phonetic Alphabet), yakni kumpulan tanda yang dengannya semua bahasa manusia dapat ditulis dan dijelaskan. Seperti halnya membedakan lafadz fa dengan pa dan va atau sa dengan xa dan za atau ca dengan ka dan qa serta ei dengan ee dan ey dan bahasa planet lainnya.


B. Google Search

Steps B1
Silakan meluncur ke Google Homepage dan ketikkan keyword yang akan dicari. Hasil pencarian pun muncul sebanyak 10 URL/Website di halaman pertama Google yang paling terkait dengan keyword tersebut. Untuk menerjemahkan URL, klik link Translate this page atau Terjemahkan laman ini di sisi kanan salah satu URL hasil Searching. Translate dapat dimaksimalkan dengan mengatur metode pencarian pada menu Advanced Search atau Preferences.


Steps B2
Setelah mengeklik link Translate this page, Google segera menerjemahkannya. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan pada tampilan halaman berikutnya. Untuk menukar arah terjemahan, tidak disiapkan tombol Swap languages. Sehingga harus mengganti bahasa secara manual pada kedua drop down menu.


Steps B3
Temukan hal unik dari namamu, pada kolom pencarian ketik perintah Translate 'My Name is xxxxxxx' to yyyyyyy.
~ xxxxxxx : Nama
~ yyyyyyy : Bahasa


C. Google Toolbar

Steps C1
Google Toolbar bekerja pada browser Microsoft Internet Explorer dan Mozilla Firefox versi 2.0 atau yang lebih tinggi. Operation System (OS) yang direkomendasikan yakni Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista atau yang lebih tinggi. Untuk mengaktifkannya Download dan Install Google Toolbar, ikuti langkah selanjutnya hingga Finish. Bila Google memerintahkan untuk Restart, sobat Googler ikuti saja, jangan membantah perintah orang tua (mbah Google), mumpung GRATIS. Setelah terinstall, Google Toolbar akan terpasang di bagian atas halaman browser, tepatnya pada Toolbar Menu.



D. Google Chrome

Steps D1
Serupa tapi tidak sama, Google Chrome mirip dengan Google Toolbar. Perbedaannya, Google Toolbar merupakan Add-ons yang bekerja pada browser IE dan Mozilla Firefox. Sedangkan Google Chrome merupakan browser yang di dalamnya telah dibenamkan fitur Google Translate dengan tampilan Google Toolbar. Bekerja hanya pada Operation System (OS) Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista dan Windows 7. Daripada bingung, Download versi teranyar Google Chrome dan rasakan kehangatan Google Translate bersamanya. Untuk versi Beta, disini downloadnya.


E.
Google Labs dan Google Mail (Gmail)

Steps E1
Email yang masuk tidak selalu menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Bahkan orang Indonesia pun terkadang memakai bahasa Alien dalam mengirimkan email atau di saat chatting. Install salah satu fitur Google Labs pada Menu Settings. Pilih Sub Menu Labs, aktifkan fitur Message translation lalu Simpan pengaturan.


Steps E2
Masih pada Menu Settings, pilih Sub Menu General dan tentukan bahasa terjemahan secara default lalu simpan kembali pengaturan terakhir.


Untuk menonaktifkan fitur ini, centang Disabled pada Menu Labs. Namun, bila ingin menonaktifkan Google Labs secara utuh tanpa memilah-milah fiturnya, kunjungi OFF.

F.
Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
dan Google Talk

Steps F1
Fitur ini memanfaatkan Google Bots dalam menerjemahkan setiap pesan Chat. Googler yang terbiasa dengan Google Wave, kiranya tidak mengalami kesulitan dalam mengaplikasikan Google Bots. Guna memudahkan sobat Googler, Ambae.exe menyuguhkan daftar Google Bots yang dapat ditambahkn pada Gmail Chat atau Google Talk.




Google Bots pada fitur ini dimaksudkan sebagai robot Google yang akan menelusuri data yang dicari para Googler. Selanjutnya para Robot ini menerjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa masing-masing Bots. Jangan lupa menambahkan @bot.talk.google.com. Format penulisan Bots yakni xxxxxxx@bot.talk.google.com.
~ xxxxxxx : Salah satu Bots
~ Contoh zh2en@bot.talk.google.com : Google Bots untuk bahasa Chinese ke English.

G.
Google Groups, Google Moderator
dan Google Docs (Google Documents)

Steps G1
Berdiskusi bersama rekan sesama Googler, mengedit dokumen, merespon, bertanya, menjawab, menyarankan atau memberi ide dan masukan kepada dan/atau dari Google. Dengan fitur Google Translate di dalamnya, serasa kuliah dengan fasilitas Dwi Bahasa. Sobat tidak perlu mengutak-atik Setting dan Preferences. Cukup mengunjungi Translate ala Google Groups, Google Moderator dan/atau Google Docs (Google Documents).

H. Google Video (YouTube)

Steps H1
Halaman pencarian YouTube, mirip dengan Google Homepage. Klik Translate untuk menerjemahkan Keterangan Video atau klik Show original untuk mengembalikan ke dalam bentuk aslinya.


Steps H2
Sobat Googler sering menikmati tayangan HBO atau HBO Asia, Cinemax, Star Movie, Star World dan sebagainya...??? Menonton Film kesayangan di channel termasyur tersebut benar-benar mengasyikkan. Tersedia dalam Bi-Lingual atau Dwi Language. Di samping itu tersedia pula Running Text di setiap Film, meski film itu telah berganti bahasa dari English ke Indonesia. Wajarlah HBO mengklaim dirinya It's not TV, it's HBO

Bagaimana dengan Google Video atau YouTube...??? Video yang disertai dengan keterangan Teks alias Caption dapat pula diterjemahkan ke dalam berbagai bahasa. Dengan catatan bahwa video tersebut memiliki Caption atau lazim dikenal dengan Running Text sebagai terjemahan teks dari apa yang diucapkan dalam video bersangkutan. Klik Icon (^) lalu pilih Icon (cc), keduanya berada di pojok kanan bawah Video. Lalu klik Translate Captions untuk mengatur bahasa terjemahan.


Steps H3
Tentukan bahasa terjemahan dengan mengeklik drop down menu. Selanjutnya klik tombol Translate. Maka sekejap, Caption Video diterjemahkan sesuai bahasa yang dipilih.


I. Google Mobile dan Google Android

Steps I1
Translate via Google Mobile melalui perangkat seluler sobat Googler dengan mengunjungi Google Mobile

Steps I2
Dengan Google Android, fitur Google Translate benar-benar dimaksimalkan. Tidak hanya berupa teks ke teks, Googler dapat menerjemahkan teks ke dalam bentuk suara. Demikian sebaliknya, suara diterjemahkan kembali ke dalam bentuk teks. Download Google Android untuk merasakannya.

J. Google Web Element,
Google AJAX API dan Google Toolkit

Steps J1
Ingin memiliki Tool Translater di Webpage sobat Googler...??? Benamkan Code Google Translate ke dalamnya.

Copy dan Paste Script Code berikut

Script di atas hanya contoh, pengaturan secara manual silakan kunjungi Google Web Element. Mengenai penempatan HTML tersebut, posisikan pada BODY section.

Sobat tidak menginginkan Google menerjemahkan halaman Webpagenya. Copy dan Paste Meta Tag berikut dan posisikan pada HEAD section :


Steps J2
Terjemahan Webpage maupun Web Element lebih dimungkinkan lagi dengan fitur Google AJAX API. Tentunya Googler akan lebih sering bermain dengan Javascript.

Steps J3
Yang ini lebih hebat lagi. Googler dapat mengupload dan mendownload data yang diterjemahkan dengan fitur Google Toolkit. Lebih lengkapnya, kunjungi Google Tranlator Toolkit karena pada halaman tersebut diuraikan dengan jelas melalui media Video Tutorial versi mbah Google.

Sobat Blogger dan rekan Googler yang ingin mengetahui lebih banyak tentang fitur ini, silakan mengunjungi mbah Google. Mengingat panjangnya artikel ini dan rumitnya pembahasannya. Sebagai newbie, mohon dikoreksi bila terdapat kesalahan di dalamnya.

Persembahan berikutnya berupa Daftar Bahasa yang didukung Google Translate hingga saat ini sebanyak 57 Bahasa, yakni :
* Afrikaans
* Albanian
* Armenian (Alpha)
* Azerbaijani (Alpha)
* Arabic
* Basque (Alpha)
* Belarusian
* Bulgarian
* Catalan
* Chinese (Simplified)
* Chinese (Traditional)
* Croatian
* Czech
* Danish
* Dutch
* English
* Estonian
* Filipino
* Finnish
* French
* Galician
* Georgian (Alpha)
* German
* Greek
* Haitian Creole (Alpha)
* Hebrew
* Hindi
* Hungarian
* Icelandic
* Indonesian
* Italian
* Irish
* Japanese
* Korean
* Latvian
* Lithuanian
* Macedonian
* Malay
* Maltese
* Norwegian
* Persian
* Polish
* Portuguese
* Romanian
* Russian
* Serbian
* Slovak
* Slovenian
* Spanish
* Swahili
* Swedish
* Thai
* Turkish
* Ukrainian
* Urdu (Alpha)
* Vietnamese
* Welsh
* Yiddish

          New torture flights between Lithuania and secret CIA prisons in Afghanistan & Morocco revealed as European Parliament debates rendition report        
Reprieve  September 10, 2011 Lawyers for “high value detainee” Abu Zubaydah – who was waterboarded 83 times by the CIA – have today filed a new submission concerning his transfer to and from a prison site in Lithuania. The filing, by London-based organization Interights, comes as Reprieve releases new information showing how renditions contractor Computer […]
          Mix : DJ Walkman – Varpa        
You know DJ Walkman, don’t you? He is one half of the Lithuanian netlabel team, Sutemos, that brought us some of our favorite artists through the critically acclaimed Intelligent Toys series! Today, DJ Walkman takes off his managing hat, and puts on a pair of DJ headphones to bring you one of the finest mixes […]
          Airbus provides German troops with support communications at 15 sites worldwide        
Munich -  Airbus has successfully rolled out support communications to German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) troops deployed to military bases in Lithuania. Labelled “Connect-D”, Airbus now supplies telephone, internet and media services to a total of 15 deployed Bundeswehr units around the world, including Mali, Iraq, Djibouti, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Cyprus and Lithuania. The launch of Connect-D at the Lithuanian bases of Rukla and Pabrade was performed as part of a framework contract awarded b...
          5 - White Hart Lane        
White Hart Lane


White Hart Lane is an area within Tottenham, and is also more famous as the home to the football stadium of Tottenham Hotspur. In fact, the stadium pretty much dominates the whole area, as you would expect. But more so, there is also a possibly slightly sinister reason as to why the stadium dominates the whole area. 99% of people who will visit the White Hart Lane area, who do not live there, will do so to visit the stadium. They do so, sadly, because there is not actually that much more to the area than the stadium. And this is for a good reason.


Sometimes on this blog I have touched upon subjects which might not show the area in that positive a manner, and unfortunately this is a case where I have to do it again. Nearly every single shop around Tottenham Hotspurs seems to be derelict. Now, I am not sure why this is. Far be it from me to be speculative, and I certainly do not want to say anything that could be construed as libelous, (especially against a team that can afford to pay people £120,000 a week) but I can't help but feel that this may have been arranged so that it is easier for Tottenham Hotspurs to build their brand-new spanking stadium, which is due to start any year soon. However, this does take quite a lot of the soul out of the White Hart Lane area. Empty shop upon empty shop, especially when you get near the stadium. In fact, apart from Valentino's wine bar which is right next to the stadium, there seem to be barely any shops that are actually operating, let alone shops that are doing well.

White Hart Lane suffers from the exact opposite of the logistical luck South Tottenham has, in that it is the part of Tottenham which is furthest away from central London, and thus people who want easy access into central London want to live there less. It also has no tube station (here we go again....) But it does have a train station, entitled White Hart Lane. However, the location of this train station is pretty weird. It is not on the main high road - instead it is on a tributary road, the road itself being called White Hart Lane. Now, I'm not sure if there is reason for this but it does strike me as bad planning. The few times I had to get off at White Hart Lane, there were 40 or 50 people getting off the train and every single one of them, bar none, (and I do genuinely mean every single one of them) then proceeded to walk the 150 metres/200 metres walk all the way to the Tottenham High Road, specifically to catch a connecting bus. Now, I realise that this isn't exactly akin to birds migrating from Canada to Africa, as it only takes a few mins, but it does seem to be in a pretty inconvenient position with regards to making journeys easier.

And having spoken to quite a few people who live in the area, they have said that they can't help but agree. This does cut down the numbers of people that use the train service, and personally I think it is something that must be looked at, if that is possible. The numbers of bus passengers within the area is hugely popular, and to Transport For London's (TFL) credit, I have noticed a marked improvement on the amount of buses that have been visiting the areas. Whereas many years ago, sometimes buses would pass by as they were too full, it is a very rare occurrence now. This is no doubt aided by the fact that buses that go down the White Hart Lane part of Tottenham high Road also visit areas of London that have no tube stations, such as Edmonton and Enfield.

So, so far, I've talked about the stadium and transport links. So this is the bit where I start revealing all of the fantastic pubs, art galleries and cultural magnets within the area, right? Well, no. White Hart Lane does not have any of this. Lots of residential properties, quite a few budget shops, and lots of empty shops, and the stadium. That is it, there is no more. It is also Tottenham's cheapest part, which considering Tottenham is the cheapest part of London, says a lot. In fact, even in 2013, you can buy a studio flat within the area for under £110,000.

http://www.rightmove.co.uk/property-for-sale/property-24722469.html

Now, this is London, and 2013. And you can get a flat for £110,000!! For the uninitiated, this is obscenely cheap. In fact, so cheap as to even raise a suspicious eyebrow, in a "too good to be true" manner. But no, those are the prices, because the area is unfortunately one of the less appealing areas of Tottenham. At the moment. I say "At the moment" because Tottenham Hotspurs are keen to catch up with the north London rivals Arsenal and build their own 58,000 seater capacity stadium. Of course, we will not know until it is built, but there is a real chance that the area will improve in popularity significantly when this is finished, meaning that the fortune of the area is inextricably linked to the success of the football team. For example, if Tottenham were to become the new Barcelona of football (would that mean that Tottenham High Road would become the new La Ramblas?) then the area would no doubt improve massively, both in prestige and also in the quality of life for the residents. On the flip side of this, if Tottenham were to suffer a relegation, and were to become the next Watford, (ie, a team, that is stuck outside the Premierships elite) then it is likely that the area would take a massive downturn as well, especially if it meant that the proposed new stadium was delayed. If you are a local resident, even if you are an Arsenal fan, you should be cheering on the Spurs! (OK, probably not if you are an Arsenal fan.....)

Obviously, the football team is central to the community, but I can't help but feel that many of the other shops within the area have been driven out in order to make way for the shops to be empty so that when Tottenham want to build their new football stadium, there will be no issues with driving local businesses out at the time, and therefore there will be no compulsory purchase orders that will need to be paid. For this reason I would go so far as to say that I think Tottenham Hotspurs are not actually adding to the local area in the same way that Arsenal are. For example, when Arsenal moved out of their old Highbury Stadium, they made sure that the stadium was renovated into nice apartments, the pitch was preserved, the art Deco facade of the building was preserved, and the pitch was turned into a very scenic garden. Substantial amount of student and affordable commendation flats were built within the area that actually provide something for the community, i.e. affordable housing, and community projects were prioritised. However, at present, with Tottenham Hotspurs, I cannot see anything that they have added to the area whatsoever, at least in terms of infrastructure and investment. There is a strip of land just of the north of the stadium where, conveniently, Tottenham plan to build a new stadium. This land has been sitting empty for many years . Are Tottenham Hotspurs keeping this land empty so that they can one day eventually use it? Just like the person who leaves his jacket on the seat in the pub, depriving anyone else a seat for a Saturday night in a packed pub, and then proceeds to come back three hours and complain that somebody has moved it and sat down, I can't help but feel that this sort of behaviour is quite selfish.

Could they not have leased the land out to the local community project in the meantime for very cheap or even for free? That way at least the community will have been able to benefit from the land in the intervening years, before the club decided to get its act together and build their new stadium. And on another note, it is quite surprising how it has taken so long to get this stadium off the ground. I would have thought that any football club within the London area would have quite a demand for sports, simply because London has so many residents who need to be entertained of a weekend. Let alone for a team that, for the first time in 25 years, is actually seen as a realistic threat to their north London rivals, as well as also being a team which, barring a catastrophic end of year collapse (which to be fair has happened a few times over the years) are pretty much guaranteed to have Champions League Football next season. Of course there will no doubt be reasons behind the scenes, but I suspect that if Tottenham Hotspur had built this stadium a few years ago, they could already have been reaping the benefits of doing so. And more importantly, the local residents could have been benefiting from brand-new infrastructure that would no doubt be put in place to help service the new stadium. The stadium is meant to be a big part of the area. As far as I can see, it IS the area. 

 

One of the other reasons why there are so few notes of interests in this part of Tottenham if any note was because of the massive abundance of industrial areas centered around Brentwood Road. And this is not to say this in a negative manner. I mean, my business is based on industrial estates, and industrial estates have moved on massively from the ones that characterised the Victorian era, with smoke billowing out, and men with sooty faces heading out to the pub at 5:15 PM, only to return to their wives, to impregnate them at gone midnight with a few shillings left over from there days wage. Now they are massive contributors to society, not only in Tottenham, but to London as a whole. Many companies have moved into Tottenham, no doubt to benefit from the vastly reduced land prices within the area, meaning that they can keep their profit margin suitably protected. Industrial estates provide a lot of employment within the area, and to this end they are very good. If you ever walked down Brentwood Road (and to be fair, there really isn't that much reason to...) then you will see car yards, cash-and-carry's, (particularly Chinese cash-and-carry's), and manufacturing factories as far as the eye can see. There seem to be quite a few scrapyards based around this area, as well as shops that are both foreign owned and aimed at a specific foreign clientele (i.e. Polish/Lithuanian shops etc). So pretty boring, in one way, but then this is where Tottenham has a small gem.

As I mentioned, there seem to be quite a few Chinese food distribution centres that are based here. In fact, if you were to look at quite a few packets of some of the popular brand Chinese foods that are in sale in many mainstream supermarkets, many of them seem to have their distribution centre based in the White Hart Lane area of Tottenham. So you may think, "Well, to be fair, I don't really eat Chinese food that much that I need to go to a distribution centre..." Well, there are other benefits to it. Many of the Chinese takeaways in the area are of a much higher quality than you would ever expect. Best of all, they are significantly cheaper than Chinese takeaways in any other areas. It's quite logical really, as they are only based about half a mile or so away from the distribution centre, meaning they can buy their stock in quantities that are much smaller, at the same price, instead of going to the distribution centre once a month and getting a massive order. Instead, they can go, for example, 15 times a month and get lots of smaller orders. So they still spend enough money to benefit from the cheaper prices that the cash-and-carry can offer, but it also means that they have less transport costs, as well as having less overheads as they are in one of the cheapest areas in London, and the food they have is fresher. If you are a vegetarian especially, the quality of Tofu/bean curd is way beyond anything you would get anywhere other than Chinatown. For example, there is a Chinese takeaway called PeSing (" stop laughing at the back please......") that, the last time I went there in approximately 2010, were still being able to serve people for £3.95 for a Chicken in Black Bean Sauce and Egg Fried Rice. The portion was plenty big enough to feed a person with even the most hearty appetite, and it was,(speaking as somebody who has tried about 50 different Chinese takeaways across the whole capital), to this day one of the best Chinese takeaways I have had. I wouldn't recommend you go to the area just to use it, but if you did find yourself in the area then you would be silly not to.Some of the other shops sell some amazing food that you will not find elsewhere, especially the Eastern European shops. 

So what I would say to Tottenham Hotspur is that the new stadium is desperately needed in order to revitalise the area. The fact that they even entertained the thought of leaving the borough and instead going to Stratford to use the Olympic stadium - Well, that lost me a lot of respect for them. I hope that they finalise and complete the project as soon as they possibly can, because it is desperately needed. It is also worth nothing, unfortunately, that the crime statistics show that the area has a higher rate of crime than other areas within Tottenham, especially late at night, although this has improved over recent years, but it is still worth mentioning.   But as opposed to this blog post being about how other parts of the area of Tottenham are so much better, instead it should be about how much fantastic potential this area has.   Mark my words, if they decided to build a proper tube line, or a train line run by the government here, the place would shoot up in popularity, which would likely bring with it a similar boost to the area in terms of investment, regeneration and property values.   Maybe now is the time to pub some smart money into the area.  After all, it is not as if the prices can fall any lower, surely..........?


The Best Parts:
Cheap properties
If you're a football fan...
Chinese Takeaways

Room For Improvement 
Transport links
More things to do in the area


           Eversheds Sutherland Baltic Law Offices are Nasdaq Baltic First North Certified Advisors        
Eversheds Sutherland Bitans (Latvia), Eversheds Sutherland Ots & Co (Estonia) and Eversheds Saladžius (Lithuania) are now Certified Advisers on the First North Market in Baltics. Certified Adviser’s role is to guide growth companies throug...
          Ð¯ тебе кохаю        
Afrikaans - Ek is lief vir jou!
Albanian - Te dua!
Amharic - Afekrishalehou!
Arabic - Ohiboke (m to f), Nohiboka (f to m, or m to m)
Armenian - Yes kez si'rumem!
Azerbaijan - Mjan sjan sevirirjam
Basque - Maite zaitut!
Bengali - Ami tomake bahlobashi!
Bosnian - Volim te!
Bulgarian - Obicham te!
Catalan - T'estimo!
Creole - Mi aime jou!
Croatian - Volim te!
Czech - Miluji tev!
Danish - Jeg elsker dig!
Dutch - Ik hou van je!
English - I love you!
Esperanto - Mi amas vin!
Estonian - Mina armastan sind!
Farsi - Tora dost daram!
Filipino - Iniibig kita!
Finnish - (Ma) rakastan sua!
French - Je t'aime!
Frisian - Ik hald fan dei!
Galician - Querote!
German - Ich liebe dich!
Greek - S'ayapo!
Gujarati - Hoon tane pyar karoochhoon! tane chaahuN chhuN!
Hawaiian - Aloha wau ia 'oe!
Hebrew - Anee ohev otakh (m to f), Anee ohevet otkha (f to m), Anee ohev otkha (m to m), Anee ohevet otakh (f to f)
Hindi - Mai tumase pyar karata hun (m to f), Mai tumase pyar karati hun (f to m)
Hungarian - Szeretlek!
Icelandic - Eg elska thig!
Indonesian - Saya cinta padamu!
Irish - t'a gr'a agam dhuit!
Italian - Ti amo!
Japanese - Kimi o ai shiteru!
Korean - Dangsinul saranghee yo!
Latin - Te amo!
Latvian - Es tevi milu!
Lithuanian - As tave myliu!
Malaysian - Saya cintamu!
Mandarin - Wo ai ni!
Marshallese - Yokwe Yuk!
Norwegian - Jeg elsker deg!
Polish - Kocham ciebie!
Portuguese - Eu te amo!
Romanian - Te iubesc!
Russian - Ya tyebya lyublyu!
Sanskrit - twayi snihyaami
Serbian - Volim te!
Sesotho - Kiyahurata!
Slovak - Lubim ta!
Slovenian - Ljubim te!
Spanish - Te quiero!
Swahili - Nakupenda!
Swedish - Jag alskar dig!
Tagalog - Mahal kita!
Thai - Phom rug khun (Male speaker) Chan rug khun (Female speaker)
Turkish - Seni seviyorum!
Ukrainian - Ya tebe kokhayu!
Urdu - Main tumse muhabbat karta hoon!
Vietnamese - Anh yeu em (m to f), Em yeu an (f to m)
Welsh - Rwy'n dy garu di!
Yiddish - Kh'hob dikh lib!
Zulu - Ngiyakuthanda!




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           Labour migration, national identity and basketball: the acculturation experiences of the Lithuanian Diaspora in the east of England         
Piggott, David and Evans, Adam (2013) Labour migration, national identity and basketball: the acculturation experiences of the Lithuanian Diaspora in the east of England. In: World Congress of Sociology of Sport 2013, 12-15th June 2013, Vancouver, British Columbia.
          Summer Garden Update        

Chloe sitting in the new garden with the lettuce & carrots behind her.  It's great to see her take an active interest in the veggie plot, she loves to water, weed & of course harvest the goods.


This is the new plot, its coming along slowly but pretty much everything has at least sprouted, now we just have to wait for things to get bigger & see if they produce well.


Some lettuce & heirloom carrots, all coming along nicely & before I know it we will be picking the lettuce, this will be the first thing we harvest from the garden this summer


Beans with the potato crop in the rear, going nuts!  I'm a good Polish/Lithuanian girl so love my spuds, hope there are millions under the dirt


Asparagus slowly appearing, a couple of years before I get to taste this bed


Four different tomato varieties, spring onions & leeks in the rear

I have the rain, now I need some sun so all of these babies can grow, grow, grow...

          European Commission issues "black list" of 30 "tax havens"        


Action Plan on Corporate Taxation

On 17 June 2015, the Commission adopted an Action Planpdf Choose translations of the previous link for fair and efficient corporate taxation in the EU.
The Action Plan sets to reform the corporate tax framework in the EU, in order to tackle tax abuse, ensure sustainable revenues and support a better business environment in the Single Market.
See the timelinepdf. 

5 Key Areas for Action have been identified:

1. Re-launching the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB)
2. Ensuring fair taxation where profits are generated
3. Creating a better business environment
4. Increasing transparency
5. Improving EU coordination 
map of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions has also been published, in a move to reinforce the EU's response to external threats to Member States' tax bases.
The Commission also adopted a decision to prolong the Platform on Tax Good Governance, and revise its scope and working methods.
For further information


The map was drawn up on the basis of work done by the Platform for Tax Good Governance and the information provided by EU Member States.

Top 30 listed countries: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Guernsey, Monaco, Mauritius, Liberia, Seychelles, Brunei, Hong Kong, Maldives, Cook Islands, Nauru, Niue, Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, Panama, St Vincent and the Grenadines, St Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, US Virgin Islands.

Panama is listed by Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain.

Full text in the European Commission website http://ec.europa.eu/





          Discovery Finalizes Roster for 2007        
Here it is:
Ivan Basso (Italy) *
Fumiyuki Beppu (Japan)
Volodymyr Bileka (Ukraine)
Jani Brajkovic (Slovenia)
Alberto Contador (Spain) *
Tony Cruz (USA) *
Steve Cummings (Great Britain) *
Tom Danielson (USA)
John Devine (USA) *
Stijn Devolder (Belgium)
Vladimir Gusev (Russia)
George Hincapie (USA)
Fuyu Li (China) *
Levi Leipheimer (USA) *
Trent Lowe (Australia)
Egoi Martinez (Spain)
Jason McCartney (USA)
Gianni Meersman (Belgium) *
Uros Murn (Slovenia) *
Benjamin Noval (Spain)
Pavel Padrnos (Czech Republic)
Sergio Paulinho (Portugal) *
Yaroslav Popovych (Ukraine)
Chechu Rubiera (Spain)
Tomas Vaitkus (Lithuania) *
Brian Vandborg (Denmark) *
Jurgen Van Goolen (Belgium)
Matt White (Australia)

* = new to the team in 2007

          Lithuania Orders RBS 70 Simulators        
Defence and security company Saab has received an order for RBS 70 simulators from the Lithuanian Armed Forces. Deliveries will take place during 2018. The Lithuanian Armed Forces have been an RBS 70 customer since 2004. In order to further strengthen their air defence capability, an order for simulators has been placed with Saab. Included in the contract are simulators, training services and spare parts. Saab will work together with the Lithuanian-based Baltic Institute of Advanced Technol...
          Hot buns full of heresy        

Last year's holy buns (photo by Fiona Beckett)


This year's hot cross loaf (the buns were all snaffled up before photos could be taken)

Being of Norwegian-Irish-Scottish-Jewish-Lithuanian-German extraction I've stopped crossing my buns.

What inspired such subversive behaviour in the week leading to Easter? Misplacing my piping bags. And out of sheer laziness I decided to forego making my own piping bag from silicone paper and just skipped the wobbly white crosses altogether this year. Not Cross Buns taste just the same as Hot Cross Buns, and come to think of it a pinch of heretical cardamom made its way into this spiced spelt dough. Hot cross bun purists will tut and shake their heads but I go by what tastes good, not some arbitrary notion of culinary tradition. Besides M&S are putting apples and cranberries in their buns so I'll stick to my cardamom thank you very much.

Anyway! These slow-fermented Not Crossed but rather tasty buns are suitable for lazy Sunday breakfasts so I hope you'll give them a whirl, with or without the crosses, the spelt, the cardamom...

Not cross buns (adapted from the Leiths bible standard hot cross bun recipe)

Ingredients:

200ml milk, scalded (ie, brought to boiling point and then allowed to cool)
85g butter
300g refined spelt flour
150g wholemeal spelt flour
55g caster
1/2 tsp salt (1 tsp if using unsalted butter)
1 generous teaspoon mixed spice
1 tsp cinnamon
1/2 tsp cardamom (not strictly kosher but who cares)
20g fresh yeast or 7g sachet dried yeast
2 medium eggs, lightly beaten
100g sultanas

Method:

I slow ferment this dough overnight before baking off the buns/loaf. You can of course make them in a few hours but I find the slow fermentation adds a complex flavour and reputedly the slower the fermentation the more digestible the buns or loaf...

First, scald the milk along with the butter and cool to less than 50°C. Above 50°C and the heat will kill off the yeast so if you don't have a digital thermometer stick your finger in and the milk should feel lukewarm but not hot.

Meanwhile sift the flours, spice, salt and sugar in a large bowl. If using dried active yeast add it at this stage. If using fresh yeast, mix with 1 teaspoon of sugar in a small bowl. It should dissolve after a few minutes, and foam slightly - this is a sign the yeast is active. A good sign!

When the milk has cooled sufficiently, make a well in the centre of the dried ingredients and add the milk, butter, eggs, and (if using) fresh yeast.

Stir through and bring together with a large spoon. The great thing about spelt is it doesn't require much kneading. The dough should be quite sticky but simply stir through with your spoon for 5 minutes. You should see the dough become pliable and a little stretchy from the gluten strands forming.

Place the dough in a lightly oiled bowl, large enough to allow the dough to double in size, and then cover with oiled clingfilm and refrigerate for 12-18 hours, depending on when you're ready to bake the buns.

When the time comes to start shaping the dough into buns, take the dough out of the fridge and allow it to 'come to' temperature. Ie, let it warm up for 1 hour.

Meanwhile, soak the raisins in enough water to cover and drain the excess liquid off after 15 minutes.

Roll your dough out into a rough square or rectangle shape and scatter the raisins over. Bring the dough together like a parcel, sealing it off, and then just give it a couple of kneads to seal the dough and make sure the raisins haven't all clumped in one section of the dough.

Using a sharp un-serrated knife, slice the dough into 12-16 bun shapes of equal size. I weigh mine to 60g portions so they all bake evenly but you don't have to be as fastidious a fuss-pot as me.

Roll the buns into as round shapes as you can by gripping each bun in the palm of your hand, cupping your whole hand over it and then swirling around on your work surface in tight circles for a few seconds. This creates a tight;y structured bun and a round, even shape. I found I had too much dough to make buns for one tray to fit in my small oven so the remaining quarter of the dough I shaped into a mini loaf and baked after the buns were finished.

Place the shaped buns a couple of centimetres apart on the baking sheet and cover with a sheet of oiled clingfilm on top, allowing the buns to double in size in a warm place. This should take 30-40 minutes, but keep checking after 25 minutes. The buns will be ready to bake when you poke one and the imprint of your finger remains, ie. it doesn't spring back.

Finally, preheat the oven to 220°C. Brush each bun with a little milk - this will help to make a soft crust when the buns bake.

Place the baking sheet on an upper-middle shelf of the oven and turn the heat down to 200°C after 5 minutes, bake a further 15 minutes. Keep an eye on them so they don't burn. The buns will be done when they're golden brown, and sound hollow when you tap them. For the loaf allow an extra 10-15 minutes depending on the size of the loaf.

That's all there is to it. Freeze the buns or loaf for future use as they refresh really well in a 150°C oven for 10 minutes...
          Economic and Geo-Political Prognosis for 2015        

Paper No. 5856                                 Dated 12-Jan-2015

Guest Column by Dr. Rajesh Tembarai Krishnamachari and Srividya Kannan Ramachandran

Abstract:

The re-moderation of the world economy set in place over the past few years continues apace. Notwithstanding some lasting damage on the supply side through the 2008 recessionary trough, our outlook for 2015 is bullish weighing more on optimistic data trends than on continued negative sentiment proffered from some analyst quarters.

Around the world in 80 (or more) words:

Treating the ten-year US Treasury bond yield as a proxy indicator for that nation's nominal GDP growth, we anticipate United States to grow around 3% next year.[1] While this does not mark a return to the buoyant 90s, it is better than the secular stagnation hypothesized earlier in 2014.[2] With US acting as an engine to spur growth, the world economy should also expand by more than 3%.[3] Stability across the world will be maintained – as sparks without a concomitant fury will characterize both overt (e.g. Russia-West over Ukraine) and covert (e.g. China-Japan over Senkaku) animosities.[4] European stagnation from debt and unemployment will be counterbalanced through quantitative easing by the European Central Bank.[5] Similar action in Japan will display the limits of Abe-nomics.[6] China will prepare for a structural slowdown emphasizing domestic consumption and de-leveraging an over-heated financial sector; all the while growing at a 7% rate that will amaze rivals around the world.[7] Indian reform, even if inadequate, will boost the middle classes and reinforce confidence in the Modi government.[8] African countries will find their commodity boom dissipate and ease of borrowing decline as commodity prices fall and yields rise in the developed world.[9]

Continental tectonics:

a. North America:

Economic benefits arising from the exploitation of shale gas have not only silenced the anti-fracking environmentalists, they have altered the strategic world-view of Washington politicians.[10] As US aims to overtake even Saudi Arabia in oil/NGL production in 2015 (and the Saudis pull out all stops in preventing it by driving crude prices down), it has markedly reduced its role as a global policeman.[11] Its own economy is on the mend even as a lame-duck president will be boggled down with partisan grid-lock. Markets will fret about the mid-year (or earlier?) hike in interest rates; though Main Street - aided by a strong dollar - will likely shrug it off with a continued upward movement across different sectors.[12]

Mexico and Canada will benefit from their tight coupling with the United States.[13] Enrique Pena Nieto will claim credit for reforming the Mexican economy – across sectors as diverse as energy and telecom.[14] Pemex, dear to the Mexicans, will face some competition, though nothing remotely similar to the American acquisition of Tim Hortons – dear to the Canadians – will happen.[15] Up north, the Canadian elections in 2015 will reveal whether the country has reverted to its liberal propensities or sticks with Harper's conservative agenda.[16]

b. Latin and South America:

The outlook is disappointing across much of the region. Run-away inflation hammers Argentina and Venezuela; milder ill-effects bedevil Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay.[17] The Maduro regime in Venezuela and the Kirchner government in Argentina continue to flirt with disaster as their GDP growths slip and mass discontent builds up.[18] Dilma Rousseff has stabilized her position electorally, though her policies continue to disappoint investors and have the potential to reignite sudden protests like the 2013 bus-fare protests.[19] Dependence on commodity exports in a time of declining prices does not portend well for any of the South American states, including Brazil.[20] On a positive note, Cuba – already expected by analysts to grow by close to 4% next year – will see a boost to its fortunes accruing from a thaw in relations with US under Obama.[21]

c. Africa:

African nations had a great run in the past few years. This arose not only from the boom in commodity prices but also from the need for yield amongst DM (developed market) investors resulting in investment in both corporate and public African bonds.[22] In 2015, these factors could dissipate which will place pressure on countries like Angola where household spending has risen more than 4000% since the start of the millennium.[23] Ethiopia and Kenya are expected to continue on a robust growth path.[24] Contradictions abound within Africa, and nowhere are they more visible than in Nigeria. While the northern part struggles under the oppression of Boko Haram, the southern part booms under Goodluck Jonathan's president-ship.[25] In neighboring South Sudan, one is reminded of the risk-reward payoff as the nation widely tipped to experience spectacular growth in 2014, got mired in conflict, with the consequent dissipation of growth potential.[26]

American intervention in Libya undermined the Gaddafi-imposed order and has led to a civil war between the Islamist and secularist factions which will hold back that nation in the coming year.[27] A more benign intervention was that of the French in Mali in 2013; we expect more calls for Hollande's assistance in 2015.[28] El Sisi has stabilized Egypt after the Muslim Brotherhood interlude in the post-Mubarak era. Though more brutal than Mubarak, the El Sisi regime is being propped by both the Americans and Saudis, leading us to expect the recent bull run in Egyptian markets to continue.[29] ANC rule in South Africa continues unimpeded. Though atrophied by many scandals, the rule should produce close to 3% growth in the coming year.[30]

d. Middle East:

The region continues to be a cesspool of ethno-sectarian rivalries as the century-old Sykes-Pikot agreement unravels.[31] Recep Erdogan has stabilized Turkey and should reap a growth on par with other emerging economies.[32] Erdogan's external actions driven by AKP's crypto-desire to establish a caliphate will see him prop the Islamic State (IS) just so that it can damage Shia and Kurdish interests; but not enough to threaten his own Sunni hegemonic plans.[33] The Saudi establishment has focused on the removal of the Muslim brotherhood threat; now they will focus on limiting Shia Iranian influence by keeping crude prices low.[34] Western companies made a beeline to Iran in 2014 in hope of an impending thaw; much will depend on the negotiation ability of the Rouhani establishment on the sanction front.[35] Dubai and Israel remain insulated from the turmoil around and could reap the benefit of the uptick in the world economy.[36] The risk of sudden flare-ups like the 2014 Gaza war continue to remain on the Israeli radar.

e. Asia and Australia:

The Asian political scene is remarkably stable with China, Japan and India looking inward to stabilize their economies under the leadership of Xi Jinping, Shinzo Abe and Narendra Modi, respectively. Some events have gone unnoticed by world media – for example, China starts the year of the goat as the world's largest economy when measured in PPP terms and for the first time ever, Chinese outbound investments could exceed those inbound.[37] The establishment of China on the world stage has made Xi stronger than any Chinese leader in recent memory bar Chairman Mao himself. The Abe regime will continue on its reformist route of bringing Japan out of the deflationary zone, while winking at nationalist sentiment calling for a re-interpretation of the country's post-war pacifist role.[38] Down south in India, Modi has surprised both supporters and detractors alike by his middle-path approach to reforming the economy and his zealous interest in foreign policy. While reforming cautiously, he has not removed the populist schemes of the previous government. 2015 will see him act unimpeded by local elections (other than in Bihar) and will prove to be a litmus test of his claims of good governance.[39]

Afghanistan under Ashraf Ghani will face more trouble from Taliban as US adopts the Pakistani classification into good versus bad Taliban.[40] In nearby Pakistan, the wildly popular Imran Khan - with some help, perhaps, from the deep state – will challenge the established parties in their home turfs.[41] In Indonesia, Jake Widodo has come to power with Imran Khan-type support amongst the youth, and he will be hard-pressed to implement his reformist agenda – including reducing fuel subsidies – amidst persistent opposition from entrenched interests.[42] ASEAN will continue to slip on its stated intentions for closer cooperation.[43] Australia will try to balance its strategic partnership with the United States with economic dalliances with the Chinese.[44]

f. Europe and Russia:

Vladimir Putin will be emboldened by the short-term rise in domestic popularity; and hence ignore the longer-term implications of his intervention in Ukraine.[45] Tighter coupling with Kazakhstan and Belarus will not prevent what is likely to be a low-growth and high-inflation year for the Russians.[46] Europe as a whole continues to underperform, and it will be most visible in France and Italy both of whom might record less than 1% growth in GDP. With the Trierweller-Gayet saga behind his back, Francois Hollande will attempt to rein in a deficit running at close to 4% of GDP. Even with help from ECB's quantitative easing program, there is little expectation that Hollande can avoid being the most unpopular leader amongst all western democracies.[47] In Italy, high debt and unemployment – exemplified by the statistic of four-fifths of Italians between the ages of 20-31 living with parents – will hamper any efforts Matteo Renzi might take to pull the economy out of its doldrums.[48]

The Greeks might look forward to a better year, especially when juxtaposed against their recent past. On the back of painful reforms, the Greek economy is widely anticipated to commence its long journey back to health, though there might be recurrent political scares and recalcitrant rumors of a Greek exit.[49] The German government will be buffeted by opposing demands – external calls for a more interventionist role in stabilizing the world economy and internal ones for tempering the same. Cautious progress on the fiscal front will lead to modest GDP growth.[50] Ironically, the European nations with best GDP growth projections are also the ones with the highest exposure to Putin's misadventures, viz. Poland, Latvia and Lithuania.[51]

Sectors and segments:

Having dropped significantly in the past few months, the level of oil prices affects the prospects for many industry sectors in 2015.  Oil is typically expected to revert to the mean because a lower oil price has discernible impact on both supply (by discouraging investment in its production and distribution) and demand (by boosting economic activity) sides.[52] The speed of such mean-reversion remains unclear. Russia, Iran and US shale producers (esp. those who are not based at strategic locations) suffer disproportionally more than the Saudi establishment at current price levels.[53] Lower oil prices will provide a fillip to consumer discretionary industries and airlines; and have an adverse impact on railroad (benefiting from oil transportation) and petrochemical companies. The shale gas boom - apart from increasing housing activity - is also the prime driver behind growth in the US steel and construction material sectors; consequently both the steel and construction sectors will remain susceptible to crude movements.[54]

Low interest rates and low macro-growth prospects will induce companies with excess cash to acquire other companies to report earnings growth. That trend will be apparent in companies transacting in sectors as diverse as healthcare, industrials, semiconductors, software and materials.[55] On another side of investment banks, trading desks will see higher market volatility as major powers pursue divergent paths to monetary policy (e.g. US against EU/Japan).[56] In US, regulatory obligations increasing cost of capital for holding certain securities might lead to decreased broker liquidity.[57] 2015 shall see the big banks grapple with the regulations in Basel III and Volcker; one expects regulatory push towards vanilla deposit-taking and lending to continue.[58] Analysts will hope that stronger balance sheets coupled with a return to profitability lead to increased dividend payout for investors in financial stocks. China will seek to tame its overheated financial sector amidst a structural slowdown[59], and India will see RBI governor Raghuram Rajan continue his battle against political interference in corporate lending.[60] Wealth management services will perform remarkably well not only in China, but also to a lesser extent in US as a rising market creates wealth and a retiring baby-boomer crowd seeks to couple low risk with acceptable return.[61] In the arena of mobile payment, Apple Pay will try to avoid the lackluster performance of earlier attempts like Google Wallet.[62]

Lower gasoline prices and an accompanying increase in disposable income (through wealth creation at the markets, increased home values, reduced unemployment and improved economic activity) creates a positive outlook for the consumer discretionary sector. Companies dealing with organic farming benefit from increased health consciousness; the market for yoga will continue to rise as 2014 saw the UN declare a world yoga day on Modi's initiative.[63] Even as DVDs and Blue-rays fall, digital film subscriptions and on-demand internet steaming will rise to please Hollywood.[64] Bollywood will get over its obsession with INR 100 crore revenues as movies will cross that level more frequently.[65]  With supply level of hotels remaining the same as few years back, revenue per room will rise across the sector.[66] Tighter access to credit continues to hamper the rise in existing house sales, which nevertheless should improve over the past year.[67] Asian apparel manufacturers continue to improve their market share in the fast fashion market.[68]  October 2015 will see Europeans benefit from the eCall service in all their new cars, which allows a car to immediately report details to the base-stations on any accident. New carbon-emission standards also come into force in Europe; even elsewhere the move towards higher efficiency in cars will continue.[69] Widodo will be pleased at the growth in automobile sales in Indonesia, which should exceed those of other major markets.[70] Internet advertising is rising faster than television commercials, though 2015 will still see the latter dominate the former in overall revenue generated.[71] Privacy concerns continue to erode on the social media front.[72] The newspaper industry will see increased number of advertorials re-packaged as "native advertising" by which companies will pay for advertisements to be written as paid newspaper article.[73]

In India, the BJP government is yet to clarify its position on foreign direct investment in retail.[74] Irrespective of its final decision, retail sales should surge sharply upward there as the consummation of pent-up demand of past few years couples with the thriving of 'mall culture' in middle-tier cities. China will also see an increase in retail sales inspite of its investigation in to WalMart.[75] The anti-corruption campaign though will negatively impact luxury good sales as well as those of higher-end automobiles there[76]. A strong dollar will affect US companies with significant operations abroad. Wheat production might match 2014 record volumes in Europe[77]; though more newsprint will probably be devoted to higher prices of cocoa from Ivory Coast.[78] Idiosyncrasies of local markets will shine as Dubai invests in large-scale brick and mortal malls, while Manhattan gets more of its groceries delivered at home steps.[79]

Demand for energy should rise at the same pace as the world GDP next year. Analysts will point at attractive valuations of oil companies.[80] If shale price remains attractive, Sabine Pass in Louisiana will emerge as the first plant in US to export LNG.[81] Four years after the Fukushima incident, Japan will see nuclear reactors back in operation at Sendai.[82]

2014 saw the denizens of the developed world fret about Ebola, breast cancer (through a campaign by actor Angelina Jolie) and ALS (through the ice bucket challenge).[83] Overall, health spending will comfortably outpace the rate of growth of the overall economy. Long-term secular trends driving this are the aging population in the western world (with the population pyramid replaced by a population dome) and an emerging middle class elsewhere with increasing demand for improved access to healthcare.[84] Universal healthcare has been promised for all in India, which should drive up healthcare expenditure by a significant amount there.[85] In 2015, large US companies are mandated under Obama-care to provide insurance to more than 70% of their eligible workforce.[86] Uncertainty on US healthcare reform and debate thereon may cause short-term price volatility. Millennial Development Goals will reviewed by the UN later in the year with a new set of goalposts announced for countries to be met by 2030; different NGOs will campaign vigorously through media to get their pet agendas included in the final list.[87]

Transportation companies will report higher earnings from increased economic activity.[88] Apart from some airlines which have suffered reputation damage through recurring accidents, airline companies will benefit from the reduced oil prices. Defense industry will see robust growth in China, as "Chi-America" remains no more a chimera.[89] Alarmed by this increase, Vietnam with Philippines will move within the US ambit and Australia will seek to join the tripartite naval exercises in the Indian Ocean between US, Japan and India.[90] Tensions in Eastern Europe and the middle-east will favor increases in expenditure across the region. The nationalist government in India will increase defense expenditure sharply even as it moves beyond lip-service on the long-standing issue of indigenization of defense manufacturing.[91]

The mantra of social-local-mobile (SoLoMo in tech jargon) continues to drive the consumer markets division of information technology companies.[92] Expenditure on IT hardware is significantly retarded by the increasing move to cloud computing.[93] The move to cloud computing - along with increasing use of mobile commerce - bodes well for the computer security business.[94] India should see a sharp increase in smart phone adoption; elsewhere tablet computers will rise against laptop and desktops.[95] Embedded systems coupled with rudimentary networking will be marketed as an all-encompassing internet of things as the era of big data continues.[96]  Today, a single family in US places more demands on data flow than the entire planet did a decade back; and even this data rate is expected to increase by a whopping 70% over the next year. Consolidation in the cable sector (e.g Comcast with Time Warner Cable) and the convergence of content with distribution (e.g. AT&T with DirectTV) are two trends that should continue on from 2014.[97] Even as Indians will talk about 3G coverage spanning the nation; Americans will tweet about 4G price warfare and the Chinese will see ZTE unveil a 5G prototype.[98] Facebook will have more users than China has human beings.[99] Analysts will harp about impact of interest-rate hikes on high dividend paying telecom stocks.[100] Apart from the financial industry, telecom will emerge as an industry most impacted by federal regulation across the globe.

The anthropologist Edward Weyer once compared the future to being akin to a "corridor into which we can see only through the light coming from behind".  It is in that sense that we have analyzed the data of the bygone year and tried to extrapolate into the days and months ahead. And when some are falsified - and falsified, some will be - then we shall lay credit for the same at the feet of those responsible - viz. us, the people.

[The authors are based in New York City, and can be contacted through email at tkrajesh@gmail.com and srivi019@gmail.com. The views represented above are personal and do not in any manner reflect those of the institutions affiliated with the authors.]

References


[1] See the graph titled "10 year bond yield: annual change and real GDP: annual % change" at http://www.swcollege.com/bef/econ_data/bond_yield/bond_yield_data.html.

[2] "Secular stagnation: facts, causes and cures", a VoxEU eBook at  http://www.voxeu.org/sites/default/files/Vox_secular_stagnation.pdf.

[4] A brief historical perspective on the Russia-Ukraine conflict is at http://www.summer.harvard.edu/blog-news-events/conflict-ukraine-historical-perspective.

The Economist magazine summarizes the debate over Senkaku islands at http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/12/economist-explains-1.

[5] “The ECB, demigods and eurozone quantitative easing” at http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/c90dd466-7bb4-11e4-a695-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3NIKpG2Fx.

[6] “Bank of Japan announces more quantitative easing: the next chapter in Abenomics” at http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonhartley/2014/11/02/bank-of-japan-announces-more-quantitative-easing-the-next-chapter-in-abenomics/.

[7] “World Bank urges China to cut economic growth target to seven percent in 2015, focus on reforms” at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/10/29/us-china-worldbank-idUSKBN0II05P20141029.

[8] “Reforms by PM Narendra Modi will help India to grow 5.5% this year, 6.3% next year: ADB” at http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-12-17/news/57154602_1_cent-the-adb-growth-forecast.

[10] “The experts: how the US oil boom will change the markets and geopolitics”, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324105204578382690249436084

[13] “Economic growth patterns in USA, Canada, Mexico and China” at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dominik-knoll/economic-growth-patterns-_b_5832182.html.

[14] “Mexican president Pena Nieto's ratings slip with economic reform” at http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/08/26/mexican-president-pena-nietos-ratings-slip-with-economic-reform/.

[17] “Andres Oppenheimer: Latin America's forecast for 2015: not good” at http://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/news-columns-blogs/andres-oppenheimer/article2503660.html.

[18] “Maduro blames plunging oil prices on US war vs Russia, Venezuela” at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/12/30/us-venezuela-oil-idUSKBN0K802020141230 and “What's in store for post-Kirchner Argentina” at http://globalriskinsights.com/2014/12/whats-store-post-kirchner-argentina/

[19] “Brazil economists cut 2015 growth forecast to slowest on record” at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-08-11/brazil-economists-cut-2015-growth-forecast-to-slowest-on-record.html

[20] “Economic snapshot for Latin America” at http://www.focus-economics.com/regions/latin-america.

[21] “Cuba, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico business forecast report Q1 2015” at http://www.marketresearch.com/Business-Monitor-International-v304/Cuba-Dominican-Republic-Puerto-Rico-8538079/ and “Obama's Cuba move is Florida's top story for 2014” at http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/29/obamas-cuba-move-is-floridas-top-story-of-2014/.

[24] “Ethiopia overview” at  http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ethiopia/overview and “Kenya overview” at http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/kenya/overview.

[26] “Internal violence in South Sudan” at http://www.cfr.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/?marker=33.

[27] “Political instability in Libya” at http://www.cfr.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/?marker=14.

[28] “The regional impact of the armed conflict and French intervention in Mali” at http://www.peacebuilding.no/var/ezflow_site/storage/original/application/f18726c3338e39049bd4d554d4a22c36.pdf.

[29] “EGX head optimistic on equities as Egyptian economy recovers” at http://www.thenational.ae/business/markets/egx-head-optimistic-on-equities-as-egyptian-economy-recovers.

[30] “Economy - outlook for 2015 dismal, despite boost” at http://mg.co.za/article/2014-11-25-economy-outlook-for-2015-not-encouraging-despite-boost.

[31] “Pre-state Israel: The Sykes-Picot agreement” at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/sykes_pico.html.

[32] “Turkey - economic forecast summary (Nov 2014)” at http://www.oecd.org/economy/turkey-economic-forecast-summary.htm.

[34] “Saudi-Iranian relations since the fall of Saddam” at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG840.html.

[36] “Dubai 2015 cross sector business outlook extremely bullish” at http://ameinfo.com/blog/mentors/c/capital-club/dubai-2015-cross-sector-business-outlook-extremely-bullish/ and “Israel - economic forecast summary (Nov 2014)” at http://www.oecd.org/economy/israel-economic-forecast-summary.htm.

[37] “China's leap forward: overtaking the US as world's biggest economy” at http://blogs.ft.com/ftdata/2014/10/08/chinas-leap-forward-overtaking-the-us-as-worlds-biggest-economy/.

[38] “Understanding Shinzo Abe and Japanese nationalism” at http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2014/05/26/understanding-shinzo-abe-and-japanese-nationalism/.

[39] Book: “Getting India back on track: an action agenda for reform” edited by B. Debroy, A. J. Tellis and R. Trevor.

[40] “US may not target Mullah Omar after this year" at http://www.dawn.com/news/1152382.

[41] “The rise and rise of Kaptaan” at http://tribune.com.pk/story/800722/the-rise-and-rise-of-kaptaan/.

[42] “Widodo launches reform agenda with fuel price hike” at http://www.focus-economics.com/news/indonesia/fiscal/widodo-launches-reform-agenda-fuel-price-hike.

[43] “ASEAN's elusive integration” at http://opinion.inquirer.net/74164/aseans-elusive-integration.

[46] “Russia's economics ministry downgrades 2015 oil price forecast to $80 per barrel” at http://itar-tass.com/en/economy/764662.

[47] “Hollande popularity plumbs new low in mid-term French poll” at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/06/us-france-hollande-idUSKBN0IQ14R20141106.

          Polish Eagle        

See t-shirts with this design.

A white eagle is the symbol of Poland because the nation's legendary founder Lech saw a white eagle in a nest bathed in the light of the sun and chose to settle and make a home for himself on that spot. He named the place Gniezdno from the Polish word gniazdo meaning nest.

The white eagle was first used on the Polish coat of arms during the thirteenth century. During the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the eagle was quartered with the Lithuanian coat of arms. Under communist rule, the white eagle remained as the coat of arms, but the crown was removed. After the fall of the Communist government in 1989, the crown was restored.

The red shield in this design is made up of words from a poem by the famous Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz
          Comment on Stoq 1.2 by Domas        
Hi, Stoq seems to be one of few systems for small businesses that is worth a look. I will describe first encounter wiht Stoq from the perspective of Lithuanian business. First of all, the installation procedure is not easy to find out. I have read the README file, went through the online documentation and still didn't find how to start working with the program. What I needed: <code>su postgres stoqcreatedbuser domas exit</code> And PostgreSQL must use <b>5432</b> port as I haven't found how to change the port in Stoq. Stoq allows manual configuration of DB but I haven't found a way to create Stoq users and could not login until I changed the PostgreSQL port to the default one and used the wizard. Then I was asked for a local Brazilian company code? that was validated and I had to search for one on the Internet because I haven't one. I used 90.117.749/7654-80 to be able to continue. Secondly, when I was able to login to Stoq I got "Administrative" window without any clues how to do any operation like a sale or a purchase. Then I found File>New>Window option which opened the view that I wanted to see. Finally, I created a sale. I haven't found a way to make it past quotation status and compete it. At that point I suspended my trial. Overall, while Stoq is not very usable in Lithuania at the moment due to foreign program's nature, Stoq GUI is simple and should be easily extended. I believe Stoq's GUI is the main strength as other business software is focused on features and not on design. P.S. ReportLab PDF library you use for various reports does not support Unicode fonts by default so I got empty squares instead of Lithuanian characters that were saved to the DB correctly. This can be solved be using TrueType fonts that include more characters.
          Where have you BEEN!??        
Oh, hi there!
This may have been the single longest blogging hiatus in my humble blogging history.
Sorry 'bout that!

July... we had an extra baby friend visiting while my friends were in Lithuania bringing home their newest baby boy! He was with us for 18 days and was absolutely the most adorable distraction to everything else I probably should have been doing!

Also in July we found a house to buy! As soon as my sweet baby friend's mommy and daddy came home we started packing and we moved August 2nd!

The first two weeks of August were unpacking here and cleaning/painting/repairing at the other house to get it on the market, which happened mid-month, and then in testimony to the amount of hours spent cleaning/painting/repairing at the old house... we were under contract in 11 days! Woohoooo!

Also noteworthy...
We (hello, my name is "We") started homeschooling.
(I'll give you a moment to address the irony of this while reminiscing over this post from last fall)
HOWEVER, I still totally stand by what I said in the original post. And I saw some of that from the homeschooling mom pages I'm on when school started back. "All of these moms celebrating that their kids are going back to school today... it's so sad how happy they are to just send them away!" HARSH! And GEEEEZ... I was a twinge jealous of those cute Pinterest-y chalk board first-day-of-school photos! AND, this year I would have just two kiddos at home during the day. Those grocery carts that look like race cars seat two kids. See how easy that would be?? Yeah. I GET IT! But, right now, this is the season we are in.



And, truth be told, it's slightly fun.
I may even be enjoying portions of this season.
                                                                 But don't tell anyone. 
...more on home school later.

So...our new house!
We bought 15 acres with a great house that was a foreclosure property... and with that got apple trees, blackberry bushes, walnut trees, a run-off pond, 14 Muscovy ducks and assorted critters that live in the woods! We also got mystery wiring, a few leaks, some drainage issues and vintage appliances!
But it's awesome and we love it.
We've already put up a tire swing and the trampoline, picked 150lbs of apples, gone shooting shotguns in the woods.


So, the baby duckling needed to be separated from the others. 


S'mores... yummmm

Giant hydrangeas by the front door

Hiking in the backyard

Muscovy ducks

The kids found this cow bell and tag in the yard

Bringing some crushed moving boxes to the fire pit

Boys + fire

Boys + mud

Boys love turtles

Applesauce! 

So... that's where I've been!
More updates and topical stuff soon!
-Chrissy

           Parrot helps snare Kent burglar by his bite yielding DNA         
Lithuanian Vitalij Kiseliov was not taken down by a furious Pit Bull nor mauled by a savage Alsatian - but nipped on the hand by an African parrot named Rocky when burgling a Kent home in June.
          How a gunshot changed everything        
The bullet went through his jaw… If it was 2cm lower, I wouldn’t be here today. I’m here in Lithuania for the 8th annual Blacksmith Liberty Camp. We have over 60 students from around the world. They came from Australia, Sri Lanka, Russia and the U.S. But these aren’t your normal “students.” These are entrepreneurs. And entrepreneurs are value creators. We have actors, charity workers, teachers, employees. They’re free thinkers. Some of them own incredibly successful businesses. Some of them are wondering how to get started in business, or how to change careers. But they’re all here for the same reason… To connect with each other. And to learn skills […]
          For sale - Cane Seat - Auction        

Cane 6710, Australia
Posting to: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Russian Federation, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait ...
ebay.com.au

          India sends 31 satellites into space, some for foreign customers        
India fired a rocket carrying 31 small satellites into space on Friday, several of them for European countries looking for high resolution earth images, underlining its strength as a low-cost provider of services in space.

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) launched a 712 kg Cartosat-2 satellite for earth observation and 30 other tiny satellites from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh at 9.29 a.m.

The rocket is carrying satellites from India and 14 other countries, including Austria, Belgium, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia, as part of an international commercial arrangement by the state-run Indian Space Research Organisation. (ISRO)

"Congratulations to ISRO on its 40th successful Polar satellite launch ... You make us proud!" Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted.

Modi's government has been promoting the space programme as a showcase of low-cost technology. In February, the ISRO launched 104 satellites in a single mission, most of them for foreign customers.

In 2015, the global space industry was valued at $323 billion, according to a Space Foundation report, and India accounted for just 0.6 percent of that business.

Friday's lift-off comes 18 days after India put a three-tonne satellite, its heaviest, into the orbit matching the technical know-how of the United States, Russia, China, Japan and the European Space Agency.

"Our effort of continuing to provide increased earth observation, navigation as well as communication will continue," ISRO chief A.S. Kiran Kumar said in a speech after the launch.


          UPDATE 1-India sends 31 satellites into space, some for foreign customers        

(Adds detail, comment)

By Vipin Das M

NEW DELHI, June 23 (Reuters) - India fired a rocket carrying31 small satellites into space on Friday, several of them forEuropean countries, in a boost to Prime Minister Narendra Modi’sambition to project the country as a global low-cost provider ofservices in space.

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) launched a 712 kgCartosat-2 satellite for earth observation and 30 other tinysatellites from Sriharikota in the southern state of AndhraPradesh at 9.29 a.m. (0359GMT).

The rocket is carrying satellites from India and 14 othercountries, including Austria, Belgium, Latvia, Lithuania andSlovakia, as part of an international commercial arrangement bythe state-run Indian Space Research Organisation. (ISRO)

The satellites will be used for communications, weatherforecasting and monitoring crops.

"Congratulations to ISRO on its 40th successful Polarsatellite launch ... You make us proud!" Modi tweeted.

Modi's government has been promoting the space programme asa showcase of low-cost technology.

In 2014, India sent an orbiter to Mars at a cost of $74million, a fraction of the $671 million the U.S. space agencyNASA spent on its MAVEN Mars mission.

"We reached Mars on a budget less than that of a Hollywoodfilm,” Modi said this week.

For all its success, the Indian space programme has a tinyshare of the global market.

In 2015, the global space industry was valued at $323billion, according to a Space Foundation report, and Indiaaccounted for just 0.6 percent of that business.

India's PSLV launch vehicle has put 209 satellites intoorbit for foreign clients, the ISRO said in a statement.

"Our effort of continuing to provide increased earthobservation, navigation as well as communication will continue,"said the agency's chief, A.S. Kiran Kumar.

Friday's lift-off comes 18 days after India put athree-tonne satellite, its heaviest, into the orbit matching thetechnical know-how of the United states, Russia, China, Japanand the European Space Agency.

That launch was meant to signal the ISRO's ability to launchheavier communications satellite which are at the higher end ofthe launch business and more lucrative.(Editing by Sanjeev Miglani, Robert Birsel)


          Pengalaman Mengajukan Visa Schengen (Belanda) di VFS Global Surabaya (Mei 2017)        
Europe, wait me! (Sumber : Disini)

Setelah kemarin sempat menulis Cara Mengajukan Visa China di Surabaya, pada kesempatan ini aku akan berbagi pengalamanku kembali mengurus Visa Schengen di VFS Global Belanda Surabaya. Sebelum mengajukan Visa Schengen ini, aku sering searching informasi di google dan mendapati postingan blogger yang menceritakan pengalamannya apply visa itu sangat-sangat membantu. Jadi lewat postingan ini aku ingin balas budi, supaya bisa membantu teman-teman lainnya yang mau mengajukan Visa Schengen juga.

Mendapatkan Visa Schengen mungkin adalah salah satu hal yang paling membahagiakan untukku. Karena inilah pertama kali aku akan ke Eropa dan bisa backpackeran di luar Asia. Meskipun sampai detik ini belum beli tiket (karena hampir semua harga tiket melambung tinggi dikarenakan waktu keberangkatanku mendekati waktu lebaran), belum booking bus, pesawat, selama disana, ditambah sedikit masalah terjadi sewaktu aku akan refund tiketku Kuala Lumpur - Moscow - Kuala Lumpur via Traveloka, tapi aku memandang semuanya dengan optimis.

Aku mengajukan Visa Schengen via VFS Global Surabaya (perwakilan Belanda, Belgia dan Luksemburg) yang beralamat di Lantai 15 R.1506 Garaha Pena Surabaya. Lokasi Graha Pena sendiri berada di Jalan Ahmad Yani No 88, cukup dekat dari Terminal Bungurasih (naik gojek pakai Gopay cuma Rp 6000). Alasan klasik mengajukan di VFS Global Belanda Surabaya, selain karena aku memang mau mengunjungi Belanda, juga karena aku malas ke Jakarta. Karena domisiliku di Surabaya Pusat, aku cukup naik motor saja ke Gedung Graha Pena (daripada naik kereta atau pesawat ke Jakarta kan, mehooong hehehe).

Jadi langkah pertama yang harus teman lakukan untuk mencari update/informasi terbaru mengenai ketentuan visa, persyaratan lengkap visa, biaya pembuatan visa, hari kerja, hari libur, jam penyerahan aplikasi/pengambilan paspor, maka teman harus menuju ke situs resmi VFS Global Surabaya disini.


Jika teman sudah masuk ke website resmi VFS Global, maka tampilan diatas adalah tampilan yang akan muncul. Terdapat tiga langkah sederhana untuk pengajuan visa ke Belanda yakni 1) Mengetahui Tipe Visa Anda 2) Cara Mengajukan Aplikasi Visa dan 3) Setelah Pengajuan Aplikasi Visa.

1) Mengetahui Tipe Visa Anda
  • Jika Anda ingin mengunjungi Belanda untuk waktu yang singkat, Anda harus memperoleh visa untuk masuk jika Anda datang dari negara dengan persyaratan visa untuk datang ke Belanda.
  • Visa biasanya memberi Anda hak untuk tinggal di seluruh wilayah Schengen. Negara-negara Schengen adalah: Austria, Belgia, Republik Ceko, Denmark, Estonia, Finlandia, Perancis, Jerman, Yunani, Hungaria, Islandia, Italia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luksemburg, Malta, Belanda, Norwegia, Polandia, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanyol, Swedia dan Swiss. Visa dapat memberikan Anda hak untuk menghabiskan maksimal 90 hari per 6 bulan di wilayah Schengen.
  • Semua aplikasi visa harus ditandatangani oleh pemohon yang bersangkutan.
  • Semua bagan dalam formulir aplikasi harus diisi dengan benar, formulir yang tidak lengkap dapat membuat proses berjalan lebih lambat bahkan penolakan.
  • Kedutaan berhak untuk meminta dokumen serta informasi tambahan saat memproses aplikasi.
  • Warga negara Non-Indonesia harus tinggal secara legal di Indonesia, baik atas dasar visa untuk Indonesia atau ijin kerja / tinggal yang sah di Indonesia.
  • Paspor harus berlaku minimal 3 bulan setelah berakhirnya visa.
  • Huruf berwarna biru adalah ketentuan umum yang ada di website VFS Global Surabaya. Jadi tipe visa ke Belanda itu ada beberapa seperti:
  • Visa Turis (yang akan saya jabarkan di postingan ini), 
  • Visa Undangan (keluarga/teman)
  • Visa Pelaut
  • Visa Bisnis
  • Transit Bandara
  • Kerabat Uni Eropa
  • Visa Studi Jangka Pendek
  • serta Visa Kunjungan Resmi
2) Cara Mengajukan Aplikasi Visa

Langkah 1

Aplikasi-aplikasi visa untuk negara Belanda, Belgia dan Luxembourg diterima di Pusat Aplikasi Visa negeri Belanda. Mohon menjadwalkan perjanjian kepada pusat aplikasi visa sebelum melakukan penyerahan.

Buat janji temu untuk menyerahkan dokumen aplikasi di Pusat Aplikasi Visa (Wajib). Anda Wajib membuat janji temu terlebih dahulu sebelum melakukan aplikasi . Pelayanan ini tidak dikenakan biaya akan tetapi tergantung dari ketersediaan tempat. Untuk membuat perjanjian, silahkan klik di sini

Untuk informasi lebih lengkap mengenai pembuatan Janji Temu, mohon klik di sini.

Langkah 2

Sebelum aplikasi mohon memastikan anda sudah jelas sekali ‘maksud kunjungan’ anda – ingatlah kami ada untuk membantu dan menolong anda melalui proses aplikasi visa secara keseluruhan tetapi tidak diizinkan untuk memberi advis atau memandu anda mengenai pemilihan kategori visa. Karena pekerjaan utama kami adalah bersifat administratif kami tidak mempunyai hak apa pun apakah anda akan diberi visa dan berapa lama diperlukan untuk memproses aplikasi anda karena hal itu secara keseluruhan merupakan prerogatif Kedutaan atau Konsulat.

Langkah 3

Mohon ke link “Jenis-Jenis Visa” untuk mengerti rincian berbagai macam visa.

Langkah 4

Mohon pastikan anda telah membaca pemberitahuan-pemberitahuan peraturan keamanan sebelum anda mengunjungi Pusat Aplikasi Visa. Mohon dicatat: direkomendasikan untuk menyerahkan aplikasi jauh sebelum tanggal kepergian yang diperkirakan. Semua pemohon visa direkomendasikan untuk mengkonfirmasi rencana perjalanan mereka hanya setelah memperoleh visa.
Diperlukan secara rata-rata 15 hari kalender untuk memutuskan permohonan aplikasi-aplikasi visa. Mungkin akan ada penangguhan sesuai dengan musim dan jenis visa.
Mohon dicatat: Setelah aplikasi untuk Visa, pemohon tidak dapat meminjam paspor mereka dari Kedutaan.
Juga mohon merencanakan kepergian lain anda HANYA setelah menerima kembali paspor anda dari Kedutaan.
Huruf berwarna biru adalah ketentuan umum cara mengajukan aplikasi visa yang ada di website VFS Global Surabaya, sedangkan huruf hitam adalah apa yang saya lakukan dan siapkan berdasarkan syarat tersebut. Sekarang mari kita rincikan langkah demi langkah sesuai dengan yang saya lakukan pada Mei 2017 lalu.

A. Sebelum melakukan Langkah 1, membuat janji temu dengan VFS Global Belanda Surabaya, maka pemohon harus menyiapkan persyaratan-persyaratan Visa Schengen terlebih dahulu. Syarat lengkapnya bisa dilihat disini. Daftar syarat tersebut berbentuk PDF, dan daftar itu pula yang akan digunakan oleh petugas VFS untuk mengecek kelengkapan pemohon. Di bawah ini adalah dokumen-dokumen yang kupersiapkan sebelum membuat janji temu:

PERSYARATAN VISA SCHENGEN VIA BELANDA (Mei 2017):

1. Formulir Pengajuan Visa Schengen yang sudah diisi lengkap dan ditandatangani. Formulir aplikasi Schengen bisa didownload disini.


2. Paspor asli dengan masa berlaku minimal 3 bulan, tapi untuk jaga-jaga sebaiknya masa berlaku paspor minimal 6 bulan. Hal itu dikarenakan penerbangan ke Eropa pasti akan transit (entah di Kuala Lumpur, Singapura, Doha, Abu Dhabi, Istanbul, dll), sehingga untuk menghindari penolakan penerbangan. Kemudian paspor anda harus setidaknya mempunyai 2 halaman kosong, 1 halaman untuk stiker visa, 1 halaman untuk cap ketibaan/kepergian.


Aturan untuk paspor menurut Kedutaan Belanda adalah sebagai berikut:

> Paspor atau dokumen travel anda harus valid setidaknya 3 bulan sejak tanggal anda meninggalkan Area Schengen.
> Paspor atau dokumen travel anda setidaknya harus mempunyai 2 halaman kosong.
> Paspor atau dokumen travel anda tidak boleh dikeluarkan lebih dari 10 tahun yang lalu.

Paspor asli tersebut harus dilengkapi dengan:

> Fotocopi halaman detail informasi pribadi (halaman depan paspor)
> Fotocopi Visa-visa sebelumnya yang pernah dipunyai dari semua cap masuk/cap keluar (saya fotocopi semua visa dan cap masuk di semua halaman paspor saya)
> Fotocopy Halaman detail informasi pribadi paspor yang pernah dimiliki sebelumnya beserta visa-visanya

3. Jika anda mengajukan Visa Schengen untuk anak anda yang akan traveling sendiri atau hanya ditemani dengan 1 orangtua, mohon untuk menambahkan dokumen berikut ini (saya langsung copi dari Bahasa Inggrisnya supaya tidak membuat perbedaan pemahaman.Jika anda akan traveling sendiri/traveling dengan teman/traveling dengan anak dan suami/istri anda, maka tahap ini dapat dilewati.
An extract of the minor’s birth certificate. 
An identity document bearing the parents’ signature (1document for each parent).

A declaration of consent from both parents, stating that the minor can travel.
If relevant: a court judgement stating which parent has been allocated parental responsibility for the minor. 
If relevant: a declaration from the minor’s school consenting to his/her absence.


4. Bukti Tempat Tinggal Resmi
Evidence of legal residence in the country you are applying from, e.g. a passport, visa or residence permit and a copy. Residence permit should be valid for at least 3 months after departure from Schengen.
Work permit (if applicable).

Aku cukup bingung pada tahap ini, bagi WNI maksudnya KTP , KK dan Akta Lahir. Jadi aku memberikan fotocopi ketiganya dan translate Bahasa Inggrisnya yang kubuat sendiri (tidak perlu penerjemah tersumpah - Mei 2017). Contoh Translate KTP, KK dan Akta Lahir bisa didownload di bawah ini:


Terjemahan KTP dan KK

Terjemahan Akta Lahir

5. Foto 3,5 x 4,5 cm yang memenuhi persyaratan foto Kedutaan Belanda. Foto ini tidak boleh diambil lebih dari 6 bulan yang lalu dan harus jelas. Ketentuan foto lebih lanjut silahkan dilihat disini. Background foto putih. Saran saya, fotolah di studio foto yang mempunyai nama ternama. Dijamin foto tidak akan salah. Bilang saja untuk pengajuan Visa Schengen.



5. BUKTI PERJALANAN


Itinerary Travel (Reservasi perjalanan menuju dan meninggalkan Area Schengen atas nama anda, bukan tiket). Maksudnya adalah reservasi tiket pesawat menuju dan meninggalkan area Schengen. Reservasi tiket pesawat gratis bisa dilakukan sendiri via website Turkish Airline atau KLM. Reservasi ini sebaiknya jangan dibayar dahulu, tetapi menunggu keputusan visa keluar atau tidak. Hal yang menjadi perhatian, karena saya apply melalui Kedutaan Besar Belanda, maka supaya lebih meyakinkan saya buat reservasi tiket pesawat saya Jakarta - Amsterdam - Jakarta menggunakan Turkish Airline. Keuntungan membuat reservasi di Turkish Airline adalah, reservasi tersebut bisa bertahan selama seminggu. Jadi cukuplah waktunya sampai berkas kita diterima oleh Pejabat di Kedutaan Belanda. Tips lainnya, sebaiknya reservasi tersebut penerbangannya berasal dari Indonesia, jangan Malaysia atau Singapura.


Contoh tiket hasil reservasi di website Turkish Airline yang kubawa ke VFS Global.

>Itinerary/rencana perjalanan. Karena mengajukan visa di Kedutaan Belanda, maka Belanda haruslah negara yang pertama kali anda kunjungi atau paling lama anda kunjungi. Contoh itinerary yang kumasukkan ke dalam aplikasiku adalah sebagai berikut:



> Dokumen-dokumen yang membuktikan bahwa kunjungan anda adalah untuk tujuan turisme. Selain reservasi tiket pesawat, itinerary perjalanan, reservasi hotel, asuransi kesehatan, saya juga menyertakan surat izin dari atasan saya yang menyatakan bahwa saya bepergian untuk traveling ke Eropa dari tanggal 23 Juni sd 4 Juli dan akan kembali bekerja setelah pulang dari Eropa.


Contoh surat keterangan kerja dan surat izin dari atasan yang kubawa ke VFS Global.

> Reservasi penginapan/hotel selama durasi kunjungan. Ini sangat mudah, kunjungi saja booking.com dan booking saja hotel yang bisa dibatalkan gratis (free cancellation). Hal yang harus diperhatikan, bookingan tersebut jangan terburu-buru dibatalkan setelah aplikasi diserahkan ke VFS. Batalkan setelah keputusan visa anda keluar.

> Surat Pernyataan dari Bank tentang Transaksi Rekening 3 bulan terakhir (dalam Bahasa Inggris)

Karena status saya pegawai pemerintahan, maka saya menggunakan Rekening Bank Jatim. Sewaktu saya meminta pernyataan transaksi 3 bulan terakhir, mereka hanya memberikan surat pernyataan yang menyatakan bahwa rekening saya aktif, tidak ada kata-kata jumlah uang di debet terakhir. Akhirnya saya memberikan surat pernyataan tersebut ditambahkan fotocopi buku tabungan 3 bulan terakhir. Waktu itu itinerary saya 12 hari, dan jumlah uang di rekening sekitar Rp 63 juta.

> Jika anda pekerja, surat pernyataan dari atasan anda yang menyatakan waktu absen anda. 

Ini mudah, anda hanya perlu meminta surat pernyataan bekerja dari kantor anda, ditandatangan oleh Manajer/HRD/Sekretaris Dinas (untuk yang bekerja di Kantor Pemerintahan). Jangan lupa diberi cap. Contoh punya saya seperti ini:

> Dokumen-dokumen yang membuktikan bahwa anda akan kembali ke negara anda setelah perjalanan selesai.


Contohnya (dari website VFS):

• A recent declaration from your employer, an employment contract or other information proving you are employed in your country of origin. 
• A document proving you are in education or training in your country of origin. 
• A document proving your children attend school in your country of origin. 
• A document proving you have a home or other immovable property in your country of origin. 
• A document proving you are a caregiver in your country of origin
.
Kalau saya, ini saya satu paketkan dengan surat pernyataan dari kantor seperti format diatas. Karena di surat pernyataan kantor diatas sudah saya sebutkan bahwa saya adalah pegawai kantor saya dan akan kembali ke Indonesia setelah menyelesaikan perjalanan saya.


6. BUKTI ASURANSI KESEHATAN
Bukti asuransi kesehatan ini mencakup dokumen resmi dari penjamin asuransi anda yang membuktikan bahwa:
a. Ketentuan tentang asuransi kesehatan tertulis atas nama anda.
b. Asuransi ada valid digunakan di Area Schengen selama durasi kunjungan anda.
c. Tanggungan uang kesehatan yang bisa diklaim setidaknya 30.000 euro, termasuk perawatan rumah sakit, penanganan keadaan darurat dan termasuk pemulangan (termasuk kematian).

Untuk asuransi kesehatan, kemarin aku memakai asuransi AXA Gold dengan tanggungan maksimal Rp 3.000.000.000. Kebetulan dapat pas promo cuma Rp 130.000 untuk setahun. Satu tips untuk asuransi, jika membeli online dan mendapatkan konfirmasi dan asuransinya via email, yang diprint dan dibawa ke VFS Global jangan hanya halaman iktisar polis dan konfirmasi polis saja ya, tapi termasuk rincian tabel biaya santunan dan yang halaman yang menyatakan jumlah maksimal tanggungan.

7. VISA
Visa, Izin tinggal atau paspor yang memberi anda izin masuk ke tujuan akhir anda setelah mengunjungi Area Schengen.

Karena tujuan akhirku adalah negara tercinta, Indonesia, maka ya cuma butuh paspor itu sendiri. 

8. PEMBAYARAN
Pembayaran biaya visa pada saat mengajukan aplikasi.

Sewaktu aku mengajukan Mei 2017 kemarin, biayanya sebesar Rp 1.200.000, meliputi 60 euro untuk biaya visa itu sendiri dan sisanya untuk biaya pemrosesan VFS. Jika menambah pemberitahuan sms, menambah Rp 20.000.

B. Setelah mempersiapkan persyaratan seperti diatas dan membuat janji temu disini, saya datang pada waktu perjanjian yang telah ditentukan (17 Mei 2017) dengan membawa syarat-syarat ke VFS Global Belanda Surabaya. VFS Global Belanda Surabaya di Lantai 15 R.1506 Garaha Pena Surabaya. Lokasi Graha Pena sendiri berada di Jalan Ahmad Yani No 88. Untuk parkir motor berada di sebelah barat KFC.

C. Begitu masuk Gedung Graha Pena, saya langsung naik ke Lantai 15 dan menuju kantor VFS Global. Saat masuk ke dalam, seorang satpam wanita yang sangat ramah langsung menyapa saya dan menanyakan lembar konfirmasi janji temu saya. Setelahnya dilakukan pemeriksaan badan singkat dan isi tas. Dari sini, HP harus dinonaktifkan dan dilarang memotret di dalam.

D. Masuk ke dalam ruangan VFS, di dalam sudah menunggu beberapa orang yang akan mengajukan Visa Schengen juga. Berdebar rasanya hati ini, sekaligus senang. Waah, akhirnya ane bisa juga mengajukan visa ini setelah sekian lama hanya bermimpi hehe. Akhirnya satpam yang lain, yang tidak kalah ramah juga, memanggil saya kemudian meminta lembar konfirmasi janji temu saya untuk digantikan dengan nomor urut dan secarik kertas.

E. Setelah menunggu sejenak, akhirnya nama saya dipanggil oleh Mbak VFS. Saya langsung menyerahkan berkas-berkas persyaratan yang sudah saya siapkan. Mbak VFS dengan sigap memeriksa berkas saya dengan sangat ramah.

Mbak VFS : "Ini asuransinya asli ya?"

Saya : " Iya asli mbak. Saya beli online dan dapat soft copinya."

Mbak VFS : " Pergi sendiri atau sama teman?"

Saya : "Sama teman mbak, ini sebelah saya." (dan akhirnya teman saya ini membatalkan perjalanan sehingga saya terpaksa solo traveling huhu)

Sembari bertanya, Mbak VFS terus menegtik-ngetik informasi di PCnya. Dan ane lega setengah mati saat dia mencetak lembar konfirmasi permohonan. Berarti lengkap sudah syarat ane, nggak perlu bolak-balik untuk melengkapi syarat. Setelah membayar Rp 1.220.000, saya menunggu kembali di bangku untuk menunggu pengumpulan data biometrik.

F. Menunggu beberapa saat. akhirnya saya dipanggil oleh seorang Bapak untuk pengumpulan data biometrik (foto dan cap jari). Saat masuk ke ruangannya tiba-tiba tegang juga ya hehehe, takutnya ane diwawancara macam-macam dan kalau jawabnya gugup maka aplikasi bisa ditolak. Tapi ternyata disini ane cuma ditanya tanggal lahir aja, kemudian foto dan cap jari. Selesai. Gitu doank.

G. Tahap F merupakan tahapan terakhir dalam pengajuan Visa Schengen di VFS Global Surabaya. Setelah ini tinggal tahap penantian, apakah Visa Schengenku diterima atau ditolak? Hanya Kedutaan Belanda yang tahu... Hehehehe...Waktu pemrosesan sekitar 2 minggu, cukup lama karena paspor dan aplikasi kita akan dikirimkan ke Kuala Lumpur dahulu.

UPDATE:
18 Mei 2017
Email dari VFS Global


31 Mei 2017
Email dari VFS Global


2 Juni 2017

Yeaaaaahhhh... Visa Schengeku granted. Thank you GOD.....! Dikasih 3 bulan kurang.... rencana perjalanan yang kutulis di aplikasi 24 Juni 2017 sd 4 Juli 2017, diberi visa dari 22 Juni 2017 sd 6 Agustus 2017. Lumayanlah!

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          Kosher Equality: First Woman Elected to Lead a Kasruth Agency        

For the first time in history a female will lead a national Kasruth agency promising equality in Kosher supervisory

New York, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 03/03/2015 -- As the first female President to lead a Kosher certification agency, Miriam Jochelman Peled may have just become the most powerful person in Kosher – man or woman. On Wednesday Peled was elected by KOSH 9009 Board of Directors to serve a four year term as President of the organization. KOSH 9009 is one of the nation's leading Kasruth and quality management consultation agencies and pioneer of a challenging movement that is destined to go viral promoting 'Equality for Women in Kosher.'

The KOSH 9009 website is located at http://www.KOSH9009.com which proudly advertises its mission statement: "Kosher Made Simple and Affordable – With Equality For Women."

Moshe Heinman, Director for KOSH 9009 said males have dominated Kosher supervision since the 1920's when Kosher products started finding their way into the American market. According to Heinman, a teacher of Conservative Judaism, all major Kasruth agencies are directly or indirectly disqualifying women to serve in leadership roles, particularly as President, simply because of their gender. "Someday we respectfully hope to see a woman President of The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations (OU), The Organized Kashrus Laboratories (OK), STAR-K, Kosher Supervision (KOF-K), and other major Kasruth certification agencies, said Heinman.

Jochelman Peled is an educator, speaker, second generation of Holocaust Survivor Parents. Born in Postavy, Republic of Belarus, formerly the U.S.S.R, Miriam holds a B.A. in Art Education/Art Therapy, Master Degree from Seton Hall University in Judeo-Christian Holocaust Studies, and attended the Yiddish I.L. Peretz School, where Judaism was fostered, along with other secular subjects. Her professional work experience includes VP of Operations for Guberman-PMC, LLC, an internationally recognized quality management consultancy. Previously she served as senior auditor for G-PMC Registrars, in which she received numerous awards. She is currently serving a three year term as Chairwoman of CWOB, the nation's fastest growing quality management certification program for women-owned businesses. Miriam has lived and/or traveled to Israel, Poland, Belarus, Lithuania, France, Italy, Russia and other countries teaching others of Jewish history, and its cultural, and social challenges.

In a nod to the significance of being the first woman to lead a Kosher agency, Jochelman Peled said she hoped her achievement would inspire more women to seek positions as head of a Kasruth agency. "I'm really hoping to see more women in Kosher supervisory roles for other Kosher organizations that believe in equality," she said.

Sara Brickman, spokeswoman for KOSH 9009 said through Miriam's leadership and strong values rooted in her Jewish faith and heritage, combined with her professional work experience, international travels, and understanding of Kashrut laws, KOSH 9009 will continue to prosper as a preferred Kosher/ISO certification program bringing guidance, strength, diversity and purpose to businesses worldwide.

The American Board of Accredited Certifications (ABAC), which serves as the accreditation board of KOSH 9009 and oversees its operations has made a history of bringing diversity to Kosher and quality system certification by electing women, minorities, Veterans and people of different faiths to serve as board members, directors, and signatories of the organization. Last year two consultants representing KOSH 9009 traveled to New York City to meet with Rabbi Moshe Elefant, COO of the Orthodox Union's Kashruth Department to discuss a potential partnership that will enable the OU to offer quality management solutions for its customers, particularly ISO 9001 certification. The alliance never materialized but is believed to be still open for future discussions.

Ironically, earlier this week the New York Post ran a story about a major marijuana company in Colorado planning to sell medical marijuana in New York that is Kosher certified by the Orthodox Union. In responding to the story Heinman said, "It's rather disheartening to learn the OU is seriously considering working with a Colorado pot peddler to Kosher a natural plant, but is yet to offer customers a quality standard implemented by over one million companies and organizations in over 170 countries." He concluded, "Where's the quality?"

Businesses interested in value-added Kosher Certification (KOSH 9009) and/or Quality System Certification (ISO 9001) can submit an application at http://kosh9009.com/apply.html

About KOSH 9009
KOSH-9009 is a nationally recognized Kashrut agency serving businesses of all sizes in a large variety of industries, including food & beverage processing, restaurants, delis, food machinery & equipment manufacturers and machine shops seeking to Kosher certification. KOSH 9009 is the first and only system accreditation program offering the combination of Kosher and ISO 9001 certification following International Organization for Standardization methodologies per national and international requirements, and more importantly inclusive of Rabbinical Kashrut (Kosher) laws.

Media Contact:
Sara Brickman
info@kosh9009.com
http://www.kosh9009.com
212-726-2320

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/release-584184.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sara Brickman
KOSH 9009 - Kosher Supervision
Telephone: 212-726-2320
Email: Click to Email Sara Brickman
Web: http://kosh9009.com/


          HBO Announces 5-Part Miniseries Covering ‘Chernobyl’!!!        
Hey guys, Jana here, The HBO/Sky Television co-production, under the banners of Sister Pictures and The Mighty Mint, of a five-part miniseries ‘Chernobyl‘ will begin filming next year in Lithuania. It will star Jared Harris and he has been cast as Valery Legasov, the Soviet scientist ordered by the Kremlin to investigate the accident. The […]
          Living Room is getting there!        

Well we took our time doing the living room and it is turning out so nice but I still need some help in the finishing touches and making it cozy and usable. I need to get some lighting in the room and some tables. I have seen a few that I LOVE at Kirklands, but they are all $80 or more and just really look like simple thrift store finds, so I need to start looking at the stores again.

Here is the before of the room:

And now here is the after: using my mood board that I talked about here. The bench I got from Kirklands clashed with all the patterns going on from the rug and the pillows so I returned it. I am going to keep looking for something to put there, not sure what to get. I also need help with that BIG wall on the side of the couch! It is HUGE and I want something dramatic there. I am thinking I will add a table to the corner of the room so I may not be needing to do the whole wall, not sure. The couch is from Ashley's Furniture and the rug is from O.com and I love it!! The pillows are too die for and from an etsy store called Pillow Link , she was so sweet and gave me a discount and she is from Lithuania!!

This is the hallway and the awesome print from World Market

Here is the room before the furniture arrived. Joe did a great job! As you can tell by looking at the mood board, I did not stray too much from what I wanted originally. I am very stubborn like that, if I want something a certain way then I am gonna make darn sure I get it like that! Any suggestions for the wall shoot them my way!!!



I joined a link party from your talking too much blog...check it out here and see other fun sites!!

          DMITRIJUS APOCKINAS, LITHUANIA        

On snorkel itself: very good overall quality, easy to fit, fits snugly to the wing and roof, and has a perfect line around the windscreen side. Generates almost no noise […]

La entrada DMITRIJUS APOCKINAS, LITHUANIA aparece primero en Roca Silva.


          TBR: Between Shades of Gray by Ruta Sepetys        
I've been meaning to read this book for ages, and I really have no reason for why I haven't. It sounds so emotional and the time period is one that is interesting to me. I was reminded of how much I want to read this with Ms. Sepetys's latest release, Out of the Easy which also sounds great. I haven't read a historical novel in a while so it might be time to do so. Isn't the cover lovely? Even the original one appeals to me.

TBR: My pile is huge and I have way too many books I want to read than I have time to. This is where randomly spotlight a book that I want to read eventually. It's my visual motivator.

Between Shades of Gray by Ruta Sepetys
Genre: Historical Fiction

A moving and haunting novel for readers of The Book Thief

Fifteen-year-old Lina is a Lithuanian girl living an ordinary life--until Soviet officers invade her home and tear her family apart. Separated from her father and forced onto a crowded train, Lina, her mother, and her young brother make their way to a Siberian work camp, where they are forced to fight for their lives. Lina finds solace in her art, documenting these events by drawing. Risking everything, she imbeds clues in her drawings of their location and secretly passes them along, hoping her drawings will make their way to her father's prison camp. But will strength, love, and hope be enough for Lina and her family to survive?

This powerful tale of heartbreak and hope is sure to haunt readers long after they finish the last page.

          Rabbi Pinkhas Komisaruk on his 114th Yahrtzeit        
Rabbi Pinkhas Halevi Komisaruk

Born 1830, Rassein (now Raseiniai), Lithuania.
Died 26th Adar Rishon, 5697/1897 Grafskoy, (now Prolotarsky), Ukraine

Son of Rabbi Shlomo-Zalman Halevi (1798-1853) and Yokhved Komisaruk.
Great-Great-grandson of the Vilna Gaon.
Husband of Khaya-Sarah Levin (1834-1873)

The fact that Pinkhas was born in Rassein was established by the discovery of a history of where Pinkhas appears in the category of notables who were born in Rassein but lived elsewhere. This source also identifies his maternal grandfather and his father Shlomo Zalman. Indeed had it not been for the discovery of this book [1] , the family's connection with Rassein might never have been known and the family's earlier history never uncovered, as oral tradition told of the family's origin as Kovno (Kaunas). This referred to the province of Kovno in which the city Rassein was located.

A brief biography appears in the history of Rassein [2] :





"The rabbi, the great luminary, our teacher the Rabbi PINKHAS KOMISAR from the city of Rassein, who was Av Din and Shokhet in Grafskoy, a Jewish colony in the Government of Yekaterinoslav, died in the year 5657, (1897) 27th Adar, aged 67. Son of our outstanding teacher Rabbi Shlomo Zalman from the city of Rassein who died in the year 1848. Reb Shlomo Zalman was the son-in-law of the great Rabbi, the Kabbalist, our teacher Rabbi Menakhem Mendel from Rassein who was Shokhet in the Holy Community Girtegola and afterwards left the labour of Shekhita and sat learning in our city in the Great Beit Midrash 20 years until his last day and died in 5596 (1836). His honourable resting place is in the old cemetery."

There are several errors in this information. Rabbi Shlomo Zalman did not die in 1848 but in 1853 in Grafskoy. The error may have been made by the author of "Ir Rassein" who found no further reference to Shlomo Zalman in Rassein after 1848, by which time he had emigrated from the city.

Rabbi Pinkhas obtained his rabbinic learning initially in Lithuania and from his father. He was also trained as a Shokhet. Following the death of his father in 1853, the religious leadership of the colonies was thrust upon him at a young age. Despite the promised exemption from military services, when the Crimean War broke out in 1854 Rabbi Pinkhas was conscripted [3] . He served in the supply corps and thereby was able to care for the dietary needs of the Jewish troops by obtaining live cattle for Shekhita. Even in the confusion of battle Rabbi Pinkhas sought out Jewish troops for prayer and dedicated himself to comfort the wounded and bury the dead.

Upon his release from the army Rabbi Pinkhas took up farming his share of the family allotment together with his brothers. He toiled in the fields by day and studied and taught by night. Only when his sons were old enough to take over was he free to act as full time Rabbi.

Grafskoy 1890 census Komisaruk family [4]
 1. Family #15

2. Head of Household
Komisaruk Pinkhas Zelmanowich.
The elder has additionally two sons, who are not living in the colony;
one daughter is married;
one of sons has three boys.

3. Housing
Goverment provided house covered with thatch (bad state). Near it built a new house with two rooms also covered with thatch (Good state).
Stable also covered with thatch

4. Equipment
two ploughs, one and two furrow.
One mangle.
One harrow.
Two Britchka (carts).

5. Animals
five horses
Three cows.
One calf.

6..
Land holding:
Except 1/3* of land [10 desyatins of father's 30], also rents 17 desyatins. 2/3 of land owned by older brothers.

7. Farmed by Himself

8.. Quality of farming. Good

Whilst following the Lithuanian system of interpretation of religious law, Rabbi Pinkhas always took into account the needs of his people, seeking to ease any economic burden on poor families. If a poor woman brought a chicken to him to check whether it was Kosher, if there was only a small doubt, he would allow it. If the person was wealthy, he would decide on the strict side of the law and ban the chicken [5] .

Aside from rabbinic duties Rabbi Pinkhas was also a Mohel. The Mariupol synagogue records list three circumcisions performed by Pinkhas in 1885 and one in 1894.

During the pogroms of the 1880's Rabbi Pinkhas was renowned for his selfless dedication to helping the suffering. Whenever news arrived of a pogrom he rode off to tend the wounded and conduct funerals for the victims. During his army service he had learnt the rudiments of medical care and acted as a "Feldsher" (medical orderly) since qualified doctors rarely were available to tend the Jews. Rabbi Pinkhas was a Feldsher so during one Yom Kippur he interrupted services in the synagogue in order to give medical aid to a sick woman [6] .





Grafskoy Synagogue in ruins 2010 [7]

Having lost his wife in childbirth he remarried twice since tradition required the Rabbi of a community to be married. Rabbi Pinkhas met an untimely death contracting pneumonia after falling into his well whilst trying to draw water to
feed the animals.


 Well in Grafskoy 1999 [8]

This was indicative of his concern for others since, although no longer involved in farming, he decided to save the family the trouble of rising early in the cold winter and took upon himself the task.

His funeral was long remembered by people who came from the colony regions. Thousands attended, including sixteen Rabbis from the district who had come to pay homage to this renowned scholar and devoted leader. Stories of Rabbi Pinkhas' activities were related by the following generations and this author remembers listening to his grandparents relate the tales of their beloved grandfather.

Rabbi Pinkhas' obituary appeared in the Hebrew newspaper Hamelitz:



"GRAFSKOY: (a Jewish colony in the Government of Yekaterinoslav). - the 27th day of Adar Rishon was for us a day of mourning and grief because on it departed to his eternal life in the sixty seventh year of his life, the great Rabbi, Av Din of this place, our Rabbi Pinkhas Komisarov who officiated to the glory of our colony in the position of rabbi and Shokhet and examiner more than thirty years. Great honour was shown him upon his death, all the Rabbis of the surrounding colonies gathered and came to pay him their respects and to eulogize him according to the law. He was great in Torah and Fear of Heaven, and in peace and honesty led his brethren the farmers. Peace be to his dust and may his soul be bound up in the bond of everlasting life. Kalman Bruser."

(The author of this obituary, Kalman Bruser, was a son of David Moshe Bruser whose family also originated in Rassein and settled in Grafskoy.)

Whilst Rabbi Pinkhas left no written record of his scholarship, several books which belonged to him were saved from destruction during the revolution, and these bear his signature. A treasured memento of him is in daily use by this author: his Tefilin which were inherited by his grandson Shlomo Zalman Komesaroff (Kaye) of Melbourne and in turn by this author.




Pinkhas's grandson Mordekhai (Mottel/Mark), a son of Rabbi Zalman Komisaruk of Vasilkovka, mentions his grandfather in his memoirs [9] :

"The first of our ancestors who I remember was my father's father, the grandfather Pinkhas, by him there were three other brothers, of whom I only knew the great-uncle Velvel. Other brother, that means my great-uncles with the names Yaakov and Zalman, I did not see. One of them was in Kovno, and the grandfather Pinkhas and the great-uncle Velvel lived in a Jewish colony in Yekaterinoslav Government, Mariupol district. The colony was called Grafskoye, or No. 7 (all 17 colonies which were situated in Yekaterinoslav Government had a number). The grandfather Pinkhas was a Shokhet and a Rabbi, and his sons, that means my uncles, father's brothers, worked the earth like peasants and the great-uncle Velvel with his sons Berel and Meir also initially worked the land, only later did Berel opened a small store, and Meir was living by the work of the land.

When I was 6 years old I remember that they brought to grandfather Pinkhas a painted tree with branches, the tree began with the great-grandfather who was called Mendel. From there it went to his sons Pinkhas, Velvel, Yaakov and Zalman. Only in my memory remains only the grandfather Pinkhas with his four sons Shlomo Zalman (this was my father) with his brothers Mendel, Simkha and Meir. What I am writing about is only the roots which came out from the grandfather Pinkhas with his brother Velvel. (On the tree were only male people)."

There are several errors, namely that Pinkhas's father was not Mendel, but Zalman and Pinkhas had another brother who lived in Grafskoy, Leibl.

"We came to colony Grafskoy, there did the grandfather Pinkhas live, the grandfather Pinkhas I remember that he always used to go around with a black scarf tied to his cheek, I don't know the reason. He was an angry Jew. The parents went away to the village Vasilkovka, Pavlograd district, and I remained living in the colony learning from the Gemorah Melamed. I used to “eat kest” by uncle Simkha, and the brother by the uncle Mendel. The grandfather Pinkhas used every Shabbat to hear us, and never was he satisfied. He used to say it was a waste of the fees paid for our lessons. Later I wanted to travel home and I remember that Uncle Mendel harnessed his horse and a droshky and on Sukkot we came home"

Mottel's impressions of his grandfather Pinkhas are in sharp contrast to others of his cousins, particularly Mendel's son Zalman and Meir's daughter Khana-Reizel (later married and lived in Melbourne, Australia. They spoke of their grandfather Pinkhas with great affection. Mottel's attitude was perhaps a forerunner of his later revolt against traditional Shtetl education to the exclusion of any secular study. Indeed he was representative of many of his generation who yearned to be part of the open secular Russian society, restricted as it was in many ways to Jews.

Rokhel Luban (daughter of Avrom Hillel and Dina Namakshtansky) wrote about her maternal grandfather in her memoirs:

"Grandfather Rabbi Pinkhas didn't live very long. It was a cold winter. Grandfather did not want to wake the children so they could give food and water to the horses and cows. He got up and dressed warmly. In the barn he gave them all food. But they wanted to drink. He took the bucket with a rope out to the well to draw water. It was very slippery; it was a heavy frost and in the evening when they had drawn water from the well, some spilt out. As it was a very cold night, it froze and became very slippery. It was impossible to stand properly as Grandfather lowered the bucket and filled it with water. When he pulled up the bucket, it pulled him over into the well.

He began shouting for help. They couldn't find a rope. Everyone was so confused that they couldn't think clearly. In the same house with Grandfather lived Grandfather's brother (# Velvel) and he had a shop for farmers' supplies. But there was no rope. Grandfather called from the well:" You stand in the middle of the ocean and you ask for a drop of water.

When they pulled him out of the well they quickly brought a doctor. But he was too chilled and they could not save him. Seventeen rabbis from the surroundings came to the funeral. All the children from the places where they lived, together with many householders, came to pay their respects for the father.

For my mother it was the worst. When she was born and lost her mother, Grandfather used to sit all night with the Gemorrah in his hand (# studying), swinging the cradle. My mother knew how to `Pasken' all the `Sheylahs' (# make decisions of religious law)."


Rabbi Pinkhas' signature in a book 1884



Rabbi Pinkhas' signature Grafskoy mayor election 1861


-----------------------
1."Lekorot Ir Rassein Urabbaneiha" M.arkowitz, Warsaw 1913
2. ibid
3. Peter Kaye (Komesaroff), Melbourne, Australia.
4. "Jewish Agricultural Colonies in Ekaterinoslav Province in 1890", L. Uleinikov [Binshtok], St Petersburg, 1891. http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/Colonies_of_Ukraine/Surveys_of_colonies_uleynikov.html
5. Clara Berchansky as related by her mother Rokhel Luban (nee Namakshtansky). Petah Tikvah, Israel
6. William Kaye (Komesaroff, son of Zalman), Melbourne, Australia.
7. Orlinsky, Ukraine album  http://www.panoramio.com/user/3366156
8. Mel Comisarow, Vancouver, Canade, while visting the colonies.
9. Literal translation from Russian and Yiddish. Memoirs provided by Joseph Komissarouk, USA.


          Hosias (Yehoshua Heshel) Lemky        
Hosias Lemky was born in 1853 in Windau (Ventspils) Courland (Latvia).
He died in 1942 in Berlin, Germany.






He was a son of Leib (Lewin) and Rasche Lemky of Windau (Ventspils).
See separate article on the Lemky family.



Lemky family census, Windau, 1850.





Windau (Ventspils), Latvia.


According to his grandson, Hosias Lemky was a Cantor at the Adass Jisroel Synagogue in Berlin. He was not a rabbi, but was very religious and scholarly. He also functioned as gabbai taking care of many of the administrative functions of the community and caring for the synagogue appertances such as the silver Torah crowns.



The Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary was attached to the Adass Jisroel Synagogue, Artillerie Strasse, Berlin and Hosias also carried out administrative tasks at the seminary.




Hosias disapproved of his son Simon's plans to emigrate to Eretz Yisrael. Hosias was a member of the ultra-orthodox organisation Agudat Yisrael, one faction of which believed that Jews should stay in Germany to ensure the continuation of the community.

Simon was imprisoned in Oranienberg Concentration Camp on Krystalnacht in 1938. Friends managed to have him released and he got to Eretz Yisrael.

Hosias was very wealthy and had 230,000 Reichsmarks in the bank. Even though conditions for the Jews were very bad after the Nazis came to power in 1933, Hosias refused to save himself by leaving the country.


Officials of the synagogue including Lemky.

Before the Second World War Hosias and his wife lived at Berlin-Charlottenburg, Marburger Str.5. During the Nazi period they had to move to Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Joachimsthaler Str. 13.They lived in one room and as most of the Jews of Berlin were deported to the extermination camps in the East, the Lemkys had to fend for themselves. Soon no one came to help the elderly couple and they had very little food.

In March 1942 Hosias died in the Jewish Hospital from illness and malnutrition.




Testimony Page at Yad Vashem.

Six months later the Nazis came for his wife and deported her to Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in Czechosovakia where she refused to eat non-Kosher food and died a month later.

Information from "Stiftung Neue Synagoge Berlin, Centrum Judaicum" August 28, 2003:




"We found a Hosias Lemky, born Nov. 3rd 1853 in Windau (Latvia) who worked at the Israelitsche Synagogengemeinde Adass Jisroel as "Vorbeiter und Kantor". He died March 24 1942 in Berlin. His wife Helene (Lenne) Lemky nee Graumann, born July 22nd 1855 Kamin (West Prussia) was deported to Theresienstdt on Sept 14th 1942 where she died a month later. Their address was Berlin-Charlottenburg, Marburger Str. 5. She had to move later, so her last address before deportation was Berlin-Wilmersdof, Joachimsthalter Str. 13. Probably their son Simon Lemky, last address in Berlin: Marburger Str. 5 went to Palestine."



"Adass Jisroel Die Judische Geneinde in Berlin (1869-1942)" by Mario Offenberg:



“Helene Lemky, nee Graumann, born 22-7-1855 in Kamen
Lastly living in Berlin-Charlottenburg, Joachimtaler Strasse 13,
with the Family Friedmann. On 8 September 1942 she had received
in the Artillerie Strasse 31 from the Court official in Berlin-Schoenberg the
orders from the Gestapo and she was six days later on 14 September 1942
deported to Theresienstadt as an 87 year old, with the so called "Second
Large Old People Transport" (1000 persons).
Her son Simon was then in Palestine.

Her husband Hosias Lemky, born 3 Nov 1853 in Windau, was second Cantor in
Adass Jisroel (responsible for the Weekday services in the Synagogue in
the Artillerie Strasse 31), he died on 24 march 1942 in the Jewish
Hospital in Wedding, Iranische Strasse. The address of the couple until the
death of Hosias was Marburger Strasse 5.
According to the burial card Hosias Lemky did not die the 24th, but already
the 23rd of March 1942 and was buried on 26-3-42 at the Cemetery of Adass
Jisroel in Berlin-Weissensee, Part D, Row 1a, grave number 14."

Memoirs of Siegried Wollheim (in the above book):

"First Chazan Keiles was besides his official work also a sought after "Mohel"
and on many weekdays he saved us from the Tahanun prayer (which
is not said at a "Brit Milah"). Very loved was also Mr. Lemke, especially
when here cited with a resounding voice from the Torah before "Minchah" .
The Esra had brought the Adass much closer to me, especially in the
Artilleriestrasse. Every second day Yom Tov I went in the afternoon to
the Esra-events from Charlottenburg to the Artileristrasse, first to
minchah, and I often remember the last Kaddish, the prayer of sorrow,
of the second Chazan, Mr.Lemky, on the last holiday in the melody of
the High Holidays, when he thundered out the prayer with his bass-voice."

Hosias Lemky lived in an apartment within the synagogue. A neighbouring apartment was occupied by Rabbi Dr. Moshe Auerbach who taught at the Rabbinical Seminary. He settled in Petah Tikvah, Israel. His son, Shmuel Auerbach recalled Hosias Lemky with affection. In particular he recalled that Hosias took groups of youth from the community for hikes in the forest and used to lead them singing his favourite tunes.

Hosias had the following children:

Simon (died 1948 in Petah Tikvah, Israel).
Julius (1874-1934), lived in the USA.
David Paul Gunther (1977-1942) lived in Hamburg, Germany.
Leopold (1880-1935), ,lived in Berlin, Germany.

Hosias Lemky was a brother of Frederika (Freda), wife of Tzvi-Benyamin Kvint of Letskava, Lithuania, parents of Yoel-Yehudah (Julius) Quint (1863-1938) father of Khaya-Reeva (Annie) Freedman (1885-1967), father of Yaakov-Reuven (John Ronald) Freedman (1910-1999), father of Chaim Freedman, author this blog.

          Mordekhai Zev (Max) Bull        
The origins of the Bull family are unclear. The earliest records in Latvia show them in the town Lewenhoff (now Livani) in the Dvinsk/Denaburg (now Daugavpils) district. There was a Bull family living in Nikolsburg, Moravia in the 17th century with later generations living in Amsterdam, Holland. It is known that a ship bearing Jews from Holland, who were on their way to settle in Lithuania, sunk off the Baltic coast in 1692. This may account for the movement of Dutch Jews to Lithuania and Latvia, including perhaps ancestors of the Bull family.

The earliest Bull recorded in Lewenhoff was Ruven Bull, born about 1760. His son Zev-Wulf Bull was the father of Nakhum-Dov

The 1858 Revision List in Dvinsk records him as Nokhem Wulfovitch Bull aged 36. In his household appear his brothers Efraim (drafted 1849), Wulf aged 30 (name must be an error as he could not have borne the same name as his father), and Aba aged 20 (with his wife Lea aged 22), his wife Rokhlya aged 37, his daughter Hanna.

The 1875 Family List of Dvinsk records him as Nakhman Wulfovitch Bull. He also appears in 1872 in the Hebrew newspaper Hamagid as a donor in a list of Jews living in the `Alt Plan' part of Dvinsk as `Ber Bull'. In the same list appears `Yehuda Leib Bull' who may have been his brother.

Nakhum-Dov was the father of of Mordekhai-Zev-Wulf Bull.

According to the 1889 list of Jews who settled in rural areas of Ludza district, Mordekhai was born in Levenhoff, moved to Dinaburg (Dvinsk, Daugavpils), then moved to Korsovka (Karsava) in 1881.







Mordekhai Zev's age as recorded in Latvian records conflicts with the 1901 London census and the age on his tombstone which states that he was aged eighty three at his death in 1931. That would mean he was born in 1848 whereas the Latvian records indicate he was born in 1854.



Mordekhai-Zev Bull, London 1922.

Mordekhai-Zev was a Chabad Chassid who combined the spiritualism of the Lubavich tradition with a strong Litvak leaning to study. His grandson Rabbi Arthur-Saul Super described him as “a Chassid with the heart of a Litvak”. He was one of the first Chabad Chassidim to settle in London at the beginning of the twentieth century. There he was associated with another Chabadnik, Rabbi Moshe-Avigdor Chaiken in many communal endeavors.

The Bulls were soundly established in London, both communally and economically. Their home in 73 Evering Road, Stoke Newington was renowned as a centre of scholarship and the leaders of the ultra-orthodox community frequently visited to study with Mordekhai-Zev. Grandpa Bull as he was known to the family played the role of the strict patriarch. He was an imposing figure, immaculately dressed in a frock coat and high black Yarmulka (skullcap). He and his wife Rivka brought up their family in the joyous tradition of Lubavich, while insisting on devotion to study by his sons. His tombstone refers to him as “Mimetzuyanei Chasidei Chabad” (one of the excellent Chabad Chassidim).
But he lived very much in the modern world and engaged in the fur trade with his sons as "M. Bull and Sons, furriers” in Kingsford Road, London.

Mordekhai’s wife was Rivka (Rebecca), was born in 1852 to David Halevy and Keila-Tsirel Dimantshtein from Korsovka. See separate article about the Dimantshtein family.


Rivka Bull (nee Dimantshtein), London 1922.

Rivka Bull was a matriarchal figure, She was very active in communal affairs, as recorded on her tombstone. She was a founder of the Stepney Jewish Hospital and supported many charities in England and in Eretz Yisrael. Whilst being very religious she had many modern practices: she often rebelled against wearing a Sheitel, wore lipstick and smoked a pipe! Rumour had it that she wanted to be an opera singer since she had a beautiful voice. Her parents were horrified at the suggestion and quickly arranged the match with the Talmudic student Mordekhai-Zev Bull. Relations between them were strained throughout their marriage. But they hosted their many children and grandchildren on many joyous occasions such as their Golden Wedding in 1922 and often sixty relatives sat down to Seder on Pesach.

Rebecca and Max Bull, Golden Wedding 1922, London, with Golden Chanukiah presented by their family.

The Bulls had ten children:

Yehudah-Leib (Leon) (1873-1955) who was the first of the family to settle in London about 1894.

Haska (Sarah) (1876-1975) who married Elias Germain and lived in New York.

Avraham (Ephraim) (1877-1974).
Mendel (Emanuel) (c.1881-1871).

Leah (Lena) (1881-1945) who married Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov Super and lived in Melbourne, Australia (see separate article).

Chaya (Annie) (1883-1972) who married David Gold.

Elka ( Alice) (1884-1969 who married David Felkov .

Eliezer (Laurie) (1889-1974).

Devorah (Dora) ( 1892-1985) who married Maurice Sagon.

Moshe (Maurice) (1895-1980).


Leon and Emanuel Bull, London

Sarah And Elias Germain, New York.

Leon and Betsy Bull, London.

Lena (nee Bull) and Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super, Evercreech, England c. 1914.
Immigrated to Melbourne, Australia in 1914.


Mordekhai-Zev Bull, died on the 10th Kislev 5692 (19th November 1931).
He was buried in the Montague Road Federation Cemetery, Edmonton, London

"Here is interred
The venerable, honourable,outstanding
in Torah and wonderful in Chassidut,
Naked in the Fear of Heaven one of the excellent of Chabad Chassidim
The R(abbi) Mordekhai-Zev
son of Nakhum Dov of blessed memory Bull.
Passed away at a good old age
in the 83rd year of his life,
Thursday 10th of the month of Kislev
5692
May his soul be bound up in the bond of everlasting life"

His grandson Arthur Saul Super (later Rabbi) wrote to his parents in Melbourne:

“He died like a grand old Jewish gentleman, full of years and honour. An hour before he died he discussed where certain words we were using appeared in the Bible. The funeral was a wonderful tribute to the man and his influence. He was taken to the Montague Road Shool where the Talmud Torah pupils were all drawn up as a guard of honour. Rabbi Abraham Witkind from a town in Latvia delivered a Hesped. During the week of Shiva the Gedolei Dor paid him honour, including Dayan Milman, the Trische Rebbe, Rabbi Kirsner, Rabbi Witkind, Rabbi Jacob Rabinovich”.


An obituary published in the Jewish Chronicle stated:

“North London Jewry has sustained a severe loss by the death of Mr. Marks Bull on Friday last. The deceased was a man of great learning and charm, and his life was one of unflinching loyalty to Orthodox Judaism. A number of institutions, particularly the Dalston Talmud Torah, owe much to his active support. He was one of the founders of the Old Castle Street Synagogue and retained his membership to the end. He enjoyed the intimate friedship of the late Dayan A. Chaikin with whom he was associated in many a worthy endeavour.”

A classroom was donated by the family to the Talmud Torah in Amhurst Road and Dayan Dr. A. Feldman spoke at the dedication.

Rivka Bull died on the 11th of Cheshvan, 5695, 20th of October 1934.


Her tombstone at the Federation Cemetery, Montague Road, next to her husband reads:

“Many wrought valiantly and you rose higher than them all. In many institutions of Torah and Prayer, charity and care, you acquired for yourself a name and a memorial in the country and outside it. This is the pious, intellectual, and generous of spirit and heart, doer of good deeds for the maintenance of Yeshivot, Talmud Torahs, synagogues and Study Houses, institutions of charity and care overseas and in the Holy land”.


Bull Family Reunion, England, 1985

          Family Heirloom - Tefilin        
My Tefilin

Chaim Freedman, Petah Tikvah, September 2008.

They aren’t particularly beautiful, now that they have had to be retired. Simple black cases, like tired old wood. Actually they’re parchment, petrified like wood after 165 years of constant, loving dedication. What simple beauty is encased in these old relics.

Heirlooms?

I would call them heirlooms, though they lack the monetary value usually thought to go with that term. But their value to me is greater than diamonds. Their value lies in not what they are, but whose they were.

I received the Tefilin in 1960 when I reached Barmitzvah age. My mother gave them to me telling me that I should treasure them as they belonged to her father, my grandfather Shlomo Zalman Komesaroff (Komisaruk, 1886-1958). Not only that, but they belonged to his grandfather before him, Rabbi Pinkhas Komisaruk (1830-1897), a revered figure in family lore.



Perhaps they were even older.

My grandfather died when I was eleven and his grandfather died when grandfather was eleven. In fact Rabbi Pinkhas’s grandfather, Rabbi Dov Ber Komisaruk (1776-1843) died when Pinkhas was thirteen and maybe the Tefilin originated that far back. What is certain is that they came from Lithuania when the Komisaruk family migrated from the town of Raseiniai to settle on the Jewish agricultural colony Grafskoy (now Proletarsky), Yekaterinoslav Guberniya, Ukraine in 1847.

As I think back over the history of my ancestors, the events they were involved in, the trials and tribulations and the joyous occasions, I imagine that the Tefilin were silent witnesses to those events. I imagine how they were lovingly packed with Pinkhas’s belonging when the family set off in 1847 in a small group of eleven families, some in wagons and some walking for the arduous journey that took months until they reached the Ukraine.

I imagine how Pinkhas took the Tefilin with him when he was conscripted into the Russian army during the Crimean War and took care of the needs of Jewish troops by slaughtering animals to provide for kosher food, he was a Shokhet, and by performing funerals for the Jewish casualties.

I imagine how Pinkhas took his Tefilin with him when he jumped onto his horse whenever he heard of a pogrom in 1880’s and rode off to help and comfort the victims.

I imagine how Pinkhas wore the Tefilin when he attended Morning Prayer with the families of babies for who he performed circumcision, he was a Mohel.

I imagine Pinkhas teaching his grandson Shlomo Zalman how to put on Tefilin in preparation for his Barmitzvah, an occasion Pinkhas was not to live long enough to attend.

Some of my fondest memories of my grandfather are intimately bound up with religious occasions: sitting in the synagogue next to him or on his knee as he showed me the place in the Siddur. Listening as he made Kiddush on Shabbat or conducted the Seder on Pesach. After his death and my attainment of Barmitzvah, I was proud to wear the Tefilin which carried with them so many memories, both personal and historical.

Just as my grandfather brought them from Russian to Australia in 1913, so I brought them from Australia to Israel when we made Aliyah in 1977. I wore them daily for about forty years. From time to time they were inspected by a Sofer to make sure that the inscription on the parchment had not been damaged. Winding the straps around the boxes after use gradually took its toll on the shape of the Tefilin as they became warped.

Finally about the year 2000, they became unusable. I was inconsolable; I had to buy new tefilin. They would never be the same.

My Heirloom is now a museum piece. The Tefilin sit in a show case in our living room on a small bag embroidered specially for them by my grandmother, along with my grandfather’s white Kippah that he wore on festivals, They look lonely and tired, but still proud after so much that they have witnessed.


          Genetic testing as an aid for genealogical research – personal experience of Chaim Freedman        
Lecture given by Chaim Freedman to the Jewish Family Research Association, Petah Tikvah, Israel, May 2008.
The opinions expressed are those of the author and are based on a genealogical approach. The author claims no scientific expertise in Genetics.

In October 2006 I received the results of my genetic testing from Family Tree DNA. I had ordered a test of twelve markers on the Y chromosome, my paternal ancestry. (For technical explanations see Family Tree DNA site http://www.familytreedna.com/ ).

Initially I matched exactly with seven families who had tested with FTDNA. Over the course of the following year four more families tested and matched at the 12 marker level.

The families corresponded and exchanged information about their known ancestry in the male line with respect to the dates of their earliest known ancestors and their place of origin.

Subsequently most of the families updated their test to 25 markers and then 37 markers in order to establish more accurately possible common ancestry.

While 11 families matched my markers exactly on 12 markers, only 4 matched exactly on 25 markers while the other families differed on one or more markers. None of the families matched me exactly on 37 markers, but showed a variation of non-matching markers such that the probability of a common ancestor within a reasonable genealogical time frame lessened as a greater numbers of markers were tested.

The following is a list of the families, the date of birth of their earliest known ancestor and their place of origin.

(In the interests of privacy only the initial of the family surname is shown).

C; 1830; Dombroveni, Ukraine (Romania).
F; 1840; Rumania
H; 1850; Slavuta and Starakonstntinovka, Ukraine.
K; 1858; Starakonstantinovka, Ukraine.
L; 1875; Odessa, Ukraine.
Le; no response
Lo; Jugoslavia.
S; 1735; Orinin, Ukraine.
Sa; 1825; Alsace.
Si; 1825, Zinkov, Ukraine.
Z; 1860; Miastovka and Dombroveny, Ukraine.

Freedman; 1780, Zakroczym, Poland.


The Jewish Pale of Settlement in Russia, 1835-1917
from "The Jews of Russia, Their History in maps and photographs"
Martin Gilbert, 1976
Click to enlarge


Podolia, Volynia, Bessarabia, Ukraine - origins of the getetically matching families
Click to enlarge
It is possible for each of the matching families to calculate the number of generations, and thereby years, to the Most Recent Common Ancestor by using that facility on each family’s home pages. Next to each name (in the 37 marker section) is an icon which leads to this facility. It gives a chart showing the percentage probability to our MRCA. BUT we should carry out the second stage of this calculation, which is also provided, by entering the number of generations we know that we are not related. For example, my earliest known ancestor Yaakov Frydman was born about 1780. He was not the ancestor of any of this group. I am fifth generation after him. So I add a factor of five to the calculation. This pushes any MRCA further back. It is up to each of us to then decide what % probability we choose to consider significant for a relationship between us. I adjusted the calculation of the distance to our Most Recent Common Ancestor to 75% probability taking into account that we have no known common ancestor within 5 generations.

Family Tree DNA provides a statistical guide for Most Recent Common Ancestor for 12 identical markers:
7 generations, 50% probability
23 generations, 90% probability
29 generations, 95% probability.

For instance, my closest match is with Z and Si with a genetic difference of 2. That alone does not tell me how far back we may relate. Going to the FTDNA site and entering the above factors for each of Z and Si, I find that at a level of 75% probability our MRCA was 11 generations ago, or about 275 years. If I had not factored in the known non-relationship of 5 generations, I would have reached an incorrect level of relationship of about 9 generations or 225 years.We should also consider geographic proximity (which cannot be factored in mathematically) . For instance H and K both originate in the Slavuta area, Z and C have relatives in the same town Dombroven. This despite the level of DNA match.

In my opinion, based on our experience whereby the more markers we test, the further away from each other we move, for those who have not tested 37 markers the calculations are not worth doing.
Although my family lived in Zakroczym near Warsaw my DNA matches come from Volynia and Podolia.
My great-grandfather Jacob- Bendyt Frydman was born in 1852 in Zakroczym just northwest of Warsaw. His father Zyndel Frydman died there in 1855 and on his death record is written "parentage and birthplace not recorded" although he is called "Zyndel Jakubowicz".
One explanation for the missing information on Zyndel Frydman's death record, may be that he was abducted to serve in the army at an early age,from somewhere in the region of my DNA matches came from (Volynia/Podolia) . I am only surmising his military service, but since he was born in 1808 and had his apparently only son (plus two daughters) not until 1852, the military service may account for his absence. Of course we all know how Jewish young boys were kidnapped at a young age and served for 25 years in the army.
A Russian army fortress, Modlin, was constructed in 1823 near Zakroczym. The scenario I see is that Zyndel Frydman may have been released there about 1852 (when he was nearly aged 25), married a girl from a Zakroczym family (Chanah Gro) and settled there. Since he was kidnapped young, he may not have known anything about his origins, hence the lack of such information on his death.

It is interesting that over the last year since the original matching families have been in contact only three additional people has been discovered, even with a minimal twelve marker match. We await the details of these additional families.
The progress of our updating from 12 markers to 37 markers has demonstrated that it is not worth making assumptions about any possible relationships until at least 37 markers are tested. As we tested more markers, our original supposed exact match on 12 markers moved further and further away, such that none of us now match within a reasonable genealogical time period. But we can be encouraged that our data is within the FTDNA system and can only hope that their testing sample grows significantly.

Significance of ethnicity.

The above group of matching Jewish families are classified by their markers in one or other of the subgroups of I Haplogroup. According to the scientific research papers this haplogroup is not typically Jewish.

I sought a theoretical explanation for this phenomenon.

The statistical distribution of this haplogroup is predominantly Scandinavia, North Germany, France, Britain. A very small number of the recorded/tested families were Jewish.

Yet the common geographic origin of the matching Jewish families may be explained by the introduction of a non-Jewish primogenitor-father in the Ukraine. Given the marital ban on marriages between Jews and Christians, and the Church ban on Christians converting to Judaism, and given that the matching families above are all Jewish in the male line, it could be assumed that the non-Jewish Ukrainian primogenitor raped the female primogenitor during a pogrom in the Ukraine.

Events which may have provided the circumstances for rape:

Crusades in Germany and France 11th century – about 900 years/ 36 generations, which is much earlier than the probability for 12 exactly matching markers.

Pogrom in Kiev 1113 – unlikely source as above.

Black death massacres in Germany late 14th century. May have introduced haplogroup I close to its geographic origin.

Cossack massacres (Khemelnitsky) in the Ukraine 1648-1655. If the son of a Jewish woman raped by a Cossack was born about 1650, given an average family size of 12 children, of whom about 30% died in childhood, and if the survivors were 50% males, then the natural increase per generation was a factor of 4. The child of the rape union may have had 4 sons, 16 grandsons, 64 great-grandsons, 256 great-great-grandsons, and 1024 great-great-great-grandsons.




Ukraine - region of Cossack massacres 1648-1655
Click to enlarge

Given the large number of these hypothetical descendants of the Cossack/Jewish union, one should expect to find many more matches than the eleven families. The reason for such a small number of matches may be due to the small number of families who underwent DNA testing. A search for matches on the Ysearch site http://www.ysearch.org/ yields only a small number of families with the haplogroup I, few of which are Jewish. No Ukrainians appear in this list.
Conversly, no non-Jewish matches were found for the Jewish group. This may indicate that for some reason the group is unique.

It may be concluded that the sample size is too small or that Ukrainians were not tested, such that the above conclusion as to how the matching families are of I haplogroup may lack sufficient evidence.

Until a large sample of Ukrainians have been tested and only if they exhibit significantly I haplogroup, the Cossack rape cause cannot be judged.

Swedish War with Russia and Poland 1655-1658 although evidence (Dubnov) shows that the Swedes were not antagonistic towards the Jews, isolated incidents of rape may have occurred. This could explain the introduction of haplogroup I to a small group of families, perhaps a generation later than that proposed for a Cossack source. Furthermore, being of Scandinavian origin, such a source is in keeping with one of the most prevalent regions of haplogroup I origin.

Source: Simon Dubnov, “The Jews In Russia and Poland”, Philadelphia 1916
Dubnov describes the cruel treatment of the Jews in 1648 by the Cossacks in Podolia and Volynia in such places as Nemirov, Tulchin, Ostropol, Zaslav, Ostrog, Constantinov, Narol, Kreenetz, Bar and many others. The second wave of pogroms in 1655 moved further north into Belarus and Lithuania and Poland.

“The most terrible cruelty, however, was shown towards the Jews. They were destined to utter annihilation. The Cossacks, in conjunction with the local Russian inhabitants, fell upon the Jews and massacred them; the women and girls were violated. The young Jewish women were frequently allowed to live, the Cossacks and the peasants forcing them into baptism and taking them as wives.

After the cessation of the pogroms “Those of them who, at the point of death, had embraced the Greek Orthodox faith, were permitted by King John Casimir to return to their old creed. The Jewish women who had been forcibly baptized fled in large numbers from their Cossack husbands and returned to their families. The losses during the decade 1648-1658 varies between 100,000 and 500,000.”

Further records of the social effect of the pogroms is found in writings of Rabbi Avraham Horowitz, Natan Hannover and the will of Rabbi Sheftel Horowitz “Yesh Nokhlin, 5461/1701: “In all the places where killings were carried out hundreds of small youths, were annihilated, and small babies who were converted were taken by force by the Jews from the Gentiles, and for each was written an amulet from which family he was, by investigation. These amulets were hung on their necks. There was a great mixture and what the wise men of that generation could correct they did, and that which was not possible, remained in the mixture, and it is feared that in the course of years people will cast doubts on their holiness. Therefore it is worthwhile that everyone who was at that time should make a “Seder Yukhsin” (family tree) for his seed and his seed’s seed as a sign and safekeeping”

Reservations about the significance of testing to date:

Of a database of about 134,000 tests done by FTDNA, only 54,000 have been transfered to YSearch . Of these about 4,200 are I haplogroup. Of these only about 170 were tested in Eastern Europe, where most of our families originate. (Figures for YSearch taken in early 2008).Theories as to the significance of ethnic origins of I haplogroup, are, in my opinion, premature.
The significance of Haplogroup to ethnic origins is very controversial.I personally am not impressed with much of what has been published regarding the meaning of Haplogroups to Jewish origins since I do not believe that the samples of Jews are large enough. For instance a sample of about 1400 Jews was taken for a particular experiment. The scope and makeup of the sample was restricted to people from synagogues in the USA.
I feel that there are 5.5 million Jews living in Israel from whom a sample of several hundred thousand could be taken. The problem is the cost. I invested about $500 for my and my wife's tests. I don't think many people are prepared to do that.
There are many opinions there which you can all study and come to your own conclusions. Some have vested interests, religious, political, etc.

Female ancestry

My wife and I tested for our maternal genetic matches. The results, based on Mitochondrial DNA are far less accurate than paternal Y chromosome testing and do not give a clear statistical estimate of the number of generations to a common ancestor. Neverthless, geographic proximaty of matching families does indicate some relationship.

My tests resulted in 132 matches at Low Resolution and only five at High Resolution. Of these five one refused to share their results but two share with me geographic origins in Lithuania.

My wife received 53 Low Resolution matches and 5 High Resolution. Some of her matches originated, like her female ancestry in the Vitebsk area of Belarus.

Scientific papers and Internet sites:
See “Frequently Asked Questions” provided by Family Tree DNA http://www.familytreedna.com/faq.html

Behar, Doron. Skorecki, Karl and others, Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European population Human Genetics (2004) 114: 354-365.
http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/Behar_contrasting.pdf

In the later paper haplogroup diversity of Ashkenazi Jews from various regions was compared with non-Jews. 55 Ukrainian Jews appear in the sample, yet no Ukrainian non-Jews were included.

Behar, Doron. Skorecki, Karl and others “Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries. American Journal of Human Genetics 73:768-779, 2003.
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/tcgapdf/Behar-AJHG-03.pdf

Nordtvelt, Ken Population Varities within Y-Haplogroup I and their extended Modal Haplogroups.
http://www.northwestanalysis.net/

Coffman-Levy, Ellen “A Mosaic of People: the Jewish Story and a Reassessment of the DNA Evidence” Journal of Genetic Genealogy 1:12-13, 2005.
http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm
http://majorityrights.com/index.php/weblog/comments/the_mystery_of_ashkenazic_origins/

http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/43026_doron.pdf

A useful layman’s source for the understanding of Jewish genetic testing is “Jacob’s Legacy, A Genetic View of Jewish History”, David B. Goldstein, Yale University Press, 2008.

A Google search for Jewish Genetics will yield a vast number of sources.

          Death In Venice - seeking the Katzenellenbogen tombstones        
Death In Venice - seeking the Katzenellenbogen tombstones

(Chaim Freedman, July 2008.)

Having recently discovered my descent from the Katzenellenbogen family, I decided to trace the graves of members of the early generations while I was in Italy (May 2008).






http://chfreedman.blogspot.com/search/label/Ancestry%20of%20the%20Vilna%20Gaon%20-%20Descent%20from%20King%20David


My wife and I were staying in Venice for a week in a conveniently located Pension in the Ghetto Nuovo, the oldest part of the Ghetto which was founded in 1516. We visited the adjacent Jewish museum and I asked one of the curators, Daniela, whether she knew of Katzenellenbogens who might be buried in the ancient Jewish cemetery of Venice located on the Lido Island. Daniela looked up several books which were in the museum library and which included lists of the burials in the Lido cemetery. There were no Katzenellenbogens, neither listed under that surname, nor were any of the deceased who were listed without surname, of suitable personal names.

I was aware that the two Katzenellenbogens who had held the official position of Rabbi of Venice were buried in Padua, but it was not clear where the wife of one of them was buried and so I suspected that she might be buried in Venice. It turned out that I was wrong.

The earliest member of the family to be known by the surname Katzenellenbogen was Rabbi Meir the son of Yitskhak. His family apparently came from the small village overlooking the Rhine called Katzenellenbogen. Meir’s father Yitskhak moved to Padua in Italy, a rich centre of Jewish and secular scholarship. Yitskhak wife was believed by many rabbinic genealogists to have been a daughter of Yekhiel Luria (died 1470), whose family held a tradition of descent from Rashi (1040-1105), himself a reputed descendant of King David.

Meir Katzenellenbogen was born in Germany in 1482 and was known by an acrostic of his name as the “Maharam Padua”. His wife Khanah was a daughter of Rabbi Avraham Mintz, a son of Rabbi Yehudah ben Eliezer Halevy Mintz (c.1405-1508). The Mintz family came from Maintz, Germany and Rabbi Yehudah established the Yeshiva in Padua which was attended by prominent scholars. On his death his son Rabbi Avraham succeeded as Head of the Yeshivah and Rabbi of Padua. On Avraham’s death in about 1535[1] his son-in-law Rabbi Meir Katzenellenbogen became rabbi both of Padua and Venice. He lived in Padua and only visited Venice periodically.

On the death of the Maharam Padua in 1565, his son Rabbi Shmuel-Yehudah became Rabbi of Venice where he resided. His wife’s name was Avigayil (her father’s name is not known) and she died in 1594 in Venice, followed by Rabbi Shmuel-Yehudah in 1597, also in Venice. However Rabbi Shmuel-Yehudah was taken to Padua for burial next to his father and mother.

According to Rosenstein[2] “Over the centuries, the tombstone of the Maharam began to crumble being made of soft stone, and its inscription was becoming illegible, so that in 1966, four hundred years after his death, the community of Padua replaced the tombstone with a new one in the original site. The old stone now stands in the new cemetery of Padua. This was witnessed by the present writer on a visit to Padua in 1968.” *

During my vacation in Italy I was anxious to visit the Katzenellenbogen graves, both out of sentiment for my ancient ancestors (I am an 18th generation descendant of the Maharam Padua through the Vilna Gaon) but also to ascertain the burial place of Avigayil and perhaps her father’s name which I expected to appear on the inscription on her tombstone.

Padua has several old cemeteries and I consulted the Jewishgen’s International Cemetery project http://www.jewishgen.org/cemetery/ to determine which housed the Katzenellenbogen tombstones. This indicated that there were two ancient cemeteries. So I consulted a site for Jewish Padua

http://www.kosherdelight.com/ItalyVenetoPaduaSynagogue.htm

which stated that “The Jewish cemeteries in the city make a separate itinerary: there are seven in all, and some can be visited by arrangement with the community offices.The first cemetery is at San Leonardo and dates from before 1348. Among the tombs is that of the famous Rabbi Meir Katzenellenbogen (1482-1565) with its carving of a cat (Katze in German).”

I posted on the Jewishgen forum a request for information about the accessibility of the cemetery. I received several replies including one from Israeli genealogist Schelly Talalay-Dardashti http://tracingthetribe.blogspot.com/ who referred me to an expert on Italian Jewry, Nardo Bonomi who lives in Florence and is the coordinator of the site
http://www.italian-family-history.com/jewish/genealogy.html . He very kindly phoned the Jewish Community Centre in Padua and made enquiries for me. Likewise I was informed by Elieser Rosenfield of Jerusalem that he had visited the cemetery and he gave me the contact details of the person who guided him, an official of the Padua Jewish Community Raffaele D'Angeli.

I emailed the latter and we set a date for my visit as the cemetery is not readily open to the public other than by prior arrangement.

Meanwhile in Venice we arranged to visit the cemetery on the Lido in the hope of perhaps finding the grave of Avigayil Katzenellenbogen. There was only one weekly tour available, led by Daniela of the Jewish museum. However this was cancelled due to heavy rain.

So on the day before we were due to leave Italy we set off by train on a short thirty minute journey to Padua. We met Rafi as arranged outside the Plaza Hotel. A twenty minute walk through the old cobbled streets of Padua led us to the locked gate set in the high brick wall surrounding the cemetery. Rafi unlocked the gate to let us in and took us the back row of the cemetery. The grounds are well looked after and there is an ongoing project to restore and identify the tombstones.






The Katzenellenbogen tombstones stand in a row against the rear wall of the cemetery. According to Rafi this was their original site. It was a very moving moment to be confronted by the tombstones of my ancestors of 450 years ago.





There are five stones from left to right:

Rabbi Shmuel Yehudah, 1521-1597 son of Rabbi Meir Katzenellenbogen.


Rabbi Meir the “Maharam Padua”, 1482-1565.


Khanah, died 1564, the daughter of Rabbi Avraham Halevy Mintz
and wife of Meir Katzenellenbogen.


The bottom fragment of a tombstone, most of the inscription being illegible.


Avigayil, the wife of Shmuel Yehudah, died 1594.


This last stone cleared up the mystery as to where Avigayil was buried. Like her husband who also died in Venice, her body must have been taken to Padua for burial. Her father’s name does not appear on her tombstone, so that remains a mystery. Had I read Edelman’s book “Gedulat Shaul”[3] thoroughly I would have noted that his copies of the inscriptions of the Katzenellenbogen tombstones in Padua included Avigyail. Apparently Pinkhas Katzenellenbogen, the author of “Yesh Mankhilin” (1758) had no access to the Padua cemetery as not only does he omit the tombstone incriptions, but he confuses the names of the wives[4] . The manuscript of Yesh Mankhilin was published in 1986 and the editor likewise appears to have been unaware of the inscriptions published by Edelman in “Gedulat Shaul” (1854).

Set on the wall over the fragmented stone is an architrave bearing the figure of a cat. This also appears at the top of the other stones and indicates the source of the surname from the town Katzenellenbogen “cat’s elbow”.



As to the fragmented stone between Khanah and Avigayil, I believe it can be identified from the wording on Khanah’s tombstone which states that she was buried to the right of her father, Avraham Mintz. That indeed is the location in relation to the fragmented stone.

A personal note: our daughter’s name is Avigayil Khanah, like the two female Katzenellenbogens, a coincidence I only realized when standing by the tombstones.

I was interested in seeing the tombstone of Rabbi Yehudah Mintz, the grandfather of the Maharam’s wife, but Rafi informed me that he had been buried in another cemetery next to Rabbi Yitskhak Abarbanel and the stone had been destroyed. This is confirmed in “Elef Margaliot”[5] which states that the stone was destroyed during a war a year after the burial, in 1509.

The Hebrew inscriptions on the tombstones match those cited by Endelman[6] (see copies above) and the English translation can be found in Rosenstein[7], with the exception of that of Avigayil.

* It appears to me that the stone which was restored was that of Shmuel Yehudah and not of his father the Maharam. Shmuel-Yehudah’s stone is white with a clearly etched inscription. The adjacent stones of his relatives are of uniform condition and apparent age. I have asked Rafi for clarification.

I am also awaiting the arrival of Rosenstein’s new book on Shaul Wahl, a son of Shmuel Yehudah Katzenelenbogen to ascertain whether he has included an updated reference to the tombstones.


Sources:
“Yesh Mankhilin”, Pinkhas Katzenellenbogen, manuscript from 1758 , published Jerusalem 1986.
“Gedulat Shaul”, Tzvi Hersh Edelman, London 1854.
“The Unbroken Chain”, Neil Rosenstein, CIS Publishers, New Jersey, U.S.A. 1990.
“Elef Margaliot”, Meir Wunder, Jerusalem, 1993.
“Saul Wahl : Polish King for a Night, Or, Lithuanian Knight for a Lifetime”, Neil Rosenstein, 2006.
“The Venetian Ghetto”, Sullam and Calimani, Milan 2005
“The Ghetto On the Lagoon:, Unberto Fortis, Venice 1995.
“Ancestry of the Gaon of Vilna – Descent from King David”, Chaim Freedman, Petah Tikvah, Israel, September 2005, published in "Avotaynu" Volume XXI, Number 3, Fall 2005.

Links:
Chaim Freedman’s blog http://chfreedman.blogspot.com/

Photos of trip to Italy:
http://picasaweb.google.com/chaimjan/Italy2008

Information about the Katzenellenbogen family.
Wikepedia links have been used for convenience of access, but the information is not necessarily accurate.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meir_Padua
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Judah_Katzenellenbogen
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judah_Minz
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Minz
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katzenellenbogen,_Germany

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Venice.html
http://www.archipelago.org/vol2-3/lido.htm
http://www.museoebraico.it/english/home.asp
http://www.museoebraico.it/english/ghetto.html
http://www.italian-family-history.com/jewish/genealogy.html
http://www.kosherdelight.com/ItalyVenetoPaduaSynagogue.htm
http://www.jewishgen.org/cemetery/

[1] “ Elef Margaliot”, Meir Wunder, Jerusalem 1993, p.186
[2] “The Unbroken Chain”, Neil Rosenstein, 1990, Volume I page 3.
[3] “Gedulat Shaul”, Tzvi Hirsh Edelman, London 1854, introduction pp.xii,-xiv
[4] “ Yesh Mankhilin”, Pinkhas Katzenellenbogen, manuscript from 1758 , published Jerusalem 1986, page 59.
[5] “ Elef Margaliot”, Meir Wunder, Jerusalem 1993, p.190.
[6] “ Gedulat Shaul”, Tzvi Hirsh Edelman, London 1854, introduction pp.xii,-xiv
[7] “The Unbroken Chain”, Neil Rosenstein, 1990, Volume I, pp2-4.
          Leopold Quint: The mystery of his fate.        
My late grandmother Annie Freedman (born 1885 Pikeliai, Lithunia; died 1967 Melbourne, Australia) told me that her younger brother Leib/Leopold Kvint returned to Lithuania from England in order to marry. I have a photo of him and his wife taken in Kursenai in 1928.



My grandmother told me that her brother moved to Riga and was killed on the first day of the German occupation of the city. She believed that Leopold's wife and children were killed subsequently. She did not recall the name of her brother's wife or children.

For over 40 years I have been seeking evidence as to my great-uncle's fate.

Recently I received a prompt reply from The International Tracing Service at Bad Arolsen, Germanyinforming me that they had no record of him.


An on-line database "Victims of Political Terror in the USSR" http://www.lists.memo.ru/index11.htm includes


"Leopold Yudelevich Kvint, born 1888 in Lithuania, Jewish, without specialoccupation, lived in Orlov, convicted 15.01.1944 by a special committee ofthe NKVD under law 58.10 and sentenced to 5 years deprivation of freedom. Rehabilitated 07.04.1961. Source: Kniga Pamyati (Memorial Book) of Kirov Oblast."

As my great-grandfather's name was Yoel-Yehudah (Yudel), and my greatuncle was aged 16 according to a Hamburg Passenger list from 1903 en-route to London(therefore born about 1887), and was born in Lithuania, then I believe that the above was indeed my long-looked-for great-uncle Leib or Leopold Kvint.






My grandmother told me that he reurned to Lithuania to marry and Latvian records include his marriage in 1923 in Kursenai to Sare Luriye.


What I do not understand is why my grandmother thought he had perished in1941, how he survived, what he was doing between 1941 and his arrest in1944, why he was arrested in Orlov, was he alive when he was "rehabilitated", and what then became of him (if he survived his imprisonment) !

I have studied various sources for the period, but fail to understand why he and many other Jews were arrested in 1944 by the NKVD, that is after theGermans had been defeated in the USSR.

Details of the period are to be found on "Gulag during World War II" at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulag and details of the Penal Code of theRSFSR at http://www.cyberussr.com/rus/uk58-e.html#58-1a give the following information:


"Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on February 25,1927 to arrest those suspected of counter-revolutionary activities.Sentences were long, up to 25 years, and frequently extended indefinitely without trial or consultation. Inmates under Article 58 were known as"politichesky" as opposed to common criminals, "ugolovnik". Upon release, the prisoner would typically be sent into an exile within Russia without the right to settle closer than 100 km from large cities.Section 10 of Article 58 made "propaganda and agitation against the Soviet Union" a triable offence, whilst section 12 allowed for onlookers to be prosecuted for not reporting instances of section 10. In effect, Article 58was carte blanche for the secret police to arrest and imprison anyone deemed suspicious, making for its use as a political weapon. A person could be framed: The latter would arrange an "anti-Soviet" incident in the person's presence and then try the person for it. If the person pleaded innocence, not having reported the incident would also make them liable to imprisonment. During and after World War II, Article 58 was used to imprison many returned Soviet prisoners of war on the grounds that their capture and detainment by the Axis Powers during the war was proof that they did not fight to thedeath and were therefore anti-Soviet."


The fate of Leopold Quint remains a mystery.

          Reverend Phillip Berliner        
Pinkhas (Phillip Berliner)

(Written by his son-in-law Chaim Freedman in “The Pen and the Blade, Super Family” 1992).

Pinkhas (Phillip) Berliner was born in London, England in 1916, the youngest son of immigrants from Lodz, Poland. He attended Yeshivah Etz Chaim in London where he learned under the prominent Lithuanian leaders of English ultra-orthodoxy at the time, Rabbis Eliya Lopian and Eliyahu-Eliezer Dessler. He was such an excellent student that his teachers selected him to join a group which went to study at the recently established Gateshead Yeshiva in 1931 under Rabbi N.D.Landinsky.

In the mid 1930’s a proposal was made by the rabbis of Etz Chaim and Gateshead to further the higher religious education of English Yeshiva students at prominent eastern European Yeshivot. Pinkhas Berliner was selected to join a group of about ten students who went to Mir Yeshiva in Poland (now Belarus) and to Telz (Telsiai) Yeshivah in Poland. The group included Rabbi Nakhum-Zev (Velvel) Dessler, Josh Chinn, Rabbi Shlomo Davis, Rabbi Koppul Rosen, Rabbi Chaim Gutnik, Montie Moore, Rabbi Shmuel Bloch, Rabbi Dovber Silver and others who became leading orthodox rabbis and scholars, mainly in the United states. Details are to be found at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~rkimble/Mirweb/YeshivaStudents.html .

Pinkhas Berliner studied in Mir under the renowned Rosh Yeshivah Rabbi Eliezer-Yehudah Finkel and the Mashgiakh Rabbi Yekhezkel Levinstein. On the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the foreign students fled Poland, by order of the Rosh Yeshivah, the day before the Germans invaded Poland. For several months the group wandered backwards and forwards through Latvia and Estonia since they had inadequate papers. During this period of extreme physical deprivation and exposure. Pinkhas’s health suffered irreparably. Eventually visas were obtained through a Jewish member of the Latvian parliament, Rabbi Mordekhai Dubin, and the group settled in Lithuania at Telz Yeshivah under the soon to be martyred Rabbi Avraham-Yitskhak Bloch.

After nine months in Telz, in February 1940 Pinkhas rejoined Mir Yeshiva which had been relocated in Keidan, Lithuania. There he was finalizing his studies to qualify for Semikhah (rabbinical ordination) when the Soviet Army invaded the Baltic States. The Yeshivot were constantly harassed by the Communist regime and as the Germany army hovered in nearby Poland, the future looked ominous.

The British Government finally arranged a means of evacuating British and other foreign nationals. Travelling on visas issued by the famous Japanese consul in Kovno (Kaunas) Sugiharo, the group was sent eastwards via the Trans Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. From there they went to Hong Kong but were unable to continue to America due to hostilities at sea. Instead the group travelled to Brisbane, Australia. After several months of futile attempts to establish a Yeshivah in Melbourne, most of the group made their way to America and were amongst the founders of Mir, Telz and Lakewood Yeshivot. Some returned to England after the war.

Those remaining in Australia were Rabbi Dovber Silver, Rabbi Chaim Gutnik and Pinkhas (now Phillip) Berliner. Although he had a visa for America and had been accepted to Yeshiva Mesifta Torah Vadaat in New York, Phillip remained in Australia. He taught briefly in Sydney until he went to Melbourne in 1941 to marry Edna, daughter of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov and Lena Super. They had three daughters Mirel-Shulamit (Muriel) Kleerekoper, Leah-Nekhama (Lena) Pose and Sheindel (Jane) Freedman.

In order to support his family Phillip learnt Shekhitah and joined his father-in-law at this arduous vocation. He also taught religious classes for the United Jewish Education Board and was assistant Chazan at the St.Kilda Hebrew Congregation. In 1946 he was granted the title “Reverend” by Rabbi Jacob Danglow in recognition of his services to the congregation.

Phillip Berliner was widely respected throughout the community. He approached his vocation with a deep sense of dedication and his sincere enthusiasm for Judaism inspired his students, in particular a small group that studied with him. One of these, Professor Louis Waller wrote to Phillip’s daughter Jane Freedman:

“Your father was a generous teacher in terms of time and energy. He drilled us rigorously in formal Hebrew grammar, introducing me to the patterns and paradigms which became ingrained. Though he was not a scientific linguist, he was very knowledgeable and very determined that our foundations in structure would be well laid. He invited Max Jotkovitz, Sonja Black and me to your home in Crimea Street on Saturday afternoons in the latter part of 1948 and 1949 for revision of the set books and lightening like parsing, declension and conjunction. Your mother would give us tea and cake to sustain us, and your grandfather viewed us with a bemused but benevolent eye. In addition to the biblical set books, grammar and history, we also studied a tractate of Mishnah, Baba Batra.”

Berliner’s work as a Shokhet was very taxing, both from the long work hours and the nature of the work. As recalled by Waller: “I asked your father about his work as a Shochet. He showed me his Khalef (blade) which he carried in a case in his breast pocket. I have an impression, but not a strong one, that he found his work in the slaughter house not only physically but also mentally very demanding.”

Reverend Berliner had regular duties to perform for the St.Kilda synagogue. Aside from services, in particular reading the Torah and teaching, he had to attend weddings, funerals and other occasions in the life of the congregants. In this way he built up a wide circle of people who held him in respect for his mild manner and friendly disposition. Professor Waller, in a memorial to Rabbi Danglow (St.Kilda Hebrew Congregation Chronicle, March 1981), mentions Berliner both as his teacher and paints a picture of the Bimah at the St.Kilda synagogue whilst Rabbi Danglow conducted the Neilah service:

“It is Neilah. On the Almemar stand Reverend Kowadlo and Mr. Berliner – as always. Each is enveloped in white Kittel and woolen Tallit. But both are at the back of the Almemor, in their respective corners. At the desk stands the Rabbi. He is davening Neilah.”

Berliner’s communal duties were not without considerable aggravation, as was common among the Melbourne synagogues, internal politics often claimed innocent victims, in this case Phillip Berliner. His health was never the best, he suffered severely from asthma, and the machinations of several members of the Board of his synagogue wounded him deeply.

On Shabbat, 20th Kheshavn 5720, November 21, 1959 Phillip Berliner died suddenly following a severe asthma attack. The entire community was shocked that this man, beloved by so many, had been struck down in his prime at the age at the age of forty-three.

Phillip’s widow Edna was faced with the awesome task of bringing up their three daughters.




Phillip Berliner C.V. (click to enlarge)






















Novoyelna summer camp about 1938





Reference from Rabbi Eliezer Yehudah Finkel, Rosh Yeshiva of Mir













Reference from Rabbi Avraham Yitskhak Bloch, Rosh Yeshiva Telz.
















Visa from Japanese Consul Sugihara, Kovno 1940




Phillip Berliner married in 1941 Edna, the daughter of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super of Melbourne. Berliner served the Melbourne community as Shokhel, Chazan and teacher until his premature death in 1959.








An archive of his papers is to be donated to the Jewish Museum in Melbourne.
          The Gaon of Vilna - Verifying Oral Tradition        
THE GAON OF VILNA - VERIFYING ORAL TRADITIONS

Based on "Eliyahu's Branches - The Descendants of the Vilna Gaon and His Family",
Chaim Freedman "Avotaynu 1997.

Published as an article in Avotaynu, Volume XIII, #3, Autumn, 1997

Chaim Freedman – lecture to the Israel Genealogy Society, Jerusalem, February 2000.

The Legend

Tracing the family tree of the Gaon of Vilna, has long posed a challenge to genealogists due to the many difficulties encountered in validating the claims of families which hold an oral tradition of descent from the Gaon. Many families of Lithuanian origin preserve a tradition of descent from the Gaon, but the exact nature of many of their claims defies clear definition. Indeed, the apparent uncertainty of such claims has engendered amongst scholars and the general public an attitude of scepticism as to their authenticity, and an aura of legend has surrounded this perplexing puzzle.


THE HISTORY OF RESEARCH OF THE FAMILY OF THE GAON OF VILNA

A number of attempts have been made in the past to research the family of the Gaon of Vilna. The most comprehensive published genealogy is "Sefer Hayakhas Lemishpakhat Rivlin Umishpakhat HaGaon miVilna " (the Genealogy of the Rivlin Family and the Family of the Gaon of Vilna) written by the late Eliezer Rivlin in Jerusalem in 1935. He recorded many branches of the Gaon's family that were known at the time. But Rivlin's work encompasses only 300 descendants of the Gaon . It should be noted that at the time when Rivlin conducted his research (prior to the Second World War) communication technology was limited, and the difficulty of exchange of information over closed borders limited the scope of the material Rivlin was able to collect.

Number of descendants

A mathematical extrapolation over the eight to ten generations that are descended from the Gaon can be shown to yield about 140,000 - 150,000 theoretical descendants. Even allowing for factors such as cousin marriages and considerable decimation during the Holocaust, the Gaon's family tree should potentially encompass a considerable number of families of Lithuanian origin.

Personal involvement

This author has been interested in the genealogy of the Gaon since his childhood when he heard his grandparents telling stories about their ancestors, including the Gaon of Vilna. The subject of the Gaon gained new momentum during a discussion which took place in Jerusalem between genealogist the late Rabbi Shmuel Gorr and Benyamin Rivlin, son of Eliezer Rivlin, the author of the above-mentioned original genealogy of the Gaon. Rivlin suggested to Gorr that he propose to Chaim Freedman that Freedman take upon himself the project of updating the Gaon's genealogy. This major research project was instigated in mid-1987. Its objective was to collate all available material about the Gaon's family and to publish an updated genealogy. The importance of pursuing this project was that it would provide the last opportunity to preserve oral traditions and link them to related archival material before the passage of time further eroded the genealogical memory base of oral traditions which were the key to research.

Comparison of parallel traditions

Cross-reference by the author of seemingly independent family histories resulted in the discovery of long-standing missing links. Families which held traditions that, when considered individually failed to provide a basis for establishing their descent from the Gaon, yet when collated by the author, displayed a common denominator which led to the establishment of their relationship.

Collection of material

Freedman's research involved the recording, analyzing and assessing of material provided by families claiming a relationship with the Gaon, as well as a comprehensive survey of library resources in Israel including community histories, newspapers, journals, rabbinic texts, biographies, manuscripts and published family histories.

Additional material was provided from resource centres outside Israel by Freedman's genealogical colleagues. Notable New York genealogist, Alex Friedlander was of particular and constant help. He researched vital statistic records obtained from Polish and Lithuanian archives.

The material collected by Freedman constitutes a valuable database for those interested in the Gaon's family.

FAMILY CATEGORIES

The nature of the material researched by this author in preparing a book on the family of the Gaon of Vilna necessitated the establishment by the author of three categories of families:

1) Families which claim a relationship with the Gaon of Vilna that is definitely established by reliable sources and records.

2) Families which hold an oral tradition of a relationship with the Gaon that, when critically analysed in the light of sources and records, is, in the opinion of the author, highly likely to be valid, beyond any reasonable doubt.

3) Families which hold an oral tradition of a relationship with the Gaon, but are unable to provide sufficient evidence for the author to verify their claims from the sources available to him. Such families have been further divided into two groups:

a) Families for which sufficient evidence exists for the author to decide to record the available information, for the purpose of preserving it in case further evidence is discovered in the future. Should such evidence be discovered, the inclusion of these families will facilitate a renewal of research, which may lead to the authentification of the families' relationship with the Gaon.

b)Families which have provided information that, after analysis and research by the author, enabled him to come to the conclusion that, in his opinion, these families are most probably not related to the Gaon.

ORAL TRADITION AND DOCUMENTED SOURCES

Modern aids

The place of oral tradition in genealogical research is the subject of academic dispute. Modern genealogist have at their disposal many sources which were unavailable to their predecesors several decades ago. Modern computer and communication technology facilitate access to a wide range of depositories of sources. Documents preserved by archives throughout the world are becoming more readily accessible, particularly those documents which are held in libraries and archives in the former Soviet Union and neighbouring countries.

Past reliance on oral family history

Genealogists in the past have relied mainly on records kept by family members. These were supplemented by research in libraries and archives where communal and personal documentation may have been found. In the case of families of rabbinic descent, the religious literature provided considerable information about the familial relationships of the authors.

Vital Statistic records versus oral tradition

Given the rapid advances in modern Jewish genealogical research, much of it based on newly uncovered vital statistic records (birth, marriage and death registrations), there is a tendency amongst researchers to play down the importance and validity of oral tradition.This author contends that oral tradition still has, and always will have a valuable place in Jewish genealogical research. A person usually is told by his parents, grandparents or other relatives about his family history.This is the first indication that a person receives about his family history and is derived from oral tradition. Documents may or may not be available to support this information, but in their absence it is the natural tendency of a person to initially accept what he has been told. If he is sufficiently interested, he may engage in research in order to validate the oral traditions and to expand the information which he may desire to preserve for the benefit of future generations.

Limitations of Oral History

It cannot be denied that the indiscriminate use of oral tradition by genealogists has its pitfalls. It may be embellished in order to aggrandise past generations. Distasteful information may be suppressed. When oral information is repeated it may not be recalled accurately, or it may be distorted due to insufficient attention paid when the information was conveyed. These distortions and inaccuracies may be perpetuated when the information is passed on to subsequent generations. In extreme cases information may even have been fabricated.

In assessing the validity of oral tradition it is important to analyse the terms in which it was conveyed. In particular it is important to know whether the information was conveyed spontaneously without any leading questions which may have put into the mind of the person being questioned ideas which were not part of the original information. However, with respect to certain factors, it is valid to ask leading questions. For instance, a parent or grandparent may not recall the name of an ancestor when asked for the name directly. Yet, if the question is rephrased in terms of after whom the parent was named, he may then recall that he was told that he was named after a certain greatgrandparent. Such oral information may then lead to a new line of research.

Preservation of traditions for future research

The greater the number of generations removed from a particular ancestor being sought, the more likelihood there is of discrepancy in oral tradition. If one is told that one's grandfather claimed that his grandfather was a fourth generation descendant of the Gaon then there are thirty-two possible lines of descent from the Gaon. There may be additional information, such as place of residence or dates of birth which may reduce the possibilities. But the number of ancestral lines which need to be researched is still very large. If the link is not discovered in the current generation and the story is passed on to yet another generation, members of that generation have to cope with a bigger puzzle in which the number of possibilities soars to sixty-four. This simple calculation further justifies the author's decision to record all reasonable oral traditions in his book on the family of the Gaon of Vilna, in order to assist the coming generations should they try to uncover the `missing link'.

Oral tradition and documented sources complement each other in pursuing lines of research.A competent genealogist takes into account all the above factors in considering the validity of oral tradition, uses the available documented sources, and comes to a conclusion which is valid beyond a reasonable doubt.

Attitude to oral tradition in Judaism

Since this book deals with one of the most prominent personalities of Jewish scholarship, it is fitting that a principle established in traditional Jewish law be used to support the case for the use of oral tradition. Jewish law defines the forms of evidence required in solving a dispute brought before a Beth Din. Considerable material exists in the Talmud and in its commentaries about the need for conclusive evidence being presented to prove cases brought to litigation.

The late Rabbi Shmuel Gorr of Jerusalem, a prominent genealogist, used to expound the Talmudic principle ( (זבחים פרק י"ד, משנה ד'that the assertion: "I have not seen it", that is no evidence (to the contrary). He explained that simply because documented evidence may not have been discovered does not mean that the evidence does not exist, or that the point claimed to be valid must be disregarded. This was one of Rabbi Gorr's favourite quotations whenever the value of oral tradition was denigrated.

In his book on the family of the Gaon of Vilna the author exhaustively sought documented evidence to establish the genealogy of the families included. Oral tradition has been objectively considered. In many cases the author has consulted genealogical colleagues and taken into consideration their opinions.The conclusions presented are those of the author based on his expertise and experience in Jewish genealogical research.

RESEARCH DIFFICULTIES

The paradox - only 200 years

The difficulties that have been encountered over the years in tracing the descendants of the Gaon are surprising, considering that only 200 years have elapsed since his death in 1797. Only about eight generations have been born since that time . At the time Freedman started his research in the early 1960's, there were people alive who had heard stories about their descent from the Gaon from their grandparents (born in the 1830's) who were grandchildren of the Gaon's grandchildren (born in the 1780's). Such a chain of oral tradition was not so extended as to preclude the preservation of far more oral traditions than were in fact discovered.

There are several reasons for the difficulties encountered in researching the Gaon's family.


1) Lack of official records

Official records of births marriages and deaths were kept by a law instituted in the Russian Empire only in the early 19th century, except for communal lists which were compiled several times during the 18th century. Since all of the Gaon's children and most of his grandchildren were born prior to this date, there were few official records which could confirm their identity. It was not until the commemorative activities which took place in Vilna in 1997 to mark the 200th anniversary of the Gaon’s death that the census of 1765 was revealed. Study of the family unit of the Gaon made it possible to confirm the relative age of the Gaon’s sons as proposed in my book. Later the census lists for 1784 and 1795 added to the overall picture.

2) בטול תורה

It is a characteristic of Lithuanian families to play down their Yichus (pedigree). One example of this phenomenon was encountered when Freedman contacted an elderly rabbi living in Jerusalem. He was reluctant to discuss the issue, but grudgingly related what his mother had heard from her mother about their descent from the Gaon. But he soon cut the conversation short retorting: "What does it matter. Such research is Bitul Torah". He was expressing the sentiment of which the Gaon himself was a renowned proponent. One is obligated to spend as much time as possible in the study of the religious texts. The only time which can be justifiably used for other purposes is that needed to earn a mimimal livelhood. Even time required to attend to family affairs is begrudged. There are several stories related about the Gaon's disinterest in his children's everyday activities, despite his love for them. In the light of this attitude it is no wonder that orthodox Lithuanian families spent little time telling their children about their family history. Thus, much information was forgotten with the passage of time.

One oral tradition conveyed to this author related that an elderly relative in Vilna had possessed a book in which the Gaon himself had recorded his genealogy. Bearing in mind the Gaon's personality and relationship with his family, this story was obviously fictitious, or at best, an embellishment of some other book in the family's possession.

3) Wars

Wars and pogroms which plagued Europe over the last 200 years destroyed many records. Jewish cemeteries have been severely damaged or obliterated in many towns in which the Jewish population was decimated by the Holocaust. The loss of six million Jews during the Holocaust severed what might have been a continuation of the passage of oral traditions.

4) Migration

Mass emigration of Jews from the age old cradles of their family origins in Europe to the `New World' in North and South America, England, Australia, South Africa and Israel severed the natural contact between the generations. A new generation grew up, cut off from contact with its grandparents. Immigrant parents were all too anxious to forget about the Diaspora and its often sad and harsh history. It is no wonder that genealogical information was not passed on.

Information useful to genealogists is often found in old Hebrew prayer books, bibles or other religious texts. It was the custom in traditional families to record names of relatives and their dates of death in such books and pass them on to the ensuing generations. When young couples emigrated, these books usually remained with their parents, since they were still in use. Only if the parents or grandparents had already died at the time of their family's emigration might such books be taken with the emigrants, if they valued them.

Photographs are also useful in establishing genealogical details. But people often are negligent in not writing the names of the subject of the photograph on the back. When these photographs are passed on to the next generation, the identity of the relatives depicted is often unknown.

Sometimes, such photographs can lead to completely erroneous conclusions. This author was presented with an album of photographs collected by an elderly relative. Some were inscribed on the back, and others were identified by elderly relatives still alive. One photograph was the subject of much conjecture until the author examined the Russian inscription. It was a photograph of the famous Russian writer, Leo Tolstoy, obviously not a relative at all !

5) Modesty

Because the Gaon of Vilna was such a prominent figure in Jewish scholarship, descent from him was considered to be particularly worthy of honour. Some people may have been embarrassed to publicise stories told by their parents about their descent lest they be thought to be boasting. Descent from the Gaon also carried with it a responsibility to live up to his standards of behaviour, particularly in religious matters. Perhaps people who no longer were religiously observant considered descent from the Gaon an onerous burden.Yet, ironically, many non-observant people take great pride in their descent from the Gaon and preserve the oral traditions conveyed to them.


6) The title “Gaon"

The term `Gaon' was quite sparingly used during the time of the Gaon of Vilna. Over the ensuing generations it has been rather liberally ascribed to rabbinic scholars as a term of honour. This may result in a person being told that he was descended from `the Gaon' yet the term may refer to another rabbi who was known by that title.

The families Elion and Jodaikin held a tradition of descent from the "Gaon Eliyahu" and believed therefore that their ancestor was the Gaon of Vilna. Two factors led to the confusion. The families were in fact descended from a famous rabbi who was often referred to as a "Gaon". He was Rabbi Eliyahu Luntz (or Rabbinowitz) of Krozhe. Furthermore, this Eliyahu was a brother-in-law of the Gaon of Vilna whose second wife was Luntz's sister. The coicidence of these two factors led the above families to believe that they were descended from Eliyahu, the Gaon of Vilna.

An extreme example of confusion between rabbinic personalities arose when the author was informed by a certain family of it's descent from the Gaon of Vilna. Unable to discover the link, the author's problem was solved when his contact apologised profusely. The ancestor was actually Rabbi Shneour Zalmen of Liadi, ironically the Gaon's rival !

7) Forgotten daughters

Genealogies of rabbinic families often omitted sons or sons-in-law who were not scholars. Similarly, daughters were often not recorded in such families. The Gaon's son Rabbi Yehudah Leib of Serhei, Lithuania is recorded in Rivlin's work as the father of only two daughters. This author has discovered that Yehudah Leib had at least six daughters.

8) עין הרע

Certain families, known to be descended from the Gaon, simply refuse to publish their family tree, for a number of personal reasons. This is regrettable, since their non-inclusion in this present book may lead to the impression, in the future, that such people are really not descended from the Gaon. A prominent rabbinic family in Israel is known to have about 500 living descendants, yet the family refuses to record their names.

9) Surname changes

Siblings born to a mutual father often used different surnames to each other and to that borne by their parents. This practice was prevalent in the Tsarist Empire, and was a ploy used to confuse the military authorities. The notoriously anti-Semitic practices of the Tsarist army resulted in male Jews using this surname change as a means of evading conscription. Such variation of surnames within the one family leads to confusion in genealogical research.

For example, one of the Gaon's daughters, Khiena, the wife of Rabbi Moshe of Pinsk, bore eight sons who used the surname Chinitz, one whose surname is unclear, but whose descendants used the name Lipshitz and Neches. Certain families claim that one of Khiena's sons used the surname Penchuk and yet another, Landau.
Each of these claims had to be carefully analysed by the author, and some remain unverified.

10) Inaccurate translations

Some historians and genealogists who are not fluent in Hebrew have used, as the basis of their research, sources translated from Hebrew to English. These second-hand sources are prone to errors. Similarly, members of families which claim descent from the Gaon of Vilna, have been assisted in their research by incompetent translators, who are not familiar with the genealogical nuances of sources.

One researcher went to the trouble of having Rivlin's work translated into English. This led to confusion between a descendant of the Gaon's brother who lived in the town of Eiragola, Lithuania, or Ragoler to the Jews, with a certain person who live in a place called Raguva. The researcher conveniently merged the two personalities and added to his family tree hundreds of people who had no place on it.

THE WIVES, SIBLINGS AND STUDENTS OF THE GAON OF VILNA

Wives

The Gaon was married twice. The first wife was Khana, daughter of Yehudah Leib of Keidan. After Khana's death in 1782, the Gaon remarried a widow Gittel, daughter of Rabbi Meir Luntz (born 1709) of Krozhe, Lithuania. The fact that the Gaon was married twice has caused considerable confusion. There are families that held a tradition of descent from the Gaon's second wife, Gittel. Since the sources on her family clearly establish that Gittel bore no children to the Gaon, then families descended from Gittel are descended from her first husband, and not from the Gaon.

A major error made by a certain researcher arose from the Gaon's second marriage. Knowing that the Gaon was a brother-in-law to Rabbi Yekhezkel Luntz of Shavli, the researcher assumed that the connection was through Luntz's wife Malka. The researcher drew up a family tree of the Gaon's family and included all of the descendants of Yekhezkel Luntz as descendants of the Gaon's hypothetical sister, Malka. If the researcher had been conversant with Hebrew sources, he would have been able to read a book written by a grandson of Luntz, the contents of which make it clear that there was no such descent. The Gaon was a brother-in-law of Luntz, not through a hypothetical sister, but due to the fact that Luntz's sister Gittel was the Gaon's second wife.

Brothers and relatives

Certain families have believed that they were descended from the Gaon. After investigation however, it becomes clear that they were descended either from the brothers of the Gaon, or from one of his students. Terminology used to refer to relationships is misleading. "‏Of the family of the Gaon of Vilna‏" may mean actual descent, but more often the term refers to the descendants of the Gaon's siblings, or even may refer to more further removed connections by marriage without an actual blood relationship.

A prominent family that settled in Jerusalem 140 years ago maintained steadfastly it was descended from a daughter of the Gaon. This author failed to identify the relevant daughter, despite considerable research by members of the family. Recently new material came to light. A letter written about 1855 by a Lithuanian rabbi records a match arranged between his son and a daughter of the above family in Jerusalem. Of immense genealogical value was a statement by the writer of the letter giving details of the descent of the bridegroom from a sister of the Gaon. At last the puzzle had been solved.

Erroneous families

One of the Gaon's ancestors, Rabbi Moshe Kremer, who was chief rabbi of Vilna in the seventeenth century, was known as "Kremer", meaning shopkeeper, since his wife operated a stall in the market. The appelation "Kremer" was not a surname. Indeed most Jews in the Russian Empire only acquired surnames at the beginning of the nineteeth century. Yet many families bearing the name Kramer or Kremer erroneously believe that they are descended from the Gaon of Vilna. (Some are descended from a brother of the Gaon whose descendants did adopt the name Kremer).

Likewise a widely ramified Galician family believe that they are descended from the Gaon, simply because they bear the surname Wilner.





DOUBTFUL ORAL TRADITIONS


An important means of disproving certain oral traditions is often a simple arithmetic calculation.

Members of a certain Kossowsky family, whilst probably genuinely descended from the Gaon, instilled doubt in the mind of the author when they claimed that an ancestor recalled sitting on the knee of the Gaon, who, it was claimed, was her grandfather. Since the Gaon died in 1797, and since the ancestor was born in 1826, this incident could not possibly have occurred. On rechecking the source of the story, it was found that the incident occurred a generation earlier, which brought the event within a feasible time frame.

The Kantorovitch family of Jerusalem, whose claims to descent from the Gaon are most likely valid for other reasons, recorded certain events which cannot have occured in the way they were stated. It was claimed that the Gaon's youngest son Avraham wrote a letter to a grandson, Yaakov Koppel Kantorovitch, congratulating Kantorovitch on the completion of his studies and on obtaining Semikha (rabbinic ordination). Since Avraham died in 1808 at the age of 44, it is not likely that he had grandson of a suitable age to have obtained Semikha during his lifetime.


It is claimed that the Gaon's daughter Khiena had a son "Haskell Landau" whose daughter married a Remigolsky. This author's research identified the relevant Remigolsky. Yet details of Remigolsky's son in a rabbinic encyclopedia, whilst recording his emminent rabbinic ancestors, fail to record descent from the Gaon of Vilna. This omission renders the family tradition highly suspect.

A common source of confusion in oral traditions is the assumption that if one's cousin is descended from the Gaon of Vilna, so must one also be. This author attended a family reunion at which various sides of his family were represented. He had to repeatedly correct the impression held by one side of his family that they were descendants of the Gaon, like the majority of their cousins attending the reunion.

VALID ORAL TRADITIONS

It has been this author's fortunate experience that he was able to verify many valid oral traditions of descent from the Gaon of Vilna. One example was discovered in Australia where a family which had settled there in 1854, still maintained an oral tradition of decent from the Gaon. Much effort was expended in researching this family which resulted in the discovery of a photograph of the tombstone of the original member of the family who settled in Australia. Although the tombstone was no longer standing, a photograph preserved by the Australian Jewish Historical Society revealed that the person in question was actually a grandson of the Gaon. Details of the inscription correlated with oral traditions held by another family living in England. Thus, this author was able to solve the links of several families, hitherto unknown to each other, yet each holding the same tradition.

Many were such success stories and the author continues to hope that other missing links, recorded in his forthcoming book, will one day be resolved.


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          Profile of the Day: Henry III of France        
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           Jak nie doszło do schizmy. Rzeczpospolita a Stolica Apostolska w czasie Sejmu Czteroletniego [How was a schism avoided? The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy See during the Four Years' Sejm]         
Butterwick, R; (2009) Jak nie doszło do schizmy. Rzeczpospolita a Stolica Apostolska w czasie Sejmu Czteroletniego [How was a schism avoided? The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy See during the Four Years' Sejm]. Kwartalnik Historyczny , 116 (3) pp. 73-90.
           'At home' in migration: the social practices of constructing 'home' among Polish and Lithuanian migrants in London         
Parutis, V.A.; (2009) 'At home' in migration: the social practices of constructing 'home' among Polish and Lithuanian migrants in London. Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London).
          Honorary Members: Heads of State        
George Abela Former President of Malta Valdas Adamkus Former President of the Republic of Lithuania János Áder President of the Republic of Hungary Askar Akayev Former President of the Kyrgyz Republic Jacques-Édouard Alexis Former Prime Minister of the Republic of Haiti Mari Bim Amude Alkatiri Secretary-General of the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor […]
          Latvia, Lithuania back Moldova’s EU membership perspective        
none
          That British Announcer for the FIBA W.Championships        
Who is this man? (Quotes from USA v.s. Brazil)

"Whoa! The American's didn't score even though it seemed IMPOSSIBLE for them NOT to!"

"Whatever happens between these two teams...we've been royally treated here today in Istanbul."

[Shot clock starting at 9:59 instead of 10:00] "I hope it doesn't come down to the last second...wait what am I talking about? I hope it does."

"He looked [Splitter] like he'd run out of oxygen...but he found one more."

"Rose lost it!....but he only lost it because Barbosa got a little piece of it..." (Listening to him say "Barbosa", I feel like this is "Pirates of the Caribbean.")

Is it the accent I like then?

"He must have had just a little fear when he heard the whistle 'Hey that better not be on me!'....and it WASN'T."

Final sequence of the game:

"Brazil MUST SCORE NOW, THEY ABSOLUTELY MUST!"
"BRAZIL HAS TO GET A STOP HERE AGAINST THE USA!"
"OH MY GOD HUERTES! AOHEWGAOWHEIG;WEHG!"
"OHHHH NO NO IT DIDN'T GO IN!!!!"

Tremendous stuff here. When I first heard this particular announcer I remember thinking how relatively childish he seemed compared to the likes of NBA play by play and color commentators. You know, guys with the slang, the cadence, the Stu Scott, especially the former coaches and players who offer unmatched, elite expertise. THOSE guys know what they're talking about. But within one half of the USA v. Brazil game early this week, those (haughty) thoughts were abandoned and I found myself riveted as much by the announcer's style as the game itself.

He brought passion, knowledge of the game's international players (most of whom I'm sure the domestic guys wouldn't have a clue about in addition to not being able to pronounce names), and some truly admirable lines delivered to enhance the moment in the action. That last bit is reflected in the quotes above, and magnified by the fact that this unnamed Brit (still can't find the chap online) is working the booth alone.

Sometimes he sounded like he was having a conversation with himself, which was quite funny, if unintentional. The man's enthusiasm was absolutely contagious and I quickly found the vocabulary he used to describe the game endearing and nicely contrary to the lines we hear during NBA games. His descriptions of the action were refreshing, colorful, and without a hint of pomposity. Perhaps best of all, there was no lame ribbing of other booth members (also, there were no other booth members), insulting of players, or disdain of the level of play. There's something very pure at work here.

During the very good Lithuania v. Spain contest...I mean game, the American announcer (another mystery man) displayed his kindred spirit. He spoke of Lithunian players Robertas Javtokas, Jonas Maciulius, and Martynas Pocius as if he coached them or knew them through the years. After a rebound and trip to the line for Maciulius, the announcer said "He is a good, good player, he does all the little things." Oh truly? My skepticism wouldn't allow me to believe this without seeing it with my own eyes. As Lithuania was struggling to cut into the Spanish lead( Spain being the most recognizable team in the tournament besides the USA with names like Gasol, Rubio, Fernandez, Garbajosa, and Navarro) the player who "did all the little things" got to the line with gritty drives. OK, so he can do gritty drives.

And then, Maciulius took a hammer, a heavy one, probably steel, and drove the announcer's point home by stripping Rudy Fernandez (he who dunked on Dwight Howard in the Olympics) TWICE IN A ROW and taking it in for TWO TWO-HANDED SLAMS! He pretty much single-handedly made Lithuania's comeback. Naturally, our announcer was going wild.

"IT DOESN'T GET ANY BETTER THAN THIS. OH I LOVE THIS GAME!"

And again, when Lithuania took the lead.

I love this game.

I love this game. That was THE company line, the slogan, of the NBA a few years back. Let me tell you, it didn't sound one bit contrived coming from the announcer.

Here are true fan of the game, and of the moment, sharing with us their joy. Bonus points for the American announcer's classy ways when, during the nail biting moments at the end of Lithuania v. Spain, the cameras were inexplicably focused on fan reactions when the game was going on. He said something to the effect of: "The camera crew has been great all game long, but let's keep it on the action, please!" Not mean at all.

Maybe it's easy to subconsciously root for the little guys and the underdogs. I'm likely way off base in describing these two announcers with a "blue collar" version of a sports announcer. But the smaller FIBA stage (funny calling the world stage smaller than the national one, but it's absolutely true) has me not only interested, but pretty damn riveted. And while the players and the play are the primary reasons, they are getting an enthusiastic lift from some pretty cool commentary guys.
          ARTEC to supply the Lithuanian Army with 88 BOXER Armoured Vehicles in 2017        
SMi's 2nd annual Future Armoured Vehicles Survivability conference will address recent industry developments to help enhance protection of military vehicles and those carrying out missions through this vital land force asset.
          Lietuva mituose: juokiasi puodas...        
Pasičepsėdami sau krizename į delną. Chi chi chi. Lietuva - prie Kinijos. Chi chi chi. Čia atominė elektrinė išdegino augaliją ir visi gyvena kartoninėse dėžutėse. Chi chi chi. Čia nežinoma, kaip naudotis klozetu. Chi chi chi... Lietuvių kalba panaši į rusų. Chi chi chi...


Angeliukas Dubline


Nežinau, kuo mitų konkursas garsina Lietuvą. Regis, tokį tikslą užsibrėžė Vilnius – Europos kultūros sostinė 2009, pristatydama idėją Delfi portale.

"Pasaulis, mažai žinodamas apie mūsų šalį, kuria tikrovės neatitinkančius mitus. Visi kartu keiskime pasaulio požiūrį į Lietuvą ir Vilnių, griaukime mitus ir skleiskime teisingą žinią!" - sakoma konkurso pristatyme.

Kokiam pasauliui ir kokią žinią skleidžia lietuviškai surašytos įvairiausiuose pasaulio kampeliuose daugiau ar mažiau blaivioje aplinkoje nugirstos kalbos ir nusikalbėjimai? Jei kas išverstų juos į anglų kalbą, aiški viena tiesa - kokie debilai tie amerikiečiai, lenkai, pakistaniečiai, vokiečiai, švedai, nigeriečiai, italai, olandai... Nusišnekėjimų fone pučiasi mūsų lietuviškasis ego lyg šalia radiatoriaus aliuminiame puode palikta mielinė tešla.

Skaitau aš tuos mitelius, gandus, pletkus bei anekdotus ir galvoju - o kodėl Vakarai, Rytai, Pietūs ir Šiaurė turėtų ką nors žinoti apie Lietuvą? Dėl bendrojo išprusimo? Išprusimas gerai, gerai, kad mes juo giriamės. Bet ar iki susirietimo iš aplinkinių nežinojimo besikvatojantis ir dėl to juos debilizuojantis žmogus yra išprusęs? Šiaurės Jeruzalė, kurioje vaikai išsiskaičiuoja antisemitine skaičiuokle, paskutinis pagonybės bastionas, metamorfavęs į Marijos žemę, ir drąsi girtų vairuotojų tauta.

Vasario mėnesį Dubline nusileido angelas iš Vilniaus. Kiek supratau, angelo apsireiškimas sumąstytas tos pačios kompanijos, kaip ir mitų konkursas. Gatve, kurioje buvo pastatyta Vaido Ramoškos sukurta skulptūra, praeinu dažnai, bet iki vakar angeliuko niekaip nepastebėdavau. Ieškojau, bet vis nerasdavau - kaip tos moteriškės, neradusios prisikėlusio Kristaus. Susimąsčiau - gal išskrido? Juk angeliukas. O gal išėjo pasivaikščioti kokio girtuoklio glėbyje. Kaip tas nykštukas "Amelijoje" - mažu sumąstė pakeliauti?

Po ilgų dairymųsi angeliuką atradau. Kukliai stoviniuojantį tarp krūmų ir tulpių viename parkelio pakraštyje, kuris tikrai nėra labai matomas iš gatvės. Kaip ta Lietuva ties Baltija taip ir nesusivokusi, kur ji - Europos Rytuose ar Centre, ir ką gi apie save pasipasakoti pasauliui, stovi angeliukas ir klausosi ant suoliuko pamažu kaitinančioje saulutėje susiglaudusios porelės audžiamų mitų. Vilnius – Europos kultūros sostinė 2009. Chi chi chi...


Lentelė prie angeliuko


Sako, kad tokie angeliukai jau nutūpė Varšuvoje, Kaliningrade, Sankt Peterburge, Stokholme, o iki 2009 m. atsiras dar 15 Europos miestų. Tik labai prašau - nekiškite jų į paparčius. Lai žmonės mato.

A rainy Lithuanian
Who's dancing as an Indian
Painted in my tiger skin
(Especially in Michigan)



          11 vs 4 Lietuvos naudai        
Palyginimui. Viena iš "keltų tigro" paslapčių. Nors ir susimovė asmeniniuose finansuose Bertie (taip populiariai Airijoje vadinamas vakar apie sprendimą gegužę atsistatydinti pranešęs Taoiseachas (skaityti tyšokas - taip čia vadinamas premjeras) Bertie Ahernas, bet pažiūrėjus, kiek premjerų per tą patį laikotarpį turėjo Lietuva ir Airija, tampa kiek aiškiau, kodėl lietuviai vis nepasidalina Europos Sąjungos pinigais, kai tuo tarpu airiai įsisavina (kartais, tiesa, kaip ir Bertie atveju, pasisavina) lėšas.

Suskaičiavau, kad po Nepriklausomybės atkūrimo Lietuva turėjo 11 premjerų, tiesa, kai kurie ėjo po kelias kadencijas (LR Vyriausybės svetainė, regis, pamiršo ir Algirdą Mykolą, ir dabartinį premjerą), tuo tarpau Airijoje per tą patį laikotarpį buvo keturi, viso ėję septynias kandencijas, iš kurių trys atiteko Bertie. Susimovė, tiesa, trečioje.

Nors vakar per radiją kai kurie klausytojai skundėsi, sakydami, ar dar buvo kada premjeras, su kuriuo buvo galima išlenkti bokalą, mes su redaktore abi sutikome, jog premjerai yra ne tam, kad su jais būtų galima išlenkti po bokalą. Dar premjerai gali statytis medžioklės trofėjais išpuoštus mauzoliejus. Bet iki tokių airiams dar toli.

Tiems kas pastebėjo: truputi buvau apsiskaičiavusi, teko pakoreguoti skaičius
          Blessed Samuel Schereschewsky        
“How shall I repay the Lord for all the good things he has done for me?” - Psalm 116.12

Some homilies practically write themselves. Others are like are like having a baby. The idea is rather appealing, but in the end, the baby arrives only after pain, screaming and vows of “never again.” This is one of those homilies.

The epistle is filled with doom and gloom and in the gospel Jesus reminds his followers that he had suffer in order to bring the Kingdom. It is only after knowing the story of the Rt. Rev’d Samuel Schereschewsky, that one sees the logic in the lectionary.

Samuel was born in Lithuania, orphaned at a very young age, raised as an orthodox Jew, and headed for rabbinical fame. Everyone said so. In rabbinical school he was given a copy of the New Testament in Hebrew, and, as he read it, he became convinced that Jesus was the promised messiah.

In 1854, he immigrated to the United States to lead a synagogue. However, he made contact with a group of Jewish believers in Christ. That was the end of Samuel. Everyone said so. But it wasn’t – it was merely the first step to a remarkable service for God in Asia. He was baptized in 1855 in the Baptist Church and he enrolled in Western Theological Seminary (Presbyterian). Two years later he transferred to General Theological Seminary (Episcopal).

While still in seminary he was appointed a missionary to China so he was ordained to the deaconate while he was still a seminarian. During the voyage to China, he taught himself Cantonese – an extremely difficult language for Westerners to learn. He was priested on 28 October 1860 and began his life’s work.

As a man to whom learning languages came almost effortlessly, he quickly learned the local Shanghai dialect and translated the Book of the Psalms from the original Hebrew. When that translation was completed, he translated the Book of Common Prayer into the Mandarin dialect. In 1877 he was elected Bishop of Shanghai, founded St John's University, and began a translation of the Bible into the Wenli dialect.

Tragically, he was diagnosed with the early onset of Parkinson's disease. He lived with the disease for twenty-nine years, the last twenty of which he was almost completely paralyzed. That was the end of Samuel. Everyone said so. But, in spite of almost unimaginable suffering, Bishop Schereschewsky had a work to finish for God – completing his translation of the bible. He typed the final 2000 pages with the one finger that he could still move.

But, he continually assured all those around him of the goodness of God in that God left him able to move that one finger – he saw it as a gift. Like the solitary man with Leprosy in the gospel last Sunday, Samuel was thankful. He was thankful the Parkinson’s disease. You know, I will never be a saint!

In the epistle today we read, “While we live, we are always being given up to death for Jesus' sake, so that the life of Jesus may be made visible in our mortal flesh.” That’s a nice, tidy statement containing heavy theology. But the question is, “what does it mean and how do we do it.”

During my long illness, I have repeatedly reflected upon the baptismal office in the Book of Common Prayer. I’ve discovered that everything we need is found there. It is a road map for us with the path clearly marked.

One small part of that office dovetails with the life of Bishop Schereschewsky and with us. “Will you proclaim by word and example the Good News of God in Christ?” That’s what Paul means.

But that doesn’t mean wearing Jesus on our sleeves. Paul doesn’t mean ending every sentence with “praise the Lord” or quoting scripture in every conversation. Those things actually turn people “off” Christianity.

What Paul and the Prayer Book mean is that we must live our lives in such a manner that people will notice something different about us. They will see God.

St. Francis of Assisi allegedly put it this way, “Preach the gospel at all times – use words if absolutely necessary.” He was correct: If we need to use words, our lives are not reflecting God’s love to the world.

Those who met Blessed Samuel Schereschewsky stated it was evident that God was working though him.

But, “They lived not only in ages past…” We at St. James’ knew a woman who was also the embodiment of Paul’s charge. Her name was Jane Yeats. Like Blessed Samuel Schereschewsky, when one was in Jane’s presence, there was no doubt that she was abiding in Him for one could feel the love of God emanating from her.

Can people say that about us?

          Social Worlds of the Information Society: Lessons from the Calumet Region        
by
John Monberg
2003-08-29

Rhetoric heralding the information society promises a shiny new world. This rhetoric draws on cultural values powerful in America: technology as a means to social progress, an emphasis on individualism, and a belief in the dynamism of free markets. This rhetoric is powerful because the information society is both new and abstract. But what kind of social world and workplace are information technologies likely to actually create when they are shaped by unfettered corporate imperatives? Similar social promises were made at the beginning of the twentieth century when U.S. Steel planned the creation of Gary, Indiana, in the heart of the Calumet Region, on the shore of Lake Michigan, southeast of Chicago: advanced technologies would transform a frontier into a global village, create a wealthy workforce, a clean environment, and exciting social spaces.

What social worlds emerged from U.S. Steel’s plans over the course of the twentieth century? Richard Dorson, a leading oral historian, conducted an exhaustive analysis of the Calumet Region. He summarized his findings in describing the self-produced myth of the Calumet Region as “a cultural desert peopled by blue-collar workers living in the midst of polluted skies, garbage dumps and violent ghettos.” (Dorson 235) This self-produced myth is perhaps the most succinctly stated vision of the most dystopian kind of social world one could imagine. It is also, at the same time, profoundly true and profoundly false. Cultural desert, blue-collar workers, polluted skies: each of the claims is supported and denied by massive physical, social, and environmental evidence of monumental scale. The Calumet Region offers scenes of a uniquely beautiful duneland environment and desolated urban waste sites, one of the most economically productive facilities in the world and bitter impoverishment. Why did the Calumet Region evolve the way it did over the course of the twentieth century? Early decisions diminished a distinctive ecology, permanently scarred the urban form of the area, and resulted in racial divisions that continue to cause great suffering even today. All of these consequences of power are manifestly visible in the Calumet Region, even as they remain invisible in many analyses of the information age. Corporate imperatives drove the brutal simplification of a complex ecological system and prevented the social solidarities that could challenge corporate power through unionization and community action.

The logics driving the America Online-Time Warner merger are eerily similar to the forces shaping the Calumet Region’s history. Again, a technologically advanced, capital-intensive corporation with a dominant position in its industry restructures sets of social relations through a calculating rationality. America Online-Time Warner is producing audiences instead of steel, measuring and grading the demographic, psychological, and web-browsing activities of individuals as raw materials in the production process, but the logic it employs is the same logic that U.S. Steel employed one hundred years ago. The lessons of the Calumet Region experience debunk many of the myths surrounding the information age.

Changes in media technology change patterns of social interaction, and changing patterns of social interaction have political consequences. Given the rapid advancement of communication technology and the wide range of novel uses to which this technology has been put, calls to assess the democratic potential of new communication technologies have become increasingly common. The Calumet Region offers lessons from one hundred years of social planning and experimentation that can be used to critique today’s promise of a more democratic information society. Why choose the Calumet Region as an object of comparison? It is the geographic location where the largest industrial concentration in the United States confronted both a natural environment with more species per acre than any area in the United States, and a social environment with unprecedented racial and ethnic diversity.

Like computer-communication technologies of the present era, steel was a technology that had pervasive consequences for the America of its time. Steel changed the way people lived, worked, traveled, and fought wars (Misa, A Nation of Steel, passim). Cheap steel gave rise to railroads, skyscrapers, automobiles, battleships, armored tanks and most of the other items, technologies, and institutions we associate with modern, industrialized societies. The Calumet Region was at the heart of the transformation of American society, and was itself a product of it. The Calumet Region was home to the largest concentration of industrial production in the United States, and perhaps the world. Writers sponsored by the Works Projects Administration provided an overview of the Region in 1939:

Today, with a population of 260,000, the Calumet has become, in only three decades, one of the greatest industrial centers of the world. Nowhere else in America is there such a concentration of diversified industrial operations. Dominated by the heavy industries - the manufacture of steel, railroad equipment, and chemicals, and the refining of oil - the region possesses 221 various companies which manufacture 1,217 different products. Represented in this group are several plants - a steel works, a rail mill, a cement plant, and a generating unit - which top the list of their category as the world’s largest. One of the five large oil refineries is the largest departmentalized refinery in the world (Calumet Region 3).

The region underwent its most significant expansion when United States Steel calculated that it would be the optimal location for its largest steel making facilities. United States Steel was a more significant economic and political force for its time than any corporation today, including Microsoft, IBM, or Oracle.

Even discounting the hyperbole inherent in the writing style of the time, Herbert Casson’s dramatization painted a striking image of the unique power of United States Steel:

The biggest business fact in the world is the United States Steel Corporation. It has more stockholders than the population of Nevada; more employees than there are voters in Maine; more profits, in a good year than the revenue of the city of New York. Above all ordinary corporations it towers like the Great Pyramid of Cheops above the sand mounds of the desert (Casson 1).

Like today’s information technologies, steel was the most advanced expression of science and technology in its era. U.S. Steel’s Gary facility was the first example of the deliberate application of the principles of scientific location for industry. There were no retraced steps, extra movements, or reheatings of intermediate products. The plant was designed for efficient flow of materials, was the first designed so as to take advantage of the benefits of electrification (Greer 60), and became a model for the most advanced production facilities of Germany and the Soviet Union.

The glossiest promises of information society futurists like Bill Gates and Nicholas Negroponte merely echo the words of Will Moore, a U.S. Steel booster:

Every advance known to science and industry will have its mark on these steel mills, destined to be soon the most extensive in the world in the manufacture of steel and the making of everything in which steel is the prime factor. I hereby submit a statement of facts that will surprise you. It is about the wonderful-amazing conditions, present and prospective, at Gary, Ind. - a business enterprise unequaled in combined size, speed and permanency in the world’s history (Moore 7).

Many analysts argue that the interconnections of the information age will transform the world into a global village. Unlike the screen-deep interconnections of Webcams and Web pages today, the large number of immigrants who came to the Calumet Region in search of employment created a global village of physically close neighborhoods. They came primarily from eastern and southern Europe - Poles, Czechs, Russians, Lithuanians, Hungarians, Croatians, Serbians, Slovaks, Turks, Greeks, and Italians. Immigrants from fifty-two separate nationalities made their home in Gary by 1920, and the proportion of foreign stock (foreign-born, or native with at least one immigrant parent) reached 60.5 percent of the city’s entire population (Mohl and Betten 5).

The business pages were, at millennium’s end, abuzz with stories of millionaires made rich by Internet initial public offerings. Similarly, in the turn of the century steel industry, “Every young officer who served under General Carnegie was either a millionaire or a physical wreck in a few years. No system has ever made so many men so wealthy in so short a time” (Casson 24). The social, political, and economic dominance of the Calumet Region in general and Gary in particular were expressed by Hammond, Indiana mayor Tom Knotts in 1910, who called Gary the “prophet”of the national and even global future (Lane 34). Contemporaries dubbed Gary the “Magic City.” Corporate planners for U.S. Steel shaped the urban form of Gary, Indiana according to the dictates of short-term profit as they implemented a strictly functional form of rationality. Because the social system was shaped to meet the requirements of the corporation, public participation in planning was almost nonexistent and the social spaces that would have allowed for deliberation and collective action were purposefully eliminated from the urban form. Gary’s largely immigrant population was already splintered along the lines of ethnicity, race, and class. U.S. Steel’s urban planning efforts exacerbated these divisions and lead directly to the social and environmental problems that continue to plague the Region today. A divided population, without access to direct or mediated communication, was unable to effectively resist US Steel’s imperatives.

America Online, Time Warner, and the Information Society

The AOL-Time Warner merger resulted in a $147 billion media conglomerate controlling the pipelines and information flows that connect most of the homes of the information society. If U.S. Steel’s efforts to maximize corporate profits shaped the Calumet Region during the twentieth century, AOL-Time Warner’s efforts to gain an advantage from advanced interactive communication technologies will likely shape the social structure of the information age during the twenty-first century. What will be the process by which publics are constituted through the efforts of Time Warner? The largest and most technologically advanced of these efforts were the Full Service Network, an interactive cable television system, and Pathfinder, Time Warner’s umbrella site on the World Wide Web.

Such interactive efforts are worthy of attention. The world’s leading media and entertainment company, Time Warner has interests in cable television, movies, recorded music, book publishing, magazines, and theme parks. The company has revenues of more than $20 billion a year, including $4 billion of international revenue. Time Warner is also viewed within the media industry as a technological pioneer. It created the first national cable channel, Home Box Office, only made possible by an innovative use of satellite distribution facilities. Financial clout, breadth of content, and technical initiative are hallmarks of the company, allowing it to form a template of media products and services that have been widely adopted by the rest of the industry. Time Warner has aggressively deployed the most sophisticated technology in the area of interactive media. Its interactive initiatives include the Full Service Network, an advanced cable television network in Orlando, Florida and Pathfinder, one of the most extensive and prominent sites on the World Wide Web. These initiatives constitute an ongoing experimental effort to determine whether or not interactive media will be commercially viable on a large scale.

Time Warner’s interactive efforts can be understood as a technical capability. The Full Service Network was the world’s first digital, interactive television network, and provided customers in Orlando, Florida on-demand access to a variety of entertainment and informational services. It was also, at the time, the most technically sophisticated commercial information service ever delivered to the consumer, self-described as the “Cadillac” of interactive-television tests. From the time of the system’s inception in 1992, over $700 million dollars were required in order to make it operational on December 14, 1994.

The Full Service Network required advances in each of many sophisticated technical components as well as their coordination into a functioning system. Each technical component is produced by a different company or companies, develops at a different rate, and is subject to different regulatory barriers and business opportunities. Time Warner’s efforts are frequently symbolized in terms of heralding in a utopian future. The theme of “digital convergence” among software, hardware, communication, and entertainment industries is a staple of the business press and technological futurists. The perception created is that this field is a high risk/high reward activity. The promise of technology in shaping a new future is often framed in religious terms, as when the Full Service Network was described in Time magazine, “This is the holy grail of interactive television: true video on demand” (Elmer-Dewitt 125).

In these narratives, the future is not a static vision on the horizon; it is hurtling toward us at an ever-increasing rate. Gerald Levin described the relationship between technological momentum and corporate initiatives vividly:

Sooner or later, every significant player in the information and entertainment industry is going to have to understand the implications of broadband digital interactivity. Except as every competitor in the cable industry already knows, sooner isn’t only better, it’s often everything. The FSN will drive home this lesson with unforgiving velocity. The introduction of the FSN is an irreversible step across the threshold of change (Elmer-Dewitt 126).

The Full Service Network was really an attempt to fulfill the promise that technological advances hold out. Even if the purpose of the Full Service Network is vague, the reasoning seems to be that technological change is so fast and so powerful that inevitably some way will be found to make use of emerging new technologies. Anything more than a cursory perusal of Gerald Levin’s speeches and position statements makes clear that he views technological advance, in and of itself, as a world-historical force. For example, in a shrilly argued piece, he stresses the watershed nature of interactive technology, “The same kind of minds that denounced Galileo as a heretic, ridiculed Edison’s notion of an electric-powered light and dismissed the Wright brothers’ ideas as a crackpot scheme have turned their sights on the new medium of interactivity” (Shapiro, B1). The idiom of today’s business journal is the language of early twentieth century industrial boosterism.

The stridency of Levin’s language is as much a gauge of his beliefs as it is a gauge of the skepticism he must work to overcome. His statements reiterate the theme of technology in the service of corporate destiny. And in settling the frontier of the future, Levin frequently calls on metaphors with quasi-religious overtones. Connie Bruck observed that “Levin has long maintained that he has been compelled by something far less mundane, almost mystical: a sense of obligation to divine and bring to fruition the `manifest destiny’ of Time Inc. And now Time Warner” (Bruck 55). In such rhetorical strategies, the future is at once a time, a place, a corporate prize, and an inevitable outcome of technological development. There is no place in this rhetoric for arguments about technological choice. There is no room for public debate in narratives of linear technical progress. Access to communication channels, and the uses to which these technologies are put, are taken out of history, struggle, and politics. Ironically, these most advanced, most widespread channels of interactive capability may allow little space for a truly public social dialogue.

Like the Calumet Region, information technology-based publics all lay at a key juncture, an identifiable point at which economic, cultural, and social forces intertwine. These technologies blur fixed distinctions between originator/message/audience and product/advertisement/community as complex chains created for a given purpose by one set of groups are adopted and modified over time by other groups. Planned urban streets no longer separate social classes; here relevant social categories may be as explicit as the data fields coded into marketing databases or as implicit as the global audience for a popular World Wide Web site. This analysis is sympathetic to and complements media studies efforts that trace the multiple, ongoing ways that the cultural technologies of media situate audiences.

The forms of life congruent with the adoption of the printing press, highways, and similar technological orders were unforeseen and certainly not chosen by any of the actors involved in some sort of rational decision-making process. As James C. Carey’s analysis has demonstrated, with the adoption of the telegraph formerly bounded communities became much more strongly affected by distant economic, political, and cultural centers. These connections dramatically revised existing notions of journalistic style, conceptions of objectivity, common sense, and perceptions of time and space. The economic model of rational actors pursuing their individual ends through an efficient market is a poor model for the intelligent social shaping of advanced media technologies. The most profound and consequential impacts are often felt diffusely and only over the long term; they are not easily be measured in economic terms, and they may be outside the control of any particular actor.

Or so shows the experience of the Calumet Region. The promise of steel was also held at one time to promise the creation of the kind of social worlds we most would want to inhabit. Capturing this trace of an alternative future has been the aim of photojournalist Jose Camilo Vergara. He spent several decades in Detroit, the Bronx, Chicago, and Gary, coming to understand the places left behind when the economic and industrial forces that promise so much move on. Vergara rejects the demands that these places are worthless and should be bulldozed, pleading that

There is something inspiring about ruins. As witnesses of the urban condition, they urge us to ask: Is there no choice but to stand by and watch the destruction of our cities? Stripped down to their essences, leftover buildings and discarded spaces form cityscapes of great power. While they last, we have our ruins and the immense longings they instill in us. Even at risk of bodily harm, we need to hear the elemental chant that comes from our skeletal neighborhoods. The `City of the Broad Shoulders,’ and `Steel City,’ sing about the shortness of life, the awesome beauty of our creations, and our abject failure to create a just society. With their chant they beckon us to come home and perhaps try again (Vergara 197).

My purpose has been to make metaphoric use of the ruins. They yet have work to do. If we listen to their chant we may build an information society that does not simply repeat the failures of the steel society. What framework is most useful for identifying the critical new aspects of these electronic social spaces? How does power function, as social differences are inscribed into systems, mobilized, and fed back into the circuits used to shape the social worlds of those who are enmeshed within such systems? At the moment, this problem area remains underdeveloped. If we are going to live in an “information society,” broad and deep perspectives ought to be brought to bear on specific projects, in order to illuminate and reimagine policy alternatives, and the implications these policies have for just what kind of society the “information society” might be.

Works Cited

Bruck, Connie. “Jerry’s Deal,” The New Yorker, February 19, 1996: 55-69.

The Calumet Region Historical Guide. Compiled by the workers of the Writer’s Program of the Works Projects Administration, Indianapolis: Garman Printing CC, 1939.

Carey, James W. Communication as Culture. London: Routledge, 1989.

Casson, Herbert N. The Romance of Steel, The Story of a Thousand Millionaires. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1907.

Dorson, Richard M. Land of the Millrats. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Elmer-Dewitt, Phillip. “Ready for Primetime?” Time, December 26, Volume 144, No. 26, 1994: 125-126.

Greer, Edward. Big Steel: Black Politics and Corporate Power in Gary, Indiana. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1979.

Lane, James B. “City of the Century”: A History of Gary, Indiana. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.

Misa, Thomas J. A Nation of Steel: The Making of Modern America, 1865-1925. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Mohl, Raymond A. and Neil Betten. Steel City Urban and Ethnic Patterns in Gary, Indiana, 1906-1950. New York: Holnes and Meier.

Moore, Powell A. The Calumet Region: Indiana’s Last Frontier. Reprinted with an afterword by Lance Trusty 1977. Indiana Historical Bureau, 1991.

Moore, Will H. `If I Had Known’ about Gary in 1909. Chicago: Barnard & Miller Print, 1911.

Shapiro, Eben. “Time Warner’s Orlando Test to Start - Finally,” Wall Street Journal, December 7, 1994, B1.

Vergara, Camilo Jose. The New American Ghetto. Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1995.


          Supermodel Shanina Shaik walks for Oscar de la Renta at the closing of MBFWA        
                      Supermodel Shanina Shaik of half Aussie – Lithuanian , half Pakistani -Saudi heritage, born and bred in Melbourne, returned to Sydney to model for the luxury brand Oscar de la Renta in Sydney for Mercedes Benz Fashion Week Australia 2016..       Shanina started modelling when she […]
          Saakashvili Visits Lithuania, Rallies Outside Russian Embassy        
Former Georgian President and Ukrainian regional governor Mikheil Saakashvili has made a visit to Lithuania, the latest stop in his travels since Ukraine said on July 26 that it was stripping him of his citizenship.
          World News Briefs -- January 6, 2010 (Evening Edition)        


Suicide Attack On CIA Agents 'Was Planned By Bin Laden Inner Circle' -- Times Online

US intelligence officials believe that the suicide bomb attack that killed seven CIA officers in Afghanistan last month was planned with the help of Osama bin Laden’s close allies, raising fears that the al-Qaeda leader is enjoying a lethal resurgence.

They think that the attack could not have taken place without the prior knowledge and assistance of the Haqqanis, the powerful Taleban group thought to be shielding bin Laden.

Read more ....

MIDDLE EAST

Yemen for dummies.

Egyptian guard at Gaza border killed in protest over Galloway's aid convoy.

Iran shielding its nuclear efforts in maze of tunnels. At U.N., China insists it's not 'right' time for sanctions on Iran

Egyptian forces wound 2 Palestinians on Gaza border.

Jordan disputes Khost bomber status.

Dubai's decline gives way to Abu Dhabi's rise.

ASIA

Kan, a weak Yen proponent, named Japan Finance Minister.

Three killed in Pakistani-administered Kashmir bombing.

Officials: Suspected US drones kill 12 in Pakistan.

Blast kills 2 Afghans, 9 NATO troops among wounded.

Murder trial tests Philippine justice.

AFRICA

US urges Guinea to restore civilian rule.

South Sudan army-civilian clash kills 17: official.

Ailing Nigerian president phones officials from hospital bed.

US screening 'risks Nigeria ties'.

Threats lead food agency to curtail aid in Somalia. Somalia’s al-Shabaab rebels deny demanding payments from UN.

Somali pirates free hijacked Pakistani 'mother ship'.

Egypt to host conference on the return of antiquities.

EUROPE

France’s elite colleges rise up in revolt against Nicolas Sarkozy.

Discord, revolt roil Brown's Labor Party before elections in Britain.

Britain falls to 25th best place to live in the world... behind Lithuania, the Czech Republic and Hungary.

Slovakia explosives gaffe 'highlights security failings'.

Dagestan suicide bomb kills six police officers. Suicide bomb in Russia's Dagestan follows strike on Al Qaeda.

Ulster defense association says it has disarmed.

Six more days of snow forecast as cold snap continues in Britain.

AMERICAS

Honduras: De facto president objects to US request he leave.

Evo Morales: Climate power to the people.

Websites post picture of Castro in hospital-style wheeled chair.

Cold grips much of US, Fla. races to save crops.

Missing San Francisco sea lions 'off Oregon'.

TERRORISM/THE LONG WAR

More ex-detainees resort to terror, officials say.

Man who bombed CIA post provided useful intelligence about al-Qaeda.

Angry Barack Obama vows security changes. Obama rebuke over bomb plot prompts intelligence pledge.

Yemen arrests three Qaeda militants, targets leader.

U.S. to suspend Gitmo detainee transfers to Yemen.

ECONOMY/FINANCE/BUSINESS

Pump prices on pace to top 2009 high by weekend.

Cramped on land, big oil bets at sea.

Oil hovers below $82 amid US crude inventory drop.
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          The Scariest Nominee of Our Time        

Imagine if Donald Trump’s foreign policy ideas were uttered in a saner tone by someone who seemed to have a little bit of knowledge about global politics. Would his ideas sound quite so dangerous? Maybe not, but they’d still be dangerous enough. In fact, they’d qualify as the most dangerous, disruptive, self-destructive ideas that any major party’s nominee has peddled in any living American’s memory.

These are the hardest times since the end of World War II for an American president to set and manage foreign policy. From 1945–91, the rules of the game were fairly clear: It was the U.S. versus the USSR, and power was measured by the relative stockpiles of weapons they would need in a conflict. Most of the wars fought by smaller nations were viewed (sometimes misleadingly) in terms of their impact on the East–West balance.

When the Cold War imploded, so did the entire system of international relations it had spawned. Power blocs dissolved; the subjects and allies in each now-shattered sphere of influence were free to pursue their own interests without regard to the former superpowers’ wishes. In the Middle East, Cold War politics had propped up artificial borders and oppressive regimes that otherwise would have collapsed a decade or so after World War II, along with the whole string of French and British colonies. When the Cold War ended, this collapse resumed—triggering the chaos in the region today.

In one of those ironies common to history, America won the Cold War but emerged from it weaker, not stronger. President George W. Bush’s strategic error lay in failing to grasp this fact. He, Vice President Dick Cheney, and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld thought they’d entered a “uni-polar” era with the United States reigning as “the sole superpower,” able to impose its will with little effort or the need for pesky allies. They didn’t realize that the old tokens of power (tanks, missiles, atom bombs) and the old devices of leverage (Do what we ask or succumb to the Soviet bear) had lost much of their former potency and that, as a result, allies—and compromising with them on strategic goals—were now not just useful but necessary.

Bush’s father, George H.W. Bush, understood this even at the dawn of the new era. Hence his fervent campaign to preserve the vast alliance against Saddam Hussein during the 1990–91 Gulf War and his call for a cease-fire when the mission binding the alliance—ousting Iraq’s invasion forces from Kuwait—was complete. This awareness also informed the elder Bush’s decision not to rub America’s Cold War victory in Russia’s face.

Barack Obama, from early on in his presidency, understood very clearly these limits of power, the need for alliances, and the distinctions between interests and vital interests (and the levels of commitment that they justified) in this new multi-polar (or, in some ways, nonpolar) era.

Hillary Clinton understands these things as well, though she might be less resistant than Obama to using military force; some who have worked with her say she hasn’t internalized the lessons of Vietnam, Iraq, and Libya to the same degree. But her experiences have taught her that, in this new era, nations with common interests in one realm often have opposing interests in other realms, and the job of a top diplomat or president is to navigate these shoals without surrender or collision. (In some ways, this is nothing new: The United States and the Soviet Union practiced diplomacy and signed treaties, without ever dropping guard on the East-West German border, through all but the tensest years of the Cold War.)

Donald Trump, on the other hand, grasps none of these things—not the history, not the concepts, not the tools or limits or creative possibilities of power. He is not so much an isolationist as a unilateralist. It’s easy to envision him barging into a foreign war, driven as much by avenging some personal slight as pursuing a national interest—and, in the process, waving off help from others, believing that he can win alone (or that he alone can win) with the right combination of firepower and rhetoric.

Even if he didn’t start a war, or escalate one with no notion of how to end it, he is likely—judging from what he says—to wreck the few remnants of the post–World War II order that sustain America’s influence and its broad network of (mostly) democratic allies.

When the Cold War’s demise gave smaller powers the license to go their own way and follow their own interests, several of them eventually decided to remain in the American camp. This was particularly true in East Asia, after China started flexing its naval muscle, and in Europe (especially among the more recent NATO members of Eastern and central Europe), after Vladimir Putin started living his dream of restoring the old empire out loud (or at least trying).

Trump says he wants to blow up the whole edifice. He mistakes the mutual benefits of NATO for a strictly monetary transaction, telling allies that he’d pull out America’s troops—and cancel the country’s obligation to come to their defense in the event of armed aggression—unless they paid up their fair share, as he defined it. He issued this threat in response to a question about whether he’d defend the tiny Baltic states—which Putin could invade with little trouble if physical force were all that mattered and he had no worries of a Western response. In a later interview, Trump went further and said he might bring the American troops home as a first step, predicting that the Europeans would beg him to send them back, promising to pay the U.S. as much as he wants them to pay. “You always have to be prepared to walk away,” he explained, as if he were discussing a contract dispute or a real-estate deal (which is how he seems to view all relationships), not a trusted alliance based on a 67-year-old treaty that recent events have made newly relevant.

He has issued similar warnings about what he sees as meager payments from Japan and South Korea. When CNN’s Jake Tapper suggested that a U.S. withdrawal might compel those countries to build their own nuclear weapons, as the only way to deter North Korean aggression, Trump shrugged and said “maybe we would be better off” if all three of those countries had nukes.

Trump doesn’t understand the consequences of even talking like this; he doesn’t understand the messages he’s sending to all sides. He doesn’t understand that Putin in particular must be agog at his potential good fortune. A man who might be the next president of the United States—quite aside from the fact that some of his aides have ties to Russia—has all but invited Putin to invade Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania. This impression must have been confirmed when Trump said he accepted Russia’s annexation of Crimea as a done deal and possibly a desirable one, as he’s been told that many of the island’s residents consider themselves Russian, not Ukrainian.*

No American president would, or should, go to war with Russia over the Crimea or even Ukraine. George W. Bush recognized this when he ruled against offering Ukraine NATO membership. And many people in Crimea do regard themselves as Russian. (It was part of Russia until Nikita Khrushchev gave it to Ukraine in 1954 at a time when both republics were part of the Soviet Union, and the distinction was thus fairly meaningless.) But it’s one thing to acknowledge these facts and quite another to accept with indifference a violent breach of long-standing borders. Acceding to a forcible annexation without objections, or a negotiated settlement, or even a trade of some sort (a deal), is to invite other violent breaches—and to announce to friend and foe that all borders, treaties, obligations, and alliances are moot.

Here are a few of the things that would likely happen within days if Trump were elected. South Korea and Japan, as he concedes with a shrug, would start work at once on an atomic bomb (they certainly have the technology and resources), setting off a nuclear arms race and the possibility of catastrophic crises in northeast Asia. The web of sanctions against Russia, which Obama has woven with Western European leaders in response to the Crimean grab, would collapse. Ukraine’s political leaders, who still aspire to an affiliation with the European Union, would likely cut the best deal they can get from Moscow—as would the smaller NATO nations (including the Baltics) once they realize that the other large Western European powers can do little to ensure their security without American leadership.

This is another irony of history: In his articulation of American power’s limits, Obama has highlighted those as vital interests that warrant an unbridled commitment of the nation’s power. His erasure of the “red line” in Syria did have an impact on U.S. credibility in the Middle East—but little effect on U.S. standing in Europe or East Asia. Trump often lambasts President Obama for signaling weakness in the red-line episode; but Trump is now proclaiming that, in his presidency, there would be no red line in Europe or East Asia, short of one purchased with cold cash—a transaction subject to continual review and revision, like the terms of an adjustable-rate mortgage. And yet, Trump somehow thinks his words beam a signal of awesome strength.

In the Middle East, where the Cold War’s demise has wreaked the most calamitous damage, Hillary Clinton has few compelling ideas beyond doing what Obama has done, just a little fiercer and faster. But Trump has no ideas at all. He says he will get rid of ISIS “fast.” How? Not a clue. He has also said he would form an anti-ISIS coalition of the region’s nations, a tough task given that they fear and loathe one another more than they fear and loathe ISIS. How would he do this? By holding “meetings,” he told the New York Times, as if diplomats—American, Russian, European, and Arab—haven’t held hundreds of meetings already. Trump doesn’t seem to recognize that some of the world’s problems are simply hard, maybe intractable. He seems to think that the world’s a mess because American leaders are “very, very stupid” and that the globe’s bad guys will snap to order with a tough guy like him in the White House.

Trump may have an idea, after all, of how to crush ISIS “fast,” and if my suspicions are right, it’s his most dangerous idea of all: I suspect he thinks he can make the jihadi commanders cower by threatening to incinerate them with nuclear bombs. Richard Nixon tried this with North Vietnam, telling his aides to put out the word that he was a “madman” who could do anything, even go nuclear, to avoid losing. At least Nixon, it turned out, was bluffing. Would Trump be? Would he feel compelled to follow through on his threat if they scoffed? He has revealed himself, on several occasions, to have a cavalier, even clueless attitude toward the bomb.

And it’s worth noting (as the New York Times reminded its readers, who probably haven’t had cause to ponder these matters for a quarter-century or so, on Wednesday) that, when it comes to using nuclear weapons, the president decides and acts alone; the system is set up that way because, in the event of a surprise attack, there would be no time to consult with the National Security Council, much less with Congress. Electing a president bestows upon a single man or woman the power to blow up the world.

Former diplomat Richard Burt told an enlightening story to Politico about Trump’s notion of a tough negotiator. Around 1990, when Burt was U.S. ambassador to the Soviet-American nuclear arms talks, he ran into Trump at a reception in New York:

According to Burt, Trump expressed envy of Burt’s position and proceeded to offer advice on how best to cut a “terrific” deal with the Soviets. Trump told Burt to arrive late to the next negotiating session, walk into the room where his fuming counterpart sits waiting impatiently, remain standing and looking down at him, stick his finger into his chest and say, “Fuck you!”

Needless to say, that is not how Burt maneuvered the talks so that presidents George H.W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin came to sign the START II arms-reduction treaty in 1991. One wonders if Trump thinks it might have been how it happened and if he thinks that’s how to handle adversaries today. Trump has said, “I know more about ISIS than the generals” and, just in August, “I know far more about foreign policy” than Obama.

My guess is he really believes these things.

Most of Trump’s dangerous qualities boil down to these two fundamental dangers. He knows very little but thinks he knows a lot. And most of the things he doesn’t know, he doesn’t know they’re worth knowing.

Correction, Aug. 8, 2016: An earlier version of this article misidentifed Crimea as Ukraine and misstated that the former is an island. Crimea is a peninsula. (Return.)

Read more from Slate on the 2016 campaign.


          Trump Is Dangerously Incompetent on National Security        

If Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping read the New York Times on Thursday morning, they must be hoping and praying for the election of Donald Trump. And if serious Republicans read the same paper, they must be sickened with fear—if they weren’t nauseated already—that their party’s presidential nominee is a threat to national security.

For on the front page of the Times, in an interview on foreign policy, Trump says that, despite our treaty obligations, he would not defend NATO allies from an invasion if they haven’t been reimbursing us for the cost of protecting them; that he would abandon our military bases in Asia; and that he wouldn’t pressure Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan to relax his crackdown because “the world looks at how bad the United States is” on civil liberties, too.

Thursday morning, Trump spokesmen disputed the Times story, claiming that he wasn’t quoted accurately. Since then, the Times has released a transcript of the full interview, and the story, it turns out, is not only accurate but even more distressing than the boiled-down story suggested.

Look at the following exchange between Trump and Times reporters David Sanger and Maggie Haberman:

Trump: I would prefer that we be able to continue [with NATO allies], but if we are not going to be reasonably reimbursed for the tremendous cost of these massive nations with tremendous wealth—you have the tape going on?

Sanger: We do.

Haberman: We both do.

Trump: Then yes, I would be absolutely prepared to tell those countries, “Congratulations, you will be defending yourself.”

Sanger reminds Trump that Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty obliges member nations to treat an attack on one as an attack on all. Trump replies, “How is it helping us? We have massive trade deficits.” He also says, “In a deal, you always have to be prepared to walk”—as if the 28 nations of NATO were opposing sides in a contract dispute, not members of a mutually beneficial, trusting alliance.

Then comes the shocker.

Sanger: Can the members of NATO, including the new members of the Baltics, count on the United States to come to their military aid if they were attacked by Russia? And count on us fulfilling our obligations—

Trump: Have they fulfilled their [financial] obligations to us? If they fulfill their obligations to us, the answer is yes.

And if they haven’t paid the amount that Trump considers their proper share, the answer is no.

Then, to make matters specific, there’s this:

Sanger: I was just in the Baltic States. They are very concerned obviously about this new Russian activism, they are seeing submarines off their coasts, they are seeing airplanes they haven’t seen since the Cold War coming, bombers doing test runs. If Russia came over the border into Estonia or Latvia, Lithuania … would you come to their immediate military aid?

Trump: I don’t want to tell you what I’d do because I don’t want Putin to know what I’d do.

No! The whole point of NATO is to tell potential enemies, in no uncertain terms, that the United States and every other member-nation will respond to an attack with force.

In talking about U.S. commitments in Asia, Trump reveals himself as completely ignorant about military matters. If we shut down our bases in Japan and South Korea, and some crisis compels us to move back, Trump says, “We can always deploy” troops and weapons from bases in the United States, adding, “It would be a lot less expensive.” In fact, it would be a lot more expensive. It costs more to base troops at home than abroad, and it costs a lot more to deploy from home—we would need more cargo-transport planes and ships as well as the pilots, crews, and fuel to operate and maintain them. And it would take weeks, in some cases months, to mount a large deployment—possibly too long to make a difference.

If Trump is elected president, and if he actually does what he says he’ll do, every ally in Europe and Asia will scramble to form partnerships that do not include the United States. Some of the weaker allies will feel compelled, seeing no other choice, to cut a deal with Russia or China. Allies in every realm of international relations will view America as an untrustworthy guarantor.

Trump’s view of the world isn’t entirely out to lunch. If he and the Republican Party were trying to prompt a debate on America’s role in the world, if they were running on an avowed platform of isolationism, that would at least be taking a position. Such a debate is long overdue, and isolationism has its place as one school of thought in the American political tradition.

But it’s untenable for nearly every speaker at the GOP convention to lambast President Obama and Hillary Clinton for weakening our defenses, abandoning our allies, and “leading from behind” when the Republican candidate talks about our allies as expendable customers and prefers not to lead at all.

Trump reveals himself in the Times interview as an odd combination of isolationist and mercantilist. To him, every relationship is transactional, and the transaction’s currency is money—and only money. He sees alliances as a financial drain, carrying no geopolitical benefits. Geopolitics don’t enter into his calculus. If a commitment costs too much, cut it loose, cut the losses, balance the books, period.

Everything is a deal, and all deals are like the real estate deals that have made him a fortune. When the Times reporters ask him how he would deal with ISIS, he says that he would get the Turks to do more. When he’s reminded that the Turks care more about bashing the Kurds than defeating ISIS, he says, “It would be wonderful if we could put them somehow both together.” What’s his diplomatic plan for doing that? “Meetings,” Trump replies. “If I win, we will have meetings … very early on.”

One wonders: Does Trump think that President Obama and Secretary of State John Kerry haven’t already had “meetings” with Erdogan and the region’s other leaders about doing more to beat ISIS? Does he think his idea is novel? This may explain why he thinks the Obama administration—the entire U.S. government—is filled with idiots. Don’t they see, he might be thinking, that they have to hold meetings? He may see meetings with Erdogan and other national leaders as no different from meetings with the New York City Department of Buildings, a tenant who’s behind on his rent, an indebted hotelier that he wants to buy out, or a supplier that he’s trying to fleece.

The fact that the world is a mess, that America isn’t winning better deals, is proof to Trump that our people in power don’t know how to run a slick meeting. He thinks his opponents and critics know nothing. He doesn’t know how much he doesn’t know.

Read more of Slate’s election coverage.


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          Lithuania History        
By Henry Albinson. Published by: Sonit Education Academy. Price: Free. Category: Nonfiction / History / European / Europe / Former Soviet Republics / Fiction / Adventure / General.
          (Lietuvių) Moterų ir vyrų lygybės užtikrinimo priemonių kÅ«rimas ir įgyvendinimas        
Sorry, this entry is only available in Lithuanian.
                  
Sorry, this entry is only available in Lithuanian.
          (Lietuvių) PASKUBĖKITE REGISTRUOTIS Ä® SLAUGOS KURSUS!        
Sorry, this entry is only available in Lithuanian.
          (Lietuvių) MÅ«sų partneriai Hausengel ieÅ¡ko asmenų, kuriuos domina senjorų slauga Vokietijoje!        
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          (Lietuvių) PASKUBĖKITE REGISTRUOTIS Ä® BUHALTERIJOS KURSUS!        
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          (Lietuvių) Projektas „Atrask save“ – pagalba savęs ieÅ¡kančiam jaunimui!        
Sorry, this entry is only available in Lithuanian.
          (Lietuvių) Naujas darbo kodeksas buhalteriams! Kviečiame į seminarą!        
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          (Lietuvių) Kviečiame jungtis į Buhalterių klubą „APSKAITĖLĖ“, kuris veikia prie Kauno moters užimtumo informacijos centro!        
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          (Lietuvių) Ligonio slauga namuose        
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          (Lietuvių) „DARBUOTOJŲ KOMPETENCIJŲ TOBULINIMAS – EFEKTYVI INVESTICIJA!“        
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          (Lietuvių) „SAVANORIAUJI – UGDAI SAVE“        
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          (Lietuvių) GAL IEÅ KAI PRAKTIKOS AR NORI SAVANORIAUTI?        
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          (Lietuvių) Veikli, organizuota, tikslo siekianti moteris turi žinoti savo teises ir jas ginti !        
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          (Lietuvių) KVIEČIAME Ä® SLAUGOS KURSUS        
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          (Lietuvių) Projektas – Moters Metamorfozė        
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          (Lietuvių) Paskubėkite!        
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          (Lietuvių) Idėjos lyčių aspekto integravimui į savivaldybių strateginius planus        
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          (Lietuvių) MOTERYS POLITIKĖS – PO BENDRA VĖLIAVA        
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          (Lietuvių) ESI MOTERIS BESIDOMINTI POLITIKA? IEÅ KAI BENDRAMINČIŲ? DALYVAUK IR TU! PRISIJUNK PRIE MOTERŲ POLITIKIŲ KLUBO!        
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          (Lietuvių) KVIEČIAME REGISTRUOTIS Ä® KURSUS!!!!!!        
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          10 years of Telecom Innovations with TravelSim!        
Celebrating its 10th anniversay this year, TravelSim has grown to become the world’s leading alternative roaming service and a well-known international brand during the last decade. What is behind the scenes of this international success stoy? TravelSim started its roaming service in 2006, first launched in regions close to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Russia.…
          Mindaugas Kupsas moves to Utenos Juventus        
The big man remains in Lithuania
          Neptunas lands Juan Palacios        
The big man inks in Lithuania
          Patriot in Lithuania        
On July 10, the United States of America is for the first deploying Patriot long-range missile system in Lithuania. The deployment demonstrates the steadfast U.S. commitment to the security of Lithuania and its high readiness to send strategic capabilities to the region. The Patriot will be operating in one pool with Lithuanian and other NATO allies’ air defence systems during Exercise Tobruq Legacy 2017.
          Deividas Gailius inks with San Pablo Burgos        
The Lithuanian inks in Spain
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Europe        
Europe is the second smallest continent in the world .Here is the list of 47 countries in Europe and their capitals.

 Europe




S.no
Countries
Capitals
1.
Albania
Tirana
2.
Andorra
Andorra la Vella
3.
Austria
Vienna
4.
Belarus
Minsk
5.
Belgium
Brussels
6.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sarajevo
7.
Bulgaria
Sofia
8.
Croatia
Zagreb
9.
The Czech Republic
Prague
10.
Denmark
Copenhagen
11.
Estonia
Tallinn
12.
Finland
Helsinki
13.
France
Paris
14.
Germany
Berlin
16.
Greece
Athens
17.
Hungary
Budapest
18.
Iceland
Reykjavík
19.
Ireland
Dublin
20.
Italy
Rome
21.
Kosovo
Pristina
22.
Latvia
Riga
23.
Liechtenstein
Vaduz
24.
Lithuania
Vilnius
25.
Luxembourg
Luxembourg City
26.
Macedonia
Skopje
27.
Malta
Valletta
28.
Moldova
Chisinau
29.
Monaco
Monaco
30.
Montenegro
Podgorica
31.
The Netherlands
Amsterdam
32.
Norway
Oslo
33.
Poland
Warsaw
34.
Portugal
Lisbon
35.
Romania
Bucharest
36.
Russia
Moscow
37.
San Marino
San Marino
38.
Serbia
Belgrade
39.
Slovakia
Bratislava
40.
Slovenia
Ljubljana
41.
Spain
Madrid
42.
Sweden
Stockholm
43.
Switzerland
Bern
44.
Turkey
Ankara
45.
Ukraine
Kiev (Kyiv)
46.
The United Kingdom
London
47.
The Vatican City
Vatican City

                  

The Gaia Hypothesis – A Goddess Reborn


“What if Mary is another name for Gaia?
Then her capacity for virgin birth is no miracle,
It is a role of Gaia since life began.
She is of this Universe and, conceivably, a part of God.
On Earth, she is the source of life everlasting and is alive now;
She gave birth to humankind and we are part of her.”
– Sir James Lovelock, Ages of Gaia.

By The Green Agenda

Anyone who has studied the global green movement has no doubt heard of "Gaia." Believers in Gaia, or ‘Gaians’ as they often refer to themselves, claim that the earth is a sentient super-being, an ancient goddess spirit, deserving of worship and reverence.

Sir James Lovelock, in his book, Gaia: A New Look at Life, states:

“All of the lifeforms on this planet are a part of Gaia — part of one spirit goddess that sustains life on earth. Since this transformation into a living system, the interventions of Gaia have brought about the evolving diversity of living creatures on planet Earth.”

Gaians teach that the "Earth Goddess," or Mother Earth, must be protected from destructive human activity. It is this belief that fuels the environmental movement, sustainable development, and a global push for the return of industrialized nations to a more primitive way of life.

Gaians claim that “we are part of Nature and Nature is part of us, therefore God is part of us, and God is everywhere, and everything is God.” In reality, Gaia is actually a revival of the “Earth-goddess” found in many ancient pagan religions. The current Gaia Cult is a cunning mixture of science, paganism, eastern mysticism, wicca and feminism.

While researching this subject, I have been astounded by how many prominent environmental leaders, politicians, scientists, and religious leaders profess a literal belief in Gaia. Gaians appear to have infiltrated every level of power at the United Nations and risen to prominent positions in many Governments. I strongly believe that they are the most dangerous and devious cult on the face of the planet.

“Still more important is the implication that the evolution of humans, with his technological inventiveness and his increasingly subtle communications network, has vastly increased Gaia's range of perception. She is now, through us, awake and aware of herself. She has seen the reflection of her fair face through the eyes of astronauts and the television cameras of orbiting spacecraft. Our sensations of wonder and pleasure, our capacity for conscious thought and speculation, our restless curiosity and drive are hers to share.

This new interrelationship of Gaia with man is by no means fully established; we are not yet a truly collective species, corralled and tamed as an integral part of the biosphere, as we are as individual creatures. It may be that the destiny of mankind is to become tamed so that the fierce, destructive, and greedy forces of tribalism and nationalism are fused into a compulsive urge to belong to the commonwealth of all creatures which constitutes Gaia.” – James Lovelock, Gaia: A New Look at Life (1972)
The modern Gaia hypothesis was originally formulated by James Lovelock. Dr. Lovelock is one of the world's most famous and influential scientists. He has degrees in numerous areas, including medicine, chemistry and physics. Lovelock worked for NASA during the 1960's as a consultant to the Viking spacecraft project. His task was to develop methods for detecting life on Mars. He claims that while searching for suitable methods, he realised that conditions that allowed life to exist on Earth could not occur ‘naturally.’ The system is so well balanced and yet so dynamic that life itself is acting like a self-regulating sentient super-organism. He famously told NASA that there was no possibility of life existing on Mars and they should cancel their mission.

Lovelock called his sentient, super-organism “Gaia,” after the ancient Greek Goddess of the Earth. In Greek Mythology, it was Gaia that “brought Order Out of Chaos,” a theme commonly quoted in Gaian texts. Lovelock believed that humans were a key part of this organism. He claimed that humans had evolved to a point where they had become Gaia’s “global brain” and “she is now through us awake and aware of herself. She has seen the reflection of her fair face through the eyes of astronauts and the television cameras of orbiting spacecraft.”

However, he also believed that humans were abusing the planet environmentally, jeopardizing the organism as a whole, "as though the human race is a cancer." In his latest book, The Revenge of Gaia, Lovelock claims that Gaia is now fully awakened, and she is angry. Lovelock writes:
“Just as the human body uses a fever to fight off an infection, Gaia is raising Her temperature to expel a harmful parasite — humans. Unless humans renounce their destructive ways and rejoin the diverse community of living beings in Gaia’s loving embrace then Gaia will be forced to act in order to secure Her supreme reign.”
In the book Lovelock also claims, that on the current trajectory, “the human population will be reduced to a few breeding pairs by the end of this century.”

Lovelock rose to further global prominence when, in the late 1970s, he suddenly discovered that CFC’s were “destroying the Earths protective ozone layer.” He led a campaign which resulted in an international ban on these chemicals.

Lovelock was also one of the first and most vocal proponents of the Global Warming theory. To a suspicious mind it may appear that controlling and eliminating CFC’s was a test case for the big prize — controlling and eliminating fossil fuels, thus removing the cause of Gaia’s pain, the modern industrial society. However, throughout his long career Lovelock has zealously promoted his Gaia theory. Two of his most recent publications are titled “Homage to Gaia” and “A Book of Hymns to Gaia.”

The Gaia hypothesis was eagerly accepted by the emerging New Age movement in the 1970s, as it combines neatly with eastern mysticism and neopagan theology; but “science” was needed to convince biologists. For these people, Gaia was made palatable by Lovelock's Daisyworld model, a mathematical and scientific theory designed to refute the criticisms of Darwinism. Just as evolution eliminates the need for a divine creator, the Daisyworld model provided a theory of evolving life on earth that incorporates natural selection with a sentient lifeforce. It eliminates a personal yet separate God and makes humans a part of the divine spirit that is Gaia.

Interestingly, climatology was the first branch of science to actively endorse the Gaian theory that Earth was a single, self-regulating system. Steven Schneider, Professor of Climatology at Stanford, organised the first international scientific conference to discuss “the implications of Gaia.” It was Schneider who later became the most vocal climatologist supporting Global Warming and once famously stated:

“We need to get some broad based support, to capture the public's imagination... So we have to offer up scary scenarios, make simplified, dramatic statements, and make little mention of any doubts... Each of us has to decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest.”
The Gaia hypothesis, absent the spiritual connotations, has now been accepted into mainstream science and renamed the Gaia theory. It can be found in most environmental science textbooks.

As mentioned previously, the Gaia theory found its greatest resonance with the New Age movement, who were entranced by the mystical side of Gaia. They found it easy to conceive that humans can have a spiritual relationship with Gaia. A connectedness to nature and the belief that humans are a part of this collective consciousness called Gaia appeals strongly to their worldview.

A simple google search for 'gaia pagan' will reveal thousands of organisations proudly proclaiming themselves to literally be pagan priests and disciples of the great Goddess Gaia. There are dozens of Gaia Groups in most major cities. Wicca, which is said to be the fastest growing religion in the United States, is intimately connected with Gaia worship. In fact many Gaians call themselves witches and warlocks.

The feminist movement has also warmly embraced the concept of a Gaia Goddess. For many of these proponents, an integral part of Goddess worship is its prevalent theme of anti-masculine, anti-male statements. In this philosophical world-view, since Goddess worship is good, then by necessity, any use of masculine terminology in reference to God or any prominence of men in culture or society is generally discouraged. The prominent self-proclaimed ‘feminist witch,’ Miriam Starhawk stated:

"The symbolism of the Goddess has taken on an electrifying power for modern women. It has exposed the falsehoods of patriarchal history and given us models for female strength and authority."
Gaians teach that the Divine Earth must be protected from all threats no matter what the cost. The United Nations Global Biodiversity Assessment explicitly refers to Christianity as a faith that has set humans apart from nature and stripped nature of its sacred qualities.
“Conversion to Christianity has therefore meant an abandonment of an affinity with the natural world for many forest dwellers, peasants, fishers all over the world... The northeastern hilly states of India bordering China and Myanmar supported small scale, largely autonomous shifting cultivator societies until the 1950's. These people followed their own religious traditions that included setting apart between 10% and 30% of the landscape as sacred groves and ponds.”
While condemning Christianity and Islam as the root of all environmental evil, the document goes on to praise Buddhism and Hinduism as they "did not depart as drastically from the perspective of humans as members of a community of beings including other living and non-living elements."

Al Gore, in his book Earth in the Balance, echoes this view:
"Prehistoric Europe and much of the world was based on the worship of a single earth goddess, who was assumed to be the fount of all life and who radiated harmony among all living things. Much of the evidence for the existence of this primitive religion comes from the many thousands of artifacts uncovered in ceremonial sites. These sites are so widespread that they seem to confirm the notion that a goddess religion was ubiquitous through much of the world until the antecedents of today's religions, most of which still have a distinctly masculine orientation...swept out of India and the Near East, almost obliterating belief in the goddess. The last vestige of organized goddess worship was eliminated by Christianity as late as the fifteenth century in Lithuania."
Gore then quotes deChardin:
"'The fate of mankind, as well as of religion, depends upon the emergence of a new faith in the future. Armed with such a faith, we might find it possible to resanctify the earth..."
Gore is also fond of quoting an old Native Indian saying:
“Will you teach your children what we have taught our children? That the earth is our Mother. What befalls the earth, befalls all the sons of the earth. This we know — the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth.”
Gaia worship is at the very heart of the Global Green Agenda. Sustainable Development, Agenda 21, the Earth Charter, and the Global Warming theory are all part of the Gaians mission to save "Mother Earth" from her human infestation.

Gaians have succeeded in uniting the environmental movement, the New Age movement, Eastern religions, the United Nations, and even the leaders of many Christian denominations behind this vile new form of paganism.

"The earth is not dead matter. She is alive.
Now begin to speak to the earth as you walk.
You can speak out loud, or just talk to her in your mind.
Send your love into her with your exhalation.
Feel your heart touching upon the heart of the planet.
Say to her whatever words come to you:
Mother Earth, I love you.
Mother Earth, I bless you.
May you be healed.
May all your creatures be happy.
Peace to you, Mother Earth.
On behalf of the human race, I ask forgiveness for having injured you.
Forgive us, Mother Earth"
- “Prayer to the Earth,” Student Textbook

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Gaia: The Revival of Paganism and Worship of 'Mother Earth'



Gaia Worship - The New Pagan Religion

By Jennifer Rast

Anyone who has studied the global environmental movement has no doubt heard the term "Gaia." Gaia is a revival of paganism that rejects Christianity, considers Christianity its biggest enemy, and views the Christian faith as its only obstacle to a global religion centered on Gaia worship and the uniting of all life forms around the goddess of "Mother Earth."

A cunning mixture of science, paganism, eastern mysticism, and feminism have made this pagan cult a growing threat to the Christian Church. Gaia worship is at the very heart of today's environmental policy. The Endangered Species Act, The United Nation's Biodiversity Treaty and the Presidents Council on Sustainable Development, etc. are all offspring of the Gaia hypothesis of saving "Mother Earth."

This religious movement, with cult-like qualities, is being promoted by leading figures and organizations such as former Vice President Albert Gore, broadcaster Ted Turner, and the United Nations and its various NGO's. Al Gore's book "Earth in the Balance" is just one of many books that unabashedly proclaims the deity of Earth and blames the falling away from this pagan God on the environmentally unfriendly followers of Jesus Christ. The United Nations has been extremely successful in infusing the "Green Religion" into an international governmental body that has an increasing affect and control over all of our lives.

So, what is this new cult of Gaia? It is basically a rehashed, modernized version of the paganism condemned by God in the Bible. Science, evolution theory, and a space age mentality have given it a new face and made it sound more credible to a modern world, but it is the same paganism in all of its evils. There have been other religious movements that have presented similar revelations about the deity of a living earth, but Gaia has succeeded in uniting the environmental movement, the new age movement, Eastern religions, and even the leaders of many Christian denominations behind a bastardized version of paganism where the others weren't able to.

The Gaia hypothesis can be credited to James Lovelock. Lovelock worked for NASA during the 1960s as a consultant to the "life on Mars" Viking spacecraft project. Lovelock's theory claims that the earth's "biota," tightly coupled with its environment, act as a single, self-regulating living system in such a way as to maintain the conditions that are suitable for life. This living system, he believed, was the result of a meta-life form that occupied our planet billions of years ago and began a process of transforming this planet into its own substance.

All of the life forms on this planet, according to Lovelock, are a part of Gaia - a part of one spirit goddess that sustains life on earth. Since this transformation into a living system, he theorizes, the interventions of Gaia have brought about the evolving diversity of living creatures on planet Earth. From Lovelock's perspective in space he saw not a planet, but a self-evolving and self-regulating living system.

His theory presents earth not as the rock that it is, but as a living being. He named this being Gaia, after the Greek goddess that was once believed to have drawn the living world forth from chaos.

The idea of Earth as a living, divine spirit is not a new one. Plato said:

"We shall affirm that the cosmos, more than anything else, resembles most closely that living Creature of which all other living creatures, severally or genetically, are portion; a living creature which is fairest of all and in ways most perfect."
As today's version of paganism, Gaia is eagerly accepted by the new age movement and fits neatly into eastern mysticism, but science was needed to gather in the evolutionists and science-minded humanists. For these people, Gaia was made palatable by Lovelock's Daisyworld model, a mathematical and scientific theory designed to refute the criticisms of Darwin's groupies. Just as evolution eliminates the need for a divine creator, the Daisyworld model provided a theory of evolving life on earth that incorporates natural selection with a world that is interconnected. It eliminates a personal yet separate God and makes humans a part of the divine spirit that is Gaia.

More appealing to the New Agers and the interfaith movement is the mystical side of Gaia. They can easily relate to the belief that humans can have mystical experiences or a spiritual relationship with Gaia. A connectedness to nature and the belief that humans are a part of this collective consciousness called Gaia appeals to them.

Gaia teaches that an "Earth spirit," goddess, or planetary brain must be protected. It is this belief that fuels the environmental movement, sustainable development, and a global push for the return of industrialized nations to a more primitive way of life.

Just as with the evolutionists, the humanists, and the other pagan religions of the world, Gaia has named Christianity as the obstacle to human evolution and our spiritual destiny. A document mandated by the UN-sponsored Convention on Biological Diversity, the Global Biodiversity Assessment, explicitly refers to Christianity as a faith that has set humans apart from nature and stripped nature of its sacred qualities. The document states:
Conversion to Christianity has therefore meant an abandonment of an affinity with the natural world for many forest dwellers, peasants, fishers all over the world... The northeastern hilly states of India bordering China and Myanmar supported small scale, largely autonomous shifting cultivator societies until the 1950s. These people followed their own religious traditions that included setting apart between 10% and 30% of the landscape as sacred groves and ponds.
While condemning Christianity as the root of all ecological evil, the document goes on to praise Buddhism and Hinduism as they "did not depart as drastically from the perspective of humans as members of a community of beings including other living and non-living elements."

Non-Christian religions are definitely favored by the global government as good stewards of Mother Earth. Members of this "Green Religion" will all agree that the Earth is in a crisis state and this ecological emergency is the result of Christian traditions. They believe that the Judeo Christian belief that God assigned man to rule over the earth has caused us to exploit and abuse it. Monotheism, they assert, has separated humans from their ancient connection to the earth, and to reverse this trend governments, the media, our education system, artists, and other areas of influence must revive earth-centered myth and reconnect us to Earth's spirit. Al Gore, in his book Earth in the Balance, expounds on this view:
"The richness and diversity of our religious tradition throughout history is a spiritual resource long ignored by people of faith, who are often afraid to open their minds to teachings first offered outside their own systems of belief. But the emergence of a civilization in which knowledge moves freely and almost instantaneously through the world has spurred a renewed investigation of the wisdom distilled by all faiths. This panreligious perspective may prove especially important where our global civilization's responsibility for the earth is concerned." (pp. 258-259)
Gore praises the Eastern religions and new age spiritualism, while blaming Christianity for the elimination of the ancient goddess religion, and calls for a new spiritual relationship between man and earth.
"The spiritual sense of our place in nature predates Native American cultures; increasingly it can be traced to the origins of human civilization. A growing number of anthropologists and archaeomythologists, such as Marija Gimbutas and Riane Esler argue that the prevailing ideology of belief in prehistoric Europe and much of the world was based on the worship of a single earth goddess, who was assumed to be the fount of all life and who radiated harmony among all living things. Much of the evidence for the existence of this primitive religion comes from the many thousands of artifacts uncovered in ceremonial sites. These sites are so widespread that they seem to confirm the notion that a goddess religion was ubiquitous through much of the world until the antecedents of today's religions, most of which still have a distinctly masculine orientation...swept out of India and the Near East, almost obliterating belief in the goddess. The last vestige of organized goddess worship was eliminated by Christianity as late as the fifteenth century in Lithuania."
If Gore had read the Bible he would know exactly why Christians will not open their mind to these other beliefs as he suggests. The Bible very clearly warns us not to.
"So then, just as you received Christ Jesus as Lord, continue to live in him, rooted and built up in him, strengthened in the faith as you were taught, and overflowing with thankfulness. See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on Christ. For in Christ all the fullness of the Deity lives in bodily form, and you have been given fullness in Christ, who is the head over every power and authority." --Colossians 2:6-10
Gore also might want to read Romans 1:18-25:
"The wrath of God is being revealed from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness, since what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities - his eternal power and divine nature - have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse. For although they knew God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened. Although they claimed to be wise, they became fools and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles. Therefore God gave them over in the sinful desires of their hearts to sexual impurity for the degrading of their bodies with one another. They exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served created things rather than the creator - who is forever praised. Amen."
When men began to worship the creation instead of the Creator, the wrath of God was revealed. As societies begin again to turn from the truth of the creation and worship nature ("Mother Earth" or any other deceiving spirit), the evil and deception in their new religion will be made evident by God's response.
Because of this, God gave them over to shameful lusts. Even their women exchanged natural relations for unnatural ones. In the same way the men also abandoned natural relations with women and were inflamed with lust for one another. Men committed indecent acts with other men, and received in themselves the due penalty for their perversion. Furthermore, since they did not think it worthwhile to retain the knowledge of God, he gave them over to a depraved mind, to do what ought not to be done. They have become filled with every kind of wickedness, evil, greed and depravity. They are full of envy, murder, strife, deceit and malice. They are gossips, slanderers, God-haters, insolent, arrogant and boastful; they invent ways of doing evil; they disobey their parents; they are senseless, faithless, heartless, ruthless. Although they know God's righteous decree that those who do such things deserve death, they not only continue to do these very things but also approve of those who practice them. --Romans 1:26-32
Our societies today are becoming a picture of this wickedness, evil, greed and depravity. As the Christian Church is brought into the fold by organizations such as the National Council of Churches and the National Religious Partnership for the Environment, we can be sure the results will be a further decline into immorality and chaos. There is a drive by these organizations and others to meld Earth worship with Christianity in the name of tolerance, biodiversity, sustainability, and the preservation of Mother Earth. It is a battle for Christianity and an attack on Biblical truth.

When this pagan agenda reaches your church or your community, how will you respond? Will you speak up for the truth of God or will you exchanged the glory of the immortal God for a global compromise that is leading countless people into spiritual darkness?

As followers of Jesus Christ, we know the truth and we must boldly proclaim it. The opposition is fierce, and to those who don't know the joy of a relationship with God, it is an appealing proposition. It is accepting of everything, intolerant of nothing, it deifies the environmentalist, worships the feminist, eliminates all responsibility for sin, and frees you to embrace your sinful nature. The truth of the Bible must first be taught in our churches and then shared with the world.

As churches begin to fall away from the faith and corrupt the Word of God, it is left to Bible-believing Christians to stand up for the truth, contend for our faith, and offer to the world an alternative to God's wrath. If we are ashamed of our faith, if we compromise our beliefs, and if we hide in our churches and ignore what is going on outside of them, we are aiding in our own destruction, and countless souls will be lost because of our complacency, selfishness, and inaction.
"For this reason I remind you to fan into flame the gift of God, which is in you through the laying on of my hands. For God did not give us a spirit of timidity, but a spirit of power, of love and of self-discipline. So do not be ashamed to testify about our Lord, or ashamed of me his prisoner. But join with me in suffering for the gospel, but the power of God, who has saved us and called us to a holy life - not because of anything we have done but because of his own purpose and grace." --II Timothy 1:6-8
Mary apparitions may be the deception that unifies world religions into becoming the Harlot of Revelation

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          How Geni and MyHeritage Helped Me Find My Grandmother’s Family        
We love to hear stories from our users about the fascinating discoveries they have made on Geni. Below we share a story from Angela Sinickas Shiromani, who connected with descendants of her grandmother’s siblings through Geni. This amazing discovery finally united two lines of the family after being separated across two continents for over 60 years. In June 2013, while on a trip to Lithuania to speak at the Lithuanian World Economic Forum, Angela decided... Read the full story
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It takes a lot to flummox Superman. But in 1967, a smallish, mischievous looking bloke from the fifth dimension got the better of Superman just by introducing himself. His name was Mxyzptlk. Bereft of vowels, our superhero found the task of pronunciation, a head-scratcher. He went: “Mr. Mixie, what?” He just couldn’t figure out that it was Mister MixyZipitlik.

Many rock fans experienced a similar moment of weirdness in the early seventies when they first encountered an album from ‘Lynyrd Skynyrd’, the first band to use no vowels in their name. The presence of the quasi-vowel ‘y’ made it a little easier. Still the name evoked a lot of curiosity. The band had to issue a clarification that Lynyrd Skynyrd was a mock tribute to their teacher Leonard Skinner, who with his strict policy against long hair, drove their lead guitarist to drop out of school.

The boy band NSYNC took the ‘no vowel movement’ one step further and capitalised their letters in 1995, thereby triggering off an avalanche of ugliness. Musicians with little talent decided that the best way to stand out was to create a disemvoweled name.

The result is, now we’re stuck with hundreds of band names that look straight out of the rack of a scrabble player burdened with consonants. Some samplers would give you an idea of how lousy things have got. There’s this Virginia-based Hip Hop band called ‘RDGLDGRN’. If you could spot the three colours, wait till you try and decode ‘LVTHN’, a black metal band paying an ode to ‘leviathan’, the sea monster referenced in the Old Testament. Then there’s NRCSSST, the Lithuanian metal band with a self-obsession so huge, they’ve made it their name.

The one that’s more puzzling than an abstract cubist painting is ‘SHXCXCHCXSH’. Nobody knows how to address this Swedish band that specialises in putting out techno tracks with titles like ‘RRRRGRRGRRR’, ‘STRGTHS’, ‘WHTLGHT’, ‘RSRRCTN’ and believe it or not, ‘SsSsSsSsSsSsSsSsSsSsSsSsSsSsSs’.

Even brands have tried to ride the wave. In 2001, Reebok announced that it was starting a new line called ‘Rbk’. British cycling champion Mark Cavendish launched ‘CVNDSH’ in 2013 with the cheeky punch line ‘Fst as Fck’! In my humble view, flushing out the ‘A, E, I, O, U’ from a name is as crappy as vowel movements.
           Flawless Lithuanian stepmom Angelina Bonnet gets gently dicked and facialized         

Angelina Bonnet wanted to fuck, but her husband wasn't home as always. So, that amazingly gorgeous blonde MILF decided to fuck her hot stepson. She appeared in front of that fella in a black fishnet dress. Dude was trying to contain himself, but his stepmom was too hot. He pulled his dick out and she sucked it beautifully. Then that glorious Baltic cougar with small titties got her pussy licked and fucked missionary style. Then the guy fucked her passionately in the doggystyle, the reverse cowgirl and the sideways positions. After enjoying her tight cock socket, dude put Angelina on her knees and cummed on her gorgeous face.

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          German troops, tanks on way to Lithuania for NATO mission        

BERLIN – German troops and tanks are en route to central Lithuania as part of NATO’s move to enhance its presence in the alliance’s easternmost countries. The move continues NATO escalation of military presence in eastern Europe, supposedly to deter Russian “aggression” in the area. The alliance had agreed after the demise of the Soviet […]
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Croatia U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Croatia U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Croatia U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          France – Lithuania, W maçını canlı izle        

iframe{|}http://sportstream-365.com/viewer/frame/?game=133913657&header=1&autoplay=1&width=700&height=480

France – Lithuania, W maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Lithuania U-16 – Serbia U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Lithuania U-16 – Serbia U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Belgium U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Belgium U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Belgium U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Belgium U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Germany U-16 – Lithuania U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Germany U-16 – Lithuania U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Czech Republic U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Czech Republic U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Turkey U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Turkey U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Poland U-16 – Lithuania U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Poland U-16 – Lithuania U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Turkey U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Turkey U-18 – Lithuania U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Invasion of the pickpockets        

Britain is in the grip of a pickpocketing epidemic as Eastern European gangs descend on London ahead of the Olympic Games.

A surge in sneak street thefts means more than 1,700 people fall victim every day – an increase of nearly a fifth in only two years, according to official crime  figures released yesterday.

At the same time, police warned that professional gangs from Romania, Lithuania and even South America who operate in capitals across Europe are heading to Britain, intent on cashing in on unwitting tourists at London 2012.

How they do it: A member of the pickpocket gang approaches a BBC reporter investigating the rise in thefts ahead of the Olympics

How they do it: A member of the pickpocket gang approaches a BBC reporter investigating the rise in thefts ahead of the Olympics

Keeping him occupied: The man speaks to the victim on the pretense of needing directions while another gang member approaches from behind

Keeping him occupied: The man speaks to the victim on the pretense of needing directions while another gang member approaches from behind

A BBC investigation exposed the tactics used by Romanian thieves, who were previously operating in Barcelona, to dupe their victims.

The criminals boasted of their ‘one-second’ theft techniques which leave targets unaware that anything has happened until  it is too late. They can make £4,000 a week taking wallets, smartphones and laptop bags. The goods are then shipped back to Romania and sold on the black market.

 Scotland Yard has made more than 80 arrests already and warned thieves the capital will be a ‘hostile environment’ in the coming weeks.

The Met has even drafted in a team of Romanian police officers to deal with the problem and patrol in the West End of London and Westminster during the Games. They will not have arrest powers.

Distracted: An accomplice (left) then plays drunk so he can get close enough to the target to strike

Distracted: An accomplice (left) then plays drunk so he can get close enough to the target to strike

 

Sleight of hand: The 'drunk' man jostles around with the BBC reporter, making it harder for him to notice what is going on

Sleight of hand: The 'drunk' man jostles around with the BBC reporter, making it harder for him to notice what is going on

 

 

Rich pickings: The sneering thief walks away with the wallet from the unsuspecting victim

Rich pickings: The sneering thief walks away with the wallet from the unsuspecting victim

Teamwork: The thief quickly hands the wallet to another member of the gang, who spirits it away

Teamwork: The thief quickly hands the wallet to another member of the gang, who spirits it away

 

Mayor of London Boris Johnson said: ‘These Romanian officers will prove to be a huge asset in cracking down on certain criminal networks who are targeting tourists in central London.’

Official statistics released yesterday showed pickpocketing thefts rose 17 per cent in the past two years.

In 2011/12, a total of 625,000 people fell victim, the Crime Survey of England and Wales showed.

That is an increase of more than 102,000 since 2009/10.

The vast majority of the total are classified as ‘stealth thefts’, but in 83,000 cases the victims’ possessions were ‘snatched’.




          Slough of Despond (Lithuania) - ...and White Will Turn into a Shadow (demo 1995)        
 Slough of Despond - ...and White Will Turn into a Shadow

Slough of Despond (Lithuania) - ...and White Will Turn into a Shadow (demo 1995)


DOOM/DEATH METAL

Demo 1995
Label: Tvaris


1. Intro

2. Forgotten Dreams

3. Insight

4. ...and White Will Turn into a Shadow

5. Repentance

6. Cry in Silence

7. Quotro

SLOUGH OF DESPOND
          Ð¡Ð°Ð»Ñ„етки одноразовые Tento 15 шт.        
Салфетки одноразовые Tento 15 шт. Мягкие и плотные салфетки (носовички) без запаха. Страна производитель Словакия. G M T Detect languageAfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu AfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu Text-to-speech function is limited to 100 characters Options : History : Help : FeedbackClose
          EIPA organises study visit for the Lithuanian Ministry of Finance and the Central Project Management Agency of Lithuania        
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          The illustrious Haredi ghetto background of Benjamin 'Netanyahu' (and Shimon Peres)        
As the Judaic Democracy of Counterfeit Israel unveils its totalitarian Haredi essence, I offer some important context, from the Zionist Organization of America:

THE MAGGID OF NETANYAHU

Zalman Alpert

Apr 29 2009

As is true of many public figures, much is known about the family of Israel’s new prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu. His brother, the late Lt. Col. Yonatan (Yoni) Netanyahu, who died in the 1976 Entebbe rescue, is a national hero in Israel. His father, Benzion Netanyahu, is a respected scholar whose field of expertise is the Spanish Inquisition and the Marranos, having published major scholarly works on those subjects.

What is less well known is that the prime minister’s paternal grandfather, Rabbi Natan Mileikowsky, was a maggid (preacher), educator and rabbi popular on three continents. He traveled far and wide preaching a message of national renewal and asking for support from the Jewish masses for the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.

I recently purchased a collection of Rabbi Mileikowsky’s sermons published in Yiddish under the title Folk und Land (Nation and Land) published in New York in 1928. Although the written word is no match for a powerful oratorical talent, the speeches in this book convey to the reader the power of Rabbi Mileikowsky’s message of Jewish renewal and his emotional relationship to the Holy Land.

Doing some research, I discovered the book had been translated into English and enlarged in 1991. Published by the Netanyahu family, it was not widely distributed. After a bit of effort I soon became the owner of the English volume – which contains important biographical information on Rabbi Mileikowsky – as well.

Natan Mileikowsky was born in Lithuania in 1879 to a family claiming close connection to the Gaon of Vilna, Rabbi Elijah ben Solomon. At the age of 10 he entered the famed study hall of the Volozhin yeshiva [founded by Reb Chaim of Volozhin, the great, great, grandfather of Shimon Peres ed.] and studied there for many years until he was awarded a rabbinical diploma. Given the fact that this yeshiva was an elite institution, we must conclude that the young Natan was a genuine rabbinic scholar.

Even during his student days at Volozhin he became known for his speaking ability and began delivering sermons on behalf on the group Chovevei Zion (Lovers of Zion). In 1899, at the age of 20, he traveled through the various Jewish communities in Siberia spreading the Zionist message and raising funds for the cause.

In 1908 he moved to Warsaw where he entered the field of Jewish education, accepting the position of headmaster at a Jewish high school. At the same time he continued his Zionist speaking activities and traveled throughout Poland on behalf of the Zionist movement.

Although Rabbi Mileikowsky had never served as a communal rabbi, his fame as a maggid contributed to his election as chief rabbi of the important city of Rovna (in Volhynia) in 1914. The outbreak of World War I, however, prevented his acceptance of the position and he remained in Poland.

Finally in 1920 he realized his dream and settled in the Holy Land, becoming a principal of a high school in Safed and instituting key educational reforms in that city. Shortly thereafter, the Jewish National Fund chose him to lead its fundraising campaign in England and he accepted the post, immersing himself in Zionist activities there. He was then sent to the Carpatho-Russian region to speak on behalf of the Zionist idea and in 1926 came to the United States, as chief campaigner of the Zionist Organization of America.

Here he not only delivered speeches on behalf of Zionism, joining men like the Rev. Zvi Hirsch Masliansky in spreading the Zionist message throughout the U.S., he also contributed articles to various Yiddish newspapers. In 1926 alone he made more than 700 speeches. Among the places where he spoke very often was the Boro Park section of Brooklyn, where at one point he raised several hundred thousand dollars for the Zionist movement and the rebuilding of the Jewish homeland.

In 1929 was able to return to Israel, settling in Herzliya where he devoted himself to working the land. He became a strong supporter of Chief Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, his fellow Volozhin alumni, and helped him develop his yeshiva, Merkaz HaRav, in Jerusalem. He was also a supporter of the Hebron Yeshiva in Jerusalem.

His goal was to retire and resume his studies under the spiritual leadership of Rav Kook. But this was not to be. Rabbi Mileikowsky died in Jerusalem on the first day of the Adar Rishon 1935 and was buried on the Mount of Olives. He was survived by nine children, many of whom became famous figures in Israel.

One of the leading Yiddish public speakers of his time, Rabbi Mileikowsky was an influential force in creating the atmosphere for the rebuilding of a Jewish homeland in Eretz Yisrael and enlisting support for that cause from world Jewry.

http://zoa.org/2009/04/102450-the-maggid-of-netanyahu/

          Suveikė Skandinavijoje, padės ir mums: vaikų problemas spręs inovacijos        

Pagal vaiko gerovės indeksą Lietuva yra 25 vietoje iš 29 Europos šalių*. Per pastaruosius metus situacija pagerėjo tik švietimo srityje. Tyrimai rodo, kad ji negerėja net ir tada, kai vaiko gerovės klausimams spręsti yra skiriama daugiau pinigų, Europos Sąjunga nustato aukštus reikalavimus, o vaiko gerove besirÅ«pinančios organizacijos veikia vis aktyviau.

Vienas iš bÅ«dų, kaip spręsti problemas vaikų gerovės srityje, yra inovacijų, informacinių technologijų sprendimų taikymas ir socialinio verslo iniciatyvų diegimas. Lietuva yra pirmaujanti šalis IT technologijų srityje, tačiau vaiko gerovės užtikrinimui inovacijos yra menkai išnaudojamos.

Skandinavijos šalių pavyzdys rodo, kaip mobiliosios programėlės gelbsti autizmo sindromą turintiems vaikams, žaidybinimo technologijos padeda kovai su patyčiomis, o „Pokemon Go“ žaidimas pasitelkiamas pakviečiant užsisklendusius vaikus į lauką.

Gruodžio 7 d. įvyks pirmoji tarptautinės organizacijos „Reach for Change“ konferencija Lietuvoje, skirta ne tik atkreipti dėmesį į vaikų problemas, bet ir rasti naujų jų sprendimų galimybių, tam pasitelkiant sinergiją tarp išmaniųjų technologijų ir socialinio verslo sektorių.

„Siekiame, kad vaikų problemos bÅ«tų sprendžiamos ne tik efektyviai, bet ir inovatyviai. Socialinis verslas ir inovacijos leis naujai pasižiÅ«rėti į įsisenėjusias problemas ir priimti tokius problemų sprendimo bÅ«dus, kurie bus ilgalaikiai, matuojantys poveikį ir tęstiniai, o ne vienkartiniai“, – sakė Jurgita Ribinskaitė-Glatzer, „Reach for Change“ Lietuvos filialo vadovė.

Švedijoje įkurta ir tarptautiniu mastu veikianti organizacija „Reach for change“ pastaruosius keletą metų intensyviai ieškojo inovatyvių sprendimų, kaip spręsti vaikų problemas. Organizacija siekia, kad vaikai turėtų raidos galimybes ir garantuotas teises į sveikatą ir vystymąsi, švietimą, socialinę ir ekonominę gerovę.

Lietuvoje „Reach for Change“ pradėjo veiklą 2014 m. ir jau padėjo devyniems socialiniams verslams įgyvendinti savo idėjas. Šių projektų partneriai, suteikiantys pradinį finansavimą idėjų vystymui, yra žiÅ«rimiausia šalies televizija TV3 ir mobiliojo ryšio lyderė „Tele2“.

„Vaikai yra silpniausia mÅ«sų visuomenės grandis, kuri negali pasirÅ«pinti savimi, ir vien valstybės pastangų neužtenka, kad visiems vaikams užtikrintume socialinę ir ekonominę gerovę. Turime daug jaunų ir veiklių žmonių, kurie nori prisidėti savo idėjomis ir gebėjimais. Konferencijoje rasime naujų bÅ«dų, kaip tai padaryti ir inovacijomis prisidėti prie vaikų gerovės“, – pasakojo J. Ribinskaitė-Glatzer.

Konferencijoje pranešÄ—jai iš Lietuvos ir užsienio dalinsis savo žiniomis ir patirtimi bei padės rasti atsakymus, kaip paskaičiuoti socialinių investicijų grąžą vaiko teisių srityje, kaip paskatinti socialinį verslumą vaiko teisių srityje, kaip diegti skaitmenines inovacijas vaikų apsaugoje.

Pirmieji konferencijos pranešÄ—jai yra:

Aušra Kurienė, nevyriausybinės organizacijos „Paramos vaikams centras“ įkÅ«rėja ir vadovė;

Irma Liubertienė, viena iš pokyčių lyderių ir socialinio verslo, skatinančio spręsti patyčių problemą Lietuvoje, iniciatorė;

Anton Håkanson – „DayCape“ programėlės įkÅ«rėjas, skirtos autizmo sindromą turintiems vaikams.

Kiti pranešÄ—jai ir detalesnė konferencijos informacija bus paskelbta vėliau. Konferencija bus nemokama, registracija į ją jau prasidėjo adresu http://reachforchange.eventpen.com/Register.

Pagrindiniai konferencijos partneriai yra „Tele2“ ir TV3. Organizacijos ne tik skyrė finansinę paramą šiam ir kitiems organizacijos projektams, bet ir aktyviai dalyvauja įgyvendinant „Reach for Change“ globojamus socialinio verslo projektus. Bendrovių darbuotojų komandos prisideda prie socialinio verslo inkubatoriaus programos ir su projekto dalyviais dalinasi savo patirtimi bei žiniomis.

Konferencija gruodžio 7 d. įvyks renginio rėmėjo „Vilnius Tech Park“ patalpose adresu Antakalnio g. 17. Daugiau informacijos apie renginį: http://lithuania.reachforchange.org/lt/konferencija.

 

Daugiau informacijos:

Jurgita Ribinskaite-Glatzer, „Reach for Change“ vadovė Lietuvai

jurgita.ribinskaite-glatzer@reachforchange.org, 8 600 87199


          â€žTele2“ skirs 65 tÅ«kst. eurų socialiniam verslui, kuris saugos vaikus nuo patyčių        

Telekomunikacijų bendrovė „Tele2“ siÅ«lo finansavimą žmonėms, kurie pasiÅ«lys geriausią idėją, kaip apsaugoti Lietuvos vaikus nuo patyčių. „Tele2“ idėjos autoriams skirs 20 tÅ«kst. eurų socialinio verslo sukÅ«rimui, ir dar 45 tÅ«kst. eurų – organizacijos „Reach for Change“ veiklai ir socialinio verslo inkubatorių organizavimui.

 Iniciatyvą „Tele2“ įgyvendina kartu su tarptautine organizacija „Reach for Change“. Jos veiklos modelis – padėti plėtoti socialinių verslininkų idėjas, kaip spręsti didžiausias vaikų pasaulio problemas. „Reach for Change“ kartu su partneriais verslininkams padeda auginti jų inovacijas suteikdami finansinę ir organizacinę paramą, prieigą prie verslo ekspertų bei kontaktų tinklo.

 „Reach for Change“ remia iniciatyvas, sprendžiančias opias problemas, su kuriomis susiduria vaikai. Labai džiaugiamės bendradarbiavimu su „Tele2“, drauge ieškosime drąsių asmenybių ir teiksime paramą toms socialinėms iniciatyvoms, kurios žino, kaip prisidėti prie patyčių mažėjimo tarp vaikų Lietuvoje. Patyčios yra kompleksinė problema, o sujungę mÅ«sų patirtį su inovatyviomis visuomenės idėjomis galime sukurti realų pokytį“, – sakė Sara Damber, „Reach for Change“ vadovė.

 Kurti bendrą iniciatyvą „Tele2“ ir „Reach for Change“ paskatino patyčių žala vaikams Lietuvoje. Pasaulio sveikatos organizacijos prieš kelis metus atlikto tyrimo duomenimis, Lietuvoje patyčias patiria 31 proc. 11-15 m. berniukų ir 28 proc. mergaičių.

 „Jaunimo linijoje kiekvieną dieną sulaukiame bent 5 skambučių dėl patyčių. Problema yra aktuali ir vaikams, ir jaunimui, o jos žala yra didžiulė. Patyčios yra visos visuomenės problema, ir jeigu daugiau žmonių stos jos spręsti, tikiuosi galėsime pakeisti situaciją“, – iniciatyvos pristatyme teigė Paulius Skruibis, emocinės paramos tarnybos „Jaunimo linija“ direktorius.

 „Vaiko gerovė – svarbi tema „Tele2“, stengiamės bÅ«ti ten, kur pagalbos labiausiai reikia. Jaučiame, kad dabar patyčios tarp vaikų yra įgavusios grėsmingą mastą, ir turime pamėginti kažką pakeisti. Verslas savo tiesiogine veikla gali ir turi keisti žmonių gyvenimus į gerą, kaip mums atsitiko padarius mobilųjį ryšÄ¯ ir internetą prieinamus Lietuvoje, todėl „Reach for Change“ veiklos modelis yra labai artimas. Žmonės turi nuostabių idėjų, kurios gali tapti ir tvaraus verslo pagrindu, ir padėti spręsti vaikų problemas. Kviečiame papasakoti savo idėjas, o mes padėsime jas įgyvendinti“, – sakė Petras Masiulis, „Tele2“ generalinis direktorius.

 Paraiškas socialinio verslo finansavimui galima jau nuo šiandien iki iki 2016 m. sausio 16 d.  pateikti adresu http://lithuania.reachforchange.org/lt/. Atrankoje gali dalyvauti fiziniai asmenys arba jaunos nedidelės organizacijos. Idėjas vertins „Reach for Change“ ir „Tele2“ atstovai bei nepriklausomi specialistai, o iš geriausių idėjų kovą laimėtoją po idėjų pristatymo išrinks ekspertų komisija.

 20 tÅ«kst. eurų finansavimą verslo vystymui gaus vienos idėjos autoriai, tačiau visi atrankos finalininkai bus kviečiami dalyvauti socialinio verslo inkubatoriaus užsiėsimuose ir gaus visą ekspertinę „Tele2“ atstovų ir kitų specialistų paramą idėjų realizavimui.

 „Reach for Change“ kiekvienoje iš 13 savo veiklos šalių remia tvarius verslo modelius norinčius sukurti socialinius verslininkus pagal pasiteisinusį modelį. Viena paramos dalis yra pradinis finansavimas veiklai. Teikiama finansinė parama skirta tam, kad socialinis verslininkas galėtų visiškai susikoncentruoti į savo pagrindinių veiklų plėtojimą ir augimą.

 Kita dalis – patarimai ir ekspertinė parama socialinio verslo inkubatoriuje. Ä® tai įeina mentorystė, mokymai ir įvairÅ«s įrankiai, pavyzdžiui, strateginio planavimo, poveikio matavimo ir vertinimo, lyderystės. Plėtojant sėkmingam verslui reikalingą kontaktų tinklą taip pat reguliariai organizuojamos „Pokyčių lyderių sesijos“, kurių metu socialiniai verslininkai susipažįsta, bendrauja tarpusavyje ir mokosi vieni iš kitų.

 Lietuvoje „Tele2“ nuosekliai rÅ«pinasi vaikų gerove – skyrė paramą emocinės paramos tarnybos „Jaunimo linija“ savanorių grupės apmokymui, finansavo vaikų širdies ligų diagnostikos ir gydymo įrangos įsigijimą Vilniaus universiteto ligoninės Santariškių klinikose, saugo vaikus nuo netinkamo turinio naudojantis mobiliuoju ryšiu ir internetu.

 

Daugiau informacijos:

 

Andrius Baranauskas, „Tele2“ korporacinės komunikacijos direktorius

 

mob. +370 683 66319, el. paštas: andrius.baranauskas@tele2.com

 

 

 

Simona Laiconaitė, „Reach for Change“ atstovė Lietuvoje

Mob. +370 688 14623, simona.laiconaite@reachforchange.org


          Tyrimas: geriausias darbdavys telekomunikacijų sektoriuje yra „Tele2“        
Pagal tarptautinę „AON Hewitt“ metodiką bendrovės „OVC Consulting“ atliktame tyrime telekomunikacijų bendrovė „Tele2” vienintelė iš savo sektoriaus bendrovių pateko tarp geriausių darbdavių Lietuvoje. 

Remiantis darbuotojų atsiliepimais, kaip geriausi 2012 m. šalies darbdaviai taip pat įvertintos bendrovės „Adform Lithuania“, „Lietuvos draudimas“, „Philip Morris Baltic“, „Roche Lietuva“, „Sanofi-aventis Lietuva“.
„Šis pasiekimas ypač svarbus, nes tai yra pačių darbuotojų vertinimas. Džiaugiamės, kad jie tiki tuo, ką visi kartu darome, supranta, koks svarbus yra kiekvieno darbuotojo indėlis į įmonės sėkmę. O įrodymas yra tai, kad gerų veiklos rezultatų pasiekiame su sąlyginai nedidele komanda“, – sakė Aidas TamošiÅ«nas, „Tele2” finansų direktorius.

Lietuvoje pirmąkart „OVC Consulting“ surengtas „AON Hewitt“ tyrimas pasaulyje atliekamas daugiau nei 30 pasaulio šalių jau kelis dešimtmečius. Vykdant „Geriausio darbdavio“ tyrimą bendrovės buvo įvertintos penkiais aspektais: darbuotojų įsitraukimo, lyderystės, aukštos veiklos standartų kultÅ«ros, darbdavio patrauklumo ir žmogiškojo kapitalo stabilumo. Tyrime dalyvavo 21 organizacija, į tyrimo klausimus atsakė kiek daugiau nei 6 tÅ«kst. šių bendrovių darbuotojų.

UAB „Tele2” trečiojo šių metų ketvirčio pabaigoje dirbo 93 darbuotojai, prieš metus – 87.

Ankstesniais metais „Tele2” www.vz.lt ir www.cv.lt lankytojų buvo pripažinta geidžiamiausiu darbdaviu tarp bendrovių, kuriose dirba iki 250 žmonių.

Investicinio banko „GILD Bankers“ 2012 m. sudarytame vertingiausių Lietuvos bendrovių sąraše „Tele2“ pripažinta vertingiausia šalies mobiliojo ryšio bendrove. „Tele2“ pernai buvo didžiausia mokesčių mokėtoja ITT sektoriuje. Bendrovės „RAIT“ rugsėjo mėn. atliktos apklausos duomenimis, „Tele2“ yra populiariausias ir labiausiai rekomenduojamas operatorius Lietuvoje. Beveik pusė apklausos dalyvių teigė, kad naudojasi „Tele2“ paslaugomis.

 
Daugiau informacijos 
Andrius Baranauskas, „Tele2“ korporacinės komunikacijos direktorius Baltijos šalims
mob. +370 683 66319, el. paštas: 
andrius.baranauskas@tele2.com
          The New Jewish Novel        

If you believe demography, American Jewish life is disappearing: Fifty-two percent of American Jews marry non-Jews. If you believe your own eyes, you'll conclude the opposite. Stroll down the Upper West Side of Manhattan on a Saturday morning. The former world headquarters of secular Judaism, Jewish humanism, even flat-out radicalism, will be filled with Orthodox families wandering to and from shul, the women in wigs and long dresses, the children otherworldly in clothes bare of sports insignia.

Or go to a good bookstore and check out the work of a group of young novelists busily turning the conventional Jewish identity crisis on its head. For these writers--let's call them the philo-traditionalists--the modern world that lured the Philip Roths and Saul Bellows and Norman Mailers away from their childhood enclaves doesn't glisten with its old come-hither. In the three decades since the heyday of the Jewish-American novel, secularity has grown tarnished. It is now seen as leading to self-absorbed self-destruction rather than to individual fulfillment. What the new generation embraces is the past, a godly past hedged in by community and ritual that will one day perhaps--or so they dream--be restored.

Take a lapsed Hasid such as Pearl Abraham. In her autobiographical first novel The Romance Reader, she told the familiar (to Roth or Chaim Potok readers) tale of being forced out of her sect by her own intellectual and sexual curiosity. But in her second novel, Giving Up America, which comes out this month, she all but rejects that rejection. The narrator is an unhappy ad copy writer whose callow husband has fallen for a would-be Miss America contestant. She must return to her family to reimmerse herself in the eternal Hasidic truths before she can make something like peace with her life.

America, the country Europe's rabbis condemned as the trayfe medina--the unholy land, the faithless land--is now producing a literature of faith. But hasn't there always been a literature of Jewish faith? What about Bernard Malamud, with his discombobulated folk Jews, and Isaac Bashevis Singer, with his tortured Polish intellectuals and Lithuanian rabbinical courts? The difference has everything to do with the passage of time. The philo-traditionalists (the best of them, anyway) are bringing life and imagination to a kind of writing all but given up for moribund, and besides, they're producing a literature of American faith. No longer is religious practice or a sense of Jewish continuity the prerogative of displaced Europeans gazing with horror upon the vacuousness of their assimilated children. Cynthia Ozick, the American-born doyenne of contemporary observant Jewish writers, used to make her heroes and heroines refugees from the Nazis, struggling to fortify their shredded piety against the American profanity. But even she has gone native. In a brilliant novel published last year, The Puttermesser Papers, her eponymous heroine, Ruth Puttermesser, becomes mayor of New York City and embraces a Whitmanesque vision of urban harmony--Jews and Christians and everyone together--before being undone by a rapacious golem.

Then there are the children themselves, who are much less vacuous than predicted and insist that they, too, can have a connection to the past. The brutally funny Steve Stern (Lazar Malkin Enters Heaven, Harry Kaplan's Adventures Underground, A Plague of Dreamers) does this by inventing a shtetl that out-Singers Singer in its weirdness and filth and then putting it in pre-World War II Memphis, Tenn. Thane Rosenbaum, in Elijah Visible, grants his characters, who are the children of Holocaust survivors, the right to suffer their own highly American litany of post-Holocaust disorders.

Oddly enough, it was Singer who wrote the prototext of American post-assimilationism, Shadows on the Hudson, which was only published, posthumously, earlier this year (though it was written in the '50s and set even earlier). It is a stunning, heartbreaking novel, the darkest and most modern of his works, largely because it is the most bitter about modernity. Its anti-hero, Hertz Grein, an erudite European refugee and serial deserter of women, turns his back on a secular life gone hideously awry and migrates to Israel, joining the most extreme sect of ultra-Orthodox he can find. This is a New World sort of move, even if made by a refugee, and in Israel, not America. European Jewish émigrés, whether cultured cosmopolitans or members of the pious bourgeoisie, don't suddenly convert to fundamentalism; that's a specialty of godless Americans.

Now there's Allegra Goodman, whose enthusiastically reviewed first novel, Kaaterskill Falls, appears poised to become the crossover Jewish novel of the year. The book takes place over three summers in the late 1970s in and around a mitnaged (rationalist, anti-mystical, non-Hasidic) ultra-Orthodox sect, the Kirschners, who followed their rabbi from Frankfurt to Washington Heights just before World War II and have taken to summering in a hamlet in the Eastern Catskills. Don't mistake this for the Western Catskills--the Borscht Belt. The Eastern Catskills is a not particularly Jewish and now largely forgotten resort region that was once the height of chic, the Hamptons of the 19th century, as well as home to the Hudson River School of painters. The novel's title alludes to a famous painting by Thomas Cole that hangs in a nearby museum.

In short, the grandeur of the past--Jewish, American--is the theme here. The older generation, including the rabbi, possesses the old European graces. They're erudite and sophisticated and carry their rituals off with comparable ease. Ease, that is, compared with the next generation, which is Goodman's real focus. The American-born Kirschners are more rigid, less worldly than their parents. Even the rabbi frets about them: "They are good people," he tells his son. "But they are very simple. ... They are afraid of the Mind, and to read. They don't read Schiller and the Shakespeare. How can I say it to you? They keep the one thing, the religious, alive. It is the most important, but they have lost the other. They have forgotten the poetry. There is not one of them who is what we used to call an Educated Man."

Goodman has two advantages over her characters. With an advanced degree in literature, she has read Schiller and Shakespeare, and she is writing 20 years later, when American Judaism has grown less awkward about itself. In fact, the success of her novel lies in its casualness, the way it makes the extremes of religious practice seem cozily normal. Neither Potok nor Abraham can immerse the reader in the minutiae of Hasidic life the way Goodman does in the particulars of separatist German ultra-Orthodoxy.

Another refreshing feature of Goodman's storytelling is that, unlike other members of fundamentalist sects one might find in novels, her characters don't chafe at their restrictions, or not too much. At the beginning of the novel the heroine, Elizabeth Shulman, feels so at home in her Jewish skin that "God and the scriptures, worship and ritual, are all simple, practical things for her." Indeed, she's one of the few deeply observant characters you're likely to encounter who "does not romanticize religion. ... The sacred is not mysterious to her." Rather, she "romanticizes the secular. Poetry, universities, and paintings fill her with awe." It's typical of Goodman's blend of the sublime and the haimish (homey) that when Elizabeth experiences an epiphany while looking at Cole's picture, it is the revelation of a most unambitious ambition: She wants to open a kosher grocery store. In an ultra-Orthodox setting, of course, that's not a simple step. It requires, for example, permission from the rabbi and renting from an anti-Semitic landlord. By the end of the book, Shulman has bumped up against the edges of her life, but she doesn't yearn to escape it, exactly. She has merely learned that her leaders are capable of stupid mistakes in their dealings with her. She has no intention of leaving, first because her doubt is not enough to sever her from her husband and children and second because that's not the kind of story it is.

The novel has its flaws. Goodman's explanations of Jewish ritual sometimes veer from the helpful to the condescendingly overexplicit, as if she were writing for young adults. Shulman aside, you could find one-line descriptions of Goodman's main characters in any half-dozen American-Jewish novels: the rabbi with two sons, one brilliant and prodigal, one duller but more loyal; the Holocaust survivor numbed by his past; the daughters tempted by the twin heresies of feminism and Zionism (Israel is viewed as a nation of faithless sinners by these ultra-Orthodox Jews); the assimilationist Jew who comes to a bad end. But Goodman makes them believable, at least, despite bits of soggy sentimentality; she makes you care. (The exception is the cast of non-Jewish locals, who are almost all soap operaish white trash.) And whatever one's quibbles, Goodman should be credited with doing what Singer and Malamud and even Ozick were never really able to do: making the most rigorous form of Judaism seem plausible as an American life.


          Spiral Tubes        
From Katrin Kania's blog I recently learned that there is a good, publicly available (but short) article on EXARC.net about the use of tiny, spiral bronze tubes to decorate clothing.

In general, though the time frame when such ornaments were used varies widely by region, the countries that have used this technique are those around the Baltic Sea. The article itself may be found here.  

Although the text is brief and general, there are some wonderful photographs accompanying the article of surviving finds with spiral tube decoration, some of which I have not seen elsewhere. This article and its photos are particularly recommended to those interested in Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian, or Finnish clothing of the early to late Middle Ages.

          A Long Overdue Diamond Twill Wool Update        
About eight years ago, I looked on the Internet for sources of diamond/lozenge twill wool fabric, hoping to find a vendor selling some at affordable rates.  My problem with the available choices at the time was that the weave wasn't quite right, and the thread count was far too coarse to be desirable for apron dresses--the type of garment which I would be most likely to want to make from diamond twill wool. I checked out a number of potential sources, and reported on what I learned here, here, here, here, and here.

It recently occurred to me that it might be useful to look for diamond/lozenge twill vendors again, to see whether the availability, authenticity and/or cost have improved since my last posts on this subject.  It turns out that while new and in some cases more satisfactory fabrics have entered the market, some of the diamond twill sources I found in 2009 and 2010 no longer sell such fabric or are otherwise defunct.

For example, although the German vendor Naturtuche is still in business, and still sells fabric, its current diamond twill offerings are limited to a large diamond twill in natural linen and a bicolor wool diamond twill in brown.  Judging from pictures on the site, each diamond motif appears to be about 1-inch (2.5 cm) across.  The linen costs 23 Euros per meter and the wool costs 30 Euros per meter.  There are also lovely wools, not of a diamond twill weave but dyed with vegetable dyes (including madder and weld) that sell for 30 Euros per meter. Best of all (for someone who doesn't want to use a credit card to make fabric purchases across international borders), Naturtuche now accepts Paypal.

Handelsgillet, a Swedish vendor whose wools I discussed at some length, no longer sells diamond twill at all. Instead they sell what they call a Lodose diamond check, which is a reproduction of a later medieval fabric from Lodose where the stripes of a plaid, and only the stripes, are woven in broken twill and form a diamond twill motif where the stripes intersect.  It is an interesting and striking fabric, but not useful for my (Viking age) purposes.

I also wrote about Ardalanish Farm, a wool mill in the Hebrides, back in 2010.  They will sell you up to 4 meters of diamond twill wool tweed in two-toned, undyed wools, for £ 75.00 per meter, which is still well beyond what I'm prepared to pay, particularly as the fabric is fairly coarse in texture, which isn't right for the Viking age garments in which I am interested.

Regarding the other sources of usable diamond twill that I found, Sagnlandet Lejre in Denmark no longer seems to be selling diamond twill fabric, and Wollstoff is rebuilding its website, so I don't know what it may be selling. Wollstoff did not formerly sell to customers outside the European Community, and I have no reason at this point to believe that has changed.

Now, for some newer sources.

A vendor known as Elspeth on Etsy is selling bi-colored diamond twill for 385 SEK ($40 USD) a meter. That doesn't sound excessively expensive until one learns that the fabric is only 24 inches wide.  At that width, I would need at least three meters of fabric to make myself an apron dress, which adds up pretty fast.

Blue Wool Studio, a Lithuania-based seller also on Etsy, had for sale a  ready-made cloak plus several pieces of diamond twill fabrics dyed with natural dyes for a total of 2,880.70 SEK ($306.24 USD); her fabric is 36 inches wide.  The pictures of these fabrics are gorgeous, but the prices--though likely appropriate given the amount of skilled work involved--are still far beyond what I can hope to pay. Blue Wool Studio has sold those items since I began writing this post, though the site indicates that negotiating an order for a piece of fabric with specific characteristics (of size, fineness, and color) is possible.

One new source I found that I might actually be able to afford (soon) is a German site called Faserhaus. Faserhaus sells several different diamond and broken diamond twills. There are a diamond twill and a broken diamond twill fabric in undyed, untreated white wool.  The diamond twill costs 26.40 Euros per meter and is 147 cm (about 57 inches) wide.  Their broken diamond twill costs 23.20 Euros per meter and is 158 cm (about 62 inches) wide.  That's more than enough for an apron dress for me.  Faserhaus also sells a light weight, pale brown diamond twill wool (and two other neutral-ish colors also), 160 cm wide (about 63 inches), for 22.80 Euros. Some of the photographs include a marked ruler, and the diamonds appear to be about 0.8 cm tall by about 1.8 cm wide--a good size for an apron dress in my opinion.  I'm bad at doing fiber counts from photographs, but the diamond twills appear to be about 20 threads per cm and the broken diamond twill is finer--maybe 25 per cm.  That's a good quality for an apron dress, too.

Faserhaus accepts Paypal, and doesn't charge for samples (though they do charge 6.50 Euros for postage/shipping of samples to the U.S.)  I may well order some samples to assess the quality of the fabric. If I do, I will post scans of the samples and my observations on this blog.

EDIT:  (1/20/2017)  Note the comments by Marled (a reader of this blog who will weave diamond twill wool among other fabrics to order) and by Bruce Lee about a Swedish on-line vendor, Medeltidsmode.

          Weekend On The Radio: May 15, 2008        
Preakness, Lithuanian Festival, and the Hula Hoop A Thon are just a few events happening this Weekend. Plan your Weekend on the Radio with Sam Gallant. Weekend on the Radio Airs Thursday Mornings and Events are available in the events section.
          Aml Maple 5.07 released        
Aml Maple 5.07 released.

Aml Maple has a new kind of view on keyboard layout indicators: simple, modern, flexible.

Aml Maple indicates the active layout being currently used (the language you are typing at this particular moment). It is always in front of you, exactly at the place you are typing!

You can download multilingual version with installer or portable version.

What`s new in version 5.07:

  1. fixed: transparency area in mouse pointer with language indicator;

What`s new in version 5.06:

  1. added: command line key "/?" (show info about command line keys);
  2. added: command line key "/showmenu" (show menu of Aml Maple);
  3. added: tooltips on menu\options dialog show of settings of standard mouse pointer (arrow);
  4. added: hyperlink "How to translate" into "About Aml Maple" dialog;
  5. added: Putty.exe into exception as default;
  6. added: menu command "Help\Welcome To Aml Maple";
  7. added: information about command line keys into dialog "Detect Languages";
  8. added: control bat-files;
  9. changed: section name for exceptions;
  10. updated Russian language file;
  11. Full change log see on our web site here.

What`s new in version 5.05 build 687:

  1. added: hiding menu tooltip when WM_EXITMENULOOP;
  2. updated Russian language file;
  3. many bug fixes and small changes;

What`s new in version 5.05:

  1. added: new version of core DLL AmlMaple.DLL;
  2. added: info about country in dialog "Detect Languages";
  3. fixed: running command "Run As Administrator" if dialog "Check For Updates" is visible;
  4. changed: settings as default for color on text caret;

What`s new in version 5.04:

  1. added: hyperlink to Facebook group;
  2. fixed: invalid localization checkbox in tab "Flag On Text Cursor" when running checking of updates;
  3. updated: language files (Russian, Polish, Arabic and etc);

What`s new in version 5.03:

  1. changed: layout of page "Mouse Pointer" in settings;
  2. some bug fixes and many changes;

What`s new in version 5.02 build 681:

  1. fixed: detection of switch keyboard layout method;
  2. fixed: detection full screen apps under Windows Vista and later;

What`s new in version 5.02:

  1. fixed: small mouse pointer (1x1) under Windows 8 and many configurations;
  2. changed: embedded mouse pointer for Windows XP;

What`s new in version 5.01:

  1. added: support of language indication in pointer under Windows 8\8.1\10;
  2. added: use system cursor for indicator on standard arrow cursor;
  3. added: Detect languages show privilegies for program folder;
  4. added: report about errors on registration show info for admin privilegies;
  5. added: submenu for button "Get License From ZIP" with item "System Informaton"
  6. added: blink hyperlink "How To Enter License Data";
  7. added: extended tooltip for hyperlink "How To Enter License Data";
  8. added: Domain name in "Detect languages" dialog;
  9. changed: embedded arrow pointer for Windows XP;
  10. updated: language files (Hungarian, Hebrew, Lithuanian and etc);
  11. fixed: not use system cursor under Windows XP;
  12. updated Russian language file;
  13. some bug fixes and many changes;
  14. Full change log see on our web site here.

What`s new in version 5.00:

  1. added: indication of window under point in standard mouse pointer (arrow);
  2. dialog "Check For Updates" added button "Visit To Web Site";
  3. added: "Check For Updates" can check multiple versions (final release + beta-releases);
  4. added: remove hyperlinks to version with setup, him is unavailable;
  5. new URL for renewal license: http://www.amlpages.com/home_am_renewal.php;
  6. fixed: does not fill info about license for expired users;
  7. fixed: not localizable checkbox "Add Aml Maple into firewall exclusions";
  8. fixed: info-icon on hyperlinks under Windows 7 and later;
  9. updated Greek language file;
  10. updated Russian language file;
  11. some bug fixes and many changes;
  12. Full change log see on our web site here.

RSSme Home This post created by RSSme v1.2.1.157…


          South African precious metal design between 1960 and 1980        
Fred van Staden

(Published in the SA Journal of Cultural History, 29(1), 2015, pp.22-57) 

Abstract

This paper comprises a review of the legacies of noted gold- and silversmiths, who opened their studios in South Africa from 1960 to1980.[2]Through literature searches, interviews, relevant e-mail exchanges and internet searches, précis with pertinent information were composed. Information on 14 local gold- and silversmith studios are chronologically presented. Brief notes on a further 8 goldsmiths are also provided. Where possible, descriptions of maker’s marks and the years they were in use are provided.

Key words: Precious metal artist, goldsmith, silversmith, manufacturing jeweller, maker’s mark, twentieth century South Africa.

Introduction

 Although small in numbers, the South African silver- and goldsmiths of the mid to late twentieth century proved themselves on par with their international counterparts.  From 1965 until 1969 and again in 1974 the South African exhibits at the annual International Arts and Crafts exhibitions won gold medals and praise.[3]In 1968 the Director of the Industrial Design Institute division of the South African Bureau of Standards, Mr Peter Whitworth (previously employed on the staff of the Council of Industrial Design in the United Kingdom) attested to the good quality of South African jewellery design and manufacture, by declaring that:
            South African jewellery can compare with the best in the world.[4]
A few years later Mr. John Donald, a noted English goldsmith at the time, had this to say about the quality of South African entries for the 1973 Chamber of Mines Gold Jewellery Competition:
I was surprised and delighted by the high standard of the work submitted both in design and craftsmanship.[5]

Method

Information dealing with the careers of silver- and goldsmiths who opened their workshops in South Africa from 1960 to 1980[6]was gathered by reviewing suitable journals and magazines such as the South African Panorama, Lantern, Artlook Magazine, The S.A. Jeweller and the Diamond News, The Diamond News and The S.A. Watchmaker and Jeweller, as well as internet searches.

Goldsmiths whose work was reported in the media during the period of 1960 – 1980 were followed up where possible with internet searches, e-mail exchanges and interviews. A semi structured interview schedule was used to compose a summation of relevant aspects of their careers. This included issues such as their apprenticeships (as well as those they supervised), a characterisation of their work, important commissions, descriptions of their maker’s marks, achievements and recognition of their work. Interviews were also conducted with family members or co-workers to gain corroborating background information.

The interviews and all pertinent e-mail exchanges were content analysed and integrated with available literature.  An initial draft was submitted to a few experienced practitioners for review. Where warranted, the text was adapted. [7]

Some noted South African silver- and goldsmith studios established between 1960 and 1980.

Erich Frey (1961 – 1977)         
The work of Erich Frey and associates Maia Holm (1962 - ), Stephen Colegate (1965 -) and Maurice Pitol (1981- ) have been extensively discussed in an earlier article.[8]

Abe Pass (Cape Town, 1963 – early 2010s )

Abe Pass was born in Lithuania in 1926, and as a child immigrated with his parents to South Africa. He completed his apprenticeship as goldsmith with Cooper’s in Cape Town in 1945. To gain further experience he worked with other artist jewellers such as Doug Saunders and Levitt’s. In 1963 he established his studio in the Groote Kerk building in Cape Town. He designed individual jewellery items with precious metals and stones. Since then until 1998, he exhibited his work at least 15 times at exhibitions in Cape Town and in Johannesburg. In 1967 he contributed to the gold winning South African exhibition at the International Arts and Crafts Exhibition in Florence. In 1970 he won a first prize and commendation at the Intergold jewellery competition. In 1976, he repeated this performance with a first prize in the section for bracelets and a second prize in the men’s jewellery section of the competition. In the early 1970’s he also lectured at Stellenbosch University. [9] 

In 1977 his work was described as
… of distinguished quality …expressing refinement and a strong aesthetic sensibility.[10]
He worked on his own and used an imprint of his name Abe Passor only Pass as maker’s mark on his work.[11]


Figure 1: Dress ring encrusted with diamonds, emeralds and garnets by Abe Pass. Valued between R15 000 to R20 000 in 2010.
(Photo: Strauss & Co, November 2010 auction catalogue, Cape Town, p. 37)

Sid Forman (Johannesburg, 1963 – present)
Sid Forman was born in July 1935 in Mayfair, Johannesburg. At the age of 16 he started his apprenticeship as a diamond jeweller in the workshop of Cellini’s. After completing his five year apprenticeship, he worked for another five years with a manufacturing concern called Ideal Jewellers owned by Mr Morris Adler, after which he worked for Mr Max Siderski for a while. In 1963 he opened his own workshop in Castle Mansions in Rissik Street under the name of The House of Sid Forman. The business grew fast and due to a lack of workspace he moved to a few other premises in Johannesburg to finally settle in 1996 on the fifth floor of Jewel City in 225 Main Street. Since 1963 he used a makers mark consisting of the letters S and F inscribed within the outline of a diamond (or rhombus) shape. A variation where the shape of a heart is used was introduced by his son David at the turn of the millennium. Forman works in platinum, 18ct and 9ct white-, yellow- and red gold. Forman reminisces as follows about his early days of jewellery making:
During the 1950’s the main expense of jewellery making was the labour and not the materials. Funny how things have changed.[12]

In 1966 he bought a casting machine and underwent casting training in Italy. He became one of a small handful of goldsmiths who casted some of their designs.[13]  At the high point of his career he employed around 120 people in his 1000 square meter workshop. Whereas his jewellery designs were primarily influenced by Italian trends of the time, it was also dictated by market demands. Forman is also an accomplished visual artist in the fields of painting, sketching and sculpting (mostly marble, wrought iron, scrap metal and gold). Apart from holding one solo sculpting exhibition in Norwood, he did not commercially pursue his sculpt and paint work, viewing it as a hobby. He also served for a brief while on the South African Jewellery Council.

Amongst his achievements was the presentation of an 18cm high ostrich made from 18ct gold that was presented to President Mandela. He also made a range of figures that included leopard, elephant, rhino, birds, bushmen, lion, horses and a hunter with his dog. His high technical skill is especially evident in a small replica of an antique Chevrolet complete with moving doors, as well as an encased pistol set in gold.[14] On evaluating the merits of a jewellery piece he contends that:
First and foremost its artistic qualities must resonate with the viewer. The artistic qualities of a piece are expressed in the way that modulation or relief is unpacked in the design.[15]
  
                          
Figure 2: A pistol set made of ivory and 18ct yellow and white gold encrusted with diamonds that took Mr Sid Forman three years to complete. In 2013 the set was valued at 750 000 US$.
(Photo: F van Staden, Johannesburg, 21 February 2013)

Since 1973[16]the House of Sid Forman won a range of awards in jewellery competitions that included the Chamber of Mines Gold Intergold Jewellery Design competition in 1981[17]as well as winning the Diamonds Tomorrow Student Design Competition in 1983.[18]His wife Lorraine and two sons Mark and David hold the distinction of being the only family who have each in their own right won the coveted Diamonds International award.

Franz Huppertz (Cape Town, 1964 –1997)

Born in 1940 in the German town of Eshweiler (near Aachen), Franz Huppertz studied jewellery design (1959 – 1962) at the Kunst und Werkschule in Pforzheim, West Germany and specialised on the history and techniques of bracelet making. His training extended beyond silver- and goldsmithing techniques to a wide range of artistic expression in graphic design, drawing, painting and sculpting in stone. He studied with Dieter Dill (who later moved to the Western Cape for awhile) under the tutelage of well known German jewellery master and museum curator Klaus Ullrich. [19] 

Before coming to South Africa in 1964, he worked in Switzerland where he rebelled against the strictures of the Goldsmith Guilds and decided to explore Africa. After an overland sojourn lasting seven months he eventually settled in Cape Town where he opened his studio called Franz Huppertz Jewellers at the Stuttafords Town Square in Adderley street.

He exhibited his work both internationally in Switzerland, Italy and the United States of America and locally in Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg. During the 1980s he regularly exhibited his work in group exhibitions curated under the titles of African Experience (1980), Gold in Fashion (1983 – the collection was also exhibited in Paris and Milan) and Dreams of Diamonds (1988). In 1985 he held a successful first solo exhibition at the Kunskamer Gallery. A unique touch at this exhibition was the design of the jewellery presentation boxes as wall hangings, allowing the jewellery items to decorate a wall when not worn.  A few years later in 1989, he staged another solo exhibition titled Art in Jewels at the Town House Museum in Cape Town.  [20]

Huppertz was a prolific designer and demand for his custom made jewellery grew fast during the 1980’s and he opened a second studio showroom in Cavendish Close, Claremont, Cape Town.[21]

         
Figures 3 & 4: Ring drawings by Franz Huppertz as a student in 1961. On the right is a necklace, mask and a brooch in 18carat gold by Franz Huppertz.
(Photo: Monique Nienaber, Cape Town, 2012 )

In his designs he favoured the use of diamonds and gemstones along with creating interchangeable combination jewellery clusters. He used the lustre, cut, brilliance and emotive qualities of the stones he selected for his designs, as guidelines for developing the setting of the design.[22]Forms, textures and colours in nature as well as cultural motifs often formed the design bases of his jewellery settings. His work shows a fondness for granulation along with relief work where different levels are combined or juxtaposed. [23] He made only individual jewellery items and as a rule created a number of designs for a customer to choose the most suitable from. As is the case with a number of other goldsmiths, he was of the opinion that a reflection of the wearer’s inner self should be captured by the jewellery that is worn.[24]Later in his career he diversified the materials he incorporated in his designs to include mother of pearl, stinkwood, elephant hair, steel and even plastic.[25]A critic reviewed his use of materials as follows
His art is vested in all material that has the potential to please. So even in some of his more formal work, there is surprise and amusement at the audacious use of the unconventional.[26]
His daughter, a goldsmith in her own right describes his designs as the
… organic merging of geometric elements. He designed around the stone and believed that the piece flows from the qualities and shape of the stone that is used.[27]

As a qualified master goldsmith, Huppertz was accredited with the Kunst und Werkschule in Pforzheim (Germany) to offer apprenticeships to their students. He gave regularly of his time as external examiner for apprenticeship work and students’ jewellery design work. [28]

Between 1970 and 1982 Huppertz won a total of eight awards at various competitions organised by the Chamber of Mines, Diamonds of Today and Intergold competitions. [29]  In 1982 he won the overall Intergold jewellery design prize with a pair of aquamarine encrusted 18carat gold earrings, as well as winning entries in the section for men’s jewellery with a set of cuff links, along with a gold necklace submitted to the section for ethnic jewellery.[30]

Franz Huppertz suddenly passed away in 1997 at the age of 57 as the result of a stroke. A few months before his death, Mr Nicholas Opperheimer presented him with the De Beers Shining Light Award for Excellence in Diamond Jewellery Design[31]– a timely testament to a noted goldsmith who helped to extend the range and interpretive limits of local handmade jewellery.

Hartmut and Ilse Jäger (Johannesburg, 1965 – 1984)

Of German parentage, Hartmut Jäger was born in 1940 in Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia in Eger (now Cheb). After World War II the family returned to West Germany where he received his initial goldsmith training in Koblenz. He continued his studies in engraving, setting, making and designing jewellery at the Art College in Schwaebisch Gmuend.

In 1965, Jäger immigrated to South Africa, working successively for goldsmiths Sid Forman, then Jack Friedman and for Anthony Sidersky before starting his own studio in 1969. He became a founding member of the Goldsmiths Guild of South Africa.[32]  At the 1975 Intergold competition he won first prizes in two pricing categories. In the late 1970’s he partnered with Jochen Kessel and opened a Jewellery shop in the Bryanston Shopping Center, of which he and his wife Ilse later became the sole owners.

Jäger enjoyed working with precious metals and gemstones. His design style was described as
…’universal’ as it varies with ease according to mood and circumstances.[33]
In an article on the role of goldsmiths as artists, Jäger stated the following:
Fine art should have the quality of taking the observer beyond his or her everyday surroundings to give them a glimpse of a greater beauty. In jewellery, an individual piece must also be crafted for the wearer as a unique expression of some quality within that person. And so the goldsmith is many in one: (s)he is sculptor, designer and visionary. (S)he must do the setting, engraving and enamelling, and master good knowledge of the many precious and semi-precious stones as well as the numerous techniques for shaping and forming of silver and gold. And (s)he must know people to sense their nature and personalities in order to serve them best.[34]

Austrian Ilse Meckel was born in 1941 and raised in Ravensburg, Germany. She studied and obtained a Masters Degree in Jewellery making in Schwaebisch Gmuend, where she also met Hartmut Jäger . After graduating, Meckel worked for leading workshops in Helgoland, Geneva and in London. With renowned London jeweller Andrew Grima, she created the famous Omega watch collection and also designed and made a brooch for the British Princess Ann. At the invitation of Hartmut Jäger, she immigrated to South Africa in 1970 to work with him in his jewellery studio. Here she designed and made a series of barely 2cm high miniature sculpture charms of animals and people in gold and silver, using the ancient 'lost-wax' moulding and casting process.

In 1972 Ilse and Hartmut got married. They have two children and in 1984 the family emigrated to Perth, Australia, where Hartmut Jäger embarked on a new career as a paintings artist and graphic computer designer.



Figures 5 & 6: A double sided pendant in 18carat gold with rubies and red coral by Hartmut Jäger and three charms in gold by Ilse Jäger.
(Photos: From Hartmut Jäger’s résumé.)

During their time in South Africa, the couple made significant contributions to the local renewal of jewellery content, design and the combination of different materials that marked the late 1960’s and the 1970’s. The couple did not make use of maker’s marks.[35]

Frenchie Gatticci (Pretoria, 1967 – 1999)

Of Italian extraction, Hector Francois (Frenchie) Gatticchi was born in 1934 in Nice, France and immigrated at the age of 13 with his parents who settled in Pretoria in 1947. In 1952 he started a three year internship in ‘mounting and precious metal working’ in the Metal Art workshop under Joe Calafato. However, the company split up in 1953 and Mr Gatticchi completed his internship with a splinter group called Pretoria Badge and Silver-Smiths Pty. Ltd in Hatfield.[36]This group consisted of a number of people previously employed by the South African Mint, namely Mssrs. Becklacke (previous Chairman of the Mint), Percy Cave (die sinker, well known for a number of maces he produced)[37], Myburgh and Hendriks (die sinker).This group do not seem to have made use of a maker’s mark. Gatticchi qualified with a wide range of jewellery making skills (such as the rolling, soldering and vitreous enameling of precious metals) and he went back to work for Joe Calafato for a while. In 1967, he and his wife opened their own studio under the name of Prestige Manufacturing Jewellers.[38]  From 1978 until 1980 he and Mr Charl Vorster (who also apprenticed with Joe Calafato) became partners in the business. After they dissolved the partnership, Gatticchi moved his studio and showroom to the Sanlam Arcade, Pretoria City Centre. He focused both on the jewellery making and retailing market. Amongst his clientele counted a number of government ministers and officials. He used a Pas maker’s mark on his jewellery until he closed the business in 1999.[39]

Otto Poulsen (Durban, early 1960’s )

Otto Poulsen was born in Denmark and completed a five year apprenticeship in Copenhagen under Willy Krogmar (a Danish sculptor/goldsmith who became known for his early modernist designs). The high standard of Poulsen’s apprenticeship work was awarded with a gold medal by the Danish Guild for Art and Craft work. He worked for a while in the Georg Jensen workshop. During this time, his development as a designer was influenced by the designs of Sigvard Bernadotte. The Danish Guild of Goldsmiths, Silversmiths and Metal Art Workers bestowed a second award on Poulsen for a bracelet he submitted in an open competition. He also worked with Henning Koppel, a well known Danish jewellery designer.[40]                                    
  
                                        
Figure 7: A choker by Otto Poulsen consisting of 16 diamonds and 3 Sandawana emeralds[41] set in 18 and 22 carat gold.
(Photo: Optima, September 1970, p. 110)

He immigrated to South Africa in 1955. He worked for a while with Kurt Jobst in Johannesburg who introduced him to a range of different materials for use in jewellery design. In the early 1960’s he relocated to Durban where he worked under his own name. At a later stage his studio amalgamated with that of Robertson’s, a long established Durban jeweller (since 1910) to form Poulsen Robertson Jewellers.[42]He worked in gold, silver, precious and semi precious stones embedded in sculptural designs.[43]It is clear that this goldsmith was one of our foremost talents in jewellery making during his time – he worked with the best in the Western world. Hopefully in future more information about his work will come to light.

Dieter Steglich (Pretoria, 1968 – 2006)

Dieter Steglich was born in 1939 in Berlin. Initially he qualified as a precision mechanic and worked at Siemens from 1955 to 1958. He had a natural flair for jewellery making, and as a hobby (without any formal schooling) he made jewellery pieces for family and friends. Based on a portfolio of his work, he was accepted for training as goldsmith at the Staatliche Werkkunst Schule in Berlin, West Germany. After successfully completing his studies and apprenticeship, he was approached by Erich Frey to join him at Frey’s studio in Pretoria. The young Dieter grasped the opportunity with both hands and worked with Frey from 1966 to 1968.

In 1967, Neville Jones who worked as journeyman for Gilroy King (owner of King’s Jewels), decided to continue his journeymanship at the Frey studio.  Barely a year later, Jones and Steglich left to open their own studio on 01 April 1968 in Arcadia Galleries in Pretoria. Their partnership didn’t last and exactly another year later, in 1969, Jones left to join Heinrich Ocker who owned the Schultis Schwar & Co. jewellery and watch workshop on Church Square in Pretoria. [44]

For the next 20 years, Steglich continued working in the same premises under his own name D. Steglich Gold- and Silversmith. Perhaps sensing the increased vulnerability of jewellery shops to crime that would plague his colleagues in the decades to follow, he moved his workshop on 01 April 1988 to his home in Meyerspark, Pretoria.  Here he worked with contentment, stating that at last he has all his tools under one roof. He was a soft spoken, self contented person, who enjoyed the solitude of his studio. He avoided crowds but was adept at having individual discussions with his clients on all matters ranging from philosophy to mechanics. He displayed an interpersonal sensitivity enabling him to translate aspects of his clients’ personae (or radiance) in his designs. For this reason (and also because of his accomplished technical ability) he worked mostly on commission and had an extensive list of loyal clientele. After being bedridden for six months, he passed away from prostate cancer in October 2006.[45] 

His work gave good expression to the modernist designs of the 1970â€
          Rooted in the 1950's: An overview of noted gold- and silversmiths in South Africa        

Fred van Staden

Department of Psychology, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Pretoria, 0003
                                                                                                                                       

(to be published in the South African Journal of Cultural History, June 2014)

Geanker in die 1950’s: ‘n Oorsig van bekende goud- en silwersmede in Suid-Afrika.
In hierdie opvolg artikel[1] word ‘n oorsig verskaf van ‘n aantal goud- en silwersmede wat hulle werkwinkels tussen 1950 en 1959 in Suid Afrika kom vestig het. Gebaseer op koerantberigte, joernaal en tydskrifartikels, boek publikasies, tersaaklike e-pos skrywes en internet soeke is ‘n oorsig saamgestel. Onderhoude is gevoer met goudsmede of hulle nasate, en spesialiste in die industrie soos juweelkenners, stempelsnyers en graveerders. Opsommings met tersaaklike inligting oor die vervaardigers en hulle uitsette is vervolgens saamgestel.

Sleutelwoorde: edelmetaalkunstenaar, goudsmid, silwersmid, vervaardigende juwelier, vervaardigersmerk, twintigste eeu Suid-Afrika.

This follow-up article[2] concentrates on 20th century manufacturing gold- and silversmiths in South Africa who established their workshops from 1950 to 1959. A review is composed, based on newspaper reports, journal and magazine articles, book publications, relevant e-mail exchanges and internet searches. Interviews were conducted with gold- and silversmiths or their descendants and other specialists such as gemmologists, die sinkers and engravers. Précis with pertinent information on the gold- and silversmiths and their outputs were then composed.

Key words: precious metal artist, goldsmith, silversmith, manufacturing jeweller, maker’s mark, twentieth century South Africa.

Introduction

In twentieth century South Africa, market demands played a central role in the development of a mix of mass and individual metal art businesses. Some workshops that employed a great number of artisans specialising in the various facets of jewellery making, incorporated mass production techniques to provide more affordable products for the market place. In some cases, the ‘bread and butter’ lines of a few workshops were based on the local market for manufactured medals, pins, badges and insignia. This notwithstanding, throughout the twentieth century, the majority of local gold- and silversmiths preferred to maintain small studios that focused only on designing and making individually crafted jewellery pieces (mostly on commission), along with repairing and remoulding existing pieces. Often, a retail section with wholesale items, was also included in the business mix. In the early and mid twentieth century, the sale of imported watches and their repairs served as a primary means of income, with jewellery making and repairs as a sideline. But in line with international trends and with the development of the local economy, over the latter half of the twentieth century, the market became increasingly sophisticated along with a demand for locally manufactured as well as handmade jewellery and other precious metal artefacts.

The aftermath of the Second World War resulted in a wave of immigrants skilled in the various facets of jewellery making (die sinking, engraving, soldering, cutting and polishing of precious stones) – thereby contributing significantly to the development of a local handmade and manufactured jewellery.[3]After the war, the South African Government encouraged the immigration of skilled artisans to South Africa. In the early 1950’s in Pretoria alone, the Lazar Brothers (who had a workshop in Church street) imported a fair number of Lithuanian craftsmen such as Messrs. Alswang, Lever, Abbratt Fine, Sherman, Bregman, Novis, Nochamovitz, Hyme Milstein, Meinke, Nowitz, Hope and Arthur Kaplan.[4]Other contingents came from Italy, Austria, Germany, Switzerland and the UK. Being immigrants, they brought a freshness of perception and appreciation of South African cultures and landscapes to the fore. At the beginning of the 1950’s the stage was set for new growth in the output of South African gold- and silversmiths – a growth that was to prosper over the latter half of the 20thcentury.

Gold- and silversmiths in South Africa: The early development of organisational structures

In the midst of the Second World War the South African Jeweller’s Association Ltd. came to life in Johannesburg in March 1942. Within fifteen years it had successfully established branches countrywide (Border, Port Elizabeth, Durban, East London, Cape Town, Pretoria, Johannesburg and Kimberley, with Provincial branches in the Transvaal, Free State, Natal and the Western Province). The Johannesburg Branch was the most differentiated of all the structures and comprised of three sections that represented the concerns of wholesale jewellers and manufacturers, with separate representation for the retail jewellers and the manufacturing jewellers.[5] In the1955 the Cape Jewellery Manufacturing Association was formed and seceded from the S. A. Jewellery Manufacturer’s’ Association but remained affiliated with the mother body, the S.A. Jeweller’s Association. The main reason for seceding was that decisions were made by the S.A. Jewellers’ Association that did not represent their interests.[6] [7]For the rest of the 20th century the Cape Jewellery Manufacturers’ Association kept functioning as a separate interest group until it amalgamated with the Jewellery Council of South Africa in 2012 due to low membership.[8]

Apart from the initial Transvaal Jewellery Manufacturers’ Association (under the umbrella of the S.A. Jewellery Association) and the Cape Jewellery Manufacturers’ Association, the  creation and manufacturing of precious metal artefacts (be it jewellery, flat- or hollow ware) in South Africa was regulated by an Industrial Council for the Jewellery and Precious Metal Industry. It was constituted under the Industrial Conciliation Act in November 1945.[9] Together, they defined four main sections of creative precious metal artisanship – designing, making, setting and polishing – and laid down an ethical code along with training and production requirements. No specialisation took place and apprentices had to be competent in all categories of the trade.[10]Under the job reservations act, Africans were only allowed to be trained as polishers.[11]

The early S.A. Jewellers’ Association was successful in lobbying the government to ease manufacturing and trading restrictions. An important milestone was reached in 1955 when custom tariffs on watches and jewellery were relaxed.[12]The following jewellery related items were entirely removed from the ‘restricted’ list:

…imitation jewellery and rolled gold, enamel or gilt jewellery; precious stones and pearls and imitations thereof, cut or polished and whether mounted or unmounted; completed portions or parts of any article of jewellery, imitation or otherwise; bangles, necklaces, girdles, muff chains, clasps and similar articles of adornment.[13]

The relaxation of duty tariffs also meant that local gold – and sliversmiths faced increased competition from other countries and from the South African Mint.[14] In 1956 they successfully petitioned the government to restrict open market related activities by the South African Mint.[15]

An issue that grappled the attention of the Association already from the 1950’s and beyond was how to unlock a growing African market.[16]

Method

This study concentrates on 20thcentury gold- and silversmiths that established businesses in South Africa from 1950 to 1959. The aim was to record the complete history of the studio or workshop until its demise, or present status.  

A literature search of publications in academic journals, books and suitable magazines such as the South African Panorama, Lantern, Artlook Magazine, The S.A. Jeweller and the Diamond News as well as The Diamond News and The S.A. Watchmaker and Jeweller, yielded an initial list of gold- and silversmiths whose work was noted and commented on. Afterwards, internet searches on local manufacturers who originally established their businesses during the 1950’s were conducted. In all cases, effort was made to contact gold- and silversmiths still alive or their descendents for more information about their background and work as well as to corroborate existing information – also in relation to other jewellers of the time. In addition, makers’ marks on jewellery and other metal artefacts at collectors’ fairs and antique shops were noted and attempts were made to trace their origins through the interviews.

The interviews and all pertinent e-mail exchanges were content analysed and referenced against a synthesis of the available literature.  An initial draft was submitted to a few experienced practitioners for review. Where warranted, the text was adapted. [17]

The work of gold- and silversmiths along with local makers’ marks that were included in this review could be classified in the following categories, namely:
-          Handmade metal creations where one-off artefacts were either exclusively or primarily made by hand. In some cases small scale casting was also done. These include the work of Egon Guenther, Colonel Gilroy and Jo King, George Xanthides and Eone de Wet.
-          Manufactured metal creations produced on medium and large scale. These include the work of the Metal Art workshop, Mauro Pagliari, as well as studios or workshops that used the following  marks Riviera, Simba, Kruger Park and Mari Lou.
In order to adhere to the historical timeline, the above studios and workshops are chronologically presented below.

Noted gold- and silversmiths that established their businesses in South Africa during the 1950’s[18]

Egon Guenther (Johannesburg, 1951 - 1969)

Egon Guenther was born in Mannheim in Germany in 1921, with both parents working as jewellers. Under the guidance of his parents he served a full apprenticeship in Pforzheim, Germany along with formal studies at the Vereinigte Goldschmiede Kunst- und Werkschule. Afterwards he worked in his father’s studio. But this was not enough for the young Egon to keep his artistic interests stimulated. He opened an art gallery featuring abstract and surrealist works.
Guenther and his wife immigrated to South Africa in 1951 where he worked for a short while at the Haglund workshop[19]before opening his own studio. In 1957 he again opened an art gallery called the ‘Egon Günter Gallery’ where he featured African art (including wood sculptures, masks, bronze casts) alongside exhibitions of abstract and surrealist works. As he got older he began to concentrate more on the gallery than his jewellery work and in 1969 he sold his workshop to Kurt Donau, a Swiss immigrant who worked for a number of years in the Guenther workshop.[20] [21] [22]
Guenther was a versatile goldsmith and schooled in engraving techniques similar to the woodcuts used by fine artists. Given this well honed technical ability, he was asked to make some lithographic printing work for Cecil Skotnes. [23]
 He worked in gold and silver and often made use of South African semi-precious stones. He was an ardent gemmologist and believed that all jewellers should be well versed in the field of gemmology. His jewellery work was strongly influenced by schools of post-war painters, architects and sculptors. His inspiration for his designs was also found in the landscape, sunshine and the mix of cultures and races in Johannesburg. Most of his designs were sketched beforehand, starting with combining simplified lines to capture a particular mood or aesthetic - driven by the interaction between romanticism and formalisation. His design work was both consciously imposed and intuitively extracted from the qualities of the materials he used. His creations included the full jewellery range including cuff links and tie pins for men.

Figure 1: Egon Guenther at work in 1957.
(Photo: The Diamond News and the S.A. Watchmaker and Jeweller, February 1957, p. 10)

Figure 2: Designs by Egon Guenther in 1957. The brooch was made in silver with Almandine and a moonstone, the ring and earrings are from oxidised silver with Amethyst, Zircon and Citrine.
(Photo: The Diamond News and the S.A. Watchmaker and Jeweller, February 1957, p. 10)

In 1957, Egon Guenther’s jewellery design and making were commented upon as follows:
…there is the rare blending of a man who has the feeling and ability to create artistic designs, allied with the craftsmanship with which to execute them.  …produce work typical of our time as related to the development of modern art and architecture.[24]

Metal Art (Pretoria, 1951 - )
In 1951 a number of jewellers in Pretoria joined Joe Calafato (designer) and Bob Campbell (die sinker) to establish a workshop, which they named Metal Art, at 146 Watt Road in Pretoria West. Amongst the jewellers and die sinkers were names such as Messrs Eddie Luther and Boet de Lange (die sinker), Becklake, Percy Cave (engraver) and Bill Myburg (specialising in medal and badge designs), as well as Messrs Bob Taylor (engraver) and Hendriks, all from the South African Mint.[25] It developed into a big workshop with nearly 200 workers amongst whom were at least seven die sinkers, four engravers and a fair number of solderers.[26] In 1953 a number of the partners broke away to start their own workshops and studios, and the Metal Art company was bought by Mr Henry Ocker along with Mr Boet de Lange and Mr Rupel. They decided to discard the workshop’s jewellery manufacturing line in favour of the manufacturing of pins, badges, medals, and military insignia. Their work was marked METAL ART POSBUS 1483 BOX PRETORIA (capitals, bold).  Apart from the South African Mint they were initially the only other medal manufacturing company in Pretoria. [27]

Figure 3: A collage of insignia, buttons, pins and badges manufactured by Metal Art.
(Photograph: F. van Staden, Pretoria, 2012-01-31)

For a while, they also manufactured curios for the Kruger Park. Although not marked, they produced a collection of miniature (about 6 cm in height) animals that included an elephant, a lioness, a rhino, a gecko, a tortoise and a horse. These were spin cast in oxidised silver and attest to exceptional workmanship.[28]

Since the workshop did not manufacture jewellery, they were allocated to the Industrial Council for the steel manufacturing trade and not the jewellery trade. This anomaly still exists, even though the refined nature of their work is more akin to jewellery manufacturing than steel processing.

Around 1987 the business moved to Ekandustria to capitalise on Government incentives to stimulate rural development projects. Because it was a labour intensive industry, it was financially advantageous at the time to relocate the business to a proclaimed homelands area.

In 1998, Mr Jakkie Erasmus and his parents-in-law, Mr and Mrs A.P.J. Dique bought the Metal Art Company from the then owner Malcolm McNorton.  Earlier on in 1984, the Dique’s already acquired the Joe Calafato[29]trade mark. They retained the separate company names. It is interesting that Joe Calafato, who was a founding partner of Metal Art in 1951, later broke away with his own company called ‘Joe Calafato’, and more than 40 years later the two companies were again brought under the same management. The circle has been completed.

Though they have some of the dies from Joe Calafato’s business and from the older Metal Art workshop, the business continues to focus on pins, medals, badges, military insignia and cuff links. Some of their work is also done in gold.[30]

Colonel Gilroy and Jo King (Pretoria,1953 – late 1960’s)

Colonel Gilroy King and his wife Jo were stationed in Upington during the Second World War. He was the Commanding Officer of the North Western Cape command. He hailed from an established military family and she was the granddaughter of General Andries Brink. Being avid anglers they noticed the array of colourful stones found in the Orange River where they often fished. Fascinated with the stones and with instruction books ordered from America, they taught themselves the art of cutting and polishing stones. After the Second World War, a retired Colonel King and his wife Jo, opened a jewellery studio on Edward Street next to the Apies River in Pretoria in 1953. They named the studio, ‘King’s Jewels’. They concentrated on the setting of precious and semi precious gemstones. Mrs King was responsible for the cutting and polishing of the stones and the Colonel was responsible for the mounting and setting of the stones. The design of the settings was discussed and co-created by the two of them after the stones were cut. In 1957 they were founder members of the ‘Northern Transvaal Klipspringers Club’ which was the forerunner to the ‘Pretoria Gem and Mineral Club’.[31] 

The studio was one of the first workshops in South Africa to incorporate cabochon cut semi-precious stones in their designs, thereby making jewellery more affordable. They also created hollow ware such as fruit bowls and chalices, as well as figurines in beaten brass. Probably because their work celebrated local gemstones, it was popular amongst international travellers and diplomats stationed in Pretoria. [32] 

They worked in silver, gold and platinum and also made use of enamel. Their work was typified as simple and unpretentious. In 1963 examples of their work were selected (along with that of Egon Guenthter, Kurt Jobst, Eone de Wet, Pauline Horwitz, Frida Blumenberg and Johan van Heerden) to represent South Africa at the International World Crafts exhibition held in Washington  D.C.[33]

Erich Frey (a noted goldsmith during the 1960’s and 1970’s) worked as designer and craftsman in the Kings’ studio from 1956 to 1961. Later on Frey incorporated and adapted this new approach of combining semi precious gemstones with precious metal settings in designs under his own name. [34][35]

George Xanthides (Pretoria, 1953 - )

George Xanthides apprenticed under Joe Calafato from 1947 until 1949 as a die sinker and engraver. He continued to work in the Metal Art workshop (see review elsewhere in the text) until 1953 after which he opened his own studio named George Xanthides Jewellery on the corner of Paul Kruger and Blood street, Pretoria. He moved to the President Arcade from 1960 to 1999. After three robberies in town, the studio moved for security reasons to Colbyn, a suburb of Pretoria, where however, it was again burgled twice during the past decade .[36]

Figure 4: George Xanthides in his workshop showroom in President Arcade, Pretoria in 1960.
(Photograph: From the Xanthides family resumé.)

Figure 5: Dies carved by George Xanthides early in his career and used in jewellery composition.
(Photograph: F.van Staden, Pretoria, 2009-10-21)

His son Mark and daughter Bridgitte joined the studio in 1981 as manufacturing gold- and silversmiths. George and Bridgitte use the maker’s mark GX on their work, whilst Mark uses his initials MX on his designs. Whereas George Xanthides’ work is typified by much scroll work and drops (perhaps stemming from the retro moderne period of the late 1940’s), his children’s work is more simplistic in line.[37] 

Riviera (Place not established, possibly 1953)
According to engraving, the Rivieramark was registered in 1953. The jewellery range consists of at least five different brooches depicting Afrikaner folk dancers in traditional dress. The work was cast in sterling silver and expresses a refined three dimensional approach with attention paid to detail.

Imported clasps that carried expensive import duties were used. It seems likely that this was a one off range made for a specific function and market. It was possibly created for the 1953 Volkspele tour (that consisted of around a hundred dancers) to seven European countries. It appears that the creations may have been a limited casting edition and produced by a sculptor, especially since the manufacturer’s mark was etched in a hand engraving and not a punch mark.[38] Two publications on the standardising of volkspele dances and dress during this time contain sketches by Katrine Harries of dancers that capture the mood of the brooches.[39] [40] The designer and maker have not yet been determined.[41]

 

Figure 6: Examples of the Riviera stamped brooches.
(Photo: F. van Staden, Pretoria, 2009-09-25)

Simba (Pretoria, 1954 to late 1970’s).
Perhaps one splinter group of note that formed after the original Metal Art workshop broke up in 1953 was that of Messrs J. Joubert, Neil Dreyer (die sinker) and Stanford who began manufacturing jewellery and curios expressly for the tourist trade.[42]They designed and produced unusual three dimensional African landscape and animal studies. Their workshop was located in Rosslyn near Pretoria.