Liechtenstein – life, beauty, history and THAT national anthem…        
Whilst on my recent trip to Liechtenstein I sent a postcard to my blog. It was written as I felt a little homesick one evening, and included some ‘fascinating facts’ that might help a few pub quiz enthusiasts out there: … Continue reading
          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
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          Staff -- Semiconductor International        

Clusterline 300 is a single-wafer cluster system designed for high-volume manufacturing. It can handle wafer sizes up to 300 mm, including 200 and 300 mm bridge tool capabilities. Up to six process modules equipped with high-quality components enable high-process flexibility and optimized productivity. Oerlikon Balzers Coating, Balzers, Liechtenstein,

          Staff -- Semiconductor International        
Clusterline 300 is a single-wafer cluster system designed for high-volume manufacturing. It can handle wafer sizes up to 300 mm, including 200 and 300 mm bridge tool capabilities. Up to six process modules equipped with high-quality components enable high-process flexibility and optimized productivity. Oerlikon Balzers Coating, Balzers, Liechtenstein,

          Liechtenstein (リヒテンシュタイン Rihitenshutain?)        
Liechtenstein. Fue adoptada por Suiza, al cual admira y le guarda un gran respeto. Su cabello es rubio y corto, el cual era largo en un principio, pero lo cortó para parecerse más a su hermano. Usa un listón que le regaló Suiza. Acostumbra llevar un vestido rosa de mangas cortas en el anime, y uno rosa oscuro rayado de mangas largas en el manga. En ocasiones usa un uniforme idéntico al de su hermano. Es humilde, madura y muy inteligente, pero tiene un aire de inocencia. Su seiyu es Kugimiya ...
          Suiza (スイス Suisu?)        
Suiza. Es rubio y de ojos verdes. Su uniforme consta de una boina blanca, un abrigo verde con negro con una cruz blanca en ambos brazos. Una nación que se declara eternamente neutral. Aparentemente es un ermitaño social. A pesar de que tiene una imagen pacífica, es el mayor productor de armas en el mundo y tiene la fuerza militar más grande de todas. Es bastante testarudo y le cuesta sonreír. Odia a los extranjeros. Adopta a Liechtenstein como su hermana menor. Siente debilidad por ...
          02.12.17 16:00 Uhr - Nürnberg - Schneewittchen (6+ / 60 Min.)        
Tickets erhältlich unter: http://www.frankentipps.de/veranstaltung214938-tickets

Ensembleproduktion frei nach Brüder Grimm | Uraufführung

„Es war einmal mitten im Winter und die Schneeflocken fielen wie Federn vom Himmel…“ So beginnt eines der berühmtesten Grimmschen Märchen.
Schneewittchen, weiß wie Schnee, rot wie Blut und die Haare so schwarz wie Ebenholz. Schneewittchen, ein Königskind. Ein Königskind, dem nach dem Leben getrachtet wird.
Eine neue Königin mit einem magischen Spiegel an ihrer Seite kann es nicht ertragen, dass ein so schönes Kind in ihrer Nähe heranwächst.
Es wird in den Wald gebracht und soll getötet werden. Der Jäger schenkt ihm das Leben, doch von nun an muss das Kind allein in der rauen Welt zu Recht kommen. Alles ist ihm fremd, die Wälder, die Berge, die Zwerge. Und immer wieder wird versucht, dieses Königskind zu töten. Allein das Schicksal will es, dass das Kind überlebt. Wie im Märchen hilft der Zufall, wie wir ihn vielen Kindern wünschen.
Eine Schaustellertruppe, die auch schon bessere Tage gesehen hat, erzählt mit viel Musik und echten Bärten diese tragisch-komische Geschichte. Der große Trumpf der Truppe: Originalobjekte aus den Wäldern des Schneewittchen sind in ihre Hände gelangt. Alles nur ein Märchen? Nicht hier im Theater Mummpitz! Sehen Sie selbst!

Mit: Michael Bang, Peter Pelzner, Michael Schramm, Gustavo Strauß & Sabine Zieser | Regie: Andrea Maria Erl

Eine Koproduktion mit dem TAK Theater Liechtenstein
Nominiert für den Deutschen Theaterpreis DER FAUST 2016

"Diese Märchenstunde macht mächtig Spaß! Die Geschichte vom Schneewittchen hat soooo einen Bart – länger als der aller sieben Zwerge zusammen. Theater Mummpitz bringt jedoch das Grimmsche Märchen mit derart viel Witz, Charme und Einfallsreichtum auf die Bühne, dass die Langeweile keine Chance hat. Das Premierenpublikum spendete donnernden Applaus." (Nürnberger Nachrichten, 27.4.2015)
          03.12.17 15:00 Uhr - Nürnberg - Schneewittchen (6+ / 60 Min.)        
Tickets erhältlich unter: http://www.frankentipps.de/veranstaltung214953-tickets

Ensembleproduktion frei nach Brüder Grimm | Uraufführung

„Es war einmal mitten im Winter und die Schneeflocken fielen wie Federn vom Himmel…“ So beginnt eines der berühmtesten Grimmschen Märchen.
Schneewittchen, weiß wie Schnee, rot wie Blut und die Haare so schwarz wie Ebenholz. Schneewittchen, ein Königskind. Ein Königskind, dem nach dem Leben getrachtet wird.
Eine neue Königin mit einem magischen Spiegel an ihrer Seite kann es nicht ertragen, dass ein so schönes Kind in ihrer Nähe heranwächst.
Es wird in den Wald gebracht und soll getötet werden. Der Jäger schenkt ihm das Leben, doch von nun an muss das Kind allein in der rauen Welt zu Recht kommen. Alles ist ihm fremd, die Wälder, die Berge, die Zwerge. Und immer wieder wird versucht, dieses Königskind zu töten. Allein das Schicksal will es, dass das Kind überlebt. Wie im Märchen hilft der Zufall, wie wir ihn vielen Kindern wünschen.
Eine Schaustellertruppe, die auch schon bessere Tage gesehen hat, erzählt mit viel Musik und echten Bärten diese tragisch-komische Geschichte. Der große Trumpf der Truppe: Originalobjekte aus den Wäldern des Schneewittchen sind in ihre Hände gelangt. Alles nur ein Märchen? Nicht hier im Theater Mummpitz! Sehen Sie selbst!

Mit: Michael Bang, Peter Pelzner, Michael Schramm, Gustavo Strauß & Sabine Zieser | Regie: Andrea Maria Erl

Eine Koproduktion mit dem TAK Theater Liechtenstein
Nominiert für den Deutschen Theaterpreis DER FAUST 2016

"Diese Märchenstunde macht mächtig Spaß! Die Geschichte vom Schneewittchen hat soooo einen Bart – länger als der aller sieben Zwerge zusammen. Theater Mummpitz bringt jedoch das Grimmsche Märchen mit derart viel Witz, Charme und Einfallsreichtum auf die Bühne, dass die Langeweile keine Chance hat. Das Premierenpublikum spendete donnernden Applaus." (Nürnberger Nachrichten, 27.4.2015)
          09.12.17 16:00 Uhr - Nürnberg - Schneewittchen (6+ / 60 Min.)        
Tickets erhältlich unter: http://www.frankentipps.de/veranstaltung214986-tickets

Ensembleproduktion frei nach Brüder Grimm | Uraufführung

„Es war einmal mitten im Winter und die Schneeflocken fielen wie Federn vom Himmel…“ So beginnt eines der berühmtesten Grimmschen Märchen.
Schneewittchen, weiß wie Schnee, rot wie Blut und die Haare so schwarz wie Ebenholz. Schneewittchen, ein Königskind. Ein Königskind, dem nach dem Leben getrachtet wird.
Eine neue Königin mit einem magischen Spiegel an ihrer Seite kann es nicht ertragen, dass ein so schönes Kind in ihrer Nähe heranwächst.
Es wird in den Wald gebracht und soll getötet werden. Der Jäger schenkt ihm das Leben, doch von nun an muss das Kind allein in der rauen Welt zu Recht kommen. Alles ist ihm fremd, die Wälder, die Berge, die Zwerge. Und immer wieder wird versucht, dieses Königskind zu töten. Allein das Schicksal will es, dass das Kind überlebt. Wie im Märchen hilft der Zufall, wie wir ihn vielen Kindern wünschen.
Eine Schaustellertruppe, die auch schon bessere Tage gesehen hat, erzählt mit viel Musik und echten Bärten diese tragisch-komische Geschichte. Der große Trumpf der Truppe: Originalobjekte aus den Wäldern des Schneewittchen sind in ihre Hände gelangt. Alles nur ein Märchen? Nicht hier im Theater Mummpitz! Sehen Sie selbst!

Mit: Michael Bang, Peter Pelzner, Michael Schramm, Gustavo Strauß & Sabine Zieser | Regie: Andrea Maria Erl

Eine Koproduktion mit dem TAK Theater Liechtenstein
Nominiert für den Deutschen Theaterpreis DER FAUST 2016

"Diese Märchenstunde macht mächtig Spaß! Die Geschichte vom Schneewittchen hat soooo einen Bart – länger als der aller sieben Zwerge zusammen. Theater Mummpitz bringt jedoch das Grimmsche Märchen mit derart viel Witz, Charme und Einfallsreichtum auf die Bühne, dass die Langeweile keine Chance hat. Das Premierenpublikum spendete donnernden Applaus." (Nürnberger Nachrichten, 27.4.2015)
          10.12.17 15:00 Uhr - Nürnberg - Schneewittchen (6+ / 60 Min.)        
Tickets erhältlich unter: http://www.frankentipps.de/veranstaltung214995-tickets

Ensembleproduktion frei nach Brüder Grimm | Uraufführung

„Es war einmal mitten im Winter und die Schneeflocken fielen wie Federn vom Himmel…“ So beginnt eines der berühmtesten Grimmschen Märchen.
Schneewittchen, weiß wie Schnee, rot wie Blut und die Haare so schwarz wie Ebenholz. Schneewittchen, ein Königskind. Ein Königskind, dem nach dem Leben getrachtet wird.
Eine neue Königin mit einem magischen Spiegel an ihrer Seite kann es nicht ertragen, dass ein so schönes Kind in ihrer Nähe heranwächst.
Es wird in den Wald gebracht und soll getötet werden. Der Jäger schenkt ihm das Leben, doch von nun an muss das Kind allein in der rauen Welt zu Recht kommen. Alles ist ihm fremd, die Wälder, die Berge, die Zwerge. Und immer wieder wird versucht, dieses Königskind zu töten. Allein das Schicksal will es, dass das Kind überlebt. Wie im Märchen hilft der Zufall, wie wir ihn vielen Kindern wünschen.
Eine Schaustellertruppe, die auch schon bessere Tage gesehen hat, erzählt mit viel Musik und echten Bärten diese tragisch-komische Geschichte. Der große Trumpf der Truppe: Originalobjekte aus den Wäldern des Schneewittchen sind in ihre Hände gelangt. Alles nur ein Märchen? Nicht hier im Theater Mummpitz! Sehen Sie selbst!

Mit: Michael Bang, Peter Pelzner, Michael Schramm, Gustavo Strauß & Sabine Zieser | Regie: Andrea Maria Erl

Eine Koproduktion mit dem TAK Theater Liechtenstein
Nominiert für den Deutschen Theaterpreis DER FAUST 2016

"Diese Märchenstunde macht mächtig Spaß! Die Geschichte vom Schneewittchen hat soooo einen Bart – länger als der aller sieben Zwerge zusammen. Theater Mummpitz bringt jedoch das Grimmsche Märchen mit derart viel Witz, Charme und Einfallsreichtum auf die Bühne, dass die Langeweile keine Chance hat. Das Premierenpublikum spendete donnernden Applaus." (Nürnberger Nachrichten, 27.4.2015)
          Quelques souvenirs de 2012        



Certains désespéraient, d'autres trépignaient, mais la patience est aujourd'hui récompensée : Infrasons publie un nouvel article ; le premier depuis plus de quatre mois. Un rythme de sénateur, me direz-vous ; mais un contenu toujours aussi impérial puisque vous trouverez, comme en 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 et 2011, une sélection des meilleurs chansons de l'année 2012 !

Trêve de blablas, place aux morceaux. En ajoutant simplement trois remarques :

1) Cette sélection récompense des chansons, et non des albums dans leur intégralité. Vous pouvez donc enregistrer le pire album du monde et avoir malgré tout vos chances de figurer dans la liste si le disque contient une bonne chanson.
2) Je me limite à une chanson par interprète.
3) Il n'y as pas de classement, si ce n'est alphabétique.

Vous pouvez télécharger l'ensemble de cette sélection (à quelques chansons près) en cliquant sur ce lien.


C'est une bien bonne idée qu'ont eu les Allah-las en choisissant le nom de leur groupe. Car, outre le fait de proposer un jeu de mot désopilant (Allah-las, hahaha !), il leur permet de figurer en tête des listes alphabétiques et, par extension, des sélections Infrasons 2011 et 2012. Révélés l'an passé avec le morceau «Catamaran», les Allah-las ont sorti cette année un premier album sur lequel ils déploient leur force tranquille, presque indolente.
Un peu de hip-hop avec le premier album d'un gamin new-yorkais de 17 ans : Joey Badass. Appelé 1999 et disponible en téléchargement gratuit, il comporte plusieurs morceaux très bien fichus. «Pennyroyal» sort du lot avec sa ligne rythmique sobre et son superbe motif à l'orgue qui semble sorti d'une boîte à musique pour enfants.
(Télécharger l'album 1999)


♫ Bare Wires - Impossible Things
Commençons par la mauvaise nouvelle : Bare Wires s'est séparé en début d'année. Mais rebondissons sur la bonne nouvelle : le groupe a légué un dernier album (Idle Dreams), parfait testament d'une formation qui nous a enthousiasmé ces dernières années avec son glamage (mélange de glam et de garage) parsemé de riffs tranchants et réjouissants.


♫ Bikini Machine - Bikini Theme
Un article (lire ici) leur ayant déjà été consacré sur ce site, Bikini Machine n'a plus de secret pour les lecteurs d'Infrasons. Les Rennais ont à nouveau sorti un album de qualité (entièrement instrumental), ouvrant sur un «Bikini Theme» rappelant les géénriques composés par John Barry (James Bond, Amicalement vôtre, etc.). Notons que ce morceau figurait déjà en 2003 sur leur premier album (An Introduction to Bikini Machine) dans une version légèrement différente.


♫ Draytones - The World Is Like a Handkerchief
Qu'on se le dise : les Anglais sont de retour ! Nous avons suffisamment fustigé la décrépitude de la scène britannique ces dernières années pour ne pas nous réjouir des excellents disques sortis cette année par Jim Noir, King Krule, les Moons, les Kumari, les Vicars ou encore les Draytones. Et qui dit retour des Anglais dit retour des Beatles...


 â™« Foxygen - Make It Known
Soyons francs : aussi talentueux soit-il, Foxygen est un duo déroutant. Ses chansons apparaissent tellement déstructurées, avec de continuels et brusques changements de mélodie, qu'il est parfois difficile d'y pénétrer complètement. La formule fonctionne cependant très bien sur le morceau «Make It Known», excellent morceau s'il en est. Une chose est sûre, ce groupe ne peut qu'être new-yorkais : la filiation avec Lou Reed et MGMT saute aux yeux.
(Bandcamp)


 â™« Frowning Clouds - Propellers
Que ce blog soit frappé d'infamie et que le déshonneur s'abatte sur lui pour avoir omis de parler des Frowning Clouds jusqu'à ce jour. Car ces Australiens sont l'un des tous meilleurs groupes garage des dernières années. Après avoir écouté «Propellers», précipitez-vous sur «All Night Long», le tube imparable sorti l'an passé.

 â™« Jacco Gardner - Clear the Air
La chanson de l'année est l'oeuvre d'un obscur Néerlandais qui enregistre seul ses morceaux en jouant tous les instruments et en bricolant lui-même le son pour obtenir une patine 60s des plus réussies. Le résultat est stupéfiant : la Pop baroque de Jacco Gardner oscille entre les Zombies et le premier album de Pink Floyd, avec une qualité d'écriture exceptionnelle. L'incontestable révélation de l'année.
 â™« Gentleman Jesse - Eat Me Alive
Il n'y a pas d'année réussie sans tube Power Pop. Cette mission échoit cette année à Gentleman Jesse. Tâche dont il s'est parfaitement acquitté, évoquant Stiv Bators, Elvis Costello et toute une myriade de groupes des années 1977-1982.
(Douchemaster Records)


♫ Goat - Golden Dawn
Belle surprise que Goat, groupe provenant de Korpilombolo, minuscule village de 529 habitants situé à l'extrême nord de la Suède, près de la frontière finlandaise. Autant dire qu'il n'y a pas grand chose à y faire sinon jouer de la musique. Et si possible de façon furieuse en mélangeant rock psyché, funk et sonorités asiatiques. Un son qui zlatane tout.
(site)


♫ Granville - La ville sauvage
Granville s'inscrit dans le sillage dessiné par La Femme ou Pendentif avec une Pop francophone évoquant le soleil et les bords de mer. Mais la France est un pays façonné par ses terroirs, et tandis que les Biarrots de La Femme chantent le surf sur la côte basque, le son des Granville est davantage emprunt d'une mélancolie rappelant la Normandie et la baie du Mont-St-Michel.
(Bandcamp)


 â™« Hacienda - Let Me Go
Il y a 10 ans, la presse s'extasiait sur le retour du rock garage et, après avoir rapidement évoqué le renouveau du Folk (avec l'anti-folk), s'est depuis intéressée à la résurgence des années 80. Dès lors, et puisque la musique n'est plus qu'un éternel recommencement, nous devons nous attendre à un retour imminent du Glam (qui s'opérera forcément en grande pompe et avec des paillettes). Dans cette optique, Hacienda fait office de précurseur avec son Boogie-Glam et ses choeurs entraînants («ouh-la-la ouh-la-la-ouh»).
(site)


♫ Liechtenstein - Heads on Golden Plate
Sans faire de bruit, et aussi discrets qu'un paradis fiscal perdu dans les Alpes, Liechtenstein parvient à figurer pour la quatrième fois dans la sélection annuelle d'Infrasons. Voilà qui n'est pas un mince exploit lorsqu'on songe au niveau d'exigence requis. Avec leur impeccable album Fast Forward, les Suédoises sauvent l'honneur des Girl-groups, quelque peu en berne cette année.


♫ Limiñanas - Hospital Boogie
Depuis deux ans, les Perpignanais des Liminañas ont trouvé une formule qu'ils répètent à l'envie sur tous leurs disques : un demi-tempo lancinant emmené par une basse décidée et un phrasé monocorde évoquant les productions de Gainsbourg. Quoique répétitive, cette formule est à nouveau gagnante, avec notamment l'excellent «Hospital Boogie», second morceau francophone de notre sélection.


♫ Madness - My Girl 2
L'une des très bonnes surprises de l'année car, soyons honnêtes, qui était au courant que le célèbre groupe de Ska existait encore ? Et qui l'imaginait capable de sortir un tube frais et dansant en 2012 ? Les papis font de la résistance, comme on dit.



 â™« Men - Candy
Face à l'inépuisable armada de groupes provenant de San-Francisco, New-York a tenté de rivaliser cette année avec plusieurs groupes ou interprètes de qualité (Foxygen, Joey Badass). Signés sur l'excellent label Sacred Bones Records, les Men ont contribué à la bonne forme de la scène locale. La folkisante chanson «Candy» démontre le talent du groupe.



♫ Wymond Miles - Lazarus Rising
Guitariste des prolifiques Fresh & Onlys (qui avaient figuré dans nos classements 2009 et 2010), Wymond Miles trouve le temps d'enregistrer des disques en parallèle sous son nom. Publié par Sacred Bones Records (comme l'album des Men), Under the Pale Moon rappelle très fortement les productions des Fresh & Onlys avec cette patine inimitable qui évoque aussi bien les déserts arctiques que les volcans islandais.



 â™« Moons - English Summer
Britanniques jusqu'au bout des ongles, les Moons sont emmenés par Andy Crofts, ancien claviériste de Paul Weller (lui-même ex-chanteur des Jam). Tout cela pour dire que le groupe a été biberonné à la culture Mod et, plus particulièrement, aux chansons des Kinks. L'influence du groupe des frères Davies est ainsi évidente sur «English Summer», formidable morceau dont la démo circulait sur Internet depuis 2007. Andy Crofts y reprend les thèmes préférés des Kinks : la météo, la description des petits détails qui émaillent le quotidien des Britanniques, et même une petite touche de conscience «working class». Ajoutons que l'album Fables of History regorge de superbes chansons, comme seuls les Anglais savent en produire.


♫ Natural Child - Blind Owl Speaks
Attention, voici du lourd ! Et surtout du très grand. Originaires de Nashville, les Natural Child personnifient le rock'n'roll américain dans ce qu'il a de plus idéalisé et mythifié avec ce son bluesy qui donne envie de traverser le Nouveau Continent en Pontiac Firebird, fenêtres ouvertes et musique à fond. Voilà un son qui siéra aux amateurs des Rolling Stones (période Mick Taylor) et des Flamin' Groovies (période Teenage Head).
(Bandcamp)



♫ Jim Noir - Driving My Escort Cosworth to the Cake Circus
(site)
Ce morceau est fou. Du moins à partir de 2 minutes 25 lorsqu'il bascule dans une bulle féérique pavée de xylophones multicolores. Je serais gendarme que je prendrais soin de contrôler tous les conducteurs de Ford Escort pour vérifier s'ils ne roulent pas sous l'emprise de substances dangereuses ; parce que certains n'ont pas l'air net. Quoi qu'il en soit, cela fait réellement plaisir d'écouter un nouvel album du Britannique Jim Noir ; peut-être le seul musicien à pouvoir s'approcher aujourd'hui de la perfection Pop Beach-Boysienne.


 â™« Oh Sees - Lupine Dominus
Comme l'an passé, la sélection Infrasons laisse la part belle aux groupes de San-Francisco. «Parrains» de cette scène passionnante, les Oh Sees ont à nouveau été à la fête en 2012, parsemant leurs morceaux des ingrédients qui ont fait leur marque de fabrique : riffs répétitifs, chant saccadé, rythme hypnotisant. Ajoutons qu'ils sont quasiment les seuls parmi cette scène san-franciscaine à bénéficier d'une production sonore bien travaillée. Sur ce point, Bare Wires ou Ty Segall feraient bien d'en prendre de la graine.
(site)


♫ Orwells - In My Bed
A bien y regarder, cette sélection comporte très peu de morceaux de garage teigneux et enragés. Mais les Orwells sont là pour combler cette lacune. Originaire de la banlieue de Chicago, le groupe au nom très classe me rappelle fortement Harlem (formation qui semble par ailleurs s'être séparée). Les Orwells ont même un petit côté grunge avec ces enchaînements calme/accélération qui rythment leurs morceaux.


♫ People's Temple - Right from Wrong
Autre groupe américain à suivre, le People's Temple (du nom de la secte qui avait organisé le suicide et le meurtre de 920 personnes en 1978) propose un garage psychédélique et sombre dont le son n'est pas sans rappeler celui du Chocolate Watchband. Ce ton mystérieux, légèrement inquiétant mais très réussi imprègne tout particulièrement la chanson «Right from Wrong».
(Hozac Records)


♫ Resonars - Long Long Thoughts
Paul + John + George + Ringo + Rickenbacker + 1963 = les Resonars
Les mathématiques ont parfois du bon.
Et pour information, les Resonars viennent de Tucson, dans l'Arizona.
(Bandcamp)



♫ Rivals - Sugar Babies
Originaires des îles Hébrides, au large de l'Ecosse, les Rivals se sont imposés comme les nouveaux n°1 en Grande Bretagne, obtenant le titre de meilleur groupe de l'année décerné par le NME. Co-écrit pour le groupe par Paul McCartney et par Paul Weller, le morceau «Sugar Babies» occupe depuis novembre la première place des charts anglais ; succès mérité pour ce titre qui a même réussi à mettre d'accord les frères Gallagher. Souhaitons-leur de poursuivre sur ce succès. Pour information, le groupe tourne régulièrement dans des petites salles à Paris et la première édition de leur tube «Sugar Babies» est encore en vente (en 45 tours) chez Mauvaise Foi Records. Il serait bête de passer à côté de pareilles occasions.


♫ Souvenir Stand - We Will Have Our Day
(Bandcamp)
Derrière Souvenir Stand se cache Stéphanie Cupo, chanteuse et saxophoniste du New-Jersey visiblement marquée par les enregistrements de Phil Spector et des Shangri-las. La production a encore quelque chose d'amateur, mais les chansons possèdent un charme indéniable. Une affaire à suivre.


♫ Tame Impala - Feels like We Only Go Backwards
Les Australiens de Tame Impala ont à nouveau fait très fort cette année avec l'album Lonerism qui a atteint la 14e place des ventes en Grande Bretagne. Un succès étonnant pour un disque qui n'a rien à voir avec le reste du Top 50 car, avouons-le, cela fait bien 40 ans que le psychédélisme ne fait plus vendre. La production «hyper-méga-cosmique» de l'album a certainement contribué à cet attrait inattendu. Et cocorico, le disque a été enregistré en partie en France. D'où la pochette figurant les grilles du jardin du Luxembourg.
(site)


♫ Teen Velvettes - Cruising the Surf
Autre groupe anglais à avoir fait du bon boulot cette année, les Teen Velvettes semblent davantage obsédés par la Californie que par la perfide Albion. Car c'est d'un groupe surf qu'il s'agit, et des plus efficaces.
(Soundcloud)



♫ Triptides - Need You
Les Triptides sont l'un des groupes les plus injustement sous-estimés du monde. Cela fait pourtant deux ans qu'ils enregistrent des morceaux d'une beauté inouïe évoquant aussi bien le surf californien que la Pop délicate des Zombies. Outre l'album Sun Pavilion dont est extrait «Need You», les Triptides ont sorti un excellent 45 tours sur le label français Croque Macadam («Bright Sky» / «Darling»).
(Bandcamp)



♫ Nick Waterhouse - Raina
Nick Waterhouse ne plaisante pas avec la notion de rétro. Et pas question de faire les choses à moitié : quitte à jouer une musique inspirée par le rock 50s, le rhythm'n'blues, la soul 60s, autant travailler son look par la même occasion pour se transformer en sosie de Buddy Holly. En dehors de cela, Nick Waterhouse et son groupe forment un excellent groupe de scène et ont enregistré plusieurs chouettes chansons cette année. «Raina», certainement la plus soul, sort du lot grâce aux voix divines des choristes.



♫ White Fence - A Good Night
Une année ultra-productive pour White Fence qui, outre un album en duo avec Ty Segall, a sorti deux disques (Family Perdum, vol.1 et vol.2). La production «bricolée» des albums a tendance à lisser les morceaux du Californien, empêchant certaines chansons de ressortir et de se détacher. C'est chose dommage car White Fence a un réel talent d'écriture. Une production un peu plus dynamique pourrait tout à fait le rapprocher des Kinks période Village Green. Mais ne boudons pas notre plaisir, ces albums figurent parmi les meilleurs sortis en 2012 et offrent une liste de pépites longue comme le bras.




          Quelques souvenirs de 2011        
Note : Blogger m'a demandé de retirer les liens MP3 qui figuraient dans cet article. C'est un peu embêtant, mais ça ne doit pas nous enlever notre belle humeur pour autant. Et puisqu'on ne peut rien faire contre Pascal Nègre et ses sbires, j'ai remplacé les mp3 par des liens de streaming vers Youtube, Bancdamp, Soundcloud ou autres. Toutes mes confuses, et bonne écoute tout de même !


Ce blog n'est que la partie émergée de notre activité. Infrasons officie en effet parallèlement comme agence de notation musicale, distribuant les bons et les mauvais points aux artistes et évaluant chaque année leur crédibilité sur les marchés financiers. Apôtres des politiques de rigueur, nous devons lutter inlassablement contre les concepts albums prétentieux, les instrumentations indigestes, les solos interminables et toutes les boursouflures qui écorchent nos tympans.

Lorsque l'on se voit investir d'une telle mission, la sévérité doit s'imposer, y compris vis-à-vis des élèves doués mais par trop insouciants. Ainsi, cette année, nous n'avons pas hésité à sanctionner des artistes certes sympathiques mais qui n'ont pas fournis les efforts nécessaires pour figurer dans notre sélection (Strange Boys, Horrors, Girls,...).

La Grande-Bretagne voit quant à elle sa note souveraine dégradée ; une décision logique puisqu'elle n'a pas tenu compte des multiples avertissements que nous lui avions adressée. L'appauvrissement de la scène musicale anglaise s'est poursuivi et l'écart avec les États-Unis (plus particulièrement la région de San-Francisco) ne cesse de se creuser. Seules des mesures drastiques semblent pouvoir remettre cette nation sur le droit chemin.

Que l'on se rassure, certains éléments montrent encore l'exemple et conservent, en toute justice, leur note A-A-A (Bare Wires, Go ! Team, Liechtenstein, Ty Segall, Tim Cohen, ...), preuve que l'effort, le talent, voire l'audace paient toujours. Rendons hommage donc aux musiciens qui ont su traverser cette année de crise sans dériver de cap. Cet article doit contribuer à les remercier en listant les chansons que nous avons préférées en 2011, comme nous avions pu le faire en 2007, 2008, 2009 et 2010.



♫ Alabama Shakes - I Found You
(extrait de Alabama Shakes / site)
A force d'écouter du Garage, on oublie qu'il y a aussi des gens qui savent chanter, et bien. Bon, évidemment, je force un peu le trait, mais toujours est-il qu'il est rafraîchissant d'aller voir ce qui se fait ces temps-ci en matière de Soul ; notamment chez les fabuleux Alabama Shakes. D'ailleurs, pour faire un bon groupe de Soul, ce n'est pas bien sorcier : on met une grosse mama noire au chant et hop, on tient la formule magique.


♫ Allah-las - Catamaran
(extrait du 45t Catamaran/Long Journey / site)
Les Allah-las doivent autant leur présence ici à leur nom (le plus bête jamais vu depuis les Zyklon Bees) qu'à leur excellente chanson «Catamaran» (sorte de «Roadrunner» du marin). Nul doute qu'une fatwa sera bientôt prononcée contre le groupe chapeauté par Nick Waterhouse et qu'il devra se terrer quelque part en Alaska pour échapper aux vengeurs du Prophète. Heureusement, il nous restera toujours cet excellent disque pour penser à eux.


♫ Bare Wires - Back on the Road
(extrait de Cheap Perfume)
Pacal Nègre nous a parlé longuement de Bare Wires cette année (lire l'article ici). Inutile donc de vous les présenter à nouveau. Retenons simplement que leur nouvel album (Cheap Perfume) est dans la veine du précédent et contient encore quelques morceaux irrésistibles comme «Back in the Road». Ajoutons simplement que, selon une étude Insee, 68% des meilleurs riffs de guitare actuels sont signés Bare Wires (étude réalisée en décembre 2011 sur un panel représentatif de 800 consommateurs).



♫ Black Lips - New Direction
(extrait de Arabia Mountain / site)
Groupe potache s'il en est, les Black Lips ont confié la production de leur dernier album à Mark Ronson, personnage dont on a toujours apprécié le travail ici (Amy Winehouse, Lily Allen, Candie Payne,...). Même si cette association ne semble pas faire l'unanimité, le résultat me paraît assez réussi. C'est en effet rafraîchissant de pouvoir entendre du Garage avec une production sonore soignée. Des morceaux comme «Raw Meat» ou «New Direction» n'en sortent que grandis.


♫ Les Bof ! - Ils vont tuer le R'n'R
(extrait de Nous sommes les Bof ! / site)
Comme leur nom ne l'indique pas, les Bof ! sont Écossais ... mais avec un chanteur marseillais ! Après s'être fait remarqués en 2007 avec un 45t contenant des chansons aussi marrantes que «J'ai perdu mon mojo», ils reviennent cette année avec un album plus Yéyé que jamais. Avec son riff inspiré du «1977» des Clash et son titre revendicateur, «Ils vont tuer le R'n'R» a évidemment attiré notre attention.



♫ Charles Bradley - Stay Away
(extrait de la compilation de reprises de Nirvana Nevermind / site)
Si l'on mange si mal dans les cantines scolaires et dans les restaurants inter-entreprises, c'est peut-être parce que les chefs cuisiniers travaillant dans ces établissements ne sont pas faits pour ce métier. Leur vocation est ailleurs. C'est ce qu'a compris Charles Bradley à 51 ans, après une vie passée derrière les fourneaux ; laissant son tablier, il a décidé de devenir chanteur Soul à plein temps. Avec une voix à la James Brown et accompagné par les musiciens maison du label Daptone, il a estomaqué tout le monde cette année en proposant une reprise Soul d'un morceau de Nirvana. Soyons honnête, l'originale n'était pas notre tasse de thé ; la reprise est le morceau de l'année.


♫ Tim Cohen (Magic Trick) - Daylight Moon
(extrait de The Glad Birth of Love / site)
Je soupçonne depuis un petit moment Tim Cohen de s'être cloné. Comment pourrait-il faire autrement pour sortir autant d'albums chaque année, que ce soit en solo ou avec les Fresh & Onlys. Saluons donc son clone n°06B43 pour son superbe album The Glad Birth of Love. Un numéro de série tellement productif qu'il pousse le vice jusqu'à agréger plusieurs chansons dans le même morceau, comme sur ce «Daylight Moon» qui démarre tout doucement avant de s'échapper dans de magnifiques envolées vaporeuses.



♫ Cults - Bumper
(extrait de Cults / site)
J'ai beaucoup hésité avant d'intégrer les Cults dans la sélection 2011. Premièrement car leur album est très en-deçà des espoirs suscités l'an passé par les premières chansons. Deuxièmement car le morceau «Bumper» n'est qu'un plagiat du «Give Him a Great Big Kiss» des Shangri-las ; et c'est justement là l'aspect délicat : avec une telle chanson pour modèle, la copie est forcément efficace, fût-elle en-deçà de l'originale. Nous serons donc magnanime cette année, eu égard à la jeunesse du groupe. Mais attention : les Cults devront impérativement tenir compte de nos mises en garde à l'avenir, sous peine de se voir décerner un avertissement conduite.


♫ Davila 666 - Esa nuna nenca regreso
(extrait de Tan bajo)
Le côté brouillon des morceaux de Davila 666 a toujours eu tendance à me rebuter. Mais lorsque les Porto-ricains prennent la bête par les cornes et s'astreignent à une vraie discipline, on ne peut que s'incliner devant le résultat. Chœurs entraînants, rythmes martelant, ce «Esa nuna nenca regreso» doit leur servir de boussole pour leurs prochains enregistrements.


♫ Friends - I'm His Girl
Chez Infrasons, on a toujours une grande marmite de goudron chaud saupoudré de plumes. Nous la maintenons à bonne température, prêts à la déverser sur tout ce qui ressemble de près ou de loin à de la Pop des années 80. Et pourtant, Dieu sait si nous aimons ce morceau new-yorkais branchouille, son clip estampillé «Années Reagan» et le groove qui se dégage de l'ensemble. Quelque chose me dit que ces Friends referont parler d'eux très prochainement.


♫ Go ! Team - Ready to Go Steady
(extrait de Rolling Blackouts / site)
A chaque nouvelle sortie d'un disque de Go ! Team, on se frotte les mains. Car on est sûr d'y trouver 4 ou 5 très bons morceaux et ce mélange inimitable de Funk, de son Girl-groups et de Hip-hop. S'il ne s'agit pas de leur meilleur album, Rolling Blackouts ne nous a pas déçu, avec notamment ce charmant «Ready to Go Steady».


♫ Human Eye - Impregnate the Martian Queen, part 2
(extrait de They Came from the Sky)
La claque sonore de l'année ! Evoquant aussi bien Love et que les Stooges, ce «Impregnate the Martian Queen, part 2» semble bel et bien venir d'une planète rouge et volcanique, balayée par des tourbillons de poussière et d'hématite. Le résultat est aussi terrifiant qu'entraînant.


♫ Hunx & his Punkx - Lovers Lane
(extrait de Too Young to Be in Love)
Avec Hunx et ses Punkx, il ne faut pas s'arrêter aux pochettes de disques, d'un goût pour le moins douteux. Car il s'agit avant tout d'un excellent groupe oscillant entre le Glam, la Power Pop et le Rhythm'n'blues, capable d'évoquer les excellents Detroit Cobras sur le morceau «Lovers Lane».


♫ Jacuzzi Boy - Automatic Jail
(extrait de Glazin')
L'excellente surprise de l'année ! Avec Glazin', le groupe de Miami nous offre une myriade de perles Power Pop plus enthousiasmantes les unes que les autres. Difficile de n'en retenir qu'une, mais «Automatic Jail» ressemble tellement à un morceaux des Buzzcocks qu'il aurait été criminel de laisser l'année passer sans vous le faire écouter.


♫ Liechtenstein - Meantime
(extrait du simple Meantime)
Les Suédoises de Liechtenstein sont une valeur sûre. Sobres, appliquées, mais surtout inspirées, elles parviennent toujours à se glisser dans nos sélections annuelles. «Meantime» laisse percevoir un groupe qui se rapproche de plus en plus d'Electrelane et de sa beauté glaciale.


♫ Limiñanas - (I've Got) Trouble in Mind (écoute ici)
(extrait du 45t (I've Got) Trouble in Mind)
Nos Perpignanais préférés nous avaient laissé un excellent souvenir l'an passé avec un album des plus réussis. Leur dernier 45 tours s'inscrit dans la même lignée avec des références de plus en plus marquées au Gainsbourg période «Bonnie and Clyde». L'alternance du chant en français et en anglais participe évidemment à cet effet très Zip ! Shebam ! Pow ! Blop ! Wizz !


♫ Paul Messis - The Problem With Me
(extrait de The Problem With Me / site)
Paul Messis a de la chance : il joue depuis quelques années avec plusieurs des meilleurs musiciens anglais. Autrefois bassiste des excellents Fallen Leaves, il est accompagné depuis quelques temps par d'anciens membres des Embrooks et de Higher State, soit ce qui se fait de mieux de l'autre côté de la Manche en matière de rock 60s. Mais ce n'est pas le tout d'être bien accompagné ; encore faut-il savoir composer de jolies ballades byrdsiennes, pleines de guitares carillonnantes à 12 cordes. Ce que Paul Messis fait à la perfection.


♫ Oh Sees - Carrion Crawler
(extrait de Carrion Crawler/The Dream / site)
Autres représentants de l'inépuisable scène san-franciscaine, les Oh Sees n'avaient encore jamais eu l'honneur de figurer dans une sélection annuelle Infrasons. La faute nous en incombe car ils publient des disques à un rythme presque aussi soutenu que les Fresh & Onlys. Les Oh Sees sont certainement le groupe le plus perché de toute cette scène néo-psychédélique californienne avec une rythmique répétitive, hypnotique, syncopée qui les rend reconnaissables entre mille.


♫ Pendentif - Riviera
(extrait du 45t Pendentif)
Déjà présentés il y a quelques mois sur ce blog (lire l'article ici), les Bordelais de Penedentif nous ont enchanté cette année avec une Pop rafraîchissante et estivale, dans un esprit proche de celui de La Femme. Un regret malgré tout : la fille qui tient le micro sur «Riviera» ne semble pas être la chanteuse principale. Dommage, car le groupe perd largement de son intérêt sur les morceaux chantés par des voix masculines.


♫ Pushy Parents - He's My Saturday (écoute ici)
(extrait du 45t Secret Secret)
Les Pushy Parents ne sont pas un véritable groupe, mais plutôt un projet de studio suédois regroupant la chanteuse des Andersen Tapes et différents pontes de la Pop scandinave (compositeurs, arrangeurs,...). «Secret Secret», la chanson phare, a tout pour devenir un tube phénoménal, mais nous avons plutôt choisi de vous faire écouter «He's My Saturday» et son rythme Northern Soul emmené par une ligne de percussions des plus réussies.


♫ Ty Segall - Goodbye Bread
(extrait de Goodbye Bread / site)
Il y a un an, nous évoquions la ressemblance amusante entre la voix de Ty Segall et celle de John Lennon. Sur le morceau «Goodbye Bread», c'est plutôt avec Alex Chilton et Big Star que nous établirons un rapprochement. Mais trêve de comparaisons, retenons surtout que son dernier album contient plusieurs superbes chansons, davantage à mon sens que sur le précédent ; et que le chien sur la pochette a une bonne tête.


♫ Ana Tijoux - 1977
(extrait de 1977 / site)
«1977» fait figure de curiosité au sein de cette sélection. Ce n'est pas tous les jours en effet qu'Infrasons vous a présenté des rappeuses franco-chiliennes. Mais il faut un début à tout. Avec son instrumentation hispanisante, son rythme tout en arrêts/redémarrages et l'excellente voix d'Ana Tijoux, vous ne pourrez qu'aimer ce morceau.


♫ Triptides - Going Under
(extrait du 45t Going Under / Bandcamp)
Nous fondons énormément d'espoirs sur les Triptides, groupe américain qui marie avec bonheur Pop 60s et Surf. Vous ne trouverez toutefois pas les Triptides sur les plages surchauffées du mois d'août, bondées de touristes et de vendeurs de churros. Vous les verrez plutôt hors saison, sur des côtes désertes, recouvertes d'une brume mélancolique. Le timbre voilé du chanteur nous ferait même penser à celui des Zombies, orfèvres Pop des années 60. A noter que le 45t Going under/Outlaw vient d'être publié par Croque Macadam, nouveau label français qui chapeaute également les recommandables Guillotines et Spadassins.


♫ Vivian Girls - I Heard You Say
(extrait de Share the Joy)
Que l'on ne s'y trompe, Infrasons n'est pas un supporteur inconditionnel des Vivian Girls. Malgré toute la sympathie que peuvent susciter ces trois louloutes cherchant à mêler le son des Shangri-las et des Jesus & Mary Chain, leurs enregistrements nous paraissent encore perfectibles. Toutefois, bâtis autour de mélodies ambitieuses et de chœurs travaillés, certains morceaux nous obligent à déposer les armes et à reconnaître leur talent, à l'instar de ce «I Heard You Say», chant de noël parfait pour ces périodes hivernales.


♫ Nick Waterhouse - Is That Clear
(extrait du 45t Is That Clear / site)
Nick Waterhouse est l'un des personnages les plus étonnants du moment. Alors que tous ses amis san-franciscains semblent obsédés par le Garage psychédélique des années 60, Nick a choisi d'aller plus loin et de voyager dans la décennie précédente. Costume impeccable, lunettes à gros montant : Nick a tout d'un Buddy Holly moderne. Ses enregistrements ne sont pas en reste puisqu'ils évoquent un Eddie Cochran jouant avec les Sonics. Une vraie curiosité.


♫ Wax Idols - All Too Human
(extrait du 45t All Too Human/William Says / site)
Encore un groupe de San Francisco, un de plus ! Rien ne sert de lutter, c'est bien là-bas que tout se passe. Mais aussi foisonnante soit-elle, la scène locale reste un petit monde puisque la chanteuse du groupe a auparavant joué avec les sus-cités Bare Wires et Hunx et ses Punkx. Au-delà de ses influences Garage, Wax idols dégage un parfum gothique et légèrement New Wave qui n'est pas sans évoquer Siouxsie et les Banshees.


♫ White Fence - A Pearl Is Not A Diamond
(extrait de Is Growing Faith)
Déjà encensé ici l'an passé, White Fence nous a encore offert l'un des meilleurs albums de l'année (Is Growing Faith), toujours avec ce son bricolé, usé mais charmant. La ballade psychédélique «A Pearl Is Not A Diamond» est à ce titre la mieux produite des chansons figurant sur l'album ; l'une des plus jolies également. Et puis, un morceau sur les perles ne pouvait pas passer inaperçu sur un blog ayant pour slogan «Quelques perles sous un océan agité» !


Bonus 2010

♫ La Femme - Sur la planche
(extrait du maxi Le Podium#1 / Bandcamp)
En guise de conclusion, rappelons que le meilleur morceau de l'année est en réalité une chanson sortie ... en toute fin d'année dernière ! Alors oui, c'est vrai, je triche un peu, mais tous les prétextes sont bons pour réécouter «Sur la planche» et son Surf irrésistible. Je vous renvoie à l'article écrit sur le groupe en janvier (en cliquant ici).


          Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian        

Pengundian babak kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2018 akan dilakukan Sabtu malam, sekitar pukul 23.00 WIB. Di bawah ini adalah daftar unggulan dan berbagai skenario buruk maupun baik yang bisa menimpa negara-negara asal sepakbola: Inggris, Wales, Skotlandia dan Irlandia Utara.

Berita Bola: Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian
Pot 1: Jerman, Belgia, Belanda, Portugal, Romania, Inggris, Wales, Spanyol, Kroasia
Pot 2: Slovakia, Austria, Italia, Swiss, Republik Ceko, Prancis, Islandia, Denmark, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Pot 3: Ukraina, Skotlandia, Polandia, Hungaria, Swedia, Albania, Irlandia Utara, Serbia, Yunani
Pot 4: Turki, Slovenia, Israel, Republik Irlandia, Norwegia, Bulgaria, Kepulauan Faroe, Montenegro, Estonia
Pot 5: Siprus, Latvia, Armenia, Finlandia, Belarusia, Makedonia, Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Moldova
Pot 6: Kazakhstan, Luksemburg, Liechtenstein, Georgia, Malta, San Marino, Andorra
Inggris dan Wales tidak mungkin bertemu dalam satu grup karena mereka sama-sama tim unggulan yang masuk dalam Pot 1.
Namun, mereka masih bisa ketemu dengan negara tertentu dari Pot 2 seperti Italia (saat ini peringkat 17 di dunia) atau Perancis (peringkat 22), sementara tandang ke negara-negara tertentu seperti Swedia, Polandia atau Ukraina bisa menjadi laga yang sulit.
Wales, Irlandia Utara dan Skotlandia bisa saja masuk ke dalam grup yang berisikan lima tim, bukan enam – yang dapat membantu peluang mereka lolos ke putaran final di Rusia.
Tim-tim Eropa akan dibagi ke dalam sembilan kelompok – tujuh grup dengan enam tim dan dua grup hanya beranggotakan lima tim.
Berikut adalah skenario terbaik dan terburuk dari empat negara asal sepakbola itu.
Inggris
Tiket impian:
Inggris, Islandia, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova, Andorra
Skenario terburuk:
Inggris, Italia, Swedia, Turki, Finlandia, Kazakhstan
Wales
Tiket impian:
Wales, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Wales, Prancis, Ukraina, Turki, Siprus, Georgia
Skotlandia
Tiket impian:
Skotlandia, Wales, Islandia, Estonia, Lithuania
Skenario terburuk:
Skotlandia, Jerman, Italia, Turki, Makedonia, Kazakhstan
Irlandia Utara
Tiket impian:
Irlandia Utara, Rumania, Islandia, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Irlandia Utara, Spanyol, Prancis, Republik Irlandia, Belarusia, Malta

          Certificado EUR 1        

¿Qué es el EUR 1?
El certificado de circulación EUR1 es un documento  otorgado por la UE que acredita el origen  preferencial de las mercancías ante las autoridades aduaneras del país importador.  Este documento justifica la aplicación del régimen arancelario preferencial, es decir,  permite al importador beneficiarse de la reducción en los derechos de aduana sobre la mercancía importada.

¿Qué países pueden beneficiarse del EUR1?

El EUR1 es otorgado a aquellos países con los cuales la UE mantiene un Acuerdo Preferencial:  Marruecos, Argelia, Túnez, Egipto, Jordania, Siria, Líbano, Israel, Serbia, Bosnia, Macedonia y Croacia; Países ACP  (África, Caribe y Pacífico); países EFTA (Suiza, Islandia, Noruega y Liechtenstein); Países y Territorios de Ultramar y otros países con los que la UE tiene suscritos Acuerdos Preferenciales.

¿En qué momento debe ser expedido el EUR1?

El EUR1  debe ser expedido en el momento de la exportación, puesto que,  en términos generales,  no puede tener una fecha posterior al embarque porque el importador perdería los beneficios  fiscales. De modo excepcional, se puede expedir “a posteriori” si no se hubiera expedido en el momento de la exportación debido a un error u omisión involuntaria o por circunstancias especiales, o si se demuestra que la Secretaría expidió un certificado de circulación EUR.1 y no fue aceptado al efectuar la importación en el territorio de la Comunidad por motivos técnicos.

          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

          EU truths and untruths        
With the UK now voting as to whether it remains in the EU or stirs up what has been described as "the biggest change in European politics since the fall of the Berlin Wall" (although the war in Yugoslavia and the first genocide since the Nazis ought to come close), I thought I'd run through some of the claims of both sides that are intellectually dishonest.

Remain

3 million jobs are linked to trade with the EU: Well yes, but then nobody is saying trade with the EU will end and nobody campaigning to leave wants inferior trading conditions.  The European Free Trade Association provides free trade with the EU, with Switzerland, Norway and Iceland all members.  The idea that leaving the EU means 3 millions jobs are at risk is a gross exaggeration.   However, if the EU is bloody minded and puts up tariff barriers equivalent to what it does for the rest of the world. it is a 4% average tariff on UK trade to the EU, which is negative for jobs, but hardly a huge risk. 

If the UK leaves the EU, you might need a visa to visit the EU: Nonsense.  You don't need a visa to visit the EU from the US, Canada, Australia, NZ or any of the EFTA member states.  What would change is having the right to live there.  Given those wanting to leave mostly want to end the free movement of people, that could be a concern for some. 

Leaving the EU will create a recession: No it wont.  The worst estimates are a small reduction in economic growth, but the long run estimates are a 6% long term slowing of growth if the UK gets the most inferior trading conditions likely with the EU (and assuming the UK has no free trade agreements with any other countries, like the US, Japan and China).  It also assumes the UK does not cut any EU regulation out at all.  In short, the Treasury estimates used by the Government of a recession are based on leaving the EU, and not taking advantage of the new freedom to trade and freedom to relieve the economy of EU Directives that impose costs on growth.

The EU means food, petrol, flights, energy and mobile phone charges are lower: Unmitigated rubbish, quite the opposite.  The EU Common Agricultural Policy inflates the price of food in the EU by 17% over market prices.  The EU legally requires all Member States to tax petrol by at least around 32p/l (but the UK government taxes it at 80% more than that).  The Single Aviation Market goes beyond the EU, with many non-EU countries as participants.  Norwegian Airlines has grown rapidly in the past couple of years, expanding long haul flights between the UK and US.  Norway is not in the EU. The EU inflates energy prices, by requiring minimum levels of taxation on gas and electricity bills, and imposing renewable energy obligations on member states.  Yes mobile roaming in the EU is lower than it would have been had the EU not enforced it, but it's clear EU protectionism and "normalisation" of regulations imposes costs on consumers. 

The £10 billion paid into the EU is "returned' many times over: No it's not.  What is returned is free trade, which should never be at the cost of paying for farming subsidies or infrastructure investment in other countries.  Leaving the EU doesn't mean an end to trading with the EU. 

The EU has 50 trade agreements we lose access to:  Many of which are with micro-states/territories, like San Marino, Andorra, Liechtenstein, Faroe Islands, Guernsey.  The only significant economies with deals are Mexico, South Africa and South Korea.  The UK could readily negotiate during the transition deals easily as good or better, as the main forces for protectionism in trade are the likes of France.

Staying in means reform:  That's highly unlikely.  David Cameron couldn't even get all the reforms he asked for with a threat of Brexit (which clearly the EU saw through as being unlikely), why would it happen after a vote to Remain?  The UK holds 9% of the MEP seats in the European Parliament, and although it is a significant contributor, reform is sclerotic.  The EU hasn't significantly cut back any of its activities and always finds new ones.  It is a political project of integration, and shows little sign of ever caring what is thought of it.

David Cameron's deal means unemployed EU migrants can be deported:  No, they can't. EU citizens can't be deported from Member States unless they are a threat to national security or criminals.  

Leave

Leaving the EU will fix the immigration "problem":  Assuming the problem is too many immigrant, and the failure of the Government to cut annual immigration to less than 100,000 people, leaving the EU will enable the UK to ration EU immigration like it does for non-EU.  However, non- EU immigration is already over 150,000 per annum.  Nobody is saying Brexit means deporting immigrants (thankfully).  Most concerns over immigration are perceptions about access to taxpayer provided services, and more often than not reflect the bankruptcy of the world's biggest health bureaucracy, which is treated as a religion never to be reformed (NHS), the bizarre legal obligation of all local authorities to ensure anyone who lives in the UK has housing (including rooms in hotels paid for by taxpayers), the open access to compulsory education and the sclerotic way the UK restrains supply of housing and roads.   Leaving the EU wont solve any of that, but then those wanting to stay in the EU are also devoid of responses to what are more fundamental problems.  

Turkey is joining soon: No it's not.  Notwithstanding David Cameron's hypocrisy over the issue, it is difficult to see Cyprus accepting Turkey until there is settlement over northern Cyprus, or Greece accepting Turkey until Turkey secures its southern borders with Syria and Iraq.  However, Serbia, Montenegro, FYR Macedonia and Albania will all likely be members within 10 years.

Money saved will be spent on the NHS:  Well the half that is a rebate and is current subsidies wont change, although there is a chance to make some serious saving there.  The rest?  Well it can go on many things, but there is a case for simply cutting the deficit by £10 billion a year.  After all, despite George Osborne's platitudes, the UK government is still overspending.  What happens with the money is up to the government.  The Leave campaign is not the government.  Yes leaving the EU wont save £350 million a week, more like half that, but the rebate is not set in a treaty, and the spending 

UK will be drawn into the Euro and ever closer union: The UK has a treaty opt-out of the Euro and has to agree to treaties for ever closer union, but it wont mean it doesn't face the costs of ever closer union.  That will depend on future negotiations.

The UK can get trade access as good as the Single Market without free movement of people:  This is unlikely, simply because it would mean the Single Market is undermined and would be a massive backtracking of the principles of the EU.  Signing up to EFTA or the EEA will mean some compromise on this.

          Sejarah Islam Batak. by hasnan habib kota Depok        
Pendidikan di peradaban Batak bukanlah sesuatu yang baru. Institusi ‘partungkoan’ bisa dikatakan sebuah media yang sudah dikenal sejak dahulu kala sebagai cara untuk meneruskan ilmu pengetahuan dan sarana pengembangan sosial bagi generasi muda berikutnya.

Sejak pertama kali kedatangan Islam ke tanah Batak melalui, tanah Batak pesisir, Barus, pendidikan merupakan sesuatu yang sangat penting saat itu. Melihat konstelasi politik di pesisir dan tanah Batak yang berubah-ubah disinyalir bahwa sistem pendidikan Islam di tanah Batak juga berubah-ubah.


Seperti diketahui, ada dua aliran besar yang pernah memasuki tanah Batak. Pertama adalah kalangan Sunni dengan empat mazhabnya: Syafii, Maliki, Hambali dan Hanafi. Namun nampaknya pengaruh mazhab maliki tidak terlalu nampak dalam kedudayaan Islam di tanah Batak. Satu aliran lain adalah dari golongan syiah yang paling kuat menancapkan pengaruhnya di tanah Batak.

Bisa dikatakan bahwa syiahlah yang pertama sekali membentuk sistem pendidikan keagaaman di tanah Batak melalui Barus, pantai barat sumatera dan porsea danm kota-kota Batak lainnnya yang dialiri sungai asahan, dimana sumber airnya berasasl dari danau Toba.

Sistem pendidikan syiah tersebut, merupakan sistem tyang lazin dipakai di negeri-negeri Islam di tanah Arab saat itu. Perlu diketahui bahwa Universitas Al Azhar merupakan istitusi pendidikan tertua yang didirikan oleh kaum syiah. Salah satu sisa dari kejayaan syiah di tanah Batak adalah praktek tasawuf dan tarekat yang masih diamalkan oleh tetua Batak di pedalaman Batak. Sistem tarekat ini terkenal dengan sistem pembelajaran yang menggunakan kelambu. Pusat-pusat pengembangannya adalah di tanah Batak selatan, Barus dan lain sebagainya. Orang-orang dari tanah Batak utara biasanya akan pergi ke daerah-daerah tersebut untuk menimba ilmu dan mengamalkannya di kampung halaman masing-masing dengan istilah ‘mangaji’.

Pengaruh dari Hanafi dibawa oleh warga muslim Cina yang banyak datang berdagang di kawasan Batak Simalungun. Namun, sistem yang dibawa oleh kalangan Cina tersebut menyatu dengan sistem yang dibawa oleh orang-orang Persia, yang syiah sehingga sampai sekarang tidak terlalu terasa pengaruhnya. Sistem pendidikan hanafi menekankan kepada kemampuan analisa akal yang dibarengi oleh arguentasi-argumentasi dari kitab suci. Di pedalaman Batak, sistem ini ternyata sangat manjur karena kurangnya kesempatan mereka untuk kontak dengan ulama atau da’i yang tidak selalu datang untuk meng-upgrade atau memberi solusi atas masalah-masalah dan pengetahuan mereka ke desa-desa mereka yang terisolir.

Sistem pendidikan hambali yang ditandai atas kepatuhan dan kejuhudan serta penghormatan terhadap tradisi nabi mulai diterapkan saat masuknya orang-orang Padri ke tanah Batak. Sementara itu sistem syafii, yang menekankan hukum-hukum fiqih, baru terasa belakangan saat hubungan antara penduduk Batak dengan dunia luar sudah sangat minim akibat penjajahan Belanda. Paska kemerdekaan, sistem syafii ini pula yang banyak diberlakukan.

Yang dimaksud dengan sistem syafii adalah sistem pendidikan yang diterapkan oleh kalangan muslim yang bermazhab syafii di seluruh dunia. Begitu juga dengan sistem lainnya. Kalangan syafii, khusunya di Indonesia, menekankan pembelajaran kepada tokoh dan individu yang dianggap mahir dalam ilmu fiqih. Sehingga masalah dan ilmu pengetahuan apapunm yang akan mereka hadapi akan didasarkan kepada paradigma berpikir fiqhiyah.

Kalangan hambali lebih menekankan jalur hadits dan al-Quran, sedangkan kalangan hanafi lebih menekankan kemampuan filosofi dan ilmu kalam. Sementara itu kalangan syiah, sebagai sistem pendidikan yang paling tua di tanah Batak lebih menekankan kepada kemampuan memahami fenomena dunia melalui tarekat dan suluk. Agama parmalim di tanah Batak diyakini merupakan sistem kepercayaan tradisional Batak yang banyak dipengaruhi oleh cara berpikir tarekat dan suluk yang banyak berkembang di Barus pada awal-awal masuknya Islam. Istilah malim sendiri, yang berarti seorang yang dianggap parmalim, sama-sama dipakai oleh kalangan Islam dan Parmalim paska pengkristalan kepercayaan ini menjadi sebuah agama, juga berarti seorang yang alim dan dekat dengan Tuhan.

Walaupun begitu, semua sistem pendidikan tersebut, bisa saja memakai cara yang sama ketika berhadapan dengan masalah-masalah sehari-hari. Misalnya semua sistem terbut akan menggunakan ilmu hisab, ilmu hayat dan al jabar serta ilmu-ilmu lainnya untuk menangani hal-hal yang dianggap masalah duniawiyah.

Berikut adalah angka tahun pendidikan Islam di tanah Batak. Yang meliputi tanah Batak pedalaman yang sering disebut pusat tanah Batak atau Batak utara, Barus, Mandailing, Angkola atau Batak selatan, Gayo, Simalungun, Karo dan kawasan Batak di sekitar sungai Asahan sampai ke hilir sungainya di sumatera bagian timur.

633-661 M

Disinyalir pemerintahan Khulafa’ Al Rasyidin telah menjalin hubungan dengan beberapa kerajaan di Sumatera, termasuk Batak. Tapi hubungan itu masih sekedar hubungan antar negara dalam sebuah upaya untuk menjalin hubungan kerjasama ekonomi. Kapur barus, emas, merica dan rempah-rempah lainnya. Sumatera dikenal dengan istilah Zabag. Beberapa catatan mengenai kedatangan utusan dan pelaut muslim ke Barus dan pelabuhan sumatera lainnya yang dikuasasi Sriwijaya pernah didokumentasikan.

661-750

Pelaut-pelaut Arab yang Islam mulai berdatangan secara intens di masa pemerintahan Dinasti Umayyah. Kedatangan mereka untu misi dagang tersebut telah membentuk kantong-kantong muslim di tanah Batak, khususnya Barus, yang tentunya terjadinya transfer ilmu pengetahuan kepada penduduk setempat melalui medium non-formal.

718-726

Islam berkembang pesat di tanah Barus. Di lain pihak Islam berkembang di Sumatera masuknya beberapa raja Sriwijaya kepada Islam. Diantaranya Sri Indra Warman di Jambi.

730

Pedagang Arab di pesisir Sumatera mendapat persaingan dari pedagang Cina yang sangat aktif menyebarkan agama buddha mahayana. Kerajaan-kerajaan buddha dengan Sriwijaya-nya menjadi kekuatan yang sangat kuat menguasai sebagian besar pelabuhan-pelabuhan penting di Nusantara. Diyakini orang-orang Sriwijaya ini juga berhasil memasukkan ajaran Buddha ke komunitas Batak khusunya yang di Mandailing.


851

Seorang pedagang Arab berhasil mendokumentasikan kedatangannya di kota Barus. Laporan Sulaiman itu pada tahun 851 M membicarakan tentang penambangan emas dan perkebunan barus (kamper) di Barus (Ferrand 36).

Disinyalir bahwa para pendatang asing seperti Romawi, Yunani, Arab, Cina, India, Persia dan dari kepulauan Indonesia lainnya telah membangun kantong-kantong pemukiman yang lengkap dengan prasarana pendukungnya di Barus. Penambangan emas dan perkebunan kamper tersebut merupakan contoh bahwa kedua komoditas ini telah diolah secara modern dan bukan didapat secara tradisional di hutan-hutan.

Sekarang ini ahli sejarah menemukan bukti-bukti arkeologis yang memperkuat dugaan bahwa sebelum munculnya kerajaan-kerajaan Islam yang awal di Sumatera seperti Peurlak dan Samudera Pasai, yaitu sekitar abad-9 dan 10, di Barus telah terdapat kelompok-kelompok masyarakat Muslim dengan kehidupan yang cukup mapan (Dada Meuraxa dalam Ali Hasymi, Sejarah Masuk dan Perkembangan Islam di Indonesia, bandung PT Al Ma'arif 1987). Kehidupan yang mapan itu pula memungkinkan mereka untuk hidup secara permanen di kawasan ini yang sudah pasti didukung oleh sarana pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan agar mereka tidak tertinggal dengan pesaing lainnya.

Sebagai pelabuhan yang sangat masyhur, Barus menjadi tujuan pendidikan tertua bagi masyarakat Batak. Hal ini dikarenakan bahwa Barus merupakan wilayah Batak yang paling mudah dicapai oleh orang-orang Batak dari pedalaman yang ingin menimba ilmu. Jalan-jalan menuju Barus telah dirintis rapi oleh pedagang-pedagang Batak yang ingin menjual kemenyan dan membeli produk jadi dari Barus. Sampai era tahun 1980-an, madrasah-madrasah tradisional Barus masih menjadi primadona tujuan pendidikan di tanah Batak sebelum akhirnya digantikan oleh Mandailing dengan pesantren-pesantrennya yang sudah modern.

Masuknya gelombang pedagang dan saudagar ke Barus mengakibatkan penduduk lokal Batak di lokasi tersebut; Singkil, Fansur, Barus, Sorkam, Teluk Sibolga, Sing Kwang dan Natal memeluk Islam setelah sebelumnya beberapa elemen sudah menganutnya. Walaupun begitu, mayoritas masyarakat Batak di sentral Batak masih menganut agama asli Batak.

Kelompok Marga Tanjung di Fansur, marga Pohan di Barus, Batu Bara di Sorkam kiri, Pasaribu di Sorkam Kanan, Hutagalung di Teluk Sibolga, Daulay di Sing Kwang merupakan komunitas Islam pertama yang menjalankan Islam dengan kaffah

900

Ibnu Rustih kurang lebih pada tahun 900 M menyebut Fansur, nama kota di Barus, sebagai negeri yang paling masyhur di kepulauan Nusantara (Ferrand 79). Sementara itu tahun 902, Ibn Faqih melaporkan bahwa Barus merupakan pelabuhan terpenting di pantai barat Sumatera (Krom 204).

Sambil berdagang, para saudagar-saudagar Batak, marga Hutagalung, Pasaribu, Pohan dan Daulay biasanya akan memberikan ceramah dan majlis pendidikan kepada penduduk Batak pedalaman. Tradisi ini masih berlangsung sampai era 1980-an di negeri Rambe, Sijungkang dan lain sebagainya. Di daerah Bakkara, komunitas yang aktif dalam pendidikan Islam adalah kalangan Marpaung sejak abad-15. Pembelajaran secara cuma-cuma dan gratis ini bisa diartikan sebagai taktik dagang untuk mendekatkan mereka dengan penduduk setempat.

976-1168

Paham syiah mulai datang ke daerah Barus. Hal itu karena ekspansi perdagangan Dinasti Fatimiyah Mesir.

1128-1204

Kota Barus, dan beberapa daerah Batak lainnya seperti Gayo pernah direbut oleh Kesultanan Daya Pasai, dengan rajanya Kafrawi Al Kamil. Ekspanasi ini terlaksana dengan motif monopoli perekonomian. Sistem pendidikan yang lebih sitematis dari kalangan syiah menjadi marak di Barus dan daerah Batak lainnya. Kalangan intelektual Batak mulai unjuk gigi. Khususnya mereka kawin campuran dengan pedagang asing dari Arab, India dan Persia. Namun penguasaan pihak Aceh tersebut berlangsung hanya sementara. Di Barus kepemimpinan Dinasti Pardosi yang menjadi penguasa tunggal menjadi kesultanan Batak muslim yang sangat kuat. Kesultanan ini mempunyai aliansi yang kuat dengan Aceh, khusunya Singkel dan Meulaboh.

Kerajaan Batak Hatorusan yang menjadi penguasa di Barus dan pesisir Sumatera bagian barat sejak abad sebelum masehi tidak tampak hegemoninya. Disinyalir keturunannya menjadi raja-raja huta di Sorkam dengan penduduknya yang bermarga Pasaribu. Pada abad ke-16, Kerajaan Hatorusan ini muncul kembali dengan naiknya Sultan Ibrahimsyah Pasaribu menjadi Sultan Barus Hilir. Dinasti Pardosi kemudian dikenal sebagai Sultan Barus Hulu.

Persaingan politik antar mereka membuat kedua kesultanan ini sering berpecah. Sultan di Hulu lebih dekat kepada Aceh dan yang di Hilir lebih dekat kepada Minang. Minang dan Aceh sendiri merupakan dua kekuatan yang saling berkompetisi dalam memperebutkan pengaruh di Barus. Baik pada saat mereka Islam maupun Buddha dan Hindu.

Kalangan intelektual Arab mulai berdatangan ke Barus. Ekspor kapur barus meningkat tajam seiring dengan meningkatnya permintaan. Barus menjadi rebutan banyak kekuatan asing dan lokal. Pada permulaan abad ke-12, seorang ahli geografi Arab, Idrisi, memberitakan mengenai ekport kapur di Sumatera (Marschall 1968:72). Kapur bahasa latinnya adalah camphora produk dari sebuah pohon yang bernama latin dryobalanops aromatica gaertn. Orang Batak yang menjadi produsen kapur menyebutnya hapur atau todung atau haboruan

Beberapa istilah asing mengenai Sumatera adalah al-Kafur al-Fansuri dengan istilah latin Canfora di Fanfur atau Hapur Barus dalam bahasa Batak dikenal sebagai produk terbaik di dunia (Drakard 1990:4) dan produk lain adalah Benzoin dengan bahasa latinnya Styrax benzoin. Semua ini adalah produk-produk di Sumatera Barat Laut dimana penduduk aselinya dalah orang-orang Pakpak dan Toba (Associate Prof. Dr Helmut Lukas, Bangkok 2003).


1275-1292

Orang-orang Hindu Jawa mulai unjuk gigi dengan Ekspedisi Pamalayu kerajaan Singosari. Beberapa daerah Batak dijadikan menjadi kerajaan Hindu, khususnya yang di Simalungun. Pihak Hindu Jawa yang menggantikan kekuatan Buddha mengancam perdagangan saudagar-saudagar muslim yang didukung oleh Kesultanan Daya Pasai dengan beberapa sekutunya seperti Kesultanan Samudera Pasai, Kesultanan Kuntu Kampar, Aru Barumun, Bandar Kalipah dan lain-lain.

1285-1522

Kesultanan Samudera Pasai mulai tampak kepermukaan dengan raja pertamanya Sultan Malik Al Shaleh, seorang putera Batak Gayo, bekas prajurit Kesultanan Daya Pasai. Samudera Pasai berdiri di atas puing-puing kerajaan Nagur di sungai Pasai, yang dirobohkan oleh orang Batak Karo.

Uniknya, kesultanan ini telah memakai paham syafii yang menjadi kompetitor terhadap syiah yang sudah lama menancapkan kekuatan politik dan budayanya kepada masyarakat Indonesia. Sistem pendidikan ala syafii mulai masuk ke tanah Batak.

Kesultanan Samudera Pasai sekarang ini dikenal sebagai kesultanan Aceh karena secara geografis memang terletak di tanah Aceh. Namun sebagai sebuah kesultanan yang dibangun oleh maha putera Batak Gayo dari Nagur, posisinya tidak dapat dihilangkan dalam percaturan sistem budaya dan pendidikan di tanah Batak.

Kerabat Sultan Malik Al Shaleh, yakni Syarif Hidayat Fatahillah merupakan tokoh yang mendirikan kota Jakarta dan menjadi Sultan Banten (Emeritus) dan ikut serta mendirikan Kesultanan Cirebon. Dia, yang dikenal sebagai Sunan Gunung Jati, adalah tokoh yang berhasil menyelamatkan penduduk pribumi dari amukan bangsa Portugis.

Sultan Malik Al Shaleh sendiri lahir di Nagur, di tanah Batak Gayo. Dia adalah mantan prajurit Kesultanan Daya Pasai. Sebuah kerajaan yang berdiri di sisa-sisa kerajaan Nagur atau tanah Nagur. Nama lahirnya adalah Marah Silu. Marah berasal dari kata Meurah yang artinya ketua. Sedangkan Silu adalah marga Batak Gayo.

Sepeninggalannya (1285-1296) dia digantikan oleh anaknya Sultan Malik Al Tahir (1296-1327). Putranya yang lain Malik Al Mansyur pada tahun 1295 berkuasa di barumun dan mendirikan Kesultanan Aru Barumun pada tahun 1299.

Malik Al Mansyur sangat berbeda keyakinannya dengan keluarganya yang sunni. Dia adalah penganut taat syiah yang kemudian menjadikan kesultanannya sebagai daerah syiah. Dengan demikian dia dapat dijadikan sebagai tokoh Batak Syiah (Gayo). Semua ini dikarenakan karena dia menikah dengan putri Nur Alam Kumala Sari binti Sultan Muhammad Al Kamil, pemimpin di Kesultanan Muar Malaya yang syiah.

Kekuasaan Kesultanan Aru Barumun terletak di sekitar area sungai Barumun yang menjadi titik penting perdagangan antara Padanglawas sampai Sungai Kampar. Penghasilan negara didapat dari ekspor dan impor merica dan lain sebagainya.

Kesultanan Aru barumun berhubungan baik dengan pihak Cina pada era Dinasti Ming (1368-1643). Pada periode 1405-1425 beberapa utusan dari Cina pernah singgah, di antaranya Laksamana Ceng Ho dan Laksamana Haji Kung Wu Ping. Di era ini paham Hanafi ikut serta dalam memperkaya khazanah sistem pendidikan di tanah Batak, karena para utusan dari Cina yang muslim tersebut menganut faham hanafi dalam praktek sehari-hari.

Dinasti Batak Gayo di Kesultanan Barumun adalah sebagai berikut:

1. Sultan Malik Al Mansyur (1299-1322)
2. Sultan Hassan Al Gafur (1322-1336)
3. Sultan Firman Al Karim (1336-1361), pada era nya banyak bertikai dengan kekuatan imperialis Jawa Majapahit. Di bawah panglima Laksamana Hang Tuah dan Hang Lekir, pasukan marinir Aru Barumun berkali-kali membendung kekuatan Hindu Majapahit dari Jawa.
4. Sultan Sadik Al Quds (1361). Wafat akibat serangan jantung.
5. Sultan Alwi Al Musawwir (1361-1379)
6. Sultan Ridwan Al Hafidz (1379-1407). Banyak melakukan hubungan diplomatik dengan pihak Cina
7. Sultan Hussin Dzul Arsa yang bergelar Sultan Haji. Pada tahun 1409 dia ikut dalam rombongan kapal induk Laksamana Cengho mengunjungi Mekkah dan Peking di zaman Yung Lo. Dia terkenal dalam annals dari Cina pada era Dinasti Ming dengan nama “Adji Alasa” (A Dji A La Sa). Orang Batak yang paling dikenal di Cina.
8. Sultan Djafar Al Baki (1428-1459). Meninggal dalam pergulatan dengan seekor Harimau.
9. Sultan Hamid Al Muktadir (1459-1462), gugur dalam sebuah pandemi.
10. Sultan Zulkifli Al Majid. Lahir cacat; kebutaan dan pendengaran. Pada tahun 1469, kesultanan Aru Barumun diserang oleh kesultanan Malakka, atas perintah Sultan Mansyur Syah yang memerintah antara tahun 1441-1476. Kota pelabuhan Labuhanbilik dibumihanguskan dan Angkatan Laut Kesultanan Aru Barumun dimusnahkan.
11. Sultan Karim Al Mukji (1471-1489)
12. Sultan Muhammad Al Wahid (1489-1512). Gugur dalam pertempuran melawan bajak laut Portugis.
13. Sultan Ibrahim Al Jalil (1512-1523) ditawan dan diperalat oleh Portugis.

Semua anggota dinasti di atas adalah bersuku Batak Gayo. Saat menurunnya kekuasaan Kesultan Aru, maka pihak Aceh mulai menancapka hegemoninya di Aru Barumun. Pihak Aceh berkompetisi dengan para bajak laut Eropa di kekosongan kekuatan politik di daerah tersebut.

Pada tahun 1802-1816, di bawah pimpinan Fachruddin Harahap, seorang Batak Mandailing, dengan gelar Baginda Soripada, penduduk khususnya dari Gunung Tua merebut bagian hulu dari bekas Kesultanan Aru Barumun. Semua lambang kerajaan disita termasuk cap dan simbol-simbol lainnya.

1331-1364

Era Majapahit. Hegemoni kekuatan Imperialisme Hindu Jawa di Nusantara, tak terkecuali tanah Batak. Perkembangan pendidikan di tanah Batak sedikit tidak mengalami penambahan yang signifikan. Kekuatan penduduk yang menjadi militer di tanah Batak sibuk membendung kekuatan Majapahit dengan bantuan pihak Aceh.

Panglima Mula Setia dan Samudera Pasai berhasil mengusir kekuatan Majapahit dari Sumatera bagian Utara. Pada tahun 1409, tentara Majapahit dimusnahkan oleh kekuatan tentara Pagarruyung di Minang, Sumatera Barat. Kekuatan Majapahit melemah.

1345

Kedatangan para intelektual Arab dan asing kembali terjadi di beberapa kota pelabuhan di Sumatera. Tidak terkecuali Barus. Pada abad-13 Ibnu Said membicarakan peranan Barus sebagai pelabuhan dagang utama untuk wilayah Sumatera (Ferrand 112).

1450-1515

Samudera Pasai menjadi pusat pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan sosial mazhab syafii yang bersaing melawan pusat-pusat pendidikan dan sosial syiah yang banyak bertebaran di beberapa tempat di Sumatera termasuk tanah batak.

1451

Misi pedagang dari Malaka yang menjadi sekutu Samudera Pasai berhasil menjalin kerjasama ekonomi dengan para saudagar Batak di sepanjang sungai Asahan. Tokoh seperti Datuk Sahilan menjadi inspirator bagi saudagar Batak untuk masuk agama Islam (Syafii). Di pedalaman Batak pada tahun 1450-1500 M, Islam menjadi agama resmi orang-orang Batak Toba, khususnya dari kelompok marga Marpaung yang bermukim di aliran sungai Asahan. Demikian juga halnya dengan Batak Simalungun yang bermukim di Kisaran, Tinjauan, Perdagangan, Bandar, Tanjung Kasau, Bedagai, Bangun Purba dan Sungai Karang.

Antara tahun 1450-1818 M, kelompok marga Marpaung menjadi supplaier utama komoditas garam ke Tanah Batak di pantai timur. Mesjid pribumi pertama didirikan oleh penduduk setempat di pedalaman Tanah Batak; Porsea, lebih kurang 400 tahun sebelum mesjid pertama berdiri di Mandailing. Menyusul setelah itu didirikan juga mesjid di sepanjang sungai Asahan antara Porsea dan Tanjung Balai. Setiap beberapa kilometer sebagai tempat persinggahan bagi musafir-musafir Batak yang ingin menunaikan sholat. Mesjid-mesjid itu berkembang, selain sebagai termpat ibadah, juga menjadi tempat transaksi komoditas perdagangan.

Dominasi pedagang muslim marga Hutagalung dalam bidang ekonomi di Tanah Batak terjadi antara 1513-1818 M. Komunitas Hutagalung dengan karavan-karavan kuda menjadi komunitas pedagang penting yang menghubungkan Silindung, Humbang Hasundutan dan Pahae. Marga Hutagalung di Silindung mendirikan mesjid lokal kedua di Silindung. Marga Hutagalung menjadi komunitas Islam syiah di pedalaman Batak.

Abad 15-16

Barus dengan kepemimpinan Dinasti Pardosi yang menjadi Sultan Hulu dan Dinasti Pasaribu yang menjadi Sultan Hilir Barus, membangun sistem pendidikan yang modern di Barus. Zaman kejayaan pendidikan Islam muncul di era ini. Beberapa tokoh intelektual lokal bermunculan. Barus menjadi kota tujuan utama musafir asing.

Pada permulaan abad-16, Tome Pires-seorang pengembara Portugis- yang terkenal dan mencatat di dalam bukunya "Suma Oriental" bahwa Barus merupakan sebuah kerajaan kecil yang merdeka, makmur dan ramai didatangi para pedaganga asing.

Dia menambahkan bahwa di antara komoditas penting yang dijual dalam jumlah besar di Barus ialah emas, sutera, benzoin, kapur barus, kayu gaharu, madu, kayu manis dan aneka rempah-rempah (Armando Cartesao, The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires and The Book of Rodrigues, Nideln-Liechtenstein: Kraus Reprint Ltd,.1967; hal. 161-162).

Seorang penulis Arab terkenal Sulaiman al-Muhri juga mengunjungi Barus pada awal abad ke-16 dan menulis di dalam bukunya al-Umdat al-Muhriya fi Dabt al-Ulum al-Najamiyah (1511) bahwa Barus merupakan tujuan utama pelayaran orang-orang Arab, Persia dann India. Barus, tulis al-Muhri lagi, adalah sebuah pelabuhan yang sangat terkemuka di pantai Barat Sumatera.

Pada pertengahan abad ke-16 seorang ahli sejarah Turki bernama Sidi Ali Syalabi juga berkunjung ke Barus, dan melaporkan bahwa Barus merupakan kota pelabuhan yang penting dan ramai di Sumatera. (Lihat. L.F. Brakel, Hamza Pansuri, JMBRAS vol. 52, 1979).

Sebuah misi dagang Portugis mengunjungi Barus pada akhir abad ke-16, dan di dalam laporannya menyatakan bahwa di kerajaan Barus, benzoin putih yang bermutu tinggi didapatkan dalam jumlah yang besar. Begitu juga kamfer yang penting bagi orang-orang Islam, kayu cendana dan gaharu, asam kawak, jahe, cassia, kayu manis, timah, pensil hitam, serta sulfur yang dibawa ke Kairo oleh pedagang-pedagang Turki dan Arab. Emas juga didapatkan di situ dan biasanya dibawa ke Mekkah oleh para pedagang dari Minangkabau, Siak, Indragiri, Jambi, Kanpur, Pidie dan Lampung. (Lihat B.N. Teensma, "An Unkown Potugese Text on Sumatera from 1582", BKI, dell 145, 1989.

Syair-syair Hamzah Fansuri menggambarkan keindahan kota Barus saat itu. Keramaian dan kesibukan kota pelabuhan dengan pasar-pasar dan pandai emasnya yang cekatan mengubah emas menjadi "ashrafi", kapal-kapal dagang besar yang datang dan pergi dari dan ke negeri-negeri jauh, para penjual lemang tapai di pasar-pasar, proses pembuatan kamfer dari kayu barus dan keramaian pembelinya, lelaki-lelaki yang memakai sarung dan membawa obor yang telah dihiasi dalam kotak-kotak tempurung bila berjalan malam.

Gadis-gadis dengan baju kurung yang anggun dan di leher mereka bergantung kalung emas penuh untaian permata, yang bila usia nikah hampir tiba akan dipingit di rumah-rumah anjung yang pintu-pintunya dihiasi berbagai ukiran yang indah.

Pada bagian lain syair-syairnya juga memperlihatkan kekecewaanya terhadap perilaku politik sultan Aceh, para bangsawan dan orang-orang kaya yang tamak dan zalim. (Mengenai kesusateraan Hamzah Fansuri lihat S.N. al-Attas, The Origin of Malays Sha'ir, Kulala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1968. Juga baca V.I. Braginsky, Tasawuf dan Sastra Melayu, Jakarta: RUL,. 1993, khususnya esai "Sekali Lagi Tentang Asal-usul Sya'ir"; hal 63-76.

Hamzah Fansuri yang hidup di masa perebutan kekuatan maritim antara Aceh dan Minang mendapat pengaruh besar di kalangan intelektual Aceh. Van Nieuwenhuijze (1945) dan Voerhoeve (1952) berpendapat bahwa Hamzah Fansuri memainkan peran penting di dalam kehidupan kerohanian di Aceh sampai akhir pemerintahan Sultan Ala'uddin Ri'ayat Syah Sayyid al-Mukammil (1590-1604).

Sementara itu muridnya Syamsuddin al-Sumatrani naik peranannya baru pada zaman Sultan Iskandar Muda saat dia bermigrasi ke Aceh. Diyakini dalam mundurnya pamor Barus, banyak sarjana-sarjana Batak yang pindah ke Aceh, Kutaraja, karena kehadiran mereka disana sangat disegani. Mengenai Syamsuddin sebaiknya baca C.A.O. Niewenhujze, Syamsu'l Din van Pasai, Bijdrage tot de Kennis der Sumatranche Mystiek, disertasi Universitas Leiden, 1945.

Namun pemikiran filsafat Wujudiyah Hamzah Fansuri mendapat tantangan dari ulama Aceh. Ahmad Daudy di dalam bukunya Allah dan Manusia dalam konsepsi Syeikh Nuruddin Ar-Raniry, Jakarta; CV Rajawaki Press, 1983; hal. 41, antara lain menulis, "Selain sebagai mufti, Syeikh Nuruddin juga seorang penulis yang menyanggah Wujudiyah. Seringkali ia mengadakan perdebatan dengan penganut ajaran ini, dan kadang-kadang majelis diskusi diakadakan di istana dimana sultan sendiri menyaksikannya.

Dalam perdebatan itu Syeikh Nuruddin berkali-kali memperlihatkan adanya kelemahan dan penyimpangan dalam ajaran Wujudiyah...., serta meminta agar mereka ini bertobat... tetapi himbauannya tidak dihiraukan mereka, dan akhirnya mereka dihukum kafir yang boleh dibunuh, sedangkan kitab-kitab karangan Hamzah dan Syamsuddin dikumpulkan dan kemudian dibakar di halaman mesjid raya Baiturrahman."

Tentang peristiwa pembakaran kitab karangan penulis Wujudiyah, dan hukum bunuh terhadap pengikut-pengikut Hamzah Fansuri dan Syamsuddin, Lihat buku Nuruddin al-Raniry, Bustan al-Salatin edisi T. Iskandar, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1966: hal. 46.

Perlakuan itu diterima Hamzah Fansuri, karena kritik-kritik tajamnya terhadap pemerintahan monolitik Sultan Aceh, perilaku buruk orang-orang kaya dan praktik yoga (dari Hindu India) yang diamalkan ahli-ahli tarekat di Aceh pada awal abad ke-17, baca S.N. al-Attas The Mysticism of Hamzah Fansuri, Kuala Lumpur: Universiti malaya Press, 1970; hal. 16-17. juga baca L.F. Brakel, 'Hamzah Pansuri'; V.I. Braginsky "Puisi Sufi Perintis Jalan" (Analisis Syair-syair Hamzah Fansuri tentang Kekasih, Anggur dan Laut") ceramah di Sudut Penulis, Dewan Bahasa dan Pusataka, Kuala Lumpur, 27-28 Oktober 1992; juga Abdul Hadi W.M. 'Syeikh Hamzah Fansuri 'Ulumul Qur'an, No. 2, Vol. V, 1994.

Akibat pertentangan politik antara Barus dan Aceh, berakibat pula kepada pertentangan faham keyakinan. Intelektual Barus yang banyak condong ke paham syiah dibasmi oleh kekuatan Aceh sehingga menyebabkan kemunduran atas kemajuan pendidikan di Barus. Dikatakan bahwa orang-orang yang mendukung faham Fansur bahkan harus hidup dalam persembunyian untuk menyelamatkan jiwa mereka. Kuburan-kuburan tokoh yang sepaham dengannya sengaja tidak ditandai batu nisannya agar keberadaan mereka tidak terdeteksi oleh pihak Aceh yang penduduknya banyak berdagang di Barus.

Para sarjana Batak yang berpaham syiah mengalami kendala dalam melanjutkan sistem pendidikan di Barus yang sudah sangat modern saat itu. Praktis pendidikan di Barus dan wilayah-wilayah Batak lainnya mengalami kepunahan. Di tanah Batak sendiri hanya Parmalim yang terus eksis.

1497-1513

Panglima Manang Sukka, oranga Batak Karo, mendirikan Kesultanan Haru Delitua dengan nama Sultan Makmun Al Rasyid.

1697

Universitas Islam Ulakan, Pariaman, Sumatera Barat, menjadi pusat pengembangan Islam syiah dengan tokoh Syekh Burhanuddin. Pengaruh universitas ini sampai ke tanah Natal, Singkuang, teluk Sibolga dan Barus. Sumatera Barat menjadi tujuan mencari ilmu pengetahuan bagi orang-orang Batak

1804-1807

Dominasi sistem pendidikan berbasis syiah yang sedikit dicampur dengan faham syafii dan hanafi mendapat kompetisi dari mazhab hambali yang muncul di Sumatera Barat dengan gerakan padrinya.

1873

Sebuah mesjid di Tarutung, Silindung, dirombak oleh Belanda. Haji-haji dan orang-orang Islam, kebanyakan, dari marga Hutagalung, diusir dari tanah leluhur dan pusaka mereka di Lembah Silindung. Belanda melakukan pembersihan etnis, terhadap muslim Batak.

1912

Perkembangan Islam, yang tidak diperbolehkan Belanda untuk mengecap pendidikan, walau paska kebijakan balas budi, kemudian bangkit mendirikan Perguruan Mustofawiyah. Disinyalir sebagai sekolah pribumi pertama di tanah Batak yang sudah modern dan sistematis. Peran mazhab syafii mulai terlihat.

Haji Mustofa Husein Purba Baru, dari marga Nasution, merupakan penggagas perguruan ini. Dia, yang dikenal sebagai Tuan Guru, merupakan murid dari Syeikh Muhammad Abduh, seorang reformis dan rektor Universitas Al Azhar.

Lulusan perguruan Musthofawiyah ini kemudian menyebar dan mendirikan perguruan-perguruan lain di berbagai daerah di Tanah Batak. Di Humbang Hasundutan di tanah Toba, alumnusnya yang dari Toba Isumbaon mendirikan Perguruan Al Kaustar Al Akbar pada tahun 1990-an setelah mendirikan perguruan lain di Medan tahun 1987. Daerah Tatea Bulan di Batak Selatan merupakan pusat pengembangan Islam di Sumut.

Pada tahun 1928, di tanah Batak selatan mulai memodernisasi sistem pendidikan oleh para sarjana Batak yang belajar dari berbagai universitas di luar negeri. Di antaranya Maktab Ihsaniyah di Hutapungkut Kotanopan oleh Muhammad Ali bin Syeikh Basyir. Maktab merupakan transformasi partungkoan, sebuah sistem pendidikan tradisional Batak yang berubah menjadi sikola arab dan madrasah di era berikutnya. (lihat: Pesantren Musthofawiyah Purba Baru Mandailing, Dr. H. Abbas Pulungan, Cita Pustaka Media Bandung, 2004).

Para lulusan Maktab Islamiyah Tapanuli mendirikan "Debating Club" pada tahun 1928. Dua tahun kemudian anggota "Debating Club" ikut serta dalam mendirikan Jamiatul Washliyah sebuah organisasi pendidikan dan sosial di Sumatera Utara.

Diniyah School didirikan di Botung Kotanopan tahun 1928 oleh sarjana Batak lainnya, Haji Fakhruddin Arif. Berikutnya berdiri Madrasah Islamiyah di Manambin Kotanopan tahun 1928 oleh Tuan Guru Hasanuddin.

1929

Madrasah Subulussalam berdiri di Sayur Maincat Kotanopan pada tahun 1929 oleh Haji Muhammad Ilyas. Berikutnya Madrasah Syariful Majalis di Singengu Kotanopan pada tahun 1929 oleh Haji Nurdin Umar. Di Hutanamale, Maga, Kotanopan Syeikh Juneid Thala mendirikan sebuah Madrasah Islamiyah pada tahun yang sama.

1930

Orang-orang Batak mendirikan Jamiatul Washliyah pada tanggal 30 November 1930. Sebuah organisasi yang bertujuan untuk mengembangkan agama dalam arti yang luas. Organisasi ini memakai mazhab syafii.

Nama Jamiatul Washliyah berarti perkumpulan yang hendak menghubungkan. Menurut Muhammad Junus, tokoh paling penting dalam organisasi ini, nama Jamiatul Washliyah dihubungkan dengan keinginnan untuk menghubungkan manusia dengan Tuhannya, menghubungkan antar sesame manusia, menghubungkan suku dengan suku antara bangsa dengan bangsa dan lain sebagainya. Lihat "Peringatan Al Djamiatul Washliyah 1/4 abad" hal 41-42; Nukman Sulaiman dalam Al Washliyah I, hal. 5.

Tiga tokoh penting dalam organisasi Al Washliyah adalah Abdurrahman Syihab, seorang organisatoris yang dapat menghimpun khalayak ramai, Udin Syamsuddin, seorang yang ahli administrasi dan Arsyad Thalib Lubis, mufti organisasi.

1933

Pembentukan komisi yang bertugas mengadakan inspeksi ke sekolah-sekolah Alwashliyah untuk standarisasi mutu. Didirikan juga sebuah lembaga pendidikan yang besar di Tapanuli Selatan.

1934

Penyusunan peraturan yang mengatur hubungan antar sekolah di Alwashliyah

1935

Pada tahun ini Madrasah Mardiyatul Islamiyah didirikan di Penyabungan oleh Syeikh Ja'far Abdul Qadir. Sebelumnya, sejak tahun 1929, madrasah ini dikenal dengan nama madrasah mesjid karena kegiatan pendidikannya dilakukan di sekitar sebuah mesjid sebelum dimodifikasi menjadi sistem madrasah.

1936

Orang-orang Batak mendirikan Fond atau Yayasan untuk mengirimkan beberapa generasinya, khususnya yang di Alwashliyah, ke Mesir

1937

Jamiatul Washliyah memberikan perhatian khusus pada pemahaman Islam khusunya mereka yang belum beragama. Di Porsea didirikan HIS untuk mereka yang membutuhkan pendidikan. Melalui lembaga "Zending Islam" perkumpulan ini berinisiatif untuk berdakwah ke seluruh Indonesia.

1940

Modernisasi pendidikan Islam Batak, khususnya yang di Alwashliyah dengan menyusun peraturan pusat untuk mengadakan ujian dan pemberian ijazah yang dikeluarkan kantor pusat di medan.


1945

Sistem pendidikan modern diterapkan di tanah Batak. Banyak madrasah dan tempat pengajian tradisional diubah menjadi tsanawiyah dan aliyah dibawah departemen agama. Negatifnya adalah, institusi pendidikan di tanah Batak menjadi kerdil. Institusi yang bermutu yang lulusannya bisa ditandingkan dengan lulusan universitas modern akhirnya hanya diakui sebagai lulusan madrasah aliyah yang pengakuannya sangat minimal di tengah-tengah masyarakat. Banyak desa-desa di tanah Batak (khususnya yang utara) ditinggalkan oleh penduduknya yang muslim karena ketiadaan regenerasi kalangan pendidik.
          European Commission issues "black list" of 30 "tax havens"        


Action Plan on Corporate Taxation

On 17 June 2015, the Commission adopted an Action Planpdf Choose translations of the previous link for fair and efficient corporate taxation in the EU.
The Action Plan sets to reform the corporate tax framework in the EU, in order to tackle tax abuse, ensure sustainable revenues and support a better business environment in the Single Market.
See the timelinepdf. 

5 Key Areas for Action have been identified:

1. Re-launching the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB)
2. Ensuring fair taxation where profits are generated
3. Creating a better business environment
4. Increasing transparency
5. Improving EU coordination 
map of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions has also been published, in a move to reinforce the EU's response to external threats to Member States' tax bases.
The Commission also adopted a decision to prolong the Platform on Tax Good Governance, and revise its scope and working methods.
For further information


The map was drawn up on the basis of work done by the Platform for Tax Good Governance and the information provided by EU Member States.

Top 30 listed countries: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Guernsey, Monaco, Mauritius, Liberia, Seychelles, Brunei, Hong Kong, Maldives, Cook Islands, Nauru, Niue, Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, Panama, St Vincent and the Grenadines, St Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, US Virgin Islands.

Panama is listed by Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain.

Full text in the European Commission website http://ec.europa.eu/





          The 'who's who' of European tax havens        
Will Germany, UK and Netherlands end up in the OECD "black list" of terrible "tax havens"?



Forget about the Bahamas, Panama, Cayman Islands, or Fiji. If you want to avoid paying taxes and have no problem with dicey business practices, Europe has a lot to offer.

Europe is far from innocent in the international offshore tax evasion industry, as the Tax Justice Network (TJN) recently demonstrated. Many European countries, with their stable infrastructure and professional personnel, provide fertile ground for businesses or individuals to evade taxes.

Andorra
There are more than a few gaps that need to be filled in Europe, according to Markus Meinzer of the TJN. He helped paint a picture of who's who among European tax havens.
The independent mini-state of Andorra in the Pyrenees, which is not a part of the European Union, offers a secretive place for those in neighboring countries to stash their money. Particularly attractive is the personal service offered by banking advisers there. It's also easy for Spaniards and French to simply drive there to deposit cash. Afterwards, one can always tank up and buy cigarettes there - tax-free, of course.

Austria
As a country sharing borders with Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, Italy, the Czech Republic and Switzerland, Austria draws foreign capital by promising secrecy to account holders. It caters especially to Europe's German-speaking population, Meinzer said. But he also said that he knows of Argentines who, for example, combine investing in Austrian bonds with the advantages of bank secrecy. Due precisely to the lack of financial transparency and its geographic location, Austria has also attracted wealth from Arab world dictators for decades.
Channel Islands
The British Channel Islands Jersey, Guernsey and Sark are home to hundreds of financial institutions and insurance companies drawn to their simple and low taxes. While Jersey probably "hides the most dirty business," according to Meinzer, Guernsey is the most innovative.
With its so-called self-protected companies, an apparent single company is organized into cells with protective legal walls between them. And on Sark, according to British newspaper The Guardian, there are 24 companies registered for each of the approximately 600 inhabitants.
Cyprus
Cyprus is the perfect example of what can go wrong with depending on such dubious business models. It was particularly oriented toward former Soviet countries, and acted as a hub for them. Transactions over letterbox companies brought money into Cyprus, then back to countries like Russia - thus avoiding Russian tax authorities. But since the Cyprus bailout , in part by the EU, the Mediterranean island will have to come up with a new business model.
England
England, with London, represents one of the largest hubs for tax evasion and capital flight. Meinzer described London as "the mother of all tax havens" since the zone, which does not answer to the crown, has developed a network that continues to bring money back to the capital of the former empire. Money flows from there to British Channel Islands, such as Guernsey, Jersey or to the Isle of Man, then overseas to British territories in the Caribbean, such as the Cayman or Virgin Islands - or in Europe, to Gibraltar. London, is the seat of many dubious "letterbox companies," which only exist on the Internet.
Germany
Frankfurt skyline Foto: Frank Rumpenhorst dpa/lhe
Frankfurt is a great place for foreign investors to earn tax-free interest
Germany protects the data of foreign investors, who also don't have to pay taxes on interest.
Only Germans, or foreigners resident in Germany, have to actually shell out a flat rate withholding tax on interest income, Meinzer said.
Information on such yields also rarely flows out of Germany, he added: "Foreign investors with German accounts are protected with a certain degree of anonymity."
That's why Germany ranks ninth in the world for financial secrecy, according to TJN.
Gibraltar
At the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula, Gibraltar has specialized in allowing such letterbox companies, called "trusts." The structure of such trusts means there is no real owner of the company. They are often used to add a layer of secrecy to letterbox companies, Meinzer said, which is particularly good for money laundering.
Meinzer cited insider information in calling it "the dirty end of the spectrum" for bringing money back into financial markets. The presence of many gambling casinos there also comes into play.
Ireland
It's called the "double Irish" in the financial world: A company founds two subsidiaries in Ireland with its business tax rate of 12.5 percent. Then, one claims to be based in a different tax haven. (Comparable taxes in the United States, for example, are around 35 percent.)


This is completely legal in Ireland, and therefore an optimal location for companies such as Google, Apple or Amazon.While the one company does business in Europe, it pays the other patent fees. Profits vanish, as costs and income equal out on the balance sheet.
Although other countries like the Netherlands offer similar models, Meinzer said the difference is that people do actually work in Ireland, which at least creates some jobs and a bit of growth in the country.
Isle of Man
Taxes are kind of an afterthought on this island between England, Scotland and Ireland. Inheritances and capital gains aren't taxed at all, while the highest level of taxation lies at 20 percent. Corporate tax is nonexistent. It's especially loved as a hidey-hole for British millionaires.
Luxemburg
Luxembourg is the second-largest financial hub in Europe, after London. Innumerable investors and around 150 different banks enjoy a lenient tax framework in Europe's stocks and bonds center. Luxembourg's status as an EU member makes it particularly attractive for European companies and the international market, Meinzer explained. "If I want to get around German laws, for example, I could go through Luxembourg," Meinzer said, adding that 40 German banks do business there.


With its low tax rates, Malta, like Cyprus, has long drawn foreign capital. Although corporate taxes are around 35 percent, companies can get most of that refunded.
It's a favorite among German companies, which earn a higher profit if based on Malta. Meinzer said that while it's clearly a tax paradise for companies, it's not clear if that's also the case for individuals.
Monaco
The Principality of Monaco continues to be home to the rich and famous, being surrounded by France. Millionaires happily set themselves up there due to the fact that they pay no income or inheritance taxes. The city-state also does not prosecute financial crimes committed abroad. Businesses, however, must pay taxes there - at rates of around 33 percent. France, though it doesn't play an active role, lends a protective hand, Meinzer said.
Netherlands
What Luxembourg is for private investors, the Netherlands is for large corporations. Business taxes are incredibly low, with many tax advantages for interest and licensing income.
With the "Dutch sandwich," a parent company has a subsidiary in the Netherlands, which it uses as a cheap tax base to develop its European business.
Switzerland
Although there are supposedly no more completely anonymous bank accounts in Switzerland (and neighboring Liechtenstein), it continues to draw large sums of money due to its strict banking secrecy. Considering the volume of money in Switzerland, it made first place on the TJN's Financial Secrecy Index.
Full text in http://www.dw.de/


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It's Singapore's 52nd Birthday this coming Wednesday and even though there's no long weekend (bummer), the celebrations go into full swing THIS 5/6 Aug WEEKEND!



Other than catching the NDP Fireworks at Marina Bay, there are plenty of family-friendly activities to keep the kids all active and occupied. So head out this weekend and have fun!

PlayLAH!
4 - 6 Aug 2017 | 12pm - 9pm
Singapore EXPO Hall 5
FREE Admission


National Day is upon us again, and PlayLAH! is back at Singapore EXPO! PlayLAH! Let’s Celebrate! National Day 2017 has an even more exciting line-up of activities this year, complete with hands-on workshops, game booths and musical zones for you and your family’s ultimate day out. Let’s get creative, learn a new skill or simply soak up the carnival atmosphere with hours of fun and thrills in our 4 dedicated zones, thematic villages and stage programmes! Visit www.playlah.sg for more details.

Civic District Outdoor Festival
4 - 5 & 11-12 Aug 2017 | 5pm - 11pm
Civic District
FREE


For two weekends this August, Singapore's Civic District comes alive with art, light, sound – and you're invited! Held in Singapore's Civic District, the inaugural Civic District Outdoor Festival will transform the district's charming and historical architecture into an extravaganza of multimedia, art installations, stage and music performances, art markets and food streets. Amidst all the excitement, the Padang will also be transformed into a giant picnic area for you and your family and friends to take in the festivities. For a complete listing on all activities, visit HERE.

So Singapore at Sentosa
4 - 27 Aug 2017
Various events & timings
Sentosa
FREE (Island admission and car park charges apply)


Celebrate all things Singapore at Sentosa from 14 July to 27 August. Go loco with all things local as Sentosa lines up a slew of exciting free day and night programmes and activities for everyone. Visit www.sentosa.com.sg/sosingapore for a complete listing of all activities.

Heritage Carnival 2017 - So Singapore

The all-day Heritage Carnival will take you back in time to Singapore's fishing village days to the post-war era. You will get to interact with 'villagers', snap selfies with retro exhibits and larger-than-life food props, or take a trip down memory lane with old-school Singapore artefacts and collectibles that will be on display. What's more, there will be food stalls selling delectable Singaporean delights such as Peranakan Kueh, Burger Bombs and Chendol on selected days!

Dates & Time: 4 – 13 August, 11am – 9pm
Venue: Palawan Green (Beach Station)
Food and Retail Stalls: 4 – 6 August | 3pm – 9.30pm (Friday) | 11am – 9.30pm (Saturday & Sunday)

Movies by the Beach

Catch popular local films such as 'Ah Boys to Men' and 'Ilo Ilo' with your families and friends by the beach when night falls.

Dates: 4 – 13 August
Time: 7.30pm
Venue: Palawan Green (Beach Station)
Click here to view movie screening schedule

Merlion Magic Lights

Get your cameras ready and stand in awe as the majestic Sentosa Merlion comes to life with vibrant and colourful National Day-themed lights and projections, when night falls! Apart from the theme of patriotism, the ever-popular light and music extravaganza now comes with an added feature so that you can experience augmented reality (AR) effects while watching the show through your smartphones. Just download the free AR App marq+, available on both the App Store and Play Store.

Dates: Now until 27 August
Time: 7.45pm, 8.15pm, 8.45pm & 9.15pm,
*2 additional shows at 9.45pm & 10.15pm on Weekends, Eve of Public Holiday and Public Holiday
Venue:  Merlion Plaza (Imbiah Station)

Steady Pom Pee Pee

Relive your childhood with nostalgic kampong games like the colorful Five Stones, the exciting Chapteh, and the Eraser Gamer, just to name a few!

Dates: Now until 27 August
Time: 11am – 8pm (Weekdays); 10am – 8pm (Weekends)
Venue: Beach Plaza (Beach Station)

Saturdays@ACM: Where I Belong
5 Aug 2017 | 1pm - 11pm
Asian Civilisations Museum
FREE Admission

Happy Birthday, Singapore! Make your own rojak and catch and song and dance performance at the museum. More of a night owl? Leave your mark on the walls of a massive glow-in-the-dark installation by local artist, Rajesh Kumar. Experience historic buildings in a different light with special Monuments by Moonlight tours.


Gardens by the Bay Celebrates National Day
5 Aug 2017
8.15am - 9.30am (Mass walk) | 5.30pm - 7.00pm (Dance fitness party)
Supertree Grove
FREE Admission

Come celebrate our Nation's birthday on 5 August. Gather your family and friends to enjoy a fun and energetic bonding time and do not miss the “Dance as One” fitness party specially created for this occasion. Visit HERE for more information.

Families for Life ‘Celebrating NS50’ Picnic
5 Aug 2017 | 4.30pm - 9.30pm
Singapore Discovery Centre
FREE Admission


Head at the Singapore Discovery Centre between 3pm and 9.30pm, expect plenty of family-friendly activities like games, bouncy castles, face painting and an outdoor movie under the stars!

And in celebration of 50 years of National Service, families can also look forward to fun NS50-themed activities and games... including the first-ever SAFTI-Pasir Laba coach tour, families can test their skills at the mini Standard Obstacle Course (SOC) and Individual Marksmanship Trainer (IMT) shooting. Families will also be able to DIY their own ID tag and rank insignia!

For more details on various activities, read my previous post here: www.cheekiemonkie.net/2017/07/families-for-life-celebrating-ns50-picnic-2017-activities.html

NParks Live Out Loud
5 Aug 2017
FREE

Music in the Park (in collaboration with People's Association)
Venue: Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park, River Plains
Time: 5.30pm – 7.00pm

Music by the Beach
Venue: East Coast Park, Parkland Green
Time: 6.30pm – 8.30pm 

What better way to spend your evenings in the park than chilling out to music at sundown? NParks' open mike series, "Live Out Loud" (LOL), showcases budding talents, with performances taking place in our green spaces! LOL features hobby musicians and non-professional performing acts – each will be given 15 minutes to display their musical talents, be it singing, dancing, playing an instrument, beatboxing or rapping.

Sundown Festival 2017
5 Aug 2017 | 4pm
City Beach Resort, Labrador Park
$15 (Free for kids below 6)


Asia’s leading music festival returns for eighth edition at a brand-new entertainment and events venue at Labrador Park. Sundown Festival continues to support the growth of home-grown talents with this year’s edition featuring an explosive line up of local artistes; Derrick Hoh, FARRAGO, Jack & Rai, Jason Chung, Ling Kai and The Summer State.

The Sundown Festival is an iconic annual event that celebrates Asian music and culture with the objective to showcase the vibrant Asian entertainment scene on a singular platform, uniting and bridging the diversity of Asian countries. For more information, please visit www.sundownfestival.sg.

Get Active and Celebrate NS50’ Sports Festival
5 & 6 Aug 2017 | 9am - 9pm
Toa Payoh Hub Atrium
FREE Admission

Visitors to the carnival can look forward to activities:

- NS-inspired obstacle course
This obstacle course is inspired by training in the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) and the Home Team, and promises a fun-filled challenge for kids and parents! The six obstacles include Low Wall; Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) Ladder; Swing Bar; Tyre Flip/Hop; Dodge the Crowd; and Flying Fox.


Each participant will be given a Singapore flag during registration, which they will have to carry as they make their way through the obstacle course. At the end of the obstacle course, participants will insert the flag to create an ‘NS50 Pledge’ art installation wall. The NS50 logo will be visible when the wall is completely filled with flags.

- Fitness workouts and active health stations
After completing the obstacle course, participants can head over to nearby activity booths where they can take part in sports try-outs and static workouts. Examples include an Active F.I.T challenge, a Watt Bike challenge and a martial arts workout. Those who have completed the ActiveSG Steps Challenge can also redeem a limited edition NS50 Jerrycan water bottle at the redemption booth (while stocks last).

- Live Music Performances
Camokakis, Edric Hsu, and Shabir will be performing songs from the NS50 Music Album at the Sports Festival.

- Festival stage activities
Fitness-related workouts and performances will take place on the festival stage throughout the day.

FREE Gym and Swimming Pool Entry for National Servicemen, Family &Friends
5 & 6 Aug 2017

Entry to all ActiveSG gyms and swimming pools will be free on 5 and 6 August 2017! Past and present national servicemen will just have to present their 11B, or SAFRA/HomeTeamNS membership cards to the counter staff on duty before entering the facility. Family members and friends also enter FOR FREE!

CELEBRATE NATIONAL DAY @ SYSNMH
5 - 9 Aug 2017 | 1pm - 5pm
Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall
FREE Admission


Join in to celebrate National Day at Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall! Learn more about the Chinese auspicious motifs through interactive storytelling in the galleries and experience the fun of being a young patriotic Scholar!

Storytelling: Stitches of Love (English)

Uncle Rajah and his friends are back this National Day! Hop onto the magic carpet and travel back in time to discover the bright and colourful world of Chinese children’s clothing, stitched with parental love.

Date: 5, 6 & 9 August 2017
Time: 2.00pm - 2.45pm

Storytelling: Stories of the Animal Kingdom (Mandarin)

Enter into the world of the animal kingdom, and join storyteller Liang Huiyu for an interactive storytelling session to learn more about family love and friendship!

Date: 5, 6 & 9 August 2017
Time: 3.30pm – 4.15pm

Activities: SG Icons Badge

Animal motifs are often found on Chinese children’s clothing. Find out more about Singapore’s very own animal icons as you make your SG Icons Badge!

Date: 5 August 2017
Time: 2pm - 5pm

Activities: Fan of Motifs

Have fun designing your Fan of Motifs with different Singapore icons and symbols from our special exhibition!

Date: 6 August 2017
Time: 2pm - 5pm

National Day Highlight: Be a Young Patriotic Scholar!

Chinese parents traditionally hope for their children to excel in their studies and bring glory to the family. Other than academic pursuits, children were expected to learn calligraphy and painting as well. Experience life as an ancient Chinese scholar at our various activity stations and bring back home your own unique crafts that express your love for Singapore!

Date: 9 August 2017
Time: 1pm - 5pm

City of Dreams
6 Aug 2017 | 6pm - 7.30pm
Singapore Botanic Gardens, Shaw Foundation Symphony Stage
FREE

"City of Dreams" symbolises and celebrates Singapore's vibrant band scene while remembering our nation’s history, especially as National Day comes around. Experience nostalgia as the bands present a variety of uniquely Singaporean songs, from National Day songs such as 'Home' and 'Where I Belong', to classics such as 'Kopi-O' and Bunga 'Sayang'. Come join us with family and friends and have an enchanting time of singing, dancing and simply reliving the good old days while celebrating our Nation’s 52nd birthday!

RED-X Games - The Family Challenge 2017
Now until 8 Aug 2017 | 9am - 7pm
Padang
FREE

Held at the Padang from 29 July to 8 August (9am to 7pm), the RED-X Games - The Family Challenge 2017 will feature an obstacle course with a 'Own Time Own Target' mode which allows everyone try and complete the obstacle course at their pace. The individual stations are specially created to mimic the training that every soldier undergoes. Participants can expect popular obstacles like Low Wall, Multi-Rig, Monkey Bar, Rope Climb, Farmer's Walk and Tyre Flip.

The ‘Discovery” Challenge allows everyone to complete the obstacle course at their pace while those who are up for a challenge can participate in an ‘Ultimate’ Challenge, which is opened to families and individuals, where participants are to complete all the obstacles in the shortest possible time, to win a RED-X dry bag.

*Interested public may register at the RED-X Booth at the GASG Sports Festival at the Padang. Registration is free for the ‘Discovery’ Challenge and $20 for the ‘Ultimate’ Challenge.

NS Obstacle Challenge @ Eastpoint Mall
7 - 13 Aug 2017
Eastpoint Mall
FREE

Eastpoint Mall will be holding a mini ‘NS Obstacle Challenge’ from 7 to 13 Aug to commemorate NS50 and celebrate National Day. Children aged 6 to 12 years old will be able to experience military training through a realistic obstacle course, and will receive a certificate that certifies them fit to protect the nation.

Sports Hub National Day Fiesta
9 Aug 2017 | 9am - 9pm
Singapore Sports Hub
FREE


The Sports Hub National Day Fiesta, which is part of GetActive! @ Singapore Sports Hub event, is a full day celebration featuring a variety of sports, fitness, entertainment and lifestyle activities including a live telecast of the National Day Parade and family picnic, sports challenges, 52-minute National Day fitness workout, aquathlon workshop, and a carnival.

Key highlights include Live NDP Telecast & Family Picnic, experiencing 8 different sports – tennis, table tennis, lawn bowl, athletics, touch rugby, basketball, futsal and floorball, and a National Day Carnival. Please visit www.sportshub.com.sg/NationalDayFiesta for more information.

National Day Celebrations at the National Museum
9 Aug 2017 | 10am – 8.30pm
National Museum Singapore
FREE Admission


Come celebrate National Day at the National Museum of Singapore with day-to-night programmes for the family. Join in for an up-close session with Jimmy Lam, the author and photographer of Singapore: Country of Many Faces; a live telecast of the National Day Parade with D.I.Y. picnics featuring your favourite Singapore food and new local creations; fun craft activities with our favourite national symbols and icons; music performances on a Red Steinway piano that include sets by William Lim Jr. from popular local band Electrico, and more! Plus, don’t miss the opportunity to collect special Singapore souvenirs and complimentary National Day Parade fun packs, which will be given out to the first 500 visitors to our live telecast – while stocks last! For more details on programme timings, visit HERE.

National Day Family Fun
9 Aug 2017 | 10am - 7pm
Singapore Philatelic Museum
Free admission for Singapore Citizens & Permanent Residents (Admission charges apply for other visitors)


Lively Fairy Tales by Shakespeare's Globe
Timings: 11:00am - 11:30am | 2:00pm - 2:30pm | 3:30pm - 4:00pm

Shakespeare's Globe presents an interactive fairy tale. Get into the think of the action and explore the magical story not just as listeners but as storytellers too. A wonderful experience for the whole family!

Fun Quiz
Timing: 10:00am - 5:00pm

Get together and hunt for answers in our galleries and win a small prize! *While stocks last.

The Curious Adventures of Pinocchio
Now until 6 Aug 2017
Weekdays: 9am | Weekends: 10.30am & 2.30pm
Drama Centre Black Box
Weekdays: $28 | Weekends $38


This is a unique retelling where the story leaps off the page and onto the stage. Crickets, cats, foxes and, of course, the world-famous puppet, will spring out of our collection of dusty, old, magic books, while Patrick Lynch pulls all the strings and turns all the pages to bring you the true story of Pinocchio, no lie. Who nose? He might even find his father and become a real boy. For tickets, visit HERE.

Celebrate Singapore’s 52nd Birthday with KidZania Singapore
Now until 13 Aug 2017
10am - 6pm
KidZania Singapore
Admission charges apply


Unite at KidZania Singapore and experience what it means to belong as One Nation Together as KidZania Singapore celebrate Singapore’s 52nd birthday with a host of activities!

Be part of the National Day Parade and dance with us at KidZania Singapore
Celebrate National Day with a special rendition of the City Parade, and dance to heart-warming National Day songs with the Team Members in a specially choreographed National Day dance at the City Clock.

Ink your love for Singapore
Get a temporary National Day themed tattoo at the Main Square.

Pledge your wishes for Singapore
Make your own personalised human cutout with your kids and pledge your wishes for Singapore on our Pledge Wall. Remember to pose for a photo with the wall too!

Support Local and earn extra kidZos
Kids will earn 2 extra kidZos when they work at our local role-play establishments! These include: Accident & Emergency, Coach Station, Fire Station, Makeup Atelier, Mountaineering School, Operating Theatre, Optical Shop, Peranakan Museum, Police Station, Radio Station, Soup Kitchen, Traditional BBQ Meat Store, and University.

Exclusive promotion on Kid Ticket and B.KidZanian CitiZenship
From now until 31 August 2017, enjoy 52% off your second kid walk-in ticket when you purchase your tickets over at the ticketing counters at KidZania Singapore. Also, enjoy 35% when you register your kids as a B.KidZanian CitiZen at KidZania Singapore’s PaZZport Office, and enter your kids into a world of exclusive B.KidZanian benefits.

Straits Family Sunday: This is Home, Truly
13 Aug 2017; 1pm - 5pm
Peranakan Museum
FREE Admission

What makes a country a “home”? Let us bring you down memory lane to revisit what makes Singapore, uniquely Singapore. Continue celebrating Singapore’s independence this Sunday with your whole family.


Orchid Extravaganza
Now until 20 Aug 2017 | 9am - 9pm
Flower Dome, Gardens by the Bay
Admission charges apply


This year, the “Orchid Extravaganza” floral display tells the story of Singapore through the motif of a butterfly’s life cycle. Stunning orchids in myriad shapes and colours will fill a landscape depicting the stages of a butterfly’s growth, including a ‘Chrysalis’ structure in the main Flower Field. Visitors can look forward to seeing​ orchid varieties such as Phalaenopsis, Vanda, Dendrobium, Grammatophyllum and many others. There will also be a sculpture of 52 butterflies - in celebration of Singapore's 52nd National Day - in the shape of Singapore. Visit HERE for more information.

Dino Robot Factory
Now until 27 Aug 2017
Hall 2, Annex, Science Centre
Adult & Senior Citizen $5 | Child $7


A travelling exhibition direct from Japan especially curated for young children. The Dino Robot Factory walks children through and allows them to experience the process of creating a robot dinosaur. Along the way, they learn about the basics of design, automation, assembly and mechanics in a fun and exciting manner. For more details on activities, visit HERE.

CIRQUE DU SOLEIL KOOZA
Now until 27 Aug 2017
8pm (Matinee shows on weekends)
Under the Big Top Tent, Next to Marina Bay Sands
From $88


Cirque du Soleil returns to Singapore with an awe-inspiring production presented in the intimate setting of the blue and yellow Big Top. Seen by over 7 million people around the world, KOOZA pays homage to Cirque du Soleil's roots by combining thrilling, heart-stopping acrobatic performance with the art of clowning. Read my REVIEW here. For tickets, visit HERE.

Imaginarium: To the Ends of the Earth
Now until 27 Aug 2017
Mon - Sun 10am - 7pm | Fri 10am - 9pm
Singapore Art Musuem
FREE for Singaporeans & PRs | Adults $6 | Senior Citizens (above 60) & Kids $3 | Kids below 6 FREE


Explorers of the land! How much do you know about the planet we inhabit? Singapore Art Museum welcomes you back to the seventh edition of our family-focused exhibition, Imaginarium: To the Ends of the Earth. Taking a closer look at the surroundings and environments we reside in, we see how people, flora, and fauna, adapt to their ever-changing surroundings. With the technological progress we have made, we now have better insight into far-flung locations, and are better connected than before, but are we really any closer to appreciating earth’s many marvels?

Through inspiring and engaging artworks, Imaginarium: To the Ends of the Earth introduces explorers to new ways of seeing and experiencing the world around us. For more details, visit HERE.

52% off Admission at Zoo, River Safari & Jurong Bird Park
Now until 31 Aug 2017


To celebrate Singapore’s 52nd birthday, Wildlife Reserves is offering a 52% discount off the admission fees to the Singapore Zoo and Jurong Bird Park in the month of August. Local residents can choose between Singapore Zoo and River Safari, or Singapore Zoo and Jurong Bird Park for the special two-park combination offer. The offer is valid only for purchases on-site and allows the ticket holder to visit the two selected parks within a week.

A number of special performances will also be helo, including busking, Mascots meet & greets, Mask Crafts and more. Visit HERE for more information.

Red Riding Hood 小红帽 (Mandarin)
Now until 1 Sep 2017
Weekdays: 10am | Weekend & Public Holiday: 11am & 2pm
KC Arts Centre - Home of SRT
$25, $28


After successfully staging it in English, SRT’s The Little Company now presents Red Riding Hood in Mandarin. Red Riding Hood is an uplifting story about a brave girl named Red who must journey through the forest to reunite her family and save Mother's bakery from closing down. Join Red on her adventure into the woods, where no one is what they seem! Filled with humour and packed with original music, this is a fantastic show to be enjoyed by children and adults of all ages. For tickets, visit HERE.


PIECE OF PEACE World Tour − World Heritage Exhibit built with LEGO Bricks
Now until 3 Sep 2017
Weekdays: 10am - 9pm | Weekends & PH: 10am - midnight
Fort Canning Arts Centre, 5 Cox Terrace
Adult (17 & above) - Weekdays $17 & Weekends $19
Child (4-16) & Senior Citizzens (60 & above) - Weekdays $13 & Weekends $15


The exhibition is a celebration of ASEAN’s 50th anniversary, and features highlights such as LOVE EARTH, LOVE ASIA; and LOVE ASEAN. The LOVE ASEAN segment is exclusively showcased in Singapore, featuring seven — out of a total of nine — brand-new replicas of ASEAN’s UNESCO heritage sites, including our very own Singapore Botanic Gardens, all built with LEGO bricks! The younger ones can unleash their imagination at the LEGO Kids Play Zone. For more information, visit HERE.

Children's Biennale 2017
Now until 8 Oct 2017
National Gallery Singapore
FREE for Singaporeans & PRs


Themed “Dreams & Stories,” the first edition of Gallery Children’s Biennale invites the inner child in each of us to embark on a creative journey. Explore the world through the eyes of nine artists from Singapore and beyond: Chng Seok Tin, Mark Justiniani, Yayoi Kusama, Vincent Leow, Lynn Lu, teamLab, Tran Trong Vu, Ian Woo and Robert Zhao. For more details, visit HERE.

Precious Eggs: Of Art, Beauty and Culture
Now until 8 Oct 2017 | 10am - 7pm
Singapore Philatelic Museum
Free admission for Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents | Other visitors: Adults $8 & Child $6


The egg’s unique form and life-giving symbol have inspired artists and craftsmen, resulting in historical pieces like the Russian Imperial porcelain eggs, Fabergé egg pendants and other works using materials ranging from crystal to horn.



Besides colourfully decorated quail, chicken, duck, goose, swan and ostrich eggs, there are also eggs crafted of precious and enamelled metals, glass, porcelain, wax, crystal, marble, stone, wood, reindeer horn, cardboard, and papier-mâché.  Also on show is a series of artists’ eggs, a set of commissioned sculptures to showcase the works of Liechtenstein’s leading artists. From Singapore, 24K gold plated ostrich, emu, goose, chicken and quail eggs from RISIS are on display.

Playeum's 'Making It Home' Exhibition
Now until 29 Oct 2017
Tues - Sun: 10am - 6pm (Closed on Mondays)
Playeum (Blk 47, Malan Road, Gillman Barracks, #01-23, Singapore 109444)
$22 per child (1-12) | Accompanying adult: Free | Additional accompanying adult: $10


Located at Gillman Barracks, Playeum is a museum without walls which hopes to inspire children through self-directed exploration and learning and in the process, establish a culture of meaningful and impactful play. The new exhibition is all about dreaming rooms, making spaces and creating places. Kids (and parents) will be able to experience the home as a place where many ordinary materials can have multiple purposes and support imagination, innovation and sustainability.

Interestingly, the spaces within the indoor playground - if you can call Playeum that - have been transformed into different ‘rooms’, each with a different purpose with different opportunities for the kids to explore, experiment and redefine. Whether it is imagining colours, materials and designs for floors walls and ceilings, to conjuring up art works with sand or recyclable materials, kids can stretch their creativity and imagination to the limit! Head HERE for my review.


          33 Fun Activities in Singapore for Families on Last Weekend of June Holidays        
WHAT? Is the last weekend of the June School Holidays really upon us???

Time truly flies, huh? Fortunately, it is also the Hari Raya Puasa long weekend which softens the blow... somewhat. At least school (and work) starts on Tuesday! So what are you waiting for? Make the best use of this weekend for one last round of fun with the kiddos!




 GET PHYSICAL!

Dreamworks Day
24 Jun 2017; 4pm - 8pm
Gardens by the Bay, Bay East Gardens
$25 Carnival Ticket | $45 800M Kids Dash | $55 5KM Fun Run


For the first time in Singapore, be part of the first ever DreamWorks Run! Come meet the colourful cast of Shrek, Kung Fu Panda, How To Train Your Dragon and Madagascar at DreamWorks Day. There will be a DreamWorks themed carnival filled with games, activities, food and beverages, and also a Fun Run which will see participants cover a 800 meters (Kids Dash) or 5 kilometers route along some of Singapore’s iconic landmarks. For more information, visit www.dreamworksday.sg.


MEGA FUN at Sentosa 2017
Now until 25 Jun 2017
Island admission applies


Fun at Palawan Beach
22 – 25 Jun 2017; 10am – 7pm 
Palawan Beach 
FREE


Take a plunge down the Mega Ball Pool, dip into a pool of overflowing foam, or simply relax and bond with your loved ones by the beach. Also check out the iconic Palawan Pirate Ship play area, which has gushing fountains, slides and a pirate-head which sends huge bucket of water down.

Mega play area includes, Discovery Box, Bounce House, Ultimate Slide, Ninja Run, Horizontal Slide, Kids Maze, Balancing Beam, Cliff Jump, Traversing Wall, Foam Pool, Mega Ball Pool and more!

Bubble Performance
22 – 25 Jun 2017; 3pm & 5pm
Palawan Beach
FREE

Delight in a bubble performance made up of lights, colours and bubble art. Be wowed as the bubbleologist brings you into the wonderful world of bubbles!

Movies by the Beach
22 - 25 Jun 2017; 7.30pm
Palawan Green
FREE

22 June – Star Trek Beyond
23 June – Fast and Furious 6
24 June – Transformers: Age of Extinction
25 June - Everest


 FESTIVALS!

Children's Season Singapore 2017
Now until 25 Jun 2017
Various Dates & Various Timings
Various National Heritage Board and Museum Roundtable museums
FREE


The National Heritage Board’s annual Children’s Season Singapore returns in 2017, presenting cultural and educational experiences that will inspire, engage and educate our young audience. This year’s edition goes beyond museums and will encompass all aspects of art, culture, heritage and education. With a wide range of programmes, exhibitions and engaging family activities for children of all ages, Singapore will be the place to be for children and families to create special memories together this June! For more details, visit www.museums.com.sg/cs17.

Children's Biennale 2017
Now until 8 Oct 2017
National Gallery Singapore
FREE for Singaporeans & PRs


Themed “Dreams & Stories,” the first edition of Gallery Children’s Biennale invites the inner child in each of us to embark on a creative journey. Explore the world through the eyes of nine artists from Singapore and beyond: Chng Seok Tin, Mark Justiniani, Yayoi Kusama, Vincent Leow, Lynn Lu, teamLab, Tran Trong Vu, Ian Woo and Robert Zhao. For more details, visit HERE.

 OUTDOOR FUN!

Geylang Serai Hari Raya Bazaar 2017
Now until 24 Jun 2017; 3pm to late
Geylang Serai market, Joo Chiat Complex and along Haig Road

Flock to the annual food market to binge on Ramly burgers, otah-otah and other sinful street snacks like colourful concoctions of rainbow ice cream and drinks! There are also plenty of activities held in conjunction with the market, such as free movie screenings, gigs, a pop-up museum and kiddy rides.

Weekends in the Park @ Parkland Green
24 Jun 2017; 8am - 8pm
East Coast Park, Parkland Green
FREE

Chalk & Win Contest on 24 June 2017
Time: 8am- 8pm 
Ready to unleash your creativity? Grab some free chalk from any Parkland Green outlet and doodle on any of the corridor pavements. The most creative or original chalk art pieces can stand to win a HvperSport Scooter (worth $229) and a Kebab Station Voucher (worth $50)!

Simply:
- Grab some chalk from any Parkland Green outlets
- Draw on any of the corridor pavements
- Share a photo of your chalk art piece on Facebook or Instagram between 8am to 8 pm on 24 June (Remember to make your account public)
- Hashtag #ParklandGreen

Active Games (By PlaystreetsSg)
Time: 4pm - 7pm 
Calling all families! For three hours only, try your hand at many interactive and unique games at Parkland Green.

Outdoor Movie Drive-in
24 Jun 2017
2pm onwards; Movie starts after 7pm
Field outside White Sands
$10 per vehicle
Picnic area: $6 per adult & $4 per child

Always wished you could live the old, nostalgic days of movie drive-ins? Wish no more, and join in for an evening with Kong: Skull Island displayed on windscreen in the fresh air at Whire Sands, with free-flow popcorn and candy floss. Pets are welcome too!

Go earlier for a series of sporting fun - bouncy castles, inflatable rock climbing stations and mini games before the movie starts.

Istana Open House
25 Jun 2017; 8.30am - 6pm
Istana (Entrance to the Istana grounds is via the main gate at Orchard Road)
FREE for Singaporeans and Singapore permanent residents. 
Other visitors are required to pay an entrance fee of $2 per person.

There will be a variety of performances on the grounds during the Open House. For an entrance fee of $2, visitors could tour selected function rooms in the Istana building and view a special display of gifts presented to the President and the Prime Minister. There are also guided tours of the Istana building, conducted by the Preservation of Sites and Monuments (PSM) volunteers. Istana souvenirs are also sold at the Open House. All proceeds from the sale of the souvenirs and the entrance fees collected are donated to charity.

Uncle Ringo Carnival
Now until 25 Jun 2017; 6pm - 10.30pm daily
Punggol MRT Exit D (Opposite Waterway Point)


RepTopia 2017
Now until 26 Jun 2017; Various Timings
Singapore Zoo
Admission charges apply


An array of remarkable reptiles is set to make their debut at Singapore Zoo this June, with the launch of the aptly-named new reptile exhibit – RepTopia. Over the weekends of 27 May – 26 June, guests are in for a reptile revolution with a spectrum of engaging activities. Discover and appreciate reptiles through a diverse range of activities, including enlightening animal enrichment sessions, reptile-inspired craft activities and costumed charm-eleon meet and greet sessions. For details on activities, visit www.zoo.com.sg/reptopia/.

So Wow Time Flies!
Now until 26 Jun 2017 (Weekends & 26 Jun only)
Various Timings
Jurong Bird Park
Admission charges apply


BE A PARROT KEEPER
Time: 9am – 12pm (3 hours per session)
Venue: Around the Park

Step into the role of a keeper: prepare food for the lories, make enrichment toys, and set up brooders for our baby parrots! This activity is exclusive to Friends of Bird Park and Friends of Wildlife members. Activity fee applies and only for children aged 5 – 8 years old. *Registration is available on a first-come, first-served basis. Click here for more details.

CHIRPY CRAFTS
Time: 10am – 4pm
Venue: Penguin Coast

Kids, get creative and make your own bird-themed crafts to bring home as mementos.

SNAP A SHOT WITH SUNNY & FRIENDS
Time: 9am, 11.30am & 1pm
Venue: Penguin Coast

Meet-and-greet with Sunny the mascot and his friends, and pose for pictures with them.

PUPPET SHOWTIME
Time: 10.30am & 12.30pm 
Venue: Birdz of Play

Be entertained as you let your imagination fly at our bird-themed puppet show.

Let’s Blaze! Carnival 
Now until 26 June 2017, daily
1pm - 10pm
City Square Mall, Level 1 City Green (Outdoor Park)

Get up to blazing speed with carnival fun and games with Blaze & The Monster Machines! Look out for super fun Truck Rides, Blaze Bouncer, Tyre Playground and more! Let’s blaaaze! Also, don’t miss the special Shimmer & Shine photo area!

Singapore Street Festival 2017
Now until 2 Jul 2017
Various events & timings

The annual Singapore Street Festival (SSF) returns on the 4th of June with an exciting bonanza of activities lined up till the 2nd of July. Themed ‘UNCHARTED But Known’, its 16th anniversary boasts exhilarating acts and impressive art that celebrate the talents of Singapore youth. For more information, visit HERE.

 NATURE!

FREE Admission to National Orchid Garden
Now until 25 Jun 2017; 8.30am - 7pm
National Orchid Garden

Enjoy free admission to National Orchid Garden from 21 May to 26 June 2016 for students, local residents and work permit holders.

Blue Beauties @ Gardens by the Bay
Now until 30 Jun 2017; 9am - 9pm
Gardens by the Bay
Admission charges apply


In the year that Gardens by the Bay celebrates its 5th anniversary, a special colour in the Plant Kingdom takes centrestage in Flower Dome. Blue may seem ubiquitous in everyday life, but true spectrum blue is one of the most uncommon colours in plants.

In the “Blue Beauties” floral display, the special quality of blue blooms is celebrated as the flower field is awash in the splendour of this well-loved shade. Flowers cherished for their vivid blue hues like agapanthus, hydrangeas and delphiniums flourish in a French-inspired garden. Set amidst a landscape dotted with a wall trellis, topiaries, a fountain and gazebo, these blue blooms will be complemented by the purple and pink tones of gladiolus, lupins and foxgloves.

Pesta Ubin 2017
Now until 16 July 2017, Various  Dates & Timings
Pulau Ubin


Pesta Ubin is Ubin Open House! Once a year, people who love Ubin step up to share with the public their special slice of Pulau Ubin. Pesta Ubin activities are heartfelt, organic and led by the community. Passionately highlighting Ubin's unique charms, get a taste of the kinder, gentler way of life on Ubin during Pesta Ubin. Many Pesta Ubin activities are free of charge. Some do NOT require registration. Simply come to Pulau Ubin and join the fun! Find a Pesta Ubin activity that suits your schedule and interest at pestaubin2017.blogspot.sg.

For this weekend's activities, visit https://pestaubin2017.blogspot.sg/2017/06/19-25-jun-week-7-of-pesta-ubin.html.

 MEET & GREETS!

Meet Pororo
23 & 24 Jun 2017
Fri: 1pm | Sat & Sun: 1pm, 3pm & 5pm
Marina Square, Central Atrium


Get your cameras ready for that long-awaited selfie with Pororo! Limited to the first 50 families per session. Meet & Greet passes will be distributed 20 minutes prior to each session at the atrium.

Minions Meet & Greet
McDonald's Restaurants

23 Jun 2017: 5.30pm - 7pm - Bedok Mall
24 Jun 2017: 10am - 11.3oam - Jurong Central Park
24 Jun 2017: 2pm - 3.30pm - iFly Sentosa
25 Jun 2017: 10am - 11.30am - Causeway Point

Pac-Man Meet & Greet
Now until 25 June 2017; 6pm to 6.30pm
YewTee Point, Level 1 Atrium


Nordic Adventures with Sanrio Characters
Now until 26 Jun 2017
Changi Aiport, T3 Public Area


Changi Airport’s Terminal 3 will be filled with extreme kawaii-ness this June holidays as supercute life-sized Hello Kitty & Friends will be the stars in the month-long showcase, which will feature games, activities, shopping and great prizes to be won.

Fans can also enjoy a taste of the Nordic lifestyle at Terminal 3, where a specially curated showcase will feature famous highlights such as: the Northern Lights in a video display, a Viking ship-inspired gallery and even an indoor snow luge at the Snow Funhouse by Snow City. The Snow Funhouse will be the very first indoor snow experience in the east of Singapore!

Nordic Snow Funhouse by Snow City
Dates: 26 May – 26 June 2017
Opening Times: 12pm – 10pm daily (approx. 30 min timeslots; last admission at 9.30pm)
Location: Opposite Check-in Row 11
Entry Requirements: $60 in max 2 sameday receipts (S$80 for supermarket purchases) entitles 1 pass admitting two ticket-holders to Snow Fun House

Sanrio Weekend Meet & Greet Sessions
Dates: Every weekend (Sat and Sun) from 26 May to 26 June 2017
Opening Times: 2pm and 7pm
Location: Terminal 3, Public, Departure Hall Level 2 (Near Skytrain platform to Terminal 1)
Entry Requirements: spend a total of $60 at Changi Airport on the same day (with a maximum of 2 receipts), or spend $80 at the supermarket to redeem a Meet & Greet pass. Each Meet & Greet pass admits up to 4 persons for 1 photography shoot. Limited to first 40 redemptions per session.

Meet & Greet Schedule:
24-25 Jun: Hello Kitty

Meet & Greet Spider-Man
23 - 26 Jun 2017: 1pm & 3pm (Timings updated!)
NEX Mall, Atrium L1


 SHOPPING MALLS!

Play-Doh Adventure Trails
Now until 25 Jun 2017
Tanglin Mall


School's Out! Go Wild! Unleash your imagination as you get creative with your favourite animal friends and Play-Doh this June Holiday at  Tanglin Mall! Highlights of the event include the wilderness inflatable, Play-Doh animal sculptures workshops, Dohs-Dohs meet & greet, storytelling by award-winning storyteller Roger Jenkins as well as fringe activities like balloon sculpting workshops. Bring your family down for a day of fun and shopping!

Meet the Doh-Dohs
Tanglin Mall: 17, 18, 24 & 25 Jun 2017 - 3pm


KidZPop PlayFest
United Square Shopping Mall: 23-25 Jun 2017; 11am - 9pm
FREE


Paddle Pop, KidZania Singapore and the Health Promotion Board will be hosting KidZPop PlayFest, a three-week long series of roadshows for parents and kids to learn about healthier snacking habits through fun games and activities.

Take part in larger-than-life games such as ‘Snacks and Ladder’, ‘Calorie Tag’ and make your own Paddle Pop ice-cream at the KidZania Singapore booth. There will also be stage games to win limited edition merchandise, Meet & Greet opportunities with the Paddle Pop lion and KidZania RightZKeeper Urbano, song-and-dance segments, and sampling of Paddle Pop’s latest Healthier Choice Symbol (HCS) certified Twister Fruity ice cream so there’s something for everyone!

Play Mania!
19 - 25 Jun 2017: Sembawang Shopping Centre, Atrium L1
11am - 9pm


With a variety of virtual reality and old school carnival games, there is definitely something for everyone!

Westgate Summer Camp 2017
23, 24, 25, 26 Jun 2017
12pm - 8pm
Westgate Mall


Put on your safari hat and get ready for an outdoor adventure at The Courtyard where exciting activities like a mini obstacle course, arcade games and craft workshops await you. Complete all stations to collect our limited edition badges. Spend a min. of $80 (or $60 for American Express CapitaCard) to redeem a Westgate Summer Camp ticket. For more details, visit HERE.

Double Up the Fun
1 Jun - 2 July 2017
Parkway Parade




Enter into LEGO Cities of Wonders, where families can immerse themselves into a world of bricks to Catch a Crook, find hidden Treasure in the jungle and many more! LEGO fun continues as shoppers are rewarded with exclusive LEGO toys.  Visit HERE for more details.

 SHOWS!

Pluck and the Magical Banyan Tree - Harp Musical
25 Jun 2017; 3pm & 7.30pm
Sota Drama Theatre
$38 & $48


Pluck the fairy protector of music returns for another exciting  adventure. Something is amiss in the Harp Kingdom of Enchantia - people are forgetting how to make music, and Pluck must find out why. Helped by her fairy friends – MEL, BEATBOX & HARMONIA, Pluck embarks on a journey through time to find the Magical Banyan Tree.  Come help her rescue Music before it is completely forgotten. For tickets, visit HERE.

Merlion Magic Lights
Now until 9 July 2017
7.45pm, 8.15pm, 8.45pm & 9.15pm (2 additional shows at 9.45pm & 10.15pm on Weekends, PH, & eve of PH)
Merlion Plaza
FREE

Be amazed by artistic installations and be dazzled by the awesome display of lights and sounds as the island transforms into a world of wondrous fun. Don't miss out on the chance to catch our thematic light shows, set against Sentosa’s majestic and dazzling icon, the 37-m tall Sentosa Merlion!

CHEF: Bibimbap vs Chilli Crab
Now until 22 July 2017
8pm (2pm show available on select Sat & Sun)
Resorts World Theatre, RWS
$38, $48, $78, $98, $118


“CHEF: Bibimbap vs Chilli Crab” is a non-verbal performance using live beatboxing and b-boying to tell the story of Green and Red Chefs locked in a riotous competition – with generous servings of humour and fun! Singaporean celebrities Jayley and Hayley Woo will take turns to play the Cutie Chef, in a local adaption of a new brand of “Bibap” that is set to bowl you over.

Directed and produced by Choi Chul Ki, the name behind all-beatboxing, all-b-boying extravaganzas like “NANTA”, “Jump” and “Beat”, “CHEF: Bibimbap vs Chilli Crab” will pack more choreography, music and madcap antics into the original “Bibap”, which premiered to rapturous reception in 2009. For tickets, visit HERE.

 EXHIBITIONS!

Joseon Korea: Court Treasures and City Life
Now until 23 July 2017
10am - 7pm daily (Fri: 10am - 9pm)
Asian Civilisations Museum
S'poreans & PRs (Adults) $10 | S'porean & PRs (Concession: Seniors, Students, NSF) FREE | Non-Residents (Adults) $15 | Non-Residents (Concession: Seniors, Students) $10 | Non-Residents (Family of 5) $45


Intrigued by sets and costumes from Korean historical dramas and films? Then you will want to see actual furniture, fashion, and decorative arts from Korea’s Joseon era (1392–1897). Spanning some 500 years, Joseon was Korea’s last dynasty, and the legacy of its courtly culture and vibrant city life lives on in South Korea today. Treasures from the National Museum of Korea, the National Palace Museum of Korea, and the Deagu National Museum will be displayed for the first time in Singapore.

The exhibition will be accompanied by programmes and talks relating to Joseon Korea and contemporary Korean culture; as well as a work by South Korean contemporary artist Ran Hwang, best known for using pins, buttons, and thread to create large-scale installations.

Dino Robot Factory
Now until 27 Aug 2017
Hall 2, Annex, Science Centre
Adult & Senior Citizen $5 | Child $7


A travelling exhibition direct from Japan especially curated for young children. The Dino Robot Factory walks children through and allows them to experience the process of creating a robot dinosaur. Along the way, they learn about the basics of design, automation, assembly and mechanics in a fun and exciting manner. For more details on activities, visit HERE.

Imaginarium: To the Ends of the Earth
Now until 27 Aug 2017
Mon - Sun 10am - 7pm | Fri 10am - 9pm
Singapore Art Musuem
FREE for Singaporeans & PRs | Adults $6 | Senior Citizens (above 60) & Kids $3 | Kids below 6 FREE


Explorers of the land! How much do you know about the planet we inhabit? Singapore Art Museum welcomes you back to the seventh edition of our family-focused exhibition, Imaginarium: To the Ends of the Earth. Taking a closer look at the surroundings and environments we reside in, we see how people, flora, and fauna, adapt to their ever-changing surroundings. With the technological progress we have made, we now have better insight into far-flung locations, and are better connected than before, but are we really any closer to appreciating earth’s many marvels?

Through inspiring and engaging artworks, Imaginarium: To the Ends of the Earth introduces explorers to new ways of seeing and experiencing the world around us. For more details, visit HERE.

Precious Eggs: Of Art, Beauty and Culture
Now until 8 Oct 2017 | 10am - 7pm
Singapore Philatelic Museum
Free admission for Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents | Other visitors: Adults $8 & Child $6


The egg’s unique form and life-giving symbol have inspired artists and craftsmen, resulting in historical pieces like the Russian Imperial porcelain eggs, Fabergé egg pendants and other works using materials ranging from crystal to horn.

Besides colourfully decorated quail, chicken, duck, goose, swan and ostrich eggs, there are also eggs crafted of precious and enamelled metals, glass, porcelain, wax, crystal, marble, stone, wood, reindeer horn, cardboard, and papier-mâché.  Also on show is a series of artists’ eggs, a set of commissioned sculptures to showcase the works of Liechtenstein’s leading artists. From Singapore, 24K gold plated ostrich, emu, goose, chicken and quail eggs from RISIS are on display.


          5 Top Picks of Children's Season Singapore 2017        
Advertorial

My favourite festival for kids is back this June School Holidays so if you only have time to let your kids do one thing this holiday period, attending the events at Children's Season Singapore 2017 will be it.

Jointly presented by the National Heritage Board (NHB) and Museum Roundtable (MR), the highly anticipated annual festival for children will be taking on a new direction this year by going beyond museums, heritage and culture, to include interests such as music, performing arts and nature.

As part of its 10th edition - yes, it's 10 years old! - Children’s Season Singapore will see first-time partners – the Esplanade, Singapore Chinese Orchestra, Wildlife Reserves Singapore and Singapore Tyler Print Institute (STPI), joining other NHB and MR museums to present a host of wide-ranging programmes and exhibitions. Expect a range of kid-centric programmes and engaging family activities that will inspire, engage and educate!


In fact, the entire Children's Season Singapore 2017 programme will see more than 120 exhibitions, programmes and activities spread across 29 partners. Definitely spoilt for choice! Of course, the usual perennial faves like the National Museum of Singapore continues to have kid-friendly activities, including a bouncy bumboat inflatable and a soft netting of an inverted dome where visitors will be able to lie down to observe the beauty of the National Museum’s iconic stained glass dome.


But I highly suspect that kids will be flocking to the Giant snoozing at the basement where they will get the chance to doodle away on his body!


Truth is, there are actually plenty of other locations which offer Children's Season Singapore activities as well. So over one weekend, I gathered the monkies and visited 3 such locations. Here was what we got up to:

Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum


With 20 zones spread over two floors, the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum traces the history of life on earth - from the microscopic to the enormous, and from the awkward to the awesome. Of course, the sauropod dinosaur fossils from the Jurassic period form the highlight of the museum. The adult dinosaurs, measuring 24m and 27m respectively, have been nicknamed Apollonia and Prince, while the baby dinosaur called Twinky is 12m long.


There were plenty of natural history specimens to pique the monkies' interest but the greatest one of all belonged to the skeleton of a sperm whale which was found dead off Jurong Island on 10 July 2015.


Nicknamed as the 'Jubilee Whale' because it was found during our SG50 year, it was de-fleshed and its bones were carefully treated and pieced back together. And the entire process can be viewed as a video at the museum's first temporary exhibition, Out of the Water - in time for Children's Season Singapore 2017!



Stories help us share our experiences and the things we have learnt with our friends, families, and even the next generation. Along the way, these stories may have been mixed with ;misunderstandings' which gave rise to myths... and these probably laid the foundations that shaped the stories of mermaids, sea-dwelling monsters and other magical animals.


At the exhibition, the monkies got to explore myths and legends from Singapore and beyond in a different, new light and experience them in a new way. It was an eye-opener for them, finding out which bits were just plain fantasy, and the parts that actually happened in real life!


And if your kids wish to get all crafty with their hands (like mine), then be sure to head to the museum's main lobby for the Biodiversity Craft sessions!


Happening only on weekends in June 2017, the session is priced at $8 per child (or $5 for LKCNHM Members, Ticket Holders, NUS Staff & Students).


Kids will be able to learn more about biodiversity, why it is important, and how they can help protect our world's biodiversity through a series of brain games and activities.


To top it off, kids can create their own form of biodiversity with craft materials - something that Ale was only too keen to complete!


Singapore Philatelic Museum


From now until October 2017, parents and kids can enter the fantastical realm of fairy tales through beautiful stamps from all over the world through the museum's A Little Magic exhibition! I am sure the magical stories - The Little Mermaid, Little Red Riding Hood, The Ugly Duckling, etc - woven by the likes of Hans Christian Andersen, the Brothers Grimm, and Charles Perrault are familiar to us. Through interactive and hands-on exhibits, kids will be able to relive the magic of these timeless tales.


Or if your kids are like my monkies, they will pounce on the chance to go on the Little Red Riding Hood Activity Trail which will bring them on a quest to hunt for clues in the galleries. At the end of it all, they got to redeem a special prize for their efforts.


If you are there on a weekend, expect plenty of other kid-friendly activities happening in the museum as well!




Oh and while you are there, do not miss the Precious Eggs: Of Art, Beauty and Culture exhibition too.


Featuring colourfully decorated quail, chicken, duck, goose, swan and ostrich eggs, there are also eggs crafted of precious and enamelled metals, glass, porcelain, wax, crystal, marble, stone, wood, reindeer horn, cardboard, and papier-mâché.  Also on show is a series of artists’ eggs, a set of commissioned sculptures to showcase the works of Liechtenstein’s leading artists.


The monkies' fave activity of the lot though, was Mother Goose’s Egg-citing Craft where they learnt about pysanka - Ukrainian Easter eggs which are decorated with traditional Ukrainian folk designs using a wax-resist method.


I think being able to decorate a hard-boiled egg and bringing it home definitely helped!


Asian Civilisations Museum


This June School Holidays, kids get to explore the oceans every Friday (16 & 23 June 2017)! As part of the museum's Fun-tastic Fridays programme, visitors will be able to dive into the deep through its galleries, make their own special sea animals, listen to intriguing stories and watch exciting performances!



If you are at the museum at 3pm, be sure to catch the Story Whisperer: Tales from the Sea segment where kids will be able to go on a 30-minute storytelling tour and discover fishy tales from Asian folklore.

The sea theme ties in with ACM's newest exhibition, Ghost Nets of the Ocean, a spectacular marine-themed exhibition where fish, turtles, squid, and jellyfish have made from ocean debris, including abandoned fishing nets and recycled plastics. These colourful woven sculptures show the peoples connections to the sea, and strive to generate awareness of ocean pollution, recycling, and conservation of the marine environment.


MOE Heritage Centre

If you have ever wondered what school was like for students living on islands around Singapore, then the Let’s Go Old School!: Exploration Trail will be an interesting experience! Students used to save their money by buying stamps and sticking them on stamp cards in the 1970s and kids will be able to do just that on the trail by picking up an activity card and stamping their way through the galleries as they learn more about the Singapore Education Story! Complete the trail and they will be rewarded with a special old-school momento too!

Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay

Esplanade joins Children’s Season Singapore as a first time partner venue with two kid-centric events:

1. Precious Time!
Date & Time: 1 – 20 June | 11.00am – 6.00pm (Closed from 2.00pm – 3.00pm)
Venue: Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay, PIP’s PLAYbox (Level 4)

This Father’s Day, make some time and spend it with a loved one. Using materials such as paper, foam and yarn, stretch your creative muscles and make a pocket watch for that special someone.

2. Holiday Fun: Rainbows
Date & Time: 1 – 20 June | 11.00am – 6.00pm (Closed from 2.00pm – 3.00pm)
Venue: Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay, PIP’s PLAYbox (Level 4)

What better way to appreciate the beautiful and natural phenomenon of a rainbow than to make your very own rainbow cloud with fun and recyclable materials. Take your rainbow cloud with you when you travel and “smile” back at the sky the next time you spot a rainbow!


BUT no matter which venue you head to during Children's Season Singapore 2017, there is ONE activity that you MUST remember to accomplish.

Pick up a copy of the Children’s Season Passport* and collect stamps at various venues.


All you have to do is to visit THREE venues and stamp your passport at the various embossing stations (except Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, which will use ink stamps as a substitute).


Snap a photo of all 3 stamps in the Passport and visit www.museums.com.sg/cs17/stamp-n-win to submit your entry. Prizes include a photoshoot package, dining vouchers, bookstore vouchers and even an electric scooter! All winners will be announced on 30 June 2017, and is limited to one entry per participant.

Limited quantities of the passports available at participating venues. *While stocks last.


But HURRY, because two weekends are all that is left of Children's Season Singapore 2017 so you have to be quick if you wish to bring your kids down for its kid-friendly activities... and collect stamps in your Passport!


Useful Information

CHILDREN’S SEASON SINGAPORE 2017
27 May – 25 June 2017
Various venues
Website: www.museums.com.sg/cs17

LEE KONG CHIAN NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM

Out of the Water
Date & Time: 11 Mar – 30 Sep | 10am to 7pm
Venue: Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, Level 1M
Admission charges apply.

Biodiversity Craft
Date & Time:  17, 18, 24 & 25 June | 11am to 3pm
Venue: Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, Lobby
Cost: $8 (Non-members) | $5 (LKCNHM Members, Ticket Holders, NUS Staff & Students)

SINGAPORE PHILATELIC MUSEUM
Free Admission for Singaporeans and Permanent Residents

A Little Magic Exhibition
Date & Time: From 27 May to Oct | 10am  to 7pm
Venue: Atrium, Level 1

ASIAN CIVILISATIONS MUSEUM
Free Admission for Singaporeans and Permanent Residents (Applies to Permanent Galleries only)

Ghost Nets of the Ocean - Au Karem ira Lamar Lu Voices for the sea from Australia’s Torres Strait Islanders

Date & Time: 1 Jun to 6 Aug | 10am to 7pm

FUN-tastic Fridays: Ghost Nets of The Ocean
Date & Time: 16 & 23 Jun | 12pm to 5pm

MOE HERITAGE CENTRE

Let’s Go Old School!: Exploration Trail
Date & Time: 29 May - 23 June | 9.30am to 5pm
Location: Maxwell Auditorium
Free admission, no registration required

ESPLANADE – THEATRES ON THE BAY

Precious Time!
Date & Time: 1 – 20 June | 11am to 6pm (Closed from 2pm – 3pm)
Venue: Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay, PIP’s PLAYbox (Level 4)

Holiday Fun: Rainbows
Date & Time: 1 – 20 June | 11am to 6pm (Closed from 2pm – 3pm)
Venue: Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay, PIP’s PLAYbox (Level 4)
          The Lady is Not for Turning as Tories Aim to 'Plough On' With Brexit Plans Despite Election Result        

Joining the European Economic Area (EEA) for a limited time period makes sense to me as I have said earlier this week. However, there is a risk that Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein might try to block this, especially if the EU puts pressure on them. A prior agreement with the three EEA countries needs to be arranged now, rather than assuming that they will have no objection. David Davis should negotiate this on behalf of the UK rather than Theresa May.

A PDF of this article is posted in the Subscriber's Area.


          Email of the day 2        

That is a possibility because Norway and particularly Iceland and Liechtenstein are much smaller than the UK. However, I don’t see a dominant partner problem because their interests are entirely different, although the three states share residency agreements between unmarried couples.

The basic difference, as I see it, is because the EEA agreement encompasses less that ten percent of EU lawmaking.

What does concern me is that following Mrs May’s General Election disaster, the EU may try to force the UK back into the EU. That would lessen the region’s financial problems, restore some prestige and most importantly, deter any other country from trying to leave the EU.

We had an indication of this today in the Bloomberg article: Schaeuble Says U.K. Welcome Back If Brexit Was Overturned. Emmanuel Macron has just made similar comments in Paris during Mrs May’s visit earlier today. Fortunately, both the latest Conservative and Labour administrations favour some form of Brexit. Interestingly, Mrs May has appointed more cabinet ministers in the last few days who voted Leave in last year’s referendum. That could keep her in power for a little longer.


          Liechtenstein Landesbank to Turn Over Client Names: Undisclosed Offshore Account Holders at Risk of Investigation Should Enter the 2012 Amnesty Initiative, Thorn Comments        

Liechtenstein authorizes its second largest bank to turn over client data to United States Authorities. Kevin E. Thorn urges U.S. taxpayers with undisclosed offshore accounts maintained through Liechtensteinische Landesbank to come forward through the IRS’s 2012 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Initiative.

(PRWeb June 19, 2012)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/6/prweb9614479.htm


          HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2010: THE CIRI REPORT        
In conjunction with Human Rights Day, 2011, the CIRI Human Rights Data Project releases its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2010. The CIRI project's data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a wide variety of purposes. The project is Co-Directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University) and Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut) and assisted by Senior CIRI Associate K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). Any inquiries may be addressed to info@humanrightsdata.org

Below, we present four types of stories from this year's released data:


THE BEST AND WORST of 2010

All 14 of CIRI's indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world. The top (best) score a country can receive is 30, while the worst score would be 0. The world average was 18 and the USA scored 26 (tied for 5th place). Below are the best and worst of 2010.

Top 13 Countries:

Denmark [30]
Iceland [30]
Austria [29]
New Zealand [29]
Norway [29]
Australia [28]
Belgium [28]
Finland [28]
Liechtenstein [28]
Luxembourg [28]
Netherlands [28]
San Marino [28]
Sweden [28]


Bottom 10 Countries:

Burma [2]
Eritrea [2]
Iran [2]
China [3]

Korea, Democratic People's Republic of [3]
Yemen [3]
Zimbabwe [3]
Saudi Arabia [4]
Congo, Democratic Republic of [5]
Nigeria [5]


THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL

On May 20, 2011, the United Nations elected 15 new members of the UN Human Rights Council. Here are their total CIRI human rights scores for 2010, out of a possible 30 points. Six out of the fifteen new members had scores below the world average of 18 for the year 2010. Below are the scores for each new member:

Austria         [29]
Benin          [16]
Botswana     [22]
Burkina Faso    [20]
Republic of Congo  [18]  
Chile             [26]
Costa Rica     [26]
Czech Republic   [24]
India               [10]
Indonesia        [13]
Italy               [24]
Kuwait          [11]
Peru              [18]
Philippines     [15]
Romania        [17]


DECLINE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Index of Physical Integrity Rights measure's a government's overall level of respect for four rights: torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, disappearance. The index ranges from 0 (no respect for any of these four rights) to 8 (full respect for all four of these rights). In 2008-2009, the world saw an overall average increase in these rights of .047. However, a reversal of this improvement was seen from 2009-2010, with it's overall average decline in respect of -.031. In particular 2009-2010 saw the following dramatic changes:

Three Countries Lost 3 Points (Violations Increased)

Croatia
Georgia
Panama

Seven Countries Gained 2 Points (Violations Decreased)

Angola
Chad
Chile
Guinea
Italy
Kenya
Seychelles

The fact that the CIRI data stretch back in time to 1981 allows for longitudinal comparison. For example, the graph below shows how regional averages of respect for physical integrity rights have changed over the years:



MORE TORTURE

An important part of this overall decline in respect for physical integrity rights comes from a continuing degradation, globally, of respect for the right not to be tortured. For example, 2009-2010 saw 17 countries engage in more torture, while only 8 engaged in less torture. Below is the list of these countries. CIRI's indicator of government respect for torture is as follows: (0) Frequent/systematic torture, (1) Moderate/occasional torture (2) No reported/confirmed episodes of
torture.

Increased Torture, 2009-2010

Austria
Bahrain
Canada
Congo, Republic of
Croatia
Georgia
Hungary
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Kyrgyz Republic
Marshall Islands
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovenia
Thailand

Decreased Torture, 2009-2010

Chile
Czech Republic       
Denmark       
Dominica       
Italy       
Micronesia, Federated States of       
Seychelles       
Spain

This trend in the greater use of torture is not a post-9/11 phenomenon, however. The chart below shows the increased use of torture beginning in the early 1980s. The extent of the drop in respect for this right differed by region and is seen to be particularly acute in Africa.


          2012 in Review – thought you might like to see some of the stats on my blog. :) ~Jean        
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2012 annual report for this blog. Here’s an excerpt: About 55,000 tourists visit Liechtenstein every year. This blog was viewed about 5,400,000 times in 2012. If it were Liechtenstein, it would take about … Continue reading
          FIFA Best/Worst Ranking - August 2014        
Nations currently at their best or worst all-time ranking position in the August 2014 FIFA Rankings.

Best Ranking
1 - Germany
15 - Costa Rica
29 - Venezuela
50 - Sierra Leone
73 - Azerbaijan
105 - Lesotho
165 - Montserrat


Worst Ranking
122 - Canada
157 - Thailand
167 - Liechtenstein
197 - Cayman Islands
201 - British Virgin Islands
201 - Cambodia
203 - Eritrea
205 - Djibouti
206 - Cook Islands
207 - Anguilla
208 - Bhutan
208 - San Marino

          FIFA Best/Worst Ranking - July 2014        

Nations currently at their best or worst all-time ranking position in the July 2014 FIFA Rankings.


Best Ranking
1 - Germany
16 - Costa Rica
30 - Venezuela
73 - Azerbaijan
166 - Montserrat

Worst Ranking
70 - Republic of Ireland
118 - Canada
157 - Thailand
167 - Liechtenstein
200 - Cambodia
202 - Eritrea
205 - Djibouti
206 - Cook Islands
207 - Anguilla
208 - Bhutan
208 - San Marino

          HISTORIA: El Perú, antes de ser república, pudo convertirse en una monarquía        

¿Sabía usted que José de San Martín propuso la formación de un gobierno independiente, bajo el sistema de una monarquía constitucional, que tendría a la cabeza un príncipe europeo? ¿Y por qué no fue así? ¿Qué pasó?

El 2 de junio de 1821 José de San Martín se reunió con el virrey José de la Serna, en la hacienda Punchauca, situada en Carabayllo. En esa entrevista se discutió la forma de gobierno que debía tener el Perú. San Martín propuso la formación de un gobierno independiente, bajo el sistema de una monarquía constitucional, que tendría a la cabeza un príncipe europeo.
—Entrega total—
Según las memorias del general García Gamba, San Martín le hizo una propuesta que suponía la entrega total de su propio ejército. Textualmente, según dichas memorias, San Martín planteó: “Que se nombrase una regencia compuesta por tes individuo, cuyos presidente debía de ser el general La Serna, con facultad de nombrar uno de sus corregentes y que el otro lo elegiría San Martín; que esta regencia gobernaría independientemente el Perú hasta la llegada de un príncipe de la familia real de España; y que para pedir ese príncipe, el mismo San Martín se embarcaría seguidamente para la Península, dejándolas tropas de su mando a las órdenes de la regencia”. La Serna pidió unos días para estudiar la propuesta con sus generales.
— ¿Por qué una monarquía?—
Bernardo Monteagudo, ministro de Estado del protectorado de San Martín fue el principal ideólogo del plan monárquico. Según el historiador José Agustín de la Puente Candamo, Monteagudo afirmó que la moral del pueblo, el estado de su civilización, la distribución de la riqueza, así como las relaciones entre las clases que forman la sociedad son elementos importantes para determinar la mejor forma de gobierno. Él pensaba que en una democracia cada ciudadano precisa formación, preparación y el hombre peruano que había vivido tantos años bajo el régimen autoritario del virreinato, no estaba preparado para un uso amplio de sus derechos políticos.
San Martín no quería una ruptura brusca. Quería negociar y vio que en Lima había una gran concentración de aristócratas y personas con títulos de nobleza que podían apoyar su propuesta. Quiso darles importancia y por eso nombró a varios en puestos públicos y estableció la Orden del Sol que tenía carácter hereditario. Incluso hay quienes sostienen que el rojo y blanco de nuestra bandera no son lo de la sangre y la paz sino de la Cruz de Borgoña, emblema de los reyes Habsburgo.
—El rechazo—
Al tratar de ganarse a los indígenas y afrodescendientes cuando declara la abolición del tributo a la corona española y decreta que los hijos de los esclavos que se unieran al ejército patriota serían libres, los aristócratas se enfrentan a San Martín porque temen quedarse sin mano de obra. Ellos eran los dueños de las tierras alrededor de Lima.
Por otro lado figuras de la época como José Faustino Sánchez Carrión, salieron en contra de la propuesta del general argentino. Sánchez Carrión reconocía que el sistema monárquico era el más sencillo de gobierno, pero advertía que el monarca impone su voluntad y no forma ciudadanía que era lo que necesitaba el Perú en ese momento. “Por la blandura de nuestro carácter seríamos excelentes vasallos y nunca ciudadanos”, manifestó.
—Ejemplos en la actualidad—
Según Francisco Miró Quesada Rada, la monarquía constitucional que propuso San Martín es la forma de gobierno que tiene España, Gran Bretaña, Dinamarca, Luxemburgo, Países Bajos (Holanda), Bélgica y Suecia. También el principado de Andorra, el Estado Vaticano y los principados de Mónaco y Liechtenstein. “Son las democracias más liberales de Europa, que se dan el lujo de mantener a sus reyes para continuar con una remota tradición”, explica.
—No son monarcas absolutos—
En la monarquía constitucional los parlamentarios son elegidos por el pueblo, pero mantienen la costumbre de la monarquía hereditaria. Todo se rige por lo que manda la Constitución, pero la Constitución puede cambiar y, por ejemplo, el pueblo puede decidir si se convierte en república, como sucedió con el referéndum en Italia en 1948.
—El rechazo—
La idea de San Martín fue finalmente rechazada y La Serna salió de Lima con su ejército hacia Cusco, donde se resistió a reconocer la independencia del Perú durante tres años más. Según el historiador José Agustín de la Puente Candamo, quizás por su carácter reservado o por una estrategia mal calculada, San Martín nunca presentó su plan de modo claro y completo y eso generó un clima de incertidumbre y sospechas. Luego con la llegada de Bolívar finalmente adoptaríamos el sistema republicano.
—Qué nos dejó—
San Martín creía que luego de tres siglos de dominación española, el Perú no estaba capacitado para un gobierno democrático y para elegir libremente a sus representantes. Se fue y ese miedo se terminó haciendo realidad con la aparición de caudillos que durante muchos años lucharon por el poder. San Martín se fue del Perú, pero dejó instalado el Primer Congreso Constituyente que se eligió libremente.
Fuente: Este artículo fue publicado originalmente en www.elcomercio.pe
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          Apple begins selling the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus in more than 20 new countries        

Fresh from a record 10 million iPhone sales over launch weekend, Apple’s new iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus are going on sale in 20 more countries today. The list of countries that will begin selling the new iPhones from Friday include: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey and United Arab Emirates The devices initially debuted in eight markets, but Apple plans to expand sales to 115 counties before the end of the year. China remains an absentee at this point, which has led to a surge in…

This story continues at The Next Web

Or just read more coverage about: iPhone,iPhone 6,iPhone 6 Plus,Apple
          Lotto Outside The United States        
Since only United States citizens are allowed to play in the US lotto’s, you may think you are out of luck if you are not a US citizen. Fortunately, you still have opportunities to win big. You can either use an agent within the US to play US lotto’s or there are some great lotto’s available outside the US, like the Liechtenstein lotto. This lotto is open to everyone, even US citizens.

Win Big with Lotto

If you would like to play the lotto in the United States, but aren’t a US citizen, you will need to hire an agent to do so. Basically you give the agent the money to play in the lotto and if you win, he gives you the money. Sounds great! But how many people can you really trust to give you the money, if your ticket wins big? Not many! Since you aren’t a US citizen, you can’t make a complaint about it either. So you can easily be out a lot of money.

The safer route for playing lotto is to play in lotto outside the US. The best one that I’ve found is the Liechtenstein lotto. The great thing about it is that you can play online and cut out the middlemen that would otherwise come between you and the lotto company. So if you win, the money wouldn’t be transferred through anyone else’s hands before it gets to you.

In the Liechtenstein lotto, you are guaranteed a jackpot of five million Euros. This is great if you are interested in winning it big, rather than dealing with the little lotto’s. To play in the Liechtenstein lotto, you only need to pay one Euro or a dollar and you can play weekly if you want. By going to the website you can view the drawings, so that you know instantly if you win.

Another great benefit of playing in the Liechtenstein lotto is that you don’t have to pay any taxes on your winnings, because it is state run. Since the Liechtenstein lotto is open to nearly everyone, they have made it easier for people to play by allowing you to pay and play with Euros’, US money, or Swiss Francs. If you are hesitant about playing the Liechtenstein lotto because you aren’t sure if you can trust that you will get your winnings, you can easily put your mind at rest. Ernst and Young, the most famous accountants in the world, monitor the Liechtenstein lotto drawings to guarantee that it is run properly and no one gets cheated. You can even contact them, if you need added reassurance before playing. Gert Gambell did just that.

If playing the Liechtenstein lotto hasn’t got you excited yet, you may be happy to know that Liechtenstein lotto supports the Red Cross! They make it possible for winnings to be donated to the Red Cross and they also have a place for you to donate money to the Red Cross as you are playing the lotto. The site ALSO gives a percent of the money they collect to the Red Cross! So even if you aren’t big on lotto, you are helping a much needed organization.

There are a number of games on the Liechtenstein lotto website that have electronic draws, but only the main Liechtenstein lotto has a filmed draw. If you are interested in accessing the lotto game, all you need to do is click on “GoLotto.” So, check out the Liechtenstein lotto now and have a chance at winning big, while supporting the Red Cross. It is easy and fun at the same time.

A Note to US Citizens

If you live in the US and want to play Liechtenstein lotto, you can’t give a US address. If you are planning to visit Europe, you can give the address of the place you will be staying at and play before your trip.



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          Europe | Day 7 | Friday        
The day today is mostly travel. It started this morning with a ride in the rain through many tunnels, and also five countries. I added Liechtenstein and Italy to my list of countries that I’ve visited. Well, the car ride wasn’t to eventful other than it took a lot longer than we expected. It was […]
          Weirather entreißt Stuhec den Super-G-Weltcup         

Auf den letzten Metern eines sehr, sehr langen Winters trennten Tina Weirather aus Liechtenstein und Ilka Stuhec aus Slowenien nur 35 Hundertstelsekunden.

Nicht mehr als ein Wimpernschlag, aber es reichte: Im letzten Super-G der alpinen Weltcup-Saison fuhr die Tochter der großen Hanni Wenzel noch zu ihrem ersten Sieg, vor allem aber verwies sie damit in Aspen im US-Bundesstaat Colorado die zweitplatzierte Stuhec auch im Kampf um die kleine Kristallkugel auf Rang zwei. Um fünf Punkte.

Weirather bricht in Tränen aus

"Als so ziemlich festgestanden hat, dass es die Kugel wird, bin ich in Tränen ausgebrochen. Über die Jahre macht man so vieles mit, legt alles rein - und wenn dann so etwas zurückkommt, dann freut man sich sehr", sagte die sichtlich ergriffene Siegerin des Tages.

Für die 27 Jahre alte WM-Zweite Weirather war es erst der siebte Weltcupsieg ihrer bewegten und von vielen Verletzungen geprägten Karriere. Viktoria Rebensburg (Kreuth) belegte den achten Rang, Lindsey Vonn (USA) stürzte, blieb aber unverletzt. 

Weirather führt Familientradition fort

Weirather trat zudem in die Fußstapfen ihrer berühmten Eltern. Mutter Hanni Wenzel, unter anderem Doppel-Olympiasiegerin und vierfache Weltmeisterin, hatte zweimal den Gesamtweltcup (1978 und 1980) sowie vier Disziplin-Weltcups gewonnen, Vater Harti Weirather, ein Österreicher, 1981 den Abfahrtsweltcup.

"Es ist Wahnsinn", sagte Tina Weirather überwältigt, "in den letzten Super-G ist meine Form ja eher nach unten gegangen."

Shiffrin vor Gesamtsieg

Zwei Rennen vor dem Ende der Saison steht nun auch Mikaela Shiffrin (USA) praktisch als erstmalige Gesamtweltcup-Siegerin fest. Stuhec, Weltmeisterin in der Abfahrt sowie Weltcupsiegerin in der Abfahrt und der Kombination, hat bei 198 Punkten Rückstand keine realistische Chance mehr auf die große Kristallkugel.

Sie müsste die letzten Rennen im Slalom und im Riesenslalom gewinnen, Shiffrin zudem zweimal ausscheiden.


          Stuhec sichert sich Kugel, Rebensburg weit zurück         

Ski-Rennläuferin Ilka Stuhec aus Slowenien hat sich nach WM-Gold in der Abfahrt erwartungsgemäß auch die kleine Kristallkugel in der alpinen Königsdisziplin gesichert.

Beim Saison-Finale in Aspen/US-Bundesstaat Colorado behauptete die 26-Jährige mit ihrem siebten Sieg in diesem Winter Platz eins in der Weltcup-Wertung vor Sofia Goggia (Italien). Goggia belegte am Mittwoch hinter der entthronten "Speed Queen" Lindsey Vonn (USA) Rang drei. Viktoria Rebensburg wurde Achte.

"Es kann nicht besser gehen, ich bin sehr, sehr zufrieden", sagte Stuhec, die bereits die kleine Kristallkugel in der Kombination gewonnen hatte. Am Donnerstag hat Stuhec auch noch die Chance auf den Gesamtsieg im Super-G: Sie nimmt einen Vorsprung von 15 Punkten auf Tina Weirather (Liechtenstein) mit in das letzte Rennen.

Im Gesamtweltcup verkürzte die Slowenin den Rückstand auf die designierte Siegerin Mikaela Shiffrin (USA) auf 278 Punkte.


          Liebevolle Loftwohnung in Feldkirch, Anlegerobjekt        
6800 Feldkirch / 40,4m² / 1 Zimmer, € 143.000,-
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          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauEurope is the second smallest continent in the world .Here is the list of 47 countries in Europe and their capitals.

 Europe




S.no
Countries
Capitals
1.
Albania
Tirana
2.
Andorra
Andorra la Vella
3.
Austria
Vienna
4.
Belarus
Minsk
5.
Belgium
Brussels
6.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sarajevo
7.
Bulgaria
Sofia
8.
Croatia
Zagreb
9.
The Czech Republic
Prague
10.
Denmark
Copenhagen
11.
Estonia
Tallinn
12.
Finland
Helsinki
13.
France
Paris
14.
Germany
Berlin
16.
Greece
Athens
17.
Hungary
Budapest
18.
Iceland
Reykjavík
19.
Ireland
Dublin
20.
Italy
Rome
21.
Kosovo
Pristina
22.
Latvia
Riga
23.
Liechtenstein
Vaduz
24.
Lithuania
Vilnius
25.
Luxembourg
Luxembourg City
26.
Macedonia
Skopje
27.
Malta
Valletta
28.
Moldova
Chisinau
29.
Monaco
Monaco
30.
Montenegro
Podgorica
31.
The Netherlands
Amsterdam
32.
Norway
Oslo
33.
Poland
Warsaw
34.
Portugal
Lisbon
35.
Romania
Bucharest
36.
Russia
Moscow
37.
San Marino
San Marino
38.
Serbia
Belgrade
39.
Slovakia
Bratislava
40.
Slovenia
Ljubljana
41.
Spain
Madrid
42.
Sweden
Stockholm
43.
Switzerland
Bern
44.
Turkey
Ankara
45.
Ukraine
Kiev (Kyiv)
46.
The United Kingdom
London
47.
The Vatican City
Vatican City

          Ernsthafte und ehrliche Personen in 48 Stunden 52        
Ernsthafte und ehrliche Personen in 48 Stunden 52 Kontaktieren Sie WhatsApp: + 4917665401259 Hallo, Sie sind Menschen, die arbeitslos sind oder arbeitslos sind? In CDD, CDI, Schauspielern? In schwierigen finanziellen Situation? Die Überschuldung, stecken Bank (FICP)? Anleger, Trader, die ihre Kapital nutzen? Mehr Sorgen über irgendetwas. Ich schlage vor, eine neue Finanzierungsformel. Sie sind Individuen in Europa (Albanien, Andorra, Österreich, Belgien, Bosnien und Herzegowina, Bulgarien, Kroatien, Zypern, Dänemark, Estland, Färöer (Inseln), Finnland, Frankreich, Griechenland, Grönland, Ungarn, Irland Island, Italien, Jersey, Guernsey, Kosovo, Lettland, Liechtenstein, Litauen, Luxemburg, Malta, Mazedonien, Moldawien, Monaco, Montenegro, Norwegen, Niederlande, Polen, Portugal, Tschechische Republik, Rumänien, Großbritannien, Russland, San Marino, Serbien, Slowakei, Slowenien, Schweden, Schweiz, Ukraine, Vatikan) und auf der ganzen Welt. FINANZIERUNG alle Ihre Projekte: * - Auto Kredit * - Verbraucherkredit * - Erwerb von Kredit * - Privatkredit * - Credit Works * - revolvierenden Kredit * - Kredit Motorrad * - Immobilien-Darlehen * - Kredit Heirat * - Kredit Reisen * - Darlehen zwischen bestimmten * - Kredit Boat Und das alles von 3 000,00 bis 500 000,00 € auf 6-300 Monat. Der Zinssatz kann die gesamten Kredit- und Kreditangebotsbedingungen sind sehr einfach gehen. Die Darlehen werden gebeten, innerhalb von 72 Stunden nach der Einreichung der Anträge erhalten. Mein Angebot ist ernst, können Sie durch das Verfahren realisieren, das ist das rechtliche Verfahren von Darlehen zwischen bestimmten gewähren. Kontaktieren Sie mich noch heute und lassen Sie mich wissen, wie viel Geld Sie leihen wollen. grüßen; orianemartinez100@gmail.com
          Switzerland & Liechtenstein        
I’ll be in Switzerland and Liechtenstein in the beginning of march. And in the meantime please watch this video that I just uploaded. It was recorded at the Scottish Drum Fest in November 2015.
          Writing Fiction for The Internet        
'We are all apprentices in a craft where no one ever becomes a
master'.

Ernest Hemingway

Introduction

One of the best things about the internet is the freedom that it can
give.
Within reason, you can talk to anyone, anywhere about mostly
anything. It is a great communication tool.

Recently, during the Seattle earthquake, I was able to get minute-by-
minute feedback about what was going on from people that I've met
online - real-time information even though I was sat in my office
across the other side of the world in the UK.

One
of the areas that is currently being revolutionised by the
internet
is the world of publishing. You can have your writing
available to millions of people within a few hours. The frustration
of rejection after rejection from traditional publishers can partly
be assuaged.

You can do this too.

You can have your novel, your short story or your poem available for
the entire technological world to read. You can meet and talk with
writers from all over the world. You can critique other people's work
and get feedback on your own.

In short, you can become part of the biggest writing circle this
world has ever seen.

In
this book, I'll be advising you how to get started - the things
you
need to get yourself up and running. I'll be including links to
useful sites and resources. I'll show you how to build a website that
will
be a showcase for your work. I'll also give you advice about
that most difficult of tasks: marketing your book.

I hope this book gives you the inspiration to get started.

'I love being a writer. What I can't stand is the paperwork'.

Peter De Vries

Getting
Started

You've
written your blockbuster. You've sent it off to a dozen agents
and publishers. Then...then it happens - the rejection letters start
to arrive.

I'm sorry, this really isn't for us.

This is only a personal opinion, of course, but...

You write well but we're not in the market for this kind of work at
the
moment.

All the best in your efforts to get published.

The first two or three rejections make you feel small and pathetic.
The
next two or three make you angry. If you're lucky, by the time
the sixth and seventh rejection comes your way, you're used to it.

You have a great story but no one seems to want to get involved.

WAIT...

There
is an alternative to traditional publishing and it uses a
resource that is becoming increasingly popular - the internet.

You
see, traditional publishers, bless them, are in a highly
competitive market. They cannot afford to take some of the gambles
that they might have done a few years back. They have to make sure
that
the books that they publish make money. Now they all make
mistakes (anyone remember Anthea Turner's Biography?) but in the main
you
can't blame them for being cautious.

Consider two circumstances:-

One
If I was a soap star, then I'd have more chance of being published.
I'd
have celebrity, for a start, my name would be known. Not that I'm
suggesting
that celebrities produce rubbish. It's just that if a
publisher had two books of equal literary value (in their opinion),
one by a major soap star and one by a complete unknown, I know which
one
they'll pick to publish.

Two
Suppose I have written a superb biography of, for example, Prince
Rupert of Liechtenstein. It may be a truly well researched and well
written volume. It may allow the reader deep insights into the
subject
matter. It may be one of the best biographies ever written.
However, it has no real market. Maybe only a handful of people in the
world are interested in Prince Rupert. Now, supposing that on the
same day a moderately well written biography arrives of a famous
Premiership footballer. Which one will the publisher pick?

You
see, the above two examples show two things in the modern world
of
publishing. You need to have an assured MARKET and you need to
have
a PROFILE.

Granted,
new authors are published every week. But it is getting
increasingly difficult to be published by the traditional route.

The
internet is the great leveller. You can publish, within reason,
what you like. Someone in Brisbane who shares your passion about
Prince
Rupert can type his name into a search engine and find your
glorious book.

You are no longer dependent on someone else to become published.

You are free...

          Â¡La encuesta sobre cómo las ONG hacen uso de Internet en el mundo!        
iWith.org lanzará una encuesta para investigar sobre como organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro de Europa y Latinoamérica utilizan las oportunidades en la red. El software de encuestas online Question Pro será un aliado clave para crear, distribuir y analizar la investigación. También nos acompañarán en el camino Two Much y Empírica Online.
iWith.org se ha propuesto lanzar una encuesta para contestar la siguiente pregunta: "Cómo las ONG hacen uso de Internet en el mundo?". El software Question Pro, diseñado crear, distribuir y analizar encuestas en línea, será el socio estratégico de iWith.org para una investigación que llevaremos a cabo entre el año 2016 y 2017. También nos acompañarán el grupo de investigadores sociales TwoMuch y la plataforma EmpiricaOnline. El estudio detallará cómo las organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro hacen uso de Internet en los países pequeños de Europa y Lationamérica. Las preguntas que realizaremos giraran alrededor de los siguientes temas:
 
  • El uso de las redes sociales
  • La presencia en Internet a través de una página web
  • El email márqueting
  • Las iniciativas de crowdfunding llevadas a cabo en Internet

La encuesta será una continuación del estudio hecho durante 2011: “La solidaridad y yo”. Uno de los hechos característicos del estudio es que se centrará en, sobre todo, países pequeños con menos de 70.000 km² en Europa y Latinoamérica. A continuación se presentan la lista de países:

- En Europa: Irlanda, Georgia, Lituania, Letonia, Croacia, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Eslovaquia, Estonia, Dinamarca, Países Bajos, Suiza, Moldavia, Bélgica, Armenia, Albania, República de Macedonia, Eslovenia, Montenegro, Chipre, Luxemburgo, Andorra, Malta, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Mónaco y Ciudad del Vaticano.  

- En Latinoamérica: Cuba, Guatemala, Panamá, Costa Rica, República Dominicana, Haití, Belice, El Salvador, Bahamas, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad y Tobago, Dominica, Santa Lucía, Antigua y Barbuda, Barbados, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Granada, San Cristóbal y Nieves.

Para realizar la encuesta con éxito, hemos contactado a organizaciones partner en cada país. Actualmente nos encontramos en la fase de aceptación de dichas entidades, que serán los puntos focales que nos ayudarán en nuestra misión.
 
QuestionPro nos apoya con acceso gratuito a su software para encuestas

                                                         
 


          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Ujerumani, Ubelgiji, Uswisi zatwaa tiketi        
Ujerumani, Ubelgiji, Uswisi zatwaa tiketi
Ozil ndani ya nyumba

TIMU za Ujeruamni, Ubeljigi na Uswisi, juzi usiku zilijitwalia tiketi ya Kombe la Dunia za mwakani nchini Brazil kutoka bara la Ulaya ambalo litatoa jumla ya timu 12.

Wakati maimba hiyo ikitangulia, bingwa mtetezi Hispania chini ya kocha wake Vicente Del Bosque, England na Russia, zinasubiri majaaliwa yao katika mechi za mwisho, Oktoba 15.
Ujerumani imejitwalia tiketi yake baada ya juzi kuifunga  Ireland 3-0 huku Ubelgiji ikiichapa Croatia 2-1 na Uswisi kuichakaza Albania 2-1.
Miamba hiyo imeungana na mingine kama Italia na Uholanzi iliyotangulia kupata tiketi ya Brazil.
Akizungumzia mafanikio ya Ubelgiji, kiungo Marouane Fellaini alisema wanapaswa kujivunia kiwango cha timu yao kwani pamoja na ugumu wa kampeni hiyo, wamefanikiwa.
Nazo England, Hispania na Russia zilishinda na kuongoza makundi yao, japo zinasubiri kupata matokeo mazuri katika mechi hizo za mwisho.
Kinara katika makundi tisa ya Ulaya, atajitwalia tiketi ya Brazil huku nane zitakazomaliza nafasi ya pili, zitachuana hatua ya mtoano kuwania nafasi nne kufikia 12 kwa Ulaya.
Mabao ya Ujerumani yalifungwa na Sami Khedira, Andre Schuerrle na Mesut Ozil, nyota wa Arsenal ya England aliyetokea Real Madrid ya Hispania.
Ujerumani imekata tiketi ya Kombe la Dunuia ikitokea kundi C, itacheza fainali hizo mara ya 18 tangu kuasisiwa kwake mwaka 1930.
Katika mechi nyingine, bao la dakika ya 86 likifungwa na Zlatan Ibrahimovic, liliipa Sweden ushindi wa 2-1 dhidi ya Austria, ikiwa nafasi ya pili huku Faroe Islands ikitoka sare ya 1-1 dhidi ya Kazakhstan.
Wachezaji wa Ubelgiji wakishangilia baada ya kufuzu Kombe la Dunia
Mbao mawili ya Romelu Lukaku, yaliipa Ubelgiji pointi tatu hivyo kuongoza kundi A, hivyo kuikwaa tiketi ya fainali za Kombe la Dunia mara ya kwanza tangu 2002 huku  Croatia ya pili.
Nayo Wales juzi ilishinda 1-0 dhidi ya Macedonia 1-0 katika mechi nyingine ya kundi hilo.
Aidha, mabao ya Xherdan Shaqiri na Michael Lang yaliipa ushindi Uswisi na kukamata usukani wa kundi E, hivyo kujitwalia tiketi ya Brazil huku Iceland iliyoichapa Cyprus 2-0, imebaki nafasi ya pili, mbele pointi moja dhidi ya  Slovenia iliyoichapa Norway 3-0.
Nayo England, juzi ilishinda 4-1 dhidi ya Montenegro 4-1 mjini London, hivyo kuongoza kwa tofauti ya pointi moja dhidi ya Ukraine, iliyoifunga Poland 1-0 katika kundi H.
England inahitaji ushindi katika mechi ya mwisho dhidi ya Poland hapo Oktoba 15, kutwaa tiketi huku Ukraine ikimaliza na San Marino, iliyofungwa 3-0  na Moldova.
England ilitangulia kupata bao dakika ya 49, likifungwa na Wayne Rooney kabla ya Branko Boskovic wa Montenegro kujifunga, likiwa la pili kwa England.
Hata hivyo, Dejan Damjanovic aliifungia Montenegro bao, lakini bao la Andros Townsend na Daniel Sturridge, yaliipa England ushindi wa mabao 4-1.
Raha ya ushindi
Katika kundi I, mabingwa wa Dunia Hispania waliwafunga Belarus 2-1 na kukamata usukani wa kundi mbele ya Ufaransa.
Mashuti ya Xavi Hernandez na Alvaro Negredo, ndio yalipeleka kilio kwa Belarus, hivyo sasa kuhityaji walau sare tu kutoka kwa Georgia kujitwalia tiketi ya Brazil.
Nayo Russia iliitandika Luxembourg 4-0, hivyo kukamata usukani wa kundi F, mbele ya Ureno iliyotoka sare ya 1-1 dhidi ya Israel huku Azerbaijan ikishinda 2-0 dhidi ya  Ireland Kaskazini.
Bosnia-Herzegovina iliichapa Liechtenstein 4-1, huku Ugiriki ikiifunga Slovakia 1-0, hivyo kukabana katika kundi G, wakiwa na pointi 22. Lithuania imeifunga Latvia 2-0.

Mtoano
Uturuki na Romania zimejiweka kwenye mazingira ya kucheza hatua ya mtoano wa timu nane kuania nafasi nne kutokana na kufungana kwa pointi katika kundi D, mbele ya Hungary iliyochapwa 8-1 na Uholanzi.
Hiyo ni baada ya Uturuki kushinda 2-0 dhidi ya Estonia 2 huku Romania ikishinda 4-0 dhidi ya Andorra.
Timu nne za kundi B, zimebaki kupigania kucheza hatua ya mtoano baada ya Italia kuvuna sare ya 2-2 dhidi ya  Denmark.
Denmark na Bulgaria, zilizofungwa 2-1 dhidi ya Armenia, zinafungana kwa pointi 13 kila moja huku Armenia na Czech iliyoshinda 3-1 dhidi ya Malta, zikiwa na pointi 12ts.

Zenye tiketi ya Brazil
Ukimwondoa mwenye Brazil mwenye tiketi ya moja kwa moja, nyingine ni Argentina, Australia, Ubelgiji, Costa Rica, Ujerumani, Iran, Italia, Japan, Uholanzi, Korea Kusini, Uswisi na Marekani.

          Schengen and the European Migration Crisis         
The Schengen Area. The Agreement signed on 14 June 1985 on a boat on the Moselle near the small town of Schengen (Luxembourg), by five of the ten states that formed the European Community at that time, effectively abolished passport controls and any other border control among the signatories thus treating the area as a single country. The Agreement was supplemented by the Schengen Convention of 1990, establishing a common visa policy. Initially the Schengen Area was separate from EU structures, as at that time the initiative lacked general consensus, but its rules and procedures were incorporated into European Union law by the Amsterdam Treaty of 1997, coming into effect in 1999. The five initial signatories (the three Benelux countries, France and Germany), were gradually followed by another 17, thus encompassing all EU member states except Ireland and the UK that opted out, and four others – Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania – who wish to join and are obliged to join eventually but are not yet deemed to be ready. All four EFTA member states – Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland – are also associated members of the Schengen Area although they are not members of the EU. In addition, three European microstates – Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City – are considered de facto participants. Today the Schengen Area has a population of over 400 million people.
Net gains. The creation of the Schengen Area was - in principle – an excellent decision. The effective elimination of internal borders within the Area generated considerable savings in terms of travel time and convenience for passengers, expenditure on custom officials and equipment, higher speed and lower cost of commodity transport. A recent study by Germany's Bertelsmann Foundation estimates the cost of the possible breakdown of the Schengen area at between €470bn and €1.4 trillion over the next decade, (roughly 10% of the 28-members EU bloc GDP) due to an increase in import prices of between 1% and 3%. Germany would lose between €77bn and €235bn and France between €85.5bn and €244bn under the two scenarios. The breakdown of the Schengen Area would also inflict a heavy burden on other countries, with a combined loss for the United States and China over the next decade estimated by the same study at between €91bn and €280bn. The European Commission estimated that the permanent reintroduction of border controls would cost between €5bn and €18bn a year because of lower tourism and transport delays. These estimates perhaps may be slightly exaggerated, but there can be no doubt that in the current, long and severe depression of the European economy, the impact of a Schengen breakdown, even if partial, would worsen significantly the growth prospects of the Union, with global reverberations.

Migrations. In the half-century 1960-2010 the ratio of the population working in countries different from that of their birth over the world population (corrected for the displacements which occurred at the end of World War II in 1945) was relatively stable around 3%, though with a clear tendency to accelerate that was much more marked for South-North migrations (see the figure below, where the value of that ratio in 1960 is taken as equal to 1).  
Source: Docquier, Frédéric and Joel Machado (2015), “Revenu, Population et Flux Migratoires au 21ème siècle: Un défi sociétal pour l’Europe” inStudia Oeconomica Posnaniensia, October 2014.
In subsequent years the acceleration continued. In 2015 migrants entering Europe mostly from the Middle East and Africa turned into a veritable flood – the largest flows to take place since 1945 – that put the Schengen arrangements to a most severe test: EU states received 1.3 million asylum applications, especially from Syria. On 24 August 2015 Angela Merkel announced that all Syrian asylum-seekers were welcome to remain in Germany regardless of which EU country they had first entered. She adopted this “open door” policy unilaterally, without EU agreement, after consultation solely with the Austrian Chancellor Werner Faymann; subsequently there were signs of intended policy reversal but tightening up was only slight (for instance preventing relatives joining migrants for at least a year) thus provoking an intensification of the inflow because of the migrants’ expectation of harder times; a recent poll found that 81% of the German population thought that the government had lost control over migration policy. The Bertelsmann Stiftung estimates that by mid-February 2016 an even larger number of Syrians alone had found their way into Jordan (640,000), Lebanon (over 1 million) and Turkey (2.6 million); Pakistan and Iran have taken several hundred thousand migrants from Afghanistan and Iraq respectively. In 2015 migrants crossing the sea from Turkey to Greece increased 20 times with respect to 2014. Last November the EU granted €3bn to Turkey as an inducement to hold migrants there at least temporarily, but three months later 2,000 migrants still cross daily into Europe: in order to take back non-Syrians the Turks are negotiating for more aid and other benefits such as visa-free travel to Europe, which in turn would generate a significant inflow of Turkish Kurd asylum seekers into Europe. Arrivals in Italy decreased slightly in the same period, from 170,000 to 154,000, which still represent a very large intake. For an up to date survey see Breugel, 12 February, and The Economist, interactive graphics, 6 February.
In May 2015 Branko Milanovic wrote a post in Social Europe, “Five reasons why migration into Europe is a problem with no solution”: 1) deep-seated and permanent factors such as political chaos in the Middle East and extraordinarily huge and increasing income gaps between Europe and Africa, with sub-Saharan population poised to increase almost by six times by 2100; 2) lack of an immigration tradition in Europe; 3) European political blunders due to a combination of incompetence and arrogance, such as overthrowing Gaddafi, the ultimatum to the previous Ukrainian government, and the handling of the Greek crisis; 4) the increasing influence of right-wing, populist anti-immigration parties in several European countries, even when they are not in government; 5) the total lack of strategies, policies and ideas at the European level, while the crisis calls for a multilateral solution involving co-ordination among member-states and with African countries and the European recognition that an influx from Africa is dictated by demographic and economic gaps: “Unfortunately, neither of these two conditions is close to being satisfied. So the problem, among permanent political improvisation, will continue to worsen” – he wrote prophetically. (In a post in the same series last January Branko stressed the economic positives and negatives of migrations; see also his forthcoming book Global Inequality - A New Approach for the Age of Globalization, Belknap Press).
The Schengen Area rules include provisions for temporary border controls to be re-established in case of urgency, for up to 2 and 6 months, and for outright suspension for up to 2 years in the case of threats to public order. Since the 2015 summer temporary measures have been already implemented unilaterally by several countries. Hungary closed its borders with Serbia, Romania and Croatia, allowing its army to use rubber bullets, tear gas and barbed wire against migrants. In November Slovenia started building its own fence along the Croatian border; its Parliament recently approved the deployment of the country’s army to manage the migrants’ flow at its borders. An increasing numbers of migrants have been cutting through these barriers to enter the EU.





Warren Richardson, Hope for a New Life. A man slides a child under barbed wire at the border between Serbia and Hungary at Röszke, Hungary, 28 August 2015. (World Press Photo)
Sergey Ponomarev, Russia, The New York Times, The European migration crisis: Refugees arrive by boat near the village of Skala on the Lesbos Island, Greece, 16 November 2015 (World Press Photo)

The closing of Sche­­ngen internal borders has accelerated since the beginning of 2016. In Denmark the government extended passport checks on the German border for the third time, with Sweden keeping similar checks for travellers arriving from Denmark. France is in the process of closing down the so-called “Jungle” migrant camp at Calais, whose estimated 5,500 residents were waiting to smuggle themselves to the UK on ferries, or through the Chunnel in trucks, trains or even on foot; the closure was violently resisted. Belgium reintroduced border controls on its frontier with France, hiring 290 extra-police officers to try and stop the Calais migrants from moving to its coastline. Austria has built a wall at its frontier with Slovenia; in under two months in 2016 it received 101,000 migrants compared with 4,000 in the same period last year, and has introduced a cap of 80 asylum applications per day.  Borders have been tightened between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece, allowing Syrians and Iraqis through but barring Afghans, who then were banned also by Croatia. Towards the end of February over 22,000 migrants were stranded in Greece and were expected by the Greek Migration Minister and Vice-premier to treble by the end of March; the UN estimates their number to be increasing even faster, at the rate of 3,600 per day. The Greek border with Macedonia has been nearly sealed off, threatening to turn Greece into a giant refugee camp – a “warehouse of souls” (Tsipras). 

The EU is planning to provide Greece with €700mn over 3 years (of which 300mn in 2016 for emergency assistance to migrants); reasonable proposals to trade off migrant assistance for Greek debt cancellation have been rejected as a moral hazard risk. On 24 February in Vienna ten eastern European countries – with the much resented exclusion of Germany, Greece and Italy – agreed on tightening up their own border controls with a view to stop the Western Balkan route into Europe, which of course will shift the flow back to the Mediterranean route into Italy. On 29 February at the Macedonian-Greek border “crowds of migrants were beaten back from storming a fence with a salvo of tear gas” (FT, 1 March). The current migration assault is even more serious than the Euro crisis, as Angela Merkel recently acknowledged.
Last November Jean Asselborn, Luxembourg’s Foreign Minister, declared that Europeans had “only a few months” to save the Schengen system. On 21 February Thomas de Maizière, Germany's Interior Minister, stated that EU member states must agree a common approach to tackle migrations ­“within two weeks”if they wanted to avoid the system’s complete collapse. On 4 March the European Commission unveiled a plan, Back to Schengen, “to lift all remaining border controls by December 2016, so as to return to a normally functioning Schengen Area before the end of the year”. The options considered involve sharing out asylum seekers across the EU on a quota basis regardless of where they first arrived, either as a general procedure or only if a country is overwhelmed by a sudden influx. The IX Report on European Security reveals that a poll conducted in early 2016 among 1000 respondents each in Italy, Spain, France and Germany gives a majority of over 75% in favour of the reintroduction of border controls either unconditionally (56% in Italy) or in special circumstances (Repubblica, 7 March).
The Schengen crisis should not take anybody by surprise. The writing has been on the wall for a long time. The introduction of the Euro as a common currency had equally been an excellent idea, which however failed because it was premature before political, fiscal and banking integration; incomplete due to the ECB lacking powers as Lender of Last Resort to the EU and the member states; and because the Eurozone was subject to increasing divergence in the member states’ fundamentals. The Euro crisis was also made worse by austerity policies perversely enforced by the German-led European authorities. Precisely the same kind of criticisms apply to free internal travel within the Schengen Area: premature, incomplete and made worse by country divergence and recessionary austerity. On the impact of austerity on migrations and convergence see Michelle Baddeley, "Convergence, Divergence and Migration in an Age of Austerity", Seminar paper, Cambridge 2016:

“…(T)
he ability for host societies and economies to adapt will be constrained by limits on government spending. Infrastructure investment is needed in the very short‐term, including emergency infrastructure to support the immediate consequences of migration e.g. within refugee and migrant camps. Infrastructure investment will also be essential in the medium to long term to ensure that growing migrant populations have proper access to social infrastructure including housing, schools, hospitals and other medical services. Without this investment, the prospects for growing inequality, deprivation and socio-political unrest are likely to be severe – exacerbating divergences at many levels: between the global South and North, between Northern and Southern parts of the EU, and within countries depending on how different regions’ populations are affected by migration and/or how much access they have to public finance for infrastructure investment.”

Three considerations are in order:
1.Free internal travel requires strong external controls. Just like a Free Trade Area requires a common external tariff barrier, free internal travel obviously requires a common external border, with a common Coast Guard, border guards and if necessary a common Army, all provided and paid for centrally. The Schengen external borders, on the contrary, are delegated to national, fragmented, uneven and inadequate controls (in spite of the rudimentary Frontex agency and the recent intervention of NATO ships patrolling the Aegean Sea). Moreover existing controls do not include brutal repression, and this humanitarian restraint is more labour-intensive. Shooting trespassers on sight, as East German guards protecting GDR borders used to do with attempted exits, is not yet reached but arrest and imprisonment in Hungary (and the extra-Schengen UK) have been, as well as the use of tear gas and rubber bullets elsewhere.
Schengen external borders are a sieve that allows through indiscriminately legitimate refugees, escaping directly from persecution and war, and economic migrants, i.e. those refugees who had already reached a safe country, or other migrants who are simply seeking to improve their standard of living. The difference between refugees and economic migrants (both classed here as migrants) is elusive, as even refugees will tend to move towards countries with higher employment opportunities and/or income, thus abandoning their “first safe country” status. This difference is fundamental: refugees are protected by UN regulation on reaching their first safe haven, the others are still subject to national endorsement and control. And even if a policy of completely open doors was adopted towards economic migrants, the speed of the migratory inflow would still have to be subject to national control. In fact the capacity to absorb immigrants into any given territory is limited at any time by short term available resources, by the country’s capacity to integrate immigrants and, as well, by their own willingness and preparedness to be integrated.
Whether or not immigration brings net benefits to the host country is a controversial matter. On balance it probably does in the long term, but the case of very fast, concentrated mass migration should be considered in its own terms. The possibility cannot be neglected of a mixed distributional impact on workers and firms through greater competition in labour markets, both in the short and long term; of significant additional investment cost in new infrastructures, and - at least in the short term - welfare costs, making immigration a public investment competing with alternative forms of public expenditure. Immigration brings possible cultural enrichment but also possible cultural impoverishment, as well as potential cultural, political, ethnic and religious conflict – even leaving aside the possibility, not entirely implausible, of migration being a vehicle of health contagion and terrorist infiltration. These drawbacks have to be set against the benefit of rejuvenation of an ageing host population, which is associated with mass immigration.
Whatever the true net costs and benefits of immigration, the increasing electoral success of right-wing, populist, anti-immigration parties in most of the developed world signals unambiguously the widespread perception – right or wrong – that the current level and/or rate of immigration are excessive: from Matteo Salvini’s Lega to Nigel Farage’s UKIP, from Jimmie Åkesson’s Swedish Democrats to Geert Wilders’ Party for Freedom, from the German Alternative für Deutschland to Viktor Orbán’s Fidesz or Jaroslaw Kaczynski’s PiS, Heinz-Christian Strache’s FPO, Milos Freeman’s Civil Rights Party, Marine Le Pen’s Front National, the Finnish and Norwegian anti-immigration parties, as well as shifts in more standard political parties (see the anti-immigration stance of Boris Johnson, mayor of London and David Cameron’s probable successor). In the US the latest polls show that immigration is fourth or lower on public concerns: the anti-immigration vote is overwhelmed by the economy, anti-Elite feelings and security issues, although Donald Trump’s large-scale wall-building and deportation plans may have something to do with his unexpectedly strong bid for the US Presidency.
When existing external borders are not in a position to identify and register all migrants, to distinguish between refugees reaching their first safe haven (which the 1990 Dublin Convention rules, stricter than the UN rules, regard as the first EU country) and all other migrants, it is unavoidable that each Schengen member state will need to reintroduce effective border controls, including visas and passport checks.
The identification of immigrants has been likened to the marking of prisoners in Nazi concentration camps, but the comparison is improper, even if identification required the use of force. Identification is essential to verify both the right to residence and entitlement to benefits.
The almost 4,000 migrants that drowned trying to cross the Mediterranean Sea, the high monetary cost (steeply rising with the spreading of border controls and obstacles) and exposure to violence and other personal risks of migration make the desperate predicament of economic migrants – running away from famine, destitution, drought, environmental and cultural disasters – very close to that of refugees running away from persecution and war. But the difference is still there: refugees have a sacrosanct right to asylum sanctioned by the United Nations, while all others by migrating place themselves at the mercy of their countries of arrival: economic migrants can be refused entry or be repatriated.
Both rejection and forced repatriation are unpleasant and brutal, but an indiscriminate open doors policy would amount to the pretense that the world in which we live, dominated by private property and territory-based democracy, is instead a non-existing utopia of global democracy and universal communism, though limited to the collectivization of social capital. No wonder such a contradictory utopia was never proposed or theorized by anyone. In the world as we know it international solidarity is necessarily a discretionary concession by those who can afford generosity, which can only be exercised collectively if backed by a majority; it is not an automatic right of those who need international solidarity. 
Moreover a policy of indiscriminate open doors to all immigrants, while reducing international inequality across countries will increase internal inequality within countries because of the greater competition in the labour market in the host countries and the impoverishment of the emitting countries, thus leading to a possible and perhaps probable greater global inequality. (The case for repatriation is developed conclusively by Alberto Chilosi, “On the economics and politics of unrestricted immigration”, The Political Quarterly, 73-4, pp. 431–435, October 2002).
All immigrants, whether or not they can be classed as refugees, should be protected from the risks of their journey, in spite of such risks being to some extent the result of their own actions, just as cancer patients are entitled to treatment even if they are smokers (though some may disagree). Preferably the cost of protecting them should be a charge on all Schengen countries, as it is now for the EU Frontex operations, but even if such cost was born by a single country’s taxpayers as in the case of Italy’s Mare Nostrum scheme it would still be desirable.
The trouble is that repatriation is costly, and should be financed by the Schengen countries as it is part of the cost of abolishing internal borders; it requires the agreement of the country of origin or of the first safe country reached, which may be unknown or might no longer exist or might not honour such an agreement (e.g. Pakistan). Moreover it is doubtful whether “pushbacks”, whereby asylum seekers are returned to a country without their application having had a fair hearing, are consistent with both the Geneva Conventions and the EU asylum code. But the fact that repatriation will not always be possible is no reason for not attempting it at least in some cases, if nothing else pour encourager les autres.  Refugees are in a different position because with the settlement of conflict in their own countries they should return home.
On 27 January Sweden – that last year received 163,000 asylum applications, the highest number per capita in Europe – announced a plan to repatriate 80,000 migrants (subsequently reduced to 60,000 then left undetermined) “over  many years”, using aircraft chartered for the purpose, but the plan is still on paper. In the same week 308 economic migrants were sent back by bus from Greece to Turkey; however Turkey will not accept more unless Europe takes more Syrians off their hands – a vicious circle. Rejection looks like a more viable option: in his current visit of the Western Balkans ahead of the EU-Turkey summit Donald Tusk, on 2 March in Zagreb, said that “Member states should refuse entry to third-country nationals who do not meet the necessary conditions or who, although they were able to do so earlier, did not apply for asylum.” (European Council communique’ 3 March). However, the concentration of rejected economic migrants in border camps is bound to create other problems, while the prospect of future rejections can only speed up current migration flows.
2.Free internal travel requires the convergence of living standards within the area (including welfare provisions). Not unnaturally foot-lose migrants who do not have stronger ties (of language, religion, relatives, friends) to a particular country will tend to choose their ultimate destination on the basis of their perception of maximum improvement in their living standard resulting from migration. Employment prospects are likely to be paramount, indeed traditional migration theory (exemplified by the Harris-Todaro model, AER 1970, 60-1) relates the incentive to migrate to wage differences between the home and destination countries weighed by their respective probability of employment (taken as 1 minus the unemployment rate), to which of course one should add the net improvement in welfare benefits. Potential immigrants may well tend to overestimate their perceived income improvement prospects, as they seem to imagine themselves and their children gainfully employed at top salaries; this is one of the factors encouraging migrations beyond reason. When expected income gains diverge across potential destinations, the more attractive countries naturally will tend to be disproportionately vulnerable to migratory inflows. Hence the incentive for destination countries to raise national barriers, and/or discriminate in welfare benefits against immigrants, or dismantle the welfare state tout court for both nationals and immigrants. Even James Meade – a liberal and enlightened economist who proposed a generous generalised basic income – in order to prevent opportunistic immigration recommended that immigrants should be treated by the principle of reciprocity, i.e. enjoy the same benefits, if any, that our nationals might be granted in the migrants’ country of origin. (It has been objected that such a rule might be applied to countries of the same level of development, such as North-North and perhaps South-South, but not to South-North migrations).
The UK is a case in point. Relatively generous benefits granted to immigrants from other EU countries, including social housing, national health entitlements and payments to relatives resident abroad, have led to Cameron attempting to negotiate “emergency brakes” with the EU, subjecting benefits to time restrictions (excluding immigrants for the first four years residence), or to resident family members (possibly restricting family re-joining). Cameron succeeded in negotiating with the EU these kinds of restrictions only for future and not for existing immigrants, which therefore strengthened the conservative government resolve to reduce welfare benefits all round. Meanwhile non-European immigrants to the UK are subjected to a minimum income to be reached within the first 5 years of residence (which has just been raised from £21,000 to £35,000 from next April), under penalty of expulsion after one additional year. New rules will make UK landlords responsible for checking the documents of their tenants, making it harder to find accommodation not only for unauthorized immigrants but also for the 60% UK citizens who do not possess a passport.
3.Any attempt at a fair re-distribution of immigrants among countries requires the re-establishment of national borders. Last July EU Interior Ministers - outvoting Romania, Hungary, the Czech and Slovak republics strongly opposed to the scheme - imposed a plan to relocate 40,000 migrants (24,000 from Italy and 16,000 from Greece) across the EU. In September an additional 120,000 relocations (16,600 from Italy, 54,400 from Greece and 54,000 from Hungary) were added, raising the total to 160,000 in two years, of which 54,000 were postponed to the following year (FT, 25 September 2015). Viktor Orbán, Hungary’s prime minister, announced a referendumon whether the country should be forced to resettle refugees, on the ground that “Introducing resettlement quotas for migrants without the support of the people is an abuse of power”; he is unlikely to lose that referendum. On 28 February Pope Francis advocated “an equitable re-distribution of the burden of migrants” (thus accepting that immigration is a burden).  However, such kind of a re-location is futile, not to say idiotic, for under Schengen completely free and unrestricted internal travel any immigrant re-located to a country other than his/her preferred destination can at any time, and eventually will, just go there. Indeed we could argue that even the relocation of migrants within a given country might have to be subjected, in order to be done efficiently, to the introduction of internal passports and controls of the kind prevailing in the Soviet Union until 1991, in order to stop immigrants from settling in the capital city and in other metropolitan areas that are already overcrowded and congested and to divert them instead to less developed areas with an abundance of cheap underutilised housing and land.
On 29 February Angela Merkel said it loud and clear: “Migrants may not pick and choose where they are to be settled” (Daily Telegraph, 1 March). She referred to their choice of country, but Germany is indeed unusual in imposing constraints on where migrants can live, both in order to prevent the formation of ghettos in big cities and to direct immigrant flows to the underpopulated regions of the former GDR where there is plentiful social housing and a shortage of young workers. Such a policy had been introduced in the 1990s at the time of a large influx of ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union and Romania. Immigrants have their welfare benefits cut if they move away from their assigned locations. In the UK immigrants who claim social housing and some other benefits are offered it only in the northern rust belt towns.
This kind of restrictions seem necessary to the smoother absorption of immigrants, but paradoxically the European Court of Justice, ruling on a complaint by two Syrians about their German residence requirements, at the end of February 2016 decided that EU rules “preclude” them even if they are aimed at “achieving an appropriate distribution of the burden connected with the benefits”, though it also said that people granted subsidiary protection could be subject to a residence condition “for the purpose of promoting their integration”. Nevertheless German ministers are preparing a law which would expand the existing residence restrictions to refugees whose asylum requests have been approved, in spite of objections from refugee associations (FT, 1 March).
Disintegration?  At present the EU is being subjected to four centrifugal forces (see Munchau, FT 28 February. and Javier Lopez, “Europe in Multiple Organ Failure”): a North-South divide over border controls; another North-South divide about austerity and the Euro; an East-West divide over migrant re-location; and the uncertain implications of Brexit with possible contagion effects on other member states.
It is difficult to disagree with Oxford political scientist Jan Zielonka (Is the EU doomed? Global Futures, Polity Press, London, 2014) when he argues that “Sadly… at present the EU does not facilitate integration, but impedes it”… “The European Union was widely regarded as the most successful modern integration project, but it has turned into an embarrassment”… “No wonder so many citizens lost trust in the EU, and that the process of disintegration is gathering pace.” But Zielonka’s expectation that “A weakening of the EU and its member states will strengthen other political actors such as cities, regions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)” is utterly unconvincing: the solution or even the alleviation of both the Euro crisis and the migration crisis cannot rely on a network of de-centralised power centres but will require a deep degree of centralised initiative and commitment to greater integration. See “A Plan for Europe’s Refugees”, The Economist 6 February:
“Creating a well-regulated system requires three steps. The first is to curb the “push factors” that encourage people to risk the crossing, by beefing up aid to refugees, particularly to the victims of the civil wars in Syria and Iraq, including the huge number who have fled to neighbouring countries such as Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon. The second is to review asylum claims while refugees are still in centres in the Middle East or in the “hotspots” (mainly in Greece and Italy), where they go when they first arrive in the EU. The third element is to insist that asylum-seekers stay put until their applications are processed, rather than jumping on a train to Germany.” Unfortunately, “All these steps are fraught with difficulty.”
Prospects might become clearer soon, after the next EU-Turkey summit (7-8 March), the German regional elections (13 March) regarded as a test of Merkel’s immigration policies, and the EU Summit on migration (18-19 March).
There seems to be, however, a constitutional conflict between European and international rules about treaties, revealed by the recent agreement reached by the UK and all the other member states about the special terms negotiated by Cameron for the UK. That Agreement is said to have been deposited within the UN and is therefore subject to the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice, which operates on rules different from those of the European Court of Justice competent to enforce the European Treaties. Downing Street has claimed that the EU-UK agreement is legally binding and enforceable, but it is not clear whether any country who did not like it might seek to challenge it in the International Court of Justice. A constitutional crisis of this kind is the last thing that Europe needs today.

Note: I thank Carmen de la Camara, Marilena Giannetti, Tonino Lettieri, Ruggero Paladini and Fabio Sdogati for useful comments on an earlier draft of this post. However they should not be held responsible for any errors or omissions, nor deemed necessarily to agree with any of the propositions put forward here.

UPDATE
The EU-Turkey summit of 7-8 March led to a draft deal whereby Turkey would take back immigrants coming from Greece unless they successfully applied for asylum there, while the EU would take in one Syrian refugee for every immigrant sent back. In exchange Turkey would receive €6bn aid instead of the €3bn already committed but not yet disbursed, accelerate its progress towards EU accession and obtain visa-free travel to the Schengen Area for its 75mn citizens.


In the three German regional elections of 13 March Ms Merkel’s CDU Party retained the possibility of forming coalition governments but lost ground heavily, while her PSD coalition Party that had backed her immigration policies performed even worse. The xenophobic right-wing AfD gained record support.


On 18 March after ten days negotiations the EU and Turkey reached a compromise deal that commanded unanimous support, effective from 20 March. Greece obtained 4000 new personnel to process asylum applications. There would be no collective pushbacks, but starting on 4 April Turkey (that received 2.7 million migrants to date) would take back applicants who did not qualify for asylum in Greece, while the EU would take from Turkey â€œone for one” as many Syrians up to a ceiling of 72,000. In exchange Turkey would receive €6bn instead of the anticipated €3bn, of which 3bn up front and 3bn at the end of the year; the process of EU accession would be tentatively reopened and EU visa-free travel for Turkish citizens would be granted from next June.

The Greek government’s migration spokesman Giorgos Kyritsis declared that implementation of the deal would require more than 24 hours; Turkey will not take back migrants before 4 April anyway. The 4,000 officials, translators, judges and security guards promised by the EU still have to arrive; eight ships with a capacity of 300-400 passengers each need to be provided by Frontex, together with 30 buses. Thousands of migrants (mostly Syrian, but also Iraqis and Afghans) have continued to arrive in Greece in spite of the agreement. Greece is still relocating migrants from its islands to temporary refugee camps on the mainland. From 4 April a number of failed asylum-seekers (750 in the first week, mostly North Africans, Afghans and Pakistanis) from Greek detention centres will board a vessel chartered by Frontex and be taken to Turkey. In return Germany will take an equivalent number from Turkish refugee camps. These deportations might be illegal and have sparked violent protests but will accelerate in April.

There were still strong objections from humanitarian groups, on the ground that the deal violated international law on the treatment of refugees; Turkey is expected to conform its regulations to international standards, but refused to accept a formal commitment to that effect. European reaction has ranged from welcoming “closed borders” to condemning the “shameful deal”. Wolfgang Munchau, FT 21 March: “The deal with Turkey is as sordid as anything I have seen in modern European politics… The EU not only sold its soul that day, it actually negotiated a pretty lousy deal.”  On 22 March the UN refugee agency announced the suspension of its involvement at all closed centres on the Greek islands, on the ground that so-called “hotspots” for the reception and registration of migrants had turned into “detention facilities” in violation of UN regulations. On 23 March Médecins Sans Frontières and the International Rescue Committee also scaled back their activities in the Greek centres. Following terrorist attacks in Brussels Poland now declared that it can now no longer honour the previous government’s commitment to take a quota of 7,000 refugees out of the 120.000 to be resettled across the EU. In the week following the EU-Turkey deal migration inflows to Greece were reduced drastically, though this might be due to adverse whether conditions in the Aegean.


In the last seven months, Hungary’s courts have held 2,189 trials for border crimes (including on 18 March a blind woman and a man confined to a wheelchair accused of interfering with Hungarian borders last November, FT 22 March) leading to an exceptionally high rate of convictions of 99 per cent. Hungarian judges have chosen expulsions and long entry bans from Schengen countries over prison sentences. On 22 March Frontex was reported saying that it was trying to recruit 150 policemen and 50 officials to be deployed on Greek borders, i.e. it had not succeeded yet.

The Greek-Macedonian border will remain closed, blocking the Balkan route to Northern Europe, leaving tens of thousands migrants stranded in Greece for some time, including Syrians who thought they had been invited by Angela Merkel to come and stay in Germany. It is not clear how the 72,000 asylum seekers would be distributed among member states; once that ceiling is reached the arrangement will be "reviewed", though Central-Eastern EU members are committed to stop at that ceiling. 

The closure of the Balkan route will induce desperate migrants and their smugglers to switch to different and more dangerous routes to Europe, via the Black Sea through Ukraine, via Albania and the Adriatic to Italy, via the South Mediterranean to Italy and Spain (the last two routes having continued to be used especially from Lybia; in the first three months of 2016 immigrants arriving in Italy from the Mediterranean route have doubled). France, Switzerland and Slovenia would then be bound to reintroduce border controls, thus cutting off Italy and possibly Spain from the Schengen area; Austria is already closing the Italian border at Brennero. Liberalisation of travel for Turks would lead to an additional inflow of Turkish Kurds. According to a German think-tank refugee flows this year will amount to an estimated range of 1.8m-6.4m (the higher figure being a worst-case scenario including large numbers from Northern Africa).


Incidentally, on the costs and benefits of mass immigration with special reference to the UK, see R.E. Rowthorn’s excellent Report, 2015.


          Sajtókonferencia        
UNESCO-vártemplomok Erdélyben. Nyitott kapuk a kulturális örökség megismeréséhez és védelméhez. 
2016. április 28.

Alább a konferencián elhangzott köszöntőbeszédem olvasható kiegészítve a KovátsFoto képeivel: 

Isten áldja! Erős vár a mi Istenünk! - Bună ziua. Doamne ajută! - Guten Tag! Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott!

UNESCO -vártemplomok Erdélyben – projektünk a szász és a székely kultúra, a Német Evangélikus- és a MagyarUnitárius Egyház közötti párbeszédre kínált és kínál lehetőséget. A támogatókon keresztül (Norvégia, Liechtenstein, Izland)ebbe a párbeszédbe bekapcsolódott az európaiság, a pályázat kiírója(Romániai Művelődési Minisztérium)által az ország, a templomhoz való ragaszkodással pedig Székelyderzs és a helyiközösség.

A mai sajtókonferencián ezzel
a házigazda szeretettel, nemzetek és felekezetek iránti nyitottsággal és tisztelettel köszöntöm meghívott vendégeinket, a sajtó képviselőit és a helyi résztvevőket.
A vállalt szellemiségnek megfelelően eseményünk háromnyelvű lesz. A román nyelvre való szinkrontolmácsolást Kiss Zoltán, a CIVITAS Alapítvány munkatársa biztosítja, a német nyelvű köszöntőt Barta Klaudia, gyülekezetünk tagja tolmácsolja.

A projekt összefoglalóját Kulcsár Orsolya projektmenedzser mondja el, annak elvi alapjairól és hátteréről Orbán Árpád a CIVITAS Alapítvány székelyudvarhelyi igazgatója beszél. Egyházközségünk részéről rövid kultúr-műsorral készültünk. A konferencia után meghívjuk Önöket, hogy bemutassuk megvalósításainkat. A kulturális bástyában (Petky bástya) helyi termékek kostólására várjuk szeretettel mindannyiukat. A konferencia zárása után protokoll vendégeinket ebédre invitáljuk.

Az UMP-vel való bukaresti konzultációnk alkalmával a minisztériumi csoport igazgatója számtalan technikai jellegű kérdést tett fel, és én hol a tervezőre, hol a resturátorra, hol a CIVITAS szakmai csapatára hivatkozva válaszoltam. Egyszer meglepődve kérdezték meg: Én ennyire bízom az emberekben, akikkel együtt dolgozom? Igen, mondtam, nekem ez a feladatom. Lelkészként és projektkkordinátorként se akarjak jobban tudni bozonyos dolgokat, mint a szakemberek. Mit teszek, ha valaki beteg lesz? - kérdezték. Kapásból mondtam: Mit tehetnék? Imádkozom. Az elmúlt 11 hónap – és az előtte való 2 év - projektvilága számtalan lehetőséget kínált az imádságra: betegségben, határidők előtt és után, lehetetlennek tűnő helyzetekben... Csapattársaimmal sokszor megéltük azt amire Jézus tanít: „Bizony mondom nektek: ha akkora hitetek volna, mint egy mustármag, és azt mondanátok ennek a hegynek: Menj innen oda - akkor odamenne, és semmi sem volna nektek lehetetlen.(Mt 17, 20)Az utolsó pillanatokban, hajszálnyira az ütközéstől, azok a hegyek végül mindig elmozdultak a helyükről. Ma megköszönöm a CIVITAS Alapítvány munkatársainak munkáját, a keblitanács munkáját, Tövissi Zsolt építész jóérzésű szakmai hozzállását, a kivitelezők szakértelmét és minden segítséget, a gyülekezet nyitottságát és minden jólelkű segítséget.
Kívánom, hogy érezzék jól magukat Székelyderzsben, ahol a történelem együtt él a faluval. Abban a vikágörökség templomban, amelynek gyülekezete vallja: Egészségesen - Hittel, családdal, munkával. Isten áldja. 
Iosefina Postavaru az Instiutul National al Patrimoniului képviselője
Német tolmácsunk Barta Klaudia 

Lakószoba a régi lakóbástyában

Sajtókonferenciázók

Dr. Stefan Magnus Cosoroaba lelkész, egyetemi docens ,
a Német Evangélikus Egyház képviseletében és Kiss Zoltán szinkrontolmács
A CIVITAS Alapítvány a Polgári Társadalomért vezetői: Orbán Árpád igazgató,
Kolumbán Gábor elnök és Kulcsár Orsolya projektmenedzser

Dr. Zsigmond Barna Pál főkonzul köszöntője


Tövissi Zsolt vezető tervező

Furu Árpád építész a Magyar Unitárius Egyház képviseletében

Kornis Kata Asszonykórus
A kétnyelvű kulturális műsort biztosító fiatalok

Fotokiállítás




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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps, VISAs and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italia, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Mexico, Netherlands, South Africa, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Why I Bet At The Golotto Lottery In Liechtenstein?        
There are several kinds of lotteries, each with varying odds of winning. Somehow, the best chances are with lottery systems such as the ones generated in Liechtenstein. Here, not only the tickets of the lottery are very cheap, the chances for winning are very high as well.

Winning Go Lotto Lottery is a Great Possibility When Betting at Liechtenstein

I am a total novice at betting and lottery, but who doesn’t love winning. One day when I was really low on cash and I was trying to organize some funds from my friends, I was advised to take a chance and bet on the go lotto lottery in Liechtenstein. I was not very inclined to use the dwindling funds I had on lottery as I did not feel too lucky. But my friend had taken a lot of pain to convince me that this opportunity is great and that anyone can win with Liechtenstein go lotto lottery because the system is made in such a way – and if I loose the lottery support the Red Cross.

He had showed me how to log in and place bets on the Go Lotto lottery online and I was indeed pleased with the fact that the tickets for this lottery cost only one dollar each. Then, on an impulse I agreed and placed a tiny bet.

Winning is a Great Feeling!

I followed the developments and was looking forward to the day when the results would be declared. I never really had any hopes that I would win anything – I never won a lottery before in my whole life – but no one can help the building up of the excitement as D-day approaches.

The morning the results were declared, I got a call at 6.30 am from my friend saying to check my results. I thanked him for the reminder and got up grudgingly from my comfortable bed to deal with the morning chores. After I had my breakfast I remembered that I hadn’t checked on the results. I was smiling in my mind thinking how would it be if I would really be the winner of some Liechtenstein golotto lottery.

When the results came on the screen – I checked for the winning numbers and found to my great surprise and pleasure that my ticket was among the winning lot. This is how today I am a totally die-hard fan of the lottery (www.LiechtensteinLotto.com) of Liechtenstein!


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          2012 in review        
I folletti delle statistiche di WordPress.com hanno preparato un rapporto annuale 2012 per questo blog. Ecco un estratto: About 55,000 tourists visit Liechtenstein every year. This blog was viewed about 190.000 times in 2012. If it were Liechtenstein, it would take about 3 years for that many people to see it. Your blog had more […]
          Rachunek bankowy w Liechtensteinie        
Korporacja zawiązała współpracę z bankiem w Księstwie Liechtenstein. Dzięki tej współpracy możemy zaproponować klientom korporacji możliwość otwarcia kont bankowych w tym najbardziej przyjaznym dla bankowości miejscu świata. Księstwo Liechtensteinu to niewielkie leżące u podnóża Alp państwo położone w Europie Zachodniej. Księstwo Liechtensteinu graniczy z dwoma krajami: Szwajcarią i Austrią. Stolicą Liechtensteinu jest Vaduz. Księstwo Liechtensteinu […]
          OIL RIG ADDRESSES ALL OVER THE WORLD        
ABAN LOYD CHILES OFFSHORE
LTD
“Janpriya Crest”
No. 113, Pantheon Rd
Egmore, Chennai Tamil Nadu 600
008 INDIA
Phone: 91/044-28222400
Fax: 91/044-28229412
E-Mail:
abanloyd@abanindia.com
Web: www.abanindia.com
______________________

ABU DHABI GENERAL
MAINTENANCE AND PETROLEUM
SERVICES CO. (ADMASCO)
PO Box 7384
Abu Dhabi UNITED ARAB
EMIRATES
Phone: 971/2 6775000
Fax: 971/2 6671099
E-Mail:
admasco@emirates.net.ae
_______________________________
ADOBE OILFIELD SERVICES, INC.
PO Box 12490
Odessa, Texas 79768 USA
8124 Sprague Rd
Odessa, Texas 79764 USA
Phone: 432-552-5553
Fax: 432-550-5782
E-Mail:
brendab@adobeservices.com
Web: www.adobeservices.com
___________________________________
ALADDIN MIDDLE EAST LTD.
Sogutozu Caddesi No 23
Balgat 06520
Ankara TURKEY
Phone: 90/312-2871915
Fax: 90/312-2873357
E-Mail: csayer@tr.net
ALEXANDER DRILLING INC.
PO Box 6162
Ft Smith, Arkansas 72906 USA
Phone: 918-436-2491
Fax: 918-436-2493
E-Mail: alexdrlg1@aol.com
Web: www.alexandersrilling.com
_______________________________________
ALTHEV OILFIELD SERVICES LTD.
3 Teak Street
Trincity TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
Phone: 868-640-5604
Fax: 868-640-8619
E-Mail: awilliams@althev.com
____________________________________

AMERICAN DRILLING
CONTRACTORS, LLC
3100 La Plata Highway
Farmington, New Mexico 87401
USA
Phone: 505-564-3111
Fax: 505-564-3109
_______________________________
ANWAR AKKAD SONS COMPANY
5th Floor, Dar El Mohandseen Bldg
Arnos Square
Damascus SYRIA
Phone: 963/11 3322683
Fax: 963/11 3326666
E-Mail: unitedoil@mail.sy
______________________________________
APACHE DRILLING CO.
4001-A N. Main
Fort Worth, Texas 76106 USA
Phone: 817-625-7897
Fax: 702-552-9790
________________________________
PT APEXINDO PRATAMA DUTA
TBK
MEDCO Building 2nd-3rd floor
Jl Ampera Raya No 20
Cilandak
Jakarta 12560 INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-7804766
Fax: 62/21-7804666
E-Mail: investorrelations@
apexindo.com
Web: www.Apexindo.com
______________________________________
PT APEXINDO PRATAMA DUTA
Jl. Jend. Sudirman
Balikpapan Permai Complex
Block L No 10-12
Balikpapan, East Kalimantan 76114
INDONESIA
Phone: 62/542-410258
Fax: 62/542-411788
E-Mail: investorrelations@
apexindo.com
________________________________
MESA DRILLING INC.
2929 Briarpark Dr
Houston, TX 77042 USA
Phone: 713-993-7082
Fax: 713-993-7084
____________________________________
ARAB DRILLING & WORKOVER CO.
PO Box 680
Tripoli LIBYA
Phone: 218/21-4804855
Fax: 218/21-4804998
E-Mail: adwoc@lttnet.net
______________________________________
ARROW DRILLING, LLC
3817 NW Expressway, Ste 605
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73112
USA
Phone: 405-917-7860
Fax: 405-917-7862
E-Mail:
bradpumphrey@coxinet.net
______________________________________
ARTESIA FISHING TOOL CO INC
P.O. Box 1370
Artesia, New Mexico 88211 USA
Phone: 505-746-3518
Fax: 505-748-2205
E-Mail: aftdrlg@pvtnetworks.net
_______________________________________
ASCOM GROUP S.A.
18, Renasterii Bld. Chisinau
Republic of Moldova MD-2005
MOLDOVA
Phone: 373/22-221872
Fax: 373/22-227566
E-Mail: info@ascom.md
___________________________________
CASCO-DRILLING CONTRACTOR
AND TURNKEY OPERATOR
Manghistau Oblast
Beyneu District, Borankul
Republic of Kazakhstan
KAZAKHSTAN
Phone: 7/3292510602
ASPEN DRILLING CO., INC.
9054 Highway So. 285
Morrison, Colorado 80465 USA
Phone: 303-697-8335
Fax: 303-697-6816
E-Mail: cmcaspen@aol.com
____________________________________
ASSOCIATION OF DRILLING
CONTRACTORS
PO Box 623
Moscow 117049 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/095-236-9714
Fax: 7/095-236-9714
__________________________________
ATWOOD OCEANICS
PO Box 218350
Houston, Texas 77218-8350 USA
15835 Park Ten Place Dr Ste 200
Houston, Texas 77084-5131 USA
Phone: 281-749-7800
Toll Free: 800-231-5924
Fax: 281-492-0345
Web: www.atwd.com
____________________________________
ATWOOD OCEANICS SERVICES
400 Orchard Rd #06-09A
Orchard Towers (Front Block)
Singapore 238875 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/7373492
Fax: 65/7336386
_____________________________________
ATWOOD OCEANICS AUSTRALIA
PTY. LTD.
35 Peel Rd
O’Connor, WAU 6163 AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61/8-93312099
Fax: 61/8-93371383
______________________________________
ATWOOD OCEANICS PACIFIC
LIMITED ATWOOD OCEANICS
INT’L., LIMITED
Road #11, #10B, 4th Floor
Maadi EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-706-6167
Fax: 20/2-706-6166
_____________________________________
____________________________

AXXIS DRILLING
1015 N. Cruse Avenue
Broussard, Louisiana 70518 USA
Phone: 337-837-8806
Fax: 337-837-8807
E-Mail: rborel@axxisdrilling.com
1 Inland Barges
Gulf Coast, USA
_____________________________________
AZTEC INT’L. LTD.
1000/40-41, 11th Flr, P.B. Tower
Sukhumvit 71 Road
Klongtonnua, Wattana
Bangkok 10110 THAILAND
Phone: 66/2-3910765
Fax: 66/2-3812800
E-Mail: info@aztec.co.th
Web: www.aztec.co.th
___________________________________
AZTEC WELL SERVICING
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 100
Aztec, New Mexico 87410 USA
Phone: 505-334-6194
Fax: 505-334-8729
E-Mail: stewart-aws@digii.net
__________________________________________
BANDERA DRILLING CO., INC.
809 T & P Lane
Abilene, Texas 79602-3099 USA
Phone: 325-676-5591
Toll Free: 800-634-3693
Fax: 325-676-5599
E-Mail: ray@banderadrlg.com
Web: www.banderadrilling.com
_________________________________________
BARNICO DRILLING INC.
1006 An Co Rd 2212
Palestine 75803
Phone: 903-729-1509
Fax: 903-729-5793
___________________________________
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
P O Box 10460
Midland, Texas 79702 USA
400 West Illinois, Ste 800
Midland, Texas 79701 USA
Phone: 432-620-5500
Fax: 432-620-5501
E-Mail:
info@basicenergyservices.com
Web:
www.basicenergyservices.com
_____________________________________________
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 10460
Midland, TX 79702 USA
406 N. Big Spring
Midland, Texas 79701 USA
Phone: 432-571-8100
Fax: 432-620-5501
Charlie Swift, VP-Permian Division
Charley Gregg, Marketing
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
2417 Wilcox Drive
Norman, OK 73069 USA
Phone: 254-442-2200
Fax: 254-442-1699
Terry Yates, Manager-Mid
Continent Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 1519
Eastland, TX 76488 USA
14902 IH 20
Cisco, Texas 76437 USA
Phone: 254-442-2200
Fax: 254-442-1699
Tim Dame, VP-North Texas Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
9674 Highway 149
Longview, TX 75603 USA
Phone: 903-643-1140
Fax: 903-643-7590
Marvin Hall, VP-ArkLaTex Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 846
Kingsville, TX 78364 USA
100 E Kleberg, Ste 324
Kingsville, Texas 78364 USA
Phone: 361-592-3200
Fax: 361-592-3297
Tom Best, VP-South Texas Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 20478
Beaumont, TX 77720 USA
9045 Hwy 124
Beaumont, Texas 77720 USA
Phone: 409-842-6262
Fax: 409-842-1094
Morris B Windham, VP-Gulf Coast
Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
1490 West Canal Court, Ste 1000
Littleton, CO 80120 USA
Phone: 303-224-9700
Fax: 303-224-9710
Scott Kinnamon, VP-Rocky
Mountain Division
BASIC ENERGY SERVICES
PO Box 2783
Farmington, NM 87499-2783 USA
Phone: 505-634-0113
Fax: 505-634-0114
Jerry Tufly, Manager-Four Corners
Division
__________________________________________
BASIN DRILLING COMPANY L.L.C.
PO Box 277
Aberdeen, Mississippi 39730 USA
Phone: 662-369-0394
Fax: 662-369-0307
E-Mail: ccasindrlg@aol.com
____________________________________________
BEARCAT DRILLING L.L.C.
12225 Greenville Ave Ste 950
Dallas, Texas 75243 USA
Phone: 972-889-2100
Fax: 972-889-2104
________________________________________
BEARCAT DRILLING L.L.C.
PO Box 717
Farmington, NM 87499 USA
5424 US Hwy 64
Farmington,NewMexico87401USA
Phone: 505-327-5218
Fax: 505-564-9185
E-Mail: bearcat@acrnet.com
__________________________________________
BIG 6 DRILLING COMPANY
7500 San Felipe Ste 250
Houston, Texas 77063 USA
Phone: 713-783-2300
Fax: 713-783-4463
E-Mail:
mdstone@big6drilling.com
Web: www.big6drilling.com
______________________________________
BIG DOG DRILLING COMPANY,
LLC
PO Box 613
Fort Morgan, Colorado 80701 USA
17525 US Hwy 34
Fort Morgan, Colorado 80701 USA
Phone: 303-867-4736
Fax: 970-867-3714
E-Mail: hgreenwood@bigdogshark.
com
______________________________________________
BIG DOG DRILLING CO.
110 N. Marienfeld Ste 200
Midland, Texas 79701 USA
Phone: 432-570-7355
Fax: 432-570-7734
___________________________________
BIG DOG DRILLING CO.
1612 East Co Rd 115
Midland, TX 79706 USA
Phone: 432-570-7355
Fax: 432-570-7734
__________________________________________
BIG E DRILLING CO Div of Eastham
Enterprises
4710 Bellaire Blvd Ste 350
Bellaire, Texas 77401 USA
Phone: 713-661-6890
Fax: 713-661-8106
E-Mail: lyle@bigedrilling.com
________________________________________
BIG THREE DRILLING INC.
225 Main
Russell, Kansas 67665 USA
Phone: 785-483-3404
E-Mail: smk@media-net.net
_________________________________________
BLACK CREEK DRILLING INC
PO Box 520
Columbus, Texas 78934 USA
3993 Hwy 90
Columbus, Texas 78934 USA
Phone: 979-733-9688
Toll Free: (866) 897-3188
Fax: 979-733-9901
_______________________________________
BLACK CREEK DRILLING INC.
515 N. Sam Houston Pkwy East
Suite 400
Houston, TX 77060 USA
Phone: 281-847-1691
Fax: 281-847-2691
___________________________________________
BLACKBRUSH OIL & GAS, INC.
15600 San Pedro, Ste 204
San Antonio, Texas 78232 USA
Phone: 210-495-5577
Fax: 210-495-0075
_______________________________________
BLACKBRUSH OIL & GAS, INC.
CATARINA FIELD OFFICE
19682 Hwy 83
Catarina, TX 78836 USA
Phone: 830-999-3400
Fax: 830-999-3404
____________________________________
BLUE RIBBON DRILLING, LLC
PO Box 279
Dewey, Oklahoma 74029-0279 USA
399258 W 1330 Dr
Dewey, Oklahoma 74029 USA
Phone: 918-534-2322
Fax: 918-534-2322
E-Mail: johnrountree@bratcooperating.
com
___________________________________________________
BMR DRILLING, INC.
501 West County Rd 109
Venus, Texas 76084 USA
Phone: 972-366-9933
Fax: 972-366-1649
_____________________________________________
BOLDON DRILLING
Colwick Industrial Estate
Colwick
Nottingham NG4 2BB ENGLAND
Phone: 44/115-9-611300
Fax: 44/115-9-617338
E-Mail: drill@bdf.co.uk
____________________________________________
BRENT BAKER DRILLING INC.
8005 S I-35 Ste 203
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73149
USA
Phone: 405-632-2982
Fax: 405-631-5612
________________________________________
BRONCO DRILLING CO. LLC
6601 South 29th
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73179
USA
Phone: 405-745-6060
Fax: 405-745-8096
E-Mail: shale@broncodrill.com
Web: www.broncodrill.com
________________________________________
BULGARGEOMIN LTD.
PO Box 600
Sofia 1000
3 Ogneboretz Str
Sofia 1619 BULGARIA
Phone: 359/2-9571466
Fax: 359/2-9571238
E-Mail: bgm@applet-bg.com
Web: www.bulgargeomin.com
____________________________________________
BURGAZ DRILLING COMPANY
Open Joint Stock Co. “Gazprom”
Prospekt Vemadskogo 41/1
Moscow 119991 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/095-7820943
Fax: 7/095-7820974
E-Mail:
burgaz@burgazgazprom.ru
__________________________________________
HORIZONTAL DRILLING CENTER
Orenburg RUSSIA
Phone: 7/3532-733509
Fax: 7/3532-733549
______________________________________________
CACTUS DRILLING COMPANY, LLC
PO Box 270848
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73137-
0848 USA
621 North Morgan Road
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73127
USA
Phone: 405-577-5347
Fax: 405-577-9306
E-Mail: ront@kfoc.net
___________________________________________
CANTEX DRILLING INC.
3953 W 42nd St
Odessa, Texas 79764 USA
Phone: 432-385-1744
Fax: 432-385-1745
_______________________________
CAPSTAR DRILLING, LP
PO Box 13678
Odessa, Texas 79768 USA
8901 N. County Road West
Odessa, Texas 79764 USA
Phone: 432-366-0161
Toll Free: 800-442-5224
Fax: 432-366-2433
E-Mail:
mike.roghair@oilstates.com
___________________________________________
________________________________________
CAPSTAR DRILLING, INC.
1432 Prairie Lane
Wooster, OH 44691 USA
Phone: 330-264-2206
Fax: 330-263-2134
_________________________________________
CASPIAN DRILLING COMPANY
LTD.
Vishechnaya St, 3
North Wharf
Baku 370009 AZERBAIJAN
Phone: 994/12-974612
Fax: 994/12-974610
E-Mail: dave.walls@gsfdrill.com;
shaig.bakirov@gsfdrill.com
__________________________________________
CAZA DRILLING INC.
PO Box 17805
Denver, Colorado 80217 USA
1801 Broadway Ste 360
Denver, Colorado 80202 USA
Phone: 303-292-1206
Fax: 303-292-5843
E-Mail: cazamail@cazadrilling.com
_______________________________________
CAZA DRILLING INC.
PO Box 846
Williston, ND 58801 USA
Phone: 701-572-0131
Fax: 701-572-0447
____________________________________
CAZA DRILLING (CALIFORNIA)
INC.
7001 Charity Avenue
Bakersfield, CA 93308 USA
Phone: 661-589-0111
Toll Free: 800-443-5925
Fax: 661-589-0283
______________________________________
ENSIGN RESOURCE SERVICE
GROUP INC
400 5th Ave SW, Ste 900
Calgary, Alberta, AB T2P 0L6
CANADA
Phone: 403-262-1361
Fax: 403-265-7673
____________________________________
CDX-DART DRILLING &
TECHNOLOGY, LLC
5485 Beltline Road Ste 330
Dallas, Texas 75254 USA
Phone: 972-692-1400
Fax: 972-692-1401
E-Mail: steve.johnson@cdxdart.
com
Web: www.cdxgas.com
________________________________
CENTURY DRILLING LIMITED
BRISBANE (WACOL) OFFICE
49 Campbell St
Wacol, Queensland 4076
AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61/7-38793333
Fax: 61/7-38793322
E-Mail:
info@centurydrilling.com.au
Web:
www.downergroup.com.au
_________________________________
CENTURY DRILLING LIMITED
INDONESIAN OFFICE
Jl Gaharu 1, #15
Cilandek Barat, Jakarta
Selatan 12430 INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-7591 0650
Fax: 62/21-766 1308
E-Mail: cendril@indosat.net.id
___________________________________
CENTURY DRILLING & ENERGY
SERVICES (NZ) LIMITED
166 Karetoto Rd
Wairakei NEW ZEALAND
Phone: 64/7-3748899
Fax: 64/7-3748508
E-Mail: cdes@centurydrilling.co.nz
_______________________________________
CHALLENGER LTD HEADQUARTERS
Gastelun 367 P O Box 92
Eschen 9492 LIECHTENSTEIN
E-Mail: chmain@challenger.com.eg
___________________________________________
CHALLENGER LTD
Challenger Bldg
1 El-Moshier Ahmed Ismail St
Heliopolis Cairo 11361 EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-2682810
Fax: 20/2-2676122
E-Mail: chmain@challenger.com.eg
__________________________________
CHEYENNE DRILLING, LP
3728 W Jones Ave
Garden City, Kansas 67846-9762 USA
Phone: 620-277-2062
Fax: 620-277-2094
E-Mail:
wvalentine@cheyennedrilling.com
Web: www.cheyennedrilling.com
________________________________
CHEYENNE DRILLING, LP
PO Box 1085
Woodward, OK 73802 USA
Phone: 580-256-7226
Fax: 580-256-5665
E-Mail:
balexander@cheyennedrilling.com
___________________________________
CHEYENNE DRILLING, LP
500 Main, Suite 1110
Ft. Worth, TX 76102 USA
Phone: 817-332-1212
Fax: 817-332-1213
E-Mail:
ajjacques@cheyennedrilling.com
________________________________________
CHINA OILFIELD SERVICES LTD
PO Box 232
Beijing 101149
College Street, Yanjiao
East Beijing 101149 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/10-8452 2134
Fax: 86/10-84522133
___________________________________
CHINA FRANCE BOHAI
GEOSERVICES COMPANY LTD
PO Box 548
Tanggu
Tianjin 300452 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/22-66916447
Fax: 86/22-25311647
_____________________________
COASTAL DRILLING COMPANY,
L.L.C.
311 Saratoga Blvd
Corpus Christi, Texas 78417-3506
USA
Phone: 361-852-6195
Fax: 361-852-6676
E-Mail:
chris@coastaldrilling.com
______________________________
Monagas 6201 VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/291 6430460
Fax: 58/291 6434205
E-Mail: comanpa@telcel.net.ve
Web: www.comanpa.com
_________________________________
CROSCO INTEGRATED DRILLING
& WELL SERVICES CO. LTD.
Naftni servisi, d.o.o.
Ulica Grada Vukovara 18
Zagreb HR - 10000 CROATIA
Phone: 385/1-3652 333
Fax: 385/1-3096 448
E-Mail: marketing@crosco.hr
_____________________________________
SEA HORSE SHIPPING INC.
PO Box 1405
Majuro MARSHALL ISLANDS
NORDIC SHIPPING LTD
PO Box 1405
Majuro MARSHALL ISLANDS
________________________________
CROSCO INTERNATIONAL
LIMITED
Canada Court, Upland Road
St. Peter Port
Islands of Guernsey UNITED
KINGDOM
Phone: 1/780-988-2283
_________________________________
CROSCO DRILLING & WELL
SERVICES (UK) LIMITED
10 Orange Street
London UNITED KINGDOM
MIDEAST INTEGRATED DRILLING
& WELL SERVICES COMPANY LLC
(MIDWESCO)
P O Box 2670
Postal Code 112
Ruwi OMAN
Phone: 968/245 91493
Fax: 968/245 94732
E-Mail: crosco@omantel.net.om
__________________________________
NOBLE CROSCO DRILLING LTD
PO Box 20585
Doha QATAR
Phone: 97/4-4352-004
Fax: 97/4-4352-263
E-Mail: FStricko@noblecorp.com
_________________________________________
CROSCO INTERNATIONAL
PODJETJE ZA NAFTNE SERVISE
D.O.O.
Rudarska ulica 1
Lendava 9220 SLOVENIA
Marijan Preglej, Director
CORTECROS
Nova ves 57
Republika Hrvatska
Zagreb 10000 CROATIA
Phone: 385-1-4667383
Fax: 385-1-4667382
E-Mail: info@cortecros.hr
______________________________
CROWN DBL, INC.
PO Box 51433
Lafayette, Louisiana 70505 USA
1026 O’Noal Drive
Breaux Bridge, Louisiana 70517
USA
Phone: 337-332-8563
Fax: 337-332-8598
E-Mail:
dblquest@worldnet.att.net
________________________________
CYCLONE DRILLING INC.
PO Box 908
Gillette, Wyoming 82717-0908 USA
Phone: 307-682-4161
Fax: 307-682-3158
E-Mail: cyclonedrilling.com
__________________________________

DALMA ENERGY, LLC
PO Box 46226
Abu Dhabi UNITED ARAB
EMIRATES
Phone: 971/2-671-5544
Fax: 971/2-671-5505
E-Mail:
dalmaen@emirates.net.ae
____________________________________
DALMA ENERGY & CO., LLC
P.O. Box 739, Mina Al Fahal
P.C. 116 OMAN
Phone: 968/24636-400, 24636
Fax: 968/24636-415
E-Mail:
dalmaenergy@dalmaenergy.com
____________________________________
DALMA ENERGY LLC
Almana Towers
PO Box No. 491
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/462-1897
Fax: 974/462-2084
E-Mail: qatar@dalmaenergy.com
___________________________________
RAWABI DALMA CO. LTD
PO Box 79707
Al-Khobar 31952 SAUDI ARABIA
Phone: 966/3-8939557
Fax: 966/3-8939585
E-Mail:
rawabidalma@dalmaenergy.com
Al-Khobar 31952 SAUDI ARABIA
_______________________________
DALMA ENERGY LLC
301-302 Anand Complex
2-Anand Nagar Society
Near New India Mill, Jetalpur Rd
Baroda 390 005 INDIA
Phone: 91/265-2320246
Fax: 91/265-2320252
E-Mail:
baroda@dalmaenergy.com
_____________________________________
DELTA ENGINEERING COMPANY,
LTD
PO Box 16113
62—2005 IADC Membership Directory Contractor Listings
Sana’a YEMEN
Phone: 967/1-676601/2/3
Fax: 967/1-676412
E-Mail: deltagrpye@yahoo.com
_____________________________________
DEWANCHAND RAMSARAN
INDUSTRIES (P) LTD. (OIL & GAS
DIVISION)
7-8, Trade Worl, B-Wing, 1st Floor
“Kamala City”, Senapati Bapat
Marg.
Lower Parel (W)
Mumbai 400 013 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-494 0977
Fax: 91/22-498 5432
E-Mail: dnipl@vsn1.com
_____________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
INC.
PO Box 4558
Houston, Texas 77210-4558 USA
15415 Katy Fwy Ste 100
Houston, Texas 77094 USA
Phone: 281-492-5300
Fax: 281-492-5316
Web:
www.diamondoffshore.com
_________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
INC.
111 Veterans Blvd Ste 1030
Metairie, LA 70005 USA
Phone: 504-834-9040
Fax: 504-834-0332
________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
(U.K.) LTD.
Howe Moss Drive
Kirkhill Industrial Estate
Dyce
Aberdeen AB21 0GL SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-727500
Fax: 44/1224-772321
_________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
INC.
6501 Freetown Rd
New Iberia, LA 70560 USA
Phone: 337-365-5180
Fax: 337-365-0557
________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE GENERAL
COMPANY
Unit 2, 5 Turner Avenue
Bently, Perth WA 6102 AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61-8-6363-8900
Fax: 61-8-6363-8999
______________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE
NETHERLANDS B.V.
Koninginnegracht 60
Den Haag 2514 AE THE
NETHERLANDS
Phone: 31/70-311-7890
Fax: 31/70-311-7899
_____________________________________
BRASDRIL SOCIEDADE DE
PERFURACOES, LTDA.
Rua Tenente Celio, 185
Novo Cavaleiros
Macae RJ CEP 27930-120 BRAZIL
Phone: 55/22-2791-8200
Fax: 55/22-2773-4115
____________________________________
MEXDRILL OFFSHORE S. DE R.L.
DE C.V.
Ave. Central por 1 Sur Manz J
Lote 1, Puerto Isla del Carmen
C.P. 24140, Ciudad del Carmen
Campeche MEXICO
Phone: 52/938-381-4121
Fax: 52/938-381-3772
________________________________________
DISCOVERY DRILLING CO., INC.
PO Box 763
Hays, Kansas 67601-0763 USA
3505 Fairway Dr
Hays, Kansas 67601 USA
Phone: 785-623-2920
Fax: 785-623-4156
E-Mail:
discoverydrilling@eaglecom.net
________________________________________
DLS ARGENTINA LIMITED
Sarmiento 663 - Piso 4
Buenos Aires C1041AAM
ARGENTINA
Phone: 54/11-5129-2900
Fax: 54/11-5129-2949
E-Mail: info@dlsargentina.
com.ar
Web: www.dls-argentina.com.ar
___________________________________
DOLPHIN DRILLING LTD.
Howe Moss Drive
Kirkhill Industrial Estate, Dyce
Aberdeen AB21 0GL SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-411411
Fax: 44/1224-723267
______________________________
DOLPHIN WELL SERVICE
Platformveien 5
P O Box 63
Tanager N-4098 NORWAY
Phone: 47/51-694300
Fax: 47/51-696156
________________________________
DOYON DRILLING INC
101 West Benson Blvd Ste 503
Anchorage, Alaska 99503 USA
Web: www.doyondrilling.com
_________________________________
DRILLFOR S.A.
Av. Amazonas 1047 y Naciones
Unidas
Edificio La Previsora Torre
A-Piso 6-Oficina 601
Quito ECUADOR
Phone: 593/2 227 0990
Fax: 593/2 227 0853
E-Mail: drillfor@drillfor.com
________________________________
DRILLFOR BASE CAMP
Km 6 Via a Lago Agrio
El Coca ECUADOR
Fax: 593/6 880 982
__________________________________
DRILLING COMPANY ALLIANCE
PO Box 20
Usinsk
Komi Republic 169710 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/82144-41196
Fax: 7/82144-41510
E-Mail: sserver99@online.ru
Web: www.alliancedc.com
_______________________________
DRILLING RISK MANAGEMENT,
INC.
116 E Anglin St
Uvalde, Texas 78801 USA
Phone: 830-278-4567
Fax: 830-278-5255
E-Mail: DRMI@hilconet.com
________________________________
DRILLTEC GUT GMBH
In don Teichen 2
Jona D-07751 GERMANY
Phone: 49/7243-76890
Fax: 49/7243-768941
E-Mail: info@drilltec.de
________________________________
DUKE DRILLING CO., INC.
100 S Main Ste 410
Wichita, Kansas 67202-3737 USA
Phone: 316-267-1331
Fax: 316-267-5180
E-Mail: ddcisrb@aol.com
______________________________
DUKE DRILLING CO., INC.
PO Box 823
Great Bend, KS 67530 USA
Phone: 620-793-8366
Fax: 620-793-8743
620 Hubbard
Great Bend, Kansas 67530 USA
_________________________________
E & D SERVICES INC.
2300 Hwy 11 North
Laurel, Mississippi 39440 USA
Phone: 601-649-9044
Fax: 601-649-3139
E-Mail: asumrall28@yahoo.com
____________________________________
E & H DRILLING COMPANY
PO Box 1058
Graham, Texas 76450 USA
Newcastle Hwy
Graham, Texas 76450 USA
Phone: 940-549-0370
Fax: 940-549-8191
E-Mail: rho@wf.net
____________________________________________
EAGLE DRILLING LLC
1108 Rambling Oaks Dr
Norman, Oklahoma 73072 USA
Phone: 405-364-1613
Fax: 405-447-9351
____________________________________
EAGLE ROCK DRILLING, L.L.C.
1113 Dayton Rd
Midland, Texas 79706 USA
Phone: 432-682-3030
Toll Free: (866) 867-3745
Fax: 432-682-1212
E-Mail:
dtally@eaglerockdrilling.com
_____________________________
EDDE DRILLING CO
P O Box 4966
Victoria, Texas 77903 USA
2607 E Rio Grande St
Victoria, Texas 77901 USA
Phone: 361-572-4884
Fax: 361-578-6376
E-Mail: troy@tuckerop.com
_____________________________
EGYPTIAN DRILLING CO.
PO Box 8071
Nasr City Housing
Cairo 11371 EGYPT
Km. 17.5 Cairo/Suez Road
64—2005 IADC Membership Directory Contractor Listings
Cairo EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-4176701
Fax: 20/2-4176731
E-Mail: management@egyptiandrilling.
com
________________________________________
EDC SYRIA BRANCH
Mazza Sharkia - Al Farabi St.
Yassin Al Safadi
Building No. 77, 1st Floor
Damascus SYRIA
Phone: 963/11-6110459
Fax: 963/11-6131085
Yehia A Aal, General Manager
_______________________________
DRILLING & PETROLEUM
SERVICES CO
PO Box 2589
Al Khobar 31932 SAUDI ARABIA
Phone: 966/3-8825089
Fax: 966/3-8825164
E-Mail: mashraf@dps.com.sa
________________________________
ELENBURG EXPLORATION
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 2440
Casper, Wyoming 82602 USA
1910 N Loop Ave
Casper, Wyoming 82601 USA
Phone: 307-235-8609
Fax: 307-577-7227
E-Mail: nich@drilloilandgas.com
____________________________________
ELENBURG EXPLORATION
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 3213
Billings, MT 59103 USA
Phone: 406-245-3511
Fax: 406-252-7682
______________________________________
ENAFOR COMPANY
BP 211
Hassi Messaoud 30500 ALGERIA
Phone: 213/29 737595
Fax: 213/29 738026
E-Mail: enafor@wissal.dz
Web: enafor.net
_____________________________
ENERGY DRILLING COMPANY
PO Box 905
Natchez, Mississippi 39121 USA
Phone: 601-446-5259
Fax: 601-446-8607
________________________________
ENSCO INTERNATIONAL
INCORPORATED
500 N. Akard Street, Ste 4300
Dallas, Texas 75201 USA
Phone: 214-397-3000
Toll Free: 800-423-8006
Fax: 214-397-3379
Web: www.enscous.com
____________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE COMPANY
620 Moulin Road
Broussard, LA 70518 USA
Phone: 337-837-8500
Toll Free: 800-322-8217
Fax: 337-837-8501
__________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE COMPANY
11200 Richmond Avenue, Suite
490
Houston, TX 77082 USA
Phone: 281-920-6440
Fax: 281-920-6441
____________________________________
ENSCO DRILLING (CARIBBEAN)
INC.
Edificio Ensco
Muelle Terminales Maracaibo
Las Morochas, Ciudad Ojeda
Edo. Zulia VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/265-631-2287
Fax: 58/265-631-1435
______________________________________
ENSCO INTERNATIONAL
OFFSHORE COMPANY
The Hamma Galleries Bldg, 3rd
Floor
One Lane Hill, East Broadway
Hamilton
Bermuda HM 19 WEST INDIES
Phone: 441-278-0800
Fax: 441-292-9188
______________________________
ENSCO CORONADO LIMITED
91-93 St. Vincent Street
1st Floor Algico Plaza
Port of Spain TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
Phone: 868-623-0525
Fax: 868-624-9137
________________________________
ENSCO DRILLING COMPANY
NIGERA LTD.
c/o Speciality Drilling Fluids
Plot 184c Trans Amadi Industrial
Layout
Port Harcourt NIGERIA
Phone: 234-8423-1322
Fax: 234-8423-5915
_________________________________
ENSCO HOUSE
Badentoy Avenue
Badentoy Industrial Estate
Aberdeen AB12 4YB SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-780400
Fax: 44/1224-780444
___________________________________
ENSCO NETHERLANDS LTD.
c/o DONG
Agern Alle 24-26, Building 5
Hoersholm DK 2970 DENMARK
Phone: 45/4517-0776
Fax: 45/4517-0836
_____________________________
ENSCO OCEANICS
INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
Al Moosa Tower 2, Ste 2601
Sheikh Zayed Rd
PO Box 72453
Dubai UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/4-403-7300
Fax: 971/4-403-7305
_________________________________
ENSCO ASIA PACIFIC PTE.
LIMITED
300 Beach Rd #10-01/03
The Concourse
Singapore 19955 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6394-3100
Fax: 65/6394-3105
____________________________________
ENSCO AUSTRALIA PTY. LIMITED
Level 4, 66 King’s Park Road
West Perth, WA 6005 AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61/8-9211-3388
Fax: 61/8-9211-3390
_________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE
INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
Lot 4600, Simpang 4
Jalan Pandan Lima (Off Jalan
Maulana)
Kuala Belait KA 1931
Brunei Darussalam MALAYSIA
Phone: 673-333-0080
Fax: 673-333-2710
_______________________________
ENSCO GERUDI (M) SDN BHD
5th Floor, Bangunan Angakasa
Raya
Jalan Ampang
Kuala Lumpur 50450 MALAYSIA
Phone: 60/3-2148-4909
Fax: 60/3-2148-3909
_________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE
INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
3rd Floor, QFl (Qatar General
Insurance)
Bldg. Al Asmakh Street, PO Box
22895
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/441-7075
Fax: 974/442-6780
___________________________________
ENSCO MARITIME LIMITED
Unit No. 601, 6th Floor
Centre Point, Andheri Kurla Rd
J. B. Nagar, Andheri East
Mumbai 400 059 INDIA
Phone: 91-22-564-95454
Fax: 91-22-564-90596
__________________________________
ENSCO HOLLAND B.V.
8th Floor, BRI Building
Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 37
Balikpapan 76112
East Kalimantan INDONESIA
Phone: 62/542-736791
Fax: 62/542-736751
_______________________________
ENTREPRISE NATIONALE DES
TRAVAUX AUX PUITS
BP 206/207
Hassi Messaoud 30500 ALGERIA
Phone: 213/9738850
Fax: 213/9732097
__________________________________
ENVIROSAFE DRILLING LP
1614 C. Nantucket Drive
Houston, Texas 77057 USA
Phone: 713-818-3919
Fax: 713-784-0805
E-Mail: rsage@houston.rr.com
_________________________________
EVERTSON INTERNATIONAL
VENEZUELA
Ave. Marino, Via La Guarapera
Edi Evertson, El Tigrito,
Edo. Anzoategui
Phone: 58/283-2554744
Fax: 58/283-2554722
E-Mail: jims@evertson.com
Web: www.evertson.com
__________________________________
EXCELL SERVICES, INC
36629 Hwy 385
P O Box 305
Wray, Colorado 80758 USA
Phone: 970-332-3156
Fax: 970-332-5821
E-Mail:
eandrews@jwoperatiog.com
Web: www.jwoperating.com
_________________________________
EXPLORATION OIL & GAS JASLO
LTD. NAFTGAZ BRANCH IN
WOLOMIN
ul Lukasiewicza 11
Wolomin 05-200 POLAND
Phone: 48/22-7873704
Fax: 48/22-7762340
E-Mail: naftgaz@naftgaz.com.pl
____________________________________
FAITH DRILLING L.L.C.
PO Box 1378
Seminole, Texas 79360-1378 USA
902 S.W. Ave C
Seminole, Texas 79360 USA
Phone: 432-758-2552
Phone: 432-758-6352
Fax: 432-758-2552
_______________________________
FELDERHOFF BROTHERS
DRILLING
PO Box 1299
Gainesville, Texas 76240 USA
4337 E Hwy 82
Gainesville, Texas 76240 USA
Phone: 940-665-3592
Fax: 940-613-4065
E-Mail: Feld@bsicompanies.com
Web: www.bsicompanies.com
___________________________________
1ST DRILLING COMPANY OF
ZHONGYUAN PETROLEUM
EXPLORATION BUREAU
Mazhuangqiao Town
Qingfeng County
Henan Province 457331 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/393-4807196
Fax: 86/393-4800734
_______________________________
Bucharest ROMANIA
Phone: 40/21-224-0538
Fax: 40/21-224-0538
E-Mail: office@foradex.ro
Web: www.foradex.ro
____________________________
FORADEX SA
14, Rue 7051, Cite Essalem
El-Menzah IV
1082 Tunis TUNISIA
Phone: 216/71-230005
Fax: 216/71-230005
_________________________________
FORADEX SA
Lukind House 1st Fl
Cha Cha Cha Road
PO Box 31911
Lusaka ZAMBIA
Phone: 260/1-223723
Fax: 260/1-223723
_____________________________
FORADEX SA
PO Box 4105
Benghazi LIBYA
Phone: 218/61-2222809
Fax: 218/61-2222809
_____________________________
FORESIGHT LTD.
Foresight House
6 Elder Street
London E1 6BT UNITED KINGDOM
Phone: 44/207-3775755
Fax: 44/207-2472700
E-Mail: fk.)@fs-g.com
________________________________
Mumbai 400 055 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-6155132
Fax: 91/22-6155133
E-Mail: asm@bom5.vsnl.net.in
___________________________________
HALLWORTHY SHIPPING LTD.
PO Box 41164
Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/6-5281914
Fax: 971/6-5281974
E-Mail:
foresight@emirates.net.ae
_____________________________
FOSERCO SA
2 Avram Iancu Street
TG. OCNA 5467 ROMANIA
Phone: 40/234-344035,344036
Fax: 40/234-344395
E-Mail: foserco@mic.ro
_________________________________
FRIGSTAD OFFSHORE PTE. LTD.
2 Mistri Rd
#11-00 HMC Bldg
Singapore 079624 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6223-1277
Fax: 65/6223-3906
E-Mail: fo@frigstad.com.sg
Web: www.frigstad.com
______________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING I, LP
PO Box 1116
Luling, Texas 78648 USA
Phone: 830-875-3774
Fax: 830-875-2484
E-Mail:
rthomas@frontierdrilling.com
_________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING ASA
PO Box 6076
Postterminalen
Bergen 5892 NORWAY
Statsminister Michelsensveg 38
Paradis
Bergen 5231 NORWAY
Phone: 47/55-922820
Fax: 47/55-922830
E-Mail: post@frontier-drill.com
Web: www.frontier-drill.com
________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING (ASIA) PTE.
LTD.
491 B River Valley Rd
#14-01 Valley Point
Singapore 248373 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6887 0440
Fax: 65/6887 0444
E-Mail: singapore@frontierdrill.
com
_________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING do BRAZIL
LTDA
Edificio Leberty Center - Sala 901
Avenida Nossa Senhora da Penha
#387
Praia da Canto
Vitoria ES 29055-131 BRAZIL
Phone: 55/27 3334 8600
Fax: 55/27 3334 8610
________________________________
GASCO DRILLING INC
PO Drawer 330
Cedar Bluff, Virginia 24624 USA
Phone: 540-964-2696
Fax: 540-963-0487
_____________________________
GASCO DRILLING INC
PO Box 527
Cedar Bluff, VA 24609 USA
Jerry E Ratliff, Sec
_________________________
GEM DRILLING CO.
PO Box 65
Stamford, Texas 79553 USA
500 Adams Rd
Stamford, Texas 79553 USA
Phone: 325-773-3654
Fax: 325-773-3655
__________________________
GEORGE N. MITCHELL DRILLING
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 550
Carmi, Illinois 62821 USA
1239 County Rd 1500N
Carmi, Illinois 62821 USA
Phone: 618-382-2343
Fax: 618-384-2435
E-Mail: nrgy@mitchelldrilling.
com
________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE CORPORATION
PO Box 4577
Houston, Texas 77210-4577 USA
15375 Memorial Drive
Houston, Texas 77079 USA
Phone: 281-925-6000
Toll Free: (800) 231-5754
Fax: 281-925-6010
E-Mail:
firstname.lastname@gsfdrill.co
m
Web: www.gsfdrill.com
______________________________
CASPIAN DRILLING COMPANY
LIMITED
Vishechnaya Street #3
North Wharf
Baku AZERBAIJAN
Phone: 994/12-497-4612
Fax: 994/12-497-4610
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CORP
B.P. 5893
c/o Saga Logistics Base
Douala CAMEROON
Phone: 237/343-8713
Fax: 237/343-4979
_____________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING
COMPANY (CANADA) LTD.
36 Brookshire Court Ste 13
Bedford, NS B4A 4E9 CANADA
Phone: 902-832-9460
Fax: 902-832-9480
Kevin Knott
Victor Dias
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL (CANADA)
DRILLING COMPANY
Baine Johnston Centre, Ste 400
10 Fort William Place
St John’s
Newfoundland A1C 1K4 CANADA
Phone: 709-724-6600
Fax: 709-724-6610
_____________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE CORP
Kilometer No. 11
Kattameya-Ein Soukhna Desert Rd
PO Box 341
Cairo EGYPT
Phone: 202-757-5681
Fax: 202-757-5669
_____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING
OPERATIONS, INC.
Parque de las Avenidas de Africa
Carracolas
Malabo EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Phone: 240-0-96-968
Fax: 240-0-94-091
____________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CORP
Boite Postale 556
Port Gentil GABON
Phone: 241/552040
Fax: 241/560458
____________________________________
PT SANTA FE SUPRACO
INDONESIA
Jalan, Melawai 1X/2
PO Box 2351
Jakarta Selatan INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-721-1700
Fax: 62/21-721-1714
_________________________________
PT SANTA FE-POMEROY
INDONESIA
Merak Petroleum Base
Jl. Pulorida, Merak
West Java INDONESIA
Phone: 62/254-571 408
Fax: 62/254-571 189
_______________________________
PT SANTA FE SUPRACO
INDONESIA
Gedung BRI, Lantai 5
Jin. Jend Sudiman No. 37
Balikpapan
Kalimantan 76112 INDONESIA
Phone: 62-542-426-396
Fax: 62-542-426-408
_____________________________
SAFEMAL DRILLING SDN. BHD.
9th Floor, Angkasa Raya Building
123 Jalan Ampang
Kuala Laumpur 50450 MALAYSIA
Contractor Listings 2005 IADC Membership Directory—69
Phone: 603-2050-2100
Fax: 603-2050-2122
_____________________________________
GLOBAL OFFSHORE DRILLING
LIMITED
Kilometer 14 Aba Expressway
PO Box 7086
Port Harcourt NIGERIA
Phone: 234/84-231356
Fax: 234/84-231353
_______________________________________
SANTA FE CONSTRUCTION CO.
139 Corporate Center
10th Floor, Unit 1001
139 Valero Street, Salcedo Village
Makati City Manila PHILIPPINES
Phone: 632/830-2210
Fax: 632/818-8237
_______________________________
SANTA FE DRILLING
OPERATIONS, INC.
PO Box 4396
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/455-0797
Fax: 974/455-1298
____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES INC.
Letter Box 5096, Bldg 104, Sops
Ave.
Loyang Offshore Base
Loyang Crescent
Singapore 508988 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6545 2679
Fax: 65/6545 6173
______________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES INC.
Unit 3004, 30th Floor, Suntowers
Bldg B, 123 Vibhavadi-Rangsit Rd
Khwaeng Ladyao, Khet Chatuchak
Bangkok 10900 THAILAND
Phone: 662-617-6170
Fax: 662-617-6171
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE SOUTH
AMERICA LLC
Maple House
3 Sweet Briar Road
St. Clair, Trinidad WEST INDIES
Phone: 868/622-6432
Fax: 868/622-6563
_______________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING UK
LIMITED
Lothing Depot
North Quay
Lowestoft
Suffolk NR32 2TF UNITED
KINGDOM
Phone: 44/1502-542-000
Fax: 44/1502-542-001
________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING UK
LIMITED
Langlands House Huntley St
Aberdeen AB10 1SH SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-654400
Fax: 44/1224-654401
________________________________
RESOURCE RIG SUPPLY, INC.
15375 Memorial Drive
Houston, TX 77079 USA
Phone: 281-925-7300
Fax: 281-925-7399
__________________________________
APPLIED DRILLING TECHNOLOGY,
INC.
15375 Memorial Drive, Suite A200
Houston, TX 77079 USA
Phone: 281-925-7100
Fax: 281-925-7199
________________________________________
ACCESS EXPLORATION
CORPORATION
1177 West Loop South, Ste 1450
Houston, TX 77027 USA
Phone: 713-621-2777
Fax: 713-621-2779
_____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING
VENEZUELA, C.A.
Av. Nueva Esparta c/c/ Cerro Sur,
Centro
Bahia Pozvelos Torre b
Mezanina I, Oficina 20
Barcelona VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/281-262-4250
Fax: 58/281-267-9362
____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES INC
02 Hoang Dieu Street
Vung Tau City VIETNAM
Phone: 84/64-852164
Fax: 84/64-852162
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE ANGOLA
OFFICE
Malango Base
Cabinda ANGOLA
Phone: 925-842-1111
Fax: 832-463-6806 (V-sat)
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE ARGENTINA
OFFICE
25 de Mayo 555, Piso 20
C1002ABK Buenos Aires
ARGENTINA
Phone: 54-11-4310-2470
Fax: 54-11-4310-2471
_____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE BRAZIL OFFICE
Estrada de Capuabe, 73
Santa Rita - Vila Velha - ES
CEP 29118-461 BRAZIL
Phone: 55-27-3239-8734
Fax: 55-27-3239-8734
_____________________________________
GOLDEN STATE DRILLING INC
3500 Fruitvale Ave
Bakersfield, California 93308 USA
Phone: 661-589-0730
Fax: 661-589-0147
E-Mail: bstevens@gsdrilling.com
________________________________
GOOBER DRILLING CORPORATION
PO Box 1432
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74076 USA
4905 S Perkins Rd
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 USA
Phone: 405-743-2132
Fax: 405-743-0052
E-Mail:
mike.brown@gooberdrilling.com
_____________________________________

GREAT WALL DRILLING COMPANY
LIMITED
No. 6 Liupukang Street
Xicheng District
Beijing 100724 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/10-62095684
Fax: 86/10-62094976
____________________________________

GREEN GAS POWER LIMITED
16A Fore Street, Topsham
Exeter, Devon EX3 OHF UNITED
KINGDOM
Wolstanton Retail Park, Wolstanton
Newcastle-Under-Lyme
Staffordshire ST5 0EE UNITED
KINGDOM
Phone: 44/1-395-223972
Fax: 44/1-395-227447
E-Mail: jg@greengaspower.com
___________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP
10370 Richmond Ave Ste 600
Houston, Texas 77042-4136 USA
Phone: 713-435-6100
Toll Free: (800) 553-7563
Fax: 713-435-6171
E-Mail:
trichards@greywolfdrilling.com
____________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP ARK-LA-TEX DIVISION
333 Texas St Ste 925
Shreveport, LA 71101 USA
Phone: 318-213-1100
Toll Free: 800-959-3003
Fax: 318-213-1155
_____________________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP ROCKY MOUNTAIN DISTRICT
2136 North Oil Dr
Casper, WY 82604 USA
Phone: 307-266-0700
Toll Free: (866) 522-0700
Fax: 307-266-0166
__________________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP GULF COAST DIVISION
254 Stanford Rd
Eunice, LA 70535 USA
Phone: 337-457-0500
Toll Free: 888-457-4089
Fax: 337-457-0558
_____________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP SOUTH TEXAS DIVISION
1907 E Main
Alice, TX 78332-4142 USA
Phone: 361-668-8364
Toll Free: 800-242-3280
Fax: 361-668-0823
_________________________________________

GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP WEST TEXAS DISTRICT
6 Desta Drive, Suite 3350
Midland, TX 79705 USA
Phone: 915-684-6828
Toll Free: (888) 864-6828
Fax: 915-684-6841
____________________________________
GUICHARD OPERATING
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 2000
Crowley, Louisiana 70527-2000
USA
849 Oddfellows Rd
Crowley, Louisiana 70526 USA
Phone: 337-783-5141
Toll Free: 800-738-4645
Fax: 337-783-5155
E-Mail: GuichardCo@aol.com
____________________________________
GULF DRILLING INTERNATIONAL
LIMITED (Q.S.C.)
PO Box 9072
Doha QATAR
7th Floor
HBK Tower, Musherib St
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/4378777
Fax: 974/4434788
E-Mail: gdi@gulfdrilling.net
___________________________________.
GWALTNEY DRILLING INC
PO Box 520
Washington, Indiana 47501 USA
107 SE 3rd St
Washington, Indiana 47501 USA
Phone: 812-254-5085
Fax: 812-254-4943
__________________________________________
GWALTNEY DRILLING INC
RR #2 Box 255
Washington, IN 47501-1216 USA
Phone: 812-254-9168
Neal Newton, Prod Supt
_________________________________
H-40 DRILLING INC.
11828 W Central Ste 100
Wichita, Kansas 67212-5178 USA
Phone: 316-773-3640
Fax: 316-773-3740
_______________________________
HALLWORTHY SHIPPING LTD S.A
Torre Universal Ave Federico Boyd
Piso No 12 (Penthouse)
Panama 0816-02033 REPUBLIC OF
PANAMA
PO Box 41164
C/O Sharjah Shipping Co.
Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/6-5281914
Fax: 971/6-5281974
E-Mail: foresite@emirates.net.ae
HAMAD AL-HAMAD & PARTNERS
COMPANY
PO Box 47143
Fahaheel 64022
Phone: 965/3261369,3261378
Fax: 965/3261348
E-Mail:
hamadalhamad@hhpco.com.kw
Web:
www.hamadalhamad@hhpco.co
m.kw
___________________________________
HEART LAND DRILLING, INC.
PO Box 3714
Abilene, Texas 79604 USA
Phone: 325-676-4621
Fax: 325-670-0325
E-Mail: hlpc@abilene.com
________________________________
HEARTLAND OIL AND GAS
CORPORATION
1625 Broadway, Ste 1480
Denver, Colorado 80202 USA
Phone: 303-405-8450
Fax: 303-405-8451
E-Mail:
charlie@heartlandoilandgas.com
Web:
www.heartlandoilandgas.com
________________________________________
HEARTLAND OIL AND GAS
CORPORATION
200 Burrard St, Ste 1925
Vancouver, B.C. V6C 3L6 CANADA
Phone: 604-693-0177
Fax: 604-638-3525
E-Mail:
rcoglon@heartlandoilandgas.co
m
Web:
www.heartlandoilandgas.com
_____________________________________
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
1437 South Boulder Avenue
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74119 USA
Phone: 918-742-5531
Fax: 918-742-0237
______________________________________

INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 95969
Oklahoma City, OK 73143 USA
Phone: 405-677-8882
Fax: 405-670-2667
_____________________________________
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 6173
Pearl, MS 39288-6173 USA
Phone: 601-939-1589
Fax: 601-939-9122
____________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 3909
Western Offshore District
Ventura, CA 93006 USA
Phone: 805-642-4656
Fax: 805-642-6024
_______________________________________
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 1700
Alice, TX 78333 USA
Phone: 361-664-0114
Fax: 361-664-8534
_______________________________________

HELMERICH & PAYNE (COLOMBIA)
DRILLING
Cra 9A No 99-02
Office 410
Bogota COLOMBIA
Phone: 57/1-6182399
Fax: 57/1-6182345
__________________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DE
VENEZUELA (ANACO)
Apartado 16 Carretera Negra KM
98
Final Ave dose Antonio Anzoategul
Anaco Edo Anzoategui
VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/282-4247754
Fax: 58/282-4247753
_______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DE
VENEZUELA (MATURIN)
Av. Alirio Ugarte Pelayo
(Al lado de Plasticor)
Maturin, Edo. Monagas
VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/291-641-9535
Fax: 58/291-643-1130
_______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DE
VENEZUELA (CD. OJEDA)
Carretera N, Entre Avenidas 42y 43
Ciudad Ojeda
Edo. Zulia VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/265-641-2537
Fax: 58/265-641-1552
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DEL
ECUADOR INC.
Luis Cordero y Andalucia
Edificio “Cyede” Quinto Piso
Quito ECUADOR
Phone: 593-2-2555-372
Fax: 593-2-2555-512 X 102
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
16365 Park Ten Place, Ste 300
Houston, TX 77084 USA
Phone: 281-398-5457
Fax: 281-398-7960
_____________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE BOLIVIA
S.A.
Calle 9 Oeste No. 73
Barrio Las Palmas
Santa Cruz BOLIVIA
Phone: 591/3-3531-741
Fax: 591/3-3536-784
_________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
106 Park Place, Ste 100
Covington, LA 70433 USA
Phone: 985-871-4071
Fax: 985-871-4072
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE (AFRICA)
DRILLING CO. EQUATORIAL
GUINEA
Avenida Parques de Africa
Caracolas
Malabo EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Phone: Houston 713-431-9212
Fax: Houston 713-431-9216
_____________________________________

HELMERICH & PAYNE
(ARGENTINA) DRILLING CO.
San Martin #201, Piso 4, Oficina 12
Bis
Codigo Postal 1003
Buenos Aires ARGENTINA
Phone: 54/11-4326-3481
Fax: 54/11-4322-2005
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
341 East E St Ste 180
Casper, WY 82601 USA
Phone: 307-237-0056
Fax: 307-237-6756
___________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
Smolensk Passage, Smolensk
Square
The House 3 6th Floor, Office No.
628
Moscow 121099 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/095-937-8272
Fax: 7/095-937-8200
____________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 133228
Tyler, TX 75713 USA
Phone: 903-533-1340
Fax: 903-535-9238
__________________________________
HERCULES OFFSHORE, LLC
2929 Briarpark Drive, Ste 435
Houston, Texas 77042 USA
Phone: 713-952-4176
Fax: 713-952-4342
____________________________________
HERCULES DRILLING COMPANY
2929 Briarpark Drive Ste 400
Houston, TX 77042 USA
Phone: 713-952-7977
Fax: 713-952-7990
________________________________
HERCULES LIFTBOAT COMPANY
5319 Port Road
New Iberia, LA 70560 USA
Phone: 337-560-8000
Fax: 337-374-3247
____________________________________
HTC INTERNATIONAL
PO Box No 1376
Corner of Hadda Cinema Complex
Sana’a YEMEN
Hadda Cinema Complex
Sana’a YEMEN
Phone: 967/1-269224
Fax: 967/1-269223
E-Mail: hashedi@y.net.ye
_______________________________
ICELAND DRILLING CO
Jardboranir hf
Skipholt 50 d
Reykjavik 105 ICELAND
Phone: 354/5113800
Fax: 354/5883801
E-Mail: sveinn@jardboranir.is
___________________________________
INLET DRILLING ALASKA INC
210 N Willow Street
Kenai, Alaska 99611 USA
Phone: 907-283-3567
Fax: 907-283-7065
E-Mail: inletdrl@ptialaska.net
__________________________________
IRAQ DRILLING COMPANY (IDC)
Ministry of Oil
Al-Nidal Street
Baghdad IRAQ
Phone: 1-914-360-3105
E-Mail: dr-alaboudi@web.de
__________________________
OIL EXPLORATION COMPANY
(OEC)
Ministry of Oil
Oil Exploration Company
PO Box 476
Baghdad IRAQ
Phone: 964/1-772-9802
Fax: 964/1-727-0388
E-Mail: oecman@uruklink.net
_________________________________
IROILRIGS INTERNATIONAL LTD
Suite 1301
1-7 Lyndhurst Terrace
Central
Hong Kong P R CHINA
Phone: 852-92380288
Fax: 852-25217979
E-Mail: robinson@iroilrigs.com
Web: www.iroilrigs.com
_______________________________
ITAG - TIEFBOHR GMBH &
COMPANY KG
Itagstrasse
Celle D-29221 GERMANY
Phone: 49/5141914-351
Fax: 49/5141-914-388
E-Mail: thor.noevig@itag-ce.de
Web: www.itag-celle.de
_________________________________
JAGSON INTERNATIONAL LTD.
2nd Floor
6 Pearey Lal Building
Janpath
New Delhi 110 001 INDIA
Phone: 91/11-3718059
Fax: 91/11-3324693
E-Mail: jil@nda.vsnl.net.in
_______________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO. LTD.
Nishi Azabu Annex 5th-7th Floor
3-20-16 Nishi Azabu, Minato-ku
Tokyo 106-0031 JAPAN
Phone: 81/3-5411-9870
Fax: 81/3-5411-9200
E-Mail: info@jdc.co.jp
Web: www.jdc.co.jp
JAPAN DRILLING (MALAYSIA)
SDN. BHD.
Box No 535 Lot 6.01
6th Fl Wisma Central
Jalan Ampang 50450
Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA
Phone: 60/3-21668071
Fax: 60/3-21668070
E-Mail: hirishi@jdc.co.jp
___________________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO., LTD. H-5
OPERATIONS OFFICE
C/O Perforadora Central, S.A.
DE.C.V.
Calle 24 No. 52 Altos-2. Col.
Centro C.P. 24100
Ciudad del Carmen MEXICO
Phone: 52/938-382-5964
Fax: 52/938-382-0577
E-Mail: yoichi.onoe@jdc.co.jp
_________________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO. LTD.
SAGADRIL, INC.
PO Box 17340
Jebel Ali, Room No. 604 of Lob-16
Building, in Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/4-8814945
Fax: 971/4-8814965
E-Mail: toshio.harada@jdc.co.jp
______________________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO. LTD.
SINGAPORE OFFICE
Loyang Offshore Supply Base
Box No 5056
Loyang Cresent
Singapore 508988 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6543-1722
Fax: 65/6542-1765
E-Mail: freddy@jdcs.com.sg
_____________________________________
PT JAPAN DRILLING INDONESIA
19th Floor, Plaza Sentral JK
Jendral Sudirman Kav 47
Jakarta 12930 INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-5746441
Fax: 62/21-5746386
_______________________________________
JET DRILLING PTE LTD
152 Beach Road
#09-01 Gateway East
Singapore 189721 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/392-0201
_____________________________
NORTHERN OFFSHORE LTD.
PO Box 1751 Vika
Oslo 0122 NORWAY
Phone: 47/2201-7500
Fax: 47/2201-7510
E-Mail:
management@northern.no
____________________________________
JINDAL DRILLING & INDUSTRIES
LTD.
1207 Vikram Tower
16 Rajendra Place
New Delhi 110 008 INDIA
Phone: 91/11-2574-0419-0421
Fax: 91/11-2575-4604
E-Mail:
jindal@giasdl01.vsnl.net.in
Web: www.jindal.com
_________________________________
JINDAL DRILLING & INDUSTRIES
LTD.
3rd Fl Keshva Bldg
Bandra Kurla Complex
Bandra (East)
Mumbai 400 051 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-2659-2893-2894
Fax: 91/22-2654-2881
E-Mail:
neptune@bom5.vsnl.net.in
_____________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
Registered Office:
220 G.I.D.C. Estate
Mehsana - Gujarat, 384 002 INDIA
Phone: 91/2762-254079
Fax: 91/2762-254822
E-Mail: john.adl@sancharnet.in
Web: www.johnenergy.com
_______________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED Corporate
Office
101, Shapath-III, Near GNFC Tower
S.G. Road
Bodakdov, Ahmedabad
Gujrat INDIA
Phone: 91/79-26850132
Fax: 91/79-26850133
E-Mail: john@johnenergy.com,
hinduad1@sancharnet.in
________________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
Durga Bhavan, Subhash Nagar
Chandkheda
Ahmedabad INDIA
Phone: 91/79-55228235
Fax: 91/79-55228235
_________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
5 Besant St, Santacruz West
Mumbai 400 054 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-26494581
Fax: 91/22-26052472
__________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
196 Narnarayan Bunglows
Behind MIPCO, Bolav Road
Bharuch
Gujrat INDIA
Phone: 91/2642-246753
Fax: 91/2642-246753
__________________________________
JUSTISS OIL CO., INC.
PO Box 2990
Jena, Louisiana 71342 USA
1120 E Oak
Jena, Louisiana 71342 USA
Phone: 318-992-4111
Fax: 318-992-7201
E-Mail: justiss@justissoil.com
________________________________
JUSTISS DRILLING DE
VENEZUELA, S.A.
Base Ubicada en la Prolongacion
Avenida Miranda, Via Lechozal Km
3
Anaco
Estado Anzoategui VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/282-4253555
Fax: 58/282-4253151
E-Mail: justiss@telcel.net.ve
___________________________________
JW DRILLING INC
PO Box 160
Artesia, New Mexico 88211 USA
5104 W Richardson
Artesia, New Mexico 88210 USA
Phone: 505-748-8704
Fax: 505-748-8719
_________________________________
KAL DRILLING COMPANY
11500 S Meridian
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73173
USA
Phone: 405-691-1202
Fax: 405-691-2377
E-Mail:
kaldrlg@oecadvantage.net
_______________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC
No. 54 Zhongxing Road
Baijiantan District
Karamay, Xinjiang 834009 P R
CHINA
Phone: 86/990-6827312
Fax: 86/990-6920617
E-Mail: gizjgs-wyx@xjkdc.com
_______________________________
SINO-KAZAK GREAT WALL
DRILLING COMPANY, LTD.
56 Arkdanuwa St
Arkqubin City 463022
KAZAKHSTAN
Phone: 7/313-2967956
Fax: 7/313-2967953
____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC NIGERIA
Phone: 234/8033580816
Fax: 234/53-321429
E-Mail:
songhykdc@yahoo.com.cn;
nrly70116@xjkdc.com
____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC
23 Road 286
New Maadi
Cairo EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-5202256
Fax: 20/2-5202254
E-Mail: ajxmb@xjkdc.com;
mengqinggang@sina.com
___________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/416-6823790
Fax: 58/282-4251824
E-Mail: wnrlxmb@xjkdc.com;
xqg6926256@126.com
_____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC NIGERIA
Phone: 87/1-762662915
Fax: 87/1-762662916
E-Mail:
yongsheng8105@sina.com;
nrly7017@xjkdc.com
_____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC IRAN
Phone: 87/1-763222177
Fax: 87/1-763222179
E-Mail:
xj16@inmarsat.francetelecom.fr
________________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC, OMAN
Phone: 968/6-93086
Fax: 968/6-93085
E-Mail: amxmb@xjkdc.com;
wanghu1974@yahoo.com
_____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC, SYRIA
Phone: 963/11-6120070
Fax: 963/11-6120070
E-Mail: xlyxmb@xjkdc.com
_____________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING GROUP
Minto Dr
Altens Industrial Estate
Aberdeen AB12 3LW SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-299600
Fax: 44/1224-230400
E-Mail:
colleen.reid@uk.kcadeutag.com
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
____________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING UK
OFFICE
Minto Drive
Altens Industrial Estate
Aberdeen AB12 3LW SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-299600
Fax: 44/1224-230401
E-Mail:
pam.vickers@uk.kcadeutag.com
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
___________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING GERMANY
OFFICE
PO Box 1253
Bad Bentheim D-48443 GERMANY
Phone: 49/5922-72000
Fax: 49/5922-72105
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
____________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING INC USA
OFFICE
10777 Westheimer Ste 1111
Houston, TX 77042 USA
Phone: 713-243-6230
Fax: 713-243-6231
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
______________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING DUBAI
OFFICE
Jebel Ali
PO Box 17240
Dubai UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/48816697
Fax: 971/48816940
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
_______________________________________-
KENAI DRILLING Corporate Office
PO Box 2248
Orcutt, California 93457-2248 USA
6430 Cat Canyon Rd
Santa Maria, California 93455 USA
Phone: 805-937-7871
Fax: 805-937-4768
Web: www.kenaidrilling.com
____________________________________
KENAI DRILLING Operations Office
2701 Patton Way
Bakersfield, CA 93308 USA
Phone: 661-587-0117
Fax: 661-587-0116
Web: www.kenaidrilling.com
____________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC.
Corporate Headquarters
6 Desta Dr Ste 4400
Midland, Texas 79705 USA
Phone: 432-620-0300
Toll Free: (877) 539-2940
Fax: 432-620-0307
____________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC.
Executive Offices
400 S River Rd
New Hope, PA 18938 USA
Phone: 215-862-7900
Toll Free: (800) 525-2147
Fax: 215-862-7901
___________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC. Drlg.
Opns. - Permian Basin Drlg.
6 Desta Dr Ste 4400
Midland, TX 79705 USA
Phone: 915-620-0300
Toll Free: (877) 539-2940
Fax: 915-570-0465
_____________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC. Drlg.
Opns. - Four Corners Drlg.
PO Box 900
Farmington, NM 87401 USA
Phone: 505-327-4961
Fax: 505-327-4962
5651 US Hwy 64
Farmington, New Me
          L is for Liechtenstein Legends        

People often ask what Liechtenstein is well known for, and the answer is simple Liechtenstein Legends. Have a read of some of their legends and you will understand.

W…

The post L is for Liechtenstein Legends appeared first on Contented Traveller.


          Kto pamięta Leo z GKS Katowice?        

gc_1403_78

Kartka z kalendarza z datą 19 lipca wydobywa z otchłani niepamięci zawodnika, którego i tak większość kibiców najpewniej nie pamięta. Urodziny święci dziś bowiem Brazylijczyk Leo (ur. 19.07.1980). Nie mówi Wam to nic? W ogóle się nie dziwię :)

Leo w GKS Katowice - co on tu robił?

Na początku 2003 roku Leo był zawodnikiem GKS Katowice. Do naszego kraju trafił jako 21-letni gracz i przygody przy ul. Bukowej nie wspomina ze szczególnym rozrzewnieniem. Choć na wstępie otrzymał na  koszulce magiczny numer 10 (później zamieniony na 18), to nie grał zbyt wiele.Miał on zastąpić sprzedanego właśnie Krzysztofa Gajtkowskiego i stać się partnerem dla ściągniętego Moussy Yahayi. Trzeba też pamiętać, że to była dość silna drużyna, która w sezonie 2002/2003 wywalczyło prawo gry w Pucharze UEFA.

No i w takiej ekipie Leo nie mógł się odnaleźć. Wiosną 2003 wystąpił tylko w siedmiu meczach (tylko w połowie były to ogony) i strzelił jedną bramkę. Ale za to jaką! Ten jeden gol wbity Lechowi sprawił, że zapamiętałem sobie gagatka po dziś dzień :)

W nowym sezonie (a dokładniej - w sierpniu) zdążył jeszcze zaliczyć dwa spotkania ligowe i dołożyć nogę w dwumeczu do kompromitacji pucharowej z macedońską Cementarnicą, po czym spakował walizki i wyjechał. W tym momencie zaczęło się jego intensywne podróżowanie.

Najpierw wrócił do ojczyzny (Brasilia), potem w Zjednoczonych Emiratach Arabskich (Al-Shabab), potem znowu w ojczyźnie (Corinthians Alagoano).

Już Leonardo - gwiazda SCR Altach

Przed sezonem 2006/2007 wylądował w Austrii, w beniaminku tamtejszej Bundesligi - SC Rheindorf Altach.

217I nagle... BUM! Okazało się, że Leo (w Austrii funkcjonował już jako Leonardo da Silva) to snajper jakich mało. Strzelił 14 goli i został czołowym goleadorem ligi. Zresztą zobaczcie sami co ten chłopak robił.

To był jego najlepszy czas w karierze. Leo wraz ze swoim partnerem z ataku Freylonem Ledezmą tworzyli naprawdę świetny duet. Kibice Altach wciąż ich wspominają, a na forach i stronach śledzą losy były idoli.

Podróże małe i duże

Jednak tak jak szybko forma przyszła, tak szybko odparowała. Kolejny sezon w SC RA Brazylijczyk zakończył z 16 meczami bez gola. Później trafił do Norwegii (Hamarkameratene, bez goli), następnie do austriackiej drugiej ligi (SV Grodig). Nigdzie się nie przebił.

W 2010 roku Leo rozpoczął swoje międzykontynentalne tournee. Wiosna 2010 - Hongkong (South China AA; bilans 10-5 i puchar ligi); jesień 2010 - Mjanme [dawniej Birma] (Yangon United FC - filmik z pobytu tutaj). Wiosną 2011 zawitał do Egiptu (Smouha SC); wiosną 2012 bawił w Brazylii (EC Avenida). W 2013 roku odnalazł się w Tajlandii (Chiangrai United - filmik), a rok później - znowu w Honkkongu (Wong Tai Sin, bilans 15-6 - filmik). W sezonie 2016/2017 był zaś zawodnikiem FC Balzers, zespołu z Liechtensteinu grającego w czwartej lidze szwajcarskiej (urobek Lego to 14 meczów i 4 gole).

Dzisiaj właśnie Leo skończył 37 lat i to chyba moment, w którym on sam zadaje sobie pytanie nie o to, gdzie zagra, ale o to, czy w ogóle jeszcze zagra.

P.


          Â¿Que debo hacer para que un Documentos surta efecto en el Exterior?        


La Legalizacion

La legalización es dar fé de la firma del funcionario público que autoriza el documento, sin prejuzgar la forma y el contenido del mismo. La Legalización de los Documentos Extranjeros es imprescindible para que surta efectos en cualquier País de que se trate. Y salvo que exista Convenio, Tratado o Acuerdo internacional que exima de su legalización, la misma se hará conforme a uno de los dos procedimientos siguientes dependiendo del país que expida el documento:

A) Apostilla de La Haya. De acuerdo con el Convenio de La Haya, de 5 de octubre de 1961, la única formalidad que se exige para los documentos procedentes de los Estados parte de dicho Convenio es el sello de La Apostilla que coloca la autoridad competente del Estado del que emana el documento y surte efectos directamente ante cualquier autoridad en el País en el que se pretenda utilizar con validez.

B) La Vía Diplomática. Es el procedimiento a utilizar para la legalización de los documentos extranjeros de Registro Civil, Notariales y Administrativos expedidos en países no firmantes del Convenio de La Haya.

¿Qué es La Apostilla?
La Apostilla de La Haya es un método simplificado de legalización de documentos a efectos de verificar su autenticidad en el ámbito internacional. Físicamente consiste en una hoja que se agrega a los documentos que la autoridad competente estampa sobre una copia del documento público. Proviene del Convenio de La Haya del 5 de octubre de 1961, también conocida como la Convención de la Apostilla, firmado en La Haya, Países Bajos, que suprime el requisito de legalización de los documentos públicos extranjeros. Entró en vigor el 24 de enero de 1965. Sólo tiene validez entre los países firmantes de este tratado, por lo que si el país donde se necesita utilizar el documento no pertenece a él, entonces será necesaria una Legalización Diplomática.
De acuerdo con el artículo 6 del Convenio, Venezuela designo como autoridad competente para expedir el sello apostilla al Ministerio De Relaciones Exteriores.
Todo documento que presente el sello de la apostilla, en Venezuela o en cualquier país parte del convenio, surte efectos legales sin necesidad de ser legalizado.  

¿En qué consiste?
Consiste en certificar que la firma y el sello de un documento público ha sido puesto por una autoridad competente. Al igual legalización, únicamente certifica que la firma o sello que muestra el documento fue emitido por un funcionario público en ejercicio de sus funciones, pero no certifica la validez del contenido del mismo. Sirve para que un documento nacional sea reconocido en un país extranjero. En principio, se reconoce en aquellos países que hayan firmado un tratado internacional, conocido como la Convención de la Haya, para disminuir así los trámites necesarios para el reconocimiento de estos en países diferentes al que fue emitido.

Documentos que se consideran Públicos:
Los documentos emanados de una autoridad o funcionario vinculado a una jurisdicción del Estado, incluyendo los provenientes del ministerio público, o de un secretario, oficial o agente judicial; b) los documentos administrativos; c) los documentos notariales; d) las certificaciones oficiales que hayan sido puestas sobre documentos privados, tales como menciones de registro, comprobaciones sobre la certeza de una fecha y autenticaciones de firmas. Pero la Convención no se aplica a los siguientes documentos: a) los documentos expedidos por agentes diplomáticos o consulares; b) los documentos administrativos que se refieran directamente a una operación mercantil o aduanera.

Miembros de la Convención de la Haya:
Actualmente existen 92 miembros de la Convención de la Apostilla: Albania, Alemania, Andorra, Antigua y Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bahamas, Barbados, Bielorrusia, Bélgica, Belice, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Islas Cook, Corea, Croacia, Chipre, República Checa, Dinamarca, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eslovaquia, España, Estados Unidos de América, Estonia, Fiji, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Granada, Honduras, Hungría, India, Islandia, Irlanda, Israel, Italia, Japón, Kazakstán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Malawi, Malta, Islas Marshall, Mauricio, México, Moldova, Mónaco, Montenegro, Namibia, Nueva Zelanda, Niue, Noruega, Países Bajos, Panamá, Polonia, Portugal, República Dominicana, Reino Unido, Rumania, Federación Rusa, Saint Kitts y Nevis, Santa Lucía, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Samoa, San Marino, Serbia, Sudáfrica, Surinam, Swazilandia, Suecia, Suiza, Antigua República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Tonga, Trinidad y Tobago, Turquía, Ucrania y Venezuela.

MINISTERIO DEL PODER POPULAR PARA RELACIONES EXTERIORES
Es la autoridad competente para expedir el sello apostilla al Ministerio De Relaciones Exteriores, de conformidad con el artículo 6 del Convenio de la Haya..

Los Documentos a ser legalizados ó apostillados por el M.P.P.R.E, deben previamente ser presentados ante las siguientes instituciones:

DOCUMENTOS DE ESTUDIOS:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Títulos
● Diplomas
● Programas
● Constancias
● Notas Certificadas
● Actas de Grado
● Documentos de Educación Básica, Media y Superior

1. Departamento de Legalización del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación


2. Departamento de Legalización del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación Superior.

Los Títulos emitidos por Universidades Privadas en todo el Territorio Nacional que vengan debidamente refrendados por el Ministro del Poder Popular para la Educación Superior, o en su defecto por el funcionario en quien se haya delegado la firma, se legalizarán directamente ante este Despacho.

DOCUMENTOS CIVILES:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Matrimonio
● Buena Conducta
● Carta de Soltería
● Actas de Nacimiento
● Antecedentes Penales
● Defunción Sentencias de Divorcio
● Otros Documentos inherentes al Registro Civil.
1. Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Interiores y Justicia


CERTIFICADOS DE SANIDAD ANIMAL O VEGETAL:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Traslados de Animales y Plantas.

1. Ministerio de Producción y Comercio
2. Servicio Autónomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria (SASA)

DOCUMENTOS LABORALES O DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Constancias de Trabajo.
● Cotizaciones del Seguro Social
1. Ministerio del Trabajo

DOCUMENTOS DE TRANSITO Y TRANSPORTE:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Registro Automotores
● Licencias de Conducir.
● Cartas Consulares
1. Ministerio de Infraestructura
2. Dirección de Transito Terrestres

DOCUMENTOS RELATIVOS A SALUD:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Certificados e Informes Médicos.
● Titulos de Postgrado realizados en centros Hospitalarios.
1. Ministerio de Salud

CERTIFICADOS COMERCIALES:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Origen, antigüedad, envejecimiento de invención.
● Calidad y apto para el consumo humano.
Ministerio de Producción y Comercio
Ministerio de Salud

 BASE LEGAL
    * Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela.
    * Convenio para Suprimir la Exigencia de Legalización de los Documentos Públicos Extranjeros.
    * Código Civil.
    * Ley Orgánica para la Protección del Niño y del Adolescente.
    * Decreto con Rango y Fuerza de Ley sobre Simplificación de Trámites Administrativos.
    * Reglamento Orgánico del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores.




          End of day 8        

The boys have successfully made it to Zurich via Lichtenstein.  The day was less eventful in the 'large mountain' category but still threw into the mix some tricky situations.  Only one photo so far - the boys have gone to bed.  Keep your eye on the blog for more photos from today to be posted very soon:

Paul:  Only a brief entry for day 8, given the late arrival in our Zurich hotel and the desperate need for sleep. A beautiful day’s cycling through Switzerland and Lichtenstein covering amazing countryside and mountain views. Even the big climb of the day was not too bad and Stu’s famous or is it infamous motivational speech kept me going. The only down side was the journey through Zurich to find our hotel, it took an hour to find our hotel which included trapped chains, the most complicated road system ever and not so very friendly locals! Lots of love to Emily and Grace xx

View from lunch-stop


 Jamie's overview of the day is slightly more detailed (no-one panic - everything is ok!):  Day 8: Chur to Zurich (93 miles) – So we started in Switzerland, went through Lichtenstein (all 10 miles of it) and then back into Switzerland. I have to say, the Swiss and Liechtensteinian’s maintain their country to unbelievable standards. I swear, every blade of grass has been measured and cut to exact same length! The scenery was fantastic, just like the postcards. Unfortunately, the day was finished on a downer with a nightmare ride through Zurich. We got lost, Stu was nearly run over, Steve got a knife pulled on him and his chain badly jammed. But we are here, safe and sound and will be leaving stupidly early to avoid any agro in the morning. 

Stu, who is feeling much better, reflects on the highs and lows of the day:  Day 8, a day that would take me into somewhere I never thought I would visit, Liechtenstein! Well it didn’t disappoint, what a truly beautiful day’s cycling. It was long, but every view could have been placed on a postcard (not that anyone really sends them anymore)!   Getting into Zurich was an experience, but the team pulled through! Finally, today I hung back to motivate Paul up one of the climbs, this turned out to be a big mistake as twice I ended up downwind of one his farts – an experience that is not easily forgotten after 8 days of protein bars!!

And finally, George, a man of few words, sums up his day in just over 30:
Yes made it to Zurich in one piece...just!
Leichenstein and Swiss mountains are amazing. So pretty. Looking forward to a trip to Germany next. More mountains in the way though.


Adrian and Steve are both asleep zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz

Here's hoping that Germany doesn't provide such an interesting and stressful experience for the boys!!  Bring on Frieberg!!


          Post 'Mongol Rally. Ángel Obregón'        
Autor: ExploraMagazine, con fecha 28/04/2013 20:07

El rally Mongol es una competición solidaria que tiene por objetivo conseguir dinero para ONG´s y ayudar a la población mongola. Para ello, los participantes están obligados a pagar una inscripción, aportar una cantidad mínima de 1200 euros a la ONG que escojan, y además, donar el coche a la llegada a Ulán Bator, capital del Rally y meta del rally.<br>Durante todo el tiempo que participamos en el rally no tuvimos ayuda de la organización, ni para conseguir el dinero, ni los mapas (no se permiten GPS), ni los visados. Se trata de realizar un viaje de aventura, todo por nuestra cuenta y riesgo. <br>Entre las diferentes opciones, nosotros escogimos la ruta sur, que nos pareció más atractiva, ya que la norte es mucho más rápida y fácil.<br>Salimos de Santander (fuimos el único equipo de Cantabria y uno de la veintena de España), y pasamos por Francia, Suiza, Liechtenstein, Alemania, República Checa, Eslovaquia, Hungría, Serbia, Bulgaria, Turquía, Georgia, Azerbaiyán, Turkmenistán, Uzbekistán, Kazakstán, Rusia y Mongolia. <a href="http://www.exploramagazine.com/?p=616" class=enlace target=_new rel=nofollow>Seguir leyendo</a><br> Ver post | Ver más blog
          Gulf Bike Week 2013 Dubai        

Dubai Bike Week 2013 

Gulf Bike Week 2013 Dubai

Vom 24.-26 Oktober findet in Dubai die Gulf Bike Week auf einem neuen Festivalgelände nahe der Küste statt.

Dubai Bike_Week_0003Wenn bei uns der Herbst einzieht, beginnt in dem Arabischen Emirat die Motorradsaison mit Temperaturen um 30°C. Internationale Motorradhersteller und Customizer präsentieren in einem einmaligen Ambiente ihre Neuheiten.

Ein Programm mit Musikacts, Stuntshows und mehr, runden die Veranstaltung ab.

Als größte Veranstaltung dieser Art in den UAE, zieht der Event Besucher aus allen Emiraten so wie Europa und den USA an, die am Freitag zum Thunder Ride durch die Metropole und in die angrenzende Wüste starten. Die Bikeshow am Samstag, ist die offizielle Middle East Custom Bike Building Championchip und wird von Frank Sander durchgeführt. Hierzu treten auch die Gewinner der Hamburger Motorrad Tage, Danny Schramm so wie die Bobber Garage aus Liechtenstein gegen die internationale Konkurrenz an. In 13 Klassen werden wieder wunderbare Pokale übergeben.


          Resoluciones de Naciones Unidas sobre los derechos del niño. Noticias de la especial situación de Irak        
Aquí vemos resoluciones de la ONU que pueden guiar para la comprensión del problema y sobre como hacer resoluciones en modelos de naciones unidas. Especialmente se tiene en cuenta la situación de los niños de Irak para iluminar la problemática

Julio Daniel Nardini

GENERAL
A/54/601
30 de noviembre de 1999
ESPAÑOL
Original: ÁRABE




Quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones
Tema 112 del programa

Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño


Informe de la Tercera Comisión


Relator: Sr. Naif Bin Bandar Al–Sudairy (Arabia Saudita)


I. Introducción
1. En su tercera sesión plenaria, celebrada el 17 de septiembre de 1999, la Asamblea General, por recomendación de la Mesa, decidió incluir en el programa del quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño” y asignarlo a la Tercera Comisión.
2. La Tercera Comisión examinó el tema en sus sesiones 23ª a 28ª, 35ª, 41ª y 43ª, celebradas los días 27 a 29 de octubre y 1°, 5, 10 y 11 de noviembre de 1999. La reseña de las deliberaciones de la Comisión figura en las actas resumidas correspondientes (A/C.3/54/SR.23 a 28, 35, 41 y 43).
3. Para su examen del tema la Comisión tuvo ante sí los siguientes documentos:
a) Informe del Secretario General relativo a la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265);
b) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía (A/54/411);
c) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados (A/54/430);
d) Carta de fecha 17 de mayo de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Bangladesh ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el Programa del Siglo XXI por la Paz y la Justicia aprobado por la Conferencia del Llamamiento por la Paz, celebrada en La Haya del 12 al 15 de mayo de 1999 (A/54/98);
e) Carta de fecha 28 de septiembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Islandia ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite la Declaración de los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los países nórdicos contra la utilización de niños soldados (A/54/419);
f) Carta de fecha 15 de octubre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Sudáfrica ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el comunicado de la reunión de Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores y Jefes de Delegación del Movimiento de los Países No Alineados celebrada en Nueva York el 23 de septiembre de 1999 (A/54/469–S/1999/1063);
g) Carta de fecha 3 de noviembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Turquía ante las Naciones Unidas (A/54/528–S/1999/1126).
4. En su 23ª sesión, celebrada el 27 de octubre, formularon declaraciones introductorias el Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados, la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, el Director General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, el Director de la oficina de Nueva York del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y la Directora Ejecutiva del UNICEF (véase A/C.3/54/SR.23).



II. Examen de propuestas


A. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46
5. En la 35ª sesión, celebrada el 5 de noviembre, el representante de Namibia, en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Angola, Argelia, la Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaiyán, las Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Botswana, el Brasil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, Chile, China, Chipre, Colombia, el Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Cuba, Dinamarca, el Ecuador, Eritrea, Eslovenia, Etiopía, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Fiji, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Ghana, Grecia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Ecuatorial, Guyana, Haití, Hungría, Indonesia, Irlanda, Islandia, las Islas Salomón, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburgo, Malasia, Malawi, Malí, Mauricio, Mónaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, Papua Nueva Guinea, el Paraguay, el Perú, Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Democrática del Congo, la República Dominicana, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Rumania, Rwanda, Santa Lucía, el Senegal , Seychelles, Singapur, Sudáfrica, Suecia, Suriname, Swazilandia, Tailandia, Ucrania, el Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe presentó el proyecto de resolución titulado “La niña” (A/C.3/54/L.46). Posteriormente Antigua y Barbuda, Australia, Belarús, Belice, Camboya, España, Granada, Jamaica, la India, Madagascar, Panamá, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, San Marino, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Uganda y Uzbekistán, se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
6. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución I).


B. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3.54/L.49
7. En la 41ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, el representante de Finlandia en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Argelia, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bangladesh, Belarús, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, China, Chipre, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Dinamarca, Egipto, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, España, Estonia, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, la Federación de Rusia, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Guinea, Hungría, la India, el Iraq, Irlanda, Islandia, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kazajstán, Kenya, Kirguistán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Madagascar, Malasia, Malí, Malta, los Estados Federados de Micronesia, Mónaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, el Pakistán, el Perú (en nombre de los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas que pertenecen al grupo de Estados de América Latina y el Caribe), Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Checa, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, Rumania, San Marino, el Senegal, Sierra Leona, Sudáfrica, Sudán, Suecia, Tailandia, Túnez, Turquía, Ucrania y Uzbekistán presentó un proyecto de resolución titulado “Los derechos del niño” (A/C.3/54/L.49). Posteriormente, Camboya, el Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Ecuatorial, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Mozambique, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Swazilandia, el Togo, Uganda, y Zimbabwe se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
8. En la 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Secretaria del Comité leyó una declaración del Contralor sobre las consecuencias para el presupuesto por programas del proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).
9. En la misma sesión, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución II).
10. Tras la aprobación del proyecto de resolución, formularon declaraciones los representantes de Singapur, los Estados Unidos de América y el Uruguay (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).



C. Proyecto de decisión propuesto por el Presidente
11. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, a propuesta del Presidente, la Comisión decidió recomendar a la Asamblea General que tomara nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265) (véase el párrafo13).



II. Recomendaciones de la Tercera Comisión
12. La Tercera Comisión recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe los siguientes proyectos de resolución:



Proyecto de resolución I

La niña


La Asamblea General,

Recordando su resolución 53/127, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y todas las resoluciones anteriores sobre la cuestión, incluidas las conclusiones convenidas de la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 7 (E/1999/27), cap. I, secc. B.IV., en particular las pertinentes a la niña,

Recordando también todas las conferencias anteriores pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo., así como el reciente examen y evaluación al cabo de cinco años de la ejecución del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo,

Profundamente preocupada por la discriminación contra las niñas y la violación de sus derechos, como consecuencia de lo cual las niñas suelen tener menor acceso que los niños a la educación, la nutrición y la atención de la salud física y mental y disfrutar de menos derechos, oportunidades y beneficios de la niñez y la adolescencia y con frecuencia son víctimas de diversas formas de explotación cultural, social, sexual y económica y de violencia y prácticas perjudiciales como el infanticidio, el incesto, el matrimonio precoz, la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto y la mutilación genital femenina,

Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr la igualdad de género de modo de asegurar un mundo justo y equitativo para las niñas,

Observando con profunda preocupación que en situaciones de pobreza, guerra y conflicto armado las niñas figuran entre las víctimas más perjudicadas, lo cual limita sus posibilidades de pleno desarrollo,

Observando con preocupación que la niña ha pasado además a ser víctima de enfermedades venéreas y de contaminación con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, lo que afecta la calidad de su vida y la deja expuesta a mayor discriminación,

Tomando nota de que en 1999 se cumple el décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo. y el vigésimo aniversario de la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer Resolución 34/180, anexo.,

Reafirmando la igualdad de derechos de mujeres y hombres consagrada, entre otros instrumentos, en el Preámbulo de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño,

1. Subraya la necesidad de que se materialicen de manera cabal y urgente los derechos que se garantizan a la niña en todos los instrumentos de derechos humanos, en particular la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño3 y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer4, así como la necesidad de que esos instrumentos sean ratificados universalmente;

2. Insta a todos los Estados a que tomen todas las medidas necesarias y adopten las reformas jurídicas para garantizar el disfrute pleno y en condiciones de igualdad por parte de la niña de todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, a que tomen medidas eficaces contra las violaciones de esos derechos y libertades y a que utilicen los derechos del niño como base de las políticas y los programas relativos a la niña;

3. Insta a los Estados a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes que estipulen que sólo se podrá contraer matrimonio con el libre y pleno consentimiento de los futuros cónyuges, a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes relativas a la edad mínima para expresar consentimiento y contraer matrimonio y a que eleven la edad mínima para contraer matrimonio cuando sea necesario;

4. Insta además a los Estados partes a que cumplan las obligaciones que han contraído en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer, así como el compromiso de llevar a la práctica la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer Informe de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, Beijing, 4 a 15 de septiembre de 1995 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.96.IV.13), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo I.;

5. Insta asimismo a todos los Estados a que promulguen y apliquen leyes que protejan a las niñas contra todas las formas de violencia, con inclusión del infanticidio y la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto, la mutilación genital femenina, la violación, la violencia en el hogar, el incesto, el abuso sexual, la explotación sexual, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, y a que establezcan programas y servicios de apoyo médico, social y sicológico adecuados a la edad, seguros y confidenciales para ayudar a las niñas que son objeto de actos de violencia;

6. Exhorta a todos los Estados y a las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que, en forma individual y colectiva, sigan aplicando la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, en particular los objetivos estratégicos relativos a la niña;

7. Insta a los Estados a que adopten medidas especiales para proteger a los niños y, en particular, a las niñas, de la violación y de otras formas de abuso sexual y violencia por motivos de sexo en situaciones de conflicto armado, prestando especial atención a las niñas refugiadas y desplazadas, y a que, al ofrecer asistencia humanitaria, tengan en cuenta las necesidades especiales de las niñas;

8. Insta además a los Estados a que formulen planes, programas o estrategias nacionales completos, multidisciplinarios y coordinados, para eliminar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas, a los que deberán dar amplia difusión y en los que habrán de fijar objetivos y calendarios para la aplicación, y procedimientos nacionales eficaces para hacer cumplir las normas pertinentes mediante mecanismos de supervisión en que intervengan todas las partes interesadas, incluidas las consultas con las organizacio- nes de mujeres, y a que, al hacerlo, tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones relativas a la niña formuladas por la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la violencia contra la mujer, con inclusión de sus causas y consecuencias;

9. Exhorta a los gobiernos, a la sociedad civil, incluidos los medios de difusión, y a las organizaciones no gubernamentales a que fomenten la educación en materia de derechos humanos y el pleno respeto y disfrute de los derechos humanos de la niña mediante, entre otras cosas, la traducción, la producción y la difusión en todos los sectores de la sociedad, y en particular entre los niños, de material informativo sobre estos derechos adecuado a la edad de los destinatarios;

10. Pide al Secretario General que, en su calidad de Presidente del Comité Administrativo de Coordinación, vele por que todas las organizaciones y los órganos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, tanto por separado como colectivamente, en particular el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, tengan en cuenta los derechos y las necesidades particulares de la niña en sus programas de cooperación por países, de conformidad con las prioridades nacionales y con el Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo;

11. Pide a todos los órganos creados en virtud de tratados sobre derechos humanos, procedimientos especiales y otros mecanismos relativos a los derechos humanos de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos y a la Subcomisión de Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos que adopten permanente y sistemáticamente una perspectiva de género en la ejecución de sus mandatos e incluyan en sus informes análisis cualitativos sobre violaciones de los derechos humanos de la mujer y la niña, y alienta a aumentar la cooperación y coordinación a ese respecto;

12. Exhorta a los Estados y las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que movilicen todos los recursos, el apoyo y la acción necesarios para alcanzar las metas y los objetivos estratégicos y aplicar las medidas que se proponen en la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer;

13. Destaca la importancia de realizar una evaluación sustantiva de la aplicación de la Plataforma de Acción dentro de una perspectiva del ciclo de vida, de modo de determinar cuáles son las lagunas y los obstáculos con que se ha tropezado en el proceso de puesta en práctica y plantear nuevas medidas para el logro de las metas de la Plataforma de Acción;

14. Insta a los gobiernos, los organismos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en particular la División para el Adelanto de la Mujer de la Secretaría, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y las organizaciones de mujeres a que procuren que en los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General titulado “La mujer en el año 2000: igualdad entre los géneros, desarrollo y paz en el siglo XXI”, se tomen debidamente en cuenta las necesidades en los derechos de la niña y se los integre en todas las actividades;

15. Pide al Secretario General que vele por que se evalúen concretamente las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en el examen de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social Informe de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, El Cairo, 5 a 13 de septiembre de 1994 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.95.XIII.18), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo. que se realizará en junio del año 2000;

16. Pide además al Secretario General que, en consulta con el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Banco Mundial, vele por que se preste atención especial a las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en todos los preparativos a escala nacional, regional e internacional, incluido el informe sobre Evaluación de la Educación para Todos en el año 2000 Véase A/54/128–E/1999/70. y el programa del Foro Mundial de la Educación, que se celebrará en abril de 2000;

17. Pide asimismo al Secretario General que se asegure de que las necesidades y los derechos de la niña se tengan en cuenta en la labor preparatoria del período extraordina- rio de sesiones de la Asamblea General sobre el seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia que se celebrará en el año 2001, entre otras cosas, presentando a la Asamblea General un informe completo basado en las experiencias y resultados de los exámenes de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer y el Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social, y en la labor preparatoria del Foro Mundial de la Educación.



Proyecto de resolución II

Los derechos del niño
La Asamblea General,
Recordando sus resoluciones 53/127 y 53/128, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y la resolución 1999/80 de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, de 28 de abril de 1999 Véase Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 3 (E/1999/23), cap. II, secc. A.,
Teniendo presente la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo., destacando que las disposiciones de la Convención y otros instrumentos pertinentes de derechos humanos deben constituir la norma en la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño y reafirmando que el interés superior del niño ha de ser una consideración primordial en todas las medidas que se adopten en relación con los niños,
Reafirmando, la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño y el Plan de Acción para la aplicación de la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño en el decenio de 1990, aprobados en la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que se celebró en Nueva York el 29 y 30 de septiembre de 1990 A/45/625, anexo., en particular el compromiso solemne de asignar alta prioridad a los derechos del niño, su supervivencia, su protección y su desarrollo, y reafirmando asimismo la Declaración y Programa de Acción de Viena que aprobó la Conferencia Mundial de Derechos Humanos, celebrada en Viena del 14 al 25 de junio de 1993A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), cap. III., en que, entre otras cosas, se indica que deben reforzarse los mecanismos y programas nacionales e internaciona- les de defensa y protección de los niños, en particular de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles, con inclusión de medidas eficaces para combatir los casos de explotación y el maltrato de niños, como el infanticidio femenino, el empleo de niños en trabajos peligrosos, la venta de niños y de sus órganos, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de los niños en la pornografía, y en que se reafirma que todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales son universales,

Observando con profunda preocupación que la situación de los niños en muchas partes del mundo sigue siendo crítica como resultado de la pobreza, las dificultades sociales y económicas en una economía cada vez más mundializada, las pandemias, los desastres naturales, los conflictos armados, el desplazamiento de la población, la explotación, el analfabetismo, el hambre, la intolerancia, la discriminación y la protección jurídica inadecuada, y convencida de que es preciso adoptar medidas urgentes y eficaces en los planos nacional e internacional,
Destacando la necesidad de integrar la dimensión del género en todas las políticas y programas relacionados con los niños,
Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr un nivel de vida adecuado para el desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral y social del niño, así como de proporcionar un acceso universal a la enseñanza primaria en condiciones de igualdad,

Reconociendo también que la colaboración entre los gobiernos, las organizaciones internacionales y todos los sectores de la sociedad civil, en particular las organizaciones no gubernamentales, es importante para el ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Destacando la importancia del décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño para la movilización y adopción de nuevas medidas a fin de lograr el pleno ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Acogiendo con satisfacción los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General, dedicado al seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que ha de celebrarse en 2001,


I
Aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
1. Insta una vez más a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que, como cuestión prioritaria, firmen y ratifiquen la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 o se adhieran a ella, a fin de lograr el objetivo de la adhesión universal para el décimo aniversario de la celebración de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y de la entrada en vigor de la Convención en el año 2000;
2. Reitera su preocupación por el elevado número de reservas a la Convención e insta a los Estados partes a que retiren las reservas que sean incompatibles con el objeto y propósito de la Convención y que revisen periódicamente sus reservas con el fin de retirarlas;
3. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que apliquen plenamente la Convención y subraya que la aplicación de la Convención contribuye al logro de los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia;
4. Insta a los Estados a que hagan participar a los niños y a los jóvenes en las actividades para lograr los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y la Convención;
5. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que cooperen estrechamente con el Comité de los Derechos del Niño y cumplan puntualmente la obligación de presentar informes que les impone la Convención, ateniéndose a las directrices elaboradas por el Comité, y alienta a los Estados partes a que tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones formuladas por el Comité en la aplicación de las disposiciones de la Convención;
6. Exhorta asimismo a los Estados partes a que promuevan la capacitación en materia de derechos del niño de quienes participan en actividades relacionadas con niños, por ejemplo, por conducto del programa de servicios de asesoramiento y cooperación técnica en materia de derechos humanos;
7. Pide al Secretario General que facilite el personal y los medios necesarios para que el Comité pueda cumplir de manera eficaz y rápida sus funciones, y toma nota del apoyo temporal proporcionado por el plan de acción de la Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos para reforzar la importante función del Comité en la promoción de la aplicación de la Convención; y le pide que presente información sobre las medidas complementarias del plan de acción;
8. Exhorta a los Estados partes en la Convención a que adopten las medidas apropiadas para que la enmienda del párrafo 2 del artículo 43 de la Convención sea aceptada a la mayor brevedad posible por una mayoría de dos tercios de los Estados partes a fin de que entre en vigor y el número de miembros del Comité pueda aumentar de 10 a 18 expertos;
9. Invita al Comité a que siga intensificando su diálogo constructivo con los Estados partes y la transparencia y eficacia de su funcionamiento;
10. Acoge con satisfacción la atención que presta el Comité al logro de los niveles más altos posibles de salud y de acceso a la atención de la salud y a los derechos de los niños afectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y exhorta a los gobiernos a que, en cooperación con los órganos y las organizacio- nes de las Naciones Unidas, tomen todas las medidas que corresponda con el fin de hacer efectivos esos derechos;
11. Insta a los Estados a que protejan todos los derechos humanos de los niños migrantes, en particular los niños migrantes no acompañados, y que garanticen que el interés superior del niño sea, por tanto, la consideración principal, y alienta al Comité, al Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a otros órganos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que, en el marco de sus mandatos respectivos, presten especial atención a las condiciones de los niños migrantes en todos los Estados y, según convenga, formulen recomendaciones para fortalecer su protección;
12. Recomienda que, en el marco de sus mandatos, todos los mecanismos competentes de derechos humanos y otros órganos y mecanismos pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, así como los órganos de supervisión de los organismos especializa- dos, presten especial atención a las situaciones particulares que pongan a los niños en peligro y en que sus derechos sean violados y que tengan en cuenta la labor del Comité, y alienta a seguir desarrollando el criterio basado en los derechos del niño que ha adoptado el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a adoptar nuevas medidas a fin de incrementar la coordinación a nivel de todo el sistema y la cooperación interinstitucional para la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño;
13. Alienta al Comité a que, en su labor de supervisión de la aplicación de la Convención, siga prestando atención a las necesidades de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles;
14. Alienta a los gobiernos, a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas, a las organizaciones no gubernamentales competentes y a las personas dedicadas a las actividades en pro de la infancia a que, según corresponda, contribuyan a la base de datos que ha establecido en la red el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) a fin de continuar proporcionando información sobre leyes, estructuras, políticas y procesos adoptados a escala nacional con el objeto de llevar a la práctica la Convención;


II
Prevención y erradicación de la venta de niños y de su explotación y maltrato sexual, en particular la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía
1. Acoge con satisfacción el informe provisional de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía A/54/411. y expresa su apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial;
2. Pide al Secretario General que proporcione a la Relatora Especial toda la asistencia necesaria en materia de recursos humanos y financieros para que pueda cumplir plenamente su mandato;
3. Invita a que sigan aportándose contribuciones voluntarias por conducto de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y a que se preste apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial para que pueda cumplir su mandato con eficacia;
4. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 relativo a la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía e insta al grupo de trabajo a que concluya su labor antes de la celebración del décimo aniversario, en 2000, de la entrada en vigor de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
5. Reafirma la obligación de los Estados partes de impedir el secuestro, la venta o la trata de niños para cualquier fin o en cualquier forma y de proteger al niño de todos los tipos de explotación o abuso sexual, de conformidad con los artículos 34 y 35 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
6. Insta a los Estados a que tipifiquen como delito y castiguen eficazmente todas las formas de explotación y abuso sexual de los niños, en particular dentro de la familia o con fines comerciales, la utilización de niños en la pornografía y la prostitución infantil, incluida la explotación de niños en el turismo sexual, garantizando al mismo tiempo que los niños víctimas de esas prácticas no sean penalizados; y a que adopten medidas eficaces para garantizar el procesamiento de los delincuentes, tanto locales como extranjeros, por las autoridades nacionales competentes, en el país de origen del delincuente o en el país de destino, respetando las garantías procesales;
7. Insta también a los Estados a que en los casos de explotación de niños en el turismo sexual aumenten la cooperación internacional entre las autoridades competentes, en particular las autoridades policiales, y a que compartan los datos pertinentes a fin de erradicar esa práctica;
8. Pide a los Estados que intensifiquen la cooperación y la acción concertada a nivel nacional, regional e internacional, incluido en el contexto de las Naciones Unidas, por parte de todas las autoridades e instituciones competentes, a fin de adoptar y aplicar medidas eficaces para la prevención y la erradicación de la venta de niños y su explotación y abuso sexual y para prevenir y desmantelar redes de trata de niños;
9. Destaca la necesidad de combatir la existencia de un mercado que fomenta ese tipo de prácticas delictivas contra los niños, incluso mediante la adopción de medidas preventivas y coercitivas dirigidas contra los clientes o las personas que explotan o maltratan sexualmente a los niños;
10. Insta además a los Estados a que promulguen, apliquen, examinen y revisen, según proceda, la legislación pertinente e implanten políticas, programas y prácticas para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de la explotación y abuso sexual, incluida la explotación sexual con fines comerciales, y eliminar esas prácticas, teniendo en cuenta los problemas específicos que plantea la utilización de la Internet en este sentido;
11. Alienta a los gobiernos a que faciliten la participación activa de los niños víctimas de explotación o abuso sexual en la formulación y aplicación de estrategias para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de explotación o abuso sexual;
12. Alienta a seguir tratando de determinar a nivel regional e interregional las mejores prácticas y las cuestiones que exigen una respuesta particularmente urgente para dar seguimiento a la aplicación de medidas acordes con las indicadas en la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo.;
13. Invita a los Estados y órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que asignen recursos suficientes para la rehabilitación de los niños víctimas de la explotación y el maltrato sexual y a que tomen las medidas correspondientes para promover su plena recuperación y reintegración social;


III
Protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados
1. Acoge con beneplácito el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre el efecto de los conflictos armados en los niñosA/54/430.;
2. Expresa su apoyo a la labor del Representante Especial del Secretario General, en particular sus esfuerzos por crear mayor conciencia de la cuestión en todo el mundo y por movilizar a la opinión oficial y pública en favor de la protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, a fin de promover el respeto de los derechos y las necesidades de los niños en los conflictos y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, y recomienda al Secretario General que prorrogue su mandato por un nuevo período de tres años, conforme a lo estipulado en los párrafos 35, 36 y 37 de la resolución 51/77 de la Asamblea General, de 12 de diciembre de 1996;
3. Insta al Secretario General y a todas las partes pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, incluido el Representante Especial y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, a que intensifiquen sus esfuerzos por elaborar un enfoque concertado de los derechos, la protección y el bienestar de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, incluso, según proceda, en los preparativos de las visitas al terreno del Representante Especial y en el seguimiento de dichas visitas;
4. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes interesadas a que sigan cooperando con el Representante Especial, cumplan los compromisos que han contraído, y examinen atentamente todas las recomendaciones del Representante Especial y se ocupen de las cuestiones señaladas;
5. Celebra el apoyo constante que se ofrece a la labor del Representante Especial y las contribuciones voluntarias efectuadas a ese respecto;
6. Insta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados a respetar el derecho internacional humanitario, a poner fin a cualquier forma de agresión dirigida a los niños y a los ataques a lugares en los que suele haber un número considerable de niños, exhorta a los Estados Partes a que respeten plenamente las disposiciones de los Convenios de Ginebra de 12 de agosto de 1949 Naciones Unidas, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, Nos. 970 a 973. y los Protocolos Adicionales de 1977 Ibíd., vol. 1125, Nos. 17512 y 17513., y exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a adoptar todas las medidas necesarias para proteger a los niños de los actos que constituyen violaciones del derecho internacional humanitario, incluso mediante el enjuiciamiento por los Estados, en el marco de la legislación nacional, de los responsables de dichas violaciones;
7. Reconoce, a ese respecto, que el establecimiento de la Corte Penal Internacional contribuiría a poner fin a la impunidad de los perpetradores de ciertos crímenes cometidos contra los niños, tipificados en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional Véase A/CONF.183/9, art. 8., que incluyen, entre otros, los que entrañan violencia sexual o la utilización de niños soldados, y tendrá también un efecto preventivo;
8. Condena el secuestro de niños en situaciones de conflicto armado o con el fin de involucrarlos en conflictos armados e insta a los Estados, a las organizaciones internacionales y a otras partes interesadas a que adopten todas las medidas que sean apropiadas para obtener la liberación incondicional de todos los niños secuestrados, e insta a los Estados a someter a los perpetradores a la acción de la justicia;
9. Toma nota de la importancia del segundo debate público sobre los niños y los conflictos armados, celebrado por el Consejo de Seguridad el 25 de agosto de 1999 Véase S/PV.4037., y del compromiso del Consejo de prestar especial atención a la protección, el bienestar y los derechos de los niños, al adoptar medidas encaminadas al mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad Resolución 1261 (1999) del Consejo de Seguridad., y reafirma el papel fundamental que corresponde a la Asamblea General y al Consejo Económico y Social en la promoción y protección de los derechos y el bienestar de los niños;
10. Exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a que velen por que el personal humanitario tenga acceso seguro y sin restricciones a todos los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, y por que se preste asistencia humanitaria a esos niños;
11. Celebra la decisión del Consejo Económico y Social Documentos Oficiales de la Asamblea General, quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones, Suplemento No. 3 (A/54/3), cap. VI, párr. 5, conclusiones convenidas 1999/1, párr. 22. de exhortar a una acción interinstitucional sistemática, concertada y amplia a favor de los niños y pedir que se asignen recursos suficientes, en forma sostenible, para prestar a los niños asistencia inmediata de emergencia y financiar medidas a largo plazo a ese respecto durante todas las etapas de una emergencia;
12. Insta a los Estados y a todas las otras partes en los conflictos armados a poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados y asegurar su desmovilización y desarme efectivo, y a adoptar medidas eficaces para la rehabilitación, la recuperación física y sicológica y la reinserción en la sociedad de todos los niños que han sido víctimas de situaciones de conflicto armado; invita a la comunidad internacional a prestar asistencia en ese empeño; y subraya que no se debe prestar a quienes utilicen niños soldados ningún apoyo que haga posible o que facilite esa práctica;
13. Exhorta a los Estados y a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas a que continúen prestando apoyo a las actividades nacionales e internacionales de remoción de minas, incluso mediante contribuciones financieras, programas de información sobre el peligro de las minas y programas de asistencia a las víctimas y de rehabilitación dedicados especialmente a los niños, y celebra también los efectos positivos que tiene para los niños la adopción de medidas legislativas concretas respecto de las minas antipersonal;
14. Toma nota con preocupación del efecto de las armas pequeñas y ligeras sobre los niños en situaciones de conflicto armado, en particular como consecuencia de su producción y tráfico ilícitos, e insta a los Estados a ocuparse de ese problema;
15. Recomienda que, cada vez que se impongan sanciones, se evalúen y vigilen sus efectos en los niños, y que las exenciones por motivos humanitarios tengan especialmente en cuenta a los niños y se formulen con unas claras directrices de aplicación;
16. Exhorta a los Estados, a los órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y a las organizaciones regionales a que integren los derechos del niño en todas sus actividades durante los conflictos armados y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, incluidos los programas de capacitación y las operaciones de socorro de emergencia, los programas en los países y las operaciones sobre el terreno encaminadas a promover la paz y a prevenir y resolver conflictos, así como en la negociación y aplicación de los acuerdos de paz, y, teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias a largo plazo para la sociedad, subraya la importancia de incorporar disposiciones específicas para los niños, incluso disposiciones relativas a la aportación de recursos, en los acuerdos de paz y en los acuerdos negociados por las partes en los conflictos;
17. Acoge con beneplácito las gestiones que realizan, entre otros, las organizaciones regionales, las organizaciones intergubernamentales y las no gubernamentales para poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados en los conflictos armados, y reafirma la necesidad urgente de aumentar la edad mínima límite establecida en el artículo 38 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 para el reclutamiento y la participación de cualquier persona en los conflictos armados, con el objeto de poner fin a la utilización de niños soldados;
18. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño relativo a la participación de los niños en los conflictos armados, y las consultas que dirige el presidente del grupo de trabajo para seguir avanzando con el fin de concluir su labor antes del décimo aniversario de la entrada en vigor de la Convención;


IV
Los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país
1. Insta a los gobiernos a mejorar la aplicación de políticas y programas para la protección, el cuidado y el bienestar de los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país, con la cooperación internacional necesaria, en particular la de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Representante del Secretario General sobre los desplazados internos, en consonancia con las obligaciones contraídas en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
2. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados, así como a los órganos y organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas, a que presten atención urgente a la protección y asistencia a los niños refugiados o desplazados en el interior del país, que están especialmente expuestos a riesgos relacionados con los conflictos armados, como los de ser reclutados forzosamente o ser objeto de violencia, maltrato o explotación sexual;
3. Expresa su profunda preocupación por el número cada vez mayor de niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados, y hace un llamamiento a todos los Estados y a los órganos y organismos de las Naciones Unidas y otras organizaciones pertinentes para que den prioridad a los programas para la búsqueda y reunificación de las familias y continúen supervisando las disposiciones en materia de cuidado de los niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados;


V
Eliminación progresiva del trabajo infantil
1. Reafirma el derecho del niño a la protección respecto de la explotación económica y la realización de cualquier trabajo que pueda ser peligroso para él o constituir un obstáculo para su educación o que pueda resultar nocivo para su salud o su desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral o social;
2. Acoge con satisfacción la aprobación por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, en el 87° período de sesiones de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, celebrado en Ginebra del 1° al 17 de junio de 1999, del Convenio No. 182 sobre la prohibición de las peores formas de trabajo infantil y la acción inmediata para su eliminación, y alienta a todos los Estados a considerar, como cuestión prioritaria, la posibilidad de ratificarlo, con miras a que entre en vigor lo antes posible;
3. Exhorta a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que consideren la posibilidad de ratificar los convenios de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo relativos al trabajo infantil, en particular el Convenio No. 29, de 1930, sobre la abolición del trabajo forzoso u obligatorio y el Convenio No. 138, de 1973, sobre la edad mínima de empleo, y los exhorta a que apliquen esos Convenios;
4. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a que traduzcan en medidas concretas su compromiso de eliminar progresiva y efectivamente las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas y los insta a que, como cuestión prioritaria, eliminen de inmediato las peores formas de trabajo infantil, enumeradas en el nuevo Convenio No. 182 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo;
5. Exhorta además a todos los Estados a que evalúen y examinen sistemáticamente la magnitud, la naturaleza y las causas del trabajo infantil y a que elaboren y pongan en práctica estrategias para la eliminación del trabajo infantil que contravenga las normas internacionales aceptadas, prestando especial atención a los peligros concretos a que hacen frente las niñas, así como a la rehabilitación y la reinserción social de los niños afectados;
6. Reconoce que la educación primaria es uno de los principales instrumentos para reintegrar a los niños que trabajan e insta a todos los Estados a que reconozcan el derecho a la educación, haciendo obligatoria la enseñanza primaria y garantizando que todos los niños tengan acceso a la enseñanza primaria gratuita como estrategia fundamental para prevenir el trabajo infantil, y reconoce, en particular, la importante función que cumplen a este respecto la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia;

7. Exhorta a todos los Estados y al sistema de las Naciones Unidas a que incrementen la cooperación internacional como medio de ayudar a los gobiernos a prevenir o a combatir las violaciones de los derechos de los niños y a alcanzar el objetivo de eliminar las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas;

8. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que fortalezcan la cooperación y coordinación en los planos nacional e internacional, para abordar efectivamente el problema del trabajo infantil, cooperando también estrechamente con la Organización Internacional del Trabajo y con el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, entre otros organismos;


VI
La difícil situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle

1. Exhorta a los gobiernos a buscar soluciones amplias a los problemas que dan lugar a que los niños trabajen o vivan en la calle y a aplicar políticas y programas apropiados para la protección y la rehabilitación y reinserción de esos niños, teniendo en cuenta que son particularmente vulnerables a todo tipo de violencia, maltrato, explotación y abandono;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a velar por que se presten servicios a los niños para evitar que se dediquen a actividades que puedan acarrearles daño, explotación y maltrato y atender a las necesidades económicas apremiantes que motivan su participación en tales actividades;

3. Insta encarecidamente a todos los gobiernos a que garanticen el respeto de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales de todos, en particular el derecho a la vida, a que adopten con carácter urgente medidas eficaces para evitar que se mate a los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle, combatir la tortura, el maltrato y los actos de violencia contra ellos y someter a los perpetradores de tales actos a la acción de la justicia;

4. Hace un llamamiento a la comunidad internacional para que, mediante una cooperación internacional eficaz, incluida la prestación de asesoramiento y asistencia técnicos, apoye la labor de los Estados encaminada a mejorar la situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle;


VII
Niños con discapacidad

1. Celebra que, de conformidad con la decisión del Comité de los Derechos del Niño, se haya establecido un grupo de trabajo con el fin de elaborar un plan de acción en favor de los niños con discapacidad, en estrecha colaboración con el Relator Especial sobre Discapacidad de la Comisión de Desarrollo Social y otros sectores pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas Véase CRC/C/84, párrs. 219 a 222.;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que adopten todas las medidas necesarias para asegurar que los niños con discapacidad gocen plenamente y en condiciones de igualdad de todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales y a que promulguen y hagan cumplir leyes contra la discriminación de esos niños;

3. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a promover para los niños con discapacidad una vida plena y decorosa, en condiciones que aseguren la dignidad, fomenten la autosufi- ciencia y faciliten la participación activa del niño en la comunidad, incluido el acceso efectivo a la educación y los servicios de atención de la salud;


VIII

Decide:

a) Pedir al Secretario General que le presente en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones un informe sobre los derechos del niño que contenga información sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 y los problemas a que se hace referencia en la presente resolución;

b) Pedir al Representante Especial del Secretario General para la cuestión de los niños y los conflictos armados que presente a la Asamblea General y a la Comisión de Derechos Humanos informes que contengan información pertinente sobre la situación de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, teniendo en cuenta los mandatos actuales y los informes de los órganos correspondientes;

c) Seguir examinando esta cuestión en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones en relación con el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño”.
***

13. La Comisión también recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe el siguiente proyecto de decisión:



Informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
La Asamblea General toma nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño A/54/265
Iraq: ONU califica de intolerable situación de niños



25 de abril, 2008 La representante especial de la ONU para Niños en Conflictos Armados, Radhika Coomaraswamy, consideró que la situación de los niños en Iraq es intolerable debido a la violencia.
Al concluir una visita de cinco días a ese país, la enviada dijo hoy que los menores son víctimas silenciosas del entorno violento que impera

en Iraq.




En este sentido, instó a los líderes religiosos, políticos, militares y comunitarios del país a enviar un mensaje claro a la niñez iraquí para que se mantengan el margen de las hostilidades y vuelvan a la escuela.

Coomaraswamy urgió a todas las partes en conflicto a apegarse estrictamente a los estándares humanitarios internacionales sobre la protección de los niños y a liberar de inmediato a los menores de 18 años que estén asociados a cualquier organización combatiente.

Señaló que más de la mitad de los desplazados y refugiados iraquíes son niños que afrontan grandes dificultades en los lugares donde llegan a asentarse ya sea en su propio país o en uno ajeno.

“La comunidad internacional debería asistir a los países anfitriones para garantizar que se protejan los derechos de los niños y que tengan acceso a servicios básicos como la educación y los servicios de salud”, enfatizó la representante especial.


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Kadhum Al-Sahir, nuevo Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, habla sobre las necesidades de los más pobres
BAGDAD, Iraq, 9 de mayo de 2011. Kadhum Al-Sahir, el cantante iraquí mundialmente reconocido como uno de los más grandes representantes de la música árabe contemporánea, se convirtió hoy en el primer Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq. Al regresar a su país tras 14 años de ausencia, Al-Sahir destacó la necesidad de luchar por la igualdad en pro de los niños más necesitados de Iraq.

VÍDEO (en inglés): 5 de mayo de 2011. El famoso cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir, recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, compuso una nueva canción, titulada "Juntos por los niños", en la que convoca a todos los segmentos de la sociedad de su país a que ayuden a poner fin a las penurias que afrontan los jóvenes y niños.
"Los niños y niñas de Iraq han sufrido penurias indescriptibles en las últimas dos décadas, en las que cientos de miles de menores sufrieron las consecuencias brutales de la violencia y las privaciones inhumanas", dijo. "Ha llegado la hora de poner fin a esa situación".
Al-Sahir es uno de los más destacados músicos en la historia de Iraq y uno de los artistas más populares de la región.
El cantante aboga por los niños y jóvenes desde hace mucho tiempo. Ese apoyo comenzó en 1998, cuando compuso e interpretó "Tathakkar" ("Recuerda"), una canción sobre los niños en las situaciones de conflicto. El tema recibió un premio de UNICEF por tratarse de una contribución sobresaliente al mejoramiento de las vidas de los niños en situación de necesidad. En 2004, Al-Sahir ofreció un concierto a beneficio de más de 50.000 niños y niñas de Oriente Medio.



Juntos por los niños
Continuando en la misma vena, Kadhum Al-Sahir presentó hoy "Juntos por los niños", una nueva canción que es también un llamamiento a la acción.



© UNICEF Iraq/2011/Arar
Kadhum Al-Sahir, el famoso cantante recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, regresa a su país tras una ausencia de 14 años.
La canción rinde homenaje al coraje de los niños de Iraq en versos que dicen, por ejemplo, "¿Hay alguien que haya sufrido las penurias que sufrieron ustedes? Porque ustedes han superado los límites del temor y las privaciones".
El cantante convocó a todos los segmentos de la sociedad iraquí a que ayuden a mejorar la situación de sus niños. "Unámonos a UNICEF, y marchemos juntos para poner fin a las muertes, las enfermedades, el abandono y la pobreza", añadió. "Ayudemos a los niños que son víctimas de las guerras. Vengan y hagamos algo para que sus penurias se conviertan en prosperidad. Vengan, trabajemos todos juntos".
Las cuestiones que afectan a los niños de Iraq
En el decenio de 1970, Iraq era uno de los mejores países de Oriente Medio y África septentrional si se era niño, pero tras varias décadas de guerra y abandono, hoy es uno de los peores. Entre las cuestiones más graves que afectan a los casi 15 millones de niños y niñas iraquíes figuran las siguientes:
 Unos 35.000 lactantes mueren anualmente durante su primer año de vida.
 Más de 1,5 millones de niños menores de cinco años sufren desnutrición.
 Unos 700.000 niños y niñas en edad escolar no asisten a clases, mientras que cientos de miles de niños que inician sus estudios no los terminan.
 Unos 2,5 millones de niños carecen de acceso al agua potable y unos 3,5 millones no cuentan con instalaciones de saneamiento adecuadas.
 Unos 800.000 niños y niñas de 5 a 14 años de edad trabajan.


© UNICEF-Iraq/Arar/2011
El cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir se dirige a un grupo de periodistas tras el anuncio en Bagdad de su nombram
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          Bulan Agustus        
1 Agustus
Columbus Menginjakkan Kaki di AS

Tanggal 1 Agustus 1498, petualang Italia, Christopher Columbus menginjakkan kakinya untuk pertama kali di daratan benua Amerika, di kawasan yang sekarang menjadi bagian dari Venezuela. Columbus mengira wilayah yang didatanginya itu sebagai sebuah pulau dan memberinya nama Isla Santa serta mengklaimnya sebagai wilayah jajahan Spanyol. Columbus dilahirkan di Genoa, Italia pada tahun 1451. Ia sangat terobsesi oleh kemungkinan menemukan jalur pelayaran langsung dari Eropa ke Asia. Saat itu, masyarakat Eropa mengira tidak ada jalur langsung ke Asia timur, dan satu-satunya jalur yang ada, yaitu melalui Mesir dan Laut Merah telah ditutup oleh kerajaan Ottoman.
Dengan mengira bahwa Eropa dan India Timur hanya dibatasi oleh Lautan Atlantik, Columbus menemui Raja Portugis untuk mensponsori pelayarannya mencari rute baru ke Asia. Proposal ini ditolak dan kemudian Columbus menemui Raja Ferdinand dari Spanyol yang akhirnya bersedia menjadi sponsor misi tersebut. Pada tanggal 3 Agustus 1492, Columbus memulai ekspedisinya dengan menggunakan tiga kapal bernama Santa Maria, Pinta, dan Niya. Dalam ekspedisi pertama ini, Columbus mencapai Cuba, yang dikiranya bagian dari Cina dan Hispaniola yang disangka sebagai wilayah Jepang. Mereka kembali ke Spanyol dengan membawa emas dan rempah-rempah. Atas kesuksesannya ini, Columbus diberi penghargaan oleh Raja Spanyol dan diberi kesempatan untuk menjalankan ekspedisi yang kedua.
Pada tahun 1493, Columbus memulai ekspedisi keduanya namun hanya berhasil mencapai wilayah Karibia dan pasukannya banyak terbunuh dalam pertempuran dengan kaum pribumi. Selanjutnya pada bulan Mei 1498, Columbus memulai eskpedisi dengan tujuan utama mencari jalur langsung ke India. Tiga bulan kemudian, pada tanggal 1 Agustus 1498, ia menginjakkan kakinya untuk pertama kali di benua AS.

Perang Dunia I Dimulai
Tanggal 1 Agustus tahun 1914, Perang Dunia I secara resmi dimulai dengan adanya pengumuman perang dari Jerman terhadap Rusia. Tiga hari sebelumnya, Austria juga mengumumkan perang terhadap Serbia dengan alasan terbunuhnya putra mahkota Austria di Sarajevo. Setelah melancarkan perang terhadap Rusia, Jerman juga memerangi Perancis dan perang pun meluas dengan cepat. Dalam perang ini, Jerman bersekutu dengan Austria, Hongaria, dan Ottoman. Sementara itu, Perancis , Inggris, Rusia, dan Serbia bergabung dalam kelompok Sekutu.
Persiapan perang ini sesungguhnya telah dimulai sejak lama. Puluhan tahun sebelum dimulainya perang, negara-negara besar Eropa terlibat dalam persaingan senjata dan berusaha untuk memperluas wilayah penjajahan mereka. Selain itu, pemikiran nasionalisme juga semakin menguat di Eropa. Dalam perang ini, awalnya Jerman dan kelompok Axis hampir menang, namun kemudian AS bergabung ke dalam kelompok Sekutu, sehingga kekuatan Sekutu semakin besar dan akhirnya meraih kemenangan. Perang ini secara resmi berakhir tanggal 11 November 1918 dengan menjatuhkan korban tewas 9 juta orang, 29 juta orang cacat, dan 5 juta orang hilang. Pada tahun 1919, pihak-pihak yang terlibat perang menandatangani Perjanjian Versailles yang memberikan denda besar terhadap Jerman sebagai pihak yang memulai perang.

Swiss mencapai kemerdekaan
Tanggal 1 Agustus tahun 1648 Masehi, Swiss memperoleh pengakuan atas kemerdekaannya. Karenanya tanggal 1 Agustus di negara itu diperingati sebagai hari nasional. Swiss memilih sikap netral dalam perang panjang di benua Eropa yang terjadi antara tahun 1618 hingga 1648. Di bawah Perjanjian Westfalen, negara Eropa mengakui kemerdekaan Swiss dari Kekaisaran Romawi Suci dan kenetralannya (ancien régime). Swiss dengan ibukotanya Bern, memiliki luas wilayah 41,293 kilometer persegi dan terletak di jantung benua Eropa. Negara ini bertetangga dengan Jerman, Prancis, Italia, Austria dan Liechtenstein.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck lahir ke dunia
Tanggal 1 Agustus 1744, Jean Baptiste Lamarck, pakar lingkungan hidup dan ailmuan biologi asal Prancis lahir ke dunia di Bazentin, Picardie. Ia dikenal setelah menulis buku berjudul Flore Francoise atau Tumbuh-tumbuhan Prancis yang terbit pada tahun 1779. Pada masa revolusi Prancis ia diangkat menjadi pejabat di Museum Nasional Paris untuk Sejarah Alam. Kajian dan penelitian ilmiahnya menghasilkan teori tentang evolusi kehidupan.

Karya besarnya berjudul Filsafat Zoologi yang terbit tahun 1809 mengulas pendapatnya tentang teori hubungan antara makhluk hidup dan lingkungannya (ekologi). Ia memberi dasar klasifikasi baru bagi hewan, dengan pertama-tama memisahkan dalam dua kelompok besar: hewan bertulang belakang (Vertebrata) dan tak bertulang belakang (Avertebrata). Lamarck meninggal dunia pada tanggal 18 Desember 1829 saat berusia 85 tahun.

Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 1 Agustus tahun 2005, Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, raja Arab Saudi meninggal dunia setelah beberapa tahun menderita penyakit akut. Fahd lahir di Riyadh, pada tahun 1921. Tahun 1967 ua menjabat sebagai Wakil Perdana Menteri dan delapan tahun kemudian dinobatkan sebagai Putra Mahkota. Dengan meninggalnya Raja Khalid bin Abdul Aziz tahun 1982, Fahd naik takhta sebagai raja kelima dari dinasti keluarga Saud. Masa kepemimpinan Raja Fahd diwarnai dengan hubungan yang kian mesra antara Arab Saudi dan Amerika Serikat.

Ketika perang Irak terhadap Iran meletus dekade 1980-an, Fahd menjadi salah satu pendukung utama dan donatur bagi Saddam. Hubungan Irak dan Arab Saudi merenggang setelah Saddam mengerahkan pasukannya untuk menginvasi Kuwait tahun 1990. Sejak tahun 1995, setelah mengalami serangan jantung, secara praktis Raja Fahd menyerahkan kendali pemerintahan kepada saudaranya, Emir Abdullah yang saat itu duduk sebagai Putra Mahkota. Dengan kematian Fahd, kekuasaan di negara itu jatuh ke tangan Abdullah.

2 Agustus
Denis Popon Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 2 Agustus tahun 1714, Denis Popon, seorang inventor Perancis, meninggal dunia. Dia menggunakan tenaga uap untuk menggerakkan motor mesin. Mesin bertenaga uap ciptaan Popon ini merupakan alat bertenaga uap pertama dan berdasarkan konsep mesin uap ini, kemudian diciptakanlah mobil dan kapal uap.

Ayatullah Syaikh Fadhlullah Nuri Gugur
Tanggal 2 Agustus tahun 1909, Ayatullah Syaikh Fadhlullah Nuri", seorang ulama dan pejuang besar Iran, gugur syahid kerana digantung oleh antek-antek kolonialis. Beliau adalah ahli fiqih garis depan di Teheran dan sangat berjuang keras dalam menyebarkan pemikiran Islam dan paham keadilan. Ayatullah Nuri merupakan salah satu pemimpin utama perjuangan kaum ruhaniwan dan rakyat Iran dalam melawan dinasti Qajar dan dalam Revolusi Konstitusional. Namun, setelah dibentuknya Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat sebagai hasil dari Revolusi Konstitusional tersebut, Ayatullah Nuri mendapati bahwa sebagian undang-undang yang disepakati oleh majelis tidak sesuai dengan pandangan Islam.
Oleh karena itulah beliau dan sejumlah pejuang lainnya mengadakan aksi protes di makam Syekh Abdul Adzhim di kota Rey, selatan Teheran. Akhirnya, Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat bersedia mengubah undang-undang dasar yang tidak sesuai dengan pandangan Islam tersebut dan Ayatullah Nuri kembali ke Teheran. Setelah direbutnya kota Tehran dan berakhirnya despotisme..., antek-antek kolonialis memanfaatkan situasi untuk melindungi despotisme dengan membunuh Ayatullah Nuri.

Irak Dipastikan Gunakan Senjata Kimia Terhadap Iran
Tanggal 2 Agustus tahun 1988, komisi penelitian PBB yang dikirim ke Iran dan Irak, dengan mengeluarkan dua laporannya, menyatakan bahwa Irak selama peperangan melawan Iran telah berkali-kali menggunakan senjata kimia. Ini adalah pengakuan terang-terangan pertama dari PBB mngenai penggunaan senjata kimia tentara Irak terhadap Iran. Namun, Dewan Keamanan PBB sama sekali tidak mengeluarkan resolusi apapun dalam menanggapi penggunaan senjata kimia ini. Senjata kimia yang digunakan secara luas dan menyerang tidak saja tentara Iran, melainkan juga rakyat sipil Iran, sama sekali tidak ditanggapi oleh PBB. Alasannya adalah demi melindungi kepentingan Barat yang bekerja sama dengan Irak dalam memproduksi senjata kimia tersebut.
Oleh karena itulah, beberapa jam setelah laporan tersebut disiarkan, kota Ashnawieh di bagian barat Iran dibombardir dengan bom kimia dan melukai 2400 penduduk kota itu. Komisi penelitian PBB juga mengakui adanya penyerangan bom kimia di Ashnawieh yang dilakukan setelah diadakannya perjanjian gencatan senjata antara Irak dan Iran ini.

Invasi Irak ke Kuwait
Tanggal 2 Agustus tahun 1990, tentara Irak menginvasi negara tetangganya, Kuwait. Invasi ini merupakan invasi Irak kedua setelah sebelumnya di tahun 1980 menyerang Iran. Sebelumnya, Rezim Saddam selalu menyatakan bahwa kawasan Kuwait adalah provinsi Irak yang ke-19. Invasi ke Kuwait ini bertujuan untuk mengambil alih kekayaan minyak Kuwait dan dengan demikian, Rezim Saddam berharap bisa menjadi pemimpin dunia Arab. Namun, invasi Irak ke Kuwait ini mendapat reaksi negatif yang sangat besar dari dunia internasional.
Dunia internasional dan PBB menngecam invasi Irak ini dan memerintahkan agar Irak keluar dari Kuwait. Kemudian, sejumlah negara dengan dipimpin oleh AS mengirimkan pasukannya ke Teluk Persia dengan tujuan untuk mengusir Irak. Meskipun telah dilakukan berbagai macam lobi politik selama tujuh bulan, tentara Irak tetap bertahan di Kuwait. Akhirnya, pasukan aliansi pimpinan AS melakukan penyerbuan ke Irak hingga menimbulkan kerugian dan kerusakan yang sangat besar bagi tentera dan rakyat Irak. karena serangan pasukan aliansi itu, pada tanggal 28 Februari 1991, Irak mengakhiri aneksasinya di Kuwait.

3 Augustus
Dimulainya Petualangan Terbesar Colombus

Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 1492, dimulailah perjalanan terbesar Christopher Columbus, seorang pelaut Italia. Christopher Columbus menandatangani perjanjian dengan Raja dan Ratu Spanyol yang berisi penugasan untuk menemukan jalan baru menuju India. Columbus bersama 120 pelaut lainnya, dengan menggunakan 3 kapal, berlayar dari pelabuhan Paulus Spanyol dan 33 hari kemudian mereka bertemu dengan daratan yang mereka sangka adalah India. Ternyata, daratan yang dilabuhi oleh Columbus dan rombongannya adalah kepulauan Salvador yang terletak di benua Amerika. Dengan demikian, tanpa disadari oleh Columbus, dia menemukan benua baru yaitu benua Amerika.

Sisilia Berintegrasi Dengan Italia
Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 1860, kepulauan Sisilia menjadi bagian dari Italia atas usaha Garibaldi, pemimpin gerakan nasionalisme Italia. Warga kepulauan ini mendukung Garibaldi karena mereka menderita akibat kesewenang-wenangan Raja Perancis Kedua yang bertahun-tahun menjajah kepulauan Sisilia. Setelah peperangan 80 hari, kepulauan Sisilia menjadi bagian dari Italia dan dengan demikian, proses penyatuan Italia secara keseluruhan memakan waktu 10 tahun.

Pembukaan Terusan Panama
Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 1914, dengan melintasnya kapal pertama, Terusan Panama dibuka. Pembangunan terusan ini dimulai oleh para insinyur Perancis dan dilanjutkan oleh orang Amerika sampai selesai. Terusan sepanjang 68 kilometer ini mempertemukan Lautan Teduh dan Samudera Pasifik.

Nigeria Merdeka
Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 1960, Nigeria meraih kemerdekaannya dan menjadi anggota PBB. Negara Afrika ini sejak abad ke-18 menjadi jajahan Perancis. Pada tahun 1922, Perancis mendirikan pangkalan militer di Nigeria dan secara resmi negara ini menjadi daerah koloni Perancis. Namun, secara bertahap rakyat Nigeria bangkit menentang Perancis dan akhirnya pada tahun 1960 berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya. Nigeria memiliki luas wilayah 1.267.000 kilometer persegi dan terletak di bagian barat benua Afrika serta berbatasan dengan Libya, Chad, Mali, dan Benin.

Israel Bunuh Izuddin Qalq
Tanggal 3 Agustus 1978, rezim Zionis melakukan aksi terorismenya dengan membunuh Izuddin Qalq, wakil Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina di Paris. Sekretaris Izuddin Qalq juga ikut terbunuh dalam serangan ini. Pada dekade 1970-an dan 1980-an, organisasi intelijen Zionis, Mossad, meneror banyak pejabat PLO sehingga mereka menjadi lemah dan akhirnya bersedia menandatangani perjanjian damai dengan Rezim Zionis. Namun demikian, rakyat Palestina tidak mengakui perjanjian damai ini dan tetap berjuang melawan rezim penjajah tersebut.


Alexander Solzhenitsyn meninggal dunia
Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 2008, Alexander Solzhenitsyn penulis dan sejarawan Rusia meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1918 di kawasan Kaukasus di selatan Rusia. Solzhenitsyn meraih gelar sarjana di bidang matematika dan fisika. Menyusul serangan Nazi Jerman ke Uni Soviet, ia terlibat dalam perang membela negaranya. Berkat itu Solzhenitsyn memperoleh medali ksatria. Setelah perang berakhir, Solzhenitsyn meski beraliran Komunis divonis kerja paksa di pengasingannya di Siberia akibat kritik tajamnya terhadap rezim Stalin yang otoriter. Ia bebas dari tahanan pada tahun 1956. Periode kehidupan setelah penjara adalah periode aktivitas Solzhenitsyn dalam menulis buku. Tahun 1970, Solzhenitsyn meraih hadiah nobel sastera. Tahun 1974, ia kembali ditangkap dan diasingkan akibat kritik dan kecamannya terhadap rezim Uni Soviet.

Menyusul bubarnya Uni Soviet dan terwujudnya iklim yang relatif bebas dan terbuka, Solzhenitsyn kembali ke negaranya dan disambut dengan meriah. Meski demikian, Solzhenitsyn tetap melayangkan kritik tajamnya. Kritik pertamanya ia tujukan kepada rezim Rusia karena cenderung mengekor kepada Liberalisme Barat, sementara kritik kedua ia arahkan kepada warga di negaranya yang menurutnya telah jauh dari Tuhan dan spiritual. Diantara karyanya adalah; Bangsal Kanker, Arkhipelag GULAG, dan Satu Hari dari Kehidupan Ivana Denisovicha.

4 Augustus
Nicholas-Jacque Conte Lahir

Tanggal 4 Agustus 1755, Nicolas-Jacque Conte, pencipta pensil modern, terlahir ke dunia. Sejarah pembuatan pensil berawal pada tahun 1560-an, dengan ditemukannya grafit, bahan pembuat pensil, di Inggris. Dengan cepat, grafit digunakan sebagai alat untuk menulis, meskipun masih dalam bentuk yang primitif. Akhirnya pada tahun 1565, dibuatlah pensil pertama dengan cara memasukkan grafit ke dalam sepotong kayu. Perkembangan dalam pembuatan pensil diteruskan oleh para pengrajin Eropa sampai akhirnya Nicolas-Jacque Conte berhasil menciptakan pensil dalam bentuk modern seperti yang sekarang ini digunakan oleh masyarkat dunia.


Bsysshe Percy Shelley lahir ke dunia
Tanggal 4 Agustus 1792 Masehi, Bysshe Percy Shelley, penyair Inggris terlahir ke dunia. Sejak kecil, Shelley sudah menunjukkan bakat yang luar biasa dan ketertarikan yang besar kepada sastera. Dia dikenal sebagai penyair yang memiliki kecenderungan kepada tema-tema cinta, persahabatan dan kebebasan. Karena itulah ia lantas tertarik kepada revolusi Prancis yang belum lama terjadi di zaman itu. Shelley pernah mengalami pengasingan. Tahun 1822, saat berusia 30 tahun, ia tenggelam saat berperahu di laut Meditterania dan meninggal dunia. Bysshe Percy Shelley meninggalkan sejumlah karya diantaranya, Revolution & Romanticism.

AS Umumkan Netralitas dalam Perang Dunia I
Tanggal 4 Agustus tahun 1914, ketika PD I meletus di Eropa, Woodrow Wilson, Presiden AS saat itu, mengumumkan kenetralan AS dalam perang ini. Pada bulan Februari 1915, Jerman melarang semua kapal dari negara manapun untuk memasuki wilayah perang di sekitar Inggris. Namun, kapal-kapal dagang AS tidak menghiraukan ultimatum ini dan sebulan kemudian, sebuah kapal dagang AS ditenggelamkan oleh kapal tempur Jerman. Selanjutnya dua kapal AS lainnya juga diserang oleh Jerman sehingga opini publik AS menjadi semakin anti Jerman. AS akhirnya memutuskan hubungan diplomatik dengan Jerman dan Kongres mengesahkan anggaran militer sebesar 250 juta dolar untuk persiapan perang.
Tanggal 6 April 1915, parlemen AS secara resmi menetapkan bahwa AS akan bergabung dalam pasukan Sekutu. Pada tanggal 26 Juni, 14.000 tentara AS mendarat di Perancis. Ketika perang berakhir tahun 1918, lebih dari 2 juta tentara AS terjun dalam perang Dunia I dan 50.000 di antaranya tewas. Praktek seperti ini, yaitu ikut terjun dalam perang yang sesungguhnya di luar wewenangnya, masih diteruskan oleh para pemimpin AS hingga saat ini, seperti dalam Perang Vietnam dan Perang Irak yang telah mengorbankan banyak warga AS secara sia-sia.

David Lange Lahir
Tanggal 4 Agustus 1942, David Lange, perdana menteri termuda dalam sejarah New Zealand, terlahir ke dunia. David Lange menuntut ilmu di bidang hukum pada Universitas Auckland. Setelah lulus, David Lange berkarir di bidang hukum hingga tahun 1977 ketika ia berhasil terpilih sebagai anggota parlemen. Pada tahun 1979, David Lange terpilih sebagai wakil ketua Partai Buruh di parlemen dan empat tahun kemudian, ia diangkat sebagai ketua partai dan pemimpin faksi oposisi dalam parlemen. Pada bulan Juli 1984, David Lange diangkat sebagai Perdana Menteri New Zealand dan ia memimpin pemerintahan yang secara radikal melakukan restrukturisasi dalam perekonomian negara. David Lange juga berperan besar dalam pengesahan UU bebas nuklir di New Zealand dan reformasi di bidang pendidikan. Pada tahun 1987, ia kembali terpilih dengan suara masyoritas untuk kedua kalinya menjabat sebagai PM. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1989, David Lange mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya.

Amerika kalah di Teluk Tongkin
Tanggal 4 Agustus 1964, AS menderita kekalahan dalam perang terbatas di Teluk Tongkin di wilayah Laut Cina Selatan. Pertempuran itu meletus antara kapal-kapal perang AS melawan Vietnam Utara. Saat itu AS mendukung penuh rezim Vietnam Selatan melawan utara, namun sebelum peristiwa 4 Agustus 1964, AS tidak pernah secara langsung terlibat pertempuran. Menyusul peristiwa Teluk Tonkin, AS secara signifikan menambah jumlah personil militernya di Vietnam Selatan. Mesin-mesin perang dan pesawat tempur AS pun secara masif menggempur wilayah Vietnam utara. Namun perlawanan sengit rakyat setempat telah mempermalukan AS yang terpaksa mengakui kekalahannya di Vietnam dan pada tahun 1975 AS menarik mundur seluruh tentaranya dari sana. Beberapa tahun setelahnya, Vietnam menyatu kembali.

5 Augustus
Guy de Maupassant Lahir

Tanggal 5 Agustus tahun 1850, Guy de Maupassant, salah seorang penulis cerpen terbaik Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. Maupassant menuntut ilmu di bidang hukum, namun kemudian studinya terhenti karena ia bergabung dengan tentara dalam Perang Perancis-Prussia. Seusai perang, Maupassant tinggal di Paris dan di sanalah ia mulai menggeluti dunia tulis-menulis. Dalam jangka waktu 10 tahun, Maupassant memproduksi 300 cerita pendek, enam novel, dan beberapa buku non-fiksi.
Dalam karya-karyanya, Maupassant banyak menuangkan pengalamannya saat perang, kisah-kisah dalam militer dan birokrasi, serta ketidakadilan sosial. Tulisan-tulisan Guy de Maupassant umumnya bergaya naturalis. Karya-karyanya yang terkenal berjudul A Life dan The Rondoli Sisters. Pada usia 40-an, Maupassant terserang penyakit jiwa dan akhirnya meninggal dunia tahun 1893.


Syah Iran Tandatangani Konsitusi
Tanggal 5 Agustus 1906, Syah Iran saat itu, yaitu Syah Muzafarruddin Qajari akhirnya bersedia menandatangani surat perintah diberlakukannya sistem konstitusional di Iran. Keputusan ini diambil setelah rakyat Iran yang dipimpin para ulama dengan gencar melancarkan demonstrasi menentang sistem kerajaan yang absolut dan penuh ketidakadilan serta memebri kesempatan kepada pihak-pihak asing untuk campur tangan dalam urusan dalam negeri Iran.
Awalnya, demonstrasi-demonstrasi itu dihadapi pemerintah dengan senjata sehingga banyak warga dan ulama yang gugur. Akhirnya, beberapa ulama besar Iran, antara lain Ayatullah Sayyid Abdullah Behbahani dan Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Thabathabai mengadakan aksi mogok di kota Rey dan Qom. Pengaruh para ulama sedemikian besarnya di tengah rakyat Iran, sehingga Syah Muzafaruddin akhirnya menyetujui diterapkannya sistem kontistusi di Iran. Setelah itu, dibentuklah parlemen yang kemudian menetapkan UUD Iran. Namun, tak lama kemudian, proses revolusi konstitusional ini mengalami penyelewengan dan akhirnya Iran kembali ke era despotisme kerajaan sampai akhirnya revolusi Islam di bawah pimpinan Imam Khomeini meraih kemenangannya.


Allamah Sayyid Arif Husain Husaini Gugur Syahid
Tanggal 5 Agustus 1988, Allamah Sayyid Arif Husain Husaini, salah seorang ulama terkemuka dan pejuang Pakistan, gugur syahid akibat serangan teroris. Arif Husaini dilahirkan dalam sebuah keluarga yang relijius dan beliau kemudian menuntut ilmu ke Irak. Di Irak, Arif Husaini sempat bertemu dengan Imam Khomeini yang tengah menjalani masa pengasingan dan ia banyak mengenal pemikiran-pemikiran revolusi Imam Khomeini. Ketika Revolusi Islam di Iran mencapai puncaknya, Arif Husaini juga hadir di Iran dan bergabung bersama rakyat Iran untuk berjuang menggulingkan rezim Syah Pahlevi yang despotik. Akibatnya, Rezim Syah mengusir Arif Husaini kembali ke Pakistan. Di tanah airnya, Arif Husaini aktif dalam penyebaran ajaran Islam, teruatama dalam upaya menciptakan persatuan di antara berbagai mazhab di Pakistan. Namun, perjuangannya terhenti karena dibunuh oleh teroris yang menginginkan terjadinya perselisihan terus-menerus di tengah kaum muslimin Pakistan.

Burkinafaso mencapai kemerdekaannya
Tanggal 5 Agustus 1960 Burkinafaso mengumumkan kemerdekaannya. Di penghujung abad 19 Masehi, Burkinafaso jatuh ke tangan Prancis. Negara ini dulu bernama Volta Hulu. Secara geografis, Burkina Faso berada di Afrika Barat yang terkurung daratan. Negara ini berbatasan dengan Mali di sebelah utara; Togo dan Ghana di selatan; Niger di timur, Benin di tenggara; dan Pantai Gading di barat daya. Tanggal 11 Desember 1958, negeri ini menjadi republik dan bergabung dengan Masyarakat Prancis-Afrika dan mendapatkan kemerdekaan pada tanggal 5 Agustus 1960. Dengan kemerdekaan itu, Burkina Faso bergabung dengan Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa. Pada 4 Agustus 1984 Presiden Thomas Sankara mengganti nama negara ini dari Volta Hulu menjadi 'Burkina Faso' yang dalam bahasa Dioula dan More berarti "Negara Orang Jujur". Ibu kota Burkina Faso adalah Ouagadougou (lafaz: Wagadugu), dan warga setempat menyebutnya dengan nama "Waga".

6 Augustus
Fahrenheit Meninggal

Tanggal 6 Agustus tahun 1736, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, fisikawan Jerman penemu derajat suhu, meninggal dunia. Fahrenheit lahir pada tahun 1686. Pada tahun 1720, setelah melakukan berbagai penelitian, Fahrenheit menemukan bahwa penggunaan air raksa dalam pembuatan alat pengukuran suhu akan menjamin keakuratan. Derajat suhu yang digunakan dalam termometer tersebut kemudian diberi nama Fahrenheit, sesuai nama penemunya.

Bolivia mencapai kemerdekaan
Tanggal 6 Augustus tahun 1825, Bolivia mencapai kemerdekaan dari tangan Spanyol dan hari ini disebut sebagai hari nasional. Penjajahan Spanyol atas Bolivia bermula sejak abad ke 16 dengan merompak kekayaan pertambangan negara ini. Pada era penjajahan Spanyol terhadap Bolivia, banyak sekali kebangkitan dan gerakan rakyat menentang penjajah, paling penting di antaranya ialah revolusi yang dipimpin oleh Simon Bolivar seorang aktivis terkenal Amerika Selatan. Revolusi ini bermula pada tahun 1809 dan berkembang secara gradual ke seluruh negara dan berakhir dengan kemerdekaan. Untuk mengenang jasa perjuangan dan pengorbanan Simon Bolivar dalam mencapai kemerdekaan maka negara ini diberi nama Bolivia. Bolivia mempunyai luas wilayah 1,1 juta km persegi yang terletak di barat Amerika Selatan dan bertetangga dengan Peru, Chile, Argentina dan Brazil.


Alexander Fleming Lahir
Tanggal 6 Agustus 1881, Alexander Fleming yang terkenal atas jasanya dalam menemukan penicillin, terlahir ke dunia di Skotlandia. Seusai menunut ilmu di bidang kedokteran di London university, Fleming memulia penlitiannya di bidang vaksin. Sejak awal menggeluti dunia medis, Fleeming telah tertarik pada masalah antiseptik dan aktivitas bakteri di dalam darah. Pada tahun 1928, ketiak ia sednag mempelajari virus influennza, ia menemukan bahwa sejenis jamur yang bisa menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri. Fleming menamakan jamur itu sebagai penicilin yang kini diproudksi sebagai obat anti bakteri.

Hiroshima Dibom
Tanggal 6 Agustus 1945, pada pukul 8 lebih 16 menit pagi waktu Jepang, pesawat pengebom AS menjatuhkan sebuah bom atom pertama di dunia di atas kota Hiroshima. Bom yang berkekuatan 20.000 TNT itu dalam sekejap mengancurkan bangunan-bangunan kota Hiroshima, menewaskan 90.000 oranng seketika dan melukai 75.000 orang lainnya. Tiga hari kemudian, tentara AS kembali menjatuhkan bom atom di atas kota Nagasaki dan menimbulkan korban tewas 70.000 orang. Korban akibat bom atom itu masih terus berjatuhan hingga kini karena dampak radioaktif yang ganas secara perlahan membunuh para korban. Perintah pengeboman kedua kota di Jepang itu diberikan oleh Presiden AS saat itu, Harry Truman, dengan tujuan agar Jepang menyerah dalam Perang Dunia II.


Jamaica mencapai kemerdekaannya

Tanggal 6 Augustus 1962, Jamaica yang terletak di Amerika mencapai kemerdekaannya dari Inggris. Negara ini ditemukan Christopher Columbus pada tahun 1494. Sejak abad 16 hingga 18, negara ini berada di bawah kekuasaan Spanyol. Setelah Spanyol Jamaica kemudian dikuasai Inggris. Penjajah Eropa memusnahkan warga pribumi Jamaica dan menggantinya dengan puluhan ribu budak kulit hitam yang dibawa masuk ke negara ini untuk bekerja di ladang-ladang tebu. Jamaica memiliki luas wilayah sebesar 10991 km persegi dan terletak di Amerika Tengah serta berada di kawasan laut Karibia.


Clinton Tandatangani UU Peningkatan Embargo Atas Iran

Tanggal 6 Agustus 1996, Presiden AS Bill Clinton, menandatangani UU peningkatan embargo terhadap Iran. UU yang diberi nama sesuai penggagasnya, yaitu Senator D'Amato ini menyebutkan bahwa setiap perusahaan yang menanamkan modal di industri perminyakan dan gas Iran di atas 40 juta dolar, akan dikenai sanksi ekonomi oleh AS. Dengan disahkannya UU ini, Washington berusha menekan pemerintah Iran yang selama ini selalu menentang campur tangan AS di negaranya. Namun demikian, UU D'Amato ini justru menimbulkan kemarahan negara-negara Eropa karena kepentingan investasi mereka di Iran menjadi terganggu. Pada tahun 1997, perusahaan Perancis TOTAl, dengan mengabaikan UU buatan AS itu, telah menanamkan modal sebesar 600 juta dolar untuk eksplorasi gas di Iran. Tindakan ini pun kemudian disusul oleh berbagai perusahaan gas dan minyak lainnya.

7 Augustus
Constantin Staniklavski meninggal dunia

Tanggal 7 Augustus 1938, penulis dan sutradara teater Constantin Staniklavski asal Rusia meninggal dunia. Dia lahir pada tahun 1863. Seniman Russia ini mendirikan lembaga seni kesusasteraan pada tahun 1888 bersama dua orang seniman lain dari negaranya. Stanislavski menulis puluhan naskah berlandaskan kepada roman-roman penulis terkenal dunia dengan metode baru yang menyebabkan dia terkenal sebagai penemu cara baru di bidang aktor dan sutradara teater.


Rabindranath Tagore Meninggal
Tanggal 7 Agustus tahun 1941, Rabindranath Tagore, penulis, penyair, dan filsuf India, meninggal dunia. Ia dilahirkan pada tahun 1861 dan pada usia 17 tahun, ia dikirim ke Inggris untuk menuntut ilmu, namun tidak diselesaikannya. Tagore kemudian aktif dalam perjuangan kemerdekaan India dan melalui syair-syairnya, ia membangkitkan semangat kemerdekaan bangsa India. Tagore adalah teman seperjuangan Mahatma Gandhi. Pada tahun 1915, Tagore diberi gelar kebangsawanan oleh pemerintahan Inggris namun beberapa tahun kemudian Tagore mengembalikan penghargaan itu sebagai protesnya terhadap kebijakan Inggris di India. Karya-karya Tagore banyak diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris, sehingga ia pun menjadi terkenal di dunia sastra Barat. Syair-syair Tagore dianggap menyuarakan warisan spiritual India. Karya-karya Rabindranath Tagore antara lain berjudul Manasi, Sonar Tari dan Gitanjali.

Pantai Gading mencapai kemerdekaan
Tanggal 7 Augustus 1960, negara Afrika Pantai Gading (Ivory Coast) mencapai kemerdekaannya dari Perancis. Pada abad ke 16, Portugal menduduki Pantai Gading. Pada tahun 1891 Perancis berhasil menguasai negara ini meski rakyat melakukan perlawanan sengit. Akhirnya pada tahun 1960, Pantai Gading bersama beberapa negara yang berada dalam penguasaan Perancis mencapai kemerdekaannya dan menjadi sebuah republik. Pantai Gading mempunyai keluasan sebesar 332,463 km persegi dan terletak di tepi pantai Samudera Atlantik serta bertetangga dengan Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Ghana dan Burkina Faso.


AS, Libanon, PLO Tandatangani perjanjian
Tanggal 7 Agustus 1982, AS, Libanon, dan organisasi pembebesan Palestina atau PLO menandatangani perjanjian yang berisi penarikan mundur pasukan PLO dari Beirut, ibu kota Libanon. Perjanjian ini dilakukan menyusul serangan meluas yang dilancarkan rezim Zionis ke Libanon sejak bulan Juli tahun 1982 dengan tujuan mengusir tentara PLO keluar dari Libanon. Meskipun tentara Zionis memiliki perlengkapan militer yang sangat canggih, tetapi tentara PLO berhasil melakukan perlawanan selama 80 hari. Namun akhirnya, ketua PLO, Yaser Arafat, bersedia menarik 12.000 pasukannya keluar dari Libanon dan kemudian berpangkalan di delapan negara Arab lainnya. Meskipun demikian, kehadiran tentara Zionis di Libanon terus mendapatkan pelawanan dari pejuang muslim Libanon, sampai akhirnya tentara Zionis terpaksa angkat kaki dari wilayah itu pada tahun 2000.


Georgia menyerang Ossetia Selatan
Tanggal 7 Augustus 2008, pasukan tentera Georgia dengan dukungan dari Amerika menyerang ke kawasan Ossetia Selatan yang terletak di utara negara ini. Dalam serangan ini ratusan warga sipil tewas atau luka-luka. Sehari kemudian, tentara Russia yang memberi dukungan kepada milisi pendukung kemerdekaan Ossetia Selatan berhasil memukul mundur tentera Georgia. Menyusul kemudian Russia bersama para milisi berhasil menguasai pelabuhan penting Batumi dan mendekati Tiblisi, ibu kota negara ini. Akhirnya Presiden Perancis, Nicolas Sarkozy turun tangan sebagai mediator dan akhirnya Rusia pada 12 Agustus bersedia menarik tentaranya dari Georgia. Dalam hal ini Moskow mengakui secara resmi kemerdekaan dua kawasan Ossetia Selatan dan Abkhazia di Georgia. Rusia sendiri akhirnya mengakui secara resmi kemerdekaan Abhkazia dan Ossetia Selatan. Langkah Rusia terhadap Georgia dinilai sebagai peringatan Moskow kepada pemerintah-pemerintah barat khususnya Amerika terkait perluasan NATO ke Eropa Timur dan negara-negara bekas Uni Soviet.

8 Augustus
Kaisar Nero Meninggal

Tanggal 8 Agustus tahun 68, Kaisar Nero dari Romawi yang dikenal kejam, meninggal dunia pada usianya ke 31 tahun karena bunuh diri. Sebelumnya, Nero telah meracuni ayah angkatnya Claudius Pertama dan dia kemudian menggantikan kedudukan ayah angkatnya itu sebagai Kaisar Romawi. Selama masa pemerintahannya yang kuat, Nero telah membunuh banyak orang terdekatnya, seperti ibunya, istrinya, dan saudaranya sendiri, dan bangsawan-bangsawannya. Kaisar berhati kejam ini juga melakukan pembunuhan massal orang-orang Kristen dan membakar kota Roma. Kekejamannya ini menimbulkan berbagai gerakan pemberontakan sampai akhirnya, menjelang kemenangan para pembrontak, Nero mengakhiri sendiri kehidupannya.


Stalin Mengumumkan Perang dengan Jepang
Tanggal 8 Agustus tahun 1945, Stalin, pemimpin Uni Soviet mengumumkan perang terhadap Jepang. Pasukan Soviet kemudian menyerang Manchuria, yang terletak di timur Cina. Soviet dan Jepang sebelumnya telah menandatangani perjanjian non-agresi. Namun, setelah Amerika mengebom Hiroshim dan Jepang sedang bersiap untuk menyerah, Soviet menggunakan kesempatan ini untuk merebut beberapa wilayah kekuasaan Jepang. Tentara Soviet dalam akhir serangannya itu berhasil merebut Korea Utara dan kepulauan Coral. Hingga kini, kepulauan Coral masih dikuasai Rusia dan perundingan antara Rusia dan Jepang mengenai nasib kepulauan ini hingga kini masih belum mencapai hasilnya.


Richard Nixon Mengundurkan Diri
Tanggal 8 Agustus 1973, Richard Nixon, Presiden Amerika pada waktu itu, terpaksa mengundurkan diri. Nixon yang berasal dari Partai Republik ini terpaksa mundur karena kecurangan dalam pemilu yang disebut sebagai skandal Watergate. Dalam masa kampanye pemilu tahun 1972, orang-orang Partai Republik menyusup ke markas Partai Demokrat yang menjadi saingan mereka di Watergate, Wasington. Mereka kemudian mencuri dokumen-dokumen Partai Demokrat dan memasang alat penyadap untuk mendengarkan pembicaraan internal partai ini. Nixon akhirnya menang dalam pemilu tersebut, namun secara bertahap skandal ini akhirnya terbongkar dan Nixon pun mengundurkan diri. Gerald Ford, wapres saat itu kemudian menggantikan posisi Nixon sampai masa 4 tahun periode kepresidenan berakhir.


Ayatullah Musawi Khui Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 8 Agusutus tahun 1992, Ayatullah Al-Udzma Sayyid Abul Qasim Musawi Khui, seorang ahli fiqih besar dan marji' taklid kaum muslimin dunia, meninggal dunia pada usianya ke 96 tahun. Sayyid Khui dilahirkan di kota Khui di barat laut Iran. Pada usia muda, dia dikirim belajar ke Najaf Irak dan di sana beliau mempelajari ilmu-ilmu agama dan filsafat. Pada usia yang masih muda, beliau sudah mencapai derajat mujtahid. Beliau meninggalkan banyak karya tulis yang menjadi rujukan para ulama dan sekolah-sekolah Islam, di antaranya "Al Bayan fi Tafsiiril Quran", "Jawaahirul Ushul", "Mishbahul Faqahah", dan "Muntakhabul Rasail".
Ayatullah Khui selama periode marjaiyyatnya, memiliki peran khusus dalam berbagai masalah penting dunia. Misalnya, dalam masalah Palestina, beliau mengeluarkan fatwa untuk membela Palestina dan membebaskan kota Quds.


Taliban Menduduki Mazare Sharif

Tanggal 8 Agustus tahun 1998, dalam perang saudara di Afganistan, kelompok Taliban berhasil menduduki kota Mazar Syarif yang terletak di utara negara ini. Setelah menduduki Mazar Syarif , Taliban menyerang konsulat Iran di kota ini dan membunuh 8 diplomat dan seorang wartawan Iran. Kejahatan Taliban terhadap warga negara Iran dan Afganistan, menimbulkan kemarahan dunia internasional. Dewan Keamanan PBB juga mengecam tindakan kelompok ini.
Kelompok Taliban dibentuk pada tahun 1994 dengan dukungan AS dan Pakistan dan kemudian berhasil menduduki sebagian besar wilayah Afganistan. Kelompok ini lalu melakukan berbagai aksi pelanggaran HAM di Afganistan. Namun, akhirnya, pada bulan Oktober 2001, Taliban digulingkan oleh Amerika yang bekerja sama dengan aliansi utara Afganistan. Alasan yang dikemukakan AS dalam serangannya terhadap Taliban adalah karena kerjasama kelompok ini dengan jaringan terorisme Al-Qaida.

9 Augustus
Perjanjian Iran dan Inggris

Tanggal 9 Agustus tahun 1919, ditandatangani perjanjian antara Inggris dan Iran yang diwakili oleh Watsaqud-Daulah, Perdana Menteri Iran pada waktu itu dan Lord Carson, Menteri Luar Negeri Inggris. Berdasarkan perjanjian yang dikenal dengan nama "Perjanjian 1919" ini, urusan ekonomi, militer, dan politik Iran berada di bawah pengawasan pejabat Inggris. Inggris memaksakan perjanjian ini terhadap Iran setelah terjadi revolusi di Rusia yang menyebabkan negeri itu mundur dari kancah persaingan kolonialisme. Namun, rakyat Iran dan masyarakat internasional menentang perjanjian ini sehingga akhirnya perjanjian ini dibatalkan. Satu setengah tahun kemudian, Inggris mendalangi kudeta yang menghantarkan Reza Khan menjadi Syah Iran. Melalui Reza Khan, Inggris meneruskan penguasaannya atas Iran.

Pemboman Nagasaki
Tanggal 9 Agustus tahun 1945, tiga hari selepas ledakan bom atom di Hiroshima, AS kembali menjatuhkan bom atomnya di Nagasaki atas perintah Presiden AS waktu itu, Harry Truman. Dalam sekejap, kota pelabuhan itu luluh lantak dan 80.000 orang tewas seketika. Dampak bahan radioaktif bom tersebut juga menambah jumlah korban. Tujuan AS dalam serangan bom ini adalah untuk mengalahkan Jepang secara total dan menunjukkan kekuatan AS di dunia. Meskipun akhirnya Jepang bertekuk lutut kepada Sekutu, namun bahaya bom atom ini masih ada karena negara-negara pemilik bom ini, terutama AS, tidak akan ragu-ragu mengulangi kejahatannya itu bila kepentingannya berada dalam bahaya.

Herman Hesse Meninggal
Tanggal 9 Agustus 1962, Herman Hesse penulis dan penyair Jerman, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1877 di sebuah keluarga religius dan sejak muda, ia sudah menciptakan syair. Pada usia 20 tahun, dia sudah menerbitkan kumpulan syairnya. Pada tahun 1912, dia mengubah kewarganegaraannya menjadi warga Swiss dan berdomisili di sana. Pada akhir tahun-tahun terakhir usianya, Hesse melakukan perjalanan ke negara-negara Timur dan dia menjadi amat terpengaruh oleh kebudayaan dan adat istiadat Timur. Pada tahun 1946, Hesse meraih hadiah nobel. Di antara karya-karya Hesse adalah "Serigala Padang Pasir" dan "Kegembiraan Lukisan."

Singapura Pisahkan Diri
Tanggal 9 Agustus tahun 1965, kepulauan Singapura memisahkan diri dari Malaysia dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai hari kemerdekaan negara itu. Pada tahun 1819, oleh penguasa Johor, Malaysia, Singapura diserahkan kepada perusahaan Hindia Timur milik Inggris dan lima tahun kemudian, Singapura resmi menjadi jajahan Inggris. Pada Perang Dunia Kedua, Singapura diduduki oleh Jepang. Namun, pada tahun 1945, dengan masuknya Sekutu, penjajahan Jepang atas Singapura berakhir dan negeri ini kembali menjadi jajahan Inggris. Pada tahun 1963, dengan terbentuknya Federasi Malaysia, Singapura dijadikan bagian dari federasi ini. Namun, pada tahun 1965, Singapura memisahkan diri dan mencapai kemerdekaannya. Kepulauan Singapura memiliki luas wilayah 622 kilometer persegi dan terletak di asia Tenggara, berdekatan dengan Indonesia dan Malaysia.

Ayatullah Tsaqafi Wafat
Tanggal 9 Agustus tahun 1985, Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Tsaqafi, ulama dan ahli fiqih kontemporer Ian, meninggal dunia pada usianya ke-90. Beliau dilahirkan di Teheran dan menempuh pendidikan di hauzah ilmiah Qom sampai akhirnya mencapai derajat mujtahid. Beliau membaktikan hidupnya demi menyebarkan syariat suci Islam dan banyak meninggalkan karya tulis di bidang tafsir Quran, ushul Fiqih, dan Hadis, diantaranya "Tafsir Rawan Jawid" yang terdiri dari lima jilid.

10 Augustus
Perjanjian Sevres

Tanggal 10 Agustus tahun 1920, ditandatangani perjanjian Sevres antara imperium Utsmani dan negara-negara Sekutu. Perjanjian ini ditandatangani setelah imperium Ustmani mengalami kekalahan dalam Perang Dunia Kedua dan berdasarkan perjanjian tersebut, 80 persen wilayah kekuasaan imperium Ustmani terpaksa diserahkan kepada Sekutu. Akibatnya, wilayah imperium ini yang semula 3 juta km persegi berkurang hingga 600 ribu km persegi. Perjanjian Sevres ini meresmikan kesepakatan antara Perancis dan Inggris mengenai pembagian wilayah Imperium Ustmani. Inggris kemudian meguasai Irak, Yordan, dan Palestina sedangkan Perancis menguasai Syria dan Libanon.
Di samping itu, berdasarkan perjanjian ini, sebagian wilayah Turki saat ini diserahkan kepada Yunani, Italia dan Armenistan. Hal ini menimbulkan kemarahan rakyat Turki dan tentara Turki kemudian memerangi para penjajah tersebut. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1923, sekutu kembali menandatangani perjanjian baru dengan Turki yang berisi pengembalian wilayah-wilayah yang semula direbut Sekutu ke tangan Turki.

Perang Jepang Vs Cina
Tanggal 10 Agustus tahun 1937, terjadi perang dua tahun antara Jepang dan Cina dalam memperebutkan Kanton dan Shanghai, dua kawasan penting di Cina. Kanton adalah pelabuhan penting dan strategis di selatan Cina. Rakyat Cina berjuang keras mempertahankan wilayahnya tersebut, namun setelah jatuh korban yang amat banyak, pada tanggal 25 April 1939, pasukan Cina menyerah dan Kanton direbut oleh Jepang. Dengan dimulainya Perang Dunia Kedua, Jepang menduduki kawasan luas di Cina. Namun, rakyat Cina melakukan perlawanan gigih sehingga akhirnya Jepang menarik mundur pasukannya.

Pendudukan Korea
Tanggal 10 Agustus 1945, menyusul kekalahan Jepang dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, wilayah utara semenanjung Korea hingga lintang utara 38 derajat menjadi wilayah kekuasaan Tentara Merah Soviet. Beberapa hari kemudian, bagian selatan semenanjung Korea dikuasai oleh AS. Pendudukan di utara dan selatan semenanjung ini merupakan permulaan dari terbentuknya dua negara Korea Selatan dan korea Utara. Pada tahun 1991 ditandatangani "Perjanjian Persahabatan, Non Agresi, Pertukaran, dan Kerjasama" di antara kedua negara ini.

11 Augustus
Integrasi Eritrea Dengan Ethiopia

Tanggal 11 Agustus tahun 1952, Haile Selassie, kaisar Ethiopia menandatangani resolusi PBB mengenai penggabungan wilayah Eritrea ke Ethiopia. Wilayah muslim Eritrea sebelumnya dijajah oleh Italia dan pada Perang Dunia Kedua, menjadi jajahan Inggris. Pada bulan Desember tahun 1950, PBB mengesahkan penggabungan Eritrea dengan status pemerintahan federal kepada Ethiopia. Rakyat Eritrea menolak kesepakatan tersebut karena tindakan pemerintah Ethiopia yang sewenang-wenang terhadap mereka. Pada tahu 1960, kelompok Pembebasan Eritrea memulai perjuangan bersenjata mereka demi merebut kemerdekaan. Pada tahun 1993, perjuangan rakyat Eritrea mencapai hasilnya dengan diadakannya referendum yang membuktikan bahwa mayoritas rakyat Eritrea menyetujui pemisahan dari Ethiopia. Eritrea adalah negara yang terletak di timur laut Afrika di tepi laut merah dan memiliki posisi geografi yang penting.

Chad Merdeka
Tanggal 11 Agustus tahun 1960, rakyat Chad berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Perancis dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Kemerdekaan Bangsa Chad. Pada akhir abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20, Perancis menyerang Chad dan dalam tiga tahun, mereka berhasil menguasai Chad dan kawasan ini menjadi jajahan Perancis. Pada tahun 1958, Perancis memberi status otonomi kepada Chad dan dua tahun kemudian, Chad secara penuh merdeka dan memiliki pemerintahan berbentuk republik. Chad memiliki luas wialayah 1.284.000 kilometer persegi, terletak di bagian tengah Afrika, dan berbatasan dengan Lybia, Kamerun. Sudan, Afrika Tengah, Nigeria, dan Niger.

Ahmad Raidh Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 11 Augustus 1994, Ahmad Raidh, seorang miniaturis dan penyepuh terkenal Iran meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan di Isfahan dan disana dia belajar berbagai aliran seni miniatur dari guru-guru seni dan berkenalan dengan seni penyepuhan. Dia kemudian menciptakan berbagai karya keramik dan kaligrafi. Karya Ahmad Raidh dalam pameran internasional Brussel meraih hadiah kedua. Selama 50 tahun berkarya di bidang miniatur dan penyepuhan, Ahmad Raidh memiliki banyak murid dan meninggalkan lebih dari 145 buah karya. Karyanya dalam bidang penyepuhan perak dan kaligrafi tersimpan disejumlah museum seni nasional Iran.

12 Augustus
George Stephenson meninggal dunia

Tanggal 12 Augustus 1848, George Stephenson warga Inggeris dan pembuat lokomotif meninggal dunia. Dia lahir pada tahun 1781. Dia amat berminat dengan urusan teknik dan menumpukan perhatian dengan mempelajari ilmu di bidang mekanik dan matematika. Akhirnya Stephenson berhasil membuat salah satu alat transportasi terpenting yaitu lokomotif. Lokomotif buatannya bisa bergerak dengan kelajuan 20 kilometer per jam dan kapasitas 90 orang, tetapi dengan secara gradual kelajuan dan kapasitasnya semakin meningkat.

Frantes Liszt Lahir
Tanggal 12 Agustus tahun 1886, Frantes Liszt, seorang pencipta lagu dari Hongaria, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1811. Liszt memiliki kemampuan dan bakat istimewa dalam penciptaan lagu. Di antara karya Liszt yang paling terkenal adalah "Simphony Faust" dan "Hongarian Rapshody". Di samping mencipta lagu, dia juga menciptakan lirik simfoni.

Mirza Reza Kermani Dihukum mati
Tanggal 12 Agustus tahun 1896, Mirza Reza Kermani, salah seorang pejuang revolusi pada periode Dinasti Qajar di Iran, dihukum mati karena telah membunuh Syah Nasiruddin, salah seorang raja dari dinasti Qajar. Dalam aksi gerakan pemboikotan tembakau untuk melawan penjajahan Inggris, Mirza Reza dituduh mendalangi gerakan rakyat dan karena itu, dia dipenjarakan selama empat tahun. Setelah bebas dari penjara, dia pergi ke Istambul. Di sana, ia bertemu dengan Jamaluddin Asad Abadi dan menjadi pengikutnya.
Pada tahun 1876, Mirza Reza kembali ke Teheran dan memutuskan untuk menyingkirkan Shah Nasiruddin karena raja yang zalim, kejam, dan despotik ini telah menimbulkan penderitaan rakyat. Pada tanggal 3 Mei tahun itu pula, dia membunuh Syah Nasiruddin di kompleks makam Syekh Abdul Azhim di kota Rey, selatan Teheran. Mirza Reza lalu ditangkap polisi dan dijatuhi hukuman mati.

Konvensi Perlakuan Terhadap Korban dan Tawanan Perang" disahkan
Tanggal 12 Agustus 1949, "Konvensi Perlakuan Terhadap Korban dan Tawanan Perang" disahkan oleh PBB di markasnya di Jenewa. Konvensi ini disusun akibat perlakuan yang tidak manusiawi terhadap korban dan tawanan Perang Dunia Kedua. Di dalam konvensi tersebut ditetapkan bahwa semua negara tidak berhak membunuh atau menyiksa korban dan tawanan perang. Korban luka pun harus mendapatkan pengobatan. Selain itu, tawanan perang berhak mendapatkan fasilitas kesejahteraan minimal dan berkomunikasi dengan keluarganya.
Negara-negara yang memiliki tawanan perang juga diwajibkan untuk sesegera mungkin mengirimkan nama-nama tawanan mereka kepada Palang Merah Dunia dan memberikan kesempatan kepada para wakil Palang Merah untuk menjenguk tawanan tersebut. Namun, sebagian besar negara sama sekali tidak mematuhi konvensi ini.


Pasukan Maronit Kuasai Kamp pengungsi Tel Za'ter

Tanggal 12 Agustus tahun 1976, kamp pengungsian Palestina "Tel Za'ter" yang terletak di dekat Beirut, ibu kota Libanon, jatuh ke tangan pasukan para-militer Maronit dan para penghuninya dibunuh massal. Ribuan pengungsi Palestina tinggal di kamp pengungsian ini. Pada awal tahun 1976, kamp ini dikepung oleh pasukan semi militer Maronit yang dipersenjatai oleh rezim Zionis dan akhirnya pada bulan Agustus, 3000 warga sipil Palestina dibunuh secara massal dan dikubur menjadi satu di kamp pengungsian tersebut. Peristiwa mengerikan ini menimbulkan protes keras dari masyarakat dunia terhadap rezim Zionis dan para pendukungnya di Libanon.

13 Augustus
Raja Henry Keempat Membebaskan Sekte Protestan

Tanggal 13 Agustus tahun 1598, Raja Henry Keempat mengeluarkan sebuah perintah yang membebaskan mazhab Protestan secara penuh. Perintah yang dinamakan perintah "Nantes" ini merupakan sebuah perintah penting dan bersejarah di Perancis. Namun, perintah "Nantes" ini kemudian dibatalkan oleh Raja Louis Ke-14 pada tahun 1685.

Alfred Hitchcock Lahir
Tanggal 13 Agustus tahun 1899, Alfred Hitchcock, seorang sineas Inggris yang amat terkenal, lahir ke dunia. Awalnya, pada tahun 1920, dia memulai karirnya di bidang perencanaan, namun kemudian dia menjadi seorang sutradara film. Karena secara kebetulan, sebagian besar karyanya berupa film detektif dan horor, para pengamat film menjulukinya Hitchcock sebagai master film horor. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1980. Di antara karya-karya Hitchcock yang terkenal adalah "Utara dari Arah Barat Laut", "Tirai Robek", dan "Roh".

Muhammad Reza Memecat Doktor Moshadeq
Tanggal 13 Agustus 1953, Muhammad Reza, raja terakhir dari Dinasti Pahlevi di Iran, secara ilegal memecat Doktor Moshadeq dari jabatan perdana menteri dan menggantikannya dengan Mayor Jenderal Zahedi. Keputusan Syah Reza ini diambil atas desakan AS dan Inggris karena pemerintahan Moshadeq, dengan dukungan rakyat, telah menasionalisasi minyak Iran. Untuk menghindarkan diri dari dampak keputusannya itu, Syah Reza pergi ke utara Iran. Setelah usaha penyingkiran Moshadie tersebut gagal, Syah kemudian melarikan diri ke Irak, lalu ke Italia. Namun, enam hari kemudian, AS dan Inggris mendalangi kudeta terhadap pemerintahan Moshadeq. Setelah Moshadeq tersingkir, Syah Reza kembali ke Iran untuk meneruskan pemerintahan despotiknya dengan dukungan AS dan Inggris yang berkeinginan menguras habis sumber-sumber minyak Iran.


Afrika Tengah Merdeka
Tanggal 13 Agustus tahun 1960, Afrika Tengah meraih kemerdekaannya dari Perancis. Negara yang semula bernama "Ubangi Shari" ini pada abad ke-19 menjadi jajahan Perancis. Pada tahun 1958, Afrika Tengah diberi status otonomi khusus oleh Perancis dan baru dua tahun kemudian meraih kemerdekaan penuh dan memiliki pemerintahan berbentuk republik. Afrika Tengah memiliki luas wilayah 623.000 kilometer persegi, terletak di bagian tengah benua Afrika, dan berbatasan dengan Sudan, Chad, Kamerun, dan Republik Demokratik Kongo.

Demo Akbar Anti Syah di Isfahan
Tanggal 13 Agustus tahun 1978, menyusul gerakan demontrasi besar-besaran di seluruh penjuru Iran, warga kota Isfahan juga mengadakan demonstrasi menentang rezim Syah Pahlevi. Gerakan perjuangan rakyat Isfahan untuk menggulingkan Syah sedemikian luasnya sehingga rezim Pahlevi merasa takut dan memberlakukan pemerintahan militer di sana.

14 Augustus
Leonardo Da Vinci Lahir

Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1452, Leonardo Da Vinci, pelukis dan pematung Italia, terlahir ke dunia. Sejak masa kecilnya, Da Vinci sudah memperlihatkan kemampuan yang besar di bidang melukis dan dengan cepat ia mencapai kemahiran yang sempurna di bidang ini. Pada tahun 1506, dia ditunjuk sebagai pelukis Raja Louis ke-12 dan kemudian menjadi pelukis Raja Francis Pertama.
Selain melukis dan membuat patung, Da Vinci juga mendalami bidang fisika dan matematika. Bangunan gereja Milan merupakan karya arsitektur paling termasyhur dari Da Vinci. Karya lukisnya yang paling terkenal adalah "Senyum Monalisa" dan "Makan Malam Terakhir." Da Vinci meninggal pada tahun 1519.

Michael Farada Ciptakan Bensin
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1825, Michael Faraday, ahli fisika dan kimia Inggris, setelah melakukan penelitian yang panjang, berhasil menemukan bensin. Bensin merupakan bahan turunan dari minyak. Hingga kini, bensin digunakan sebagai bahan bakar di bidang transportasi dan industri.

Jepang Menyerah Kepada Pasukan Sekutu
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1945, Jepang menyerah kepada pasukan Sekutu dalam Perang Dunia Kedua. Dengan demikian, perang yang dimulai pada tahun 1939 dengan serangan tentara Nazi Jerman terhadap Polandia, berakhir di Jepang. Jepang dan Amerika sejak bulan Desember 1941 saling berperang dengan dahsyat. Akhirnya, perang ini berakhir setelah AS menjatuhkan bom atom ke Hiroshima dan Nagasaki yang membunuh hampir 200.000 warga Jepang.

Pakistan Memisahkan Diri dari India
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1947, Pakistan memisahkan diri dari India dan mengumumkan kemerdekaannya. Pada abad ke-8 agama Islam masuk ke anak benua India dan sebagian dari wilayah Pakistan sekarang, selama masa penjajahan Ingrris pada akhir abad ke-18, dulu dikuasai oleh kaum muslimin. Bersamaan dengan bangkitnya perjuangan rakyat India melawan penjajahan Inggris, pada tahun 1906 terbentuk partai "Liga Muslim" yang diketuai Muhammad Ali Jinah dan bertujuan untuk membentuk sebuah pmerintahan Islami.
Partai ini kemudian secara bertahap mampu menarik kekuatan kaum muslimin dan akhirnya terbentuklah negara Pakistan. Awalnya, Pakistan terdiri dari dua wilayah yang terpisah, yaitu di timur dan barat India. Namun, karena ketidakpuasan rakyat Pakistan Selatan atas pemerintahan pusat, akhirnya di Pakistan Selatan memisahkan diri dan membentuk negara Bangladesh pada tahun 1971. Pakistan sampai tahun 1970 berbentuk pemerintahan militer dan kemudian berubah bentuk menjadi Republik Islam Pakistan. Pakistan memiliki luas wilayah lebih dari 803 ribu kilometer persegi dan berbatasan dengan Iran, India, Afganistan, dan China.


Bertolt Brecht Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 14 Augustus 1956, Bertolt Brecht, penyair dan penulis berkebangsaan Jerman meninggal dunia. Ia dilahirkan pada tahun 1898 di Augsburg, Jerman dan menamatkan pendidikannya di bidang ilmu alam. Pada era kekuasaan Nazi di Jerman, Brecht bangkit melawan ideologi Nazisme. Namun ia terpaksa melarikan diri ke Amerika karena dikejar Gestapo. Ketika perang berakhir, Brecht kembali ke tanah airnya dan menetap di sana hingga akhir hayatnya. Di antara karya-karyanya yang terkenal adalah "Life of Galileo" dan "Drums in The Night". Selain itu, Brecht juga banyak meninggalkan skripsi yang mayoritas mengambarkan era pemerintahan Nazi dan kediktatoran mereka.

Hujjatul Islam Sayyid Ali Andarzgu Gugur
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1978, Hujjatul Islam Sayyid Ali Andarzgu, seorang pejuang melawan rezim tirani Iran, gugur syahid akibat dibunuh oleh kaki-tangan rezim Syah. Sayyid Andarzgu memulai perjuangannya melawan kekejaman rezim Syah pada usia ke-19 tahun dan kemudian menjadi anggota kelompok aliansi Islami dan menjadi salah seorang perencana dan pelaksana hukuman mati terhadap Hasan Ali Mansur, Perdana Menteri Iran waktu itu.
Hasan Ali adalah penandatangan perjanjian kapitulasi yang berisi hak kekebalan hukum warga Amerika di Iran. Dengan alasan terbunuhnya Perdana Menteri hasan Ali itulah, rezim Syah kemudian mengadili Sayyid Andarzgu melakukan perjuangan bawah tanah selama 13 tahun. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1978, di Teheran, kaki-tangan Syah mengenali identitasnya dan dalam sebuah bentrokan bersenjata Sayyid Andarzgu gugur syahid.

Perang antara hizbullah dan rezim berakhir
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 2006, menyusul keluarnya resolusi 1701 DK PBB, yang diterima oleh Hizbullah Lebanon dan rezim zionis, maka perang diantara keduanya pun berakhir. Perang yang dimulai dengan agresi pasukan militer rezim zionis ke Lebanon, yang tak lain dilancarkan untuk membasmi dan menumpas Gerakan Perlawanan Islam Lebanon, dimulai pada tanggal 12 Juli 2006. Serangan militer besar-besaran ini diharapkan akan segera berakhir dengan kehancuran Hizbullah Lebanon. Akan tetapi ternyata, rakyat Lebanon, terutama bagian selatan negara ini, menunjukkan perlawanan yang gagah berani dan mengagumkan menghadapi serangan bengis dan membabi buta rezim zionis. Hizbullah Lebanon pun mampu menunjukkan serangan balas yang sangat mengejutkan semua pihak, terutama sang agresor zionis. Para pejuang Hizbullah mampu menghancurkan dua kapalperang moderen, enam buah helikopter militer dan puluhan tank pasukan militer rezim zionis, selain menewaskan sejumlah tentara rezim teroris ini. tambahan lagi, pasukan Hizbullah Lebanon berhasil menembakkan puluhan roket ke berbagai kawasan permukiman rezim zionis yang mengakibatkan ketakutan dan keluarnya sejumlah besar penduduk kawasan-kawasan tersebut. Akhir perang ini menunjukkan keberhasilan dan kemenangan para pejuang Hizbullah dan warga Lebanon Selatan, sekaligus kekalahan memalukan rezim zionis yang selama ini dianggap sebagai kekuatan yang memiliki pasukan militer tak terkalahkan.

15 Augustus
Tentara India Mulai Melawan Koloni Inggris

Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1857, dimulailah sebuah perlawanan melawan penjajahan Inggris yang dimulai oleh tentara India. Para tentara India yang berada di bawah komandan Inggris ini dengan segera berhasil menguasai Delhi, ibu kota India, dan mengalahkan tentara Inggris. Rakyat kemudian bergabung dengan tentara India dan beberapa kota yang berada di bawah pendudukan Inggris berhasil dibebaskan.
Namun, kemudian terjadi pertentangan pendapat mengenai kepemimpinan dan hal-hal lainnya di antara para pejuang India tersebut. Hal ini membuka jalan bagi Inggris untuk melakukan serangan balasan dan membunuh massal rakyat sipil. Satu tahun setelah perlawanan besar rakyat India ini, Inggris secara resmi menjadikan India sebagai koloni sehingga dengan mudah bisa melakukan represi terhadap rakyat dan menguras kekayaan India.

India Merdeka
Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1947, rakyat India setelah bertahun-tahun berjuang melawan penjajahan Inggris, berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya. Tanah air India memiliki sejarah yang panjang dan peradaban yang maju, serta berbagai dinasti dari dalam dan luar India pernah menjadi penguasa di negeri itu. Pada abad ke-8, Islam menyebar di sebagian kawasan India dan sebagian wilayah India berada di tangan kaum muslimin. Sejak abad ke-16, dimulailah penjajahan Inggris terhadap negeri ini.
Rakyat India berkali-kali melakukan perlawanan melawan Inggris, namun selalu gagal. Sejak tahun 1895, dengan didirikannya partai Kongres Nasional India, perjuangan rakyat India menajdi lebih terorganisasi dan semakin kuat. Apalagi, setelah Mahatma Gandi bergabung dengan partai ini dan memimpin kebangkitan "perlawanan negatif", perlawanan rakyat India semakin besar sampai akhirnya di tahun 1948 Inggris terpaksa melepaskan wilayah jajahannya yang terluas dan terpenting itu. Setahun kemudian, Gandhi dibunuh. Pada tahun 1950, pemerintahan republik terbentuk di India.
India memiliki luas wilayah sekitar 3 juta 287 ribu kilometer persegi dan berbatasan dengan Pakistan, Cina, Nepal, Bangladesh, Butan, dan Myanmar.

Korea Selatan Terbentuk
Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1948, negara Korea Selatan terbentuk. Semenanjung Korea pada pertengahan awal abad ke-20 diduduki oleh negara-negara kuat dunia. Pada tahun 1905, semenanjung Korea diduduki oleh Jepang. Namun, dengan kalahnya Jepang dalam Perang Dunia Pertama, Soviet menduduki bagian utara semenanjung Korea dan Amerika menduduki bagian selatannya. Pengaruh Soviet akhirnya menyebabkan terbentuknya pemerintahan komunis di Korut dan pengaruh AS menyebabkan berdirinya Republik Korsel yang berorientasi Barat.
Korsel terletak di tepi Samudera Teduh, berbatasan dengan Korea Utara, dan memiliki luas wilayah 98 ribu kilometer persegi.

Kongo Merdeka
Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1960, negara Kongo, yang terkenal dengan nama Kongo Brazzaville, berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Perancis. Di masa lalu, Kongo dan Angola termasuk bagian dari wilayah Republik Demokratik Kongo yang sebelumnya bernama Zaire. Wilayah ini ditemukan oleh Portugis pada abad ke-15 namun kemudian dijajah dalam waktu yang sangat lama oleh Perancis.
Kongo memiliki luas wilayah 342 ribu kilometer persegi, terletak di sebelah barat benua Afrika dan di tepi Laut Atlantik, serta berbatasan dengan Afrika Tengah, Kamerun, Gabon, Republik Demokratik Kongo, dan Angola.

Saddam Terima Lagi Perjanjian Perbatasan Irak- Iran
Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1990, Presiden Irak saat itu, mengirimkan surat kepada Presiden Iran, Hashemi Rafsanjani, yang berisi kesediannya untuk menerima isi perjanjian perbatasan tahun 1975 yang ditandatangani di Aljazair. Sebelumnya, pada tahun 1960, di depan kamera televisi, suart perjanjian perbatasan ini dirobek-robek Saddaam Husain dan beberapa hari kemudian, tentara Irak melakukan invasi ke Iran.
Saddam Husain dan para pendukungnya memperkirakan bahwa dalam waktu singkat Iran berhasil mereka kuasai, namun, perlawanan rakyat Irak sangat kuat sehingga terjadi perang selama delapan tahun. Setelah mengalami kekalahan yang berkepanjangan, Irak terusir dari wilayah Iran. Dua tahun setelah berakhirnya perang yang dipaksakan itu, sementara Irak menduduki Kuwait, Saddam Husain menyatakan menerima isi perjanjian perbatasan 1975 tersebut.


Rezim Zionis terpaksa berundur
Tanggal 5 Augustus tahun 2005, Rezim Zionis Israel terpaksa mundur dari Jalur Gaza di wilahay barat Palestina pendudukan. Kawasan ini diduduki Isarael saat pecahnya perang Arab pada tahun 1967. Israel tetap menolak meninggalkan Jalur Gaza meski telah menandatangani perjanjian damai dengan Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO) pada tahun 1993 yang menuntut penyerahan wilayah tersebut kepada pemerintah Otorita Palestina. Akhirnya kebangkitan rakyat Palestina dan Intifadah Masjid Al-Aqsa yang dipusatkan di Gaza telah memaksa tentera Israel dan warga permukiman Zionis keluar dari Jalur Gaza. Meski demikian, Israel masih terus melanjutkan agresi brutal dan pembantain sadis terhadap warga Palestina di Jalur Gaza.

16 Augustus
Louis Agasis Lahir

Tanggal 16 Agustus tahun 1807, Louis Agasis, seorang arkeolog Swiss, terlahir ke dunia. Dia banyak melakukan pnelitian dan penelahaan mengenai fosil-fosil dan pengaruh pembekuan di dalam planet bumi. Penelitiannya memberikan peran yang sangat banyak dalam penemuan para arkeolog penerusnya. Agasis meninggal tahun 1873.

Cyprus Merdeka
Tanggal 16 Agustus tahun 1960, kepulauan Cyprus setelah bertahun-tahun dilanda kerusuhan, akhirnya mencapai kemerdekaannya. Sampai tahun 1878, Cyprus dikuasai oleh imperium Utsmani dan pada tahun itu pula, dalam kongres Berlin, imperium Utsmani menyerahkan Cyprus kepada Inggris. Pada tahun 1925, Cyprus resmi menjadi koloni Inggris. Sejak saat itu, orang-orang Yunani di Cyprus yang merupakan 75 persen dari populasi kepulauan ini, menuntut agar Cyprus bergabung dengan Yunani. Akibatnya, situasi politik di Cyprus menjadi kacau dan akhirnya terbentuklah dewan legislatif di sana.
Di pihak lain, pernyataan Turki yang akan melindungi hak-hak orang Turki di kepulauan itu, semakin memanaskan situasi. Akhirnya, masalah Cyprus oleh uskup Makarius dibawa ke PBB dan negara ini kemudian meraih kemerdekaannya pada tahun 1960. Pemerintahan Cyprus berbentuk republik dan uskup Makarius menjadi presiden pertama negara ini.
Namun, kemerdekaan ini ternyata tidak membawa ketenangan di negeri ini. Pada tahun 1974, Turki menyerang Cyprus dan menduduki wilayah utara negara ini. Kini, secara praktis, Cyprus terbagi dua bagian, yaitu daerah pendudukan Turki di utara dan daerah pendudukan Yunani di Selatan.
Cyprus terletak di tepi Laut Mediterania, di sebelah selatan Turki dan memiliki luas wilayah 9251 kilometer persegi.

Raja Maroko Di serang oleh AU Maroko
Tanggal 16 Augustus 1972, Raja Hasan ll dari Maroko diserang secara tidak sengaja oleh pesawat tempur Maroko, namun berha
          Commodities: Chinese Custom Duties        
China is going to lower import customs duties on some 600 products next year, as agreed with the WTO, reports Liechtenstein‘s Volksblatt, among them naphta and coal. Currently reduced rates on gasoline and diesel, and windmill components will go back up, thus leaving public revenue basically unchanged. After completion of a number of new refineries, […]
          Teleclub Nabs JUNIOR Rights for Switzerland, Liechtenstein        

Studio100′s German language JUNIOR Channel will be broadcast over premium pay TV channel Teleclub in Switzerland and Liechtenstein as part of a new deal as Teleclub, a subsidiary of leading Swiss film rights & content trading company Cinetrade AG has acquired the corresponding rights. JUNIOR will be available in these regions as part of the […]

The post Teleclub Nabs JUNIOR Rights for Switzerland, Liechtenstein appeared first on Animation Magazine.


          UEFA Europa League Preview: Gothenburg continue group-stage quest        
The Swedish side lifted European footballs second-tiertrophy back in 1982 and again in 1987 under its former guise oftheUEFA Cup, but their ambitions for this years tournament are likely to bemuch smaller as they approach the first leg of theirsecond-qualifying-roundclash in Hungary. Mikael Stahres men were third in the Allsvenskan last season, but currently sit a disappointing sixth after 14 games this term andwill likely need to improve after only defeating LuxembourgsFola Esch 2-0 on aggregate in the previous round. Gothenburg will not be the only Swedish team aimingto try andseal a place in the third qualifying round, with Elfsborg, AIK and Brommapojkarna taking on Inter Baku, Linfield and Crusaders respectively. Rosenborg were surprisingly eliminated at the same stage last season, losing out to Scottish sideSt Johnstone, and they will hope to avoid a repeat against Irelands Sligo Rovers. Swiss side Luzern are the opponents on this occasion for St Johnstone, who are one of three Scottish teams competing in the Europa League. Motherwell meet Icelandic side Stjarnan, while Aberdeen face a tricky test against Eredivisie play-off winners Groningen in what shouldbe one of the standoutties of the round. Norwegians Tromso were the big winners of the first qualifying round, hammering Tartu Santos of Estonia 13-1, and they will be looking for more of the sameagainst Faroese outfit Vikingur. Tippeligaen leaders Moldemeet Gorica of Slovenia, while Norwegian compatriots Haugesund will need to overcome Sarajevo. Zulte-Waregem and Shakhter Karagandy take on Zawisza Bydgoszcz and Atlantas respectively as they both aim to feature in the group stage for a second straight year. Lech Poznan, last-32participants in 2011, will be favourites against Estonias Nomme Kalju, and their Polish compatriots Ruch Chorzow should be hopeful of progress against Vaduz ofLiechtenstein. Romanians Cluj make their return to European football after a year-long absence against Jagodina, while Petrolul Ploiesti face Flamurtari Vlore as they bid to go better than last seasons run to the final play-off round. Zimbru will require a fine performance in order to knock-out CSKA Sofia of Bulgaria, and Chikhura are also likely to be up against it in their tie with Bursaspor. Kazakhstani sides Astana and Kairat meet Hapoel Tel Aviv and Esbjerg, the latter of whomreached the last 32 in 2013-14. Finnish teams RoPS and MYPA are pitted against Asteras Tripolis and Dinamo Misnk, whose fellow Belarusians Neman Grodno and Shakhtyor will need to overcome FH and Derry City. Kosice face Slovan Liberec, Laci meet Zorya and Neftci take on Koper, while the games between Omonia Nicosia and Buducnost, Vojvodina and Trencin, Zestafoni and Spartak Trnava and St Polten and Botev Plovidiv should all be hotly contested. Meanwhile, Sillamae Kalev host Krasnodar, Rijeka welcome Ferencvaros, Hajduk Split travel to Dundalk and the Croatian sidescity rivals RNK Split meet Hapoel Beer Sheva of Israel. Elsewhere, there are clashes betweenSiroki BrijegandMladaBoleslav, Diosgyor andLitex Lovech, Metalurg Skopjeand Zeljeznicar, whileCukaricki hostGrodig.
          SvxLink @ HAMRADIO 2017        
Für Interessierte: Samstag 15.07.2017, 15:00 Uhr – 16:30Uhr Relaissteuerung mit SvxLink – Aktueller Stand und Neuerungen Konferenz-Zentrum West, Raum Liechtenstein Weitere Informationen zum Vortragsprogramm der HAMRADIO in Friedrichshafen: http://www.hamradio-friedrichshafen.de/ham-de/messeinformationen/tagesprogramm.php
          Comment on Webdesign Liechtenstein by Webdesign für Liechtenstein | iEvolution G...        
[…] iEvolution GmbH die Full Service Agentur ist auch in Liechtenstein für Sie unterwegs. Ihr Partner im Bereich Logodesign, Webdesign, eCommerce und Mobile Apps.  […]
                  

          Repair Café Liechtenstein        
Wir setzen ein Zeichen gegen die Verschwendung. Zusammenfassung Im Repair Café werden gemeinsam mit Experten kaputte Sachen geflickt. Diese regelmässigen Anlässe schaffen auch einen Begegnungsort, wo man in Ruhe einen Kaffee trinken und Kuchen essen kann. Veranstalter sind das Gemeinschaftszentrum... Continue Reading →
          The Crystallzier        
In der wunderbaren Berglandschaft von Serene del Grappa (IT) im Centro didattico – Valpore trafen sich 30 Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer aus Serbien, Ungarn, Spanien, Tschechien, Rumänien, Lettland, Italien, Polen, Slowenien und Liechtenstein zum Thema „Körperbewusstsein und Führungspersönlichkeit“. Das Training namens... Continue Reading →
          Stipendium für soziale InnovatorInnen        
Ist ein Stipendium für soziale InnovatorInnen in Liechtenstein denk- und umsetzbar? Die folgende Umfrage soll dies klären. Bitte nehmen Sie sich dafür ca. 5 Minuten Zeit. Sie leisten damit einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Ausgestaltung unserer Zukunft in Liechtenstein. Die anonyme... Continue Reading →
          Adoption de la Stratégie de l'Union européenne pour la région alpine        
suera.jpg

La Commission européenne vient d'adopter une communication relative à la Stratégie de l'Union européenne pour la région alpine (Suera), le 28 juillet dernier. La Suera vise un développement soutenable et équitable, cohérent sur l'ensemble de la région alpine, en renforçant la coopération et les solidarités entre les espaces de montagne, les vallées et métropoles voisines.

Cette 4e stratégie macro-régionale implique 5 États membres de l'Union européenne - Allemagne, Autriche, France, Italie et Slovénie -, 2 États tiers (Liechtenstein et Suisse) ainsi qu'une cinquantaine de régions. Cet ensemble forme une région située au cœur de l'Europe et forte de près de 80 millions de citoyens.

L'ambition partagée par les régions et États alpins est d'apporter des réponses conjointes aux enjeux communs de la région alpine :

  • être compétitive et innovante ;
  • faire face au vieillissement et à la faible densité de population ;
  • lutter contre sa vulnérabilité au changement climatique ;
  • réussir le défi énergétique ;
  • assumer sa position géographique (région de transit).

Un plan d'actions détaille les mesures, structurées autour de 3 objectifs :

  1. un accès équitable à l'emploi, en s'appuyant sur la forte compétitivité de la région ;
  2. une accessibilité interne et externe durable ;
  3. un cadre environnemental plus inclusif et des solutions énergétiques renouvelables et fiables pour l'avenir.

En tant que coordinateur national, le CGET copilote l'élaboration du processus de la Suera, pour la partie française, avec les régions Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur et Rhône-Alpes.

En savoir plus : http://alpine-region.eu/
http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/cooperate/alpine/eusalp_action_plan.pdf

La Commission européenne vient d'adopter une communication relative à la Stratégie de l'Union européenne pour la région alpine (Suera), le 28 juillet dernier.
Date de publication: 
Jeudi 10 Septembre 2015

          The Europe of small things        

Small things matter to the way its citizens perceive the EU, as much as, or even more than grand schemes. By chance two things have come along at the same time, one a major breakthrough in the form of the elimination of roaming charges in the EU (plus Norway, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino, but […]

The post The Europe of small things appeared first on Elcano Blog.


          Culture, art, architecture and pneumatic post on cover from Czech Republic        
Culture, art, architecture et poste pneumatique sur lettre de République Tchèque

Le 21 juin 2017, la poste tchèque a mis en circulation 3 nouveaux timbres consacrés respectivement au musée de Moravie à Brno (20 CZK), célèbre pour sa Vénus de Dolní Věstonice, à la poste pneumatique (tarif permanent domestique "A") avec mention de la prochaine exposition philatélique internationale "Praga 2018" et à l'église de l'Annonciation à la Vierge Marie à Most (16 CZK) qui fut déplacée de 841 mètres en 1975 suite à la destruction du centre historique.
Bret a eu la gentillesse de m'envoyer cette splendide lettre, envoyée en recommandé de Prague le 1er jour d'émission, affranchie avec ces 3 timbres dont je reparlerai plus en détail dans un prochain article sur ce blog.
On June 21, 2017, the Czech Post issued three new stamps, respectively dedicated to the Moravian Museum in Brno (20 CZK), famous for its Venus of Dolní Věstonice, to the pneumatic post (domestic permanent rate "A") with mention of the next international philatelic exhibition "Praga 2018" and to the Church of the Ascension of Our Lady in Most (16 CZK) which was moved from 841 meters in 1975 following the destruction of the historic center.
Bret was kind enough to send me this splendid letter, sent by registered mail from Prague on the first day of issue, franked with these 3 stamps about which I will write more about in a future article on this blog.


Bret a complété son affranchissement ci-dessus avec un 4ème timbre (11 CZK), conçu par Antonín Odehnal et gravé par Václav Fajt, émis le 7 octobre 1998, consacré au château de Valtice.
Ce château fait partie du paysage culturel de Lednice-Valtice (Moravie-du-Sud), inscrit au patrimoine mondial de l'UNESCO en 1996, façonné entre le 17ème et le 20ème siècle par la famille ducale de Liechtenstein.
S'étendant sur 200 km2, il s'agit d'un des paysages les plus vastes créés par l'homme en Europe, avec des jardins et édifices construits dans différents styles, comme ce château de Lednice - remanié au milieu du 19ème siècle dans un style néo-gothique historicisant sur les plans de J. Wingelmüller et J. Heidrich.
Bret completed his postage above with a 4th stamp (11 CZK), designed by Antonín Odehnal and engraved by Václav Fajt, issued on October 7, 1998, dedicated to the castle of Valtice.
This castle is part of the Lednice-Valtice cultural landscape (South Moravian Region), a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1996, which was formed between the 17th and 20th century by the ducal family of Liechtenstein.
At 200 km2, it is one of the largest landscapes created by man in Europe, with gardens and buildings built in different styles, such as this Lednice castle - remodeled in the mid 19th century in a neo-Gothic revival style by architects J. Wingelmüller and J. Heidrich.


Bret m'a également envoyé le feuillet commémoratif numéroté (n° 0156027) ci-dessus, édité spécialement le 21 juin 2017 à l'occasion du 95ème anniversaire de la création du club philatélique KF 06-5 de la ville de Kroměříž (sud-est du pays).
SČF fait référence à l'union des philatélistes tchèques ("Svaz českých filatelistů").
Le timbre (35 CZK), émis le 27 novembre 2013, reproduit une œuvre du peintre et graveur tchèque Max Švabinský (1873-1962) intitulée "Portrait rond" (1897, galerie nationale de Prague).
Max Švabinský, né dans cette ville de Kroměříž, est un des artistes les plus importants du 20ème siècle en Tchécoslovaquie.
Bret also sent me the numbered commemorative sheet (No. 0156027) above, specially published on June 21, 2017 on the occasion of the 95th anniversary of the foundation of the philatelic club KF 06-5 of the city of Kroměříž (south-east of the country).
SČF refers to the Union of Czech philatelists ("Svaz českých filatelistů").
The stamp (35 CZK), issued on November 27, 2013, reproduces a work by Czech painter and engraver Max Švabinský (1873-1962) entitled "Round Portrait" (1897, National Gallery og Prague).
Max Švabinský, born in this town of Kroměříž, was one of the most important artists of the 20th century in Czechoslovakia.


          Look! New Acquisitions at ALBERTINA Vienna        


For Look! New Acquisitions at ALBERTINA Vienna 350 works by 55 artists have been selected from the over 10,000 works acquired over the past 18 years. On two levels and over 2,500 square meters’ floor space the exhibition hosts a broad survey of the Albertina’s collecting strategy for contemporary art. One feature of the museum’s collecting strategy is to acquire groups of works rather than isolated, individual works in order to afford a more nuanced understanding of the artistic ideas and creative principles behind a given oeuvre. Purchases for the Graphic Arts Collection of the Albertina consist exclusively of drawings and prints. Above and beyond that, however, many artists—conceiving of their output as an indivisible artistic whole—have also donated important paintings to the museum, since they regard drawings, printed graphics, and paintings simply as different forms in which to express the same artistic concepts and ideas.

Artists: PROPTER HOMINES HALLE: Herbert Brandl, Sevda Chkoutova, Jim Dine, Marlene Dumas, Eric Fish, Adolf Frohner, Michaela Ghisetti, Wolfgang Herzig, Anna Jermolaewa, Donald Judd , Per Kirkeby, Sol LeWit, Ulrike Lienbacher, Robert Longo, Julie Mehretu, Csaba Nemes, Sasha Okun, Pavel Pepperstein, Helga Philipp, Jack Pierson, Markus Schinwald, Eva Schlegel, Hubert Schmalix, Richard Serra, Kiki Smith, Rudi Stanzel, Max Weiler, Nicole Wittenberg, Gerlinde Wurth, Stefan Zsaitsits. BASTEIHALLE: Georg Baselitz, Christiane Baumgartner, Johannes Deutsch, Burhan Doğançays, Franz Gertsch, Gottfried Helnwein, Alex Katz, Anselm Kiefer, Roy Liechtenstein, Markus Lüpertz, Lotte Lyon, Hermann Nitsch, Sigmar Polke, Arnulf Rainer, Hubert Scheibl, Sean Scully, Andy Warhol, Tom Wesselmann.

In der Ausstellung Look! New Acquisitions zeigt die ALBERTINA aus über 10.000 Neuerwerbungen der letzten zwei Jahrzehnte rund 350 Werke von 55 Künstlerinnen und Künstlern. Auf über 2.500 Quadratmetern gibt das Haus auf zwei Ebenen einen Einblick in die Sammlungsstrategie zur zeitgenössischen Kunst – um ein komplexes Verständnis für die künstlerische Idee und die Gestaltungsprinzipien eines Schaffens zu erhalten, werden Werkgruppen statt isolierter Einzelwerke erworben. Für die Grafische Sammlung der Albertina werden ausschließlich Zeichnungen und Druckgrafiken angekauft. Viele Künstlerinnen und Künstler haben darüber hinaus dem Museum auch bedeutende Gemälde geschenkt, weil sie ihr Schaffen als eine unteilbare künstlerische Einheit begreifen: Zeichnung, Druckgrafik und Malerei sind nur verschiedene Ausdrucksformen derselben künstlerischen Konzeption und Idee.

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          Keindahan Alam Negara Kecil di Dunia        
Berikut adalah 17 negara yang paling kecil (dilihat dari luas area), mulai dari yang terkecil sampai terluas. Masing – masing negara ini mempunyai luas tidak lebih dari 200 mil persegi. Jika kita menggabungkan luas negara yang ada dalam list ini, kita Cuma akan mendapatkan sebuah negara yang sedikit lebih luas dari Rhode Island. Bahkan Singapore negara tetangga kita masih lebih besar dari daftar yang ada dibawah ini (Singapore mempunyai luas 246 mil persegi)!


Vatican City - 0,2 mil persegi – Merupakan negara berdault yang
paling kecil di dunia. Vatican hanya mempunyai populasi sebanyak 770
orang, dan tidak ada yang merupakan permanent resident (warga negara
tetap). Negara kecil yang dikelilingi oleh St. Peter’s Basilica ini
merupakan Pusat Spiritual bagi umat Katholik Roma.



Monaco – 0,7 mil persegi – Negara mungil ini terhampar sepanjang
pantai mediterania Perancis. Monaco dihuni sekitar 32.000 warganya.
Negara ini juga terkenal dengan Casino Monte Carlo dan Princesss Grace.
Negara ini telah berdiri sebagai sebuah negara merdeka sejak abad ke 13.


Nauru – 8,5 mil persegi – Sekitar 13.000 warganya sangat
bergantung kepada deposit fosfat yang semakin hari semakin menyusut.
Negara ini merdeka pada tahun 1968 dan sebelumnya dikenal sebagai
Pleasant Island.


Tuvalu – 9 mil persegi – Tuvalu terdiri dari susunan 9 karang
sepanjang rantai karang yang terdapat di Polynesia. Negara ini merdeka
pada tahun 1978 dan dihuni sekitar 12.000 warga.


San Marino – 24 mil persegi – terletak di gunung Titano sebelah
utara Italia, San Marino mempunyai 29.000 penduduk. Negara yang
mengklaim sebagai negara tertua di Eropa ini, telah berdiri sejak abad
ke 4.


Liechtenstein – 62 mil persegi – Berpenduduk sekitar 34.000 jiwa, negara ‘mikro’ ini terletak di Sungai Rhine antara Switzerland dan Austria.


Marshall Islands – 70 mil persegi – Mendapatkan kemerdekaan pada
tahun 1986 setelah resmi memisahkan diri dari Pasific Island (yang
termasuk dalam wilayah Amerika Serikat). Negara ini berpenduduk 58.000
jiwa.


Saint Kitts and Nevis – 104 mil persegi – Negara yang terletak
di kepulauan Karibia ini mendapatkan kemerdekaan pada tahun 1983 dan
mempunyai warga negara sebesar 39.000 jiwa.


Seychelles – 107 mil persegi – 81.000 penduduk yang tinggal di
negara kepulauan di Samudra Hindia ini telah merdeka dari Inggris sejak
tahun 1976.


Maldives – 115 mil persegi – Terletak di Samudra Hindia, negara
ini mendapatkan kemerdekaan dari Inggris pada tahun 1965 dan dihuni
oleh 340.000 jiwa.


Malta – 122 mil persegi – Negara ini terletak di sebelah selatan
pulau Sicilia Italia. Merdeka pada tahun 1964 dari Inggris dan memiliki
400.000 penduduk.


Grenada – 133 mil persegi – Terletak dekat sekali dengan
Venezuela, negara ini merdeka pada tahun 1974 dari Inggris dengan
populasi penduduk berjumlah 90.000 jiwa.


Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – 150 mil persegi – 117.000
jiwa menghuni negara yang terletak di Kepulauan Karibia ini. Negara ini
mendapatkan kemerdekaan dari Inggris pada