GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore        

Accelerate Your Future...Be Part of the Foundry of the Future


Become part of GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore

We are looking for motivated and skilled people who want to be part of a diverse and global organisation that is reshaping the landscape of the foundry industry.

GLOBALFOUNDRIES is the world’s true global foundry. Headquartered in Silicon Valley, California with manufacturing operations in Singapore, Germany and soon to open, New York; GLOBALFOUNDRIES has a diverse, international workforce united to become the foundry of choice for the world’s leading fabless companies and integrated device manufacturers (IDM). With a strong market position, technology leadership, and financial staying power, GLOBALFOUNDRIES is well positioned to succeed in the growing foundry industry.

GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore (formerly Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd) is one of the key manufacturing and operation sites for GLOBALFOUNDRIES. With 200mm and 300mm wafer manufacturing facilities, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore provides a diverse product portfolio to address the mainstream technologies and advanced technology down to 40nm processes. In addition, to manufacturing, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore houses corporate functions in Design Enablement, Marketing, Customer Engineering, Enterprise IT, and Customer Support.

Tapping on a world-wide workforce, GLOBALFOUNDRIES has an open environment that values diversity in culture, ideas, and people. So come join us and realize your potential and be part of a global organization that offers opportunities, a vision, and an environment for success. Be part of GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore.

Section Manager (UPW)
(Singapore)

To lead, organize and manage engineering functions through Mechanical and UPW teams. The main role of this position is to provide engineering support to ensure the optimum performance of the installed capacities.

Responsibilities:

* Lead a team of Engineers and AEs to provide day-to-day engineering support to Facility operations
* Plan, organize, review all the preventive maintenance programmes with CMT teams for all equipment to ensure that the equipment is running at its optimal condition
* To plan and manage the capex and expense budget for Mechanical and UPW section
* To plan all hardening jobs for the UPW and Mechanical systems
* He will be responsible for preparing tender specifications, tender interviews , together with the purchasing department, selection of suitable vendor managing the projects within budget and schedule
* Plan, supervise, and manage Mechanical and UPW related projects, upgrading and contract services
* Maintain and improve quality and reliability of Mechanical & UPW systems
* To analyze the incidents through preto and develop the plan to improve systems annually to achieve the goal of Zero incidents
* Enforce safety rules and regulations across the section to achieve zero accident
* To Review the health of individual systems for break down , obsolescence , and potential component failures and review and update the SOP’s and FMEA ’s on periodic basis accordingly
* To Work with internal, external customers, consultant and government agency pertaining to facility equipment operation and other fab related issues.
* Train and motivate the subordinates to achieve the desired goals and objectives.
* Lead and implement all the Quality and EHS programmes for UPW and Mechanical section i.e. ISO14001, BS8800, and QS9000
* To ensure the implementation of SPC for critical facility parameters and ensure that annotation for any drift / observation is done on regular basis
* To plan and implement Annual Plant shut downs Maintenance programme on periodic basis

Requirements:

* Degree in Mechanical / Chemical Engineering
* Minimum 6 years in similar capacity and working experience in the Semiconductor environment
* Dynamic and resourceful person with good analytical, organizational, leadership skills and interpersonal skills


We regret that only shortlisted candidates will be notified.
          For Sale: BRAND NEW Indutherm MC-20 Casting Machine        

@riguy5000 wrote:

Hello People
My friend is selling a brand new indutherm Mc-20 casting machine. He purchased it to start casting but never got to it.
its a brand new machine, he also has an original box.
The is the best machine to cast gold and platinum....
the machine includes:

3 Indutherm Crucibles for MC-15 (platinum, Gold,steel)

MC20V Thermocouple Type “N” (casting gold,silver...)

MC20V Thermocouple dummy (casting PT, PD)

MC20V Crucible Outer Quartz Shield

Clear “Hot” Window With Gaskets

MC20V Thermocouple Protection Tube

Manual

Selling for: 13500 OBO (the original price with tax was 22K)

Hurry before its gone :slight_smile:

you can PM me or text, call : 612-963-8631 Edward

Item Location: Carlsbad Ca.
Willing to ship

Main benefits

• Very easy and safe to use, short implementation time
• Excellent price-performance ratio
• 3,5 kW induction generator for quickly reaching the melting temperature
• Thorough through-mixing of molten metals using low-frequency induction tuning
• Melting under vacuum or inert gas to prevent oxidation
• Top quality form filling using overpressure of up to 3 bars (casting under vacuum also possible)
• Economical consumables

The MC20V is designed based on the same tilting principle as the MC 15. However it is systematically designed for intricate casting projects in continuous operation in larger foundries.
Latest generation generators

The MC20V is equipped with a latest generation induction generator, developed especially for this housing design and with high operating efficiency. Convenient, high precision control is provided via a new operating system, with an LCD display, full text display and program control.
Award-winning vibration technology – unique in its class

For the first time, our multi-award winning and patent-pending vibration system is now available in a compact casting machine. Using vibration when casting ensures better form filling, creating casts with greater, more consistent densities, higher elasticity and greatly reduced porosity. Vibration technology is a compelling alternative to the frequently used and relatively delicate centrifugal systems, especially when casting platinum or palladium.
Major application

• Platinum casting in lower quantities, for gold, silver, steel as well
• Casting of master models, single items as a satellite system, makes autonomous from big casting department
• Quick shots by use of standard investment material in less than 4 hours, on "speed" investment material in less than 2 hours from wax piece to casting
• Excellent solution fro studios and goldsmith' workshop with limited space
• Casting of rolling blanks for platinum processing in copper mould under vacuum

Posts: 5

Participants: 3

Read full topic


          Fundamentals of Web Typography on Skillshare        

There’s too much to know, so why bother. I’m not creative. I can’t tell the difference between them. I just want something that looks good. I’ll just use whatever is on my computer.

I’ve listened to more than a few people lament that typographic knowledge feels impenetrable. Too many pitfalls, foundries, considerations, and the sheer number of typefaces! It’s true, typography goes long. And the pace of new work can be kind of staggering.

But learning enough to make a few good choices can lift that fog. Just like learning a couple steps might help you get on the dance floor, or learning how to select ripe produce might get you cooking—learning a few things about type will help you choose fonts and use them with confidence.

Well, I’ve got your back! I made a Skillshare class called How to Look at Type: Fundamentals of Web Typography to help you get up to speed. In a breezy 50 minutes you’ll learn all about how to evaluate and choose good typefaces, use typography to evoke a mood, and set your type with ease.

And if you signup now, you’ll get your first two months free. Which is handy because there are amazing classes from the likes of Paula Scher, Aaron Draplin, Ellen Lupton, and Mary Kate McDevitt.

In less than an hour you can get over the hump and up your typography game. Check out the introduction video today!


          Why Trump can not be moved back to the United States iPhone assembly?        

For Apple to move back to the United States assembled this iphone hot news, do you think will really happen?

US President-elect Trump recently told Cook that if the iPhone can move back to the US manufacturing, Apple will consider a substantial reduction in corporate taxes. At the same time also came the apple has asked Hon Hai, and the master assessment of the possibility of set up factories in the United States. In this regard, the Singapore media bluntly, China has a large and skilled labor, production and technology, a high degree of concentration advantage, iPhone moved back to the United States manufacturing can never be achieved.

In addition to low labor costs and low limits of regulation, China's most important advantage is the large and skilled labor force. Apple foundries in the last year to iPhone6 s production, then summer recruitment of 100,000, this spectacular scene can not occur in the United States.

Apple executives estimate that to manage 200,000 production line workers, need 8700 industrial engineers, but in 2014 the United States only 7,000 college students to complete the professional learning. In contrast, Shenzhen has millions of engineers and labor force, a high concentration of production and technology.

In addition, iphone parts are mostly produced near the assembly line, so not only speed up the production rate but also reduce inventory and logistics costs. This after decades of development from the industrial ecological system, can not all move to the United States, this is also unreasonable.

The ecosystem makes Apple one of the most profitable companies in the world, supporting two million jobs in the United States and enabling Americans to buy the best electronics at the most affordable price. At the same time as Asia, especially China's development, the demand for these places on the iPhone is also growing. If Apple moved back to the US production, the cost is bound to increase, these additional costs will eventually be reflected in the price. This is fatal to Apple.

Therefore, the comprehensive consideration of all aspects, we believe that Apple will not be able to move back to the United States iphone assembly. In this regard, do you agree? 

iphone


          Thursday August 23- Tighten up on benefits to get unemployed back to work        
WHEN I left school in the early eighties, Dudley was a high unemployment area. Britain was in the midst of a massive recession and the traditional industries - the steel works, foundries and factories - were closing. Unemployment was at record levels.
          Foundry Favorites: Mostardesign        
Foundry Favorites is our new blog series that brings focus to the personal favorites of designers, studios, and foundries on YouWorkForThem. Continuing this series, we spoke with Olivier Gourvat from Mostardesign, an independent type foundry in the South West of France. Having worked in the field of graphic design himself, Olivier has a deep understanding...
          Foundry Favorites: Fontfabric        
Continuing our new blog series, we’re focusing on the personal favorites of designers, studios, and foundries. Fontfabric is an independent type foundry established by Svetoslav Simov in Sofia, Bulgaria. Created in 2008, Fontfabric releases type designs with versatility and quality in mind. We recently talked with Svet to learn more about his foundry’s favorite products...
          Adobe fonts now available at Fontspring.        
Fontspring is always on the hunt for new foundries to bolster our font library. Sometimes though, getting something new means bringing in a foundry that’s not new at all, and that’s what we’re doing today. We’re thrilled to say that Fontspring now sells Adobe fonts for desktop licensing. Now you can get worry-free, perpetual licenses […]
          some great independent type foundries        
The Open Font Library promotes your freedoms as it relates to the use of type. All the fonts that appear on this site come with the freedom to use, study, share and remix them. Browse our catalogue and see what’s new. http://openfontlibrary.org/   205 http://www.bureau205.fr A2 Type http://www.a2-type.co.uk ainsifont http://www.ainsifont.com ARS Type http://arstype.nl BetaType http://betatype.com Binnenland http://www.binnenland.ch Colophon http://www.colophon-foundry.org Commercial Type http://commercialtype.com Dalton Maag http://www.daltonmaag.com Darden Studio http://www.dardenstudio.com Dutch Type Library http://www.dutchtypelibrary.nl Exljbris http://www.exljbris.com Fatype http://www.fatype.com Feliciano Type Foundry http://www.felicianotypefoundry.com Font Bureau http://www.fontbureau.com FontFont http://www.fontfont.com/shop Fontsmith http://www.fontsmith.com Foundry http://www.foundrytypes.co.uk Grilli Type http://www.grillitype.com Hoefler & Frere-Jones http://www.typography.com House Industries houseindustries.com HypeForType http://www.hypefortype.com Identikal: http://www.identikal.com Jeremy Tankard Typography http://typography.net Karsten Luecke Type Foundry http://www.kltf.de Kontour http://www.kontour.com Klim Type Foundry http://klim.co.nz Letters From Sweden http://lettersfromsweden.se Lineto http://lineto.com Lux Typo http://www.luxtypo.com Millieu Grotesk http://www.milieugrotesque.com Monokrom https://monokrom.no/ MVB Read more
          Chi spende nei semiconduttori?        

Secondo il McClean Report di IC Insights, i “top spenders” nel 2017 rappresenteranno l’83% della spesa rivolta all’industria dei semiconduttori. La categoria dei “top spenders” raccoglie oggi 15 società con spese in conto capitale in questo ambito di almeno 1 miliardo di dollari, numero in crescita rispetto alle 11 società del 2016 e alle soltanto 8 del 2013. Infineon e Renesas presumibilmente entreranno nella classifica delle aziende che si segnalano per la maggiore spesa, dal momento che entrambe stanno aggredendo con decisione il mercato ad alta crescita dei semiconduttori rivolti al mondo dell’automotive. Altre aziende che sembrano destinate a entrare nel ranking sono Nanya e ST. Non è tutto: secondo IC Insights nel volgere di un paio di anni anche qualche azienda cinese entrerà nella classifica dei “major spenders”. Delle top 15 segnalate per il 2017, il motore dell’incremento della spesa in conto capitale è alimentato soprattutto da quattro aziende: Intel, Samsung, GlobalFoundries e SK Hynix. Per Samsung si prevede, per il 2017, una cifra superiore di 3 miliardi di dollari rispetto al 2016 in spese in conto capitale, per Intel un incremento di 2,375 miliardi, per GlobalFoundries di 865 milioni e per Sk Hynix di 812 milioni. Nel loro insieme, queste quattro società dovrebbero aumentare la loro spesa per 7,252 miliardi di dollari nel 2017, ovvero circa il 90% del saldo netto complessivo di 8,021 miliardi delle spese in conto capitale previste per quest’anno. Tra i principali prodotti elencati quest’anno, con un aumento del 31%, si prevede che il segmento Dram / Sram rappresenterà l’incremento percentuale più elevato delle spese in conto capitale. Ic Insights ritiene, poi, che tutta la spesa per la memoria flash nel 2016 e nel 2017 sia stata e sarà essenzialmente dedicata alla tecnologia 3D Nand. Da questo punto di vista, un grosso incremento dovrebbe provenire da Samsung e dalla sua produzione nella nuova fabbrica di Pyeongtaek, in Corea del Sud.

 

L'articolo Chi spende nei semiconduttori? è un contenuto originale di Elettronica News.


          U.S. Chipmaker to Help Chinese Smartphone Makers to Sell Overseas        
The U.S. chip maker for smartphones, Qualcomm Inc., has set up a unit to help the Chinese smartphone manufacturers to sell overseas. The company is trying to build strong business relations with China when the country is trying to reduce its dependence on foreign chip makers. Though Chinese smartphone manufacturers contribute to about half of the company’s overall revenue, things have not been really well for Qualcomm in China.  Qualcomm generates majority of its revenue through licensing its wireless patents. After an allegation by Edward Snowden, the U.S. government contractor, that in the pretense of providing technological help, Washington has been spying on other nations, China turned suspicious and this led to an investigation by Chinese antitrust authorities on Qualcomm’s business model of licensing its wireless patents. After paying US$975 million as antitrust fine, the chip maker wants to win back the trust of the Chinese smartphone makers who had alleged that the U.S. company was pricing its technology unfairly.  The company’s move is targeted to the large Chinese companies such as Huawei Technologies Co. and Xiaomi Corp., as well as the smaller companies in the nation. The need to sell chips to the Chinese smartphone manufacturers is also important for Qualcomm in terms of revenue as the big players such as Samsung Electronics Co. and Apple Inc. have started using their own chips wherever possible, theryby affecting the profits of Qualcomm.  Jeff Lorbeck, senior vice president of Qualcomm China , mentioned that his company is helping the Chinese customers to export out of China. Qualcomm has allocated US$150 million for investments in Chinese startups and has entered into partnerships with local semiconductor foundries. 

Original Post U.S. Chipmaker to Help Chinese Smartphone Makers to Sell Overseas source Twease
          Samsung Electronics to Build Apple Inc.’s A9 Chips        
It was being said some time back that South Korean technology giant Samsung had lost a major part of Apple Inc.’s next A9 chips’ manufacturing orders and that Taiwan Semiconductor Mfg. Co. was the one to manufacture the future lot of A9 chips for Apple. However, it was speculated in 2014 that Samsung would be returning as the manufacturer of the A9 chips regarding with the 14 nm FinFET manufacturing process. According to the most recent news in this regards, Apple has finalized to use Samsung’s fabs for building the entire lot of the A9 chips. The decision has been made after Taiwan Semiconductor Mfg. Co. allocated an estimated US$12 billion for pushing its 16nm FinFET processing technology further. The A9 chips will be built at Samsung’s South Korea-based Giheung plant. Apple had spend an estimated amount of US$25.8 billion only on its product’s chips, accounting for a big 7.6% share of the entire technology market’s chip investments last year. Apple’s decision last year to consider a partnership with Taiwan Semiconductor Mfg. Co and forego Samsung would have been a loss of nearly US$1 billion for Samsung. Now, the newly sought partnership will help the South Korean tech giant in gaining business of another billion dollars this year. Remaining bookings, if any, will be managed by the US-based semiconductor Global Foundries, the company that licenses an identical 14nm processing methodology used by Samsung. Samsung will gain the permission to use the factories of Global Foundries based in New York, South Korea, and Texas.  It is also being speculated that Qualcomm Inc. will incorporate Samsung’s 14nm FinFET processing technology for its renowned brand Snapdragon 820. It is also anticipated that the technology will be used in a number of other low-end processing chips of Qualcomm in future.

Original Post Samsung Electronics to Build Apple Inc.’s A9 Chips source Twease
          IBM Announces USD 3 billion Investment in Chip Research with Hopes of Reviving Slumping Hardware Sales        
Computing and IT giant IBM has announced its plans to invest USD 3 billion exclusively in chip research over the next five years. The company hopes this investment will pay off in the form of a major breakthrough that will infuse life in its slumping hardware business. This plan comes barely a week before its much-awaited announcement of second-quarter earnings. In the previous quarter, IBM had suffered a 23% drop in its hardware sector sales as compared to the same period last year. The previous quarter also saw IBM posting its lowest quarterly revenue since 2009.   The company is trying to look for new ways to shrink silicon chips while improving their efficiency and processing power. The company is looking to do this by developing new chip-making material such as carbon nanotubes, a material that is regarded as being more stable and heat-resistant than silicon. This, the company’s researchers reckon, will enable faster connections. The company said that this massive investment is also a message to its investors about its commitment to the hardware space. Customers are demanding increasingly high levels of performance, and this trend will continue over the next decade as well, said an IBM official. The company hopes to deliver these essential ingredients, the spokesperson added.  This investment in chip research equals half of all R&D investments by IBM last year. Meanwhile, the company will narrow its focus on intellectual property and divest some of its chip-manufacturing operations. There were reports about IBM being close to signing a deal with Globalfoundries Inc., a chipmaker. Currently, IBM stands as the sole large company investing in the research of carbon chip.

Original Post IBM Announces USD 3 billion Investment in Chip Research with Hopes of Reviving Slumping Hardware Sales source Twease
          Vice President (VP) Operations - Pangborn LLC - Fairburn, GA        
Foundries, Primary Metals Manufacturers, Automotive Related Manufacturers, Aerospace, Machinery Manufacturers and General Metalworking....
From Pangborn LLC - Fri, 21 Jul 2017 18:28:50 GMT - View all Fairburn, GA jobs
          Tree Planting – Carbon Offsetting        

Melting iron to create our products uses energy either electricity or gas in large quantities. We keep the amount of energy used by commissioning only British foundries who, use energy as frugally as possible and meet EU emission standards with regards to pollution (unlike their Chinese counterparts). But there’s no escaping it, manufacturing our products […]

The post Tree Planting – Carbon Offsetting appeared first on .


                  
1-Desert camp
There is a camp at the distance about 25 km far from Shahdad .there are some local made cottages and a big yard with many beds to sleep in
It is free of charge
According to the desert climate the best times to sleep in open air are recommended as below
From 20 Mar until 21 May
From 25 Aug until 6 Nov

for more information contact me


2-Salt River
There is a salt river in the middle of the central lut desert which is called
(Kale –shour)and it is located at the distance about 90 km far from shahdad ,it is sandy road about 30 km to get there.it is so amazing site to see , but you need guide,path finder and 4 WD car.
This is my profession to arrange it for you.


3-Strange trees in desert

There is a kind of trees near by desert.it gives fruit just in fall for about tow months and it will be finished after the first raining.
This fruit is so sticky and sweet and very tasty.the local people belive that it is so good for fever and decreases the temperature of the body.if you come to desert in autumn try to taste it.
Some thing is amazing to know about :
This tree is living without water to live.if it uses water it never gives fruit.

4-The Holy Defence Museum

This museum is an enduring result and a uniqe consequence of the congress to commemorate the commandts and Eight Thousand Martyrs of the Sistan and Balouchestan province.
It was built through the efforts of Brigadier Ghasem Soleymani, then commander of the 41st Thar-ol-Lah Brigade who undertook the eleven months task with the objective of preserving the culture of self sacrifice jihad martyrdoms and proving the rights of the Muslim Iranians during the imposed eight years war with Iraq.
The Museum was designed by Mr. Khan Mohammadi ,a professor in the University of Science and Industry in Tehran.It was created on a plot of land covering an area of 23 thousand squar meters.
The 2,550 squar meters building cost 11 billion Rials to complete and was inaugurated by President Hashemi Rafsanjani on 24th May 1998, on the Anniversary of Khoramshahr's freedom.
The position of the museum in the center of the town and opposite the great Eid prayers Mosque in Kerman has greatly enhanced the importance of the cultural center.

5-Shahdad


Shahdad is a district situated at lowest point of the desert at a maximum height of 4oo meter above the sea.
The town is at a distance of 105km from Kerman.the old ruins of the old town dating back to the 4th millennium BC were discovered in the Shahdad
Plain near the new town.It has been recently discovered that Shahdad is the hottest point on earth near to the heat pole.
A cording to it's diletrant excavations consist of a collection of metal foundries and traces of metal works. Pointing to Shahdad as an industrial center of it's time.
All these reveal that Shahdad was an important center for metal industry in the second millennium BC.the first metal flay was discovered in an old cemetery in Shahdad.






6-MAYMAND(Rocky village)

It is located at a distance of 247 km far from Kerman,Historians and researchers have put the age of Maymand between 3000 to 12000 years ago.they say there is a stone table at a distance of 7 to 8km from Maymand on which the town's history is engraved.
The village has a peculiar style in architecture and construction of house and is counted as a center for early human settlement in the central desert of Iran.
The hoses in the village were craved in the heart of the mountain.
the rooms and patios consist of corridors and columns displaying a soecial rural architecture.
Maymand is one of the four Iranian villages registered in UNESCO











6-Dasht -e-lut (Lut Desert)

Kavir-e lut in Kerman province is a part of the larger lut desert . The lut desert is situated in the south eastern region of Iran. And covers a total area of about Eighty thousand .
The lut desert is divided into three section'The northern 'Centeral and southern section.The centeral section is the largest part of the lut desert and also reaches its lowest altitude.
There are several Kaluts in this region that extend from centeral lut to the west.The kaluts cover part of the west fring of the lut desert with an average width of 80km and an average length of 145km.
The lowest region of the lut desert to the east of a salt mine called Gowd-e namak which is situated in the west region of Kaluts.At this point the altitude is a mere 56m above sea level and is recorded as the lowest region in Iran and also the warmest point in Iran and the wold.
The temperature in the lut desert can exceed 65 degrees centigrade in the shade'that makes it even hotter than "Death valley" in Saudi Arabia.
Kalut is a moving sand castele that is being built one day and moves another day.


          Research On: Global and China Wafer Foundry Industry 2013-2014        

MarketResearchReports.Biz presents this most up-to-date research on"Global And China Wafer Foundry Industry Report, 2013-2014"

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 09/10/2014 -- Global and China Wafer Foundry Industry Report, 2013-2014 is all about the followings:

1. Overview of Global Semiconductor Industry
2. Downstream Market of Wafer Foundry Industry
3. Wafer Foundry Industry
4. Semiconductor Industry in China
5. 13 Key Wafer Foundry Vendors

To Read Complete Report with Toc:
http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/analysis/222984

The wafer foundry market experienced a wavy development, jumping by 39.4% in 2010 following a 7.9% decline in 2009. And the growth rate first shrank to 8.7% in 2011, then expanded to 21.7% in 2012, and fell back to 6.8% in 2013. It is projected that the growth rate will stand at 15.6% in 2014 and 6.0% in 2015. The fluctuation in the wafer foundry market will begin to present an increasingly small growth rate, which is mainly because of the differentiation in wafer foundry industry.

In terms of product type, foundry can be divided into two categories: Logic IC Foundry and specifically Foundry. The former is mainly comprised of high-shipment Logic IC, including CPU, GPU, Baseband, Application Processor, FPGA, APU, PLD, Networking Processor, and DTV MPU, etc. And the latter primarily consists of analog IC, mixed signals, Power IC, NVM, RF/HPA, CIS, MEMS, DDI (Display Driver). For the former, it is necessary to continuously improve manufacturing process and constantly narrow the line width, which could not only improve performance and reduce power consumption, but also reduce costs.

Browse Full Report With Toc:
http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/analysis-details/global-and-china-wafer-foundry-industry-report-2013-2014

These products update quickly, with the life cycle typically no more than three years, which requires a massive fund for developing next-generation technologies. As for the latter, however, its products have a long life cycle, with the life cycle for analog IC generally exceeding 5-10 years. And even a more than 20-year life cycle is not rare. These products can narrow line width but fail to reduce costs, and could increase costs instead. The specifically Foundry has a small market size and stable sales volume, but with low costs and high returns. In contrast, Logic IC Foundry has a large market size, but with a considerable fluctuation. Most important, only the leading player in the Logic IC Foundry industry can make profit, otherwise it is easy to make a loss. Take TSMC for example, which has taken the lead in the global market since its establishment in 1987, with its market share never less than 50%. Besides, TSMC is also the wafer foundry vendor that earns the highest profit around the globe, with the gross margin never lower than 40% even close to 50% in 2014 (exceeding Apple and Qualcomm). The No.2, No.3 and No. 4 players have ever suffered losses for many years, with SMIC, for example, making profit only in 2010 during the 12 years from 2000 to 2011. And the third player, Global Foundries, has suffered losses for years, with the revenue in 2013 showing a slight growth but the operating loss expanding from AED2.217 billion to AED3.217 billion.

Click Here To Download Detail Report:
http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/222984

According to the nature of the vendors, the foundry businesses can be divided into two segments, namely, IDMs offering their excess capacity to third parties and pure-play (or dedicated) foundries, with the former including Samsung, Intel, and IBM. Global Foundries can be barely included in IDMs, for it originated from AMD. These vendors have long product lines, which makes it possible to cause competition with their customers. And IDMs, in reality, are not involved in foundry businesses and could conduct foundry business only when they have excess capacity. These IDMs will not become the first choice of the customers unless special reasons.

Money and technology do not always help do well in wafer foundry industry, which has been best illustrated by IBM. Recently, IBM was willing to pay USD1 billion for the sale of its wafer foundry business to Global Foundries. And Global Foundries suggested that the payment was very small and should be expanded to USD2 billion due to the fact that the business, which generates revenue of less than USD500 million annually, caused IBM to suffer approximately USD1.5 billion loss a year. Except TSMC, most foundries have more or less bought IBM's technology, especially Samsung, STMicroelectronics, and Global Foundries, which are all technologically brought up by IBM.

Over the years, the four giants—Samsung, STMicroelectronics, Global Foundries, and IBM have formed an alliance in a vain attempt to compete against TSMC. Instead, TSMC has grown stronger and stronger. After years of efforts, Samsung has won a client in wafer foundry business—Apple. Unfortunately, the order of Apple's main products A8 was gained by TSMC in 2014, thus leading to the first loss of Samsung System LSI Division over the years.

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          Proper Villains: Artist Spotlight        
Starting off producing on Sonic Foundries’ “Acid” back in the late 90’s, Proper Villains has made quite the transformation from looping drum lines behind (admittedly) awful industrial/metal in high school, to now dropping some of the most riotous and highly acclaimed remixes in the EDM world. Now, this remix-reverend has taken his eclectic musical background and begun dipping his fingers into the waters of electric trap music - mixing in a bit of dubstep alongside his formidable, “get up and dance” swag.
          #STL365 – The Foundrie        
The Foundrie – Featuring the work of over 100 local and independent artists at Chesterfield Mall   The Foundrie is an independently owned shop at Chesterfield Mall in St.Louis, featuring handmade and vintage items.  Owners Shelah McClymont and Elizabeth Hahn-Lawrence, each designers in their own right, take the utmost care in choosing the best, most unique products and displays to […]
          Technical colleges produce young entrepreneurs        
From jsonline.com: "Opinion: An effort to foster the next generation of entrepreneurs" -- In 2006, Mark Anderson and Steven Horvath started MASTEQ, a machine shop in suburban Milwaukee that designs and manufactures tooling for foundries. Anderson was 28 at the time. Before starting the company, Anderson received instruction as part of a registered apprenticeship program at Milwaukee Area Technical College. He worked his way up through the ranks as a computer-based designer, where he met Horvath, who served as his boss and a mentor. The two decided to go into business together, and today they employ six people and have plans to expand in 2012. [...]
          2253-PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY Questions Bank 2014        

2253-PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY Questions Bank 2014

Anna University, Chennai

Anna_University,_Chennai_logo

SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE, PERAMBALUR DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING AE 2253-PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

16 MARKS QUESTIONS

UNIT-I CASTING

1. What are the pattern allowances? Explain briefly each.

2. Discuss the properties of moulding sand.

3. Explain the CO2 process of core making state its advantages and applications.

4. State the different type of mould. Write a short note on 'Green sand mould'

and shell moulding

5. Write a neat sketch of a cupola, Explain its operate.

6. Explain with a simple sketch how metal is melted in a cupola furnace.

7. What are the different types of furnace used in foundry? Describe in detail with neat sketches any one of them.

8. Explain briefly the various moulding method used in foundries.

9. Enumerate the continuous casting defects and suggest suitable remedies.

10. Explain the various non –destructive inspection methods of cast products.


UNIT-II WELDING

1. Explain the method of laser beam welding and give their applications

2. Explain the method of electron beam welding and given their applications

3. Describe plasma Arc welding and given their applications

4. Describe and explain Ultrasonic welding and give their applications

5. Explain Thermit welding and given their applications

6. What is frication welding? give their advantage and limitations

7. Distinguish between brazing, soldering and welding

8. Write briefly on testing and inspection

9. Describe brazing process


UNIT-III MACHINING

1. Explain the hot working and cold working with suitable examples

2. Define rolling and discuss according to the classification

3. Discuss the various forging operations

4. Give the advantage of press forging over drop forging

5. What are the defects in forgings? Explain it.

6. How the pipe and tubes are manufacturing?

7. Define drawing and discuss the classification with neat sketch

8. What are the defects in rolled parts?


UNIT-IV

FORMING AND SHAPING OF PLASTICS

1. Describe shearing operations in a sheet metal work with a neat sketch

2. Describe various types of bending operations with its neat sketches

3. Explain any one method of stretch forming operation with a neat sketch

4. Explain hydro forming process with its neat sketches. State their advantage and applications

5. Explain the power spinning process with a neat sketch .give their applications

6. How magnetic pulse forming process is carried out on sheet metal?

7. Explain peen forming process with a neat sketch

8. What is super plastic of metal? How this process is carried out on sheet metals?


UNIT-V

METAL FORMING AND POWDER METALLURGY

1. What are the characteristics of the forming and shaping processes?

2. What are the types of moulding and thermoplastics?

3. Explain the working principles and application of a) injection moulding

b) blow moulding

c) rotational moulding d) film blowing

4. Explain the thermoforming process

5. Explain induction and ultrasonic methods.

6. Explain working and principle of applications of a. compression moulding

b. transfer moulding (16)


          Press Review #15        

Here is a little press review mostly around Oracle technologies and Solaris in particular, and a little lot more:

Pre-rentrée Oracle Open World 2012 : à vos agendas

A maintenant moins d'un mois de l’événement majeur d'Oracle, qui se tient comme chaque année à San Francisco, fin septembre, début octobre, les spéculations vont bon train sur les annonces qui vont y être dévoilées... Et sans lever le voile, je vous engage à prendre connaissance des sujets des "Key Notes" qui seront tenues par Larry Ellison, Mark Hurd, Thomas Kurian (responsable des développements logiciels) et John Fowler (responsable des développements systèmes) afin de vous donner un avant goût.

UPDATED: Volume Group Missing After AIX Migration

A customer did a migration from AIX 5.3 to 6.1 and then called me to report a strange set of symptoms. Some file systems didn't mount following a reboot. When the file systems in the volume group (let's call it datavg) went to mount, they returned the error that there was no such device. If the customer ran an exportvg and an importvg, all the datavg file systems became available. But then another reboot was done and the datavg file systems didn't mount.

Oracle Optimized Solution for Enterprise Cloud Infrastructure — Implementation Guide for SPARC

This white paper describes the implementation details for an Oracle Solaris Could build around SPARC T4 and ZFS SA, with all the latest development of Enterprise Manager Ops Center 12c. It covers both Zones (Branded, S10, S11), and LDOMs (OVM for SPARC) directly managed through Ops Center.

Systems Director - What Licences should I have?

I have long thought it is rather silly that IBM Systems Director can't give you a list the licenses that you should have! It does, after all, know what machines it is controlling and the data is in the database. Perhaps, that will come in the future. What can we do in the short term?

Oracle SPARC SuperCluster and US DoD Security guidelines

I've worked in the past to help our government customers understand how best to secure Solaris. For my customer base that means complying with Security Technical Implementation Guides (STIGs) from the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). I recently worked with a team to apply both the Solaris and Oracle 11gR2 database STIGs to a SPARC SuperCluster. The results have been published in an Oracle White paper.

Best Practices - Dynamic Reconfiguration

This post is one of a series of "best practices" notes for Oracle VM Server for SPARC (formerly named Logical Domains)

Oracle VM Server for SPARC supports Dynamic Reconfiguration (DR), making it possible to add or remove resources to or from a domain (virtual machine) while it is running. This is extremely useful because resources can be shifted to or from virtual machines in response to load conditions without having to reboot or interrupt running applications. For example, if an application requires more CPU capacity, you can add CPUs to improve performance, and remove them when they are no longer needed. You can use even use Dynamic Resource Management (DRM) policies that automatically add and remove CPUs to domains based on load.

Secure Deployment of Oracle VM Server for SPARC - updated

Quite a while ago, I published a paper with recommendations for a secure deployment of LDoms. Many things happend in the mean time, and an update to that paper was due. [...] In a very short few words: With the success especially of the T4-4, many deployments make use of the hardware partitioning capabilities of that platform, assigning full PCIe root complexes to domains, mimicking dynamic system domains if you will.

Get Unique Access to SPARC Product Strategy and Best Practices at Oracle OpenWorld 2012

Product strategy, real-world best practices, and customer panels devoted to Oracle’s SPARC servers and related technology are among the highlights of the upcoming Oracle OpenWorld 2012, taking place from September 30 to October 4 in San Francisco.

The first Oracle Solaris 11 book is now available

The first Oracle Solaris 11 book is now available: "Oracle Solaris 11 System Administration - The Complete Reference", by Michael Jang, Harry Foxwell, Christine Tran, and Alan Formy-Duval.

Introducing Oracle System Assistant

One of the challenges with today's servers is getting the server up and running and understanding what all of the steps are once you plug the server in for the first time. So many different pieces come into play: installing drivers, updating firmware, configuring RAID, and provisioning the operating system. All of these steps must be done before you can even start using the server.

ZFS Articles @nexenta

This category contains articles that describe the various aspects of ZFS, the Zettabyte file system. ZFS was originally developed by Sun Microsystems, and open sourced thru the OpenSolaris project, and now maintained at Illumos.org.

DTrace Guide @illumos

DTrace is a comprehensive dynamic tracing framework for the illumos™ Operating System. DTrace provides a powerful infrastructure to permit administrators, developers, and service personnel to concisely answer arbitrary questions about the behavior of the operating system and user programs. The illumos Dynamic Tracing Guide describes how to use DTrace to observe, debug, and tune system behavior. This book also includes a complete reference for bundled DTrace observability tools and the D programming language.

By 2015, engineered systems would account for over 30% of physical hardware shipments

Upbeat over Exalogic's global uptake, Andrew Lau, Senior Director, Oracle Exalogic - Asia Pacific, discussed the organization’s strategy to leverage the acquired hardware expertise and extend the Exa family.

Le Sparc64 X : prochain moteur des serveurs d'entreprises d'Oracle ?

A Hot Chips, Fujitsu a dévoilé les spécification de sa puce Sparc64 X, une puce aux performances détonnantes qui pourrait bien être le fameux processeur M4 mentionné par Oracle dans ses roadmap. Un processeur censé motoriser une nouvelle ligne de serveurs Unix haut de gamme à la fin 2012...

Oracle hurls Sparc T5 gladiators into big-iron arena

Oracle's Sparc processor server biz may be bleeding revenue, but the company is still working on very innovative chips. Its Sparc T series, and the Sparc T5 systems that will launch later this year (very likely at the OpenWorld trade show at the end of September) suggest the company is growing its multithreaded processors in terms of cores and sockets and pushing up into the big iron space.

Oracle VM VirtualBox 4.2 narrows gap with VMware, Parallels

Many people feared that Oracle would kill off VirtualBox after it acquired Sun Microsystems, but nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, it's been a little over a year since the last major release was announced, and Oracle is once again pushing the virtual ball forward with a major release of Oracle VM VirtualBox 4.2.

VirtualBox Finds the Meaning of Open Source Life with Version 4.2

Oracle over the last two years has expanded VirtualBox to make it the easiest solution for anyone on Linux, Window, Mac or Solaris to get a baseline level of guest operating system virtualization up and running quickly.

What's New in Oracle VM VirtualBox 4.2?

A year is a long time in the IT industry. Since the last VirtualBox feature release, which was a little over a year ago, we've seen:

  • new releases of cool new operating systems, such as Windows 8, ChromeOS, and Mountain Lion;
  • we've seen a myriad of new Linux releases from big Enterprise class distributions like Oracle 6.3 and Solaris 11, to accessible desktop distros like Ubuntu 12.04 and Fedora 17;
  • and we've also seen the spec of a typical PC or laptop double in power.

All of these events have influenced our new VirtualBox version which we're releasing today. Here's how...

So You Want To Build a SPARC Cloud

Did you ever wish you could get the industrial strength power of UNIX/RISC with the flexibility of cloud computing? Well, now you can! With recent advances from Oracle it's possible to build an incredibly high-performance, flexible, available virtualized infrastructure based on Solaris and SPARC. Here's the recipe!

POWER Double Stuff vs SPARC Critical-Thread

Computing processor models differ in architecture from one company to another, each trying to gain an edge in the market over their competitors. Often, chip foundries will attempt radical approaches to conquer a problem, but incremental improvement will often bring radical ideas back to similar conclusions in the end. A comparison between SPARC and POWER architectures is no different.

Oracle forces wesunsolve to close

In another blow against the community and the people who work with or/and have interest in their products Oracle now has forced wesunsolve.net to close.

Current SPARC Architectures

If an application targets a recent architecture, then the compiler gets to play with all the instructions that the new architecture provides. The downside is that the application won't work on older processors that don't have the new instructions. So for developer's there is a trade-off between performance and portability.

A Return to Linux on the Workstation

Up until about 30 days ago my primary workstation ran some variety of Solaris for nearly 10 years, starting with Solaris 9 when X86 became viable on X86, then OpenSolaris and the various Solaris Express releases and finally Solaris 11 Beta. It was one month ago today that I finally re-installed it with Ubuntu, returning me to Linux officially.


          China Daily - a fragment        
For some reason I was digging through my folder of unfinished novels, and I ran across this fragment. In the end, I lost faith in this project. It seemed fake to me, a book that a Chinese person should be writing. I'm not sure if that's valid but I can say I have not read any such books, except for Sid Smith's Something Like a House, which I reviewed for FEER (and saved for posterity here).

Anyway, a few more chapters survive. The book was to be a picaresque comedy about the Beijing Posts and Telecommunications Boxing Team, based on the experience of a couple friends I knew when I lived in Beijing. Somehow it was going to end with the Tiananmen Square incident.  There was really a guy named "Patriot Zhang," though he was not a boxer.

Here goes:

VI. Train


The constant travel – “This moving train car of a prison” the team called it – was the worst part of being a Post. Zhang hated the anise-flavored watermelon seeds everyone ate and spat on the floor. He hated the smell of instant noodles, or, to be precise, the smell of the plastic sachets of congealed fat impregnated with flavoring that came with instant noodles. He disliked chatting. He loathed playing cards. He despised track-side scenery, all foundries and fallow fields with plastic bags hanging in the weeds. Worst of all, he could never sleep. The 18 hour return trip to Beijing from Shenyang—to which they had flown from Seoul on a rattling China Northern Airlines plane—promised to be terrible, as usual. Coach Wu was in a bad humor because he felt Gao and Fat Liu had humiliated the nation, and there was no sign the idiotic penis remarks were going to cease. Even Chen had joined in.
Long-distance trains offered three kinds of berths, which for political reasons were not named first, second and third class but soft sleeper, hard sleeper and hard seat. Only cadres and foreigners booked the 4-berth soft sleeper compartments, which were as expensive as flying. Businessmen, schoolteachers, state factory workers, soldiers, criminals, and what Zhang took for wretched unwashed Russians but in fact were European adventurers all took hard sleeper, where each had a cramped bunk to himself and shared a small table, a small thermos of hot water and a small window with five other passengers. Hard seat was reserved for peasants and professional athletes.
At the station in Shenyang, peasants outfoxed athletes horde: 0, leaving Fat Liu crammed next to the toilet, which had a broken door that wouldn’t close, and the rest of them to carve out territory from the aisle amid the farmers’ tremendous carryalls. Never mind the seat assignments: the attendants were good for nothing but collecting tickets and fining those who overslept their intended destinations, and even if the staff had been more competent, when it came to territory nobody could prevent a farmer from winning a war of gradual attrition. They consumed prodigious amounts of peanuts, watermelon seeds and diesel-scented liquor, the internal combustion of which resulted in poisonous farts. They opened their mouths fist-wide to pry out uneaten and unsavory scraps of pork, even teeth of the deepest black, and carelessly wiped it (the pork) on the seatbacks or flicked them (teeth) across the compartment with a forefinger. They blew their noses on the window curtains or, if those were too crisp, in their hands. And if you still didn’t yield, a farmer would fall into a deep, snoring, drunken sleep, a silk thread of drool spooling endlessly from his cavernous maw onto you, his mattress.
As soon as the attendant checked Zhang’s ticket, exchanging it for a metal chit with his seat number, Zhang retreated to the dining car, where he planned to bribe the supervisor with his 25 yuan bonus to let him stay the night through. In the dining car the first and second class passengers were thrown together at mealtimes (the third class brought its own food), but it was now empty except for two or three smokers in sharp, foreign-made suits. The kitchen staff busily set to work preparing box lunches for the trolleys, and the supervisor, a man with a mole on his cheek, counted the change in the cash box.
Zhang took a place in the far back, behind a table of idle waitresses, where he hoped the supervisor would ignore him. No one seemed to pay any attention until a businessman of middle age entered, glanced around the car and made straight for him. Zhang decided that the man must also have wanted to avoid the supervisor, because his eyes widened with surprise and then narrowed in annoyance when he found Zhang camped in the bribe-avoidance booth. Judging from the quality of his shoes and glasses, the man was Overseas Chinese. He nodded and sat down at the table next to Zhang, where he would be judged and sentenced by the supervisor in an instant.
Sure enough, the supervisor sent a waitress on recognizance. Zhang had hoped to secure a half-finished plate to pick at and thereby hold his money until nightfall, when the dining car closed and it would be necessary to bribe the supervisor to stay on. Now he would be forced to order something or go back to the hell of the hard seat carriage. Zhang was busy contemplating the cheapest item on the menu when the businessman demanded the woman’s attention: “Miss, I want to order food.”
“Wait your turn,” said the waitress. “This sportsman was here first.”
Zhang made a self-deprecating gesture.
“I am inviting him to join me,” the man said in what Zhang decided was a Taiwanese accent. He moved over next to Zhang and proceeded to order sliced pork and scallions, fish-flavored eggplant, stir-fried spinach with garlic – here he paused to ask Zhang whether he liked century eggs and found he did – and a plate of century eggs, very black and very bitter. “And bring us two bowls of rice,” he said. “You eat rice?”
Zhang, who did not have to make weight for several weeks, nodded. When the waitress had gone, he thanked the man and introduced himself.
“Mao Chen,” the Overseas Chinese said, proffering his business card. “But you can call me M.C. You speak English, right? Good. English is the global language.” He spoke in Chinese, except for those aggravating initials. “I live in France, so I speak English with a French-Chinese accent and French with a Chinese accent. Have you changed your ticket? Yes? Do you think they’ll check tickets in here? I haven’t changed mine and I’ve left my passport with my luggage.”
Zhang was even more convinced that M.C.was Taiwanese by the way he aped foreign manners and bossed people around.
“They have to come back through here when they finish with third class,” Zhang said. “But I doubt they’ll check our tickets. They’re assigned by carriage.” After each stop, the conductors collected passengers’ tickets, checked their passports and gave them a metal chit with their seat assignment on it. They kept the tickets from each carriage in a wallet, so they knew where everyone aboard was meant to get off, and before each stop, they came around and took the chits back and returned the tickets. One had to produce a ticket at the station to be allowed off the platform. The system had practically eliminated fare dodgers, except for during Spring Festival, when the crowd simply mobbed the attendants and scrambled over the turnstyles.
M.C. asked to see Zhang’s chit, and when he had inspected it put it down on his side of the table, next to his chopsticks, rather than handing it back. Zhang meant to ask him for it right away, but M.C. began to tell him a story about the first time he had seen the Eiffel Tower and it seemed impolite and paranoid to interrupt. Then the dishes began to arrive, century eggs first, and M.C. ordered them each a bottle of beer. Zhang decided all he need do was be sure to remember the chit when they finished and M.C. headed back to his berth.
They were snacking on the final dish when the door leading to the hard seat carriages opened and the attendants passed through to return to their between-car posts. M.C. began to move the metal chit back and forth like an indecisive chess player and finally left it uncovered on the edge of the table next to him just as the attendants passed. So, that was what M.C. had been after, Zhang concluded, but then reflected that M.C. had gone to an awful lot of trouble to avoid spending a thirty-yuan on a third-class ticket, and bought a sixty-yuan meal in the process. And, even if he had managed to get aboard without a ticket in Shenyang and somehow was able to avoid the conductors for the rest of the trip, he would have to produce a ticket in Beijing to get out of the station. Maybe M.C. did have a ticket, but had forgotten his passport at his berth and was too lazy to go back for it, Zhang decided. In any case, he didn’t like to be used, especially by a Taiwanese know-it-all.
With a beery, self-satisfied look, M.C. began to expound the benefits of living abroad. The overseas Chinese, who were all trying to be Americans from tiny satellite dictatorships, were worse about this than ordinary foreigners, who all had delusional fantasies about submissive women, kung fu and traditional medicine.
“You might not live any better, measured by material standards, but you have a feeling of freedom, that you can do whatever you want and nobody will pay attention,” M.C. said. “You don’t have bribe your boss or treat him to dinner to get cleared to change jobs. Nobody but criminals has a personal file. The police pay no attention to the old ladies of the neighborhood watch.”
Zhang, who had heard that feeling of freedom nonsense before, poured the last of his beer into the glass and waved at the waitress to bring another one. He gave a noncommittal grunt.
M.C. changed tact. “Patriot,” he said. “An interesting name.”
“I was born in ’70,” Zhang said. “Ten years earlier and I’d have been ‘Steel.’” Just about every man born during the infamous backyard furnace effort to support the Great Leap Forward was named Steel, Iron or Metal, just as those who, like Zhang, were born during the Cultural Revolution, were called Patriot, Hero, Lei Feng, Rocket and Space Conqueror.
“But you do love the motherland, don’t you?” M.C. said slyly. “As an athletic hero of the state and so on?”
“We must help the country to stride forward boldly into modernization,” Zhang said, mustering up a winning grin. “It’s our job to promote international friendship and cultural exchange and to provide an example for the world of China’s development.”
M.C. looked at him closely, but apparently could make nothing of his expression, for he didn’t pursue that line of questioning any longer. Instead, he rambled for a bit about the boundless varieties of pornography available in Western countries. When he finally rose to leave, he tried to take the metal chit with him, pretending to scoop it up without thinking.
Zhang grabbed his wrist. “That’s mine,” he said. “I need it to show the attendant and get back my ticket when we arrive in Beijing. You’ll have to change your ticket with the person in charge of your compartment.”
As M.C. apologized, Zhang again wondered what he was up to. Maybe he didn’thave a ticket, and hoped to exchange the chit for Zhang’s before they got to Beijing. His suit would certainly stand out in hard seat. Every farmer in the car would notice.
“I’m terribly sorry,” M.C. replied. He lay the chit on the table, and Zhang released his wrist. “They might have thrown you off the train! Please, why don’t you take my ticket, and I’ll take your place.” M.C. produced a soft sleeper ticket and held it out. His face was red from the beer. He mopped his forehead with a crumpled napkin. “Please,” he said.
“Done,” said Zhang, capitalizing on the idiot’s embarrassment without hesitation.
“It’s a lower berth. Cantonese newlyweds above, whispering and giggling. I consider myself lucky.”
“Have you seen the hard seat carriage?” asked Zhang, rising from the table. “I recommend you stay right here.”
He went directly to M.C.’s soft-sleeper compartment, where he was pleased to note another example of the man’s stupidity. The couple who shared the chamber were not newlyweds at all. One was a Hong Kong businessman and the other his mainland mistress. They were both crammed into the same overheard berth with the blanket tucked up their chins so all Zhang could see of them was their faces. The businessman blinked at Zhang with the confused eyes of someone who has just taken off his glasses. The girl giggled.
Zhang sat down on the bunk underneath theirs, where at least they wouldn’t be staring at each other, and took out the tattered China Daily, now eleven days old, that he was in the process of decoding. He was a few paragraphs into an article about the propaganda ministry’s policy on bad news. The girl above him immediately began to whisper.
“You don’t love me…. No, you don’t. If you loved me you’d want me to be happy….. You’d want me to have an apartment, like my sister’s boyfriend bought her.”
Zhang tried to ignore her wheedling and concentrate on the newspaper article. The Ministry of Propaganda had announced a call for more bad news. Apparently they’d determined that all the rosy reports were making people skeptical. That was certainly true, but Zhang didn’t understand what effect they imagined for the more bad news announcement.
“I hate you. You never do anything for me. You left me sitting in that room all day. Of course I was talking to the security guard. Nobody else paid any attention to me. No, he’ll hear us. Stop, I don’t like it that way” --
The door opened, startling the lovers. A foot thumped against the compartment wall. The attendant brought in a fourth passenger. He looked like a small-time criminal or a plainclothes agent of the Ministry of State Security. He glanced across at Zhang, sat down on the opposite bunk, and began watching the newlyweds as though they were television.
“I haven’t exchanged my ticket,” Zhang told the attendant. He gave it to her and showed her his temporary passport and his identity card.
“Beijing?” She took a metal chit marked 20B from a leather case and put the ticket in its place. She gave the chit to Zhang and repeated the process with the new man. When she’d given him his chit, she replaced the hot water thermos with a full one from the corridor and banged out.
The thug or secret agent now directed his crocodilian assessment at Zhang, who again tried to focus on his newspaper.
“You an athlete?” he inevitably asked.
“Right. I’m a boxer.”
“What team?”
“Beijing Posts and Telecommunications.”
“Americanboxing?” He emphasized American as though he were accusing Zhang of treason.
Zhang folded the paper. “Olympic boxing.”
“Of course. You mind taking a photo with me? For my kid.” The man gestured at a cheap instamatic camera.
Zhang moved over next to the thug, who gave the camera to the businessman’s mistress. She held it in one hand and kept the covers pulled up to her chin with the other.
“My son will love this,” the man explained dully. “Are you famous?”
Zhang grinned crazily, winked and, secretly hoping it was some unknown obscenity, gave the thumbs up signal he’d learned from the giant. The camera flashed.
“No, I’m just a boxer on a municipal industry team. Nobody’s heard of me.”
“I see. Anyway, an athlete has a good life, right? Traveling all over the country in soft-sleeper berths, chatting up wide-eyed girls and leaving a trail of broken hearts. Your name in boldface in China Sport.”
Had he been sober, Zhang would have agreed or perhaps even more likely, responded with the ubiquitous national grunt that could mean everything from “You said it” or “Do go on” to “Not exactly” or “Stop talking shit.” But he was drunk, so he told the truth. “Maybe ten years ago it was like that, though I doubt it. In any case, it’s not at all like that now. In an Olympic year everybody gets a little bit excited over you, as long as you don’t explain just how unlikely it is that you’ll make it from the municipal level up to the national team. You might chat a girl up through a dormitory window or in a hotel elevator sometime, but there isn’t much you can do about it, with the coach, political educator, the informant monitoring your every step. As for traveling all over the country! Touring the motherland’s third-class hotels and collapsing gymnasiums, more like. Prisoners of the train. It’s like…it’s like Spring Festival week every month, crammed in hard seat. Only no noodles, no beer and no peanuts, with the weigh-in to look forward to. This was the first time they let us out of the country”--
He stopped. He realized that he was leaning forward from the edge of the bunk, his fists clenched at his sides. He hadn’t exactly shouted, but he had definitely raised his voice, an observation he made with some dismay as he watched the man’s sly smile widen with a slight twitch of his lips.
“So life as one of our nation’s sportsmen doesn’t suit you?”
“No,” Zhang emended. “It’s not that it doesn’t suit me. I—er—I—ahem—I’m just a little frustrated with the slow progress we’re making in our march toward modernization.”
The man leaned back against the wall of the compartment so that his face obscured by the shadow of the bunk above him. He faced the window and looked at Zhang askance. “So your criticisms of the state are motivated by boisterous nationalism,” he said.
“That’s probably true,” Zhang stammered. “Only I hadn’t meant to criticize the state. I was just talking nonsense.” He could feel sweat trickling down his back between his shoulder blades—that cold sweat again. He was now certain he was dealing with an agent of the MSS.
The secret policeman watched him. In the berth above, the businessman and his mistress shifted positions restlessly, now and then thumping the wall with an elbow or heel. They no longer whispered. Zhang opened his wilted newspaper again and tried to read it, but found himself instead studying the page, wondering if the agent was still watching him and fighting the urge to look up and see. He read the same paragraph over and over again. Readership is down for many newspapers, including the China Petroleum News, the Communist Youth Daily, Chemistry with Chinese Characteristics and others, the Ministry of Propaganda announced today. Only the People’s Daily remains unaffected, retaining a circulation of 6.3 million dedicated readers.
After some time, the woman began to whisper again, wheedling about her sister’s apartment. Southerners are fearless, Zhang thought, remembering the old saying, “The mountains are high and the emperor is far away.”
“You studying English?” the MSS agent said finally. He indicated Zhang’s China Daily. “Planning to go overseas?”
“For personal development,” said Zhang.
Again silence. Then: “What made you decide to take up American boxing?”
“Sorry?” Zhang said, pretending not to have heard.
“Chinese kung fu not good enough? So you went in for boxing?”
“It’s not American boxing. It’s Olympic boxing. Anyway, I didn’t have much choice in the matter. I was at the Beijing Sports Middle School to be a hurdler – this was in ’86 – and the coach told me I wasn’t going to be taken up to the senior league.”
“If you’re traveling with the team, and the rest of them are in hard seat, what are you doing in a luxury berth?”
It occurred to Zhang that the agent was looking for M.C. That would explain why he had been so anxious to swap his soft-sleeper ticket for Zhang’s place in hard seat, an act that Zhang had stupidly dismissed as mad. For an instant, he thought of saying he found the ticket left behind in the dining car, but then he considered that the agent’s next step would be to speak to the staff there, who were certain to remember his idiotic Big Red Machine tracksuit.
“I swapped seats with a stupid overseas Chinese in the dining car,” he said. “He was embarrassed that he almost took my seat number by mistake and wanted to save face, I suppose. I went along. Losing face is one thing, but the hard seat carriage….” He grimaced. There was no reason to repeat M.C.’s ramblings about the feeling of freedom one has living outside China or his leading questions about his patriotism.
The agent produced a flimsy badge – not unlike the pathetic tie-pin Zhang had been given by the American military officer – and demanded to see his identity card. He noted his name and address. When he asked the couple in the upper berth for their identification, the Hong Kong business man had to reach across to the opposite bunk for his pants, and the blanket fell away to reveal that his mistress was topless.
The train was held up at the next station for M.C. to be taken off by the secret policeman. Zhang watched through the carriage window as he was led off, his wrists cuffed behind his back, by two ignorant People’s Liberation Army soldiers. The secret policeman walked behind and glanced back toward the train every few paces. When he caught sight of Zhang, he boxed the air for a moment, grinning. Despite the comfortable berth, Zhang did not sleep more than a restless hour or two for the rest of the way to Beijing.




          CRISIL ratings for Indian debt instruments-Aug 9        

Aug 9 (Reuters) - Below are the ratings awarded by Credit Rating Information Service ofIndia (CRISIL) for local debt instruments as of August 8, 2017.COMPANY INSTRUMENT RATING AMOUNT MOVEMENT (RS.MLN)------ ---------- ------ ----- ---------SHORT TERM RATINGS:-------------------Agrawal Power Pvt Ltd BG CRISIL A4+ 950 ReaffirmedAgrawal Power Pvt Ltd LOC CRISIL A4+ 70 ReaffirmedAludecor Lamination Pvt Ltd BG CRISIL A3+ 5 ReaffirmedAludecor Lamination Pvt Ltd LOC CRISIL A3+ 215 ReaffirmedA-One Foot Arts Pvt Ltd Foreign LOC CRISIL A4+ 30 ReaffirmedA-One Footwears Pvt Ltd LOC CRISIL A4+ 12.5 ReaffirmedAryacon Contractors and Engineers BG CRISIL A4 9.1 ReaffirmedAshirwad Foundries Pvt Ltd Packing Credit^ CRISIL A4+ 10 Assigned^Interchangeable with Foreign Deferred Bill Purchase/Foreign Usance Bill Purchase to the extentof Rs.0.60 croreAutomotive Stampings and Assemblies Ltd LOC & BG CRISIL A2 240 Downgraded from CRISIL A2+Castron Technologies Ltd BG CRISIL A4+ 17.5 ReassignedCreamline Dairy Products Ltd ST Unsecured Loan CRISIL A1 400 ReaffirmedDeutsche Bank A. G. CDs CRISIL A1+ 5000 ReaffirmedGreen Woodcrafts Pvt Ltd LOC & BG CRISIL A4 110 ReaffirmedIMS Mercantiles Pvt Ltd Foreign Exchange CRISIL A4+ 7.5 Reaffirmed ForwardIMS Mercantiles Pvt Ltd LOC CRISIL A4+ 70 ReaffirmedIntertex Pvt Ltd LOC CRISIL A4 940 Downgraded from CRISIL A4+Issuer Not CooperatingJanani International Pvt Ltd Foreign Bill CRISIL A4 50 Reaffirmed DiscountingJanani International Pvt Ltd Packing Credit CRISIL A4 40 ReaffirmedJanani International Pvt Ltd Standby LOC CRISIL A4 18 ReaffirmedJasch Industries Ltd BG CRISIL A3+ 30 ReaffirmedJasch Industries Ltd LOC CRISIL A3+ 120 ReaffirmedKandoi Transport Ltd BG CRISIL A4+ 60 ReaffirmedLavish Granito Pvt Ltd BG CRISIL A4+ 50 ReaffirmedMahalakshmi Infraprojects Ltd BG CRISIL A3 300 AssignedMed Freshe Pvt Ltd Inland/Import LOC* CRISIL A4 55 Reaffirmed*100% interchangeability among the Foreign LC/ Inland BG/ Inland LC/ Foreign BG/ Buyers CreditMittal Brothers Engineers and BG CRISIL A4+ 145 ReaffirmedContractorsNF Forgings Pvt Ltd LOC CRISIL A4+ 80 ReaffirmedOrient Color Art Printers Pvt Ltd BG CRISIL A4 1.5 ReaffirmedOrient Color Art Printers Pvt Ltd Foreign Bill CRISIL A4 17.5 Reaffirmed DiscountingOrient Color Art Printers Pvt Ltd Packing Credit CRISIL A4 7.5 ReaffirmedPatel Agri Export LOC CRISIL A4+ 60 ReaffirmedPinnacle Nexus Ltd Packing Credit CRISIL D 180 Downgraded from CRISIL A4+ Pinnacle Nexus Ltd Proposed ST Bk CRISIL D 30 Downgraded Loan Fac from CRISIL A4+ PNP Polymers Pvt Ltd LOC CRISIL A3+ 200 AssignedR. Natarajan BG CRISIL A4 10 ReaffirmedReliance Industries Ltd ST Debt CRISIL A1+ 45000 ReaffirmedReliance Industries Ltd CP CRISIL A1+ 150000 ReaffirmedSagar Auto Parts Pvt Ltd Proposed LOC & BG CRISIL A4 40.8 ReaffirmedSeven Seas Distillery Pvt Ltd BG CRISIL A4+ 1.2 ReaffirmedSharma International Packing Credit CRISIL A4+ 52 AssignedSharma International Overdraft CRISIL A4+ 13.5 AssignedSharma International LOC CRISIL A4+ 4 AssignedSiechem Technologies Pvt Ltd LOC CRISIL A2 30 AssignedSiechem Technologies Pvt Ltd BG CRISIL A2 240 AssignedSt. Nicholas Cashew Exports Packing Credit CRISIL A4 20 ReaffirmedSuperking Manufacturers (Tyre) Pvt Ltd Buyer`s Credit CRISIL A4+ 20 ReaffirmedSuperking Manufacturers (Tyre) Pvt Ltd Foreign CRISIL A4+ 20 Reaffirmed Discounting Bill Purchase** 100% interchageability between packing credit and foreign discounting bill purchaseSuperking Manufacturers (Tyre) Pvt Ltd Inland/Import LOC CRISIL A4+ 40 ReaffirmedSuperking Manufacturers (Tyre) Pvt Ltd Letter Of GuaranteeCRISIL A4+ 7.5 ReaffirmedSuperking Manufacturers (Tyre) Pvt Ltd Packing Credit* CRISIL A4+ 30 Assigned* 100% interchageability between packing credit and foreign discounting bill purchaseSupreme Treon Pvt Ltd BG CRISIL A2+ 20 ReaffirmedSupreme Treon Pvt Ltd LOC CRISIL A2+ 90 ReaffirmedT. ASOKAN BG CRISIL A4 30 ReaffirmedUmiya Mata Kadva Patidar Education & Letter Of GuaranteeCRISIL A4 50 AssignedSamaj Seva TrustVishal Pipes Ltd BG CRISIL A3 115 ReaffirmedVishal Pipes Ltd LOC CRISIL A3 155 ReaffirmedLONG TERM RATINGS:-------------------Agrawal Power Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB 210 ReaffirmedAludecor Lamination Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BBB 270 ReaffirmedAludecor Lamination Pvt Ltd LT Loan CRISIL BBB 150.2 ReaffirmedAludecor Lamination Pvt Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL BBB 163.8 Reaffirmed Loan FacAnya Polytech & Fertilizers Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB- 26.1 AssignedAnya Polytech & Fertilizers Pvt Ltd Proposed FB Bk CRISIL BB- 23.9 Assigned LimitsAnya Polytech & Fertilizers Pvt Ltd LT Loan CRISIL BB- 50 AssignedA-One Foot Arts Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB+ 60 Upgraded from CRISIL BBA-One Foot Arts Pvt Ltd Proposed TL CRISIL BB+ 6.7 Upgraded from CRISIL BBA-One Foot Arts Pvt Ltd TL CRISIL BB+ 19.7 Upgraded from CRISIL BBA-One Footwears Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB+ 80 Upgraded from CRISIL BBA-One Footwears Pvt Ltd TL CRISIL BB+ 5 Upgraded from CRISIL BBAryacon Contractors and Engineers CC CRISIL B+ 60 ReaffirmedAryacon Contractors and Engineers Proposed LT Bk CRISIL B+ 0.9 Reaffirmed Loan FacAshirwad Foundries Pvt Ltd Overdraft CRISIL BB- 40 AssignedAtmiya Engineering and Plastics CC CRISIL D 4 ReaffirmedAtmiya Engineering and Plastics LT Loan CRISIL D 34.3 ReaffirmedAtmiya Engineering and Plastics WC TL CRISIL D 51.7 ReaffirmedAutomotive Stampings and Assemblies Ltd CC# CRISIL BBB+ 170 Downgraded from CRISIL A-#Interchangeable with bank guarantee and letter of credit up to Rs 5.00 crore; and with workingcapital demand loan, short-term loan, letter of credit, bank guarantee, and export credit up toRs 9.00 crore Automotive Stampings and Assemblies Ltd LT Loan CRISIL BBB+ 300 Downgraded from CRISIL A-Automotive Stampings and Assemblies Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL BBB+ 120 Downgraded Loan Fac from CRISIL A-B.L. Agro Oils Ltd CC CRISIL BBB 3750 ReaffirmedB.L. Agro Oils Ltd TL CRISIL BBB 890 ReaffirmedCastron Technologies Ltd CC CRISIL BB 100 ReaffirmedCharisma Goldwheels Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB- 60 ReaffirmedCharisma Goldwheels Pvt Ltd Inventory Funding CRISIL BB- 80 Reaffirmed FacCorum Hospitality CC CRISIL BB+ 50 ReaffirmedCorum Hospitality Corporate Mortgage CRISIL BB+ 80 Reaffirmed LoanCreamline Dairy Products Ltd CC/ Overdraft Fac CRISIL A+ 140 Upgraded from CRISIL ACreamline Dairy Products Ltd LT Loan CRISIL A+ 261.6 Upgraded from CRISIL ACreamline Dairy Products Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL A+ 208.4 Upgraded from Loan Fac CRISIL AD.N. Homes Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB- 50 ReaffirmedD.N. Homes Pvt Ltd TL CRISIL BB- 144.7 AssignedD.N. Homes Pvt Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL BB- 11.6 Assigned Loan FacD.N. Homes Pvt Ltd Overdraft CRISIL BB- 33.7 AssignedEast North Interconnection Co. Ltd NCD CRISIL AAA(SO) 9250 ReaffirmedFulzan Properties LT Loan CRISIL D 75 ReaffirmedFulzan Properties LT Loan CRISIL D 75 ReaffirmedGreen Woodcrafts Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL B+ 30 ReaffirmedGreen Woodcrafts Pvt Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL B+ 28.2 Reaffirmed Loan FacGreen Woodcrafts Pvt Ltd TL CRISIL B+ 1.8 ReaffirmedHindustan Agro Products Ltd CC CRISIL B+ 80 ReaffirmedHindustan Agro Products Ltd LT Loan CRISIL B+ 2.5 ReaffirmedHindustan Agro Products Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL B+ 4.4 Reaffirmed Loan FacIMS Mercantiles Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB 100 ReaffirmedIMS Mercantiles Pvt Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL BB 22.5 Reaffirmed Loan FacIntertex Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL B 100 Downgraded from CRISIL BBIssuer Not CooperatingJanani International Pvt Ltd Proposed TL CRISIL B+ 42 ReaffirmedJasch Industries Ltd CC CRISIL BBB 160 ReaffirmedJasch Industries Ltd TL CRISIL BBB 34.1 ReaffirmedJasch Industries Ltd WC TL CRISIL BBB 11.6 ReaffirmedK.P. Chacko Gold Centre & Kids Jewel CC CRISIL BB- 100 ReaffirmedKandoi Transport Ltd CC CRISIL BB 450 Downgraded from CRISIL BB+Kewal Kiran Clothing Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL AA- 150 Reaffirmed Loan FacKewal Kiran Clothing Ltd WC Demand Loan@@ CRISIL AA- 250 Reaffirmed@@Interchangeable with Rs 25 crore of bank overdraft facility, Rs 25 crore of export billdiscounting, Rs 25 crore of export invoice financing, and Rs 25 crore of pre-shipment financingunder export ordersKewal Kiran Clothing Ltd WC Demand Loan# CRISIL AA- 250 Reaffirmed#Interchangeable with Rs 25 crore of bank overdraft facility, Rs 5 crore of import letter ofcredit, Rs 5 crore of bonds and guarantees, Rs 5 crore of import invoice financing, Rs 25 croreof export bill discounting, Rs 25 crore of pre-shipment financing under export letter of credit,Rs 25 crore of export invoice financing, Rs 5 crore of import letter of credit, and Rs 25 croreof pre-shipment financing under export ordersKewal Kiran Clothing Ltd WC Demand Loan@ CRISIL AA- 150 Reaffirmed@Interchangeable with Rs 15 crore of working capital demand loan, Rs 7.5 crore cash creditfacility, Rs 2 crore pre-shipment export packing credit in foreign currency, Rs 2 crorepost-shipment credit in foreign currencyKewal Kiran Clothing Ltd WC Demand Loan^ CRISIL AA- 200 Reaffirmed^Interchangeable with Rs 20 crore of working capital demand loan, Rs 20 crore cash creditfacility, Rs 20 crore export packing credit, Rs 20 crore foreign bills purchased, Rs 20 crorebill/invoice discounting, Rs 10 crore letter of credit usance/sight, Rs 10 crore letter ofundertaking for buyer's creditLavish Granito Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB 100 Upgraded from CRISIL BB-Lavish Granito Pvt Ltd LT Loan CRISIL BB 268 Upgraded from CRISIL BB-Mahalakshmi Infraprojects Ltd CC CRISIL BBB- 200 AssignedMittal Brothers Engineers and CC CRISIL BB 55 Upgraded fromContractors CRISIL BB-N. K. Sharma Enterprises Ltd Overdraft CRISIL D 100 ReaffirmedNF Forgings Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB- 320 ReaffirmedOcean Interiors Pvt Ltd Corporate Credit CCR BBB+ - Assigned RatingOrient Color Art Printers Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL B 12.6 ReaffirmedOrient Color Art Printers Pvt Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL B 18.7 Reaffirmed Loan FacOrient Color Art Printers Pvt Ltd TL CRISIL B 15 ReaffirmedParsvnath Developers Ltd CC CRISIL D 889.6 Downgraded from CRISIL CParsvnath Developers Ltd LT Loan CRISIL D 200 Downgraded from CRISIL CParsvnath Developers Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL D 1410.4 Downgraded Loan Fac from CRISIL CPatel Agri Export CC CRISIL BB- 30 ReaffirmedPatel Agri Export TL CRISIL BB- 8 ReaffirmedPNP Polymers Pvt Ltd TL CRISIL BBB 750 AssignedPNP Polymers Pvt Ltd LOC$ CRISIL BBB 500 Assigned$CC of Rs 10 crores as sublimitPNP Polymers Pvt Ltd LOC* CRISIL BBB 100 Assigned*CC of Rs 2.5 crores as sublimitPNP Polymers Pvt Ltd LOC# CRISIL BBB 250 Assigned#CC of Rs 4.75 crores as sublimitR. Natarajan CC CRISIL B- 50 Downgraded from CRISIL BReliance Industries Ltd FB Fac* CRISIL AAA 499650 Reaffirmed*Fully interchangeable between bank guarantee, letter of credit, export packing credit, andpost-shipment creditReliance Industries Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL AAA 150000 Reaffirmed Loan FacReliance Industries Ltd Rupee TL CRISIL AAA 350 ReaffirmedReliance Industries Ltd NCD CRISIL AAA 100000 AssignedReliance Industries Ltd NCDs CRISIL AAA 100080 ReaffirmedSagar Auto Parts Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL B+ 20 ReaffirmedSagar Auto Parts Pvt Ltd Proposed TL CRISIL B+ 20 ReaffirmedSagar Auto Parts Pvt Ltd Rupee TL CRISIL B+ 19.2 ReaffirmedSagar Cotton Industries CC CRISIL B+ 90 ReaffirmedSaiom Developers Pvt Ltd TL CRISIL BB 600 AssignedSeven Seas Distillery Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB 250 ReaffirmedSharma International Proposed FB Bk CRISIL BB- 0.4 Assigned LimitsSharma International LT Loan CRISIL BB- 1.2 AssignedShree Naveen Silk Mills Pvt Ltd Rupee TL CRISIL BB- 26.3 AssignedShree Naveen Silk Mills Pvt Ltd CC* CRISIL BB- 40 Assigned*Sublimit letter of credit Rs.1.5 croreShree Naveen Silk Mills Pvt Ltd Proposed TL CRISIL BB- 3.7 AssignedSiechem Technologies Pvt Ltd Proposed TL CRISIL BBB+ 300 AssignedSiechem Technologies Pvt Ltd channel Financing CRISIL BBB+ 170 AssignedSiechem Technologies Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BBB+ 260 AssignedSt. Nicholas Cashew Exports CC CRISIL B+ 40 ReaffirmedSt. Nicholas Cashew Exports Proposed LT Bk CRISIL B+ 20 Reaffirmed Loan FacSumo Biscuits Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL B+ 40 ReaffirmedSumo Biscuits Pvt Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL B+ 34 Reaffirmed Loan FacSumo Biscuits Pvt Ltd TL CRISIL B+ 147 ReaffirmedSuperking Manufacturers (Tyre) Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL BB 10 ReaffirmedSuperking Manufacturers (Tyre) Pvt Ltd Proposed FB Bk CRISIL BB 42.5 Assigned LimitsSupreme Treon Pvt Ltd CC CRISIL A- 600 ReaffirmedSupreme Treon Pvt Ltd Proposed LT Bk CRISIL A- 109.2 Reaffirmed Loan FacSupreme Treon Pvt Ltd TL CRISIL A- 1359.9 ReaffirmedT. ASOKAN CC CRISIL B 50 Downgraded from CRISIL B+Issuer Not CooperatingT. ASOKAN Proposed WC Fac CRISIL B 40 Downgraded from CRISIL B+Issuer Not CooperatingUmiya Mata Kadva Patidar Education & Rupee TL CRISIL B 42.5 AssignedSamaj Seva TrustUmiya Mata Kadva Patidar Education & Overdraft CRISIL B 17.5 AssignedSamaj Seva TrustVishal Pipes Ltd CC CRISIL BBB- 530 ReaffirmedVishal Pipes Ltd Export Packing CRISIL BBB- 50 Reaffirmed Credit--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------$: Rating watch with positive implication#: Rating Watch with Developing implications@: Rating Watch with Negative Implications%: Rating under Credit Watchwd -Rating Stands Withdrawnsp -Rating Suspendedpp -Principal Protectedpn -Principal Not ProtectedCRISIL may apply + or - signs for ratings to reflect a comparative standing within the category.BG-Bank Guarantee; CC-Cash Credit; CCPS-Cumulative Convertible Preference Share; CD-Certificateof Deposit; CLO-Collateralized Loan Obligation; CPA-Claims Paying Ability; CP-CommercialPaper; CPS-convertible preference shares; CRPS- Cumulative Redeemable Convertible Preferenceshares; DDB-Deep Discount Bond; EPBI-Exchange premium bond; FBL-Fund Based Limits; FRB/FRN-Floating Rate Bond/Note; ICD -Inter Corporate Deposit; ITD-Immediate Term Debt; LOC-Letter ofCredit; LT -Long Term; LTB -Long Term Borrowing; LTD -Long Term Debt; MOCD-multiple optionconvertible debenture; MTD -Medium term Debenture; MTN-medium term notes; NCD(SO) -Non-Convertible Debenture-(Structured Obligation); NCD-Non-convertible Debentures; NCRB-NonConvertible Redeemable Bonds; NM-Not Meaningful; OCD-optionally convertible debenture; OD-OverDraft; OFCD-Optionally Fully Convertible Debenture; PCD-Partially Convertible Debenture;PCN-partly convertible notes; PCPS-Partly Convertible Preference Share; POCD-partly optional;PP-privately placed; PSPC-Post Shipment & Packing Credit; PS-Preference Shares; PTC-PassThrough Certificates; RPS-Redeemable Preference Shares; SCPN-secured convertible preferencenotes; SDO-Structured Debt Obligation; SLR-Statutory Liquidity Ratio; SO-StructuredObligation; SPCD - Secured Partly Convertible Debentures; SPN-secured premium notes; STB-ShortTerm Bond; STD-Short Term Debentures; ST-Short Term; Sub. Bonds-Subordinate Bonds; TB-TaxableBond; TFB-Tax Free Bond; TL-Term Loan; TOCD-triple option convertible debentures.(Mumbai Rate Reporting Unit + 91 22 6180 7222 / 3317 7222 , E-mail atrru.data@thomsonreuters.com)


          Are We Clear?        
Ah, the heady days of the early ’90s. Maury Povich strode the globe like a conquering god-king, and all fell at his feet in awestruck worship. Cropped sweaters and high-waisted jeans were all the rage, and, sometimes, even women got in on the action. In pop, C+C Music Factory was up and running three shifts a day, their forges and foundries cranking out unit after unit of high-quality, low-cost dance hits for the grateful masses. (Yes, on occasion the factory line did shut down, as in the famous incident in which workers went on strike when it was discovered that there were some people defying the order that “Everybody dance now!” After some tense negotiations, the union agreed to compromise on its insistence that everybody dance now, allowing the sick and infirm to be given a waiver, provided they promised to dance at some time in the future. With passage of the bipartisan Dance Act, the workers returned and the factory line was soon up and humming again.)

          Globalfoundries On A Roll With 7nm And 5nm Announcements        
Recently, the fab wars started to heat up between the world’s leading chip manufacturers namely, Globalfoundries is announcing today that their 7LP (Leading-Performance) process and FX-7 ASIC platform are available today for partners to start planning to utilize with design kits.
          Globalfoundries Gets 22FDX China Vote Of Confidence With $100M Chengdu Investment        
Globalfoundries new 22FDX is moving along well, but how committed are Chinese customers and local regions?
          How MEMS and Entrepreneurs are Driving IoT        

The application of MEMS sensors and other devices into mobile products is a recent phenomenon, only about 8 years. But, this new use of MEMS technology has caused the field to skyrocket. The MEMS market is now over $15B and rising twice as fast, on an annual basis, as the semiconductor market. Previously reticent silicon foundries are embracing MEMS enthusiastically. New MEMS inventions, largely coming out of academia, are revolutionizing how we sense and interact with the world around us. The combination of MEMS, wireless technology, growing IoT markets, growing health-monitoring markets, and the worldwide entrepreneurial environment will be catapulting MEMS to new heights in the next 10 years. While about 8 key MEMS technologies are in very high volume production today, another 15-20 new, high volume products are on the horizon. The current support infrastructure for entrepreneurs is making it even easier to transition such R&D devices into production. We will discuss the past and future of MEMS and how the new entrepreneurial culture is transforming the evolution of IoT.


          EE380 Computer Systems Colloquium: Realizing the next growth wave for semiconductors         

The semiconductor industry has evolved from its early days of startups and spinouts financed by venture capital to an era of specialization associated with the rise of foundries and fabless companies to today's structure characterized by consolidation and dominance by a few leaders in each of the product areas. Looking forward, there is anticipation that a new wave of innovation associated with key trends in energy, personal health care, autonomous transportation, mobility, and home automation, generally referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT), is upon us.

To realize these optimistic expectations for meaningful growth, innovation and entrepreneurship generally associated with startups will be even more crucial. However, all of the indicators ranging from IPO's, venture capital investment, and organic industry growth rates strongly suggest that new business models are needed. Taking inspiration from the robust incubation and acquisition activities in software and biotech, a new approach to assist startups pursuing solutions in silicon is being pursued. Its unique focus is on the difficult problems entrepreneurs and new companies encounter when attempting to innovate in semiconductors --namely the challenge of raising sufficient funding and obtaining the appropriate design, prototyping, and test capabilities to move from concept to working prototypes.

In this context, a new early-stage startup incubator called Silicon Catalyst is being launched. The objective is to stimulate a vital and robust startup community by connecting the interests of the industry stakeholders, ranging from systems and product-based companies to the enabling supply chain to a network of mentors experienced in assisting startups, and to investors who are looking for attractive returns and timely graduation and acquisition.

This presentation will describe the key financial and innovation trends of the semiconductor industry, whose advances underpin a broad set of industries that depend on ever more useful and cost-effective electronics. For context, comparisons with the structure and evolution of related industries will be made. Building upon this framework, the business model and novel approach using lean innovation principles that is being taken by Silicon Catalyst will be described in context of the global trends emerging from extending Moore's law over the next decade and driving innovations for the next growth IoT growth wave.


          EE380 Computer Systems Colloquium: From Nanodevices to Nanosystems: The Carbon Nanotube Case Study        

Emerging nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), have great potential to revolutionize future electronic systems. For instance, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) are projected to improve the energy efficiency of digital systems by an order of magnitude compared to silicon CMOS. Unfortunately, CNTs face major obstacles such as substantial imperfections and variations inherent to CNTs, and low CNFET current densities. These obstacles limited CNFET demonstrations to stand-alone transistors or logic gates, with severely limited performance, yield, and scalability. In this talk, I will describe how to overcome these challenges through a combination of new CNT processing and CNFET circuit design solutions. This new approach transforms CNTs from solely a scientifically-interesting material to working nanosystems such as the first microprocessor [Nature 2013] and the first digital sub- systems [ISSCC 2013, JSSC 2014, ACS Nano 2014] built entirely using CNFETs. These are the first system-level demonstrations among promising emerging nanotechnologies for high- performance and highly energy-efficient digital systems. I will also demonstrate the highest current-drive CNFETs to-date, which are, for the first time, competitive with comparably-sized silicon-based transistors available from commercial foundries [IEDM 2014].

I will also discuss how CNTs are naturally suited for enabling new system architectures, such as monolithically-integrated three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits. Monolithic 3D integration allows for computation immersed in memory by creating massive connectivity between vertically-interleaved layers of logic and memory. Such architectures are key to achieving high degrees of energy efficiency for emerging abundant-data applications. I will demonstrate the first monolithically-integrated 3D nanosystems combining arbitrary vertical- interleaving layers of emerging memories (Resistive RAM) and CNFET-based digital logic, fabricated directly over a silicon CMOS substrate [VLSI Tech. 2014, IEDM 2014].


          New York gets nanotech boost        
New York will be getting a boost to its tech sector thanks to a large investment from five technology companies. Intel, IBM, GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Samsung, and...
          iPad A4 Chipset Cost Apple $1 Billion?        
We typically don't run those stories about iPhone or iPad component costs anymore because they're just silly -- a couple of hundred dollars in metal parts per unit never takes into account R&D and marketing costs, and things like paying $1 billion for the new Apple A4 chipset in the iPad. Or so hints the New York Times: At the same time, Apple, Nvidia and Qualcomm are designing their own takes on ARM-based mobile chips that will be made by the contract foundries. Even without the direct investment of a factory, it can cost these companies about $1 billion to create a smartphone chip from scratch. And this would be for an ARM + PowerVR chipset assembly, how much will it cost when Apple starts spinning their own PA Semi designed chipsets whole? And what's the competitive advantage that they're willing to spend so much? ChipsetsIpadComponent CostsApple A4News...
          Massive Energy Skyscraper Proposed On U.S.-Mexico Border        
A Maryland energy company is planning to deliver 500 megawatts of power to the electrical grid from a giant hollow tower on the Arizona-Mexico border that would be the second-tallest structure ever built. Known as a downdraft tower, the project by Solar Wind Energy, Inc., is an untested and hugely ambitious endeavor. It has, however, attracted some heavyweight partners, including GE Energy and Whiting-Turner Contracting Co., which has built everything from steel foundries to the Baltimore Ravens' football stadium. The company has sought no funding from the government.
          Morisawa adds 10 more TypeBank fonts to Typekit        

Morisawa, the premier type foundry in Japan, has made ten more TypeBank fonts available for web use and sync in Typekit’s subscription library. These are a fantastic addition to the Morisawa and TypeBank faces we added in the fall of 2015.

This brings our total collection of fonts from Morisawa and TypeBank up to 30 — great news for designers working with Japanese text.

Take a closer look at what’s new!

Kanji Typos 48 and 412

Typos first gained popularity in the 1960s and 70s. The numbers in the font names designate the weights of the horizontal and vertical lines in each font; for …


          Introducing four new foundry partners on Typekit        

Our four newest foundry partners make for a truly international team, with CAST from Italy, Kostic Type Foundry from Serbia, TipoType from Uruguay, and Latinotype from Chile. Welcome to all!

TipoType

Not many people can claim they started the first type foundry in their country, but Fernando Diaz, Vicente Lamonaca, and Martin Sommaruga of TipoType can — and they proudly represent Uruguay on the world stage of type design. In fact, Brother 1816 was just selected as one of Typographica’s favorite typefaces of 2016. See all the typefaces we’ve added from TipoType.

CAST (Cooperativa Anonima Servizi Tipografici)

Run by Luciano Perondi, Erasmo Ciufo, …


          New fonts from Type Network in Typekit Marketplace        

We are pleased to welcome new fonts from Type Network, a growing alliance of independent type designers from around the world. Since they joined Typekit in November, they have expanded their collection with more partners and font releases. Let’s take a closer look!

CSTM Fonts, a foundry led by Ilya Ruderman and Yury Ostromentsky, is adding some stellar Cyrillic options with four new families.

Kazimir is based on late 19th-century book typography, and its popularity spurred the creation of Kazimir Text, which includes more weights than its display counterpart. Cyrillic letters are more symmetrical in nature than those comprising the Latin alphabet, …


          Introducing Halyard from Darden Studio, plus more fonts for sync        

Darden Studio is based in Brooklyn and brought us Omnes, the original typeface of choice for the Typekit logo. The foundry has just released their newest typeface, Halyard — which we’re delighted to offer on Typekit.

Conceived and designed by Joshua Darden, Eben Sorkin, and Lucas Sharp, Halyard comprises three optical sizes — Display, Text, and Micro — each with eight weights and italics. The specimens on the foundry’s microsite for the typeface do a spectacular job of illustrating how these different sizes can be put to good use in all kinds of design work.

Given the enormous flexibility on offer here, we won’t …


          AMD: do Threadripperů patří 5% nejlepších jader        
articlepicture
AMD nám ve své prezentaci sděluje, že do procesorů Threadripper patří pouze pět procent nejlepších jader Zeppelin, které pro něj vyrobí GlobalFoundries. Vedle toho se také můžeme podívat, jak pracuje jejich paměťový a PCIe subsystém. 

          Holy Trinities        
Contributed by James Edmondson













These shorts, involving Jack Stratton of Vulfpeck being filmed and interviewed by designer Rob Stenson, give me more joy than any large scale fonts usage ever will. Each of the videos presents creative use of type, video editing, and various effects to tell the story. Although the series largely receives recognition because of Stratton’s encyclopedic knowledge of funk and pop tunes from sixties through the eighties, Stenson’s typographic explorations in the interview format are often overlooked. He fearlessly combines typefaces that have no obvious relationship, creating compositions that work surprisingly well. My only hope is that this series lives on forever.

When asked about his process for working with type in his videos, Rob Stenson had this to say:

To be honest I just love looking at typefaces and buying them from small, independent foundries, and I love the historic context around each one. I think the basic process is, for a given moment in the video, I can narrow the face choice pretty quickly to something tangentially related to what’s being talked about (people say art history degrees are useless but I’ve found it great for coming up with “reasons” for picking typefaces), and then from there I almost always go with a modern face referencing the past (if I can find one), rather than a strict digital version of an actual face from the past. Hobeaux being a perfect example, and Forma’s another one, and Trianon Caption — they evoke the past but are true digitals, much like the music of Vulfpeck or the videos themselves, which use digital recreations of film stock and VHS tapes for color. One foot in the past, one in the present. Other than that I’ll just look for excuses to use typefaces I really like a lot. Jaakko’s a great example of that — I might’ve come up with a reason for using it at the time, but really it’s just awesome, and I feel like video is such a liberal medium in terms of what’s allowable typographically that I can really go for broke all the time. Webpages are tougher since viewers get the opportunity to stare at the design for so long, which I’ve found to be a bummer.

At the the time of this writing, there are three video installments of the Holy Trinities series: Tambourine, Guitar, and Minimalist Funk Arrangers.

A selection of stills featuring the eclectic typography is shown below.



Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

Trianon Italic is used for the facts about Norman Whitfield, Hobeaux and Hobeaux Rococeaux Sherman for the faux record label. Additional lettering by OH no Type Co., riffing on the original “Gordy” logotype.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

The title for the “Guitar” episode pairs Goudy Text with the solid Background style of Hobeaux Rococeaux.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

Vulfpeck is set in Vulf Mono, of course – the typeface was originally designed for the band’s identity.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

More Hobeaux, set on a circle. The tight spacing with overlapping letters cleverly minimizes the gaps without fanning or distorting the glyphs.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.


Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

The engaging Forma DJR, set on an angle …




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

… vs. the minimalist Times New Roman




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

Sano kyllä Jaakkoon!




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

“Minimalist Funk Arrangers” starts off with a nod to Woody Allen.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

Ringlet: square deal.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

The illustration for Wardell Quezergue AKA “Creole Beethoven” is complemented by Eubie Script.




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The “Tambourine” episode ends on a high note with Viktor Script.




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          Bayerische Bauindustrie A.-G. Notgeld coupons        
Contributed by Florian Hardwig


Source: http://www.ebay.ie blakney67. License: All Rights Reserved.




In August 1923, the Bayerische Bauindustrie A.-G., an incorporated construction company in Munich, issued a series of coupons worth 100,000, 1,000,000 and 5,000,000 marks — the devastating hyperinflation was in full swing. Although these pieces of Notgeld (“emergency money”) weren’t official banknotes, they had the backing of the Bavarian State Bank and the Bavarian State Ministry of the Interior.

The amounts are spelled out in Lichte fette Grotesk AKA Phosphor. Dated August 24th, 1923, the coupons are an early in-use example of Jakob Erbar’s inline caps. Several sources give 1924 as the year of first release for this typeface. The name wasn’t registered with the German association of typefoundries before January 31th, 1924, and a proof was sent in only on April 29th. The date of issue printed on the banknotes does not necessarily have to match the actual date of printing, of course — documents can be backdated for all kinds of reasons. However, considering the speed of the inflation in the course of 1923, it seems highly unlikely that these coupons were printed much later — they would have been worthless by November, when the US dollar was worth 4,210,500,000,000 German marks. It is safe to say that Lichte fette Grotesk was available and in use already in 1923.

Having said that, with a production process that can take several years — from initial design to test cuttings and advance shipments to publicity — it is rarely possible to pinpoint a single date, and often one can’t even argue that one date is more correct than the other.

Note that both forms for ‘K’, ‘R’ and ‘S’ were used, in an apparently random manner. The other fonts in use are the bold cut (1910) of Feder-Grotesk, Erbar’s first released typeface family and a remarkably early example of a contrasted sans serif; and Wilhelm Jaecker’s Jaecker-Schrift (1910). Printed by the G. Franz’sche Buchdruckerei, München.




Source: http://www.ebay.ie blakney67. License: All Rights Reserved.


Source: http://www.ebay.at gb-numismatik. License: All Rights Reserved.


Source: http://www.ebay.at gb-numismatik. License: All Rights Reserved.


Source: http://www.ebay.ie blakney67. License: All Rights Reserved.


Source: http://www.ebay.ie blakney67. License: All Rights Reserved.


          Haüy’s Essay on the Education of the Blind (1786)        
Contributed by Blythwood




Source: https://books.google.co.uk Google Books (out of copyright). Detail from page 3. License: Public Domain.

You are looking at one of the first Latin-alphabet sans serif typefaces. Well, sort of. Published in 1786, Valentin Haüy’s Essay on the Education of the Blind (Essai sur l’éducation des aveugles) showcases in the entire main text his project, one of the first attempts to create a Latin-alphabet writing system for the blind. His approach was embossing simplified characters onto paper, which could be lightly inked to allow the sighted to read them also. This comes thirty years before the Caslon capitals-only “Egyptian” of 1816 that celebrates its two-hundredth anniversary this year and is the first sans serif typeface known to have been made for general-purpose audiences.

Haüy’s typeface is extraordinary — rooted in script writing, but with a wide spacing that makes it unmistakably print writing, it uses swashes on almost all the capitals, apparently to make them more distinguishable. It’s been discussed in many other sources, most notably by the great James Mosley, whose comments on the now defunct Typophile and The Nymph and the Grot on it and other early sans serifs are a must-read for anyone interested in where sans serifs come from, and also by Joseph Alessio. But the entire book is available for the casual reader to examine on Google Books now in two independent digitisations.



San Francisco Public Library. License: Public Domain.

Aesthetically, to my non-expert eyes, it looks remarkably unlike most anything that would be typeset (as opposed to engraved) in the Latin alphabet for about the next hundred years. What (to me) makes it look very modern is its general delicacy and text-face build (one could mistake it for a FontFont typeface from the 1990s) and the single-storey ‘a’ and ‘g’, making it, in effect, an upright italic. (Of course, script typefaces often have some sans serif characteristics, right back to the first.) Interesting details abound: the flourish on the the ‘d’ (c.f. early chancery italic typefaces), the flamboyant wide ampersand, the ‘i’ and lower-case ‘L’ with curls, the swashed upper-case ‘i’. The ‘s’ is a bit long-s-ish, but there doesn’t seem to be use of a separate long and short ‘s’. It looks forward to the early sans serif italics of the late nineteenth century and ATF’s Announcement Roman, and also looks a bit like modern handwriting-influenced upright faces like Sassoon and Andika, but most of all it’s totally unlike the galumphing sans serif display capitals that would come out of British and then German and American foundries starting around the 1830s. (The confusing swashed capital ‘I’ is not unique: it turns up in some handwriting and blackletter styles and even a few adaptations of Akzidenz-Grotesk.)



Source: http://www.perkinsarchives.org Perkins School for the Blind. License: All Rights Reserved.

Regarding its printing, the title page notes that it was printed not only for but by blind children in Haüy’s school. Celebrating this achievement, a copy was presented to King Louis XVI on Boxing Day 1786. Haüy describes this printing method from page 30 onwards.



Wikimedia/National Federation of the Blind (out of copyright). License: All Rights Reserved.

Unfortunately, of course, Haüy’s system with its low information density looks very nice but was pretty rubbish for actual blind people. One of his students, Louis Braille, at the age of just 15 … well, I think you know that story. Although Alastair Johnston’s judgment of the typeface as “illegible, even to sighted readers” seems a bit harsh. Haüy’s letters (or copies) were used for headings on an early 1829 Braille specimen, incidentally, and photographs of this show what it looks like without inking (essentially the same).



Source: http://www.aph.org American Printing House for the Blind. License: All Rights Reserved.

Title page of Braille’s 1829 specimen, featuring letterforms similar to those by Haüy.


The introduction and conclusion sections of the book are printed in conventional typefaces of the 1780s, that seem like early modern (or later old-style?) faces, going by the curled ‘R’ on many fonts.

You can see good photos of a copy of the book here put on sale in 2013 to give a general sense of what it looks like. Or, indeed, for the low price of €6,500, you could have purchased it. A digital revival of Haüy’s typeface can be had for less: In 2006, Harold Lohner created the very cute and quite faithful Valentin.



License: All Rights Reserved.

Harold Lohner’s digital interpretation Valentin (2006), with smoothed, regularized and re-spaced letterforms.


 

Blythwood is interested in things science, health, transportation, industry, Gill Sans and Monotype. An avid Wikipedia editor, Blythwood’s goal is to improve coverage of fonts and printing there. After having contributed a dozen choice posts to the Fonts In Use Collection, this is the first to appear in the Blog.



          Zhurnalnaya Roublennaya: A Poor Man’s Futura        
Contributed by Ivar Sakk












Ivar Sakk, Grilli Type. License: All Rights Reserved.

Everyday designs using Zhurnalnaya roublennaya


Type production in the young Soviet Union

In the communist period, Soviet consumer goods were limited both in number and in regards to aesthetic options to choose from. It was the same with typefaces for books, posters, newspapers, etc. There were only few of them: the same recognizable characters appeared on greyish cinema tickets and from art books to magazines for children. The geometric sans serif typeface that popped up everywhere was Zhurnalnaya roublennaya, as grey and dull as everyday communist life itself.

Beside its own type foundries, Tsarist Russia had a few branch offices of European ones. Chief among them, H. Berthold AG from Germany, acquired a smaller type foundry in St. Petersburg in 1900, and another one in Moscow in 1901. At that time Berthold was one of the biggest type foundries in the world, and so its typefaces quickly spread throughout Russia. After the communist revolution the Russian printing industry continued to use existing fonts, often from Western companies, but in the 1930s there was an evident need to create the Soviet empire’s own printing equipment and typefaces. This was especially the case as the Iron Curtain started to descend and the material heritage of the previous imperial time wore out.



Ivar Sakk. License: All Rights Reserved.

Literaturnaya, designed by Anatoly Schukin




Ivar Sakk. License: All Rights Reserved.

Zhurnalnaya, designed by Nikolay Kudryashov


The first Soviet typeface was Literaturnaya (at first named Latinskaya, i.e. “Latin”), based on Berthold’s Lateinisch from 1899. It was introduced in 1936, and its lead designer was Anatoly Schukin. In the same year, Zhurnalnaya came out, designed by Nikolay Kudryashov. It was a copy of Linotype’s Excelsior (1931), designed by Chauncey H. Griffith. It was a common practice in the Soviet era to copy Western products and rename them, and this was evidently also true for typefaces.

Zhurnalnaya roublennaya

Zhurnalnaya roublennaya (Журнальная рубленая), “Journal Grotesque” or “Magazine Grotesque” in English, was released in 1947, but at that point it supported only Cyrillic-alphabet languages. Roublennaya means “chopped” in Russian, and in this case it is used to mean grotesque, gothic, or sans serif. Soviet sources list Schukin and his colleagues as the designers of the typeface.



Ivar Sakk. License: All Rights Reserved.


Ivar Sakk. License: All Rights Reserved.

Later Soviet Union specimens of Zhurnalnaya roublennaya with Latin and Cyrillic, designed by Anatoly Schukin


Those sources also mention the German typeface Erbar-Grotesk as a prototype, created by Jakob Erbar for the Ludwig & Mayer foundry in 1922. It was very popular in Europe during the 1920s and 1930s. Its geometrically-shaped, rounded characters and sober look fit nicely into the period’s visual image. Nowadays, Erbar is only rarely being used. Perhaps the reason is Erbar’s absence in the Letraset library in the 1970s, or during the early digital era of the 1990s. Although the color of Erbar in body copy is similar to Roublennaya’s, the microshapes of the letters are not the same. Erbar is too fancy to be the sole father of Zhurnalnaya roublennaya.



Ivar Sakk. License: All Rights Reserved.


Ivar Sakk. License: All Rights Reserved.

Specimens of Erbar-Grotesk, designed by Jakob Erbar


The year 1947 was an exceptional time to release a typeface in Russia. The design process had started before WWII and was finished very shortly after — two years is not a long time after fighting a war of near-total destruction. But the Soviet Union was on the winner’s side and removed several of Germany’s metal and machine enterprises. Those started a new life in Soviet cities. For example, the Opel car factory’s production was continued in Moscow, and the Opel Kadett was renamed the Moskvitsch. Printing equipment and fonts were also a part of the metal and machine industry. On the face of it, the typeface’s release seems to fit this simple pattern of a direct copy. But its actual history is more complicated.

Modernist typefaces in the 1920s and 1930s

When Bauhaus members discussed the meaning and appearance of typefaces, they raised the question of form. Getting rid of ornament also meant beginning a search for essential shapes of letters. The square, circle, and triangle were the geometrical figures that were accepted by modernists as possible shapes of characters. Although the essential geometry of type didn’t reach the public at the time, it drove type foundries to initiate their own investigations.



Ivar Sakk. License: All Rights Reserved.

Berthold-Grotesk


One result of that was Berthold-Grotesk, which came out in 1928. The type foundry Berthold’s typefaces were also produced by the St. Petersburg branch office and stayed in use after the Communist revolution.



From “Schriftkunst. Geschichte, Anatomie und Schönheit der lateinischen Buchstaben” by Albert Kapr. Scan courtesy of Florian Hardwig. License: All Rights Reserved.

Super-Grotesk, designed by Arno Drescher


Another typeface bearing the same early modernist feeling is Super-Grotesk, designed by Arno Drescher in 1932 for Schriftguss AG in Dresden. Schriftguss, which was located in Eastern Germany, was made a part of VEB Typoart in 1951. With Typoart as the only type foundry in the country after that, Super-Grotesk became the main sans serif typeface of the GDR. In some ways, it is comparable to Zhurnalnaya roublennaya. It shares its proletarian aesthetics and austere image, and the same wide use everywhere in the country due to a lack of alternatives. Shy and grey, overused and underestimated, it became the visual equivalent of communist Germany. It fell into oblivion during the first decade of democracy after the reunification of Germany. But ten years later a wave of Ostalgie arrived, and young typographers started to digitize several fonts that had been in use in the GDR, including Super-Grotesk.

In comparing Zhurnalnaya roublennaya with the above-mentioned typefaces, it is evident that there are a lot of similarities. The shapes of ‘a, s, R, and S’ are most alike, but the general appearance of the typefaces are also similar. None of the typefaces can be viewed as a direct prototype for Zhurnalnaya, though.

Zhurnalnaya roublennaya as a poor man’s Futura

A version of Zhurnalnaya roublennaya supporting Latin-alphabet languages was released in 1962, and became the common sans serif in Estonian printing offices for the next 30 years. It was a newcomer in the Soviet typeface library of Estonia, but mainly, there was simply no choice: the other available sans serif for machine typesetting was Gazetnaya, a typeface based on Franklin Gothic Extra Condensed, which was not suitable for longer text setting. Therefore Roublennaya was mostly used pragmatically, without special aesthetic intention.



Ivar Sakk. License: All Rights Reserved.

Gazetnaya, based on Franklin Gothic Extra Condensed


In the Soviet-period design magazine Kunst ja Kodu (“Art and Home”) for example, the text was set in Roublennaya, but the headlines were in hand-lettered Futura. That was the real typeface in the designers’ minds when they designed the layout of the pages. Roublennaya was used in the absence of the desired font, as a poor man’s Futura.



Source: http://gt-eesti.com Grilli Type. License: All Rights Reserved.

Covers of the book series Loomingu Raamatukogu, 1980–83


Jüri Kaarma was one of the few graphic designers who used Roublennaya intentionally. He designed the magazine Loomingu Raamatukogu (“Looming’s Library”) and used the typeface on black-and-white covers from 1980–1983. Kaarma trusted the essential quality of a poorly-made Soviet typeface and gave it the main role. To produce more powerful results, Kaarma took the photoset negatives and used the characters oversized, sometimes covering the entire cover. Through this process the quality of the letter contours deteriorated, and this gave an industrial look to the characters.



Ivar Sakk. License: All Rights Reserved.

Spread from Ma olin Jüri Üdi


Another remarkable use of Zhurnalnaya roublennaya dates to 1978, when the same Jüri Kaarma designed Juhan Viiding’s poetry book, Ma olin Jüri Üdi (“I was Jüri Üdi”). The modest publication was set in the everyday Soviet typeface, without any additional illustrative elements. Zhurnalnaya roublennaya became the focus of the harsh layout and described, with intense power, the silent nightmare of the poet’s childhood years: the Stalinist fifties.



Source: http://gt-eesti.com Grilli Type. License: All Rights Reserved.


Source: http://gt-eesti.com Grilli Type. License: All Rights Reserved.

Cover and spreads of Arhitektid Arhitektuurist


Another interesting use is Arhitektid Arhitektuurist (“Architects’ Architecture”). It was designed by Leonhard Lapin and published in 1989. It uses scaled up type on multiple spreads. The resulting rough outlines were then, in some places, manually cleaned up. The stark color contrast drives the inventive layouts. Large and small type is set in two different versions of the same type, with the lowercase ‘a’ and the apexes of ‘A, M, N, W’ being the easiest characters to distinguish the two.

Zhurnalnaya roublennaya and the digital age

At the beginning of the 1990s, when the digital era began, Zhurnalnaya roublennaya fell into obscurity. The Russian type foundry ParaGraph digitized it as early as 1991, but the typeface’s drawing quality was very bad. That digital version was called Journal Sans. In 2014 the foundry, now known as ParaType, released both an updated version and a reinterpretation named Journal Sans New. The latter is a very free take on the original design, with elements such as a humanist italic and an inline style.



Source: http://gt-eesti.com Grilli Type. License: All Rights Reserved.

Abikooli Aabits, Estonian ABC book


The lack of a properly made digital version of Zhurnalnaya roublennaya was noticeable in 2007, when the artist Marko Mäetamm exhibited his works at the Venice Biennale. Estonian designer Indrek Sirkel, who was designing the artist’s catalog, was searching for the visual expression of Mäetamm’s bitter, personal, and childhood-reflecting art. Sirkel chose Roublennaya, the typeface of his generation’s alphabet book Karu-aabits (“Teddy bear’s ABC”). Another Estonian ABC book using the same typeface is Abikooli Aabits, shown above.



Grilli Type. License: All Rights Reserved.

Scans that Moser and Rechsteiner used for the first version of Eesti


As no proper digital version of Roublennaya was available, he used Erbar instead, but in 2009, he helped start a new digitization process through his colleague Urs Lehni at the Bern University of the Arts. Sirkel sent examples of the typeface to Switzerland, and the then-students Reto Moser and Tobias Rechsteiner created two fonts of the regular weight under the names Eesti Text and Eesti Display. These are some of the samples they were working from.



Source: http://gt-eesti.com Grilli Type. License: All Rights Reserved.

GT Eesti specimen


In the six years since, Moser has taken to designing what has now become GT Eesti. GT Eesti Text has pointed apexes on ‘A, V, W, M, N and Z’, unlike GT Eesti Display. In Soviet specimen books, two cuts are shown as well: one for small uses, and another for larger uses. That’s also why GT Eesti Text sports strong ink-traps. The incisions into the lettershapes, wherever two lines meet, help the letters look the right way at smaller sizes, in print and on screen. All styles supports both Latin and Cyrillic Extended languages, including Bulgarian alternates.

The revival of Zhurnalnaya roublennaya is logical and the zeitgeist welcomed the rebirth of this visual phenomenon. It is ironic that a German-prototyped, Russian-manufactured typeface would reappear after being picked up by Swiss designers — who renamed it Eesti.

 

This article was written by Ivar Sakk, Professor for graphic design at EKA in Tallinn, Estonia, and edited by Thierry Blancpain of Grilli Type. An earlier version was published in issue 21 of Kunstiteaduslikke Uurimusi — Studies on Art and Architecture, the journal of the Estonian Society of Art Historians (pdfs: Estonian with images, English translation). Grilli Type would like to thank Ivar for being a great friend and help to us when we were trying to understand the history of this typeface, as well as for being a great host when we visited Tallinn in February 2015.



          What to Expect in 2016 in the Chipworld        
It’s the time in the media world that we see a frenzy of predictions for the coming year. They are mostly business or tech trends, so I figured I might as well chip in (har! har!), and give a more detailed idea of what new semiconductor products we look forward to this year, now that we are in 2016.

This might seem to be a bit like fortune-telling, but it’s actually a compilation of the notes we’ve made from this year’s press announcements, coupled with the trends we’ve observed in our reverse engineering, and keeping an open ear at the industry events that we’ve attended.

Logic and Foundries

2016 will be a relatively quiet year when it comes to the leading-edge processes, since we do not expect to see a high-volume of 10 nm products this year. There has been a fair bit of comment that the upcoming Apple A10 processor might be on 10 nm this autumn, but to me it seems a real stretch to expect a full node advance barely 18 months after the introduction of a 14 nm product from Samsung, and a 16 nm product from TSMC, especially in the volume that Apple would require.

We do expect to see the second generation 14/16 nm processes, FinFET Plus (16FF+) from TSMC and 14LPP from Samsung and possibly their co-supplier GLOBALFOUNDRIES. The second-tier foundries such as UMC and SMIC will be ramping up their 28 nm high-k metal gate (HKMG) product, so we will be monitoring those as we get them. It appears that UMC will be skipping 20 nm and going straight to 14 nm, but that will not likely appear until 2017.

When it comes to fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI), we expect to see a mainstream 28 nm product this year, since Samsung has stated that they are producing, and have shipped more than a million wafers, with STMicroelectronics as one of their lead customers. Chipworks has already analyzed a custom 28 nm FD-SOI ASIC manufactured at STMicroelectronics, which was a simple implementation without back-bias. For the mainstream parts, we will be analyzing back-bias implementation, if found, as it is touted as one of the big advantages of FD-SOI.

GLOBALFOUNDRIES is also on the FD-SOI bandwagon, but they seem to be concentrating on their 22FDX™ processes. A number of the ASIC design houses are claiming to be designing into those, so with luck we will see some very early product by year-end.

There will also be a continued emphasis on low power variants of older generation processes, such as 40 and 55 nm, aimed at mobile/wearable devices where battery life is critical.

To finish up, another process sector where we expect to see development is radio frequency silicon on insulator (RF-SOI). We are already seeing the introduction of RF-SOI into products such as antenna switches for the RF front end of mobile phones.

DRAM

This will be another year of evolution for dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), with the introduction of 1X nm generation memories by the big three (Micron, Samsung, and SK Hynix), although possibly not until year-end.


Micron has 1X and 1Y nm nodes in its roadmap (above), enabling 1X volume mid-2016.


Samsung predicts three 1X nm nodes (see above), though there is no time scale here; however, we already have their 20 nm part, which is in volume production, so it’s reasonable to expect a 1X nm part this year. We haven’t heard anything formal from SK Hynix, but again, we already have their 20 nm part, so we would expect a 1X nm device in 2016.

The other facet of the DRAM business is stacked memory using through-silicon vias (TSVs); in 2015 we saw the Samsung version, and the SK Hynix High Bandwidth Memory (HBM). We’re still waiting for the Intel/Micron Hybrid Memory Cube (HMC), and we expect to get our hands on that this year, as well as the HBM2 from SK Hynix.

NAND Flash

The big news in NAND flash memory is the introduction of 3D/vertical technology, with the bitcells stacked one above another instead of on the die surface. Samsung launched their V-NAND over a year ago, with 32 active layers in both multi-level cell (MLC) and tri-level cell (TLC) versions, using charge-trap storage technology. They are now shipping the third generation part (256 Gb) with 48 layers, so we should see that in the near future.

Last month, at IEDM (International Electron Devices Meeting), Intel/Micron detailed their 3D-NAND, a 32-layer device, this time using conventional floating gate charge storage. According to their investor calls, they are sampling these at the moment and should be shipping volume in the second half of this year.

SEM cross-section of Intel/Micron vertical-channel 3D-NAND structure

SanDisk/Toshiba are also sampling, but their 3D-NAND is a 48-layer, 256-Gb TLC device, built using their own Bit-Cost Scalable (BiCS) charge-trap technology. They have been more cautious about the economics of launching 3D technology, but again I look forward to getting some in 2016. Last, but not necessarily least, SK Hynix claim that they are already in 3D production, and we should also see their floating-gate version this year.

In parallel, all the companies are still evolving planar flash products – we will likely find 13 – 15 nm planar flash chips being launched, since the 15/16-nm ones are already here.

Emerging Memory

The highest-profile announcement this year for this memory class was from Intel/Micron, on their 3D XPoint memory; this appears to be some sort of resistive random-access memory (RRAM), using “bulk properties” to provide memory storage in a cross-point layout.


Both Intel and Micron predict a big future for this product; Micron claims that the 3D XPoint business could easily be of the same order of magnitude as their DRAM businesses by 2018, and Intel sees broad applications for 3D XPoint memory (dubbed Optane), and says that it will be available this year for PC and server usage.

Less noticed was a similar release from SanDisk and HP, also detailing storage-class RRAM-based memory, but with no details as to launch dates. Micron and Sony also have a jointly developed RRAM, but again no dates.

Image Sensors

There has been a steady evolution in the image sensor biz, with Sony leading the pack, and culminating in the deep-trench isolation between pixels in the Apple 6s/6s Plus camera. Sony has had a two year+ lead in stacking the sensor on top of the image processor and connecting the two with custom TSVs, but we now see OmniVision and Samsung with design wins using multiple versions of its new stacked chip products.

We can, no doubt, expect to see a further-evolved camera chip in the iPhone 7, and Apple’s competitors will also be pushing the envelope, so we will be monitoring every new smartphone to see what appears.

Meanwhile, other sectors are developing fast – to name two, the push on automated driver self-assist (ADAS) and self-driving vehicles is providing a new space for lower-tech (but different specifications) image sensors, and security is likely to be a hot market given last year’s terror attacks.

Advanced Packaging

Packaging technology has been in as much ferment as any of the wafer fab technologies, with 2.5/3D stacking getting most of the press. We expect 2016 to be a busy year in that space too; TSMC is producing its Chip-on-Wafer-on-Substrate (CoWoS) silicon interposer for a limited range of products, and seems about to launch its cheaper integrated fan-out (InFO) organic substrate, possibly using it for the Apple A10 system-on-chip (SoC) this fall.

 
TSMC has TSVs in volume production, though not high-density for 2.5/3D; the new fingerprint sensor in the Apple 6s/6s Plus uses TSVs so that the wire bonds don’t get in the way of the sapphire touchpad.

Intel has a parallel “Embedded Multi-die Interconnect Bridge” (EMIB) technology (to TSMC’s InFO), and given the completed Altera deal, we may finally see a 14 nm field-programmable gate array (FPGA) product with EMIB this year.

Add in the Intel/Micron HMC, SK Hynix’s HBM2 and Wide IO2 stack, and the OSATs are also pushing the envelope and likely to ship new formats this year, so there will be plenty for us to look at.

Wrap-up

This has been a relatively high-level review of what we expect this year, but as you can see from the above, it will be quite a hectic year – lots of new technology for us to analyze!


          Samsung’s FinFETs ARE in the Galaxy S6!        
The much anticipated Samsung Galaxy S6 made an early appearance in our teardown labs last week,  thanks to the diligent skills of our trusted logistics guru. We got our hands on the 4G+ version, the SM-G920I, with what Samsung claims is the world’s first octa-core 64 bit operating system. There is a wide array of industry buzz surrounding this flagship smartphone, but from my process-oriented point of view the focal point has to be on the Exynos 7420 application processor.


 
Samsung Galaxy S6 Teardown
Galaxy S6 Motherboard

Samsung Exynos 7420 Application Processor

The Samsung Exynos 7420 application processor is reportedly fabbed in Samsung’s 14 nm FinFET process. This is what Samsung has shown so far..


Which is not exactly specific! To start with, here’s the package marking of the package-on-package:


The layout of this is quite unusual – normally the memory marking (SEC 507 etc.) is in lines of text above the APU marking (7420 etc.), not in a diagonally opposed block. Which leads me into the speculation that maybe the 7420 is out of GLOBALFOUNDRIES, rather than a Samsung fab in Korea or Texas. Could ALB be short for Albany (NY)? Is the G in the lot code short for GLOBALFOUNDRIES? That all seems rather unlikely, but if Samsung wants to switch on the volume quickly in anticipation of huge volumes for the S6, what better way than to use three fabs? They did sound very confident in their last quarterly analyst call, saying that they expect 14-nm to be 30% of the LSI line capacity by year end. And there are lots of rumours about Qualcomm using the Samsung 14-nm process..

The die photograph and the die mark confirm the use of the Exynos 7420:

 

The functional die size is ~78 mm2, which compares well with the ~118.3 mm^2 of the Snapdragon chip used in the Galaxy S5, and the 113 mm^2 size of the 20-nm Exynos 5433. If the 7420 was a straight shrink of the 5433, we’d expect it to be 55 – 60 mm^2, but the back-end metallization stack is reported to be similar to the 20-nm planar process, so a full 50% shrink is unlikely (and the analog regions never shrink as well as digital anyway). We’ll have to wait until we see the floorplan to see how much functionality the two parts have in common.

Our guys in the lab made their usual exceptional effort in enabling us to see what the process looks like – within a few hours of getting the phone in-house, we have a decapsulated part and a cross-sectional sample under the microscope.


The Exynos 7420 uses 11 layers of metal, as you can see from the die seal cross-section above. Now let’s look at the transistors:


And we do have finFETs! This section is parallel to the fins, and across the gates. The bottoms of the contacts approximately indicate the top edge of the fin, and we are seeing the gates wrapped over and further down the sidewalls of the fin than the contacts appear to go. We will need another section orthogonal to this one to see if we have the type of epi growth in the source-drains that Intel uses.

This makes Samsung the second in line to get finFETs into volume production; they have successfully taken their 20-nm, first-generation, gate-last, high-k, metal-gate stack and adapted it to a first generation fin structure. We will need more detailed images to see whether the fins have vertical or sloped sidewalls, and how close to the Intel model they are, but those will come in the fullness of time when we have completed our full analysis and published our report.

Meanwhile, keep an eye on the blog!
          IEDM 2014 Preview - What's Coming Up On 13 - 17 December        
Later this month the good and the great of the electron device world will make their usual pilgrimage to San Francisco for the 2014 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting.  To quote the conference web front page, IEDM is “the world’s pre-eminent forum for reporting technological breakthroughs in the areas of semiconductor and electronic device technology, design, manufacturing, physics, and modeling. IEDM is the flagship conference for nanometer-scale CMOS transistor technology, advanced memory, displays, sensors, MEMS devices, novel quantum and nano-scale devices and phenomenology, optoelectronics, devices for power and energy harvesting, high-speed devices, as well as process technology and device modeling and simulation. The conference scope not only encompasses devices in silicon, compound and organic semiconductors, but also in emerging material systems. IEDM is truly an international conference, with strong representation from speakers from around the globe.” 

That’s a pretty broad range of topics, but from my perspective at Chipworks, focused on the analysis of chips that have made it to production, it’s the conference where companies strut their technology, and post some of the research that may make it into real product in the next few years.

In the last few days I’ve gone through the advance program, and here’s my look at what’s coming up, in more or less chronological order.  As usual there are overlapping sessions with interesting papers in parallel slots, but we’ll take the decision as to which to attend on the conference floor.


Saturday/Sunday

Again this year the conference starts on the Saturday afternoon, with a set of six 90-minute tutorials on a range of leading-edge topics:


The first three are from 2.45 – 4.15, and the remainder from 4.30 – 6.00.  This year I hope to make it to my old friend Wilfried Vandervorst’s session on characterisation, and possibly the other imec tutorial on memories at 4.30.

Wilfried gave an impressive talk at the imec symposium at Semicon West, and this time he has an hour and a half instead of 45 minutes, so hopefully a good bit more detail on what we can see, now that we are counting atoms in transistor analysis.

On Sunday December 14th, we start with the short courses, “Challenges of 7nm CMOS Technologies” and “3D System Integration Technology”. Last year the short course was “Challenges of 10nm and 7nm CMOS Technologies”, so I guess we’ve moved on a bit; though I still need convincing that the 10-nm process architectures are locked down as yet.

Hidenobu Fukutome of Samsung has organised the former, and we have some impressive speakers – Greg Yeric, Senior Principal Design Engineer of ARM, (Circuit application requirements), Peide Ye, Purdue University (Device challenges), Guido Groeseneken, KU Leuven & imec, (Reliability challenges), Eric Karl, Intel, (On-die memory challenges), and Tsutomu Tezuka, Advanced LSI Technology Laboratory, Toshiba (Process and integration challenges). With 14-nm product on the market now, we need to look ahead, so this is appropriate - on the Intel clock, 7-nm is only four – five years away! 

It now seems that 10-nm will be silicon-based, so we’ll see what the guys predict for 7-nm; new channel materials, nanowire transistors, and how will they integrate into a manufacturable process? What will be the effects on the performance of the basic logic blocks? What will device reliability be like with the potential new materials/structures? Hopefully we’ll find out here!

Eric Beyne of imec has set up the other short course; 3D is a very hot topic these days, both finFET and die stacking – here we are talking about die stacking.

Denis Dutoit of Cea-Leti looks at 3D System Design - Challenges for 3D Integration; I have the distinct impression that the manufacturing technology is in place, but design and test still have a way to go.

Next up is Kangwook Lee, Tohoku U, on Enabling Technologies: TSV Technology; again TSV technology is being promoted as here by both foundries and OSATs, and some products such as the Xilinx 2.5D FPGAs are out there, and stacked memories such as the Hybrid Memory Cube are sampling.

After lunch we have 3D evangelist extraordinaire Subu Iyer from IBM, talking about Enabling technologies: 3D integration for the Memory subsystem. IBM has been embedding DRAM into their products for several generations now, and as noted above, we are starting to see 3D-packaged memory come on to the market.

Wafer-to-wafer bonding is an essential part of 3D stacking, and that’s the topic of James Lu from Rensselaer Polytechnic. The last session is on 3D Reliability and Impact of 3D Integration on Devices, with Kristof Croes of imec discussing the device effects of the additional processing needed to make a 3D stack.

So some good solid stuff – although the courses make a long Sunday, from 9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m., but it’s worth sticking around to the end.

Sunday evening has some extra sessions; Sematech is holding a session on “Materials & Technologies for Beyond CMOS” at an as-yet unnamed location; and Leti will host a workshop on their “vision for silicon nano-technologies in the next 10 years” from 5.30 – 8.30 pm at the Nikko Hotel, across the street from the Hilton.


Monday

Monday morning we have the plenary session, with three pertinent talks on the challenges of contemporary electronics:
  • SiC MOSFET Development for Industrial Markets, John Palmour, Cree Inc. – broadening the range of uses for silicon carbide?
  • Are 3D atomic printers around the corner? Enrico Prati, CNR IMM (Italy’s Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems) – now that 3D printers are becoming consumer goods, can we push the idea into the atomic scale? That sounds like the potential for everything from drugs design to the ultimate version of Moore’s law..
  • Research into ADAS with Driving Intelligence for Future Innovation, Hideo Inoue, Toyota – Automated Driver Assistance Systems; moving towards the self-driving car?

After lunch we have seven parallel sessions coming up!

Session 2 is a focus session on power devices, with a kick-off paper by John Baliga of NCSU, on the Social Impact of Power Semiconductor Devices (2.1). John invented the IGBT in his time at GE back in the 80’s, and claims that the technology has reduced global carbon dioxide emissions by 75 trillion pounds over the last 30 years. He speculates that this can only increase with the introduction of new power devices. Papers 2.3 – 2.5 and 2.7 look like reviews of high-power switch technologies, and Si-, SiC and GaN-based power devices, respectively, while 2.2 and 2.6 look at specific SiC JFET and GaN HEMT devices.

Session 3 is the hot Advanced CMOS Technology group of papers with late news additions by Intel (3.7) and IBM (3.8), both on 14-nm finFET technologies, which even triggered their own press release.

The Intel finFET (note – not trigate!) device features “a novel subfin doping technique” to minimise fin doping and leakage under the fins, and air-gaps in two metallisation levels. This is the first use of air-gaps in a production logic part that I know of; we’ve seen them in memory chips for a while. Intel had a persuasive paper on this at the 2010 IITC conference [1], and I was wondering if we would see implementation at this node.

If you hunt hard in Intel’s August 14-nm announcement, you can find the air-gaps in the M5 level:

Air-gaps shown in Intel announcement

 
And we did find them in the M5 and M7 levels, but I will leave any detailed comment until a later blog. The IITC paper [1] speaks of using a mask step to define specific air-gap locations, and we can confirm that masking has indeed been used to define specific locations.
 
Now that we are analysing the Intel part, it would be remiss of me not to show an early shot of the fins, and they are clearly different from the 22-nm variety. There has been an obvious reduction in the width of the fin from its initial etched dimension, and it is tempting from this image to say that the NMOS fin is wider than the PMOS, but again more thorough discussion will have to wait.
 

Linear section TEM of HKMG gate in Intel 14-nm Broadwell chip

IBM’s finFET is on SOI (of course, this is IBM!) and has a “unique dual workfunction process” which allows multi-Vt versions of both NMOS and PMOS, and claims sub-20 nm gate lengths. The process also includes fifteen metal layers and the latest version of their e-DRAM technology.

With all the Intel/IBM hype, I have become out of order here, because paper 3.1 from TSMC discloses what looks like their 16FF+ 16-nm finFET technology, advanced from the 16FF reported last year. A 15% speed boost and 30% power reduction is claimed, or 40% speed gain and 60% power saving compared to the 20-nm process.
Gossip in the industry has it that 16FF was not advanced enough for TSMC’s customers, so they did some transistor engineering and cranked up the performance; 16FF is not even mentioned on the website these days, and 16FF+ is now in risk production, with endorsements by Avago, Freescale, LG Electronics, MediaTek, Nvidia, Renesas and Xilinx, .
It will be interesting to see if any of the dimensions have changed from the 48 nm fin pitch and 90 nm contacted gate pitch announced last year. The metal stack is stated to be the same as the 20-nm planar process with a 1x pitch of 64 nm.
Paper 3.2 is from Avago, discussing Analog Circuit and Device Interaction in High-Speed SerDes Design in 16nm FinFet Process, and Renesas presents 3.3, on 16-nm 6T SRAM macros, both presumably TSMC’s process. 3.4 again looks at SRAM, but this time on STMicroelectronics’ 28-nm UTBB FDSOI process.
Next up is a couple of academic papers (3.5 & 3.6), discussing a 28-nm integrated RF power amplifier, and a 3D-stacked light harvester on a “epi-like Ge/Si monolithic 3D-IC with low-power logic/NVM circuits”.
3.7 and 3.8 are the Intel and IBM papers, and 3.9 is another late-news paper, from STMicroelectronics, but a change of pace from the finFETs – a 55-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology this time.
And by now it’s 5pm, the end of an intense afternoon!
In session 4, we take a look at Display and Imaging Systems. STMicroelectronics starts us off discussing MOS Capacitor Deep Trench Isolation for CMOS Image Sensors (4.1) in a joint talk with CNRS and CEA-LETI.
One of the goals in image sensors has to be integrating the A/D converters on each pixel, instead of at the edge of the pixel array, and 3D stacking comes to images sensors in paper 4.2 from NHK and U Tokyo; in which SOI wafers are direct bonded so as to provide each pixel with A/D conversion.


Conceptual diagram of the image sensor pixel (left) and SEM cross-section bonded CMOS image sensor pixel 

However, we won’t be seeing this in a phone anytime soon, as it is a proof-of-concept with 60-µm square pixels, as opposed to the 1-2 µm pixel pitch in most phone cameras.

NHK (jointly with Panasonic and U Hyogo) has another stacked sensor in 4.3, this time a selenium photodiode stacked on CMOS circuitry.

The remaining four papers are academic, covering far-infrared (4.4), a stacked SOI multi-band CCD (4.5), an embedded CCD in CMOS (4.6), and the display paper is 4.7, a solid-state incandescent device.

Session 5 covers Nano Device Technology – 2D Devices, a research session; 5.5 is a review of Nanophotonics with two-dimensional atomic crystals; the other papers all cover graphene devices (5.3, 5.4 and 5.6), black phosphorus (5.2), and molybdenum disulphide and tungsten diselenide (5.1, 5.7).

Resistive RAM is discussed in session 6. CEA-Leti has three papers in the afternoon,  (6.1, 6.3, 6.5) The first (joint with Altis Semi) looks at oxygen vacancies in doped oxide/Cu-based conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM), improving the Cu filament formation in the resistive layer; 6.3is an invited paper that takes a higher level view of CBRAM and OxRAM devices in two different applications; and 6.5is a detailed examination of CBRAM operation.

Micron and Sony get together to build a 27-nm 16Gb Cu-ReRAM part in 6.2, with a 1T 6F2 cell – definitely some DRAM technology showing up here, in the buried wordlines:

Schematic of Micron/Sony ReRAM (left) and TEM cross-section of access devices

TSMC and National Tsing Hua U have a 28-nm BEOL RRAM in 6.4; Stanford U looks at thickness limits in HfO-based RRAM in 6.6; Crossbar (6.7) discusses crossbar RRAM arrays; and imec/KU Leuven finishes the session with a paper on a TiN/Si/TiN selection device for RRAM switching elements (6.8).

Modeling Simulation of Extremely Scaled Group IV and III-V FETsis the topic in session 7, looking way ahead. In paper 7.1, imec and Synopsys look at the stress effects of 3D stacking on 7-nm devices(!); 7.2 examines mobility enhancement in sub-14nm FDSOI, by the CEA-Leti/STMicroelectronics/IMEP/IBM/SOITEC FDSOI crew; and transient electrothermal effects in nanoscale FETS are considered in 7.3., from Osaka U and Kobe U, and JST-CREST.

Victor Moroz (Synopsys) does a comparative analysis of 7-nm finFETs in different materials in 7.4 – this might be a follow-up of his talk at Semicon West back in July, in which he concluded that silicon is still the best channel material, at least for low-power mobile devices.

Samsung and Udine U also look at different material nFinFETs (7.5, 7.6), and Peking U discusses III-V ultra-thin body pMOSFETs in the last paper of the session (7.7).

NEMS (Nanoelectromechanical Systems) and Energy Harvesters are dealt with in Session 8 – six academic papers, ranging from graphene and Mo disulphide atomic-scale layers that vibrate at RF frequencies (8.1), to photoelectric hydrolysis on MIS photocathodes (8.6).

For those interested in energy storage, Intel have fabricated porous silicon capacitors (8.2) that can potentially be integrated on-die or onto solar cells, taking advantage of the extreme conformal deposition capabilities of atomic-layer deposition (ALD). The image below shows a top-down view of the porous silicon before and after ALD TiN deposition; the wall of the pore walls get thicker, but the pore structure doesn’t change. Capacitances of up to 3 milliFarads/ sqcm are claimed.

Top-down SEM images of porous silicon capacitors before and after TiN deposition
Then in the evening we have the conference reception at 6.30, through until 8 pm.

Tuesday

In the morning we have another seven parallel sessions, starting with session 9 on Advanced CMOS Devices for 10nm Node and Beyond, so another one I will definitely be targeting.

The first paper (9.1, from IBM/STMicroelectronics/SOITEC/CEA-Leti) is about strained 10-nm FDSOI devices, incorporating “a fully compressively strained 30% SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) channel PFET on a thin (20nm) BOX substrate”; they also report ‘strain reversal’ in a PFET – is that so much strain that it reduces mobility? In their workshops at last year’s IEDM and Semicon West, CEA-Leti have been showing a roadmap that jumps from 28-nm to 14-nm and then 10-nm nodes – this looks like the first showing of the 10-nm technology.

That is followed (9.2) by an invited talk from Simon Deleonibus of CEA-Leti on how process technologies can move us towards the zero-power era(?).

Purdue U claims the First Experimental Demonstration of Ge CMOS Circuits (9.3) on a GeOI substrate, while TSMC details InAlP-capped Ge nFETs on Si and Ge substrates (9.4), and Ge n-finFETs on Si (9.5). Still in germanium, National Taiwan U talks Ge nanowire nFETs on SOI (9.6).

The last paper of the session (9.7) is from AIST in Japan on tunnel finFETS in a CMOS process.

Session 10 is a focus session on Novel Imagers and Specialty Imaging Applications, starting with an invited talk by Jiaju Ma (10.1) from the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth, on the Quanta image sensor; as near as I can make out, this type of sensor scans the pixel array so fast that it effectively reads individual photoelectrons, and the image is formed by integrating x, y, and time.

Paper 10.2from TU Delft discusses single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), which have enabled solid state range finding, fluorescence lifetime imaging, and time-of-flight positron emission tomography. The topic of 10.3 (Ritsumeikan U, TU Delft, Osaka U) is high-speed image sensors, aiming for one giga-frame per second!

Another invited talk is by Siemens (10.4), about organic photodetector imaging, and next  imec details a CMOS-compatible approach to hyper- and multispectral imaging (10.5).

In a different spin, Annette Grot of Pacific Biosciences (10.6) will discuss how high-resolution, low-noise and high-speed image sensors have enabled large amounts of DNA to be sequenced quickly and at reduced cost; and how further advances will keep on pushing productivity and cost reduction.

For the final talk, we go from chip-scale to huge – the large scale hybrid pixel detector systems used at the Large Hadron Collider experiments at CERN (10.8).

Session 11 is the second group of talks about power and compound semi technologies, this time on High Voltage and RF Devices. Five of the six papers are on GaN devices, and one (11.2) describes a diamond MOSFET good up to 400C. We have a new acronym in there – a SLCFET (Super-Lattice Castellated Field Effect Transistor), with a 3D castellated gate structure (11.5) – that should make for a couple of interesting slides!

Circuit/Device Variability and Integrated Passives Performance is the focus of session 12; the middle papers, 12.3 and 12.4are the passives talks, on Ultra-High-Q Air-Core Slab Inductors (IBM), and Above CMOS Integrated High Quality Inductors for wireless power transmission (HONG Kong UST). The other discussions range from finFET simulations (12.1 and 12.2) through MTJs for random number generation (12.5), noise suppression by using dynamic threshold voltage MOSFETs (12.6), and finally a consideration by ARM of poly pitch co-optimization in standard cells below 28-nm (12.7).

We look ahead to TFETs and other Steep-Swing Devices in session 13. The first paper (UCal Berkeley, Toshiba) discusses a nano-mechanical relay (13.1), which inherently has zero off-state leakage and perfectly abrupt ON/OFF switching behavior, but also serious manufacturing challenges. 13.2 and 13.3 are TFET talks, the 13.4 topic is a Schottky-barrier Si FinFET, and 13.5 and 13.6review piezoelectric negative differential capacitance effects and devices.

Advanced Memories and TSV are the subjects of session 14; the first four papers are more resistive RAM, from imec (14.1 and 14.2), Politecnico di Milano/Micron (14.3) and Politecnico di Milano/Adesto (14.4). Adesto is the only company I know actually selling CBRAM parts, although we haven’t had a chance to look at them yet.

14.5 is a follow-up paper looking at noise in Samsung’s V-NAND flash [2], and 14.6is also a follow-up from IBM on mobile ion penetration from BEOL layers close to TSVs. IBM’s TSV process uses MEOL connection to the TSVs [3], so it’s feasible that there could be some cross-contamination. Tohoku U contributes the last discussion (14.7), testing polyimide TSV liners as a way of reducing the stress in the adjacent silicon.

More sensors and MEMS papers in session 15; the first three are from Tsinghua U, about different applications of graphene MEMS (15.2 also from Berkeley), and TSMC/U Illinois contribute 15.4, on an integrated 180-nm SOI-CMOS biosensor.

A*STAR in Singapore author the final two papers, but on very different topics. 15.5 is an optical biosensor with Ge photodetectors built in to the back end, and 15.6 details a MEMS-tunable laser combined with a photonic IC.

The speaker at the conference lunch will beT.J. Rodgers, founder, President and CEO of Cypress Semiconductor, a well-known voice in the business for decades. Given the recent news of the merger between Cypress and Spansion, he could be an illuminating speaker!

Session 16 focuses on Ge and SiGe Transistors, starting with an IBM/GLOBALFOUNDRIES report (16.1) on strained SiGe-OI finFETs with 50% Ge and fin width of 3.3 nm and gate length of ~16 nm; clearly aimed at the 10-nm node.

Looking a bit further into the future, CEA-Leti/STMicroelectronics/SOITEC (16.2) examine omega-gate CMOS nanowires, with strained SiGe-channel p-FETs and Si-channel n-FETs, integrated into a SOI-CMOS process. From the look of the pictures below they are using a gate-first approach, so there is still some life in that technology.

TEM images of nanowire pFET

16.3 is another nanowire paper from National Tsing Hua U, this time with dopant-free Ge junctionless nanowire non-volatile memories as well as Si nanowire FETs; and 16.4 is a study of Ge quantum-well finFETs fabricated on a 300mm bulk Si substrate, from Penn and N. Carolina SUs with TSMC and Kurt Lesker Co.

Imec tries out replacement metal gates on Ge n-finFETs with raised NiSiGe source/drains in 16.5; AIST examines poly-Ge-OI junctionless p- and n-finFETs, fabbed by flash annealing in 16.6; and Purdue U (16.7) reports on GeOI CMOS devices with recessed S/D.

Session 17 looks at Trapping Mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN Transistors; definitely at the academic end of the scale for me, although the last paper, CMOS-Compatible GaN-on-Si Field-Effect Transistors for High Voltage Power Applications, by TSMC, seems a bit out of place (17.6).

Session 18 is the second one on circuit/device interaction, this time considering Analog and Mixed Signal Circuits. Xilinx studies the interaction between devices and analog circuits used in high-speed transceivers in both planar and FinFet processes in 18.1. Part of this will be using the TSMC 16-nm finFET process, we’ll see if it adds anything to their paper in session 3.

Broadcom looks at mismatch in HKMG transistors related to the layout, and finds sensitivity to top metal routing, in 18.2. GLOBALFOUNDRIES (18.3) looks at Analog and I/O Scaling in 10nm SoC Technology and Beyond; is it better to take an increasing proportion of the die for hard-to-shrink analog, or go with TSVs and multiple dies?

CEA-Leti has a pathfinding paper (18.4) reviewing RF front-end modules (FEMs) in the light of the increasing number of modes (GSM, WCDMA, LTE, etc) and frequency bands in mobile devices. There are now more than 40 bands worldwide, so we see multiple FEMs in the worldphones we take apart, and keeping costs down while enhancing capability is one of the understated challenges in the industry.

There is more RF from Mediatek in 18.5, this time examining Digitally-Intensive RF Transceivers in Highly Scaled CMOS; apparently, these days embedded intelligence is needed on-chip to reduce the sensitivity of circuit performance to device characteristics.

The last paper in the session (18.6) is from Keio U, discussing circuit/device interaction in the 3D context of inductive coupling between dies.

Session 19 is the third memory session, this time on MRAM, DRAM and NAND; the first three talks are focused on STT-MRAM, from imec (19.1), Hanyang U/Samsung (19.2), and LEAP (19.3). Then IBM updates on their embedded DRAM (19.4), now at the 22-nm node in their latest Power8 processor (which, being IBM, is ~650 sq. mm!).

TSMC discusses a new Self-Aligned Nitride non-volatile memory cell in 19.5, and Macronix updates us on their BE-SONOS charge-trapping NAND flash (19.6) in the last paper of the session.

Characterization and Reliability of Advanced Devices is the subject of Session 20; papers 20.1, 20.3, and 20.5 all deal with nanowire characterization; imec has two studies, on HKMG InGaAs finFETs (20.2), and ESD diodes in Si finFETS (20.4); and finally two invited reliability presentations, by Jim Stathis of IBM (20.6) and Tony Oates of TSMC (20.7), on what the challenges are in their field as we move beyond 14/16 nm.

Session 21 is a group of five papers discussing Atomistic Modeling of Device Interfaces and Materials, the first being a multi-national study of hole traps in p-MOSFETs (21.1); I had not realized that such traps had similar characteristics in different oxide dielectrics, whether it be silicon or high-k; and it appears that hydroxyl (-OH) groups could be the cause.

The next three talks (21.2, 21.3, 21.4) are also dielectric and interface studies, as is the last, but 21.5 is focused on HfO and HfAlO-based RRAM.

We go back to MEMS in session 22, actually NEMS as well, as in 22.1, which is a review of integrating NEMS with CMOS (U Grenoble Alpes, CEA-Leti, MINATEC), and 22.4, another CEA-Leti talk on polySi nanowire sensors. Tsing-hua U has two papers also, 22.2 on a nanomechanical thermal-piezoresistive oscillator, and 22.3 on CMOS-MEMS Oscillators. The final two presentations are from A*STAR, about integrating RF MEMS resonators and phononic crystals (22.5), and a 9 degree of freedom capacitive sensor.

That brings us to the end of the afternoon, and Applied Materials is hosting a panel on "The Transistor Revolution" in the Nikko Ballroom in the Nikko Hotel. In parallel Coventor is hosting an event "Survivor, Variation in the 3D Era" in the Carmel Room, also at the Nikko Hotel. They both usually cater us well, so once we’re sated from the hospitality we can wander back to the Hilton for the conference evening panel:

“60 Years of IEDM and Counting: Did we push silicon based devices for integrated electronics to the ultimate and what does the future hold?”

Usually there are two panels, having one avoids conflicts this year; and there are some distinguished panelists – Krishna Saraswat from Stanford University, with two colleagues, Yoshio Nishi and Philip Wong, Chenming Hu (UCal Berkeley), Hiroshi Iwai Tokyo Institute of Technology), Jesus del Alamo (MIT), and Kurt Petersen, co-founder of six MEMS companies, and a member of the Band of Angels.

Wednesday

Wednesday morning has sessions 25 – 31; S25 on III-V for Logic; MIT has two papers, on InGaAs Quantum-Well MOSFETs (25.1), and InGaAs/InAs heterojunction single nanowire vertical tunnel FETs (25.5). 

25.2 is an invited review of “High-Performance III-V Devices for Future Logic Applications”, by Dae-Hyun Kim of GLOBALFOUNDRIES; 25.3, by IBM, is more high-performance self-aligned InGaAs-channel MOSFETs; 25.4 (UCal, Santa Barbera) is also InGaAs, but with InP Recessed Source/Drain Spacers; and 25.6 discusses an InAlN/AlN/GaN triple T-shape fin-HEMT (Nanyang TU, Ohio State U, Institute of Materials Research and Engineering).

S26 covers Thin Film Transistors for Display and Large Area Electronic Applications. Imec demonstrates an ultra-low power organic 8 bit transponder chip in 26.1, followed by IBM with heterojunction field-effect thin-film transistors (TFTs) with crystalline Si channels, and gate regions comprised of hydrogenated amorphous silicon or organic materials (26.2).

CBRITE is next up (26.3), on High Performance Metal Oxide TFTs, then a change of pace to carbon nanotubes with sputtered and spray-coated metal oxides to form complementary inverters, from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Imperial College London, and U Würzburg (26.4).

Believe it or not, Delft U has worked out a way to put silicon TFTs on paper or other soft substrates:

Photograph of polysilicon thin-film transistors (the brown portion of the image) printed on paper.
“The Delft team made the devices by casting a quantity of liquid polysilane onto a substrate, and forming a thin film from it by “doctor-blading,” or skimming it with a blade. High-performance polysilicon channel regions then were formed by laser annealing, using short pulses of coherent light to selectively crystallize the disordered film. The maximum temperature required was only 150ºC, making the TFTs suitable for paper and plastic substrates such as PET and PEN.” (26.5)

Tsing Hua U finishes up the session with the last two papers – a study of “Ultra-Thin Body (2.4nm) Poly-Si Junctionless Thin Film Transistors with a Trench Structure”, claimed to be useful for displays and 3DICs; and more poly-Si channel junctionless  FETs, but this time with a poly fin (26.6, 26.7).
          TSMC 20-nm Arrives – The First Shoe Drops        
For us at Chipworks interested in leading edge processes, 2014 so far has been the year of waiting for parts and processes that have been announced, but not shown up in the world of commercial production. It will surprise no-one in the business that they are Intel’s 14-nm, the 20-nm products from any of the big three foundries (in particular TSMC), and vertical NAND (in particular Samsung, since they are the first claiming shipment).

There are of course other products that we are anticipating such as the latest SDRAM, STT or resistive RAM, and anything with TSVs, but they are lower-key and will not get the same attention from the majority of our customers.

So now the first shoe has dropped (must check where that metaphor came from!), and we have a TSMC-fabbed 20-nm part in-house. It is in the lab at the moment, and we are waiting for the analysis results.

It will be interesting to see what changes TSMC has made from the 28-nm process; in general, I expect mostly a shrink of the latter process, with no change to the materials of the high-k stack, though maybe to the sequence. At 28-nm the high- k was put down first, before the dummy poly gate, and it makes sense to move that deposition to after poly gate removal. That way, the high-k layer does not have to suffer the poly formation and source-drain engineering process steps, saving it from quite a bit of thermal processing.

Below is an illustration of a NMOS transistor from a Qualcomm Snapdragon 800, fabricated in the TSMC 28HPM process. The slight indent at the bottom of the metal stack (indicated by the arrow), above the high-k layers, indicates that the high-k was formed before the polysilicon deposition and the subsequent source/drain engineering.

Fig. 1 NMOS Transistor in Qualcomm Snapdragon 800
The dark line at the perimeter of the metal gate is the tantalum-based barrier layer between the Ti-Al work-function doping layer and the TiAlN work-function layer, and is the first layer formed after the dummy poly removal. Intel used this sequence for their 45-nm process, but modified it at the 32-nm node to deposit the high-k stack after poly removal (high-k last – see below).

Fig. 2 Intel 32-nm NMOS Transistor
You can see that Intel also adopted raised source/drains, with stacking faults to apply tensile stress; we will see if TSMC does the same in their second generation gate-last HKMG process. They could also change the gate fill metal, since in a smaller gate it may be difficult to use the PVD Ti/Al/Cu from the 28-nm sequence.
 
Fig. 3 PMOS Transistor in Qualcomm Snapdragon 800
When it comes to PMOS, I also expect a high-k last version of the 28-nm gate structure, with the latest version of e-SiGe source/drains, likely with a sigma-cavity etch to the (111) planes. We already have raised source/drains, and the Ge content is ~50%, so not much opportunity for change there.
 
As for the back-end, presumably there will be a reduction in the k-value of the low-k dielectric, and maybe some thinning of the barrier layer in the metal trenches, both of which are trends that progress relatively slowly by comparison with the front-end.

Back in May, Applied Materials announced a cobalt CVD system aimed at improving copper fill and electro-migration performance. I wouldn’t have expected to see this in use yet, but at Semicon I heard that over 90 of these systems have already been shipped, so there is at least a possibility that we’ll see cobalt in our 20-nm metallization.

All pure speculation, but as a blogger and analyst, I’m paid to speculate!

As for "the first shoe drop", it's a variant on "waiting for the other shoe to drop"; apparently it's a reference to cheap apartment housing where tenants would hear their neighbours above taking off and dropping their first shoes on to the floor; and then wait for the second shoes to drop.
          IEDM 2013 Preview        

Next week the researchers and practitioners of the electron device world will be gathering in Washington D.C. for the 2013 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting.  To quote the conference web front page, “IEDM is the flagship conference for nanometer-scale CMOS transistor technology, advanced memory, displays, sensors, MEMS devices, novel quantum and nano-scale devices and phenomenology, optoelectronics, devices for power and energy harvesting, high-speed devices, as well as process technology and device modeling and simulation. The conference scope not only encompasses devices in silicon, compound and organic semiconductors, but also in emerging material systems.” 

From my perspective at Chipworks, focused on chips that have made it to production, it’s the conference where companies strut their technology, and post some of the research that may make it into real product in the next few years.

In the last few days I’ve gone through the advance program, and here’s my pick of what I want to try and get to, in more or less chronological order.  As usual there are overlapping sessions with interesting papers in parallel slots, but we’ll take the decision as to which to attend on the conference floor.

For the second year the conference starts on the Saturday afternoon, with a set of six 90-minute tutorials on a range of leading-edge topics:

  • Nano Electronics – The use of Low-Dimensional Systems for Device Applications, Joerg Appenzeller, Purdue University
  • Interface Properties for SiC and GaN MOS Devices, T. Paul Chow, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
  • Energy Harvesting for Self-Powered Electronic Systems, Rob van Schaijk, R&D Manager Sensors and Energy Harvesters, Holst Centre / IMEC
  • Tunnel FETs - Beating the 60 mV/Decade Limit, Erik Lind, EIT, Lund University
  • Atomic-Scale Modeling and Simulations for Nanoelectronics, Sumeet C. Pandey and Roy Meade,Emerging Memory Group, Process R&D, Micron Technology Inc.
  • 3D Chip Stacking, Mukta Farooq, Systems & Technology Group, IBM

The first three are from 2.45 – 4.15, and the remainder from 4.30 – 6.00.  I won’t make it to any of them; dedicated nerd I may be, but I want at least some of my weekend!

On Sunday December 4th, we start with the short courses, “Challenges of 10nm and 7nm CMOS Technologies” and “Beyond CMOS: Emerging Materials and Devices”. 

Aaron Thean of IMEC has organised the former, and we have some impressive speakers – Frederic Boeuf, ST Microelectronics, (Device Challenges and Opportunities for 10nm and Below CMOS Nodes), Zsolt Tokei, also of IMEC, (Challenges of 10nm & 7nm Advanced Interconnect), Andy Wei, GLOBALFOUNDRIES, (Process Integration Challenges in 10nm CMOS Technology), Paul Franzon, NCSU, (Manufacturing, Design, and Test of 2.5D- and 3D-Stacked ICs), and Mark Neisser, Sematech (Lithography Challenges and EUV Readiness for 10nm and Beyond). With 14-nm product expected to hit the market next year, we need to look ahead, so this is appropriate  - on the Intel clock, 10-nm is only two - three years away! 

I’m now telling folks to think about the end of silicon, at least as we know it, since my brain will not wrap around the idea of 10- and 7-nm gates, and 10-nm gates are only 30 – 40 atoms across, depending on orientation! There’s lots of talk about integrating high-mobility materials onto silicon (imec had an announcement about InGaAs finFETs only a few weeks ago), so this course will help put that into context and cover off how the transistors fit into the rest of the stack.

Tom Theis of SRC has set up the other short course; now that we are reaching the end of silicon transistors, where do we go beyond CMOS?

Ken Uchida of Keio University reprises some of the first course with a session on Extending the FET; then Adrian M. Ionescu from the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne discusses Tunnel FETs to give insights into perhaps the best known low-voltage device.

Nanomagnetic Devices are reviewed by Rolf Allenspach from IBM Zurich Research Labs, looking at the material properties and challenges, and some example devices.

All of these futuristic devices have to be compared to each other to see which ones have practical potential, so Dmitri Nikonov of Intel covers off Performance Benchmarking Methodology for Emerging Devices, looking at the rigorous methodology developed by the SRC’s Nanoelectronics Research Initiative, with some comparative results.

The final talk is on Emerging Devices for Quantum Computing by Michelle Simmons from the University of New South Wales, showing the device requirements for a practical quantum computer, then a quick survey of exploratory devices, and a closer look at one or two promising device concepts.

So some good solid stuff – although the courses make a long Sunday, from 9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m., but it’s worth sticking around to the end.

For the first time I can remember the Sunday evening has some extra sessions; Sematech is hosting a session on “Beyond CMOS” at the Fairfax at Embassy Row, from 5.30 – 8.35; and Leti will host a workshop on “Latest Advances in Cost-effective and Power-efficient Technologies for the Future of the Semiconductor Industry” from 6 – 9 pm at the Churchill Hotel, across the street from the Hilton.

Monday morning we have the plenary session, with three pertinent talks on the challenges of contemporary electronics:

  • Graphene Future Emerging Technology, by Andrea Ferrari, from the University of Cambridge – given the developments in this field in the last few years, it’s time to look ahead and try and create a roadmap for this potentially disruptive technology, so this should be illuminating;
  • Heterogeneous 3D Integration – Technology Enabler Toward Future Super-Chips, Mitsumasa Koyanagi, Tohoku University – we are already seeing a form of heterogeneous integration in RF front-end modules (but at the package level), and with Luxtera’s optical interface chips, but this talk will describe the higher levels of integration being researched at Tohoku U and elsewhere.
  • Smart Mobile SoC Driving the Semiconductor Industry: Technology Trend, Challenges and Opportunities, Geoffrey Yeap, Qualcomm. As VP of Technology, Geoffrey Yeap has been at the heart of the mobile revolution, and helped push the company into the top ten; so this should be an interesting review of the last few years of mobile chip developments, and the challenges of squeezing more and more functionality onto ICs, for more and more RF bands, and in ever thinner phones.
At lunchtime ASM is hosting their regular IEDM seminar (Monday this year, instead of the Wednesday as in previous years) on Integrating High Mobility Materials, again at the Churchill Hotel.

After lunch we have seven parallel sessions coming up! Session 2 gets straight into the way-ahead material with papers on germanium & III-V CMOS devices, although we seem to be moving away from R towards D in the R&D spectrum; for example, paper 2.8from IBM builds InGaAs n- and SiGe p-MOSFETs on hybrid substrates formed by direct wafer bonding of SiGe and InGaAs layers.

Session 3 details MRAM and NAND flash memories, starting with an invited talk by AIST on Future Prospects of MRAM Technologies (3.1), and the session ends with papers from Hynix and Macronix, the former on a 1x-nm multi-level cell NAND flash (3.6), and the latter on a dual-channel 3D NAND flash (3.7).

In session 4, we have the more futuristic topic of Steep Slope Devices, including papers from imec (4.2) and Intel (4.3) on tunnel FETs.

Now that we are into the finFET era, there is an interesting simulation paper in session 5; Analysis of Dopant Diffusion and Defects in Fin Structure (5.7), a joint paper by Panasonic and imec.

Session 6 focuses on Power Devices, with an indication that TSMC is getting into the business; they have a joint paper with Honk Kong UST on interface traps in Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN MIS devices (6.3). Mitsubishi is giving an invited talk on high voltage and large current SiC power devices (6.5), and we get back to MOS with a joint paper on the operating limits of LDMOS from NXP and U Twente.

The first two papers in session 7 discuss the reliability degradation caused by TSVs and 3D stacking, as measured by DRAM retention time; it appears that if wafers are thinned to 30 microns or less the DRAM performance drops off significantly due to stresses caused by the TSVs and microbumps (7.1, 7.2).

This year’s IEDM has focus sessions, and session 8 is the first, on Sensors and Microsystems for Biomedical Applications, with seven invited talks on different aspects of biosensors and biomedical devices.

Then in the evening we have the conference reception at 6.30, through until 8 pm.

Tuesday morning we have another seven parallel sessions, starting with session 9 on Advanced CMOS Technology, so one I will definitely be targeting. The first paper (9.1) is TSMC’s launch of their 16-nm finFET process, with a claimed doubling of logic density over their 28-nm process, with more than 35% speed gain or over 55% power reduction, and a 0.07 sq. micron 6T SRAM cell size.   
 
Comparison of TSMC 16-nm finFET performance with 28-nm HKMG planar process (Source: TSMC, IEDM)

That is followed (9.2) by the competing 20-nm FDSOI process from the ISDA Alliance (IBM, STMicroelectronics, Renesas, GLOBALFOUNDRIES, SOITEC, and CEA-LETI).

Paper 9.3takes us into the world of 3D-IC with a paper on layered ultrathin-body (UTB) circuits stacked on 300nm-thick interlayer dielectric (ILD) layers.
 
TEM image of 3D-layered UTB chip (Source: NNDL/Stanford/NTHU/UC Berkely, IEDM)

Amorphous silicon layers were deposited and crystallized with laser pulses, then planarized with low-temperature CMP to thin the layers, allowing formation of ultrathin, ultraflat devices.

IBM takes the next slot (9.4) with what looks like an update on their 22-nm gate-first process debuted last year (paper 3.3 last year), discussing 2nd Generation Dual-Channel Optimization with cSiGe for 22nm HP Technology and Beyond.

Intel also gives an update, this time on their eDRAM technology disclosed at the VLSI Symposium in June (Retention Time Optimization for eDRAM in 22nm Tri-Gate CMOS Technology, 9.5).
 
Details from Intel eDRAM paper at 2013 VLSI Technology Symposium

The session finishes up with a paper on embedded flash in a 55-nm process from Fujitsu (9.6), and one on SRAM-like local interconnect structures for 20-nm middle-of-line metallization from GLOBALFOUNDRIES; they claim that this helps them “achieve industry’s most optimum 20nm technology offerings”.

So I guess from the above I will be in session 9 all morning, so I will have to give session 10 on RRAM and FERAMa miss, even though there is interesting progress in the field, including 28-nm RRAM in a paper (10.3) co-authored by TSMC.

Session 11 is focused on Flexible Electronics, a look into the future, but not too far away, judging by some of the talks.

Session 12 is the first on Modeling and Simulation, focusing on Technology CAD, with a few topics that catch my eye; paper 12.2 on Alloy Scattering in SiGe Channel from Samsung; Mobility in High-K Metal Gate UTBB-FDSOI Devices, an invited talk (12.5) from STMicroelectronics; Threshold Behavior of the Drift Region: the Missing Piece in LDMOS Modeling (12.7), from NXP; and Copper Through Silicon Via Induced Keep Out Zone for 10nm Node Bulk FinFET CMOS  Technology (12.8), a joint paper from imec and Synopsys.

It seems that session 13is a bit of a catch-all session on Advanced Manufacturing, since it includes invited papers on 3D memory (13.1) from Micron, GaN-on-Si from Toshiba (13.2), photonics on SOI by Luxtera and STMicroelectronics (13.3), TSMC’s take on glass interposers (13.4) and 450-mm (13.7), and III-V growth on 300 mm wafers from Aixtron (13.6).

Next we have another bio-session, BioMEMS and BioSensors, including two DNA analysis-on-chip papers (14.1 & 14.3). The last parallel session of the morning is session 15, on Reliability of BEOL and FEOL Devices, and it now seems that graphene and nanotubes have been around long enough that we have an invited talk on their reliability (15.1).

The speaker at the conference lunch will be David Luebke, Senior Director of Research at Nvidia, on the topic, The Current State-of-the-Art and Advances in Visual/GPU Computing.

Session 16 in the afternoon is about III-V Logic, looking ahead to when silicon can no longer provide the performance needed.

Session 17 is another focus session, this time on Analog and Mixed Signal Circuit/Device Interactions. We have a series of invited talks on the impact of nanometer scaling and finFETS on analog design and performance, RF technology, and a look at terahertz RF in CMOS, all of which catch my interest.

We are back to Sensors, Resonators, and Microsystems in session 18, and Nanosheet and Nanotube Technologyin session 19, and it seems that molybdenum disulphide is now taking attention away from graphene since there are a couple of papers on that topic.

Session 20 is another multi-topic group of papers, on Fully Depleted Planar, 3D Ge Device Technology and RRAM Memory processing. We have TSMC and GloFo/Samsung/imec talking Ge finFETs (20.1 & 20.4), Si nanowires from IBM (20.2), and gate-last FDSOI from STMicroelectronics and CEA-LETI (20.3); two papers on doping finFETS by AIST/Nissin and AMAT/GloFo/Hynix (20.5 & 20.6); and to finish the session two RRAM talks by Macronix/National TsingHua U and Stanford U (20.7 & 20.8). The last paper uses block copolymer self-assembly lithography to get the device down to less than 12 nm.

Memory Characterization and Reliability is the subject of Session 21, mostly of resistive memories; Session 22 is another Modeling and Simulation group of papers, this time on Innovative Devices, mainly resistive memories.

That brings us to the end of the afternoon, and now we have a dilemma – three offsite events – IEDM is getting popular with the industry! Applied Materials is hosting a panel on "3D NAND Is a Reality - What's Next?" at the Omni Shoreham Hotel from 5 – 7.30 pm; Coventor is also hosting a panel at the Churchill Hotel, from 5.30 – 8.30, on “Insights from the Experts on Advanced Technology Development”; and Synopsys is having a TCAD reception, again at the Churchill, from 6 – 8 pm.

Once we’re sated from the hospitality we can wander back to the Hilton and try and stay awake for the conference evening panels:

“Is there life beyond conventional CMOS?” moderated by Jeff Welser of IBM – now becoming a perennial question! The panelists are An Chen (GLOBALFOUNDRIES), Tetsuo Endoh (Tohoku University), Marc Heyns (IMEC Fellow), Mark Rodwell (UC Santa Barbara), Alan Seabaugh (Notre Dame), and Ian Young (Intel).

And:

“Will Voltage Scaling in CMOS Technology Come to an END?" with Kevin Zhang of Intel as moderator. Panelists for this session are Rob Aitken (ARM), Kelin Kuhn (Intel), Sreedhar Natarajan (TSMC), Tak Ning (IBM), Ann Steegen (imec), and Nobuyuki Sugii ( LEAP).

Wednesday morning has sessions 25 – 30; S25 on Advanced 3D Packaging and Emerging Memory Systems; TSMC is detailing an Array Antenna Integrated Fan-out Wafer Level Packaging (25.1), and Maxim is giving an invited talk on 3D Heterogeneous Integration for Analog, as the first two papers.

S26 covers Ge Channel and Nanowire Devices, obviously looking ahead, but catching my interest are A Group IV Solution for 7nm FinFET CMOS (26.3), from Synopsys/Stanford, and A Practical Si Nanowire Technology… (26.5) from Samsung.

Session 27 - Display and Imaging Devices has three papers on thin-film transistors for displays, and three imaging talks; Sony describes a Three-dimensional .. 1.20 μm Pixel Back-Illuminated CMOS Image Sensor (27.4), and Infineon has a novel Trench Gate Photo Cell (27.6) which could find use as the ambient light sensor that we see in so many mobile phones.

We have more III-V and TFET papers in session 28, but including an invited talk from Raydeon (More than Moore: III-V Devices and Si CMOS Get It Together – 28.5) on integrating III-V devices with Si CMOS on a common silicon substrate, which should be interesting in these days of 3D.

Session 29 has a couple of interesting papers on BEOL from Renesas and Samsung (29.1 & 29.2), and Hitachi/ASET discusses Fabricating 3D Integrated CMOS Devices by Using Wafer Stacking and Via-last TSV Technologies (29.5).

Conductive Bridge and Phase Change RAM papers make up session 30; the first two are CBRAM, and the rest PCM. Micron discusses Interface Engineering for Thermal Disturb Immune Phase Change Memory Technology in paper 30.4.

After the morning sessions, the IEDM Entrepreneurs Lunch is back for a second year, with Steve Nasiri, founder of Invensense, and now angel investor and mentor at Nasiri Ventures LLC, as guest speaker.

We are back to Characterization, Reliability, and Yield in S31 after lunch, with a focus on Device Variation and Noise. STMicroelectronics is giving an invited presentation on the Growing Impact of Atmospheric Radiations on sub-65nm CMOS BULK/FDSOI Technologies (31.1), we have two papers on SRAM, and the last three discuss random telegraph noise in MOSFETs, resistive RAM, and HEMTs, respectively.

Session 32 is the third Modeling and Simulation session, this time on Modeling Beyond CMOS Devices, Interconnects and GaN HEMT – getting a bit esoteric for my focus, unfortunately – but then with all the parallel sessions we have to miss some of them.

The last session (numerically), session 33, covers Circuit/Device Variability and Reliability. Asen Asenov of University of Glasgow/Gold Standard Simulations has a joint paper with IBM on Simulation Based Transistor-SRAM Co-Design in the Presence of Statistical Variability and Reliability (33.1), detailing the impact of process and statistical variability and reliability on SRAM cell design in 14nm technology node SOI FinFET transistors; with Intel’s 14-nm due next year we might get some insights, though time will tell if they have moved to SOI trigate transistors from the bulk material that they currently use at 22-nm.

By the end I’m usually suffering from information overload and becoming brain-numb, but with 215 papers and an average of six parallel sessions at any one time, plus the offsite events, that’s not really surprising. On the other hand, where else do we go to get all this amazing stuff?

          GLOBALFOUNDRIES to make Apple chips in New York fab?        
I normally don't have the time to follow local press, but occasionally Google Alerts pops up with something quite interesting. In this case, the Albany Times Union from Albany, New York had an intriguing headline that supports some of the gossip around Apple's fabrication plans for their A-series processor chips, up to now fabbed by Samsung.
 
At least in the short term, and from a technology point of view, this makes a lot more sense than Apple's much-vaunted switch to TSMC, since GLOBALFOUNDRIES (as part of the Common Platform alliance with Samsung) uses a gate-first HKMG process rather than TSMC's gate-last strategy. In fact, a couple of years ago GLOBALFOUNDRIES and Samsung announced that they were synchronizing their fabs so that customers could transfer products from one foundry to the other without the pain of redesign.
 
At the 20-nm node it might be different story, since all the foundries will be using gate-last processes; I can see TSMC picking up some of the business then, and there are persistent rumours of Apple trial lots going through TSMC.
 
It also makes sense that GLOBALFOUNDRIES would make a pitch for the Apple work, since they are hungry for customers, and if they can get in at the 28-nm node they will be well positioned for 20-nm products in the next A-chip generations. Apple business would also help fill the potential second fab for which they have obtained outline planning permission in the Luther Forest Technology Campus.
 
When it comes to the processes, the 28-nm samples that we have seen from GloFo and Samsung are remarkably similar; this is a SEM cross-section of the transistors and first-level metal in the Rockchip RK3188 that Ajit Manocha announced at Semicon West:
 
 

 Now let's look at a similar section out of a Samsung Exynos 5410 app's processor:
 
 

There may be some very subtle differences that show up in very detailed analysis, but essentially they look pretty close; the fab synchronizing looks good to me!
 
So the Times Union report may be just a blog rumour, but given the apparent compatibility of the two processes, it has the whiff of authenticity, and we may see A7s out of New York State in the not too distant future.
 
Now, if we get one into Chipworks, can we tell the difference?

          Qualcomm Snapdragon 800 and Rockchip RK3188 - Battle of the Foundries!        
The Snapdragon 800 (Qualcomm MSM8974) is Qualcomm’s leading-edge, low-power, mobile phone app’s processor with built-in 3G/4G LTE modem, using the latest Krait 400 CPU rated at 2.3 GHz and their 450 MHz Adreno 330 GPU. It was launched at this year's CES International with this rather slick commercial.

Significantly, it is fabricated using the TSMC 28HPM (28-nm, High-Performance Mobile) process, which extends TSMC’s high-k, metal gate (HKMG) processing into the mobile space. Before this, all Qualcomm’s mobile chips were made with the TSMC 28LP polysilicon gate/SiON process; and to our knowledge, this is the first volume production part using 28HPM.

The 28HPM process sees a shrink in minimum gate lengths and SRAM cell size when compared with the 28HP process, and the inclusion of embedded SiGe source/drains for PMOS strain, which was not part of 28HPL.

TSMC 28HPM PMOS transistor
TSMC claims the technology can provide better speed than 28HP while giving similar leakage power to 28LP. The wide performance/leakage coverage apparently makes 28HPM ideal for applications from networking, tablet, to mobile consumer products.



The Rockchip RK3188 is targeted on tablets rather than phones, but it uses the GLOBALFOUNDRIES’ 28SLP (Super Low Power) process, their equivalent to TSMC’s 28HPM, aimed at mobile products. It is again a quad-core part, this time with ARM A9 CPUs running at 1.6 GHz, and quad-core ARM Mali GPUs rated at 600 MHz.

Rockchip RK3188 floorplan showing some of the major functional blocks
Rockchip has squeezed the functionality into ~25 sq. mm, less than a quarter of the size of the Qualcomm chip; not least because the A9 cores are noticeably smaller than the Qualcomm-designed Krait cores based on the ARM architecture, and of course there is no LTE.

GLOBALFOUNDRIES is obviously happy to have won the Rockchip business – their CEO Ajit Manocha specifically mentioned the partnership in his keynote talk at Semicon West:


The 28SLP process differs in a basic way from the TSMC 28HPM – GloFo is using their version of the Common Platform (GLOBALFOUNDRIES, IBM, Samsung) 28-nm process, which is a ‘gate first’ variety, i.e. a polysilicon gate is used with a HKMG stack at its base, doped to form NMOS and PMOS transistors. TSMC's ‘gate last’ process uses a sacrificial polysilicon gate for all the processing up to the end of the source/drain processing, then the polysilicon is removed and replaced with distinct HKMG stacks which are tuned for NMOS and PMOS.

Like the other Common Platform HKMG processes, a SiGe channel is used in the PMOS transistors, though with GloFo’s own spin – none of these processes are the same from the different vendors.

Compared with the older 32-nm HKMG process used for AMD processors, the Rockchip uses bulk silicon, not SOI, and gate lengths, contacted gate pitches and SRAM cell size are shrunk, but in the same ballpark as TSMC’s process. There is no dual-stress liner or embedded SiGe source/drains to enhance PMOS performance, but this product is rated at 1.8GHz rather than TSMC/Qualcomm’s 2.3 GHz.

GLOBALFOUNDRIES 28SLP PMOS transistor
So we have two processes targeted at similar spaces, but with very different takes on how to do it. TSMC and Qualcomm are following the industry norm, supplying chips to a US company from Taiwan, and GLOBALFOUNDRIES and Rockchip have reversed the trend, supplying chips to China from the West, and it's tempting to speculate they are from the Malta fab in New York.
          Economy Threatens Semi Growth, not Technology – so Say Fab Engineers at ASMC        
It’s still spring in the north-eastern part of North America, and that means it’s the time of year for the Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference, in the amiable ambiance of Saratoga Springs, New York. The conference took place last month, on May 13 – 16.

As the name says, ASMC is an annual conference focused on the manufacturing of semiconductor devices; in this it differs from other conferences, since the emphasis is on what goes on in the wafer fab, not the R&D labs, and the papers are not research papers. After all, it’s the nitty-gritty of manufacturing in the fab that gets the chips out of the door, and this meeting discusses the work that pushes the yield and volumes up and keeps them there.

I always come away impressed by the quality of the engineering involved; not being a fab person myself any more, it’s easy to get disconnected from the density of effort required to equip a fab, keep it running and bring new products/processes into production. Usually the guys in the fab only get publicity if something goes wrong!

There were 81 papers spread over the three days, with keynotes from Subi Kengeri of GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Vivek Singh and Tim Hendry of Intel, and Bill McClean of IC Insights, and also a panel discussion on the benefits/pitfalls of 450mm wafers. This latter is particularly apposite here in Saratoga Springs since we have the Global 450 Consortium building their new fab at CNSE in Albany, just down the road from here.

The conference kicked off with Subi Kengeri’s keynote – “Assessing the Threats to Semiconductor Growth: Technology Limitations versus Economic Realities” – essentially, will Moore’s law run out of steam before or after chips get too expensive to sell?

Subi Kengeri of GLOBALFDOUNDRIES giving the opening keynote at ASMC
On the one hand, we anticipate huge growth in revenue on the back of the mobile industry, with the foundries expected to outpace the overall industry, and leading-edge revenue doubling in the next five years:



And we know that technologically we can get to 14nm or even 10nm with multiple patterning, finFETs, etc., and possibly new materials.

On the other hand, SoC designs are getting larger, faster, and more complex, and wafer fab costs are going up, with lithography being the biggest component. (It’s worth noting here that at the 20nm generation, the middle-of line (MOL) processing separates from the back-end of line (BEOL), since the 1X interconnect level has to be double-patterned.)


This increased design and fab complexity also adds to development time and increases the time-to-volume (TTV), adding a time cost and reducing the return on investment.  This could conceivably get the industry into a feedback loop, since TTV delay slows down industry growth, which slows downs investment, which slows down development, which slows down TTV.

The other obvious effect is the industry consolidation which we’ve all been part of – according to Subi only four companies will be fabbing at the 14nm node:


I had wondered why IBM wasn’t on the list until I saw the 50K wafers/month cut-off; even with all the games chips that IBM has churned out over the last few years, I doubt that IBM has hit that number.

If the predictions are correct, by 2016 28nm and below will make up 60 percent of the foundry market, split between four companies (or three, if Intel’s foundry ambitions don’t work out). That thought raised the prospect of capacity limitations, and gave Subi a chance to promote GLOBALFOUNDRIES as the only one of the three with a global footprint, and not in geographically or politically risky zones. 

He finished his talk by identifying critical growth enablers for the industry as optimized SoC technology architecture (with a focus on techno-economics), coupled with true collaborative R&D, and of course the global footprint. And he also asked all of us in the room which was the biggest threat to growth – technology scaling limits, or the economic realities? Being techies, we all know that the next few generations are within sight technically, so we all voted for the economic problems – the part we can’t control!

The final vote
As you can see, the vote was pretty overwhelming.

N.B.  All images courtesy of GLOBALFOUNDRIES.
          Intel Foundries MEMS for Fuel Cell Start-up Nectar        
In the last couple of years there have been announcements that Intel will be acting as a foundry for FPGA company Achronix, PLD maker Tabula and programmable network processor provider Netronome, as well as much speculation about making chips for Apple.

All these reports refer to using Intel’s leading-edge 22-nm tri-gate process. However, at CES a couple of weeks ago, my eye was caught by a 200-mm wafer on display at the booth of a little company called Nectar, who were pitching their fuel-cell based USB charging system. They claim that the charger can top up an iPhone battery at least ten times before the fuel pod has to be changed. The whole device can be held in one hand:

Fig. 1 Nectar fuel-cell charger (at right) on display at CES

The cell uses butane fuel in a silicon-based power cell, and by the look of the image below the cells are ~22 mm square.

Fig. 2 Nectar MEMS wafer on display at CES

The press pack given out at the show includes a paper [1] with a description of the technology; a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is used, which is compatible with silicon processing. I’m not a fuel cell expert, so to quote from the paper:

"Fuel cells operate by creating opposing gradients of chemical concentration and electrical potential. When an ion diffuses due to the concentration gradient, the associated charges are transported against the electric field, generating electrical power. In the case of SOFCs, the mobile ion is O2-, and the oxygen gradient is created by providing air on one side (the cathode) and a fuel mixture which consumes any free oxygen on the other side (the anode). Any fuel which burns oxygen will produce power in an SOFC." The schematic below (Fig. 3) illustrates the process.

Fig. 3 Operating principle of solid oxide fuel cell

The butane has to be cracked so that hydrogen is available, which is done in a "fuel processor" within the cell. The following diagram shows the sequence of power generation [1].

Fig. 4 Diagram of fuel cell power generator

The Nectar generator chip contains the fuel processor, fuel cell stack, and catalytic converter. The fuel processor cracks the butane into hydrogen and carbon monoxide by using a lean mixture of air and butane to give incomplete combustion; then O2- ions from the air feed on the other side of the SOFC stack migrate through the stack and combine to give water and carbon dioxide; then the exhaust gases exit through a catalytic converter.

It is here that the MEMS structure comes in – even incomplete combustion of the butane gives temperatures of 600 – 800C, so to integrate this into a package that can be carried around, and also must have conventional silicon for power conditioning has to be a challenge. The fuel processor uses a mechanically suspended reaction zone formed in silicon, with a heat exchanger adjacent to the reaction zone, as shown in Fig. 5 [1, 2]:

Fig. 5 Experimental (top) and later (bottom) MEMS fuel processor

The nitride tubes contain the gas stream, while the silicon bars provide the heat transfer from the exit stream to the input stream. Fig. 6 shows the modeled heat transfer in a pair of tubes (red = hot, blue = cool) [1]. The U-bend at the end is the reaction zone; ignition is started using a platinum heater deposited on the surface, and once started continues autothermally.


Fig. 6 Schematic of modeled heat recovery in reaction loop

The SOFC itself is built of yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide (YSZ) plates held in a nitride matrix, supported on silicon walls. In order to keep the profile as slim as possible a "planar stack" of plates is formed as shown schematically in Fig. 7(a), with the detail of a single plate in Fig 7(b)[1].

Fig. 7 (a) Schematic of SOFC plates and (b) Cross-section of single cell

Details of the anode and cathode materials are not given, but they clearly have to be porous to allow the gases to diffuse through and react. Similarly nothing is said about the catalytic converter, but that also should be compatible with MEMS manufacturing.

The inherent ability of MEMS processes to provide vacuum-sealed structures helps contain the heat generated within the system, and the chamber is lined with reflective shielding to further reduce heat losses. Even so a new sealing glass had to be developed, since the conventional lead-glass frits used in many MEMS devices was not up to the job.

The whole assembly is packaged in a “tin can” with the gas inlets and exits on the reverse side of the package:

Fig. 8 Assembled and packaged Nectar fuel cell

Of course, smart as the fuel cell manufacturing is, it is only part of a charging system. Fig 9 [1] is a block diagram of the whole system, showing the peripheral components needed to complete the unit and turn it from a concept into a functioning charger. The battery allows power to be drawn instantaneously from the charger while the fuel cell fires up, and also powers the supporting components. 
Fig. 9 Block diagram of Nectar fuel-cell charging system

I started this blog off by talking about Intel, then veered off into a description of the Nectar charger – what was I babbling about? Well, when I was looking at the charger at CES I had a word with Sam Schaevitz of Lilliputian Systems, which developed the Nectar, and asked him who made the MEMS, expecting to hear about of one of the MEMS foundries that are around. (Lilliputian is a spin-off of MIT – Sam is founder and CTO.)

Much to my surprise, he answered "Intel"! As I said at the beginning, there has been quite a bit of comment about Intel moving to the foundry model, but nothing about them being in the MEMS business. It turns out that the work is done at Intel’s fab in Hudson, Mass., which those with long memories will recall was the DEC fab bought by Intel when DEC went under back in 1998.

I had assumed that it would have been closed long ago, but Intel claims to have put $2B into the plant, converting it to 130 nm back in 2001, and it’s now known as Fab 17. It is now Intel’s sole remaining 200 mm facility. In addition they have their Massachusetts Microprocessor Design Center and the Massachusetts Validation Center on the same site, employing ~1700 in total.

Fig. 10 Intel’s Fab 17 in Hudson, MA (source: Intel)

Intel’s Global Manufacturing Fact Sheet states that the fab manufactures “chipsets and other” – the Nectar chip is clearly an “other”! Nectar announced their supply link with Intel back at the end of 2010, but I missed it at the time; Intel Capital also has a stake in Lilliputian.

Aside from the regular processing equipment, Intel must have invested in deep RIE etchers, never mind the deposition gear capable of forming YSZ and the other exotic materials likely used for the anode/cathode and catalytic converter. Presumably Intel’s need for 130-nm chipsets is slowly fading; this looks like a praiseworthy way of keeping the fab going, as well as supporting a local start-up – and one wonders what other foundry work is going on there. If you do have the urge to buy a Nectar mobile power system, it will be available through Brookstone in the summer.

References:

[1] S. Schaevitz, Powering the wireless world with MEMS, Proc. SPIE 8248, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology XVII, 824802 (February 9, 2012)

[2] L. Arana et al., A Microfabricated Suspended-Tube Chemical Reactor for Thermally Efficient Fuel Processing, J. MEMS 12(5) 600-612
          GLOBALFOUNDRIES takes on Intel with 14nm finFET “eXtreme Mobility” process        
A week after Intel were claiming that their 14nm process will be ready to go at the end of next year, GLOBALFOUNDRIES (GF) announced that they will have a 14nm finFET process for launch in 2014. Unfortunately they timed it to coincide with the iPhone 5, so we at Chipworks were tied up for a few days tearing it down.

However, I don't want to ignore this development -- it could make the 2014 an interesting year! GF have dubbed the new process 14XM, for "eXtreme Mobility," since from the start it has been targeted on mobile applications -- after all, mobile products are the volume driver in the chip business these days.

And what's the biggest complaint from mobile users? Having to charge them so often, as battery technology has not improved at anything like a rate comparable to chip performance.




So while GloFo got started in high-k metal-gate (HKMG) making 32nm parts for AMD, they have seen the obvious and are generating low-power processes, beginning with the 28-SLP, moving to the 20-LPM, and now the 14XM.

The 20-LPM process claims a 40% reduction in power from the 28nm generation, and the 14XM claims 40%-60% increased battery life over 20-LPM. The 20nm generation is scheduled for next year, and as noted earlier 14XM is due out in 2014, a year later, breaking the two-year cadence that we've all got used to. Apparently 20nm wafers are running the full process in the Malta, NY fab right now.




They're accelerating the process launch by using the 20-LPM middle/back end-of-line metal stack with the finFET front end. In the 20nm process the 1x metal pitch is 64nm and the single-patterned metal is 80nm -- coincidentally, the latter is the same as Intel's tightest pitch in their 22nm product.

20nm metal pitches shown at the 2012 Common Platform Tech Forum (CPFT)

The use of the 3D finFET structure enables a higher performance/unit area, or lower power/unit area at a given performance at the transistor level. The graph below shows some estimates made by their R&D group.
SoC Performance vs. power -- lower power at constant frequency [1]

Functional scaling itself will be limited to some extent by the 20-LPM metal density, but presumably some die shrink can be achieved by using more metal layers, and also the increased current density will allow some compaction since higher-current transistors will be smaller. Keeping single patterning will mitigate the cost, compared with double patterning for denser layers.

The process will also continue from the 20-LPM process in that it will use gate-last (replacement metal gate) technology on a bulk substrate. The R&D group in New York has published a couple of papers [2, 3] referencing a 40nm fin pitch, but 14XM will have a fin pitch of 48nm to leave some slack in the lithographic challenge, and minimize quantization errors. Together with the metal pitches of 64 and 80nm, it implies a 16nm grid as a basis for layout. The use of 64nm Metal 1 presumably also means that the contacted gate (CG) pitch will be 64nm.

The Intel 22nm process has a fin pitch of 60nm, and a CG pitch of 90nm, so it's not unreasonable to assume that their 14nm process will have similar numbers.

We will see whether the fin will be tapered similar to Intel's; these images (below) from CPTF seem to show a vertical fin atop the STI profile, but then, they are only schematics. Using a single (STI) etch to shape the fins (as I think Intel does) should certainly be less complex than trying to get vertical-walled fins on top of the STI trench sidewall.




The economic challenge in going to 14nm is almost as huge as the technical challenge, and keeping the cost/power/performance (CPP) metric in check as process complexity spirals upwards has caused inevitable concern. In particular, the cost benefits of shrinking die size tends to go away as the lithography demands double, triple, and even quadruple patterning.

Jen-Hsun Huang of Nvidia has publicized his concern about increasing wafer costs at last year's IPTC (International Trade Partner Conference) meeting -- the plot below shows the increasing gap in wafer cost between successive nodes:




So if GLOBALFOUNDRIES, or any other foundry, wants to keep the customers coming, they have to mitigate the cost increase going to the next node. Taking a hybrid approach such as the 14XM process should be an attractive option for their existing and future customers.

It's interesting to note that TSMC has changed tack slightly and are now saying that they will be using finFETs at 16nm, not 14nm. They are also claiming that their 20nm metal pitch is leading-edge at 64nm, although that's the same as GF's. It's tempting to wonder if TSMC will also use a hybrid approach and transfer their 20nm back-end to the 16nm node, since the arguments are the same. Chenming Hu thinks so, anyway. TSMC are predicting 16nm risk production in 2014.

We'll see if GF can match Intel's timing -- Mark Bohr sounded very confident at the Intel Developer Forum, when he said their 14nm product would be ready for the tail end of next year. Will we have GF-produced finFETs in early 2014? And will their finFETs be better than Intel's?

My thanks to Subi Kengeri for clearing up some of the technical details.

[1] A. Keshavarzi et al., Architecting Advanced Technologies for 14nm and Beyond with 3D FinFET Transistors for the Future SoC Applications, Proc. IEDM 2012, pp. 67-70.

[2] T. Yamashita et al., Sub-25nm FinFET with Advanced Fin Formation and Short Channel Effect Engineering, Proc. VLSI 2011, pp. 14-15.


[3] C.-H. Lin et al., Channel Doping Impact on FinFETs for 22nm and Beyond, Proc. VLSI 2012, pp. 15-16.
          The cost of 'out with the old'        
In heavy manufacturing, you don't just dump all those machines and foundries and everything associated with an engine program. So what happens to all that money invested in internal combustion engines?
          æ–°èžå¿«å ±ï¼šä»£å·¥å•†æ¢ä»¶ç‚ºä½•ï¼Ÿè¯ç™¼ç§‘:能在對的時間提供全力支援 | 20170801        

代工商條件為何?聯發科:能在對的時間提供全力支援
由於日前傳出消息,因為希望能挽救逐季下滑的毛利率,IC設計大廠聯發科將自2018年開始,自台積電的16奈米製程訂單,轉移一半給競爭對手格羅方德(GLOBALFOUNDRIES)。而該問題也成為31日聯...

威騰發表3D NAND X4快閃記憶體技術
全球領先的儲存技術和解決方案供應商Western Digital公司發表開發出適用於64層3D NAND(BiCS3)的X4(每單元4位元)快閃記憶體架構技術。威騰先前開拓創新的X4 2D NAND技術、成功商品化的經驗...

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          AMD trennt sich vollständig von Chip-Produktion        
AMD hat sich gänzlich aus der Chip-Produktion zurückgezogen. Das Unternehmen trennt sich somit von allen Produktionsstätten, darunter auch einem Werk in Dresden. Auch die restlichen Anteile an der Produktionsfirma Globalfoundries […]
          Vevo music poaches top Qualcomm exec        
Vevo music poaches top Qualcomm exec


Jon Carvill is now VP of communications   

A rock star PR who worked as a Senior Director of communication at Qualcomm has been poached by the music outfit Vevo.

Jon Carvill worked in many influential IT companies including ATI technologies, AMD before and after the ATI acquisition, He was the Vice President of communications at GlobalFoundries and more recently worked for Intel and Qualcomm.

During the Intel part of his CV, Carvill worked with Erik Huggers on Chipzilla's OnCue digital TV streaming platform. This was sold to Verizon and Huggers worked there for a while before he was offered the role of Vevo President and Chief Executive Officer.

Huggers said: 

“Jon Carvill is a proven communications leader across the media and technology industries," "We are fortunate to have someone of Jon’s caliber join the company, and I look forward to working closely with him again as we build Vevo into the leading all-premium music video and entertainment platform.”

Qualcomm was lucky to have Carvill during therough the Snapdragon 810 fiasco. We are sure that Qualcomm will be fine, but it will miss a great manager that works well under crisis  and pressure.

Many might ask why he went to Vevo. Vevo is a world’s leading all-premium music video and entertainment platform with more than 11 billion monthly views globally. It offers 150,000 HD music videos, exclusive original programming and live concert performances to everyone on the planet. Carvill was one of them. He was always passionate about his music taste, and frankly so was I.

Vevo is on the verge of becoming something really big. Kids of today are watching videos on YouTube (VEVO via YouTube) and this is a great platform for digital distribution. MTV  days are  long gone grandpa, and yes were are old enough to remember MTV when it was playing music videos. We can also remember VHS video recorders, well before CDs and DVDs.

Jon Carvill

Vevo is a joint venture between Universal Music Group (UMG), Google, Sony Music Entertainment (SME) and Abu Dhabi Media. Videos are syndicated via web and google and Vevo are sharing the advertising revenue. Vevo as a platform is available on Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Windows 8, Fire OS, Google TV, Apple TV, Boxee, Roku, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4.

Huggers worked first at iBBC player, later at Intel OnCue, then Verizon, he seems to be the right person for the job. Carvill definitely knows how to run communications making them a great team. We wish them both a lot of luck. 


          Global Foundries discloses 7nm process detail        
Global Foundries discloses 7nm process detail
          Kirkpatrick - Traditional British Ironmongery        

We recently enjoyed a Factory Tour around the Kirkpatrick Ironmongery Foundry in Walsall, Birmingham.

kirkpatrick ironmongery foundry

What a pleasure to see traditional handmade ironmongery still being produced here in th UK by a skilled local workforce. The Kirkpatrick Company have been producing ironwork for over 160 years, and touring the factory gave us a real insight into their experience, expertise and dedication to their art.

At Kirkpatrick their 160-year tradition for producing handmade ironmongery, utilising the skills of a local workforce, gives Kirkpatrick products a style, authenticity and longevity that cannot be matched by less expensive, poor quality imitations.

It is a combination of experience, expertise and dedication to producing ironwork of the utmost character which means that you will not find better quality or value anywhere else in the world.

Our heritage

Much of the Kirkpatrick black iron door and window furniture is based on patterns (designs) used by their foundry since its inception in the 19th century. The workforce today uses essentially the same finishing and assembly techniques as back then, which have been handed down and refined through generations.

It’s this history which helps to create durable and beautiful ironwork products that have an integrity and authenticity which is second to none.

Our craft

Each and every piece of our ironmongery is crafted by hand over a six week period, ensuring each door handle and window latch is unique and created to provide strength and quality which will last a lifetime.

 

Our promise

 

Kirkpatrick can supply everything from door and window furniture to coat hooks and shelf brackets, and at More Handles we offer the complete range of Kirkpatrick Ironmongery online and in store.  If you can’t find what you are looking for please get in touch as Kirkpatrick are also able to create bespoke, one-off pieces to suit your exact needs.

Our authenticity

All the Kirkpatrick malleable iron products are made under one roof at the Walsall factory – making Kirkpatrick the only manufacturer whose products are genuinely British from start to finish.

Malleable iron is used because it is stronger and more durable than imported alternatives. This authenticity, coupled with the high quality of our products has made Kirkpatrick one of the recognised leaders in their field.

We are proud to sell the Kirkpatrick range as the only traditional ironmongery manufacturer able to use the Made in Britain logo. Why buy a traditional British product steeped in history from India or China?

Our guarantee

 

THE LAST UK FOUNDRY

The business was founded by William Kirkpatrick, Esq. J. P. (1817-1887) in Walsall in 1855, and carried on for many years in his name and direction.

 

Founded in 1855

By the mid-20th century there were many jobbing foundries in the Midlands and the Black Country, however most have fallen by the wayside owing to increasing international competition from India and the Far East.

As a result, Kirkpatrick are rightly proud to be the only manufacturer of traditional black ironmongery left in the UK who genuinely pours their own metal.

Adapting to change

Have a look at the Kirkpatrick Foundry for yourselves in this short video and see what they mean by traditionally British, and then give us a call to discuss how you can specify this beautiful range of antique ironmongery for your next project.

 

TEL - 01228 516516

WEB - morehandles.co.uk

EMAIL - sales@morehandles.co.uk

 

 


          More Handles - Meet The Team        

MEET THE TEAM

WELCOME!  Meet the team behind More Handles, one of the UK's biggest and best Architectural Ironmongers.

We started as a small family firm back in 2007 with just four of us.  That has grown to be a much bigger company, with currently over 30 staff, but we still aim for a ‘family’ feel with everyone on the Team.  So have a look and see who’s who…

paul rheinbach more handles Name – Paul Rheinbach

 a.k.a – ‘Rhino’

 Role – Managing Director

 Joined - In at the Beginning!

 Background – Paul worked for many years as a manager at Carlisle Brass helping to build the  company into the UK’s biggest Architectural Ironmongery Wholesalers.  Recognising a gap in the  market Paul wanted to set up a website on this new-fangled interweb thingy to sell the Carlisle Brass  products directly. 

As a result More Handles was launched in 2007 with friends Mike & Steph as a small internet business.  That has now grown to be a large internet hardware store selling every kind of hardware available throught the website and with branches in Carlisle & Kendal and a team of over 30 staff.

Favourite Door HandleFinesse Swirl Door Knob


michael hunt more handles Name
- Michael Hunt

 a.k.a – don’t even go there…

 Role – Commercial Manager

 Joined - In at the Beginning!

 Background – Took a Career Break from the murky world of banking and over a few drinks one night  with Paul decided to set up More Handles as a small internet business selling door handles in 2007. 

 The business has grown to be a large internet hardware store selling every kind of hardware available with a huge Website, Trade Counters & Showrooms in Carlisle & Kendal, with 30+ Staff.

Married to Steph (yes, she works here too!) with 2 kids.

Outside of MORE –Desperate to own a Caterham 7 Sports Car….  Ended up with a 4 berth Caravan!

Favourite Door HandleSteelworx Carbon Fibre Door Handle
  

stephanie hunt more handles Name – Stephanie Hunt

 a.k.a – ‘Gwen’

 Role –Systems Manager

 Joined - In at the Beginning!

 Background – Ran a successful printing company for many years.  Persuaded by Mike (husband!)  that door handles would be easier, and set up More Handles as a small internet business selling door  handles in 2007. 

The business has grown to be a large internet hardware store selling every kind of hardware available with a huge Website, Trade Counters & Showrooms in Carlisle & Kendal, with 30+ Staff.

Married to Mike (yes, he works here too!) with 2 kids.

Outside of MORE – Working out how to star in the next TV series of Kevin McCloud – Escape to the Wild.

Favourite Door HandleFinesse Pewter Durham Door Handle

SABINA HINE Name – Sabina Hine

 a.k.a – ‘Sabrina’

 Role – SEO & Marketing Manager

 Joined - 2015

 Background – Sabina joined us as our in-house SEO Specialist.  We have worked with Sabina many  times in the past when we out-sourced some SEO duties.  We decided that we should really have  someone who is trained in the arts of Search Engine Optimisation, and so Sabina now works for us  to help make sure that you find us when you are looking for door handles on the internet.

Married with 3 kids.

Outside of MORE – Sabina rides horses and curses the English weather while dreaming of an Italian climate.

Favourite Door HandleSwarovski anything! 

 

REECE RHEINBACH MORE HANDLES Name – Reece Rheinbach

 a.k.a – ‘Greaser’

 Role – Sales & Service Manager

 Joined - 2008

 Background – Reece (Paul’s son) joined the family firm after finishing his schooling.  Starting in the  Warehouse, Reece worked his way through the company with a flair for ensuring the customer always gets the right product, and the right service.

Lives in a house he is currently renovating during which he has tested almost every product we sell here!

Outside of MORE - Moonlights as a Punk Rocker with his band Car Crash Radio, and has currently persuaded his Dad that he deserves a career break and is driving his way down South America – occasionally doing some internet work for us when he remembers who we are!

Favourite Door HandleDavenport Rim Lock

  

jack wright more handles Name – Jack Wright

 a.k.a – ‘Orville’

 Role – Team Leader

 Joined - 2014

 Background – Jack joined More Handles as an apprentice having finished school.  Settling in quickly to the Architectural Ironmongery world, Jack now leads the Sales Team and makes sure that customer’s orders are all progressing on schedule and as smoothly as possible.

 Lives with his family, including the pet dogs and cats which he is allergic to,  but realises that he will lose in any choice between him and the pets.

Outside of MORE – Lives on antihistamine medication!

Favourite Door HandleCorona Cupboard Handle

 

aidan owen more handles Name – Aidan Owen

 a.k.a – ‘Aidano’

 Role – Sales & Service

 Joined - 2014

 Background – Aidan joined More Handles as an apprentice, learning the Architectural  Ironmongery trade and helping customers over the phone and email.  Aidan also looks after the More Handles EBAY site, providing some extra little clearance bargains for customers.

 Lives with his family.

Outside of MORE – Is some kind of champion Yu-Gi-Oh player.  That sounds like an impressive form of martial art, but is in fact a nerdy card trading game that none of us understand - we pretend to be impressed all the same.

Favourite Door HandleQueslett Cup Handle

RYAN WRIGHT MORE HANDLES Name – Ryan Wright

 a.k.a – ‘Wilbur’

 Role – Team Leader

 Joined - 2015

 Background – Ryan joined More Handles after his brother Jack recommended him!  With a background in IT and Computing, Ryan also helps with Website Admin and keeping the right products in  the right place on the ever growing range of products More Handles has online.  

Lives with his fiancee - as he couldn't stand working and living with his brother any longer!

Outside of MORE – Fixes anything Microsoft and PC related for friends and family.  We’ve tried converting him to Apple Mac but he just won’t listen!

Favourite Door HandleGlacier Cupboard Handle
 


DINIA WESTLUND MORE HANDLES Name
– Dinia Westlund

 a.k.a – ‘Dee’

 Role – Web Team

 Joined - 2014

 Background – Dinia works as our main website editor, adding new products and keeping things  fresh on the website.  Self taught in the world of Magento and SEO she is now also an expert on  Ironmongery having coded thousands of products.  Dinia spends most of her time working remotely, and often overseas, as she fits us in round her international travelling – yes we are all jealous!

Lives mostly in a tent or a camper van with Ross and The Hound.  Has now corrupted Reece to her way of life and persuaded him to join her on their travels, and are currently heading through South America.

Outside of MORE – Longs for the open road and life as a digital nomad – Keep up with her travels on Follow The Hound.

Favourite Door HandleBauhaus Door Handle

 

AMANDA BROWN MORE HANDLES

 Name – Amanda Brown

 a.k.a – ‘Browno'

 Role – Accounts Team Manager

 Joined - 2010

 Background – Having worked in Accounts Admin roles for many years (alright not that many years),  Amanda is naturally organised and methodical and she runs a tight ship.  We head-hunted Amanda  to help with the growing Accounts work and she has now progressed to managing the Accounts  Team, and is  currently part way through her AAT qualifications.

 Married with 2 kids, Bailey the Labrador, and a VW Camper.

Outside of MORE –  Mum Of The Year for supporting two football obsessed kids to every game, every weekend!

Favourite Door HandleModena Door Handle 

 

meet the teamName – Julie Veitch

a.k.a – ‘Mousie'

Role – Admin & Accounts

Joined - 2014

Background – Julie has worked in Admin, Personnel and Accounts for a number of high profile companies.  Flirting with More Handles for a while we finally got her permanently employed.  Julie now looks after the admin and some accounts duties for us, and always with a cheery smile.

Outside of MORE – Spends most of her time looking after the company mascot, Mollie.

Favourite Door HandleLudlow Door Knocker
 


RACHAEL RHEINBACH Name
– Rachael Rheinbach

 a.k.a – ‘Raquel’

 Role – Customer Services Manager

 Joined - 2015

 Background – Rachael (Paul's daughter) tried to resist the lure of the family business for many years,  even running away to Leicester, but eventually she realised she could not escape her destiny.  Now  working as Customer Services Manager, Rachael ensures all customers receive our 5 Star Service, and tries to educate the rest of the Team on the benefits of living a Vegan life.

Moved back home while saving for her own place.

Outside of MORE – Has to spend most of her time foraging for nuts, berries and seeds!

Favourite Door HandleFrom The Anvil Pull Handle

 


SUZANNE PARK MORE HANDLES Name
– Suzanne Park

 a.k.a – ‘Suzie-Q’

 Role – Admin & Accounts

 Joined - 2015

 Background –Suzanne joined More Handles as an apprentice having finished school.  Quickly picking up the Accounts Team mantra of ‘drink more coffee’, Suzanne is everyone's favourite as she never says no to anything we ask of her.

Lives within walking distance of work - but still drives here anyway.

Outside of MORE – Easily surprised and with an irrational fear of masks, we try to take advantage of this at every opportunity for any practical jokes.

Favourite Door HandleVenus Door Handle

 

meet the team

Name – Graham Irving

a.k.a – ‘G’

Role – Trade Counter Manager

Joined - 2012

Background – Graham has a wealth of experience in the Hardware trade built up of over 20 years of running a Trade Counter in the Carlisle area.   We persuaded him to join More Handles and run the increasingly busy Trade Counter that we set up in 2010.  A real life encyclopaedia of Hardware knowledge he knows every product out there, and refuses to be beaten with any query from our Trade Cutomers.

Married with 1 grown up kid.

Outside of MORE – Enjoys walking in the nearby Lake District - when he isn't decorating.

Favourite Door Handle

 

mike balmer Name – Mike Balmer

 a.k.a – 'Mr B'

 Role – Trade Counter Team

 Joined - 2010

 Background – Mike has been in the local Hardware business for over 20 years, and knows pretty  much everyone who is anyone in the ‘trade’.  Mike joined us at the time of a major expansion for More  Handles - Building on our success ‘online’ we decided to move ‘offline’ and set up a Trade Counter to  provide our huge range of products to the local joinery and building trade. 

We persuaded Mike to  come and set up our Trade Counter for us, and he has helped us build a booming business from day  one. 

Married with 2 grown up kids and now grandkids!

Outside of MORE – Has been known to walk across the entire country from side to side – Will he do it from end to end?

Favourite Door Handle – Arkus Door Handle

 

dave young more handles Name – David Young           

 a.k.a – ‘Dave The Rave’

 Role – Trade Counter Team

 Joined - 2011

 Background – Dave joined us to support the new Trade Counter, having spent the previous few years learning the hardware trade.  He can also be found helping out in the Warehouse, the  Showroom or with anything else we can dream up for him!  Always has a smile, and usually a song  as well!

Married to Elaine (yes, she works here too!), with 2 grown up kids.

Outside of MORE – Collector of The Beatles memorabilia and Raleigh Chopper bicycles, definite obsessive compulsive behaviour!

Favourite Door HandleCharlston Door Knob 

 

Will BellName – William Bell

a.k.a – ‘Willie’ (but he hates it)

Role – Operations Manager

Joined - 2012

Background – Will had a good grounding in the Hardware Trade working as a Sales Rep and he joined us to help develop the Trade business across Cumbria.  As the business has grown Will has migrated to Operations Manager helping with all aspects of the business.  Will is half Spanish, but we are still looking for his Buzz Lightyear Spanish Mode reset!

Lives with Deborah has 1 grown up kid, and Harvey 1 very grown up Great Dane.

Outside of MORE – Gets taken for walks by Harvey!

Favourite Door Handle – Anything from Turnstyle Design

 


GARY CHANDLER MORE HANDLES Name
– Gary Chandler

 a.k.a – ‘Gazza’

 Role – Trade Specification Manager

 Joined - 2014

 Background – We kept hearing the name ‘Gary Chandler’ every time we tried to get any business  from the local architects and larger construction companies.  It took us a few years but eventually  Gary came to join the More Handles Family, and we were really pleased to be able to offer his many decades of experience in scheduling architectural hardware. 

Gary spends most of his week touring Cumbria and beyond visiting the architects, designers and customers to help with ironmongery specification.

Married with 4 grown up kids.

Outside of MORE – Building up his reputation as a restaurant critic of Cumbria’s best eateries.

Favourite Door Handle Boss Door Closer (Well he is the Specification Manager!)

 

TONY WALTON MORE HANDLES Name – Tony Walton

 a.k.a – ‘Tone The Moan’

 Role – Stock Control Manager

 Joined - 2010

 Background – Tony was our first employee and joined us part time to help out with packing occasionally.  As the business grew we sucked him in full time and got him to manage the Warehouse.  Now back to part time, he still dots all the I’s and crosses all the T’s for us booking in stock, and does his best to moan at anyone who actually wants to take any of his stock out again!

 Married with 3 grown up kids, 3 grandkids and 1 long suffering wife.

Outside of MORE – Leads a double life as a biker and Prog Rock fan – someone has to like that stuff!

Favourite Door HandleBloxwich Door Knob

 

STEVE HUBNER MORE HANDLES Name – Steven Hubner

 a.k.a – ‘Steve-o’

 Role – Warehouse Team

 Joined - 2012

 Background –Steve has worked for us before in other businesses and we lured him away from his  previous life in the printing industry to come and help us out in the Warehouse.   Currently working  part time , nobody works any faster than Steve and he knows every supplier inside and out.  He occasionally harmonizes his whistling with Dave’s singing!

Lives with Angie in Scotland and commutes over the border!

Outside of MORE – Works hard at not speaking with a Scottish accent.

Favourite Door HandleAscot Leather Door Handle

 

 

ash Name – Ashley Monckton

 a.k.a
– ‘Monk’

 Role – Warehouse Supervisor

 Joined - 2014

 Background – Ashley joined us to help out with the ever expanding Warehouse duties.  New to the  role Ash settled in well and is now the Warehouse Supervisor making sure everything runs smoothly  and that all the parcels are carefully picked packed and despatched.

 Outside of MORE – Is a drummer – sometimes with Reece’s band, but mostly with real musicians!

Favourite Door HandleKeyhole Handle


jamie robinson more handles Name
– Jamie Robinson

 a.k.a – ‘Jamie’ – inventive huh!

 Role – Trade Counter Team

 Joined - 2015

 Background – Jamie joined us to help out with the ever expanding Warehouse duties.  We poached him from Carlisle Brass, our main supplier, so he was already familiar with many of our products. Now working on our busy Trade Counter he is quickly learning all the other products we supply.

Outside of MORE – Loves Wrestling – Hey, we are an eclectic bunch you know!  Has also taken up road cycling but we think that is just so he can wear the lycra suits and pretend he's a pro wrestler.

Favourite Door HandleGeorgian Door Handle

 

Angela Name – Angela

 a.k.a – 'Angelina'

 Role – Accounts Assistant

 Joined - 2017

 Background – As we keep getting busier the Accounts Team keep drowning, so Amanda Brown recruited Angela Brown (no relation apparently) to help out.  The two Browns have worked together before and Angela fitted straight into the Accounts Team to boost them along again.  Although mainly she can be found trying to un-jam the scanner again!

Lives with her husband and 2 kids.

Outside of MORE – Angela has a 1 year old and a 4 year old, she comes to work for a rest!

Favourite Door Handle – Cotini Cupboard Handle

 

meet the team Name – Marina

 a.k.a – 'Mariniii'

 Role – Marketing Assistant

 Joined - 2015

 Background – Marina joined us to help initially in the Warehouse, and after putting up with the lads for a while she now assists in the Marketing team - where she tells us the smell is so much nicer!  

 Outside of MORE – Marina is taking her Scuba Diving qualifications.  Originally from Catalonia - Spain, for some reason she waited until she was in England to take up Scuba Diving?!?

Favourite Door Handle – Marina Door Handle - Obviously!

 

meet the team Name – Andy

 a.k.a – 'Bally'

 Role – Warehouse Assistant

 Joined - 2016

 Background – Andy joined us to help out in the Warehouse with picking orders, packing and despatching.  Maintains a pretty good work rate really considering he spends most of his time tuning the radio to some hideous heavy metal music and making three course lunches in the kitchen.

Lives with his family including his young daughter.

Outside of MORE – Spends his personal time dressing up as Gene Simmons from KISS.

Favourite Door Handle – Wonderwipes - required for cleaning up the kitchen!

 

 

M Name – Mark

 a.k.a – 'Nel'

 Role – Warehouse Assistant

 Joined - 2016

 Background – Mark worked in the warehouse at Carlisle Brass our main supplier.  His reputation as the best one in there meant that we had to get him into More Handles, and we are very pleased we did.  Mark is 'Mr Efficient' and keeps the orders flowing through the Warehouse.  

Outside of MORE – Mark has a secret obsession with Star Wars Collectable Figures - however any resemblance to Yak Face from Return of the Jedi is entirely coincidental.

Favourite Door Handle – Nelson Door Handle

 

meet the team

 Name – Luke

 a.k.a – 'Lucan'

 Role – Warehouse Assistant

 Joined - 2015

 Background – Luke joined us on an apprenticeship scheme, and works in our Warehouse.  Usually helping in packing some of our larger orders for national house builders he is always happy to help wherever he is required, as long as he still has time to cross the road to McDonalds at least 3 times a day.

Outside of MORE – Moonlights as a restaurant delivery driver.  Hey - it's free food.

Favourite Door Handle – Art Nouveau Door Bell

 

meet the team Name – Neil

 a.k.a – 'Dog'

 Role – Trade Counter Assistant

 Joined - 2016

 Background – Neil had worked in the Ironmongery trade for many years, and was the natural choice when we needed to expand the Trade Counter Team.  Already known to our existing team and many of our customers, Neil fitted straight into the More Handles culture, even being persuaded to dress up as Superman for our Trade Counter Superhero Charity Day - he drew the line at the Wonder Woman costume though!

Outside of MORE – Lives a quiet life in Carlisle - but we know he's a 'Marra' really.  (Cumbrian reference call us for explanations)

Favourite Door Handle – Contemporary Door Handle

 

meet the team Name – Liz

 a.k.a – 'Aunty Liz'

 Role – Customer Service Assistant

 Joined - 2017

 Background – Liz joined the team to help out with the admin side of sales and service for customers.  Aunty Liz is usually busy helping the Sales and Service team to stay on top of their paperwork, and even despatching orders in the warehouse on busy days.

Outside of MORE – Liz holds a secret Mafia Don type position in her local village - interestingly this is unknown to the other 3 members of staff who all live in the same village - They should be very respectful in their emails...

Favourite Door Handle – Elizabethan Door Hinge

 

steve Name – Steve

 a.k.a – 'Bleb'

 Role – Kendal Branch Manager

 Joined - 2016

 Background – Steve joined the More Handles team in 2016 to help us open a new branch in Kendal.  Serving in the trade for many years in the Kendal area, Steve was the natural choice to help us in our expansion plans and has quickly established More Handles Kendal as Lakeland's Ironmongers.  

Lives with his family in beautiful Kendal on the edge of the Lake District.

 

Outside of MORE – Steve is a Punk at heart, and would pass for Captain Jack Sparrow when out of work uniform.

Favourite Door Handle – Kendal Door Handle

 


Alex  Name 
– Alex

 a.k.a – 'Alvin Stardust'

 Role – Kendal Branch Assistant Manager

 Joined - Alex was part of the initial team to set up the new Kendal Branch for More Handles.  Serving for many years in the ironmongery trade, Alex is also a useful technical chap on all things computers.

Outside of MORE – Apparently nothing - just waiting for More Handles to open again on Monday morning!

Favourite Door Handle – Alexander Door Handle

 

meet the team Name – Craig

 a.k.a – 'Howie'

 Role – Kendal Sales Representative

 Joined - 2016

 Background – Craig was another useful part of the new Kendal Branch team.  Brought in to provide a friendly knowledgable face to our new customers in the Lake District and beyond.  Craig spends most of his day driving round the scenic Lake District - it's a tough job but someone's got to do it!

Outside of MORE – Craig's real job is as a professional DJ - think Smashey & Nicey!  Available for birthdays, weddings, and bar mitzvahs!

Favourite Door Handle – Howard Door Handle

 

meet the team Name – Alan

 a.k.a – 'Fatal'

 Role – Kendal Sales Representative

 Joined - 2017

 Background – Alan joined us to complete the Kendal Branch team giving us some useful cover for the busy times and also running the More Handles Mobile Shop - taking our range of ironmongery out on the road to sell direct.  Alan was already well known to the Kendal team and has settled in well. 

Outside of MORE – Turns out Alan is a born again biker and bit of a genius classic motorbike mechanic often present at the Isle of Man TT festival!

Favourite Door Handle – Gela Leather Handle

 

 

 

elaine Name – Elaine Young
 
 a.k.a
 – ‘Lorraine’

 Role – Garbologist

 Joined - 2012

 Background –Elaine works for us part time emptying the garbage and generally trying to clean up after the mess we all make, (well... mainly Andy makes actually).

 Married to Dave (yes, he works here too) with 2 grown up kids.

Outside of MORE – A keep fit fanatic, she has to stay fit to cope with Dave’s OCD!

Favourite Door Handle – Any, as long they don't need cleaning!

 

 

mollie Name – Mollie

 a.k.a – ‘Ronnie & Ronnie’

 Role – Company Mascot

Joined - 2015

Background –Mollie is a cute little black Patterdale Terrier, and is Julie’s little baby.  She is occasionally pressed into service to get dressed up as Ronnie & Ronnie and deliver More Handles Parcels.

Now famous across Facebook and Youtube she hasn’t let the fame go to her head yet.

Outside of MORE – Is a dog!

Favourite Door Handle – Not fussy - will chew on any handle that she can reach.

View my Video – www.facebook.com/MoreDoorHandles 

 

  meet the team

 

So, that's us!  You won't meet a bigger team of door handle nerds.  Now that you know who we are - Email us or give us a call and see if we can help with your next project;

EMAIL - sales@morehandles.co.uk

TEL - 01228 516516.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

          Foxcote Foundries - Antique Door Hardware        

Foxcote Foundries - Antique Door Hardware

foxcote foundries

More Handles are pleased to announce the new Foxcote Foundries range of Black Antique Door & Window Hardware is now online.

Leading UK Ironmongery Supplier, Zoo Hardware have recently launched a new range of traditional black antique door and window furniture.

Foxcote Foundries Door Handle

The popular designs are influenced by the original English blacksmith methods of traditional door fittings and hardware.

All products are manufactured from malleable cast iron, and then given a unique powder coating finish which provides a durable black finish.

foxcote foundries pull handle

Foxcote Foundries have acomplete range of hardware including door handles, door knobs, front door fittings, bolts, window handles and more.

foxcote foundries logo

More Handles can supply the complete Foxcote Foundries range on next day delivery from stock.

foxcote foundries door handle

Please call and speak to one of our door handle specialists if you have any questions;

TEL-  01228 516516

WWW - morehandles.co.uk

EMAIL - sales@morehandles.co.uk


          Door Handles To Improve Your Home This New Year        

With all of the fresh starts that happen in the New Year, sometimes it’s nice to apply little changes that can make a big difference. More Handles specialise in the little things that can make your home feel like new, without having to make major changes that will take up a lot of your time.

We’ve chosen seven of our favourite interior door handles so you can make those little changes in your home. We’ve selected interior door handles that represent a range of different tastes. Our versatile range of door handles allows you to create the exact look you want and may even inspire you to choose something a bit different. Take a look at our selection below and discover which interior door handle will best suit your home in the New Year.

1. Frelan Pew 700 Pewter PVCu Door Handle  

This deceptively simple design packs a big punch. Elegant, clean lines complement the pewter finish to create something truly eye catching. This interior door handle is a simple way to give your home a fresh look for the New Year. All of our pewter door handles use a traditional material in a contemporary way, creating something that is wholly unexpected.

2. Gothic Curved Sprung Lever Handle 

Add a touch of history to your home with a gothic sprung lever handle. This black antique door handle is sure to bring a touch of gothic glamour into your newly decorated home. Door handles are a simple way to help to transform a space at a relatively low cost, why not try it yourself with these gothic interior door handles? They’ll give your home an edge, without it looking over the top.

3. Regency Reeded Door Handle 

These Regency door handles are just perfect for the detail obsessed person in your life. If you’re re-designing your home or room with a specific period in mind then you’ll need to get every detail right. It’s those small attentions to detail that will help lift the room and make it extra special. Choose this interior door handle if you want every detail right.

4. Frelan Comet Door Handle

This celestial-inspired interior door handle will add a dash of style to any home. Its sculptural shape neatly follows the curve of your hand and will create a great focal point to any door. If you want to makeover your home with a nod to modern design then this is the perfect door handle. Try Frelan’s Comet Door Handle to create out of this world detail in your New Year makeover.

5. Pewter Sheraton Door Handle 

The use of mixed materials in this interior door handle make it something a little different. It’ll bring the outdoors inside and give your home some striking detailing. This interior door handle is a great choice for those looking to add a touch of nature to their interiors in the New Year.

6. Eurospec Pro Secure Multi Point Door Handle

You might be carrying out your interior makeover for security reasons, rather than aesthetic. If this is the case then you should invest in a pro secure multi point door handle. This door handle is a good option to replace any tired looking handles in your home. It’ll make you feel secure and give your home a smarter appearance.

7. Ludlow Foundries Curly Tail Door Handle

This interior door handle has hints of Art Nouveau swirled through its design. Artistic and elegant Ludlow Foundries curly tail door handle will give your home a sophisticated air, whilst still remaining practical and beautiful. Opt for this door handle and give hints to your artistic side throughout your home.


          Add Authentic Gothic to Your Home with the Ludlow Foundries Range        
LUDLOW FOUNDRIES DOOR KNOCKER LF5592
LUDLOW FOUNDRIES CURLY TAIL DOOR HANDLE LF5111More Handles is a leading supplier of door hardware to professionals and the general public alike. We have gained a superior reputation for the sale of door hardware and can boast of being able to offer a range which includes selections from prestigious designer brands including Carlisle Brass, Frelan, Ludlow Foundries and more. Our wide selection of brands means that we can offer door handles in a wide range of styles and designs to suit any home.

This includes black antique gothic styled door handles. Ludlow Foundries produce door handles which can completely alter the style of your doors. When you choose Ludlow Foundries you are not only buying stylish gothic door handles but also investing in door handles which will last a long time.

Ludlow Foundries’ gothic door knobs are authentic pieces of black antique ironmongery. The Barley Twist door handle introduces traditional charm to any door with a black antique finish twisted handle attached to a fleur-de-lys styled backplate. The ball knob on Gothic plate is produced in a hammered black antique finish. This gothic door knob is extremely versatile being available with a number of additional options including size and with or without a backplate, meaning that it’s perfect for both doors and cupboards.

At More Handles we have a large portfolio of gothic door knobs that come in fascinating and unique designs, showcasing ironwork with eye-catching qualities. The high quality craftsmanship of these gothic door knobs makes them stand out from the rest, meaning that by choosing Ludlow Foundries you are choosing quality style for your home.

To find out more about the authentic gothic door hardware we have to offer contact our specialists by calling 01228 516516 or email sales@morehandles.co.uk

          Changing Door Knobs: Can You DIY?        

Want To Know How You Can Change Door Knobs By Yourself?  Read on

If you’re looking forward to giving your home a facelift then the best way to kick off those old looks will be by replacing your old door knobs with new ones. Though these tiny elements may not be the cutting edge of decoration, they certainly contribute a lot to the look of your home. Replacing knobs needn’t be a difficult or time consuming task and it is actually quick and easy to do it yourself process. Firstly, you need to remove the old fixture, which can be done by unscrewing it using a screwdriver. Next adjust the door knob backset. Next slide the door knob handle with the shaft attached through the hole of the striker and line up the screw holes on the inside of the knob handle with holes in the striker. The moment the holes are aligned you should slide the other knob handle over the end of the knob duct and cross check if the screw holes are still lined up. Then hold the door knobs in place while sliding one long screw through each of the screw holes of the knob. Using a screwdriver tighten each screw down the rest of the way. Next test if the door knob functions correctly.

 

To Transform The Dull Looks Of Your Door Knobs Visit More Handles:

Now if you’re considering changing your old knobs, then the best place to choose new ones will be More Handles. We are specialist suppliers of door handles and knobs. We source an extensive range of knobs and handles from top notch brands like Carlisle Brass, Ludlow Foundries, From the Anvil and much more. Carrying products from such a massive range of brands means you’ll get what you need. More Handles is well experienced in this field and will be happy to use their skill and expertise to help you with choosing the best door knobs.

 

To explore our collections of door knobs contact us at More Handles Unit 3 Grearshill Road Kingstown Ind Est Carlisle CA3 0E Tel: 01228 516 516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E-mail: sales@morehandles.co.uk


          Exterior Door Handles for Every Property        

In today’s world, door handles are not only considered for their functionality, but also for their decorative qualities. These small pieces of hardware when chosen correctly, can add a beautiful finishing touch to your doors. When selecting handles, especially those going to be used externally, there are a lot of things to be taken into consideration before choosing the right one for you. 

CARLISLE BRASS SZS512NP SEROZZETTA MULTI POINT DOOR HANDLE

Choosing the Best Exterior Door Handle

Firstly, you have to check if they blend in well with the style and feel of your home’s interior. Since these handles are exposed day and night to weather; sun and rain, battered with leaves, dust and dirt blowing in the breeze, it is highly essential to check if these door handles with durable finishes and are made to last long. 

LUDLOW FOUNDRIES MULTI POINT DOOR HANDLE LF56NP92

Door Handles from More Handles

If you’re considering exterior handles with an understated or standout design as well as excellent functionality, then the best place to get them is More Handles. Our experience in this field, as well as vast array of handles, makes us confident that you’ll get exactly what you want from us. We source our products from top notch brands like Carlisle Brass and From the Anvil who are quality conscious and manufacture handles to meet all industrial standards.

Our exterior door handles undergo various processes to stop them from rusting. For example, brass handles undergo physical vapour deposition while black antique handles are phosphated.  Made from robust materials, they are capable of tolerating hostile weather conditions. These handles come in a variety of designs, sizes, styles and long lasting finishes. 

FINESSE PEWTER MULTI POINT DOOR HANDLES - DERWENT FDMP04

Along with excellent functionality, our door handles can enhance the aesthetics of your door instantly. They can also be easily installed and offer excellent security. All our handles come with finishes that can be easily maintained.

To know about our collections of door handles contact us at More Handles Unit 3 Grearshill Road Kingstown Ind Est Carlisle CA3 0E Tel: 01228 516 516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E: sales@morehandles.co.uk



          Door Hardware Specialists More Door Handles Will Help You Choose The Best Handles for the Job        

More Handles has built up an enviable reputation as a global distributor of door hardware. We supply both locally and nationwide. Our goal is to provide excellent and fine quality products that are sourced from leading manufactures who manufacture door hardware to meet all industry standards. So when it comes to quality, More Handles will be your natural choice. You will find unique pieces at our store and no run-of-the mill hardware. We stock door handles in a variety of designs, styles, sizes and finishes.  We will help you choose from our extensive range to best suit your door. We have handles to compliment doors of any period, be it contemporary, traditional or classic. If you’re confused about choosing door handles, a brief discussion below can help you choose the best handles for the job. 

LUDLOW FOUNDRIES CURLY TAIL DOOR HANDLE LF5111

Ludlow Foundries Curly Tail Door Handle LF5111

Our black antique range goes best with all your antique doors giving it a traditional look and feel. These door handles are sturdy and are rust resistant, having been produced by high quality brands including Ludlow Foundries and From the Anvil.  Handles from the From the Anvil range also come in different finishes like beeswax, traditional black and bronze.

 AGED BRASS - PERIOD - REGENCY REEDED DOOR HANDLE CARLISLE BRASS DL3 REGENCY DOOR HANDLE

Polished brass handles and antique brass handles are known for their classic look. More Handles stocks these handles from Carlisle and they have anti-corrosion properties. These pieces of door hardware have a polished look because they are hot stamped, but when left for some time to age, they give a more tarnished appearance.

 

 


KARCHER STOCKHOLM DOOR HANDLE - ER79If you’re looking for handles that can be used in variable conditions, then steel door handles make good choices. They are robust and can withstand the rigours of a harsh environment.

Pewter handles offer a sophisticated look. These door hardware are made from tin and produced with leather gripping that adds to its style. FINESSE PEWTER BERWICK ROSE DOOR HANDLE FD006

If you need any advice on choosing the best handles for your job contact our experts at More Handles Ltd Unit 3 Grearshill Road Kingstown Ind Est Carlisle CA3 0E Tel: 01228 516 516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E: sales@morehandles.co.uk


          Come to More Handles For All Your Door Handle Needs        

If you are looking for door handles to go with your home decor then More Handles is just the place for you. The range of door handles at our store is unmatchable in quality and unique in designs to say the least. The range comprises of some of the very best door hardware designs and it would truly a shame to miss adding a touch of style to your home with our delightful door handles.

 We are a striving, modern and energetic company with the sole purpose to bring you the best in terms of door hardware of all types. Our door handles collection is a perfect fusion between style and elegance along with durability. The door handles that you pick from us are reliable and offer your doors much needed security.  By choosing us, you can have access to well-designed door hardware as well as bespoke solutions.

Our door handles on a backplate are very versatile to suit different home decor. The contemporary door handles comprises of chrome and stainless steel door hardware. We also showcase wonderful designs from Pewter and black antique door handles range. These door handles are perfect for the antique and period look. You can see beautiful door handles in this range from brands such as Anvil, Finesse, Ludlow Foundries and more.

More Handles also has the door handles on rose range. A perfect collection comprising of spectacular door handles. We have black nickel door handles, contemporary door handles on rose, square rose door handles, classic door handles on rose, stainless steel door handles and pewter door handles on rose from brands such as Carlisle Brass, Fortessa, Frelan, Eurospec etc.



          Kitchen Door Handles from More Handles        

Kitchen Door Handles:

Give your kitchen a facelift with kitchen door handles from More Handles. We stock a stunning collection of kitchen handles that can put a lot of essence in adding style functionality to any kind of kitchen. All our handles come in exotic designs and are excellent specimens of craftsmanship. All our handles come with excellent anti-corrosion properties.

You can find them in a variety of eye catching finishes and styles. Our kitchen door handles stocked from famous labels like Carlisle Brass, Frelan, Kirkpatrick, etc., are sure to stand the test of time. Our collections are extensive and can suit any period style home. The kitchen handles from More Handles can spice up your kitchen area in no time. 

 Kitchen Handles from More Handles:

When it comes to kitchen door handles, stainless steel handles are the most popular choice. Not only do these handles give a minimalist and chic look, but also make your entire kitchen sparkle. They are an ideal choice because they can tolerate changeable conditions. They are available in two finishes satin and polished. 

For classical kitchens, brass and bronze handles will are better suited. The tones of brass and bronze are warm and comforting and can add a touch of elegance to your kitchen doors. Even chrome cupboard handles well compliment homes with a classical look. 

For a rustic appeal you can choose kitchen door handles with black antique finishes. Black antique handles come in a variety of tones. You can even find these handles with bees wax finish.

To revitalise your kitchen our kitchen door handles are a must have. For more information contact us at More Handles, Unit 3 Grearshill Road, Kingstown Ind Est, Carlisle CA3 0E Tel: 01228 516 516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E: sales@morehandles.co.uk


          Change Your Cupboard Door Knobs        

Knobs can give your cupboard doors a facelift:

The best way to enhance the form and function of your cupboards is to replace the door knobs. The best way to kick out that old look from your cupboards will be to install cupboard knobs from More Handles. Being specialist suppliers of door hardware, we stock a massive range of cupboard door knobs from renowned brands like Carlisle Brass, From the Anvil, etc. You can find knobs that come in a variety of finishes, styles, materials, designs and sizes. All our knobs are exceptionally durable made from fine quality materials and are highly functional. With such an extensive range, we are confident that you’ll find door knobs that will suit period homes of any style.

More Handles cupboard knobs collections:

For a classic look and feel, choose brass collections. These cupboard door knobs are found in Georgian and Victorian styles. The designs from More Handles can instantly freshen up the look of your tired looking doors. Brass knobs never lose their charm because of their attractive and shining look. These door knobs are sure to give an exquisite touch to your doors and are timeless additions to any home.

Black antique door knobs stocked from Ludlow Foundries and From the Anvil are best for traditionally styled homes. Our collections come with excellent rust resistant properties. They are hand forged and thus have immense strength and can be found in unique designs. Black antique cupboard door knobs are becoming increasingly popular and will never lose their charm.

If you’re looking for knobs that are elegant and graceful, then choose pewter cupboard door knobs. The pewter range goes well with both contemporary styled as well as traditionally style homes.

The above are just a few of our collections, there’s much more. To know more about our collections of cupboard door knobs contact us at More Handles, Unit 3 Grearshill Road, Kingstown Industrial Estate, Carlisle, CA3 0E

Tel: 01228 516516 Fax: 01228 401 847 Email: sales@morehandles.co.uk


          UPVC Door Handles for Patio Doors        

UPVC door handles are becoming increasingly popular as more and more people are looking to improve their homes by installing patio doors and french windows. These handles are the new home decor accessory and are widely being used by architects.  

CARLISLE BRASS M140NP SCROLL MULTI POINT DOOR HANDLE

CARLISLE BRASS M140NP SCROLL MULTI POINT DOOR HANDLE

The handles are made from unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC), an extremely strong and long lasting material. Being so robust, it offers great security and durability while still looking elegant and impressive. This material comes in white so it won’t require painting and it doesn’t warp over time. These handles also have a euro profile keyhole and operate a multipoint lock. 

EUROSPEC NARROW PLATE SAFETY MULTI POINT DOOR HANDLE SWNP11

EUROSPEC NARROW PLATE SAFETY MULTI POINT DOOR HANDLE SWNP11

 

UPVC door handles are exclusively known for their designs that usually have very prominent features. So if you’re design conscious and looking out for sleek and stylish handles then choose multi point handles from More Handles. We stock a vast array of these handles for all types of multipoint door locks.

Our multipoint door handles come in eye catching designs, excellent and long lasting finishes, and different sizes. All our handles are made to satisfy all quality standards, being stocked from A class brands like Ludlow Foundries, Serozzetta, Finesse Pewter and Hoppe, to name a few. They are extremely weatherproof, rust resistant and our range of finishes encompasses brass, chrome, stainless steel, Pewter and black antique. 

EUROSPEC PRO SECURE MULTI POINT DOOR HANDLE ML05012

EUROSPEC PRO SECURE MULTI POINT DOOR HANDLE ML05012

If you have a French door or a patio, then choosing a uPVC door handle is a wise decision. Our collections not only offer style and security, but also come at great prices.

If you need any advice on selecting uPVC door handles contact our specialists at More Handles, Unit 3, Grearshill Road, Kingstown Industrial Estate, Carlisle, CA3 0E  Tel:01228 516516  Fax:01228 401847  E: sales@morehandles.co.uk

 


          Door Knobs to Complement Your Decor        

Door Knobs to Complement your Décor

If you want to add colour and style to your doors, then door knobs from More Handles can do the trick for you. We are leaders in the door hardware industry and scour the globe to bring you the best from some of the finest manufacturers like Carlisle Brass and From the Anvil.

We are confident about their quality, functionality, durability, practicality and aesthetics. All our door knobs can easily impress and delight any on looker. Our collections are available in a variety of styles, designs, sizes and finishes, so you can be sure you’ll find the best piece to suit your door. If you’re interested in choosing from our stylish and practical selections then read on.

Which Style Door Knob is Right for your Home?

FRELAN JC20 PORCELAIN WHITE GOLDLINE DOOR KNOB

You can highlight your doors with our porcelain door knob collections. These door knobs are available in designer looks and clean finishes and are available in a huge range of eye feasting colours to delight and impress instantly.

WENLOCK - FLOWER MORTICE DOOR KNOB - POLISHED BRASS - 39010

Our brass door knobs can be found in exotic and breathtaking designs that can make your doors look simply fabulous. While brass knobs can suit any door, they do go best with Victorian and Georgian styled doors.

FD033 FINESSE PEWTER SWIRL DOOR KNOB

 


Our pewter door knobs are known for their luxurious looks. These knobs are known to endure continuous usage and offer much brighter looks as they age.

For a rustic look you can choose our black antique door knobs. They come in excellent eye catching finishes.

LUDLOW FOUNDRIES OVAL MORTICE DOOR KNOB LF5595

 

We have door knobs to suit every style and budget. For more information contact us at More Handles, Unit 3, Grearshill Road, Kingstown Industrial Estate, Carlisle, CA3 0E  Tel: 01228 516516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E: sales@morehandles.co.uk


          Transform your External Doors with Black Antique Door Handles this Summer        

LUDLOW FOUNDRIES TRADITIONAL DOOR HANDLE LF5502

If you’re looking for door handles that can add a bit of traditional charm to your doors, then the best solution will be to get black antique door handles. These handles are very popular in both traditional homes as well as modern homes which desire authentic pieces of ironmongery. These antique pieces have become very popular over the years because they instantly add a touch of authenticity to any door. If you’re on the lookout for door handles with authentic rustic antique patterns, then head on to More Handles. We are experts in door hardware and stock our products from leading brands such as Carlisle Brass, Ludlow Foundries and Pewter.

LUDLOW FOUNDRIES TRADITIONAL DOOR HANDLE LF5502

 

LUDLOW FOUNDRIES CURLY TAIL DOOR HANDLE LF5117

LUDLOW FOUNDRIES CURLY TAIL DOOR HANDLE LF5117

Carlisle Brass is known for their exceptional quality. This brand has also recently introduced its new black antique door handle range in Ludlow Foundries, the beeswax black and pewter door hardware. If you’re considering getting this new range, then there can be no better place than More Handles. We are specialist suppliers of top quality door handles and we stock a massive collection of an eclectic mix of rustic and traditional black antique handles from Carlisle Brass.

Since we stock black antique door handles in a variety of designs, you’re sure to find something here to best suit your doors. All these handles are hand forged, which makes it possible for you to get access to unique designs where no two pieces are the same. These handles are made using techniques, which make them robust and long lasting. They are also corrosion and weather resistant. The beeswax finish is eye catching and offers additional protection.

Our black antique door handle collections are a real feast to any eyes. To give them a try contact us at More Handles Unit 3 Grearshill Road Kingstown Ind Est Carlisle CA3 0E Tel: 01228 516 516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E: ,sales@morehandles.co.uk


          The widest range of Door Handles from More Handles        
If you’ve ever realized the amazing effect door handles can have on your doors and if you’re searching for one that can lend itself to a clear and strong statement in door design, then it’s time to visit More Handles for premium quality and fantastic handles. We stock the widest range of handles from leading brands like Carlisle Brass, From the Anvil and Ludlow Foundries. From simple to luxurious, we can provide the handles you need to enhance the look of your doors. The superior quality of our door handles, exclusive and extensive designs and finishes is what has made us the handle shop of choice. We strive to keep up with the latest trends, so that you get the best pieces. Our handles are known for their style and functional excellence. Handles from More Handles are robust and hardwearing. To follow your style, read below about some of our brands.

The From the Anvil collections are mostly hand forged in traditional fashion and designs are exact reproductions of the best in English blacksmithing. Door handles from this brand are in great demand because of their timeless appearance and functionality. Their range is available in a number of finishes including, original beeswax, traditional black, stunning Pewter patina and also rustic bronze finish.

Fingertip Design is a major brand within Carlisle brass. Door handles from this brand come in both traditional as well as modern designs. This brand stocks handles for all your requirements. For door handles that will exude quality and style contact specialists at More Handles Unit 3 Grearshill Road Kingstown Ind Est Carlisle CA3 0E Tel: 01228 516 516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E: sales@morehandles.co.uk

          Centre door knobs a style to suit everyone at More Handles        

Door hardware for the front door is often overlooked upon. The front door is what everybody sees first and hence making it appealing will have great impact on the onlooker. The best way you can do this is by incorporating eye catching centre door knobs. These are generally used to pull open or pull shut from the centre, especially when there is no smaller handle at the side. 

If you’re looking at sprucing up your home with these door knobs, then the best place to get them will be More Handles. We stock an extensive array of centre door knobs that come in beautiful designs and eye catching finishes like brass, chrome, black antique, etc. They are usually sold in singles and not in pairs and are attached using a bolt fixed through the reverse side of the door. Our collections include traditional, contemporary, classic knobs. 

Georgian Centre Door Knob
All our handles are sourced from top notch manufacturers like Carlisle, Ludlow Foundries, etc., ensuring high levels of quality and functionality. These door knobs are designed to withstand the heavy use and weathering a front door will inevitably get. For striking additions to your front door choose our Georgian centre door knob. This knob has the Georgian rope design around the top of the knob as well as the edge of the rose. It comes in a polished brass finish and is sure to bring in the Georgian era into your home.

The octagonal centre door knob has a classic octagonal shape with a raised centre and is available in black antique finish.  This knob can be used to give a rustic look and can instantly grace the look of any country house. For eye feasting centre door knobs contact us at More Handles Ltd Unit 3 Grearshill Road Kingstown Ind Est Carlisle CA3 0E Tel: 01228 516 516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E: sales@morehandles.co.uk


          Visit More Handles Shop for utmost Door Handles!        

More Handles has been supplying handles for the past 20 years and is one of the largest door handle showrooms in the UK. They cater for any sized project from small home projects to commercial projects on a huge scale and have a fantastic selection of handles on display.

All these handles come in a variety of designs, styles, shapes and sizes. They come in a massive array of finishes. From traditional to contemporary, designer to period; you’ll find something to suit your tastes and interior decor. All their door hardware is sourced from high quality manufacturers like Carlisle Brass, Samuel Heath, Turnstyle Design, Eurolite, From The Anvil, FTD, Eurospec, De'Leau, Ludlow Foundries, Delamain, Steelworx, Frelan Hardware, and many more who produce handles using the latest methods to offer excellent durability and functionality.

More Handles have a refreshing attitude that makes them constantly strive to bring you new and exciting products along with some fantastic deals and offers. All their handles are competitively priced to suit all pockets. Their handles are designed and crafted using high grade materials and there’s no way that you can go wrong with their selection of door handles. They are extremely particular about customer satisfaction - so you can be sure you’re getting a top-of-the range product from them. 

More Handles Showroom Carlisle

You can be absolutely sure that you are getting exactly what you need when you buy door handles from them. Their handles are made from a range of materials including brass, bronze, steel, black antique iron, pewter and more!

Brass handles come in charming designs and can add a gorgeous gleam to any of your doors. Brass handles come in variety of finishes, never lose their lustre or appeal and make the best option when you’re looking for something unusual.

Their pewter door handles come in dynamic and eye catching designs and have a warm feel with excellent ergonomics. Pewter can be used for all types of interior. It suits both modern interior designs as well as rustic properties and is sure to attract the attention of anyone that looks at it.

Their black antique door handle range consists of real authentic pieces of ironmongery. They come in various finishes and styles to suit a diverse range of interiors.

Stainless steel handles offer an elegant appearance and are highly comfortable to use.

To get your hands on some high quality design door handles contact More Handles now at More Handles Ltd. Unit 3 Grearshill Road Kingstown Ind Est Carlisle CA3 0E Tel: 01228 516 516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E: sales@morehandles.co.uk


          Door Hardware Specialists More Handles Will Help You Choose The Best Handles for the Job        
FROM THE ANVIL PEWTER AVON DOOR HANDLE More Handles supply both locally and nationwide. Our goal is to provide excellent and fine quality products that are sourced from leading manufactures who manufacture door hardware to meet all industry standards. So when it comes to quality, More Handles will be your natural choice. You will find unique pieces at our store and no run-of-the mill hardware. We stock door handles in a variety of designs, styles, sizes and finishes. We will help you choose from our extensive range to best suit your door. We have handles to compliment doors of any period, be it contemporary, traditional or classic. If you’re confused about choosing door handles, a brief discussion below can help you choose the best handles for the job.

Our black antique range goes best with all your antique doors giving it a traditional look and feel. These door handles are sturdy and are rust resistant, having been produced by high quality brands including Ludlow Foundries and From the Anvil. Handles from the From the Anvil range also come in different finishes like beeswax, traditional black and bronze.

Brass handles are known for their classic look. More Handles stocks these handles from Carlisle and they have anti-corrosion properties. These pieces of door hardware have a polished look because they are hot stamped, but when left for some time to age, they give a more tarnished appearance.

FINESSE PEWTER ALLENDALE DOOR HANDLE ON JESMOND ROSE FD071If you’re looking for handles that can be used in variable conditions, then steel door handles make good choices. They are robust and can withstand the rigours of a harsh environment.

Pewter handles offer a sophisticated look. These lever handles are made from tin and produced with leather gripping that adds to its style.

FINESSE PEWTER ALLENDALE DOOR HANDLE ON JESMOND ROSE FD071

If you need any advice on choosing the best handles for your job contact our experts at More Handles Ltd Unit 3 Grearshill Road Kingstown Ind Est Carlisle CA3 0E Tel: 01228 516 516 Fax: 01228 401 847 E: sales@morehandles.co.uk

          Black Antique Door Knobs Can Add Gothic Style To Your Home        
KIRKPATRICK Black Antique Door Knob on Backplate 1212More Handles provide exquisite door knobs at affordable prices. They have built a reputation as leading suppliers of door knobs and source products from exclusive manufacturers, stocking only the best door hardware. Their door handles are crafted with artistic designs whilst providing optimum functionality. More Handles have a great array of designs and finishes. Their door knobs are extremely functional, well known for their longevity and easy to maintain. At More Handles you can find handles in all shapes and styles, ranging from the modern to traditional.

All knobs reflect excellent craftsmanship. They’re manufactured with attention to detail and with utmost precision whilst also meeting current standards and regulations. Door knobs come in a variety of finishes including brass, chrome and pewter, amongst others.
More Handles offer an excellent range of black antique door knobs in authentic patterns. Traditional ironmongery skills have been combined with modern technology to produce a wide range of high quality black antique ironmongery door knobs. Malleable iron is used to create this range of door hardware, giving it immense strength and durability. Black antique door knobs compliment wooden based designs beautifully, enforcing the traditional feel of a room. These door knobs are sourced from Ludlow Foundries, Kirkpatrick Architectural hardware and From The Anvil, amongst others.

FROM THE ANVIL BRONZE OVAL DOOR KNOB 33911These black antique door knobs are rust proof and finished with high quality paints. Their textured surface will add a gothic touch to any of your doors. The Oval mortice knob from the Ludlow Foundries collection is a traditional unsprung door knob. It is comfortable to use and is ideal for cottage style town houses.
The Kirkpatrick mortice/rim door knob is a ribbed knob on a rectangular plate which looks fabulous on ledged and braced doors. The Kirkpatrick door knob on backplate has a scroll lever design and fleur de Lys backplate with a rose in the centre, making it an elegant addition to any household.
The Octagonal door knob from the Anvil range has a strong look and fresh feel. This black antique door knob is flexible and can be adjusted to suit doors of various thicknesses.
The From the Anvil oval knob has a durable design and its traditional black finish makes it ideal for external use.

Black antique door knobs will renovate your doors into traditional pieces. More Handles only stock door knobs that are produced to the highest standards, made by trusted designer brands. To give your doors a timeless and traditional appeal contact their specialists by calling 01228 516516 or email them at sales@morehandles.co.uk

          Make Your Home Unique With Black Ironmongery Antique Door Knobs        
Black antique door knobs have always been considered a luxury in door hardware. This is because the black antique style of door knob has the ability to add a sense of class and history to your home. Antique door knobs are a very popular type of door hardware which are best suited for traditional period properties.

We stock an impressive array of antique door knobs from brands including the Ludlow Foundries, Kirkpatrick architectural hardware and the Anvil. At More Handles we only stock the very best antique door knobs so that you know that you are paying for quality. In particular, our black antique ironmongery door knobs are made to a high quality meaning that they are not only well-made but are also very authentic; by buying antique door knobs you are also buying authenticity. The Ludlow Foundries ball mortice door knob is a brilliant example of this, showing how by buying a door knob from More Handles you are also buying style for your home.

The Anvil round door knob is another equally beautiful looking piece. These door knobs are faithfully reproduced to original designs by hand, meaning that no two Anvil round door knobs are the same. They are solid cast and unsprung making them perfect for use with a heavy sprung latch or lock. You can even choose the finish, whether you want a beeswax look or a powder coat finish. However, perhaps the Kirkpatrick door knob on backplate would be of more interest to you if you fancy something more elaborate, ensuring an authentic antique style. Whatever your taste, the door knob collection at More Handles is bound to house a piece of door hardware to suit you.


          IBM’s Power Roadmap Extended By Chip Breakthrough        

Hot on the heels of the closing of the deal that divests its semiconductor business and places it in the hands of Globalfoundries, the former chip making business of AMD that is controlled by the government of Abu Dhabi, IBM and its academic and chip industry partners have announced that they have successfully etched chips with transistors that are 7 nanometers in size – significantly smaller than current processes and extending the Moore’s Law curve one more step.

It is a big step, however, based on a mix of new technologies that have not been tested in volume production before,

IBM’s Power Roadmap Extended By Chip Breakthrough was written by Timothy Prickett Morgan at The Next Platform.


          Why GlobalFoundries Should Appeal to Apple        
Speculation that Samsung, TSMC, and GlobalFoundries could all supply Apple with its next-generation processors suggests that a wafer fab in the US and a willingness to guarantee preferential access may be key factors in negotiations.
          GLOBALFOUNDRIES demonstrates 2.5D high-bandwidth memory solution        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES today announced that it has demonstrated silicon functionality of a 2.5D packaging solution for its high-performance 14nm FinFET FX-14 integrated design system for application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs).
          AMD has Kaveri refresh for desktops        
AMD has Kaveri refresh for desktops


DeKaveri we heard


We have learned yet another thing about AMD in 2015. The publicly discussed the Carrizo APU that is coming to All-in-Ones and notebooks in the second half of 2015, but many punters have been wondering what is happening on the desktop front. 

A new processor, called Kaveri refresh, is (un)surprisingly a 28nm refresh of Kaveri. It will probably hit some higher speeds, but we don’t expect any miracles when it comes to performance. This part will have a tough time fighting Intel's recent Core i5, Core i3 Haswell refresh desktop offerings, but it helps that Broadwell won’t be making its way to desktop. Intel still plans Skylake desktop parts before the end of the year, which will put more pressure on AMD’s 28 nm part.

AMD will play the price card, as the company will offer really affordable prices on Kaveri refresh processors. Since we already wrote that 20nm won’t happen for GPUs, you can draw your own conclusions, as it seems 20nm is not viable for high performance CPUs either. AMD will have Nolan in 20nm, but this is a low TDP part that kind of makes sense to manufacture in 20nm and probably fights Intel SoCs, as well as Tegra X1 and Snapdragon 810 in terms of performance.

The 50+ Watt parts won’t be coming in 20nm and AMD will have to wait for 14nm FinFET technology from GlobalFoundries and Samsung, with a 2016 launch timeframe. 


          The Art of Remembering: A Conversation with Sigrid Herr        

 7/14/10

memorial artist
Sculptor Sigrid Herr

In an age of mass produced, digitally rendered cemetery markers, Sigrid Herr of Art Of Remembering, creates a qualitatively different product. Collaborating closely with grieving family members, Ms. Herr creates clay models by hand. These forms are in turn cast into beautiful one-of-a-kind bronze memorial cemetery markers. Born and raised in Germany, and currently working in the San Francisco Bay area, she brings 30 years of experience as a sculptor and her own experiences of grieving to make the task of selecting a memorial a healing and creative experience, rather than just a retail one. Ms. Herr has graciously agreed to share a conversation about her work and thoughts on grief and memorialization with the Daily Undertaker.
Pat McNally: You describe your start in creating grave markers to be a collaborative process with other members of your family. I’ve found that the more ways a family can participate in memorializing their loved ones, the more healing that memorial is for them. Could you describe your experience in designing your mother-in-law’s marker?
Sigrid Herr: In the Jewish tradition there is a year between putting a person in the ground and assigning a burial marker. When it came time for us to find one for Celia, my mother-in-law, we considered the options and were disenchanted by all of them: they were bland and unimaginative and felt like a bad match for the beautiful person she was. We wanted to express our gratitude for her, our appreciation, and we wanted to manifest that she was special and loved. Being a sculptor I decided to create a marker rather than buy one online or through a catalog that the funeral home provided. Celia always encouraged and supported me in my work, and owned several of my pieces, so we agreed she would have liked that. Being able to show our caring, express our connection and create a design with Celia in mind helped our family deal the sadness we felt with her death. It was like a last interaction with her, finding a way to represent her, like a portrait.
memorial arts memorial mortuary
Sigrid's late mother-in-law, Celia Schear and her finished marker
When my father died last year, my mother and my sisters and I came together for his funeral. I remember my mother taking comfort in the first raw days after the death of her husband of 60 years by making plans for how she wanted their gravesite to look. It was as if it was her last act of housekeeping and presentation as a couple. In this time which often generates feelings of helplessness and having to accept a huge loss, creative efforts soothe the family left behind and provide an outlet for caring and loving feelings.

memorial arts rememberance service
Sigrid with her father's memorial

Pat: What is the design process like to create a memorial marker for someone you have never met?
Sigrid: I often try to google the person the client calls about, so sometimes I have an idea already about who he or she was and then I can ask better questions.
In conversation, preferably in person rather than over the phone or by e-mail, I try to get a feeling for the person who will be memorialized. The friend or the relative calling usually appreciates the opportunity to talk about the person they lost. I support this by asking questions like what they loved most in the world, what made them happy, where and how they grew up, what their tastes and style were like and about their relationships. I make sure to let them know that I can appreciate the difficult challenge of accepting what they are faced with. I ask for photographs of the person the marker is for which then sit on my work table while I am working on the marker.
cemetery art memorial artist
Design work
I encourage the person calling to think of symbols and designs the person liked, to get together as a family or a group of friends if possible to brainstorm and reminisce. One mother remembered her daughter’s fondness for roses, how beautiful her garden was and how much she loved her plants, and the birds that she watched out of her kitchen window. So I came up with a design that incorporated birds and roses and sent them to her.
I usually end up with a fairly distinct feeling for this person that guides me and inspires my creative proposals and decisions. My goal is to design something that the person would have liked, and something that evokes that person’s memory for the people coming to visit the grave.

memorial lawn mortuary
Creating a border in clay
Pat: Many of us today look to leave a lighter footprint on the earth, with the idea of preserving its beauty and diversity for future generations. Still, our families and friends need to acknowledge that their loved one mattered and their passing matters too. How do you reconcile these two ideas?
Sigrid: I understand and admire the concept of green funerals, its lightness and its commitment to impermanence.
But the creation of bronze markers follows a long artistic and historic tradition. Today we admire and preserve bronze pieces from centuries back, parts of traditions and rituals from times long gone, witnesses that survived due to their strength and durability. When I take walks in old cemeteries, I marvel at old markers, the older they are the more amazing they are to me.
memorial artist
When talking to a friend about how I had found my way from creating figurative sculptures to the making of grave markers, I commented a bit flippantly “how un-Buddhist” my current occupation was. In Buddhism, holding on to the illusion of permanence of any kind is one of the ways we perpetuate suffering. And here I was making fancy grave markers in bronze that most likely would outlive the person commemorated by many lifetimes.
In yet another conversation, one about getting older and facing death (which with my advancing years is becoming more and more personal), my partner in conversation, familiar with my wrestling with this huge elephant-in-the-middle-of-the-room question, commented on how she couldn’t get over the fact that I was making grave markers now. As soon as she brought it up, she voiced her idea of why I was taking to the task with such passion: “You are saying: I was here and it matters. And you are telling the other person: You were here, and it matters.’’ With an instant sensation of heat in my chest and a swelling of tears my body confirmed this as true before my mind followed.
I think there is a place for both, rituals in the spirit of impermanence and rituals that serve as markers of time and history. My awareness of taking up space for centuries and for using precious resources makes it all the more important to me to create consciously and thoughtfully, to not cut corners in terms of the material and the casting process, to care about quality.
I think that beauty and art are a something to be cherished by both individuals and society. One of my goals is to make my markers accessible to people who normally would not be able to afford them. That means making a living by selling enough of them to people who have the money to commission them so I can offer discounts and pro bono work to those with fewer resources.
ritual death new ritual

A marker in its clay stage

Pat: What is it like emotionally and physically to create these memorial markers?
Sigrid: Like many people, I am an obituary reader. The reason why I read the stories and study the pictures is that I feel like I honor the people who have passed away by taking the time to learn about their lives. I honor them by seeing them: you were here, this was your life, a life that spanned years and decades and that is now compressed to mostly 300 words or less. I feel compassion for them, for all that doesn’t get mentioned in the brief write-ups: hardships, growth, set-backs, disappointments, hard work, and weaknesses alongside the more pleasant and presentable facts of life like birth, marriage, children and professional achievements. I feel compassion for all of us working so hard and for mostly wanting to be good and happy. And then death approaches and leaves us with no certainties.
sorrow grief memorial arts
Clay
I am striving to embrace emotionally the Buddhist view of life and our experiences as a succession of clouds on the sky: they come and they go, and that is all and that is enough. No permanence, rather impermanence. I am in awe of this task, trying to tolerate shapelessness when all I know is shapes, creating shapes with my hands, creating shapes in my mind by trying to find explanations and making sense of what I perceive.
I hope I will be able to peacefully embrace shapelessness in this lifetime of mine. I realize how lucky I am to have found a way to work on the answer to this question that stares all of us in the face with more or less intensity at some time in our lives, not just with my mind but with my hands and with my creativity.
So I love my work, because it allows me to express my appreciation for life and for all my fellow human beings with all our frailties, shortcomings and amazing strengths by casting in bronze: Yes, you were here, and yes, it matters.

Cast in wax

Pat: You have an extensive background in sculpture. What were some of your previous projects like?
Sigrid: I initially studied art to be a teacher. I did that for a while, but felt too limited by the challenge to foster and encourage the children’s creativity on the one hand and to judge/grade their work on the other.
When my son Theo started playing with play-dough around age 2, I would work alongside him and more and more sculptures took shape. They came from a place of need that most of us have, a need for moments of sweetness and peace. The idea to sell them arose from the supportive and positive comments of my family, friends and other people who saw the figures. My sculptures all come with a story and from experiences I had. I felt them in a dream or in real life, being a mother, a lover, sitting in meditation. I also expanded to more decorative items for the home and office such as sculptural mirrors, bowls and several small and larger fountains.
memorial mortuary arts
Finished bronze marker
Pat: As a European, do you see differences in the ways we grieve and memorialize in North America?
Sigrid: Growing up in a small town in Germany where I was known and identified by my rank in the family (my father’s oldest daughter and my grandfather’s oldest grand daughter), I remember vividly regular visits to the cemetery with my parents. Equipped with a watering can, a little rake and a rag to polish the gravestone we would make the rounds of the graves of relatives that had passed on. Most of them I had never met, but there was a place to visit them, and, being raised Catholic, we would say a prayer at the end of each visit.
My family and I went through the experience of burying a family member ourselves when my father passed away last August. There were visits to the stone mason, my mother and my sister took a trip to the quarry to select the granite onto which the bronze letters would be mounted. My mother planted flowers on the grave and makes a visit several times a week. It is a healing ritual, and in the area where I come from, it is as important as when I was a child. Overall I would say that there is more family involvement and more individualized memorialization there still. Graves look like small patches of gardens and are being tended by the people mourning. There is often ornate funerary sculpture, guardian angels or religious symbols.
Another difference is the fact that you get to own the grave for a limited amount of time only: after 25 to 30 years most graves usually are made available for new burials. This is true for German cemeteries. I don’t have information how it is regulated in other European countries.
In this country most people are no longer living close to their family burial sites. We get disconnected from the place and the ritual at life’s end.
memorial artist

Marker seated in granite

Pat: The biggest funeral industry catch-phrase these days is personalization. We put stickers on caskets or scan photos onto cards and gravestones. Much of the personalization is more like printing a logo onto the same t-shirt, rather than tailoring a garment to fit a specific person. What is the difference that an artist and the collaborative process can make in a memorial marker?
Sigrid: There is more humanity involved in the process, a connection is made between people, and the work reflects that. I am not saying that there is no humanity involved when you buy a marker online or through a catalogue. But it is limited. When working in close contact with the family, you can have a positive impact on the grieving process. You can engage the people in mourning in a last dialogue with their loved one through this piece of art. You can provide an opportunity for the family to express their love through their involvement in creating something beautiful and personal. Art can be soothing and a personalized memorial marker provides comfort through beauty.
Pat: Words on a monument, perhaps because of their finality and the need to be succinct, take on a lot of meaning. What advice do you give families on wording?
Sigrid: Sometimes it is harder for people who are very close to the deceased person, and very emotionally affected by their passing, to come up with a description of the person’s essence. It feels like a limitation, almost frustrating, to keep it short and succinct, three or four words. There is so much to say usually. That was the way it was in our family when my 17 year old son stepped up to the task, with the words “Loving and Caring.” Often someone with sort of a “beginner’s mind”, a child or an adolescent, or a family friend unencumbered by family dynamics, may have an easier time finding the key words. So it is worthwhile to consider if there is someone who is close but not too close to help with this task. There may be a person who knew the person in a religious or spiritual context who would be glad to be asked. Make it a conversation, use it as an opportunity to remember the person and what was special and important about him or her. Reminisce, cry, celebrate, and sooner or later the memories will get distilled into a few words that capture a person’s essence and presence and that will linger after they have passed on. You will know in your heart when you have found the right words: you feel that you have narrowed it down to what distinguished them from others and what was their life force.
new ritual memorial arts mortuary

A sample showing finish and border options

Pat: Have you thought about what you’d like on your own marker?
Sigrid: Yes, I have. This is a practice that can help provide guidance for your life, helping you become clear about what it is you are striving for. And it may change many times. I regard it as finding qualities to live up to, intentions that shape your actions and that describe your values. So I say with humility, knowing that I fall short daily, that the words I strive to achieve are: kindness - courage - grace. That for me would sum up a life well lived.


A sample showing finish and border options

Pat: Do you have many clients who arrange for the markers to be made prior to death?
Sigrid: I currently am working on a marker that unites seven members of a family. Only two of them, the father and the mother, have died. The other ones are their sons and daughters and their partners who are well into their fifties and sixties. The daughter was the person who contacted me. She had read about my work and was relieved to have found someone to help her realize her dream: to bring her family together, to have a home waiting for all of them at their lives’ end. She was very moved and happy to have found someone to help her make it happen. When you work with one of the big manufacturers, there are limits to what you can do. When you have only dates of birth and not the dates of death to work with, the dates of death will be added on later, etched on a small plaque and screwed on top of the marker. That always looked awkward to me and I figured out a way to make it look integrated and organic: the dates of birth will be part of the plaque, and the dates of death will be added when these times come. They will look identical to the first dates and will be added with the help of a set of numbers that I prepare and that can be used by someone else should I not be there to conclude the work. Such details are important to me and they require creative solutions.
new death ritual memorial arts


A sample showing finish and border options

Pat: In the Bay area where you live and work there is the precedent of San Francisco outlawing burial within the city limits. Most people from San Francisco are in fact buried in Colma. How do you respond to those who say that cemeteries are a waste of good land, and how do you think San Francisco would be different if it still had cemeteries?
Sigrid: Until I started this work I wasn’t even aware of the fact that there are no cemeteries in San Francisco. Then I became familiar with Colma and its cemetery row, and it seems odd to me. It reminds me of what we do with old people: we farm them out into “senior communities”. We came to think that it is normal and desirable for an old person to live amongst people their own age, in senior ghettos. I drive by this huge billboard a lot, advertising senior living: “The life style our Mother deserves”, an older woman surrounded by beaming daughters and other family members. It feels self-serving (the relief of not having to care personally for an older person) and delusional (Mother wants to live in a ghetto ) and short sighted (the daughters will be shoved off into senior living by the grand daughters) to follow this train of thought.
bronze memorial art


A sample showing finish and border options

The same perception applies to creating a cemetery-free city zone with the argument that a burial ground would be wasting precious real estate. Yes, cemeteries take up space. But they also are part of the life of a city, town or village. Banning reminders of death beyond city limits so we can build more condos for the living. So we are not reminded of death.
I believe that cemeteries hold an important space among the living. They serve as reminders of what will happen to all of us. They provide comfort for those grieving. My mother visits my father’s grave several times a week. She visits with him and communicates with him there. It is important to have a place to visit. We are object-oriented people and people who assign spaces to experiences. By removing burial sites out of our daily lives we take away a reminder of our mortality. Only to be shocked into reality when it happens to someone close.
Pat: What can consumers and funeral service providers do to give the arts a greater role in memorialization?
Sigrid: There are consumers who are looking for artistic and unique ways to honor their loved ones. They simply need to be offered more artistic options when deciding on their memorials. My experience is that they will gladly participate.
The funeral industry could contribute by including artists’ work within the range of products offered. It also requires more creative contractual agreements: an artist is unable to work with a funeral home on a wholesale basis like the big foundries do. When you double the wholesale price the piece is usually way out of the financial range of almost any customer. A referral fee arrangement or a referral percentage would make it possible for the funeral home to offer more unique work alongside their traditional offerings, and for the artist to have his or her work exposed to people at the places where they go when a family member or friend passes on, the funeral home or cemetery. I think it is a good solution for all, the funeral service provider, the consumer and the artist.
bronze memorial art
Pat: I hope that funeral directors find more creative ways to work along with artists, celebrants and others so that families can truly benefit from all that is available for them. Thank you so much for sharing your experiences and thoughts with us! To learn more about Sigrid Herr's work, visit her Art of Remembering website, her sculpture website a recent article in the Contra Costa Times, and an article on her work in the SF Gate.

Original Post Date,  WEDNESDAY, JULY 14, 2010


          Regla, Santería        
This Thursday, we started by visiting another pre-school. Typically, such schools service working parents; they're open from 6:00 AM to 7:00 PM Monday through Saturday, and they serve snacks and lunch. The kids are from age 1 to 5 (or 6), and if needed they attend until they transfer to first grade.

I was really struck, again, by how much the teachers do with so very little, and, in this particular pre-school, I was glad to see many pictures and artifacts--sitting side-by-side--representing both the revolution (Che, Fidel and Raul) and Disney and capitalism--glad because to me that signals a deliberate attempt to foster critical thinking from the very start.

At another pre-school we visited (picture of kids in front of old computers by Vicky), I was saddened by the ancient computers available to kids--and, of course, by the fact that they don't have access to the internet.

Nonetheless, Cuba has the highest literacy rate for both females and males (99.8%) and highest number of highly educated professionals in all of Latin America.

Actually, Cuba has the highest literacy rate in the entire world, higher than in the United States (which stands at 99%).

(Check out the statistics from the UN's 2007/2008 Human Development Report.) Admittedly, Cuba has a long history of high literacy rates, even pre-revolution (when it was 76%), but to me, 99.8% is indeed a triumph of Castro's revolution.
____________________

On the way to take the ferry across Havana Harbor from Habana Vieja to Regla, we saw this splendid building, the Russian Orthodox Church.

I really like this picture of the Harbor entrance/exit; the light at the moment I took the picture was perfect and all of my favorite blues show clearly. Havana Harbor is a major port and leading commercial center; it's been a key component of Cuba's long record as a trading center. Sugar and slaves passed through this harbor. Now there's still sugar, but trading is also dependent on tourism, the meat-packing and food-processing industry, production of alcoholic beverages, tobacco, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Fifty per cent of Cuban imports and exports go through Habana Harbor.

This harbor is where the USS Battleship Maine was blown up on 15 February 1898; 260 people died. The Maine had been sent to supposedly protect American citizens in Cuba during struggles between Cubans and Spaniards. It's not certain who did the blowing up, but that event served as the catalyst for American involvement in the struggle. That following 25 April the US Congress declared war on Spain. As a result, Spain lost all her possessions in the new world, and the US emerged as a world power. (Here's an old picture of the Maine.)

_______________________
We took the ferry across Havana Harbor to Regla, the town, and to the Afrocuban/Santería church of Regla, where the Virgen de Regla is the patron saint; she's syncretic with Yemayá, the goddess/deity of the sea, and mother of all living things, in Yoruba religion. Her number is seven (because of the 7 seas), and her colors blue and white. While there, I remembered that in the early 1990s, New Yorkricans Louie Vega and La India recorded a song called "Love & Happiness (Yemayá Y Ochún)" which includes an Afro-Cuban chant. It's now remixed as a housedance number. Listen to it. Okay, just one more song: this one's from the 1950s, I think; it's called "Yemayá" and it's sung by all-time salsera Celia Cruz.

The town of Regla, known for its rich colonial history, is fascinating. It's an industrial suburb with shipyards, docks, refineries and foundries. Nuestra Señora de Regla (aka Virgen the Regla), a Spanish import, has been the town's centerpiece since its official founding in 1765. (Interesting... Regla's sister city is Richmond, California, not far from where I live!)
While in Regla, we visited a museum dedicated to Santería. That was exciting to me, since I first heard of the religion while growing up in the Bronx. I remember once, when I was a teenager, going to a Santería ceremony, because my neighbor was being "crowned" as a high priest. Hmmm... crown is not the right word; maybe it's "annointed." There was a lot of conga and guiro playing, chanting, fierce dancing, animal sacrifices, eating and drinking--and running back and forth for supplies at the nearby Botanica. Check this out (you can find anything on youtube...): here's a video of one of those sorts of Santería ceremonies dedicated to Yemayá.
          Outsourced Services Dominate Semiconductor Assembly and Test Services Market        
It has been observed that in the global SATS market, there is a growing demand for outsourced services. In fact, more than 50% of the market is monopolized by the outsourced services. The trend of the Outsourced Semiconductor Assembly and Test (OSAT) services is anticipated to continue in the long run. Additional features offered by SATS providers over in-house testing services are expected to further fuel the demand from the market. Also, SATS providers facilitate a more efficient supply chain and are hence preferred by integrated device manufacturers (IDM). However, high capital requirement for offering high end packaging solutions, coupled with volatility in the market and fluctuations in exchange rates will restrain the overall market.   Market Players Focussing on Strategic Partnerships with Outsourced Services Providers Some of the prominent players in the global SATS market are ASE Group, STATS chip PAC Ltd., Silicon Precision Industries Company Ltd., Amkor Technology Inc., Powertech Technology Inc., Chipbond Technology Corporation, CORWIL Technology Corp., Global Foundries Inc., and Integrated Microelectronics Inc. (Psi Technologies Inc.). The key players in the market are focussing on gaining the competitive edge through targeting the advanced expensive packaging solutions that would address the growing demand for low power requirements and miniaturization.  Amkor Technology Acquires J-Devices Corp. The market is witnessing a number of strategic alliances and collaborations among the key players owing to growing financial pressures. This month, Amkor Technology Inc. announced that it has acquired 100 percent stakes in J-Devices Corp., a Japan-based semiconductor assembly and testing services company. In October 2009, Amkor partnered with Nakaya Microdevices Corp. and Toshiba Corp. to acquire the assembly and test operations of Toshiba to form J-Devices. In Japan, J-Device is now the largest outsourced semiconductor assembly and test provider and is the sixth largest across the globe. Acquiring J-Devices will strengthen Amkor’s relationships with the prominent semiconductor companies in Japan and will boost its position in the automotive market. J-Devices had a net income of US$30 mn for the year 2015.

Original Post Outsourced Services Dominate Semiconductor Assembly and Test Services Market source Twease
          Increased Adoption of Digital Signal Processing in Consumer Electronics to Drive Global Digital Signal Processing Market        
Over the past few years, the adoption of digital signal processing has increased in consumer electronics. Some of the key industry players in the global digital signal processing market represent electronic design automation vendors, fabless and fab manufacturers, foundries, intellectual property vendors, packaging vendors, and assembly and testing vendors. Some of the applications of digital signal processing are computers and computer peripherals, surveillance, VoIP, wireless communication, medical sector, nanotechnology, radar communication applications, and electronics sector.  The use of digital signal processing in high demand consumer electronics such as digital cameras, printers, and set-top-boxes is expected to propel the global market for digital signal processors. The high cost of the equipment is the major factor expected to hamper the growth of the global digital signal processing market in the years to come. However, increased application of digital signal processors in the automotive industry is expected to propel the global digital signal processors market in the coming few years.  Manufacturers of automobile equipment use digital signal processors to manufacture various parts of vehicles. Location-based service providers also use advanced technology digital signal processors to manufacture various vehicle surveillance equipment. Adoption of digital signal processors has increased in the Asia Pacific and North America regions in the recent past, thus expected to boost the global digital signal processors market in the years to come.   Apart from Asia Pacific and North America, the adoption of digital signal processors is expected to increase in Europe and Rest of the World in the coming few years. The increasing demand for digital signal processors in the wireless infrastructure segment is one of the strong reasons of growth of the global digital signal processors market. Use of advanced technologies in the manufacture of new digital signal processors is another strong reason of growth in the global digital signal processors market. Support from the governments of various countries has helped the leading players to invest in the research and development activities for introducing new digital signal processors. The introduction of a variety of digital signal processors by the leading players in the market is expected to propel the global digital signal processors market in the years to come.   

Original Post Increased Adoption of Digital Signal Processing in Consumer Electronics to Drive Global Digital Signal Processing Market source Twease
          Drainspotting Blog Goes Print        
Remo Camerota’s blog of Japanese manholes is now availiable in coffee table print form for everyone to see the bizarre imagery unpluged. Camerota has collected images of the striking manhole covers from all over Japan that were created as part of Japan’s 20 year beautification program that included multiple foundries and pitted once city against another to […]
          Semiconductor Industry witnesses Shift in Capacity Equipment and Spending Trends, Says SEMI        
According to SEMI, the trend in spending more money to upgrade the already existing facilities and electronic equipment is higher than the trend of investing in new additions. The new additions occur at a slower pace.  Today, spending trends in the semiconductor industry has changed. Earlier, in 2009, the capacity of expansion corresponded to the equipment spending, however, now the times have all changed.   SEMI added that the 2013 installed capacity growth aped the economic crisis trend that supported the data improvement during the 2014 and 2015 capacity expansion.  In the five years of duration between the 2003 and 2007, the annual growth rate of the new capacity expansion had increased from 6% as recorded in 2003 to 20% growth in 2007. These figures had almost doubled the fab capacity in the five years of duration, according to SEMI’s observation. The events were mainly driven by the NAND and DRAM companies in Korea, China, and Taiwan.  However, this condition was before the 2009 crisis. After 2009, new capacity additions trended below pre-2009 growth rates. The growth of new capacity fell from 7% (2010) to about 4% (2014). There were only 17% of new capacity addition seen in the five years, indicated SEMI.  Since then it has been observed by the SEMI that the costs levied on upgrading the existing equipment have grown sharply. The expansion projects namely new fabs accounts for the majority of the fab equipment spending, but in lesser proportions.  On the other hand, the dedicated foundries increased at a steady growth of 10% in 2013 and will add another 8-10% in 2014.  NAND which lost about 4% of capacity in 2012, increased by 10% in 2013, and will add another 5-8% in 2014.  DRAM on the flip side does not expect new capacity in 2013 and 2014, while MPU may add up some new capacity by 2014, said SEMI.

Original Post Semiconductor Industry witnesses Shift in Capacity Equipment and Spending Trends, Says SEMI source Twease
          Race to 14-nanometer technology        


To the production technology for transistors with 14 nm wide structures, a race has developed, at least in press releases concerns. It is not always clear at what stage of development are the respective companies and exactly when the first semiconductor devices with 14-nanometer structures actually occur in final products that can be purchased at retail. Also, the characteristics of the different manufacturing processes are hardly comparable.

At Intel, it was clear that after running this year 22-nm process technology, the 14-nm technology is applied; probably Broadwell processors come with 14-nm structures in 2014 the market.




The world's largest contract manufacturer TSMC had mentioned 14-nm process technology as early as 2010 and early 2011 announced that they wanted to use them as "2015 or 2016" on wafers of 450 mm diameter. While Intel relies on multi-gate or "3D" transistors, TSMC speaks like most other chip shop of FinFETs. Which may have great importance, when "14 nm", the effective gate length of the transistors, it is meant that dimension that is specified is not readily comparable to the case of planar transistors.

After Globalfoundries had in June by the "uncertain 14-nm node," spoken, the second largest contract manufacturer surprised in September with the announcement of wanting FinFETs finished with 14Nm XM technology from 2014. It wants Globalfoundries benefit from the "maturity" of the "modern" 20-nanometer technology, which also surprised because so far not even products with 28-nm chips will be added in the manufacturing of Globalfoundries to be available. The delivery of 20-nm chips GlobalFoundries has not been announced. In 14-nm planar transistors XM will also be provided with 20-nm structures.

UMC had reported in July, taken out of the self-developed process for 20-nm planar transistors also technology for 20-nm FinFETs by IBM under license. In November UMC then announced develop based on these 20-nm technology from IBM for 14-nm FinFETs. How this approach can be compared with the Globalfoundries and expire when this production technology is, is still unclear.

End of October, Cadence had announced that IBM has completed a test chip with ARM Cortex-M0 with 14-nm FinFET s on FD-SOI wafers. Again, no specific timetable for series production was announced.

Now, Samsung has finally registered in the 14-nm-Club. Together with ARM, Cadence, Mentor and Synopsys you have implemented the tape-out of several test chips with Cortex-A7 cores and SRAM cells successfully. The tape-out does not mean that these components have been successfully produced.


          By: justaknitter        
Willis, Field's Spring State Park, Rattlesnake Grade and Wallowa County...consider taking this route home. My Dad is logging his property near the state park. He loves this land and the trees and has managed his 160 acre plot with great care. It stands in contrast to the let nature do its thing (fire hazard) style of management practiced by the state park. This is hot and dry country and clear cutting would be very poor practice. This same property was logged in a similar fashion 30 years ago by my grandfather. Could you be tempted to document this love and use of resources? From my Dad's place you take Rattlesnake Grade: http://www.motorcycleroads.com/75/642/Washington/Rattlesnake-Pass-to-Wallowa-Lake.html and cross into Wallowa County, Oregon. If you happen to pass through the last weekend of July, you will be there during Chief Joseph Days Rodeo. (the population of the county quadruples, makes for stop and go traffic and cranky natives) The little town of Joseph is home to bronze foundries, artists and cowboys, and the previously mentioned Buffalo. The mountains aren't bad either https://www.google.com/search?q=wallowa+mountains&espv=2&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=RLDGU7rBCOPSiwLCjIDQCA&ved=0CCsQsAQ&biw=1366&bih=667 PS. My dad is a huge bluegrass fan. If you can boom-chuck on that guitar I can guarantee a great meal. Pie of your choice for You are My Sunshine.
          (USA) Engineer Equipment Engineering        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking skilled equipment engineers in the area of EPI, ALD, and RTA related equipment. Equipment Engineers report directly to a functional area module manager in Fab8 in Malta, NY. The primary responsibilities of this position are to manage and optimize the toolsets in order to meet the overall technology roadmap, improve overall equipment cost, establish and optimize procedures to ensure target equipment availability and startup new equipment and major upgrades to support 14nm and beyond. *Essential Responsibilities:* * Establish and maintain maintenance procedures and specifications for specific toolsets * Demonstrate advanced equipment troubleshooting solving skills * Utilize structured problem solving approach to complex equipment related issues * Lead and work in cross functional teams * Improve equipment capability/defect reduction/throughput improvement for high volume manufacturing using statistical process control, DOE techniques, data driven decision making and systematic problem solving skills. * Use lean manufacturing and six sigma processes. * Reduce equipment parts cost by improving procedures, second sourcing, and lifetime extensions * Setup and ensure full FDC coverage across specific toolsets * Participate in troubleshooting taskforces as needed and help develop solutions that prevent recurrence * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements and programs *Required Qualifications:* * BS degree in Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science, Solid State Physics or equivalent relative experience. * 1 years of Semiconductor equipment engineering experience in Epitaxy, ALD, RTA, or related semiconductor equipment discipline. * Fluent in English language *Preferred Qualifications:* * Experience in advanced technology (14nm or below) is strongly preferred. * Excellent interpersonal skills, energetic and self-starter * Demonstrated ability to work well within a global cross functional team or environment * Outstanding communication skills - both written and verbal * Demonstrated ability to communicate well with all levels of the organization and experience in working with external constituencies * Strong organizational skills; demonstrated ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously and able to react to shifting priorities to meet business needs * Demonstrated ability to meet deadlines and commitments If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email at usaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Engineer Equipment Engineering* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004903*
          (USA) Principal Engineer Factory Automation        
Factory Automation Engineer participates in multidisciplinary projects designing, implementing and sustaining Factory Automation Applications for GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 in Malta, New York. This role will primarily entail gaining a comprehensive understanding of the equipment integration strategy in Fab 8 in order to support existing applications as well as implementing new ones to enhance productivity. This role is Bangalore based but will liaise with global teams to perform their tasks. Specific Responsibilities: * Gain in-depth understanding of GLOBAL FOUNDRIES equipment interfaces and related systems. * Design, develop and test Equipment Interfaces and other Automation Applications using object oriented methodologies. * Collaborate with internal partners to specify and prioritize requirements, develop effective solution proposals and deliver/validate quality solutions. * Utilize GLOBAL FOUNDRIES factory systems in order to test and support Equipment Interfaces and other Automation Applications. * Keep abreast of innovations within the Factory Automation disciplines and roadmaps in our industry and drive continuous improvement in the performance of this function within GLOBAL FOUNDRIES . * Collaborate with the GLOBAL FOUNDRIES 300mm factories to improve upon a cost effective global equipment integration strategy which leverages reuse, standardization and innovation across factories. Required Qualifications: * Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in computer science or software engineering. * Relevant internship experience or 1 years of experience as a software engineer. * Experience developing software for Unix/Linux operating systems * Experience with object oriented development methods and expertise in object oriented programming languages such as Smalltalk, Java, C , C# or Python. * Experience with SEMI standards and MES (Manufacturing Execution System) such as SiView, FACTORYworks or FAB300. * Equipment automation experience using the SEMI software standards * Excellent verbal and written communication skills * Strong interpersonal skills and ability to work effectively in a multicultural environment * Proven technical writing skills * Excellent organizational and time management skills Preferred Qualifications: * Experience with SmallTalk is a plus * Experience with supporting infrastructure using MQ, XML, HTTP and Corba * Experience developing and sustaining software solutions in support of mission-critical systems in a 24x7 operational environment * Experience in Semiconductor / Solar / LED Fab or Fabless Environment **Title:** *Principal Engineer Factory Automation* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004867*
          (USA) Principal Engineer Factory Automation        
Factory Automation Engineer participates in multidisciplinary projects designing, implementing and sustaining Factory Automation Applications for GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 in Malta, New York. This role will primarily entail gaining a comprehensive understanding of the equipment integration strategy in Fab 8 in order to support existing applications as well as implementing new ones to enhance productivity. This role is Bangalore based but will liaise with global teams to perform their tasks. Specific Responsibilities: * Gain in-depth understanding of GLOBAL FOUNDRIES equipment interfaces and related systems. * Design, develop and test Equipment Interfaces and other Automation Applications using object oriented methodologies. * Collaborate with internal partners to specify and prioritize requirements, develop effective solution proposals and deliver/validate quality solutions. * Utilize GLOBAL FOUNDRIES factory systems in order to test and support Equipment Interfaces and other Automation Applications. * Keep abreast of innovations within the Factory Automation disciplines and roadmaps in our industry and drive continuous improvement in the performance of this function within GLOBAL FOUNDRIES . * Collaborate with the GLOBAL FOUNDRIES 300mm factories to improve upon a cost effective global equipment integration strategy which leverages reuse, standardization and innovation across factories. Required Qualifications: * Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in computer science or software engineering. * Relevant internship experience or 1 years of experience as a software engineer. * Experience developing software for Unix/Linux operating systems * Experience with object oriented development methods and expertise in object oriented programming languages such as Smalltalk, Java, C , C# or Python. * Experience with SEMI standards and MES (Manufacturing Execution System) such as SiView, FACTORYworks or FAB300. * Equipment automation experience using the SEMI software standards * Excellent verbal and written communication skills * Strong interpersonal skills and ability to work effectively in a multicultural environment * Proven technical writing skills * Excellent organizational and time management skills Preferred Qualifications: * Experience with SmallTalk is a plus * Experience with supporting infrastructure using MQ, XML, HTTP and Corba * Experience developing and sustaining software solutions in support of mission-critical systems in a 24x7 operational environment * Experience in Semiconductor / Solar / LED Fab or Fabless Environment **Title:** *Principal Engineer Factory Automation* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004868*
          (USA) Principal Engineer Factory Automation        
Factory Automation Engineer participates in multidisciplinary projects designing, implementing and sustaining Factory Automation Applications for GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 in Malta, New York. This role will primarily entail gaining a comprehensive understanding of the equipment integration strategy in Fab 8 in order to support existing applications as well as implementing new ones to enhance productivity. This role is Bangalore based but will liaise with global teams to perform their tasks. Specific Responsibilities: * Gain in-depth understanding of GLOBAL FOUNDRIES equipment interfaces and related systems. * Design, develop and test Equipment Interfaces and other Automation Applications using object oriented methodologies. * Collaborate with internal partners to specify and prioritize requirements, develop effective solution proposals and deliver/validate quality solutions. * Utilize GLOBAL FOUNDRIES factory systems in order to test and support Equipment Interfaces and other Automation Applications. * Keep abreast of innovations within the Factory Automation disciplines and roadmaps in our industry and drive continuous improvement in the performance of this function within GLOBAL FOUNDRIES . * Collaborate with the GLOBAL FOUNDRIES 300mm factories to improve upon a cost effective global equipment integration strategy which leverages reuse, standardization and innovation across factories. Required Qualifications: * Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in computer science or software engineering. * Relevant internship experience or 1 years of experience as a software engineer. * Experience developing software for Unix/Linux operating systems * Experience with object oriented development methods and expertise in object oriented programming languages such as Smalltalk, Java, C , C# or Python. * Experience with SEMI standards and MES (Manufacturing Execution System) such as SiView, FACTORYworks or FAB300. * Equipment automation experience using the SEMI software standards * Excellent verbal and written communication skills * Strong interpersonal skills and ability to work effectively in a multicultural environment * Proven technical writing skills * Excellent organizational and time management skills Preferred Qualifications: * Experience with SmallTalk is a plus * Experience with supporting infrastructure using MQ, XML, HTTP and Corba * Experience developing and sustaining software solutions in support of mission-critical systems in a 24x7 operational environment * Experience in Semiconductor / Solar / LED Fab or Fabless Environment **Title:** *Principal Engineer Factory Automation* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004862*
          (USA) Princple Analyst HRIS        
Job Summary · Research, analyze, design and maintain information systems in support of human resource administration and projects. · Coordinate and manage the planning and execution of HR applications developments/enhancements and maintenance activities. · Exercise judgment in selecting system methods. · Be a change agent to improve HR process efficiency using systems as the enabler. · A strong focus will be on system solutions and project management with IT and stakeholders and data analytics and fulfilling analytics demand from stakeholders. · Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements and programs Required Qualifications: · University degree, college degree or equivalent education with a focus on Human Resources, Information Technology, Computer Science or a related field is required. · Minimum of 2 - 3 years of professional experience in IS/IT project management · Excellent MS Office/Excel and Google Office skills · Strong understanding of HR processes and data integrity requirements · Previous experience administering HR systems and assisting with upgrades or implementations · Technical and functional knowledge in Data modeling. Data mining, PeopleSoft v8.8 and above, Taleo, & PowerBI preferred. Preferred Qualifications: · Ability to provide consultative advice and decision-making · Proactive in resolving potential System risks/issues and ability to operate successfully with a high degree of autonomy · Ability to work independently and perform under pressure · Strong attention to detail and ability to manage high volume with accuracy · Proficiency to perform stand up training for HR system · Ability to interact with all levels of the organization. If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email at usaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. #LI-AO1 **Title:** *Princple Analyst HRIS* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004834*
          (USA) Process Engineer        
*GLOBALFOUNDRIES*Fab 8 is seeking a skilled engineer. This position is for a Process Engineer to support_HKMG, ALD, RTP or EPI_processing. The Process Engineer position reports directly to a functional area module manager in Fab8 in Malta, NY. The primary responsibilities of this position are to conduct equipment evaluations with major semiconductor vendors, define initial tooling needs for start-up, develop and/or optimize unit processes in order to meet the overall technology roadmap and device performance requirements for 14nm technology node and beyond. ** *Specific Responsibilities Include:* * Continue to improve process robustness for high volume manufacturing using statistical tools, DOE techniques, data driven decision making and systematic problem solving skills. Use lean manufacturing and six sigma processes * Participate in troubleshooting taskforces as need and help develop solutions that prevent recurrence * Support Integration team and Quality organization to ensure technology meet the qualification and reliability requirements. * Support process and technology transfer from customers and other GLOBALFOUNDRIES fabs to Fab8 * Support the efforts of the internal technology development team * Participate in the evaluation of toolsets, and defining best tools for Fab 8 ramp-up. * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements and programs *Required Qualifications**: * * B.S. degree in_Microelectronics,_Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science, Solid State Physics or other relevant engineering physical science discipline is required. * 2-4 years of relevant experience is required. * * *Preferred Qualifications:* * M.S. degree or PhD degree in_Microelectronics_, Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science, Solid State Physics or other relevant engineering physical science discipline is preferred. * 5 years of Semiconductor process engineering experience in the process area is desired; experience in advanced technology (28nm or below)_HKMG, ALD, RTP or EPI i_s strongly preferred. * 5 years’ experience with design of experiment techniques and data analysis. * Excellent interpersonal skills, energetic and self-starter * Demonstrated ability to work well within a global matrixed team or environment * Outstanding communication skills - both written and verbal * Demonstrated ability to communicate well with all levels of the organization and experience in working with external constituencies * Strong organizational skills; demonstrated ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously and able to react to shifting priorities to meet business needs * Demonstrated ability to meet deadlines and commitments If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email atusaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Process Engineer* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004934*
          (USA) Thin Films/PVD Intern        
Summary of Role : The intern will learn the fundamentals of Aluminum deposition engineering for semiconductor applications.In his role, the intern will learn how to improve process robustness for high volume manufacturing using statistical tools, DOE techniques, data driven decision making and systematic problem solving skills.He/she will learn the business processes for robust process recipe change management, and will be in charge of supervising process quality and improving process defectivity.To this end, he/she will learn the metrology tools relevant to the characterization of Aluminum films.At the end of the internship, the intern will be familiar with metal deposition for fabrication of leading-edge semiconductor devices. Essential Responsibilities : * Metal films characterization and defects library analysis * Daily statistical process control for Al dep. tools * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements and programs Required Qualifications : * Education – Graduating Senior or Junior in B.S. degree in Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science, Solid State Physics or other relevant engineering physical science discipline is required. * Language Fluency – English. Strong communication skills - both written and verbal. If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email at usaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with* GLOBAL ** FOUNDRIES *is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. * GLOBAL ** FOUNDRIES *is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Thin Films/PVD Intern* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004930*
          (USA) Process Engineer-Metrology        
The position will be located at GLOBALFOUNDRIES in Malta, New York, and report to the Fab 8 Diffusion/Implant/Cleans/Metrology Process Manager. *Essential Responsibilities:* * Work on development or transfer of recipes for a variety of metrology tools used in advanced manufacturing processes. * Perform tool evaluation and selection for advanced manufacturing processes. * Perform tool startup verifications and ensure ongoing tool matching for critical processes. * Engage in continuous improvement activities on your tools and develop solutions for higher throughput and improvement in tool performance. * Define and utilize a system to optimize tool performance with respect to tool stability as measured by SPC and engage in fleet matching activities for the toolsets you own. * Develop BKMs (best known methods) to be used for both recipe generation and optimal tool performance * Troubleshoot performance detractors including root cause analysis of particles generation. * Define process and tool improvement plan to drive tool performance to factory and team KPIs(key performance indices). * Train of shift engineers and technicians on tool operation and issue resolution using BKMs. * Work very closely with colleagues from the all the unit process and integration groups to promptly implement their specific requests to increase the reliability and effectiveness of your services. * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety and Security requirements and programs. *Required Qualifications:* * BS, Engineering, * Language Fluency-Fluent in English Language-written & verbal *Preferred Qualifications:* * Previous Engineer internship or Co-Op experience; manufacturing or semiconductor industry. * Graduate degree (MS), Engineering. Excellent interpersonal and presentation skills, energetic and self starter. * Outstanding communication skills - both written and verbal. Demonstrated ability to communicate well with all levels of the organization and experience in working with external constituencies. * Strong organizational skills along with demonstrated ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously and able to react to shifting priorities to meet business need. * Demonstrated ability to meet deadlines and commitments. Individuals will be and must be able to understand complex automated systems and human interactions. * Individual must be well versed in all Microsoft Applications (Excel, Word, PowerPoint). If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email at usaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Process Engineer-Metrology* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004929*
          (USA) Engineer Process Engineering-Lithography        
*Process Engineer* GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated engineers to become part of our state of the art 300mm factory in Malta, New York. Along with a team of engineers, process technicians and maintenance technicians you will be responsible for maintaining the quality and process capabilities of a highly automated, wafer fabrication facility. *Essential Responsibilities:* * Coordinate with Manufacturing Engineering to review daily goals/priorities, project statuses, and qualification timelines. * Support engineering and development activities to achieve the desired WIP turns and cycle time goals. * Learn and become a system expert on department manufacturing equipment. * Work on continuous improvement projects to optimize processes with regards to process stability and wafer yield. * Help establish and execute specific department plans and strategies to support the fab to achieve manufacturing KPIs. These include cycle time, line yield, OEE (overall equipment efficiency) * Participate in a "Continuous Improvement" program and follow "Lean Manufacturing" practices in the department to improve productivity and cost effectiveness. * Support Fab8’s efforts in building a world class organization, achieving manufacturing excellence and establishing a team based collaborative culture. * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements and programs. *Required Qualifications:* * BS or MS degree in Engineering/Technical area with 0-2 years of experience * Fluid in English Language *Preferred Qualifications:* * Previous Engineer internship or Co-Op experience; manufacturing or semiconductor industry * Graduate degree (MS or PhD), Engineering * Excellent interpersonal and presentation skills, energetic and self starter * Outstanding communication skills - both written and verbal * Demonstrated ability to communicate well with all levels of the organization and experience in working with external constituencies * Strong organizational skills along with demonstrated ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously and able to react to shifting priorities to meet business need * Demonstrated ability to meet deadlines and commitments * Individuals will be and must be able to understand complex automated systems and human interactions. * Individual must be well versed in all Microsoft Applications (Excel, Word, PowerPoint …). If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email atusaccommodations@globalfoundries.comand let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Engineer Process Engineering-Lithography* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004927*
          (USA) Engineer Equipment Engineering        
*Job Summary:* The Fab 8 Cleans Equipment Engineering Team is seeking a smart, motivated new/recent college graduate to help create the future by making the world a better place by manufacturing the devices that make the world run. The position will be located at GLOBALFOUNDRIES in Malta, New York, and report to the Fab 8 Cleans Equipment Manager. *Essential Responsibilities:* * In your role as Equipment Engineer you are responsible to support the Fab8 Cleans Operations team. This responsibility includes, but is not limited to: * Drive equipment planning, equipment selection and configuration with the area process engineers * Own installation, start up and volume ramp for all respective semiconductor process equipment * Strong focus on keeping timelines and cost/budget control * Primary decision maker with facilities for equipment hookup and subsequent control * Establish and manage the equipment budget, cost model (multi-million dollar budgets per year) * Work in close collaboration with Process and Manufacturing * Establishment of the equipment engineering and maintenance related business processes, necessary to run the tools in production, as well as their documentation according to quality standards. * Develop and train the equipment technicians. Create materials and perform training of technicians working on tools in the area. Also includes owning the training budget. * Ensure close interaction with equipment suppliers. Supplier management – own escalation to the supplier of issues (includes calling in specialist – travel, service changes) * Define and control maintenance contracts as well as their continuous improvement * Advanced trouble shooting of semiconductor process tool issues. * Trace data analysis using OEM’s application * Trace data analysis using current FDC implementation * Able to read and understand tool schematics (electrical, PIDs, utilities diagrams) * Set up Equipment performance KPIs, monitoring and adjustment according to fab goals * After equipment start-up / ramp up responsibility for all daily equipment engineering tasks including performance tracking, continuous improvement and cost reduction programs * Ensure continuous knowledge exchange on best known methods and improvement levers with GlobalFoundries. Translate changes in other factories to improvement actions within current fab. * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety and Security requirements and programs *Required Qualifications:* * B.S. Degree in Electrical, Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Chemistry, Physics or other relevant engineering/physical science discipline is required. * Ability to travel internationally (<5%) If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email at usaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Engineer Equipment Engineering* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004926*
          (USA) Engineer Process Engineering - CVD        
Fab 8 is seeking a Process Shift Engineer to support Thin Films CVD. The Process Engineer position reports directly to a shift manager in Fab8 in Malta, NY. The primary responsibilities of this position are to maintain Process Engineering support across multiple processes on shift. Help to optimize/ stabilize processes in order to meet the overall technology roadmap and device performance requirements for 14nm technology node and beyond. Specific Responsibilities Include: * Continue to improve process robustness for high volume manufacturing using statistical tools, DOE techniques, data driven decision making and systematic problem solving skills. Use lean manufacturing and six sigma processes * Participate in troubleshooting taskforces as need and help develop solutions that prevent recurrence * Support Integration team and Quality organization to ensure technology meet the qualification and reliability requirements. * Support process and technology transfer from customers and other GLOBALFOUNDRIES fabs to Fab8 * Support the efforts of the internal technology development team * Participate in the evaluation of toolsets, and defining best tools for Fab 8 ramp-up. * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements and programs. * Act as technical expert on shift to support technician team with maintaining 24/7 coverage. * Flexible schedule to allow for specific Process training with Engineer's across the module. * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements and programs Required Qualifications : * BS degree or MS degree in Microelectronics, Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, Materials Science, Solid State Physics or other relevant engineering physical science discipline is required with 0-2 years of relevant experience, co-op/intern or course study experience considered relevant. *Preferred Qualifications:* * Experience Semiconductor process engineering in the process area is desired or relevant learning/experience. experience in advanced semiconductor technology strongly preferred. * Experience with design of experiment techniques and data analysis. * Excellent interpersonal skills, energetic and self-starter * Demonstrated ability to work well within a global matrixed team or environment * Outstanding communication skills - both written and verbal * Demonstrated ability to communicate well with all levels of the organization and experience in working with external constituencies * Strong organizational skills; demonstrated ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously and able to react to shifting priorities to meet business needs If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email at usaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Engineer Process Engineering - CVD* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004711*
          (USA) Adv. Module Engineering - Planner Business Operations        
*Summary of Role:* This position will have the primary responsibility of Budgeting and planning of responsible Module’s needs to support both day to day operation and installation/qualification requirements for new tool/materials. This position needs close interaction work with both external and internal teams. This position will be located at GLOBALFOUNDRIES in Malta, New York, and report to the Fab 8, Business Operations (Module Planning) Manager. *Essential Responsibilities:* * Monitor and control costs within the module, identifying and ensuring cost reduction methodologies are employed * Plan and schedule significant tool events such as new installation, line flushing, Major PM. * Coordinate Chemical forecasts and demands with Facilities & Procurement. * Handling all the Capital Equipment Purchase documentation for responsible team. * Preparing Budgeting and forecasting of Materials and Maintenance needs. * Proactively involves others in planning, decision making and implementation. * Supplier and vendor communication regarding quotes for purchases and annual maintenance. * Preparation of reports for monthly team meetings and at Customer’s request. * Deals effectively with people on project teams. * Effectively uses communication to influence peers, subordinates, management, customers and vendors when appropriate. Influences people in a positive fashion. * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements and programs *Required Qualifications:* * B.S Degree in Electrical/Mechanical/Materials/Chemical/Industrial Engineering or Business Study/Management/Marketing/Economics or an A.S. Degree with a minimum of 5 years engineering experience * Excellent organizational and team work skills * Prior experience in communicating well with all levels of the organization * Proficiency in English – (Written and Verbal) * Experience in driving internal and external CIP projects and aggressive cost reduction roadmaps * Ability to travel internationally for business as required *Preferred Qualifications:* * Oracle data entry knowledge. * High degree of social, intercultural, and analytical competencies; persuasive communication capabilities * Strong continuous improvement mindset, permanently driving to identify and eliminate waste and errors in business processes, work procedures and instructions, work organization * Ability to understand complex situations quickly, react accordingly and manage multiple tasks simultaneously to react to shifting priorities to meet business needs * Strong Excel skills including formulas, pivot tables and data extraction * Able to use Power Point for reporting. * Proven experience keeping timelines and cost/budget control If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email at usaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Adv. Module Engineering - Planner Business Operations* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004913*
          (USA) Engineer Equipment Engineering-Thin Films        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is seeking a highly skilled and motivated Equipment or Maintenance Engineer for ThinFilms (CVD) as an integral member of the team. This engineering role maintains and improves AMAT CVD manufacturing tools and support equipment availability via defining BKM and procedures for scheduled and non-scheduled activities in GLOBALFOUNDRIES. *Essential Responsibilities* * Analyzing complex technical opportunities and then driving improvements in quality of maintenance work, cost, and availability throughout the AMAT CVD deposition fleet. Examples might include conducting experiments to reduce defect levels, to improve process stability (Cp/Cpk), to improve equipment efficiency, to improve product yield, to lower defect levels, to improve quality, or to reduce processing costs. * Work directly with the other Malta Equipment engineers, maintenance technicians, and suppliers on PM and CM procedures. This work will result in PM procedures for the tools. * Set up and maintain FDC, SPC and other systems for the tools. * Shows mastery of some aspects of a technical discipline, with recognition for his/her contributions as technical team member. * Initiative and creativity are exercised within limits defined by job scope. * Uses standard engineering methods to analyze and resolve problems. * Works on projects, assignments and problems of moderate scope. * Perform all activities in safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements & Programs. *Required Qualifications:* * BS Degree with a minimum of 1-3 years of relevant experience * Language Fluency - Fluent in English Language - written & verbal *Preferred Qualifications:* * Master Degree in Eng. or Science fields * Experience in advanced technology (45nm or below) in 300mm factory * Semiconductor engineering experience in AMAT Producers Equipment OR Process Engineering * Excellent interpersonal skills, energetic, motivated, and self-driven * Demonstrate ability to work well within a global matrixes team or environment with minimal supervision * Outstanding communication skills - both written and verbal * Demonstrated ability to communicate well with all levels of the organization and experience in working with external constituencies * Strong organizational skills; demonstrated ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously and able to react to shifting priorities to meet business needs * Demonstrated ability to meet deadlines and commitments * Familiar with 5S, 8D, 6-sigma, SPC, DOE, FMEA * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety & Security requirements and programs If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email at usaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Engineer Equipment Engineering-Thin Films* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004910*
          (USA) Engineer Process Engineering-Metrology        
*Process Engineering - Metrology* *Job Summary:* Seeking a smart, motivated teammate to help create the future by making the world a better place by manufacturing the devices that make the world run. The position will be located at GLOBALFOUNDRIES in Malta, New York, and report to the Fab 8 Diffusion/Implant/Cleans/Metrology Process Manager. *Essential Responsibilities:* * Work on development or transfer of recipes for a variety of metrology tools used in advanced manufacturing processes. * Perform tool evaluation and selection for advanced manufacturing processes. * Perform tool startup verifications and ensure ongoing tool matching for critical processes. * Engage in continuous improvement activities on your tools and develop solutions for higher throughput and improvement in tool performance. * Define and utilize a system to optimize tool performance with respect to tool stability as measured by SPC and engage in fleet matching activities for the toolsets you own. * Develop BKMs (best known methods) to be used for both recipe generation and optimal tool performance * Troubleshoot performance detractors including root cause analysis of particles generation. * Define process and tool improvement plan to drive tool performance to factory and team KPIs(key performance indices). * Train of shift engineers and technicians on tool operation and issue resolution using BKMs. * Work very closely with colleagues from the all the unit process and integration groups to promptly implement their specific requests to increase the reliability and effectiveness of your services. * Perform all activities in a safe and responsible manner and support all Environmental, Health, Safety and Security requirements and programs. *Required Qualifications:* * BS, Engineering, * Language Fluency-Fluent in English Language-written & verbal *Preferred Qualifications:* * Previous Engineer internship or Co-Op experience; manufacturing or semiconductor industry. * Graduate degree (MS), Engineering. Excellent interpersonal and presentation skills, energetic and self starter. * Outstanding communication skills - both written and verbal. Demonstrated ability to communicate well with all levels of the organization and experience in working with external constituencies. * Strong organizational skills along with demonstrated ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously and able to react to shifting priorities to meet business need. * Demonstrated ability to meet deadlines and commitments. Individuals will be and must be able to understand complex automated systems and human interactions. * Individual must be well versed in all Microsoft Applications (Excel, Word, PowerPoint). If you need a reasonable accommodation for any part of the employment process, please contact us by email at usaccommodations@globalfoundries.com and let us know the nature of your request and your contact information. Requests for accommodation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Please note that only inquiries concerning a request for reasonable accommodation will be responded to from this email address. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion of a background check and drug screen, as applicable and subject to applicable laws and regulations. GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status. **Title:** *Engineer Process Engineering-Metrology* **Location:** *null* **Requisition ID:** *17004908*
           [转贴]高通新一代移动处理器Snapdragon S4完全解析        
序言:高通于10月初发布了下一代智能手机/平板电脑用处理器Snapdragon S4的白皮书,著名网站Anandtech随即对这款新一代SoC芯片做了全面的分析。本文即为原文Snapdragon S4架构全解析的的简化版本。 在介绍本文的主角——高通Snapdragon S4 MSM8960之前,先让我们来回顾一下现有的智能手机/平板电脑ARM架构SoC方案,这些处理器全部基于40nm等级的工艺,由GlobalFoundries、三星、台积电或联电生产。明年各大厂商的制造工艺均将进化为28nm,带来性能以及续航能力的提升。在完全进化至28nm工艺之前市面上主流的SoC方案可以说是五花八门: Kr
          Re: Loading webfonts with high performance on responsive websites        

I'm not sure I agree that "it only takes *a* site to take one for the team" as there's no guarantee that once a font is downloaded how long it will stay in the cache - we're building sites that consume more and more cache, and using many different fonts from many different foundries.

Not sure I follow the bigger question of when browsers are going to become more responsible - originally browsers didn't block waiting for the font and display the page anyway until we (devs and designers) complained we didn't like the experience it gave our visitors, so instead they started waiting for font.

Ilya's got an interesting proposal to allow us to have greater level of control, but we'll still have a challenge when we choose to use a font - https://github.com/igrigori...


          Why Strengthening the U.S. Supply Chain is Critical to Strengthening U.S. Manufacturing        

A chain is only as strong as its weakest leak — and that's definitely true in manufacturing.

MForesight: Alliance for Manufacturing Foresight, a federally-funded national consortium focused on enhancing U.S. manufacturing, on Tuesday sponsored a discussion on Capitol Hill on its new report, Ensuring American Manufacturing Leadership Through Next-Generation Supply Chains.

The report examines the changing (but ever important) relationship between many manufacturers and their suppliers. As MForesight wrote on Medium, “manufacturers are coming to view their suppliers as genuine partners—sources of ideas and feedback on design and engineering—not just external contractors that can cheaply provide the needed part.”

Tuesday’s event offered insight from four panelists, including Bill Donohue, director of Genedge; Susan Helper, professor of economics at Case Western Reserve University; Thomas Mahoney of MForesight; and our very own Scott Paul, president of the Alliance for American Manufacturing.

Mike Russo, director of government relations at GLOBALFOUNDRIES, hosted the event.

Donohue started the conversation on supply chains, as he emphasized the direct effect that they have on a company’s ability to manufacture goods within a timely manner.

A company in Virginia that manufactures vehicles can complete the construction of a vehicle within 14 weeks using the present global supply chain, Donohue said. But if the supply chain was located in the United States, construction could be completed in three days. That 95-day difference is significant to U.S. productivity and shows that the buffer in the current global supply chain is weak. 

Donohue also advocated for exposing young people to the modern-day manufacturing industry. He believes that showing what the “new” manufacturing world is all about will motivate future generations to think about career options within the manufacturing industry. 

A company in Virginia that manufactures vehicles can complete the construction of a vehicle within 14 weeks using the present global supply chain. But if the supply chain was located in the United States, construction could be completed in three days. 

Helper, meanwhile, argued for a better connection between private manufacturing firms and their suppliers. In other words, there needs to be a more efficient and transparent way to purchase and deliver products, as 60 to 70 percent of a firm’s expenses is supplies.

Mahoney mentioned that companies think that they can't afford new technologies — but these new technologies will end up saving them money because the supply chain process will become more simplified.

Mahoney added that the best supply chain processes have already been done; they just need to be replicated and repeated.  He said that companies need to understand the benefits of an efficient supply chain and "get the incentives."

AAM’s own Scott Paul said that the supply chain process is undervalued, comparing it to an offensive line in football — a team can’t win without having a good one. Paul also said Congress should continue to fund the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), which helps small and medium sized manufacturers with new technologies and resources on supply chains.

Paul also said that tax policy reform, infrastructure investment, and workforce development will be essential to improving manufacturing supply chains and strengthen American manufacturing overall.

While "you will never break the chain," the next-generation supply chain should be simplified to reduce delivery time, increase business connections, and strengthen the manufacturing industry.

Click here to read the full report.

This blog post was written by AAM interns Erica Maddox and Megan Salrin.


          A Decade of Change        
The years from 1910 to 1920 were a time of great change for the United States. Led by President Wilson from 1913 till 1921, the nation became a true world power. The country was involved in numerous foreign affairs, from the completion of the Panama Canal in 1914 to entering the Great War in 1917. At home, Americans saw a lot of change in their day to day lives as well.

During the first five years of the decade, 1910-1915, immigrants were entering the US at an average of 900,000 per year. Immigrants were arriving at record breaking numbers; more than 22 million had set foot in America by 1914. All of this changed when WWI broke out in Europe in 1914. From 1915-1919, the number of immigrants entering the United States dropped to an average of only a quarter of a million per annum1. Answering the call of their home nations embroiled in conflict, many immigrants left the US, most of them from eastern cities. Labor shortages resulted from young men enlisting in the war effort and from the lack of immigrant laborers. Other minorities - such as women and African Americans - began to take advantage of the large amounts of work left undone.

  
An African American family moving up north
Source: International African American Museum
Referred to as the Great Migration, millions of African Americans migrated from the southern states to the more industrialized north to answer the call to work. African Americans could expect to earn three times more working in a Northern factory as compared to working in the Southern fields. Between 1910 and 1920, northern industrial cities saw large booms in their African American populations. New York’s African American population experienced an increase of 66%. Chicago’s population grew by 148%. Detroit, the center of the newly invented automobile, grew by 611%2. Many of these new workers took jobs in factories, slaughterhouses, and foundries, or metal casting factories.

An increase in the manufacturing and mechanical industries was not only a result of a greater demand for these services through war efforts but also a result of the changing living and working conditions. The Keating-Own Child Labor Act was signed in 1916, limiting the work hours for children which began a new program of federal regulation in the industry3. Workdays, in general, became shorter. For example, railroad workers, with the help of the Adamson Act in 1916, had an eight-hour workday established. Labor unions also increased in prominence and power with the passing of the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914. Unfair business practices were clearly defined, and peaceful strikes and picketing were legalized3

A Ford car factory in 1917
Source: Library of Congress
The 1910s saw a great change in transportation as well. Americans became captivated by the introduction of automobiles and airplanes. With the introduction of the automobile in 1886 and the Ford Model T in 1908, people were able to travel farther distances at a much faster rate than ever before. In 1910, there were 458,500 registered automobiles in the US4; by 1920, that number had risen to 9.2 million5. The number of public roads increased drastically, from 2,151,570 miles in 1910 to 2,777,687 in 19205. Other industries tied to the automobile also benefitted from its invention. Automobiles became the lifeline of the petroleum industry and one of the chief customers of the steel industry.

With the Wright Brothers’ first flight in 1903, the world was brought into the aerial age. The first commercial flight took place on January 1, 1914. Abram C. Pheil became the first paying passenger as he won a bid to fly for $400. Pheil, along with pilot Tony Jannus, flew from St. Petersburg, Florida to Tampa, Florida on a round trip that lasted less than an hour and half6. Interests in flight continued to take off after the end of WWI. Experienced fighter pilots were eager to come home and show America their newly developed skills. Air shows sprang up around the country, as pilots competed for awards in distance, speed, and acrobatic stunts7

Claude Grahame-White was the first to fly over
our nation's capital on October 14, 1910.
Source: Library of Congress 

Wilson’s presidency was a landmark time that highlights a period when the United States was coming into the modern era. People were starting to realize their rights and to fight for them. New inventions changed the way the old methods of communication and transportation. Many of this decade’s events, including the Great War, would pave the way for future leaders.

2 Great Migration, History Channel 
5 1920s, Federal Reserve Archive [PDF]
6 The First Commercial Flight, FirstFlight Centennial
7 The Aerial Age Begins, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum 


-Catherine Yuan

          Art Deco "Trop Risque", Ivorine and Spelter, 1928, After Godard        
Art Deco "Trop Risque", Ivorine and Spelter, 1928,  After Godard Art Deco "Trop Risque", Ivorine and Spelter, 1928,  After Godard Art Deco "Trop Risque", Ivorine and Spelter, 1928,  After Godard Art Deco "Trop Risque", Ivorine and Spelter, 1928,  After Godard

This buxom lady is made of Ivorine and Spelter. Her blouse is open baring her breasts. She has some damage to the paint on her knee. She stands on an alabaster base, which may have been repaired at some point. She stands 15" tall and 100% original.

This lady and her provocative pose has been around, she was used on two lamps as shown in pictures three and four. She was produced by J. B. Hirsch in his Collection Francaise. Godard designed a number of objet d' art for Hirsch. In the third picture the light bulb is hidden underneath the stair case she is standing on. She appears on page 1175 of the Encyclopedia of Bronzes Sculptors, and Foundries 1800-1930Vol. 4, in the upper right hand corner, plate 4704. Trop Risqué translated from French to English, "Trop Risqué" means "Too Risk".


          Linkpost | 11.12.2013        
• Retina iPad Mini Now Available for Purchase From Apple’s Online Store – With no warning or formal announcement from Apple, the iPad Mini with Retina display can now be purchased from Apple’s online store. 16- and 32-GB Wi-Fi-only models ship in 1-3 business days at this writing; all others, 5-10 days. • GlobalFoundries to
          Introducing Typekit        
Jeff Veen announced Typekit today, a hosted solution for embedding fonts on the web: We’ve been working with foundries to develop a consistent web-only font linking license. We’ve built a technology platform that lets us to host both free and commercial fonts in a way that is incredibly fast, smoothes out differences in how browsers […]
          Everyday Escapism: Grey Places, Green Spaces        
Britain was once the centre of the world where heavy industry was concerned. Coal mines, steel mills, iron works and chemical plants dotted the landscape and employed thousands of people. Those days are now gone, the factories and foundries long...
Continue reading

          GLOBALFOUNDRIES公司任命企業品質負責人,完成資深管理團隊的設立        

(中央社訊息服務20090708 10:37:08)美國商業資訊加州森尼維爾消息——GLOBALFOUNDRIES公司今天宣佈,任命Ron Dickinson為企業品質副總裁。此次任命代表著該公司資深管理團隊設立完成。這鞏固了公司強大的領導團隊,將在GLOBALFOUNDRIES力圖重塑晶圓代工產業的背景下,為公司的長期成長和成功提供支援。在這一職位上,Dickinson將盡一切可能提高企業內外各領域的品質保證與可靠性水準,以改善客戶體驗。


GLOBALFOUNDRIES公司執行長Doug Grose表示:「為了發展成業界首屈一指的全球晶圓代工企業,我們要在品質管制方面執行嚴格的高層次標準。Ron帶來了他近三十年的世界一流經驗,他將實施計畫,幫助我們實現這項目標。該計畫符合業界領先的效率、良率、品質、成本等基準的要求,並達到更高的標準。」


Dickinson將制訂、實施品質策略及主要流程,推動公司上下持續改進流程,並消除偏差、提高產能,以精簡流程。他初期將被派往德國德勒斯登的一廠(Fab 1),不久以後將前往紐約,負責建立品質組織結構,為二廠(Fab 2)提供支援;二廠專案投資43億美元,完成後,將成為世界上最先進的半導體廠。


Dickinson表示:「GLOBALFOUNDRIES公司新創的全球一流晶圓代工服務業務模式造成了轟動,公司的設立引發了產業變革。我盼望與全公司管理階層各位同仁合作,共同開發工具並在整個企業加以運用,以提高產能。我們對於品質的堅定承諾將成為客戶在市場脫穎而出的核心優勢。」


近30年來,Dickinson在競爭激烈的半導體生產領域,推動品質和營運朝著一流水準邁進。加入GLOBALFOUNDRIES之前,他擔任飛思卡爾半導體(Freescale Semiconductor)公司蘇格蘭East Kilbride晶圓廠營運總監和總經理職務。在那裏,他負責實施重大的績效改進工作,包括削減營運成本、提高直接勞動生產率。加入飛思卡爾公司之前,Dickinson曾在新加坡特許半導體(Chartered Semiconductor)公司擔任多項品質與營運管理職務,例如,他曾負責特許半導體公司產量最高的晶圓代工廠的營運。他還在摩托羅拉(Motorola)公司半導體產品部(Semiconductor Products Sector)工作過,度過了不平凡的工程職業生涯。

 


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          My Great-Grandfather, George BUNN, 1857-1919, England        
We have a story in our family, written up by several older members of my father's family, including my Grandmother Gillespie (née BUNN), some years ago. It states that George was orphaned when very young and raised by his neighbours, the Franz family. So sad, right?

Wrong. Quite quite wrong. Nothing like a bit of research to clarify the facts, and also to understand how such a misunderstanding happened.

George was the only child born to William BUNN and widow Sarah (née SMITH) France. Ah, see the name of her first husband?  First clue to the Franz family myth.

Sarah was significantly older than William - 11 years. When her first husband, Thomas France, died in a coal mining accident in 1851, along with her father, Thomas SMITH, she had 7 children at home. Their ages ranged from Elizabeth (15) to Esther (less than 1 year). William was also a coal miner, and likely knew Thomas from work, as well as close residence.

William BUNN lived nearby the family, in Darby Hand [Darby End], Parish Dudley, near Netherton. Their church was St Thomas in Dudley, Worcestershire. Below is a copy of their Marriage Register of St Thomas, Dudley/Netherton, with marriage date after Banns, of November 25, 1854:







You can see ages, occupation, residence, and father's names & occupations, as well as the information that Sarah's father is "dead". Neither William nor Sarah wrote their signatures, but made their mark in front of the 'Incumbent' [vicar].

George BUNN, their only living child, was born April 26, 1857, in Windmill End (also in same area in Dudley); this was just over 2 years from marriage. At that time, Sarah would have been 37 years of age, and George made her 8th living child; William, 26 years old. An interesting situation to my mind.  They usually fudged her age on Censuses after they married or switched ages.

From the time of his birth, George would have been raised with the FRANCE children, including an illegitimate nephew only 2 years younger than himself:
   1.  Elizabeth, b. 1839 - had illegitimate son, Thomas France (3rd), in 1859
   2.  Emma, b. Oct 1840
   3.  Thomas, b. 1842   - Thomas (2nd)
   4.  Jeremiah, b. Aug 1844; m. Hannah Sherwin, 8 children [similar names]
   5.  Martha, b. 1847
   6.  Amelia "Emily", b. 1848
   7.  Esther, b. 1851

Most of the mixed BUNN/France family, with our George BUNN and including Sarah's illegitimate grandson, Thomas, can be seen on the 1861 Census for Dudley, below:







Sarah's second daughter, Emma, about 21, is likely working or married, and out of the home. Esther, youngest child, would be 10 - either she is visiting outside the home, or has died. I have not searched details of all the siblings. Yet. 

On the 1871 Census for Dudley, we see William & Sarah, with son George BUNN 13 yrs, plus Elizabeth France's illegitimate son, Thomas France 3rd, 12, listed as Nephew [of William] - actually his step-grandson.  Note that George BUNN would actually be Thomas France's step-Uncle. I have not been able to find Elizabeth France in any other records, but BUNN is a common surname in this region, and Elizabeth is one of the most common forenames. More research needed.





By the 1881 Census, we see William & Sarah alone with no children, and Sarah's eldest son, Thomas 2nd, aged 38, and his family, next door. The other Thomas France 3rd, Elizabeth's son, is shown a little ways away but still in same parish, married with 10 mo. old daughter Alice.

And,  George?  Surprise! Married in 1876, on February 14th, George, aged 18, is married for the first time, to 18 year old Mary Delheridge in Dudley. She is seen to have died in the 4th Quarter (Oct-Dec) of the same year, 1876, likely in childbirth, but that is not known without finding a detailed death registration.  

On the Marriage registration certificate I ordered for George and Sarah WHITEHOUSE, I slid over the statement that George was a Widower before he married our direct ancestor, Sarah Elizabeth WHITEHOUSE in summer of 1879. Since he was 22 at the time, I had somehow held the assumption this was his first marriage. Assumptions. Obviously I ought to have searched for any marriages, and questioned how a 22 year old could be a widower. 







He and Sarah Elizabeth WHITEHOUSE were married August 18, 1879, at St. Thomas Church n Dudley Parish. Their first child, Harriett BUNN was born October 31, 1879 in Netherton, by Dudley. (Harriett was my Grandma GILLESPIE.) 

George & Sarah Elizabeth BUNN moved up to Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, several years after George's step-nephew, Thomas 3rd France had moved his family there. Shipbuilding was strong in Barrow, and many labourers were needed. Both Thomas and George were experienced after working in the foundries in Dudley, so they would have had little difficulty finding jobs. 

Here George and family are on the 1881 Census for Barrow F, living at 5 Cook Street: 



In 1891 on the Census for Dudley, George's parents, William & Sarah, are living by themselves. Sarah's children by her first husband were living nearby, however. 

George BUNN and his wife living on 8 Byron Street in Barrow in Furness [Barrow F] in the next Census, 1901, and next door at 10 Byron Street in 1911. Their eldest daughter, Harriett, married in 1899 to William John "Jack" GILLESPIE, whose family (3 generations) had sailed from Northern Ireland to work in Barrow F as well. 

Children all born in Barrow F: 
  1.  Harriett, b. 31 Oct 1879 [my line], d. 1962 BC Canada; m. Jack
          GILLESPIE, 6 ch.
  2.  Emily "Emmy", b. 7 Mar 1882, d.15 Mar 1951 Barrow F; no
          marr, no ch
  3.  George Wm, b. 8 Feb 1884, d. 29 Mar 1936 BC Canada; m. Louisa
           Jones; 6 ch
  4.  Thomas, b. 12 Dec 1886, d. 8 Oct 1917 Belgium WW1; no marr.
           no ch
  5.  Sarah "Cissy", b. 10 Feb 1889, d. 20 Jul 1965 Barrow F; m. Wm.
           Caulfield, 2 ch
  6.  Beatrice, b. 1891, died first year.
  7.  Ethel May, b. 1 Jun 1893, d. 17 Jan 1981 Washington USA; m. Jm.
           Bullas, ch
  8.  Esther Matilda, b. 10 Aug 1895, d. 16 Dec 1946 Barrow F; m. Herbert
           Scobie, ch
  9.  Benjamin "Ben", b. 10 Dec 1898, d. 1 Nov 1982 BC Canada; m. Alice
           Bradshaw, no ch.
  
On June 2nd, 1911, George BUNN sailed on the Empress of Britain  from Liverpool to Québec, with his son-in-law, Jack GILLESPIE. Jack was following his younger brother Jim, who had emigrated in 1907, settling in Ontario. George's eldest son, George Wm. Bunn, had previously emigrated and landed in Vancouver BC in 1910. England's burst of economic growth was slowing down and work was hard to come by. There was quite a wave of English immigrants to Canada during this period 1900-1920. Jack GILLESPIE did not bring his family over at the same time... that's another story!

However, George became sick in Canada, and he returned to England shortly afterward, in the fall of 1911. Several other Bunn children emigrated from England to Canada, settling on the west coast.

And in December of 1919, George died in Barrow in Furness, aged 62 years.

I have no photographs of George BUNN, but perhaps a cousin somewhere has one to share-? And I also don't know what his hobbies were, whether he like to read, sketch, play cribbage, fish, go for long walks, did he like dogs, telling stories-? Some details do not come down to us, after several generations.

In summary: He was never orphaned and adopted by a FRANZ family. On the contrary, both his BUNN parents were alive and well into the 20th Century, living in Dudley region of Worcestershire, England. His father, William BUNN, may be the same-named person who died in the 3rd Quarter (July-Sep) of 1902; his mother, Sarah, in 1918. 

But it was an interesting story, wasn't it?  And all those FRANCE family members - they're also all step-cousins of George BUNN's descendants. I've added all of them to the Lost Cousins website and hopefully one will contact me at some point in time.

The direct line of George BUNN has these first generation surnames:
 BUNN, BELL, OLIVER, OSBORNE, PLUMRIDGE  (((waving to all my cousins))) 

If you know anything more about any of the above BUNN individuals, I would be so pleased for more details. And if you wish more information on them, I'm also happy to share. Contact me at my address at the bottom of the page calewis at telus dot net or, in the Comments section.

My Blogger account seems not to allow me to "reply" to your comments. Do know that I value your comments immensely.  You make my day! Thanks for stopping by to read my personal genealogy posts.

Cousins of all sorts are very welcome to request copies of certificates etc. that I have in my possession.

I might request a cup of coffee as payment, however!


          Everspin starts to sample 1Gb pMTJ STT-MRAM chips        

Everspin announced that it started sampling 1Gb STT-MRAM chips. Everspin's new chips provide a high-endurance, persistant memory with a DDR4-compatible interface. Everspin sees these chips being used in storage devices to provide protection against power loss without the use of supercapacitors or batteries.

Everspin 128Kb automotive MRAM photo

Everspin's new pMTJ 1Gb chips provide 4 times the capacity of the company's current 256Mb DDR3 chips. The 1 Gb MRAM is produced in 28nm CMOS on 300mm wafers in partnership with GlobalFoundries.


          GlobalFoundries and Everspin say that the pMTJ STT-eMRAM features high reliability at high temperatures        

GlobalFoundries has plans to deploy Everspin's perpendicular (pMTJ) STT-MRAM as an embedded 22nm memory - as part of GF's 22FDX platform. GlobalFoundries has released a technical paper that details the eMRAM ability to retain data at high temperatures.

Global Foundries 22nm eMRAM slide

The eMRAM can retain data through solder reflow at 260 degrees Celsius, and for more than 10 years at 125 degrees Celsius, plus read/write with outstanding endurance at 125 degrees Celsius. GlobalFoundries says that this will enable eMRAM to be used for general purpose MCUs and automotive SOCs.

GF further says that Everspin's MTF stach and integration was been optimized for a 400 degree Celsius, 60-minute post-MTJ patterning thermal budget and compatible with CMOS BEOL.

GF discloses that its three major foundries are all introducing the eMRAM as a product, and customers are picking up GlobalFoundries' PDK to started designing for the new memory type. MCU customers, in the meantime, have started seriously looking at how MRAM can enhance their architectures.


          How the 12-Pound Cannon Changed Warfare        

How the 12-Pound Cannon Changed Warfare

12-Pound CannonSince the time of the catapult, artillery has played an important (and often decisive) role on the battlefield. As effective as the catapult was, it was eventually replaced by the longer-range and more accurate cannon. Bigger cannons meant better cannons, but there came a time, however, when this was no longer true.

Cannons Arrive Late and The French

Artillery pieces in use in the 18th century tended to be large and clumsy affairs. Their weight made transport difficult over most European roads. They were often transported by civilian teams, who had a tendency to place them a very safe distance from the battlefield. An artillery barrage was often used to usher in a major battle, but these monster weapons often arrived late, if they arrived at all.

The French took the lead in developing artillery pieces that could not only be transported more easily, but were also of higher quality. This first occurred in the late 1760's. At the same time, other European powers, such as Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia were improving their own artillery weapons.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Napoleon Bonaparte, a former artillery officer, took an active role in ensuring French artillery remained state-of-the-art, although the French already had a reputation for excellence in that area. Among the newer weapons was the 12-pounder, which once wheeled into positon, could be readied for action within a minute. The 12-pounder was introduced in France in 1853. The term 12-pounder is actually misleading, as it refers to the original model's 12 cm. bore.

One of the advantages of the 12-pounder was its effectiveness on level ground. A cannon normally had to be placed on high ground to gain greater range. As the 12-pounder demonstrated, however, a cannon placed on level ground could cause extensive damage, especially when fired at troop concentrations. The effects of Napoleonic artillery fire against enemy troops was often devastating; especially when canister shot was employed.

12-pounders were also used on warships by the British Royal Navy. They were primarily deployed on frigate-class ships

The Role of the Napoleon in the American Civil War

The "Napoleon" was the name given to a 12-pound cannon produced by a number of American foundries starting in 1857. It had its origins in a French cannon, the "Canon Obusier de 12 of 1853." The Americans settled for the name Napoleon. At the time, France was an important American ally. As the cannon had its origins in France, the name seemed appropriate. Despite what you might think, or may have been led to believe, the Napoleon was not named after Napoleon Bonaparte. It was named after his nephew, Emperor Bonaparte III.

The 1853 model was extensively used by the French in the Crimean War. It was mounted on a carriage that could be pulled by horse or a pack animal and could even be moved about by humans over short distances. The model 1857, the Napoleon, was the principal artillery field gun in the Civil War, with more than 1,500 of them seeing action. The Confederate Army had fewer Napoleons to begin with, but managed to capture enough Union guns during the early stages of the war to somewhat level the playing field.

How Many Men to Change a Light Bulb? How Many to Fire a Cannon?

The Napoleon generally required a crew of seven under the leadership of a gunner, who was responsible for sighting the weapon. The remaining six crew members consisted of ammunition handlers, a loader, a rammer, a person to prepare the charge bag, and a person to set off the charge.

This would seem to be an excessive number of people to fire a cannon, but a well-trained team could fire a Napoleon four times a minute. As the war progressed, it became possible to reduce many gun crews to five in number, including a sergeant who "supervised" the operation.

The 12-Pounder's Achilles Heel—the Horse

If there was a weak link in the 12-pounder it was the horse. When a number of an artillery battery's horses were injured or killed, cannons often had to be abandoned. The life expectancy of an artillery horse during the Civil War was about 8 months. Horses died of injury, disease, and sheer exhaustion. There were usually two-horse teams, a team for the 12-pounder, and a team for the caisson that carried food and ammunition. Up to a dozen horses might be needed to service a single cannon.

The 12-Pounder's Characteristics

The smoothbore barrel of the Napoleon was made of bronze alloyed with tin and copper. A few were made of iron. The bore diameter measured 4.62 inches and the standard overall length was 66 inches. The typical Napoleon weighed 1,230 lbs. Its maximum range was 1,400 yards at a five-degree elevation, but it was most effective at distances of around 100 yards. The basic shot for the Napoleon was a 12-pound ball made of iron, but shells and canister shot were also widely used.


          Doctors back Engineer’s claim he developed deadly disease at GlobalFoundries        
November 27, 2016 By Ballston JournalOnline Doctors for a local engineer are backing his claim that he developed an uncommon and potentially deadly disease while working at GlobalFoundries’ Malta facility. Timothy Rizzo, 40, of Johnstown, filed a federal lawsuit last year against GlobalFoundries and Applied Materials claiming he contracted Wegener’s disease following exposure to a mix
          How People Fought the USSR’s Descent Into Pseudoscience        

Reprinted (in modified form) with permission from How to Tame a Fox (and Build a Dog): Visionary Scientists and a Siberian Tale of Jump-Started Evolution, by Lee Alan Dugatkin and Lyudmila Trut, published by the University of Chicago Press. © 2017 by Lee Alan Dugatkin and Lyudmila Trut. All rights reserved.

For the last six decades, Lyudmila Trut and her colleagues have been running one of the most audacious experiments ever undertaken. The experiment, first conceived and led by Trut’s mentor, Dmitry Belyaev, aimed to rerun the evolutionary process that led to the domestication of dogs but in real time, using the fox as a stand-in for the wolf. Each year for the last 58 years they have been testing hundreds of foxes in Siberia and selecting only the tamest of the tame to parent the subsequent generation. The results have been nothing short of remarkable. Their domesticated foxes will lick your faces and melt your hearts with their doglike devotion and love. What’s more, even though the experimenters select the parents of each generation strictly based on how behaviorally tame foxes are, these domesticated foxes look eerily like dogs, with curly tails, muttlike fur, puppylike faces and even, on occasion, floppy ears.

Belyaev and Trut’s experiment began in 1959 and it came within a hair’s breath of being shut down that very same year by none less than the premier of the Soviet Union. For, you see, any experiment on domestication is also an experiment in genetics, and a decade earlier, before the fox experiment began in Siberia, a pseudoscientist charlatan by the name of Trofim Lysenko had convinced the government of the USSR that Western genetics was bourgeois science, promoted by “wreckers,” making genetics all but illegal in the Soviet Union.

This skepticism of genetics all started when, in the mid-1920s, the Communist Party leadership elevated a number of uneducated men from the proletariat into positions of authority in the scientific community, as part of a program to glorify the average citizen after centuries of monarchy had perpetuated wide class divisions between the wealthy and the workers and peasants. Lysenko fit the bill perfectly, having been raised by peasant farmer parents in the Ukraine. He hadn’t learned to read until he was 13, and he had no university degree, having studied at what amounted to a gardening school, which awarded him a correspondence degree. The only training he had in crop-breeding was a brief course in cultivating sugar beets. In 1925, he landed a middle-level job at the Gandzha Plant Breeding Laboratory in Azerbaijan, where he worked on sowing peas. Lysenko convinced a Pravda reporter who was writing a puff piece about the wonders of peasant scientists that the yield from his pea crop was far above average and that his technique could help feed his starving country. In the glowing article the reporter claimed, “the barefoot professor Lysenko has followers ... and the luminaries of agronomy visit ... and gratefully shake his hand.” The article was pure fiction. But it propelled Lysenko to national attention, including that of Josef Stalin.

With Stalin as his ally, Lysenko launched a crusade to discredit work in genetics, in part, because proof of the genetic theory of evolution would expose him as a fraud. He denounced geneticists, both in the West and in the Soviet Union, as subversives, to Stalin’s great pleasure. At an agricultural conference held at the Kremlin in 1935, when Lysenko finished a speech in which he called geneticists “saboteurs,” Stalin rose to his feet and yelled, “Bravo, Comrade Lysenko, bravo.”

In July 1948, as part of Stalin’s anti-intellectualism and anti-cosmopolitanism program, a grand plan to “transform nature” was put into place by the Soviet government, and Lysenko was placed in charge of all policy regarding the biological sciences. Shortly thereafter, at the August 1948 meeting of the All-Union Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lysenko presented a talk that is widely regarded as the most disingenuous and dangerous speech in the history of Soviet science. Entitled “The Situation in the Science of Biology,” in this speech Lysenko condemned “modern reactionary genetics,” by which he meant modern Western genetics. At the end of his ranting, the audience stood and cheered wildly.

Geneticists at the meeting were forced to stand up and refute their scientific knowledge and practices. Those who refused were ejected from the Communist Party. In the aftermath of the speech, thousands of geneticists lost their jobs, dozens were jailed, and a few, including fox experiment leader Dmitry Belyaev’s older brother, Nikolai, were murdered by Lysenko’s thugs.

Lysenko’s hold on Russian science had its peaks and valleys since his infamous 1948 speech, but in 1959, as the fox domestication experiment was just beginning, he was getting frustrated that his stranglehold on Soviet biology was showing signs of loosening.

The fox experiment had commenced shortly after Dmitry Belyaev had been appointed deputy director of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics outside of Novosibirsk, the largest city in Siberia. The Institute of Cytology and Genetics was part of a vast new scientific city called Akademgorodok. Decades earlier Maxim Gorky had written of a fictional “Town of Science … a series of temples in which every scientist is a priest …where scientists every day fearlessly probe deeply into the baffling mysteries surrounding our planet.” Musing about such an oasis, Gorky envisioned “… foundries and workshops where people forge exact knowledge, facet the entire experience of the world, transforming it into hypotheses, into instruments for the further quest of the truth.” Akademgorodok was just such a place. In short time, it housed thousands of scientists and was home to the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, the Institute of Mathematics, the Institute of Nuclear Physics, the Institute of Hydrodynamics, and half a dozen other institutes. Researchers, both senior and junior, from all over the USSR, were recruited to be part of an academic nirvana that was unavailable anywhere else in their country.

Lysenko and his allies were furious that although they were still officially in power, scientists on the ground were starting to simply ignore their prohibitions and were even openly putting genetics in their institute names. Lysenko launched a new rear-guard campaign against genetics, and as part of this battle, in January 1959, a Lysenko-created committee from Moscow visited Akademgorodok. This committee had the official authority to determine what work was done at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, and Belyaev and the whole research staff knew all too well that they were at risk of being forced out. “Khrushchev arrived here,” Lyudmila recalled, “very discontented, with the intention to get everyone ‘in trouble’ because of the geneticists.” She remembers committee members “snooping in the laboratories,” questioning everyone and anyone, including secretaries. The word spread that the committee was clearly unhappy that genetic studies were being conducted. When the committee met with Mikhail Lavrentyev, chief of all the institutes at Akademgorodok, they informed him that “the direction of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics is methodologically wrong.” Those were ominous words from a Lysenkoist group, and everyone knew it.

Nikita Khrushchev, who was by this time premier of the USSR, heard tale of the committee’s report about Akademgorodok. Khrushchev had been a long-time supporter of Lysenko, and he decided to examine the situation personally. In September 1959, on a trip back from visiting Mao Tse-tung in China, he stopped off in Novosibirsk. Khrushchev’s temper often got the best of him when things did not go exactly as he wished, and the visit to Chairman Mao had not gone well, cut short because of the cold reception he had received. What’s more, the construction of Akademgorodok was ongoing, and it was a large enough project that things were over budget and behind schedule. In a fit of pique during his visit, Khrushchev threatened to disband the whole Soviet Academy of Sciences if the situation did not improve: “I’ll let you all loose!” he railed. “I’ll deprive you [of] extra pay and all privileges! Peter the Great needed an academy, what do we need it for?” Especially an academy with geneticists.

The staff of all the science institutes at Akademgorodok gathered in front of the Institute of Hydrodynamics for Khrushchev’s visit, and Lyudmila recalls that the premier “walked by the assembled staff very fast, not paying any attention to them.” The substance of the meeting between Khrushchev and administrators was not recorded, but accounts from the time make clear that Khrushchev intended to shut down the Institute of Cytology and Genetics. Immediately.

He never made good on his threat. Fortunately, Khrushchev’s travel partner on his visit to Akademgorodok was his daughter, Rada. A well-known journalist, Rada, who was also a trained biologist, recognized Lysenko for the fraud he was and convinced her father to keep the Institute of Cytology and Genetics open. Still, the premier had to do something to show his discontent, so the day after his visit, he had the head of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics sacked. In an ironic twist of fate, as deputy director, Belyaev was now in charge of the Institute.

Without Rada Khrushchev taking a courageous stand for science, the Institute of Cytology and Genetics would have shut its doors, and with that, the fox domestication study—a six-decade long evolutionary treasure chest that continues to this day—would likely have been dead in the water.


          Holy Trinities        
Contributed by James Edmondson













These shorts, involving Jack Stratton of Vulfpeck being filmed and interviewed by designer Rob Stenson, give me more joy than any large scale fonts usage ever will. Each of the videos presents creative use of type, video editing, and various effects to tell the story. Although the series largely receives recognition because of Stratton’s encyclopedic knowledge of funk and pop tunes from sixties through the eighties, Stenson’s typographic explorations in the interview format are often overlooked. He fearlessly combines typefaces that have no obvious relationship, creating compositions that work surprisingly well. My only hope is that this series lives on forever.

When asked about his process for working with type in his videos, Rob Stenson had this to say:

To be honest I just love looking at typefaces and buying them from small, independent foundries, and I love the historic context around each one. I think the basic process is, for a given moment in the video, I can narrow the face choice pretty quickly to something tangentially related to what’s being talked about (people say art history degrees are useless but I’ve found it great for coming up with “reasons” for picking typefaces), and then from there I almost always go with a modern face referencing the past (if I can find one), rather than a strict digital version of an actual face from the past. Hobeaux being a perfect example, and Forma’s another one, and Trianon Caption — they evoke the past but are true digitals, much like the music of Vulfpeck or the videos themselves, which use digital recreations of film stock and VHS tapes for color. One foot in the past, one in the present. Other than that I’ll just look for excuses to use typefaces I really like a lot. Jaakko’s a great example of that — I might’ve come up with a reason for using it at the time, but really it’s just awesome, and I feel like video is such a liberal medium in terms of what’s allowable typographically that I can really go for broke all the time. Webpages are tougher since viewers get the opportunity to stare at the design for so long, which I’ve found to be a bummer.

At the the time of this writing, there are three video installments of the Holy Trinities series: Tambourine, Guitar, and Minimalist Funk Arrangers.

A selection of stills featuring the eclectic typography is shown below.



Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

Trianon Italic is used for the facts about Norman Whitfield, Hobeaux and Hobeaux Rococeaux Sherman for the faux record label. Additional lettering by OH no Type Co., riffing on the original “Gordy” logotype.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

The title for the “Guitar” episode pairs Goudy Text with the solid Background style of Hobeaux Rococeaux.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

Vulfpeck is set in Vulf Mono, of course – the typeface was originally designed for the band’s identity.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

More Hobeaux, set on a circle. The tight spacing with overlapping letters cleverly minimizes the gaps without fanning or distorting the glyphs.




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.


Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

The engaging Forma DJR, set on an angle …




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

… vs. the minimalist Times New Roman




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

Sano kyllä Jaakkoon!




Source: https://www.youtube.com License: All Rights Reserved.

“Minimalist Funk Arrangers” starts off with a nod to Woody Allen.




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Ringlet: square deal.




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The illustration for Wardell Quezergue AKA “Creole Beethoven” is complemented by Eubie Script.




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The “Tambourine” episode ends on a high note with Viktor Script.




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          Fundamentals of Web Typography on Skillshare        

There’s too much to know, so why bother. I’m not creative. I can’t tell the difference between them. I just want something that looks good. I’ll just use whatever is on my computer.

I’ve listened to more than a few people lament that typographic knowledge feels impenetrable. Too many pitfalls, foundries, considerations, and the sheer number of typefaces! It’s true, typography goes long. And the pace of new work can be kind of staggering.

But learning enough to make a few good choices can lift that fog. Just like learning a couple steps might help you get on the dance floor, or learning how to select ripe produce might get you cooking—learning a few things about type will help you choose fonts and use them with confidence.

Well, I’ve got your back! I made a Skillshare class called How to Look at Type: Fundamentals of Web Typography to help you get up to speed. In a breezy 50 minutes you’ll learn all about how to evaluate and choose good typefaces, use typography to evoke a mood, and set your type with ease.

And if you signup now, you’ll get your first two months free. Which is handy because there are amazing classes from the likes of Paula Scher, Aaron Draplin, Ellen Lupton, and Mary Kate McDevitt.

In less than an hour you can get over the hump and up your typography game. Check out the introduction video today!


          Carboxymethyl Tamarind        
Carboxymethyl Tamarind Kernel Powder (CMT or CMTKP) is an anionic water soluble polymer; it is derived from Tamarind Kernel Powder (TKP), which is made cold water soluble by a chemical reaction (Carboxymethylation). Cold water solubility is achieved by introducing carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) along the polysaccharide chain, which makes hydration of the molecule possible in cold water. CMT is bio-compatible, bio-degradable, non- toxic & modified natural polymer. CAS NO.: 68647-15-4 EICS NO.: 271-943-5 APPLICATIONS CMT widely used as textile printing thickener. CMT also used for sizing in jute yarn & cotton warp. CMT has extensive use in paper & explosive industry where it is used as viscosity builder. CMT used as a core binder in foundries & mosquito coils. CMT used as a sizing material in paper industry. CMT very effectively used these days by oil drilling companies as soil stabilizer. CMT has numerous other applications & its low cost gives it an edge over other thickening agents.
          GlobalFoundries tech in child porn bust        
A technician at the GlobalFoundries computer chip factory is facing federal child pornography charges — and not for the first time. Adam Rey Gonzalez, 27, of Schenectady, a registered Level 2 sex offender, was arrested Thursday by federal agents after they spoke with him at his workplace in Malta, where he had brought his personal
          Carboxymethyl Tamarind (CMT or CMTKP)        
Carboxymethyl Tamarind Kernel Powder (CMT or CMTKP) is an anionic water soluble polymer; it is derived from Tamarind Kernel Powder (TKP), which is made cold water soluble by a chemical reaction (Carboxymethylation). Cold water solubility is achieved by introducing carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) along the polysaccharide chain, which makes hydration of the molecule possible in cold water. CMT is bio-compatible, bio-degradable, non- toxic & modified natural polymer. CAS NO.: 68647-15-4 EICS NO.: 271-943-5 APPLICATIONS CMT widely used as textile printing thickener. CMT also used for sizing in jute yarn & cotton warp. CMT has extensive use in paper & explosive industry where it is used as viscosity builder. CMT used as a core binder in foundries & mosquito coils. CMT used as a sizing material in paper industry. CMT very effectively used these days by oil drilling companies as soil stabilizer. CMT has numerous other applications & its low cost gives it an edge over other thickening agents.
          Nvidia joins Apple and Qualcomm on Samsung's 14nm node        
Nvidia joins Apple and Qualcomm on Samsung's 14nm node


Getting crowded, isn't it?

Nvidia appears to be the latest chip designer to use Samsung’s and GlobalFoundries’ 14nm node. The company won’t be alone, as the same node will be used by Apple, Qualcomm, AMD and of course Samsung.

According to Business Korea, the new node will go online in the second quarter of 2015. Apple, Qualcomm and Nvidia will be among the first outfits to use it, aside from Samsung. Samsung could lead the way with the first 14nm ARM SoC in the upcoming Galaxy S6, but this is still speculation and nothing is confirmed.

A Samsung official told the publication that 20nm is already a “mainstream technology” and that rivals are trying to compete with 16nm FinFET, but Samsung is in an advantage.

“Our company has already introduced the production process of 14 nm FinFETs,” the unnamed Samsung source told Business Korea.

Qualcomm is using TSMC’s planar 20nm node for its latest Snapdragon 810 flagship SoC and the chip seems to be experiencing some thermal issues, although Qualcomm is playing them down.

As for Nvidia, its first FinFET product should be Parker, a SoC based on the company’s custom 64-bit Denver core and Maxwell GPU.


          Department of Labor to host Foundry Fridays and August Job Fair        

News Release — Department of Labor August 10, 2017 Contact: Commissioner Lindsay Kurrle Vermont Department of Labor 802.828.4301 Assists GlobalFoundries with Filling Job Openings Montpelier, VT. – The Vermont Department of Labor has teamed up with GlobalFoundries, in an effort to help fill the company’s more than 50 available positions. The Department of Labor will […]

The post Department of Labor to host Foundry Fridays and August Job Fair appeared first on VTDigger.


           Management of arsenic-rich waste streams in III-V foundries         
Torrance, K. and Keenan, H.E. (2009) Management of arsenic-rich waste streams in III-V foundries. Semiconductor Today , 4 (9). pp. 66-68. ISSN 1752-6639
          MONEY AND GUNPOWDER Part Two        



  A Place for Cannons
By Linda Minor

LOMAX. Well; but it stands to reason, don't it? The cannon business may be necessary and all that: we can't get on without cannons; but it isn't right, you know. ...
 
UNDERSHAFT. ... But consider for a moment. Here I am, a manufacturer of mutilation and murder. I find myself in a specially amiable humor just now because, this morning, down at the foundry, we blew twenty-seven dummy soldiers into fragments with a gun which formerly destroyed only thirteen.

LOMAX [leniently] Well, the more destructive war becomes, the sooner it will be abolished, eh?

UNDERSHAFT. Not at all. The more destructive war becomes the more fascinating we find it. ...Your Christianity, which enjoins you to resist not evil, and to turn the other cheek, would make me a bankrupt. My morality--my religion--must have a place for cannons and torpedoes in it.

--George Bernard Shaw, "Major Barbara"


                                                                     

From Sea to Shining Sea
Undershaft clearly would have felt quite at home in George W. Bush's place of worship, which spouts a religious philosophy that not only condones cannons and torpedoes, but which aggressively advocates their use in the name of God.


George W. was not the first Bush to make cannons out of plowshares, so to speak. The first would have been his great-grandfather, Samuel Prescott Bush, son of the preacher man.  Samuel's birth occurred in Orange, New Jersey, at the peak of the War Between the States.  Despite the fact that his mother, formerly Harriet Eleanor Fay, had been born in Savannah, Georgia, Samuel's father was such a rabid Unionist, there were complaints from members of his New Jersey congregation.  Possibly that is why he signed on in 1865 as chaplain aboard the naval fleet bound for California, commanded by Commodore John Rodgers II.  Rodgers’ father was the senior officer of the United States Navy—having commanded brave young American seaman for years in battle against the more powerful British navy—when, in 1845, the U.S. Naval Academy was founded near his home at Annapolis, Maryland.[1] 

Was Rev. James Bush a mere man of the cloth, or were there other ambitions that took him across the continent with naval officer headed for California's new Pacific Navy Yard at Mare Island?[2]  Was his later retreat to nature sincere, and, if so, how do we explain his descendants' transition from transcendentalism to transnationalism?

Beginning of the Black Budget?

Military begging from Congress?
Strangely enough, though Congress approved the establishment of the naval academy at Annapolis and donated the Fort Severn Army base for its use, no funding for its construction and maintenance was provided.[3] This all-too-typical Congressional failure to fund what military men consider to be vital elements of national security helps explain how today's black budget funding of weapons systems and covert operations has come about. Numerous such examples from history can be found—institutions chartered by governments in name only—skeletons created without meat or blood to make them viable.  History also reveals myriad patriotic political and military leaders, who trustingly paid for necessary supplies from personal funds and then became frustrated by their inability to obtain reimbursement for such expenditures.  

As the years passed, such men would seek a means of funding their budgets in a way that would eliminate the need to beg for crumbs from Congress, as required by the United States Constitution.  A perhaps innocent and quite understandable intent to create a workable funding mechanism for national defense instead helped to breed a militant strain of what Thomas Hobbes called a "disease of the Commonwealth"—a ghostly off-the-books monster, separate from the sovereign and accountable to nobody. [4]  Our goal is to track how that malignant progeny was born—begotten through a marriage made in hell between makers of munitions and magicians of money.  Once we identify its parents, we may then be able to devise a way to excise and exterminate it—like the life-threatening tumor it has become. 

Tracing the Bush family’s history is a good place to begin.  Part One of this series painted a picture of two generations who seemed to believe in American Constitutional ideals. Part Two will show the next generation through the eyes of Samuel Prescott Bush, a man born during the American civil war, who developed his career and raised his family while Teddy Roosevelt and Howard Taft acquired and American colonial empire from Spain. In his mature years S. P. Bush had a central role in arming Europe and America in The Great War and then died three years after grandson George was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for bravery in action. Samuel Prescott Bush died a wealthy man—his fortune made from iron and steel—a necessary component, ironically, for both building a civilization and for tearing it apart.

Moving On
Samuel Prescott Bush was a two-year-old lad in Orange, New Jersey, when his father boarded the USS Vanderbilt in 1865. We are not told when the rest of the family joined Chaplain Bush in San Francisco, only that he served as minister at San Francisco's Grace Episcopal Church until 1872. Samuel was six years old when Leland Stanford drove the golden spike into the rails that linked the Atlantic and Pacific coasts in 1869. Before that auspicious date, travel was an arduous task, eased somewhat in the 1850's by steamers traveling through Panama or Nicaragua, though Rev. Bush had gone with the naval fleet around Cape Horn. Transportation technology was changing then as rapidly as communications has evolved in our own generation. 

In 1870 the promise of the future was the railroad. When the family journeyed back to the East in 1873, they in all likelihood made the trip by rail.  Rev. Bush was to become rector of the Church of the Ascension at Staten Island, New York, only a few miles from his first church in New Jersey. What an exciting journey for a nine-year-old boy that would have been—from coast to coast on a steam locomotive! 

The Camden & Amboy Railroad, built by Robert and Edwin Stevens, had leased its rails two years earlier to the Pennsylvania Railroad, expanding its route closer to New York in the hope of competing with Vanderbilt's New York Central. Debarking at its terminus in New Jersey, the Bushes were only a ferry ride away from Staten Island. The village of West New Brighton on the island’s north central part was just a stone's throw west of Commodore Vanderbilt's Staten Island Ferry, which carried commuters to Manhattan. North of the New Brighton city center, standing on the north shore, one could look  across a murky channel of water called Kill van Kull to where Upper New York Bay extends its fingers into the eastern boundary of Bayonne Peninsula.  



Coming of Age in Hoboken
Perhaps it was the change taking place across this channel near his home that caused Samuel to seek an education in New Jersey rather than go to Yale as his father had done. From his Hoboken vantage point, it was possible to watch New Jersey being transformed into an arsenal. By 1873 the Hazard Powder Company's gunpowder and explosives manufacturing center—first opened during the War of 1812—was booming, figuratively speaking. The area had become an active railroad departure point for the movement of troops and munitions during the civil war, a conversion which had spurred industrial growth of all types. Prentice Oil Company, established in 1875 in Bayonne, was purchased in 1878 by John D. Rockefeller of Cleveland, Ohio, as the site for his new oil refinery, Standard Oil of New Jersey, which later laid pipelines to bring crude oil directly from the West and Southwest areas of the country. Tidewater Oil Company, chartered in Pennsylvania, Rockefeller's biggest competitor, moved there in the same year.[5] Samuel's school, Stevens Institute is shown in the photo as it jutted into the Hudson River.

Stevens Institute in curved area, top
Little did Samuel realize when he entered Stevens Institute in Hoboken two years later what a significant role oil and pipelines would play in the lives of his descendants after his own death in 1948.  Nor did he care, for the boisterous activity made him feel very much alive.  As a young teenager, he watched as increasing numbers of ships cruised through the channel into Upper New York Bay.  While attending classes at Stevens high school, followed by four years at Stevens Institute in the "Castle," perched as it was on a bluff jutting high above the Hudson River, directly across from Manhattan's Greenwich Village, he could watch Holland America Line's ships arriving at their Hoboken berth below.[6]  Before long, the Hoboken terminal would also be home to the North German Lloyd and Hamburg-Amerika lines as well.

Had he viewed the scene in person three decades later (instead of only mentally upon hearing news reports in 1916), he would have been in great danger. The entire area exploded in flames, sending shrapnel in every direction. With New Jersey's industries supplying almost ninety percent of war materiel to England and France, Hoboken—twenty percent of its population consisting of German immigrants—became the center of German sabotage activities.[7]  

Black Tom Island—today Liberty State Park, just south the Stevens campus—was a massive staging area for exportation of munitions.[8] Lehigh Valley Railroad, extending from Jersey City to Buffalo, N.Y.,[9] would later be awarded $50 million in damages as a result of a lawsuit won by Wall Street attorney John J. McCloy, whom we met previously in Taking the Golden Eggs Part I and Part II.[10]  The significance of this seemingly irrelevant fact will become clear later in the history of the rivalry between the Samuel Bush’s first employer, the Pennsylvania Railroad, and its biggest competitor, the New York Central Railroad. That important story, unfortunately, must be saved for another day.

The Man of Steel
In 1884 Samuel Bush stood at the Pennsylvania Railroad station, ticket in hand—employed by the very railroad that would carry him west to a four-year apprenticeship in Logansport, Indiana, and then to Columbus, Ohio, with the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad. The next two years he would work as assistant engineer of motive power, followed by employment as master mechanic of the shops at Dennison, Ohio. By 1891, as a master mechanic, he had made Columbus, Ohio, his permanent residence. In 1894, the year he married Columbus native Flora Sheldon, he became superintendent of motive power of the southwest system of the Pennsylvania lines in Columbus, Ohio.  

In 1899, five years after marrying into the Sheldon family, Samuel took a job as superintendent of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, a major investor in which was William G. Rockefeller.  During the two years the family lived in Milwaukee, the younger son (named Robert Sheldon for Flora’s father and brother) contracted scarlet fever and died. In their grief, the family returned to Columbus in 1901, when elder son Prescott was six years old. However, the Rockefeller connection was not broken by the return to Ohio. If anything, it was enhanced when he took a position with Buckeye Malleable Iron & Coupler Company, which owed a significant debt to the Rockefeller family.

Samuel became vice president and general manager of the company, known simply as Buckeye Steel Castings Company, a manufacturer of car couplers and all kinds of steel castings.[11] The corporation had begun business in 1881 amidst enormous competition—23 foundries competing in Columbus in 1887. The president, Wilbur Goodspeed, began producing railroad couplers in 1890, borrowing heavily from Frank Rockefeller, who then helped ensure their marketability by acquiring  Buckeye stock in exchange for the debt and for additional services. Rockefeller and another Standard Oil associate, Thomas Goodwillie, agreed to "use their best endeavor to secure the introduction and use upon railroads of the said couplers of the said corporation and in all ways to advance the interest of said corporation."[12] Goodspeed, an artillery man in the Civil War, maintained his shooting skills as a member of the Cleveland Gatling Gun Battery, where he and fellow member Goodwillie first met. Such a knowledge of artillery would come in handy when the factory would later produce weapons for World War I. By that time, Samuel would be guided by Frank Rockefeller to play a role in the national war effort.

Down at the Foundry
The new automatic coupler made in the foundry, like one patented by Eli Janney in 1873, as shown in the figure to the right, replaced the manual link and pin coupler which required a man to stand between railroad cars and insert a pin to hold the link in place.[13]  An Ohio law requiring all railroad cars to be equipped with automatic couplers by 1899, enacted shortly before the 1892 contract, promised that Buckeye could sell as many couplers as it could turn out, thus guaranteeing their success when combined with the sales to Rockefeller’s railroads.  This connection would be one of many to link the Bush family to the Rockefeller network.  Although some sources state that the Rockefeller brothers were at odds, the testimony that Frank Rockefeller gave in 1876 to Congress concerning the need for a law regulating interstate commerce, was actually in line with the plan devised to maintain their control over the government agency which would eventually regulate the industry.[14] 

Buckeye would eventually have offices in New York, Chicago and Atlanta, and Samuel would be listed as a director of the Hocking Valley Railway and the Sunny Creek Company, a trustee of Mercy Hospital, a member of the National Manufacturers Association, the Duquesne Club of Pittsburg and the Engineers Club of New York city, besides the Ohio Club, Columbus Club and the Arlington Country Club.  By 1908 he was promoted to president, a position that would advance him into the public eye as he chaired the executive committee for more than a hundred Columbus citizens appointed by the mayor  to raise funds for the war.  Shortly thereafter, he apparently went to Washington, D.C. as chief of the Ordnance, Small Arms and Ammunition section of the War Industries Board headed by Bernard Baruch, a position that would have placed him in a position to help Buckeye convert its production from railroad couplers to munitions, for which it had a ready market.[15]  Moreover, it would have brought him in contact with a cabal accused in 1933 of attempting to set up a military coup to replace FDR. See this blog. [16]  The relationships developed with the men on Baruch’s Board would also have helped to ensure the entry of his son, Prescott Bush, into an increasingly more complex military-industrial network.
                                                                                                                    
Climbing the Social Ladder
Butler Sheldon family mansion
Marrying into the Sheldon family had greatly improved Samuel’s social standing, to the delight of his widowed, social-conscious mother, Harriet Fay Bush. Flora was a daughter of Robert Emmett Sheldon and his wife Mary Elizabeth Butler Sheldon of Columbus. Mary’s father was Courtland Philip Livingston Butler, born in Clinton, New York, and her grandmother was "a Livingston" who was even more society oriented than Flora’s mother-in-law. Mary’s brother, Robert E. Sheldon, Jr. (born 1883) a 1904 graduate of Yale’s Sheffield School, married a member of the eminent Church family of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.[17] 

The Church family connection helps to explain Samuel Bush’s membership in the elite Duquesne Club of Pittsburgh, since his wife’s sister-in-law was the daughter of Samuel Harden Church (1858-1943)—secretary of the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad (Samuel Bush’s employer until 1899)—as well as a trustee of the Carnegie Institute, appointed by Andrew Carnegie himself.[18] Church’s work for the P,C,C & S.L Railroad, a subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Railroad, took him and his family back and forth between Pittsburgh, Pa. and Columbus, Ohio—both cities being steel-producing centers with many other overlapping interests.  It should be briefly noted here in passing that Church was a founding member of the American Liberty League, the “cabal” to be discussed in greater depth in the next segment.[19]
 
After Robert Sheldon, Jr. married Ruth Church, they built a home in Upper Arlington, northwest of the town center of Columbus.  Called Marble Cliff, this suburban area (which was made accessible in minutes as a result of Sheldon’s streetcar railway) became the home to some of the wealthiest citizens of the city.  Robert worked for many years at the family retail dry goods store which moved to extensive buildings in 1905, after Robert Sr. developed a wholesale trade.  This step up in the world came after the elder Sheldon first succeeded Emerson McMillin as president of the Columbus Street Railway Company and then in 1903 succeeded General John Beatty as President of the Citizens Savings Bank.[20]  

Even more significant than allowing him to accumulate a personal fortune, these positions reveal very clearly that Robert Sheldon, Sr. had become an insider in the syndicate headed by J.P. Morgan until his death in 1913.  Morgan bought out Pittsburgh’s leading steel producer, Andrew Carnegie, in 1901 for $500 million to merge into Morgan’s United States Steel Corporation. We have already seen in "Taking the Golden Eggs" how Morgan, operating as a clearinghouse between U.S. and foreign currencies,  used William C. Whitney’s streetcar holding companies’ “pump and dump” schemes to create income to finance the purchase of Edison’s electric utility companies by a syndicate of American investors. He used this model also to develop street railway, municipal light companies, and acquire steel production plants in numerous smaller cities of the country.  

It will be recalled that William Whitney was married to Flora Payne, whose father was Senator Henry
          Sepia Saturday 152: Occupational Hazards        
An occupational hazard is "any condition of a job that can result in illness or injury." Occupations that befuddle ancestral trails lead to prolonged periods of disorientation and malaise - an occupational hazard of doing genealogical research. The cures are as varied as our ancestors' professions.
 
I've come to love my farmers for their ties to the land. As the family grows the land divides or nearby farms are purchased. Any moves tend to be along established migration routes; the farmers' travels documented by land records.

Perennial movers have me hitting the books. These are the sailors, train engineers, military men, traveling salesmen, ministers and even a few professionals. Anyone who has lived near an IBM facility knows the alternate meaning of those three initials - "I've Been Moved." Perennial movers might be found with a diligent study of sailing or train routes, military or church records, even company addresses.

Among the more difficult to track are those whose goods or services have limited demand: blacksmiths, plumbers, weavers and more. In large cities, there was enough work for a father and his sons to work side-by-side. Not so in rural areas. Once training was complete, sons dispersed with no more pattern than a random scatter plot.

Asa Ashton Manchester (1870-1934), photographer unknown

Asa Manchester (1870-1934) followed in his father's footsteps and became a copper smith applying his smithing skills as a plumber in Dayton, Ohio. Asa ultimately became Director of the Ohio State Bureau of Plumbing Inspectors precipitating his move to Columbus, Ohio. All of Asa's brothers were employed in the metal working industry in the 1890s and all but Asa and George remained in Dayton. Metal working skills were in high demand by National Cash Register (NCR) and the growing plumbing industry.

Asa's Grandfather and Grand Uncle were also copper smiths. Brothers, John and Richard, were plying their craft in the thriving steamboat building foundries of Cincinnati in the mid-1800s. When they left the Queen City for the rich farm land in west central Ohio, Richard became a farmer and ultimately followed the traditional migration trails west. Simple.

Not so with my ancestor, John. John trained his sons as copper smiths. When the small town could not support them all, the sons migrated to a scatter plot of locations near and far. George returned to Cincinnati; John moved to St. Louis; and Richard made his way to Dayton, Ohio.

Three families of metal workers, Asa - Richard - John took me on a journey from Columbus to Dayton to Piqua to Cincinnati in Ohio; Oklahoma City; Dayton Twp, Iowa; Manchester, England and places in between. Without census records and city directories, their whereabouts and stories might have remained a mystery.

This is a rather circuitous route to the Sepia Saturday theme beginning with boys studying books, reminding me of my favorite photo of a studious Asa, reminding me of reading censuses and directories, taking me full circle back to the Sepia Saturday 152 theme. Though I doubt the boys were reading city directories or census records! Read more inspired by the photo below at Sepia Saturday 152.



More posts about Asa Manchester:
          Why Is a String Called a String?        

Why is a string called a string? Have you ever given this some thought? We never use such a word in contexts other than programming for a set of letters sticking together, and yet - in programming it's as pervasive as the word "variable". Why is that, and where does it come from?

To find out, we have to tackle some related terms first. History lesson time!

Abstract old calendar illustration

The word font is derived from the French fonte - something that has been melted; a casting. Given that letters for printing presses were literally made of metal and smelted at type foundries, that makes sense.

The metal letters of a font

The terms uppercase and lowercase refer to the literal part of the case in which the font was transported. So the printer (person) had a heavy case he lugged around or had set up at a printing press, and in this case were two "levels" - an upper case, and a lower case. The upper case contained only - you guessed it - UPPERCASE letters, while the lower case only contained lowercase ones.

Printing press case

You'll notice that there were more lowercase letters than uppercase ones. This was to be expected - a letter could only be used once on a single page and after all, a written body of text will have many more lowercase letters than uppercase ones, as there was no such thing as Youtube comments and CAPS LOCK yet.

So how does all this relate to strings?

Well, as printing became more mainstream and printing presses began offering their services to individuals, not just newspapers and publishers, it is said they decided to charge based on the length of the printed material - length in feet. Granted, a lot of this is speculative, but if they strung together the produced, printed material, they could easily estimate the costs and bill customers. So we can conclude with a reasonable degree of certainty that they used the word string in this context as a sequence of characters.

Still, how does this relate to the programming field? I mean, you could say a string of anything in regards to anything at all and it would make a degree of sense in the non-programming world. It's just a word that can be applied generally quite easily to things, even though it generally isn't.

What if we look across academia for first references?

A vector illustration of a person looking through binoculars

In 1944's Recursively enumerable sets of positive integers and their decision problems we have a mention that could vaguely resemble the modern definition:

For working purposes, we introduce the letter 6, and consider "strings" of 1's and b's such as 11b1bb1.

In this paper, the term refers to a sequence of identical symbols, so a string of 1's or a string of b's. Not exactly our definition but it's a start.

Continue reading %Why Is a String Called a String?%


          Features & Applications Silica Fiber Products        
Features: Asbestos Replacement Resilient Fireproof High Temperature Insulator Resists Molten Metals and Radiant Heat Compatible with Most Chemicals Low Halogen Content High Dielectric Strength Minimal Smoke Emission Low Thermal Conductivity No Known Health Hazards Amorphous Structure Cost Effective Applications: shipbuilding and repair, power plants and utilities, metal fabrication, foundries, petroleum and petrochemical plants, chemical processing, […]
          KERJASAMA, PENGGABUNGAN DAN EKSPANSI/METODE EKSPANSI BISNIS        

Dalam perkembangannya, perusahaan dapat mengadakan kerjasama, penggabungan dengan perusahaan lain atau berkembang sendiri tanpa mengikut sertakan peran perusahaan lain. Semua ini dilakukan untuk memenuhi tuntutan bisnisnya.
Pembentukan organisasi baru dapat dilaksanakan baik dengan ataupun tanpa melebur organisasi yang lama. Pembahasan tentang kerjasama, penggabungan dan ekspansi ini akan dipusatkan pada beberapa bentuk organisasi baru yang ditimbulkannya, yaitu :
·         Joint Venture
·         Merger
·         Akuisisi
·         Holding company
·         Aliansi Strategi

o        Joint Venture
Joint venture merupakan bentuk kerjasama antara beberapa perusahaan yang berasal dari beberapa Negara menjadi satu perusahaan untuk mencapai konsentrasi kekuatan-kekuatan ekonomi yang lebih padat. Secara umum dapat dikatakan, bahwa semua bentuk kerjasama antar perusahaan dapat ditampung kedalam bentuk usaha Joint Venture, tanpa memandang besar kecilnya modal, kekuasaan ekonomi ataupun lokasi masing-masing partner yang bersangkutan.
Adanya Joint Venture ini menimbulkan masalah-masalah baru yang sebagian besar bersumber pada perbedaan-perbedaan kebiasaan dan perundang-undangan antar Negara; masalah pemindahan modal, barang-barang dan jasa-jasa pada tingkat internasional; sampai pada perbedaan-perbedaan politik ekonomi moneter masin-masing Negara asal dari perusahaan-perusahaan yang mengadakan Joint Venture ini.
Ciri-ciri Joint Venture :
ü      Merupakan perusahaan baru yang secara bersama-sama didirikan oleh beberapa perusahaan lain.
ü      Modalnya berupa saham yang disediakan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan pendiri dengan perbandingan tertentu.
ü      Kekuasaan dan hak suara dalam Joint Venture didasarkan pada baynyaknya saham yang ditanam oleh masing-masing perusahaan pendiri.
ü      Perusahaan-perusahaan pendiri Joint Venture tetap memiliki eksistensi dan kebebasan masing-masing.
ü      Di Indonesia, Joint Venture merupakan kerjasama antara perusahaan domestik dan perusahaan asing, tidak menjadi soal apakah modal pemerintah atau modal swasta.
ü      Risiko ditanggung bersama-sama antara masing-masing partner melalui perusahaan-perusahaan berlainan.
Contoh perusahaan yang melakukan joint venture adalah:
    * Lombok Tourism Development Corporation (LTDC) yang merupakan joint venture antara PT Perusahaan Pengelolaan Aset (PPA) dan Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC) dari pihak Indonesiadengan Emaar Properties dari
      pihak Arab. LTDC bertempat di Indonesia
    * AutoAlliance International (joint venture antara Ford dengan Mazda)
    * Infineum (joint venture antara ExxonMobil dengan Shell)
    * Brewers Retail Inc. (joint venture antara Inbev, Molson Coors dengan SapporoBreweries)
    * Bank DnB NORD (joint venture antara DnB NOR dengan NORD/LB)
    * Equilon (joint venture antara Texaco dengan Shell)
    * Strategic Alliance (joint venture antara Northwest Airlines dengan KLM Royal Dutch Airlines)
    * LG.Philips Components (joint venture antara LG dengan Philips)
    * NUMMI (joint venture antara General Motors dengan Toyota)
    * Penske Truck Leasing (joint venture antara GE dengan Penske)
    * Sony Ericsson (joint venture antara Sony dengan Ericsson)
    * TNK-BP (joint venture antara BP dengan TNK (Tyumen Oil Co.))
    * Verizon Wireless (joint venture antara Verizon Communications dengan Vodafone)
    * CW Television Network (joint venture antara CBS Corporation dengan Warner Bros.)
    * The Baseball Network (joint venture antara ABC, NBC, dengan Major League Baseball)
    * The Prime Time Entertainment Network from the Prime Time Consortium (joint venture antara Warner Bros. dengan the Chris-Craft group of independent stations.)
    * The XFL (joint venture antara NBC dengan World Wrestling Entertainment)
    * The Nokia Siemens Networks (joint venture antara Nokia dengan Siemens AG)
    * Fujitsu Siemens Computers (joint venture antara Fujitsu dengan Siemens AG)
    * The Balfour Beatty Skanska, construction contractors (joint venture antara Balfour Beatty dengan Skanska)
    * Shell-Mex and BP (joint venture antara Royal Dutch Shell dengan British Petroleum, 1931-1975)
    * United Launch Alliance (ULA) (joint venture antara Boeing dengan Lockheed Martin).
    * Sony BMG Music Entertainment Sony Music Entertainment (joint venture antara (part of Sony) dengan Bertelsmann Music Group (part of Bertelsmann)
    * MSNBC (joint venture antara Microsoft dengan NBC Universal)
    * Hulu (joint venture antara NBC Universal dengan News Corp)
    * GlobalFoundries (joint venture antara AMD dengan Advanced Technology Investment Co. (ATIC))
    * Borusan Enerji (joint venture antara Borusan Holding dengan EnBW AG)
    * Nova Pictures (joint venture antara Columbia Pictures, HBO, dengan CBS).
Menurut Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1967 tentang penanaman Modal Asing (UUPMA), perusahaan-perusahaan Joint Venture harus memiliki bentuk hokum Perseroan Terbatas (PT), terutama sekali akibat ketentuan hokum yang jelas antara pihak-pihak yang membentuk usaha Joint Venture tersebut. Ketentuan hokum ini mensyaratkan adanya perimbangan kekuatan modal yang jelas antara pihak-pihak yang membentuk usaha Joint Venture; sedangkan Perseroan Terbatas itu terdiri atas pemilik yang mempunyai saham.
Di Indonesia usaha Joint Venture dikenal sebagai bentuk kerjasama perusahaan domestic dengan perusahaan-perusahaan asing. Pemerintah mempunyai wewenang untuk mengetahui dan menyetujui perjanjian-perjanjian umum dan khusus antara pihak-pihak yang ber-Joint Venture.
Dalam menajemennya, perusahaan Joint Venture ini dipimpin oleh Dewan Direktur yang dipilih oleh para pemegang saham;tidak terlepas dari tujuan utamanya, yaitu meningkatkan keterampilan teknis dan administrative bangsa sendiri untuk kemajuan dan mengurangi atau membatasi ketergantungan dari bangsa lain. Oleh karena itu pada saat menandatangani perjanjian Joint Venture, masalah pendidikan dan latihan bangsa Indonesiadalam waktu sesingkat-singkatnya sudah terlebih dahulu harus ditentukan.
o        Merger
Trust/ Marger
Merger adalah proses difusi dua perseroan dengan salah satu diantaranya tetap berdiri dengan nama perseroannya sementara yang lain lenyap dengan segala nama dan kekayaannya dimasukan dalam perseroan yang tetap berdiri tersebut. Merger adalah penggabungan dua perusahaan menjadi satu, dimana perusahaan yang me-merger mengambil/membeli semua assets dan liabilities perusahaan yang di-merger dengan begitu perusahaan yang me-merger memiliki paling tidak 50% saham dan perusahaan yang di-merger berhenti beroperasi dan pemegang sahamnya menerima sejumlah uang tunai atau saham di perusahaan yang baru (Brealey, Myers, & Marcus, 1999, p.598). Definisi merger yang lain yaitu sebagai penyerapan dari suatu perusahaan oleh perusahaan yang lain. Dalam hal ini perusahaan yang membeli akan melanjutkan nama dan identitasnya. Perusahaan pembeli juga akan mengambil baik aset maupun kewajiban perusahaan yang dibeli. Setelah merger, perusahaan yang dibeli akan kehilangan/berhenti beroperasi (Harianto dan Sudomo, 2001, p.640).
Merger terbagi menjadi tiga, yaitu:
a. Merger Horizontal, adalah merger yang dilakukan oleh usaha sejenis (usahanya sama), misalnya merger antara dua perusahaan Roti, merger perusahaan sepatu.
b. Merger vertikal, adalah merger yang terjadi antara perusahaan-perusahaan yang saling berhubungan, misalnya dalam alur produksi yang berurutan. Contohnya: perusahaan pemintalan benang merger dengan perusahaan kain, perusahaan ban merger dengan peurusahaan mobil.
c. Konglomerat ialah merger antara berbagai perusahaan yang menghasilkan berbagai produk yang berbeda-beda dan tidak ada kaitannya, misalnya perusahaan sepatu merger dengan perusahaan elektronik, atau perusahaan mobil merger dengan perusahaan makanan. Tujuan utama konglomerat ialah untuk mencapai pertumbuhan Badan Usaha dengan cepat dan mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik. Caranya ialah dengan saling bertukar saham antara kedua perusahaan yang disatukan.
Contoh perusahaan yang melakukan Trust/Marger adalah:

    * Perusahaan perkebunan Sime Darby Bhd, Kumpulan Guthrie Bhd dan Golden Hope Plantation Bhd melakukan merger dan diambil alih oleh Synergy Drive Bhd.
    * Merger dilakukan antara Grup Wilmar International Ltd sebagai perusahaan dagang yang beroperasi di Singapura dengan Grup Kuok sebagai perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit. Perusahaan dalam Grup Wilmar yang dimerger adalah Wilmar Holding Pte Ltd (WHPL) dan Archer Daniels Midland Asia (ADM). Sedangkan perusahaan dalam Grup Kuok yang dimerger adalah PPB Oil Palm Berhard (PPBOP) PGEO Group Sdn Bhd dan Kuok Oils and Grains Pte Ltd.
    * Rabobank International Indonesia (RII) telah melakukan merger dengan Bank Haga dan Bank Hagakita setelah membeli saham mayoritas dua bank tersebut dari Grup Djarum tahun 2006. Bank Haga dan Bank Hagakita akan melebur ke Rabobank International Indonesia (RII) sebagai bank hasil penggabungan dari tiga bank.
    * Merger yang dilakukan PT Indofood Sukses Makmur Tbk dengan pembagian kepemilikan saham adalah PT Indofood Sukses Makmur Tbk sebesar 80 persen, PT Bina Makna Indopratama sebesar 4 persen, PT Metro Lintas Nusa 3 persen dan PT Birina Multidaya 13 persen.
    * Di China, Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp (SAIC) dan NanjingAutomobile mengumumkan penggabungan aset dan produksi atau marger. Selain menambah modal, marger juga bertujuan menggabungkan teknologi. Dengan kepemilikan saham SAIC akan menguasai 75 persen, sementara perusahaan induk Nanjing, Yuejin Motor akan menguasai 25 persen.
o        Holding Company/Akuisisi
Holding company adalah suatu perusahaan yang bertujuan untuk memiliki saham dalam satu atau lebih perusahaan lain atau mengatur satu atau lebih perusahaan lain tersebut. Contoh perusahaan yang melakukan Holding company adalah:

    * PT Semen Gresik Tbk membentuk perusahaan induk (holding company) bagi Semen Gresik, Semen Padang, dan Semen Tonasa. Permodalan Semen Gresik masih yang paling kuat, sedangkan pertumbuhan kinerja Semen Padang dan Tonasa berada di peringkat terbawah sehingga PT Semen Gresik Tbk melakukan Holding company untuk meningkatkan kinerja perusahaannya.
    * IBM akuisisi Diligent Technologies, sebuah perusahaan swasta yang bergerak di bidang teknologi penyimpanan de-duplikasi (de-duplication). Lewat akuisisi ini, teknologi dan pegawai Diligent Technologies akan menjadi bagian dari unit bisnis IBM System Storage, IBM Systems and Technology Group.
    * Di California, Motorola mengakusisi perusahaan penyedia solusi pemroses video digital Terayon Communication Systems, Inc.
    * Computer Associated (CA) melakukan akuisisi pada MDY Group International, Inc, perusahaan yang bergerak untuk penyediaan jasa dan peranti lunak untuk kebutuhan pengelolaan data berbagai perusahaan.
Akuisisi adalah pengambil-alihan (takeover) sebuah perusahaan dengan membeli saham atau aset perusahaan tersebut, perusahaan yang dibeli tetap ada. (Brealey, Myers, & Marcus, 1999,p.598). Akuisis bisa juga pembelian suatu perusahaan oleh perusahaan lain atau oleh kelompok investor. Akuisisi sering digunakan untuk menjaga ketersediaan pasokan bahan bakuatau jaminan produk akan diserap oleh pasar. Contoh : Aqua diakuisisi oleh Danone, Pizza Hut oleh Coca-Cola, dan lain-lain.
Akuisisi berasal dari sebuah kata dalam bahasa Inggris acquisition yang berarti pengambilalihan. Kata akuisisi aslinya berasal dari bhs. Latin, acquisitio, dari kata kerja acquirere.
o        Aliansi Strategi
Aliansi strategis adalah hubungan formal antara dua atau lebih kelompok untuk mencapai satu tujuan yang disepakati bersama ataupun memenuhi bisnis kritis tertentu yang dibutuhkan masing-masing organisasi secara independen. Aliansi strategis pada umumnya terjadi pada rentang waktu tertentu, selain itu pihak yang melakukan aliansi bukanlah pesaing langsung, namun memiliki kesamaan produk atau layanan yang ditujukan untuk target yang sama. Dengan melakukan aliansi, maka pihak-pihak yang terkait haruslah menghasilkan sesuatu yang lebih baik melalui sebuah transaksi. Rekanan dalam aliansi dapat memberikan peran dalam aliansi strategis dengan sumberdaya seperti produk, saluran distribusi, kapabilitas manufaktur, pendanaan proyek, pengetahuan, keahlian ataupun kekayaan intelektual. Dengan aliansi maka terjadi kooperasi atau kolaborasi dengan tujuan muncul sinergi.

2.    Keuntungan Aliansi Strategis
Keuntungan aliansi strategis antara lain:
1.    Memungkinkan partner untuk konsentrasi pada aktivitas terbaik yang sesuai dengan kapabilitasnya
2.    Pembelajaran dari partner dan pengembangan kompetensi yang mungkin untuk memperluas akses pasar
3.    Memperoleh kecukupan sumber daya dan kompetensi yang sesuai agar organisasi dapat hidup.

3.    Penggunaan Aliansi Strategis
Aliansi strategis pada umumnya digunakan perusahaan untuk:
1.    Mengurangi biaya melalui skala ekonomi atau pengingkatan pengetahuan
2.    Meningkatkan akses pada teknologi baru
3.    Melakukan perbaikan posisi terhadap pesaingMemasuki pasar baru
4.    Mengurangi waktu siklus produk
5.    Memperbaiki usaha-usaha riset dan pengembangan
6.    Memperbaiki kualitas

4.    Perencanaan Aliansi yang Berhasil
Pemikiran mendalam tentang struktur dan rincian bagaimana aliansi akan dikelola perlu mempertimbangkan hal berikut dalam perencanaan proses aliansi. Korporasi terlebih dahulu mendefinisikan outcome yang diharapkan melalui hubungan aliansi strategis dan menentukan elemen-elemen apa saja yang dapat disediakan oleh masing-masing pihak dan keuntungan yang akan diperoleh. Korporasi juga perlu terlebih dahulu melakukan proteksi atas berbagai hak kekayaan intelektual (HAKI) melalui kesepakatan dan perjanjian legal. Korporasi juga harus sejak awal menentukan pada layanan atau produk apa yang akan dijalankan. Setelah beberapa kajian tersebut dilakukan, proses pembentukan aliansi strategis dapat melalui tahapan berikut:
1.    Pengembangan Strategi
2.    Penilaian Rekanan
3.    Negosiasi Kontrak
4.    Operasionalisasi Aliansi
5.    Pemutusan Aliansi

5.    Tipe Aliansi Strategis
Ada empat tipe aliansi strategi, yaitu:
1.    Joint venture adalah aliansi strategis dimana dua atau lebih perusahaan menciptakan perusahaan yang independen dan legal untuk saling berbagi sumber daya dan kapabilitas dengan mengkombinasikan sebagian aktiva mereka untuk mengembangkan keunggulan bersaing.
2.    Equity strategic alliance adalah aliansi strategis dimana dua atau lebih perusahaan memiliki persentase kepemilikan yang dapat berbeda dalam perusahaan yang dibentuk bersama namun mengkombinasikan semua sumber daya dan kapabilitas untuk mengembangkan keunggulan bersaing.
3.    Nonequity strategic alliance adalah aliansi strategis dimana dua atau lebih perusahaan memiliki hubungan kontraktual untuk menggunakan sebagian sumber daya dan kapabilitas unik tanpa berbagi ekuitas untuk mengembangkan keunggulan bersaing.
4.    Global Strategic Alliances adalah kerjasama secara partnerships antara dua atau lebih perusahaan lintas negara dan lintas industri.
  1. Alasan Aliansi Strategis
Pasar
Alasan
Siklus Lambat
  • Memperoleh akses ke pasar yang terbatas.
  • Mendirikan waralaba di sebuah pasar yang baru.
  • Mempertahankan stabilitas pasar.
Siklus Standar
  • Mendapatkan kekuatan pasar.
  • Mendapatkan akses ke sumber daya komplementer.
  • Mengatasi hambatan-hambatan dalam perdagangan.
  • Memenuhi tantangan persaingan dari pesaing-pesaing lainnya.
  • Mengelompokkan sumber daya untuk proyek-proyek modal yang sangat besar.
  • Mempelajari teknik-teknik bisnis baru.
Siklus Cepat
  • Mempercepat pengembangan produk atau jasa baru.
  • Mempercepat masuk ke pasar yang baru.
  • Mempertahankan kepemimpinan pasar.
  • Membentuk suatu standar teknologi industri.
  • Berbagi biaya riset dan pengembangan yang berisiko.
  • Mengatasi ketidakpastian.

7.    Strategi Aliansi Tingkat Bisnis
  1. Aliansi Komplementer. Dirancang untuk mengambil keunggulan dari peluang-peluang pasar dengan mengkombinasikan aktiva-aktiva dari perusahaan-perusahaan yang menjadi mitra dengan cara-cara yang saling melengkapi untuk menciptakan nilai baru.
  1. Aliansi Strategis Komplementer Vertikal.
  2. Aliansi Komplementer Horisontal.
  1. Strategi Pengurangan Persaingan. Dalam banyaknya persaingan, banyak perusahaan berusaha untuk menghindar dari persaingan yang merusak atau berlebihan. Salah satunya adalah dengan kolusi implisit atau toleransi mutual.
  2. Strategi Tanggapan Persaingan. Perusahaan menggabungkan kekuatan untuk merespon tindakan stratejik pesaing lain.
  3. Strategi Pengurangan Ketidakpastian. Aliansi strategis juga digunakan untuk mempertahankan diri dari risiko dan ketidakpastian khususnya dalam pasar-pasar siklus cepat.

  1. Strategi Aliansi Tingkat Perusahaan
Dirancang untuk memfasilitasi diversifikasi pasar dan/atau produk.
  1. Aliansi Strategis Diversifikasi. Memungkinkan suatu perusahaan untuk memperluas ke produk atau wilayah pasar baru tanpa melakukan merger atau akuisisi.
  2. Aliansi Strategis Sinergistik. Menciptakan ruang lingkup ekonomi bersama antara dua atau lebih perusahaan.
  3. Waralaba. Merupakan salah satu alternatif dalam diversifikasi yang merupakan strategi kerja sama berdasarkan relasi kontraktual.

  1. Strategi Aliansi Internasional
Alasan menggunakan aliansi internasional :
    1. Perusahaan multinasional memiliki kinerja yang lebih baik daripada perusahaan yang hanya beroperasi secara domestik saja
    2. Peluang-peluang untuk tumbuh melalui akuisisi atau aliansi terbatas dalam negara asal perusahaan tersebut
    3. Kebijakan pemerintah
    4. Membantu sebuah perusahaan yang mentransformasi dirinya sendiri dalam kondisi-kondisi lingkungan yang berubah dengan cepat
Overview of Proximity Switches appeared first on Instrumentation Tools.


          Three with area ties named by Obama to manufacturing panel        
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute President Shirley Ann Jackson, former Rensselaer Provost G.P. “Bud” Peterson, and GlobalFoundries CEO Ajit Manocha were among those named by President Barack Obama to  the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership Steering Committee “2.0,” an effort to maintain the nation’s leadership in emerging technologies, creating high-quality manufacturing jobs and keeping the United States globally competitive. Peterson
          Make an Affordable Home Design Statement with Bold Door Knockers        

cast iron door knockerPeople like to stand out from the crowd. It’s something that is particularly relevant for those who are looking to improve the overall design make-up of their home. Often though, it can be difficult to understand how this can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

Door knockers are a fantastic way to make a bold design statement at your home - without the need to fork out hundreds of pounds. Our varying range of products presents customers with an enjoyable decision to make, allowing them plenty of scope to match their home design scheme with one of our many products.

Sprinkling of Luxury Design with our Door Knockers

All of the door knockers that we have on offer here at Handsome Handles allow our customers to add that special touch to their home - in an affordable way. We stock everything from the unusual to the pristine – providing you with the freedom of choice to make changes to your home in the way that is best suited to your individual tastes.

There is limitless potential, with our extensive product ranges catering to many different tastes. We understand that every perspective on design is different; and that everyone – particularly those looking to stand out – need choice of product to make an informed and highly satisfactory decision.

Variety is Our Specialty

You can impress visitors with one of our lion head door knockers – based around a popular English national symbol. Alternatively, why not create a more medieval feel at your home with one of our products from the black iron range. The dark casting resonates with themes from historical home design and could really help to ensure your home stands out to visitors.

Or maybe you want your home to stand out in a more subtle way? We can meet demand there too - with products such as our polished brass postal door knockers. Similarly, our Wealden door knocker from Carlisle Brass and Ludlow Foundries might be equally as perfect – it all depends on how you wish to make a statement.

Contact Handsome Handles for Door Knockers Today

You can be sure of obtaining only the highest quality of door knockers from our team here at Handsome Handles. Through calling us via 07961832812 – or getting in touch via our contact page – you can speak to one of our dedicated team and find out plenty more about our products. You’ll be amazed at the potential for positive change at your home.


          CVD Production Support Technician - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Summary of Role : GLOBAL FOUNDRIES is seeking motivated individuals to become part of our state of the art 300mm factory in Malta, New York. The
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:03:58 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Staff Technician - Complex Analysis - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Summary of Role: GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated Materials Characterization technician to become part of our state-of-the
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:03:58 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Failure Analysis Technician - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Summary of Role: GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated physical analysis technicians to become part of our state-of-the-art
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:03:57 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          SMTS Facilities Engineer - BIM Manager - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Fab 8 Layout Manager and will be located at GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 8 in Malta, New York. Summary of Role....
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:03:57 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Senior Failure Analysis Technician - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Summary of Role: GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated physical analysis technicians to become part of our state-of-the-art
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:03:54 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Failure Analysis Technician- FIB / TEM - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Summary of Role: GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated physical analysis technicians to become part of our state-of-the-art
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:03:53 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Failure Analysis Engineer - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion...
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:03:53 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Tech Factory Automation Engn - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. Follow leading-edge global factory systems configuration business processes and functions,...
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:03:53 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          CMP Principal Process Technician - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Summary of Role : GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated technicians to become part of our state of the art 300mm factory in Malta
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:03:53 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Test Development Engineer - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion...
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 12 Jul 2017 07:58:11 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Test Engineer - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion...
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 12 Jul 2017 07:58:10 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          OPC Engineer - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. An offer of employment with GLOBALFOUNDRIES is conditioned upon the successful completion...
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Wed, 12 Jul 2017 07:58:10 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          CMP Production Support Technician - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Summary of Role : GLOBAL FOUNDRIES is seeking motivated individuals to become part of our state of the art 300mm factory in Malta, New York. The
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Tue, 11 Jul 2017 07:56:25 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Sr Engineer Design Enablement - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. GLOBALFOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated Senior Engineer to become...
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Tue, 11 Jul 2017 07:55:50 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Engineer Process Engineering - Etch - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Job Summary: GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated Experienced Process Engineer to become part of our state of the art 300mm
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Sat, 08 Jul 2017 07:51:44 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Sr. Engineer Process Engineering - Etch - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Job Summary: GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated Experienced Process Engineer to become part of our state of the art 300mm
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Sat, 08 Jul 2017 07:51:44 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Diffusion (Furnace/Implant) Equipment/Maintenance Technician - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Summary of Role: Equipment/Maintenance Technicians sustain and run the fab floor with primary responsibility of resolving equipment and process issues.
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Fri, 07 Jul 2017 07:49:59 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          SMTS Process Engineer - PVD - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. Support process and technology transfer from customers and other GLOBALFOUNDRIES fabs to...
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Fri, 07 Jul 2017 07:49:58 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Engineer Process Engineering - PVD - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. Support process and technology transfer from customers and other GLOBALFOUNDRIES fabs to...
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Fri, 07 Jul 2017 07:49:36 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Test Process Technician - GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Malta, NY        
Summary of Role : GLOBAL FOUNDRIES Fab 8 is seeking highly skilled and motivated technicians to become part of our state of the art 300mm factory in Malta
From GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Fri, 07 Jul 2017 07:49:36 GMT - View all Malta, NY jobs
          Desarrollan el primer chip del mundo con tecnología de 7 nanómetros        
Una alianza formada por GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Samsung y STMicroelectronics, y liderada por IBM, ha creado el primer prototipo de chip de la industria con tecnología de 7 nanómetros con transistores funcionales. En él se podrían colocar más de 20 mil millones de pequeños transistores en los chips del tamaño de una uña, que se utilizan en todo, desde smartphones a vehículos espaciales.
          The TR Podcast 57: Viva Las CES        

Fresh back from CES 2010, the gang attempts to recap everything seen during and after this year's upbeat electronics expo. We start with Intel's new mobile and desktop platforms and other interesting technologies, like the Wireless Display (WiDi) feature included in a few different Arrandale laptops. From AMD, we have both external graphics and the new, $99 Radeon HD 5670. Nvidia, meanwhile, showed its next-generation Tegra system-on-a-chip and GeForce 3D Vision Surround, a 3D gaming scheme Scott actually likes.
Other CES delights include an exciting motion-control product coming soon from Razer and EVGA's ridiculously massive dual-Xeon motherboard, which we're not sure will actually fit into existing PC enclosures. We also go over Asus' new line of stylish-looking laptops, the fab behemoth that GlobalFoundries is becoming, and a bevy of new SSDs from, well, just about everybody.


          A History of Aquatic Park        
The Japanese have a word for appreciating transient moments of natural beauty.  According to Wikipedia, the word Yugen "suggests [something] beyond what can be said but is not an allusion to another world.  It is about this world, this experience .... The exact translation of the word depends upon context."  Zeami Motokiyo suggests these as examples of Yugen:
"To watch the sun sink behind a flower clad hill

To wander on in a huge forest without thought of return

To stand upon the shore and gaze upon a boat that disappears in the distance

To contemplate a flight of wild geese seen and lost among the clouds"
Yugen experiences abound at Aquatic Park.  They provide one of the five sources for the endorphin cocktail that makes the club experience so addictive.  It is easy today to take these experiences for granted.  However, the creation of an "aquatic park" on the site of Black Point Cove was a complicated and combative process.  At one time the location was the setting for foundries and smelters.  Real estate development interests saw the area as a potential extension of the Fisherman's Wharf area:  a paved-over site for more restaurants and T-shirt shops.

Book Cover
Bill Pickelhaupt, in his book San Francisco's Aquatic Park, tells the story of the evolution of this site.  Rich with pictures and detailed captions, Mr. Pickehaupt's meticulously researched prose spins a tale fascinating to anyone who treasures this particular corner of the world.  He has kindly granted me permission to reprint the introduction to his book here:

"San Franciso's Aquatic Park is unique in San Francisco as one of the city's very few underappreciated spots of great beauty.  Located just to the west of the hustle and bustle of Fisherman's Wharf, Aquatic Park's daytime serenity is surpassed only by the thrilling glitter of Tiburon and Belveder's lights, reflected in San Francisco Bay as one stands on the Promenade of the park at night.  An even better view of the bay from Marin and Contra Costa counties can be gained from Muni Pier.  The people of San Francisco and the Bay Area in general were almost robbed of this wonderful park, as the conflict between development and recreation raged from more than a century in the little cove.

Pioneer Woolen Mills
"Known as Black Point Cove because of the dark shade of the trees in Fort Mason (the cove's westerly boundary), the location was isolated from the settlement of Yerba Buena and Mission Dolores during the gold rush.  Even as these settlements became San Francisco in the 1850s and 1860s, Black Point Cove was considered remote enough to allow establishment of the Pioneer Woolen Mills and the Selby Smelter, and far enough away from the reach of the law to host several highly illegal bare-knuckled boxing matches in post-Civil War San Francisco.  Yet the commercial interests shared the cove with a hearty breed: swimmers flocked to the shores of Black Point Cove and many small swim houses catered to the needs of these men and women, boys and girls.

"The San Francisco Daily Alta noted in 1869 that a man named William Lenz had drowned while swimming from 'Charley's' swim house in the cove and that the cove had been a popular beach for those fond of saltwater swimming 'for a long time.'  Around 1867, Carleton Watkins took a stereoview of a group of four young boys, naked as the day they were born, letting the surf break over their feet, as the boldest among them moves hesitantly into the chilly water (even after a long warm spell in summer, the temperature of the bay usually does not exceed 65 degrees Fahrenheit).  The most famous victim of the waters of Black Point Cove was banker William C. Ralston, who perished in the cove on a line with Tonquin Street the day he lost control of and was booted out of the Bank of California.

State Belt Railroad Fort Mason Tunnel
"The little swim houses and woolen mill fell into decline as the 1880s came to an end, but the decision of the Dolphin Swimming and Boat Club to move from the foot of Montgomery Street (now known as Columbus Avenue) to build a new boathouse at the foot of Van Ness Avenue held enormous importance for Black Point Cove.  Even though the contemporary Sanborn Insurance Map described Van Ness Avenue as 'impassible by (horse) teams,' visionaries at the club saw a water park for the recreation of the citizens of San Francisco.  In 1908, the Dolphins were joined by the South End Rowing Club and the Ariel Rowing Club, both driven from a short stay in Central Basin (near Mission Rock at the foot of Sixteenth Street) by the State Board of Harbor Commissioners.  San Francisco's development interests, particularly along the waterfront, saw the catastrophe of the 1906 earthquake and fire as a great opportunity to fill in shallow parts of the waterfront.  After Long Bridge and Mission Bay (the north side of which would be where Pac Bell Park is now situated) were filled in and disappeared forever, the northern waterfront next fell in the sights of developers.

"The State Belt Line Railroad was built across the cove in 1913, and the clubs had to continually fight to prevent the Harbor Commissioners from dumping the borings from the Fort Mason Tunnel in front of the docks of the clubs.  If the clubs' access to the water were cut off, that would be the death knell of the clubs and public access to the cove.  The harbor commissioners went so far as to remove part of the South End dock at one juncture.

"Young Mitchell"
"Ed Scully, a South End member since the early 1890s, led a fight to protect the site as a park and to get the San Francisco Board of Supervisors to commit the city to conversion of the cove to an aquatic park.  Scully and others forged an alliance with organizations interested in public health, welfare, and recreation.  Old-time South Ender John L. Herget, a member of the board supervisors and well-known as 'Young Mitchell' from his days as a championship boxer, helped on the political front.  Beginning in 1909, the clubs held a series of Aquatic Park Days to publicize successive ballot propositions to finance park construction.  (Several striking photographs survive from these events).  Although all ballot measures fell short of the two-thirds approval needed for passage, the board of supervisors, in 1918, went on record in favor of an aquatic park for the citizens of San Francisco.  The city spent the next decade acquiring the property necessary for the park.  Then the Great Depression hit.

"The city was able to build Municipal Pier (known as Muni Pier) in 1931, but funds ran out.  The State of California did some work in 1932 and 1933, but also lacked the funds to carry the project through to completion.  The federal government took on the construction of Aquatic Park as a Works Progress Administration (WPA) project in late 1935.  We not only have the park, but posterity also benefits from the fact that the WPA had a photographer come through the park nearly every month from 1936 to 1938 to provide a graphic record of progress on construction.

Maritime Museum Building
"What is now the Maritime Museum Building was intended to be the home of the Dolphin, South End, and Ariel clubs.  The South Enders did not like the building, because there were no handball courts; Dolphin Club members wanted their own clubhouse.  The streamline Moderne building, with its Benny Bufano murals, basically sat empty until Karl Kortum, a chicken farmer from Petaluma, approached the board of supervisors with the notion of a Maritime Museum for San Francisco, and the Aquatic Park building as the museum.  Alma Spreckels was Kortum's financial backer.

Fort Sutter Riverboat
"Kortum brought several vessels into the park, but the situation came to a head in 1953, when the Fort Sutter, an old riverboat that had made the run from Sacramento to San Francisco, was brought into the cove by Kortum associate Barney Gould.  The intent of Kortum and Gould was to turn the decrepit hulk into 'high-tone' restaurant, bar, and gambling casino.  The hulk was run up on the beach right next to the eastern comfort station.  The rowing clubs, just next door and dwarfed by the decayed vessel, complained on numerous counts, and the old tub was moved to the western side of the park in late 1953.  It sat there and decayed even further over the next six years.  Finally, a group of four young men, rumored to be South End Rowing Club members, doused the deck with gasoline and set the tub ablaze.  It is said the flames could be seen from Berkeley."

The members of the Dolphin and South End clubs regularly tell one another how fortunate we feel to have access to such a sublime and magical realm.  We can thank the pioneering members of the clubs for fighting to create a public haven.  We can also thank the successive members whose continuing vigilance preserved our distinctive niche.  We can now add Bill Pickehaupt to our "thank you" list as someone who has captured and preserved the history of the creation of Aquatic Park.
          Comment on Seeds of a great conference: Keynote superstars and stellar refereed content at DAC 52 by mbg        
So this comment is for everyone who is "Thinking about going to DAC, but not sure yet".....ya gotta go! Not only has the DAC Committee lined up some amazing keynotes, but the entire ecosystem is truly coming. For example look at all the Foundries that are now exhibiting, including UMC who is back after a long time! Why do you care? Because each of these ecosystem companies will be bringing people that you normally need to travel internationally to talk to...........so instead, come to DAC and address your issues all in one place, catch some of he keynotes and technical sessions.......and ya get to be in San Francisco! How good is that!
          AMD talks 20nm, FinFET 16nm - 14nm future        



Doesn’t reveal much

The market responded to AMD’s latest earnings figures and turnaround plan quite positively, bolstered by the fact that AMD was close to profitability in traditionally slow quarter. AMD did a few things right and the industry recognizes that it has a future.

During the chipmaker’s Q1 2014 conference call, AMD was asked by Christopher Rolland, FBR Capital Markets, about the company’s plans for the next manufacturing node following Kaveri and AMD’s SVP Lisa Su had something to say about it.

Lisa mentioned that all AMD products in 2014 will be 28nm, both graphics and AMD’s semi-custom APU business. This sort of dashes the hopes of many Radeon fans who were hoping for a 20nm graphics upgrade before the end of the year.


20nm still in design phase


Lisa confirmed that AMD is working on 20nm designs, but she did not reveal too many details.

“We (AMD) are, you know, actively in the design phase for 20-nanometer and that will come to production. And then clearly we'll go to FinFET. So that would be the progression of it,“ Su said.

With this in mind 20nm products can be expected in 2015 and 16nm FinFET manufacturing will be available from Samsung and GlobalFoundries later. AMD is definitely moving to FinFET after 20nm parts, as expected.

In case something radically doesn’t change, we can expect 16nm AMD parts in 2016, not earlier than that.


Upbeat on Beema


Lisa is happy that low-voltage Beema APUs are already shipping to customers as of Q1 2014 and we will have a chance to see the designs in Q2 2014 and onwards. Lisa was very positive on Beema and she expects many design wins for this part. We would expect to see some of these parts showing or shipping by late Q2 2014, roughly in time for Computex time. If you want a bit more precise date, we expect to see new Beema and Kaveri designs in mobile space by early June 2014.

Lisa Su went on record clearly stating that Mullins and Beema have plenty of design wins.

AMD14NB

“And so for Mullins and Beema, I mean I think we have a strong sort of design wins for those products. We expect those to launch in Q2 and build through the second half of the year” which gives you an idea what AMD has planned for the second part of 2014.”

You can check out the full transcript on Seeking Alpha


          AMD’s GloFo deal could lead to inventory issues        



Take or pay, but there's nothing to take

AMD might have a bit of trouble due to the basic nature of its contract with Globalfoundries. AMD and Globalfoundries have a “take or pay” arrangement, which requires AMD to buy a flat amount of wafers from its spinoff.

This year AMD needs to buy $1.15 billion worth of wafers, reports Barrons. The trouble is that AMD hasn’t been buying enough. In the first three quarters of the year AMD bought $746 million worth of wavers and the numbers are going down. It bought $269 million in Q1 and just $222 million in Q3. Even if AMD gets $250 million this quarter, it will still end up $150 million short, or it could order heaps of 32nm chips and sell them at a discount. One way or another AMD is bound to take a hit.

Since GloFo doesn’t produce AMD GPUs, the launch of Volcanic Islands products won’t make any difference. What about console custom APUs? Tough luck, the chips inside the PS4 and Xbox One are built by TSMC, too. In theory, it’s possible that GloFo will start making console chips at a later date, but not this year and probably not next year, either.

AMD’s x86 market share is going up, but that’s only thanks to console parts. Sales of its PC chips are actually going down – and that’s what matter for the GloFo deal. What’s more, AMD ditched its plans to build the first 28nm GloFo APUs last year, Kabini and Temash are built at TSMC.

So what about Kaveri, Beema and Mullins? It is still unclear, the rumour mill points to TSMC being tapped for Kaveri (bulk, not SOI), but we are still not sure about Puma-based low-end APUs. Basically there is a very good chance that all AMD 28nm parts next year will be produced by TSMC.


          Ruiz Resigns as Globalfoundries Chairman        
Hector Ruiz, the former chief executive of Advanced Micro Devices, will step down as chairman of the company's Globalfoundries chip-making spinoff after surfacing as a reported source of information for the Galleon Group insider trading scheme, the company said Monday.
          EDA Retrospective: 30+ Years of Highlights and Lowlights, and What Comes Next        

RGIn 1985, as a relatively new editor at Computer Design magazine, I was asked to go forth and cover a new business called CAE (computer-aided engineering). I knew nothing about it, but I had been writing about design for test, so there seemed to be somewhat of a connection. Little did I know that “CAE” would turn into “EDA” and that I’d write about it for the next 30 years, for Computer Design, EE Times, Cadence, and a few others.

Now that I’m about to retire, I’m looking back over those 30 years. What a ride it has been! By the numbers I covered 31 Design Automation Conferences (DACs), hundreds of new products, dozens of acquisitions and startups, dozens of lawsuits, and some blind alleys that didn’t work out (like “silicon compilation”). Chip design went from gate arrays and PLDs with a few thousand gates to processors and SoCs with billions of transistors.

In 1985 there were three big CAE vendors – Daisy Systems, Mentor Graphics, and Valid Logic. All sold bundled packages that included workstations and CAE software; in fact, Daisy and Valid designed and manufactured their own workstations. In the early 1980s a workstation with schematic capture and gate-level logic simulation might have set you back $120,000. In 1985 OrCAD, now part of Cadence, came out with a $500 schematic capture package running on IBM PCs.

Cadence and Synopsys emerged in the late 1980s, and by the 1990s the EDA industry was pretty much a software-only business (apart from specialized machines like simulation accelerators). Since the early 1990s the “big three” EDA vendors have been Cadence, Synopsys, and Mentor, giving the industry stability but allowing for competition and innovation.

Here, in my view, are some of the highlights that occurred during the past 30 years of EDA.

EDA is a Highlight

The biggest highlight in EDA is the existence of a commercial EDA industry! Marching hand in hand with the fabless semiconductor revolution, commercial EDA made it possible for hundreds of companies to design semiconductors, as opposed to a small handful that could afford large internal CAD operations and fabs. With hundreds of semiconductor companies as opposed to a half-dozen, there’s a lot more creativity, and you get the level of sophistication and intelligence that you see in your smartphone, video camera, tablet, gaming console, and car today.

CAE + CAD = EDA. This is not just a terminology issue. By the mid-1980s it became clear that front-end design (CAE) and physical design (CAD) belonged together. The big CAE vendors got involved in IC and PCB CAD, and presented increasingly integrated solutions. People got tired of writing “CAE/CAD” and “EDA” was born.

The move from gate-level design to RTL. This move happened around 1990, and in my view this is EDA’s primary technology success story during the past 30 years. Moving up in abstraction made the design and verification of much larger chips possible. Going from gate-level schematics to a hardware description language (HDL) revolutionized logic design and verification. Which would you rather do – draw all the gates that form an adder, or write a few lines of code and let a synthesis tool find an adder in your chosen technology?

Two developments made this shift in design possible. One was the emergence of commercial RTL synthesis (or “logic synthesis”) tools from Synopsys and other companies, which happened around 1990. Another was the availability of Verilog, developed by Gateway Design Automation and purchased by Cadence in 1989, as a standard RTL HDL. Although most EDA vendors at the time were pushing VHDL, designers wanted Verilog and that’s what most still use (with SystemVerilog coming on strong in the verification space).

IC functional verification underwent huge changes in the late 1990s and early 2000s, largely due to new technology developed by Verisity, which was acquired by Cadence in 2005. Before Verisity, verification engineers were writing and running directed tests in an ad-hoc manner. Verisity introduced or improved technologies such as pseudo-random test generation, coverage metrics, reusable verification IP, and semi-automated verification planning. The Verisity “e” language became a widely used hardware verification language (HVL).

The biggest way that EDA has expanded its focus has been through semiconductor IP. Today Synopsys and Cadence are leading providers in this area. Thanks to the availability of design and verification IP, many SoC designs today reuse as much as 80% of previous content. This makes it much, much faster to design the remaining portion. While IP began with fairly simple elements, today commercially available IP can include whole subsystems along with the software that runs on them. With IP, EDA vendors are providing not only design tools but design content.

Finally, the EDA industry has done an amazing job of keeping up with SoC complexity and with advanced process nodes. Thanks to intense and early collaboration between foundries, IP, and EDA providers, tools and IP have been ready for process nodes going down to 10nm.

Where Does ESL Fit?

In some ways, electronic system level (ESL) design is both a lowlight and a highlight. It’s a lowlight because people have been talking about it for 30 years and the acceptance and adoption have come very slowly. ESL is a highlight because it’s finally starting to happen, and its impact on design and verification flows could be dramatic. Still, ESL is vaguely defined and can be used to describe almost anything that happens at a higher abstraction level than RTL.

High-level synthesis (HLS) is an ESL technology that is seeing increasing use in production environments. Current HLS tools are not restricted to datapaths, and they produce RTL code that gives better quality of results than hand-written RTL. Another ESL methodology that’s catching on is virtual prototyping, which lets software developers write software pre-silicon using SystemC models. Both HLS and virtual prototyping are made possible by the standardization of SystemC and transaction-level modeling (TLM). However, it’s still not easy to use the same SystemC code for HLS and virtual prototyping.

And Now, Some Lowlights

Every new industry has some twists and turns, and EDA is no exception. For example, the EDA industry in the 1980s and 1990s sparked a lot of lawsuits. At EE Times my colleagues and I wrote a number of articles about EDA legal disputes, mostly about intellectual property, trade secrets, or patent issues. Over the past decade, fortunately, there have been far fewer EDA lawsuits than we had before the turn of the century.

Another issue that was troublesome in the 1980s and 1990s was so-called “standards wars.” These would occur as EDA vendors picked one side or the other in a standards dispute. For example, power intent formats were a point of conflict in the early 2000s, but the Common Power Format (CPF) and the Unified Power Format (UPF) are on the road to convergence today with the IEEE 1801 effort. As mentioned previously, Verilog and VHDL were competing for adoption in the early 1990s. For the most part, Verilog won, showing that the designer community makes the final decision about which standards will be used.

How on earth did there get to be something like 30 DFM (design for manufacturability) companies 10-12 years ago? To my knowledge, none of these companies are around today. A few were acquired, but most simply faded away. A lot of investors lost money. Today, VCs and angel investors are funding very few EDA or IP startups. There are fewer EDA startups than there used to be, and that’s too bad, because that’s where a lot of the innovation comes from.

Here’s another current lowlight -- not enough bright engineering or computer science students are joining EDA companies. They’re going to Google, Apple, Facebook, and the like. EDA is perceived as a mature industry that is still technically very difficult. We need to bring some excitement back into EDA.

Where Is EDA Headed?

Now we come to what you might call “headlights” and look at what’s coming. My list includes:

  • System Design Enablement. This term has been coined by Cadence to describe a focus on whole systems or end products including chips, packages, boards, embedded software, and mechanical components. There are far more systems companies than semiconductor companies, leaving a large untapped market that’s looking for solutions.
  • New frontiers for EDA. At a 2015 Design Automation Conference speech, analyst Gary Smith suggested that EDA can move into markets such as embedded software, mechanical CAD, biomedical, optics, and more.
  • Vertical markets. EDA has until now been “horizontal,” providing the same solution for all market segments. Going forward, markets like consumer, automotive, and industrial will have differing needs and will need optimized tools and IP.
  • Internet of Things. This is a current buzzword, but the impact on EDA remains uncertain. Many IoT devices will be heavily analog, use mature process nodes, and be dirt cheap. Lip-Bu Tan, Cadence CEO, recently pointed out that the silicon percentage of IoT revenue will be small and that a lot of the profits will be on the service side.

Moving On

For the past six years I’ve been writing the Industry Insights blog at Cadence.com. All things change, and with this post comes a farewell – I am retiring in late June and will be pursuing a variety of interests other than EDA. I’ll be watching, though, to see what happens next in this small but vital industry. Thanks for reading!

Richard Goering

 


          DAC 2015 Cadence Theater – Learn from Customers and Partners        

One reason for attending the upcoming Design Automation Conference (DAC 2015) is to learn about challenges other engineers have faced, and hear about their solutions. And the best place to do that is the Cadence Theater, located at the Cadence booth (#3515). The Theater will host continuous half-hour customer and partner presentations from 10:00 am Monday, June 8, to 5:30 pm Wednesday June 4.

As of this writing, 43 presentations are scheduled. This includes 17 customer presentations, 23 partner presentations, and 3 Cadence presentations, The presentations are open to all DAC attendees and no reservations are required.

Cadence customers who will be speaking include engineers from AMD, ams, Allegro Micro, Broadcom, IBM, Netspeed, NVidia, Renesas, Socionet, and STMicroelectronics. Partner presentations will be provided by ARM, Cliosoft, Dini Group, GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Methodics, Methods2Business, National Instruments, Samsung, TowerJazz, TSMC, and X-Fab.

These informal presentations are given in an interactive setting with an opportunity for questions and answers. Audio recordings with slides will be available at the Cadence web site after DAC. To access recordings of the 2014 DAC Theater presentations, click here.

 

This Cadence DAC Theater presentation drew a large audience at DAC 2015

Here’s a listing of the currently scheduled Cadence DAC Theater presentations. The latest schedule is available at the Cadence DAC 2015 site.

Monday, June 8

 

Tuesday, June 9

 

Wednesday, June 10

  

In a Wednesday session (June 10, 10:00 am) at the theater, the Cadence Academic Network will sponsor three talks on academic/industry collaboration models. Speakers are Dr. Zhou Li, architect, Cadence; Prof. Xin Li, Carnegie-Mellon University; and Prof. Laleh Behjat, University of Calgary.

As shown above, there will be a giveaways for a set of Bose noise-cancelling headphones, an iPad Mini, and a GoPro Hero3 video camera.

See the Cadence Theater schedule for further details. And be sure to view our Multimedia Site for live blogging and photos and videos from DAC. For a complete overview of Cadence activities at DAC, see our DAC microsite.

Richard Goering

Related Blog Posts

DAC 2015: See the Latest in Semiconductor IP at “IPTalks!”

Cadence DAC 2015 and Denali Party Update

DAC 2015: Tackling Tough Design Problems Head On


          Death to Weak Fonts Tee - $22.00        

Matt Cantrell, the illustrator behind this tee, had many ideas for t shirt graphics. The runner up was “Fontosaurus Rex”, which featured an illustration of a dinosaur wearing glasses, sitting at a computer, presumably working on some type. We ended up going with this grim reaper wearing an Ohno chain because death deserves to referenced in more promotional materials for type foundries. You might be wondering why the reaper isn’t carrying his traditional weaponry. Well, maybe he’s a reaper on the go. Maybe his scythe didn’t fit in the overhead bin. Or maybe, the knife fit in the illustration better. We’ll never know for sure.

60% cotton, 40% polyester. Unisex. Female pictured is 5'2", wearing a small. Male pictured is 6'7", wearing a large. Printed by the best in the biz at Screen Ink in Lincoln, Nebraska. My dad hates it.

The Ohno Party Pak: bundle with a hat for $5 off!


          Taiwanese manufacturers show strong June growth        
Taiwanese manufacturers show strong June growth


Up, up and away

A tranche of hardware makers on the island of Taiwan have released figures that show they were on a roll in June.

Quanta showed a 32 percent rise in June sales, Gigabyte revenues were up by 14 percent, while Compal showed a revenue rise of 18 percent in the period.

Gigabyte's main business line is in motherboards, while Quanta is a significant manufacturer of PCs.

The news is likely to cheer up the entire PC supply chain and will provide some encouragement to chip manufacturers, to e-tailers and to retailers.

Taiwanese corporations are required by law to provide monthly revenue figures but aren't required to show profit margins.

In other news, Digitimes reports that Globalfoundries (GloFo) has struck a deal with Shanghai based Fudan to make semiconductors aimed at AI and Big Data apps.

The process used is GloFo's 22 nanometre FD-SOI process.


          Foundries about to enter a golden age        
Foundries about to enter a golden age


Globalfoundries will remain golden while all around is dark


Globalfoundries CEO Sanjay Jha claims that the semiconductor industry will enter a golden age in the next decade.

Jha claims that this will all be driven by robust chip and memory demand for ultra-large data centres and artificial intelligence (AI).


To make much dosh, the chipmakers will have to provide sufficient manufacturing capacity and corresponding technologies to support future applications, Jha said.

For IC foundries, future applications for AI and Big Data provide the best opportunity to move forward. He said that China is also looking to transform from a manufacturing-based economy to one that focuses on innovation in AI and other new applications.

To deal with all this Golden Age lark, Globalfoundries is speeding up the construction of a new 12-inch fab in Chengdu, China.

The fab is scheduled to begin production of mainstream process technologies in 2018, and will focus on manufacturing Globalfoundries' commercially available 22FDX process technology with volume production expected to start in 2019, Jha said.

Gloflo announced the availability of its 7nm leading-performance (7LP) FinFET semiconductor technology designed for applications such as premium mobile processors, cloud servers and networking infrastructure.

The first customer products based on the technology are expected to launch in the first half of 2018, with volume production ramping in the second half of 2018.


          Glofo picks up MediaTek business        
Glofo picks up MediaTek business


22nm FD-SOI


MediaTek is considering placing chip orders with Globalfoundries using the foundry's 22nm FD-SOI process technology.

According to DigitimesMediaTek's planned chips will be designed for mid-range and entry-level smartphones.

The SoC supplier is facing a growing threat from competitors, particularly China-based players including Spreadtrum and HiSilicon. MediaTek is internally evaluating the FD-SOI option due to its low power consumption, low leakage and low costs.

MediaTek plans to roll out a new 12nm chip series designed for mid-range and high-end smartphones later in 2017, the sources noted.

According to MediaTek's roadmap, its 12/16nm chips will be targeted at the mid-range and high-end smartphone segment, while its 22/28nm solutions will be for the mid-range and entry-level segment.

MediaTek is expected to partner with TSMC in the hope it can see off Qualcomm. Qualcomm has been giving MediaTek a good kicking with its 10nm Snapdragon 835 SoCs due to a late launch of MediaTek's 10nm Helio X30 chips.


          IBM, GlobalFoundries and Samsung come up with 5nm process        
IBM, GlobalFoundries and Samsung come up with 5nm process


Will cost about the same as 10nm

IBM, GlobalFoundries (GloFo), and Samsung said yesterday that they have found a way to make 5nm  transistors, which may well enable them to pack 30 billion switches onto a microprocessor chip.

 

The tech industry has been fuelled for decades by the ability of chipmakers to shoehorn ever smaller, faster transistors into the chips that power laptops, servers, and mobile devices. But industry watchers have worried lately that technology was pushing the limits of Moore's Law -- a prediction made by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore in 1965 that computing power would double every two years as chips got more densely packed.

The next generation will shrink that dimension to 7nm, and now the IBM-Samsung development goes one generation beyond that to 5nm.

Huiming Bu, IBM's director of silicon integration and device research, said that all this means transistors can be packed four times as densely on a chip compared with today's technology.

"A nanosheet-based 5nm chip will deliver performance and power, together with density," he said.

There is a slight problem with all this though because currently most chipmakers don't agree on what exactly they're measuring about transistors. And there's also a long road between this research announcement and actual commercial manufacturing.

IBM believes this new process won't cost any more than chips with today's transistor designs, but its approach requires the use of extreme ultraviolet light to etch chip features onto silicon wafers. ALthough this has been put off for years, many are starting to install the gear for 7nm processes.


          AMD Navi GPU is based on 7nm process        
AMD Navi GPU is based on 7nm process


Vega to use 14nm and 14nm+

During its 2017 Financial Analyst Day, AMD revealed a bit more information about its future GPU plans. The next Navi GPU will be based on a 7nm manufacturing process.

According to a slide shown by Mark Papermaster, Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer at AMD, the Vega GPU, will be based on both 14nm and 14nm+ manufacturing processes. Vega will finally launch later this month, most likely at the Computex 2017 show. We will most likely see a Vega refresh sometime next year.

What is more important is that the future Navi GPU will be based on a 7nm manufacturing process. This means that AMD will have to stick with the Vega GPU at least until late next year. We probably won't see the Navi GPU before the end of 2018, since, according to GlobalFoundries, the 7nm FinFET manufacturing process will be ready for customer product design in the second half of 2017 with the ramp to risk production scheduled for early 2018.

AMD also noted that its future next-gen GPU design, which comes after Navi, will use an improved 7nm+ manufacturing process, but most likely we won't see it before 2020. 

amd GPUslide 1

GloFo should probably be ready to churn out mass produced 7nm GPU in late 2018, at least if all goes well with the designs.

As you already know, GlobalFoundries made a decision to jump directly from 14nm to 7nm due to "marginal performance and power benefits for the high cost of the 10nm process node".

In any case, AMD has put a lot of hope in its Vega GPU which will obviously be around for a while and at a high cost and the limited supply of HBM2 memory, AMD will have a rough time competing with Nvidia in the high-end GPU market.

 


          Glofo thinks 7nm vital for industry        
Glofo thinks 7nm vital for industry


IBM purchase cleared the way


GlobalFoundry’s CTO has said that the industry needs 7nm and its recent IBM purchase is helping him build up a new cunning plan for the technology.

Talking to Digitimes, Gary Patton has the job of building up the foundry house's 7nm manufacturing technology. He said that the acquisition of IBM's microelectronics unit was a big help because it had been doing a lot of work in differentiated 45/30/22/14 nm process nodes and improving its algorithm technologies for use in servers. That integration between the two sides will give GlobalFoundries a clearer blueprint for technology development.

Patton said that the 5G industry, as well as mobile computing, IoT and automotive electronics will be the growth drivers for the next decade, particularly 5G products and datacentres which need support of high-performance computing.

He added that GloFo’s FinFET process was divided into two generations, including 14 nm and 7 nm.

“We cooperated with Samsung Electronics in the 14nm process previously, but we have decided to choose a different approach for the 7nm technology and, additionally, the IBM deal has significantly enhanced our resources and development capabilities allowing us to develop the 7nm process in-house,” he said.

GloFlo had decided to jump from 14nm to 7nm directly, while skipping the 10nm process because it believed that 10nm will help not much to improve power consumption and costs for clients.

“The 10nm node is more like a semi-generation process, similar to the previous the 20nm technology, which could not meet clients' requirements,”he said.

The foundry was getting comments from clients indicating that they need the 7nm products urgently so pouring technology resources into developing the 7nm process made more sense.

GloFo’s internal roadmap has the 7nm process is expected to enter volume production in the first half of 2018 with initial clients including IBM and AMD.

“The 7nm process has a number of advantages, including multi-core, high-speed I/O capabilities, reducing power consumption by 60 per cent, upgrading performance by 30 per cent , cutting costs by 30 per cent doubling the yield rate per wafer, while providing 2.5D/3D packaging services,” he said.


          Globalfoundries China 12 inch fab stalled        
Globalfoundries China 12 inch fab stalled


Chinese government says no

The Chinese government has stepped in to put a Globalfoundries joint venture 12-inch fab project on ice.

A deal between Globalfoundries and the government was struck in the middle of the year, but according to Digitimes the Chinese appear to have got cold feet.

Under the deal, Globalfoundries would be responsible for 12-inch manufacturing tools to upgrade a wafer fab provided by the government. GloFo wanted to start producing 12-inch wafers at the facility in 2017, using the foundry's technologies and used 40 nm gear from its Singapore Fab.

But the Chinese are a little upset that Globalfoundries is expected to own 51 percent of the JV fab by just paying for the equipment. The government has now argued that Globalfoundries' total equipment expenditure for the fab is too cheap to obtain the 51 percent stake in the JV, the sources noted.

At the moment it looks like the deal will fall flat becuase GloFlo is also not giving ground. Digitimes thinks that the government is reviewing the direction of the proposed JV and is looking to find a better partner than Globalfoundries.

 


          Navi is 7nm and will appear late 2018 early 2019        
Navi is 7nm and will appear late 2018 early 2019


Next, next generation

Vega 10 will evolve to Vega 20 in 2017 and 2018 and this will be AMD’s next big thing.  It is codenamed Navi and will be a 7nm FinFET GlobalFoundries product that should surface in late 2018 or early 2019.

GlobalFoundries was loud and clear that it planned to skip 10nm. But, to be fair, even Intel cannot get 10nm right. We know that companies like Qualcomm will launch 10nm products in the mobile space but it is not clear when high performance chips such as GPUs and CPUs will surface in 10nm FinFET. 

Vega 10 arrives in the first half of 2017 and will get replaced by an updated version called Vega 20 by late 2017 or early 2018.  However 2017 is optimistic and when it comes to GPUs it is better to expect them later rather than earlier. Fudzilla has exclusively mentioned that AMD is working on a 7nm products and one of them is codenamed Starship and should have 48 cores. 

vega10

The Vega 20 with PCIe 4.0 and updated memory interconnect should get AMD through better part of 2018 while 7nm FinFET Navi is ready. AMD went public that Navi is planned for 2018 and it even suggested that it might use a next generation memory.

That could be called High Bandwidth Memory 3, but it remains to be seen. GPUs on the high end rely on chip stacking, something that we seen with HBM 1 and that we will see more in 2017 with more HBM 2 products on the market.


          GloFo confirms it will skip 10nm        
GloFo confirms it will skip 10nm


Go directly to 7nm do not past 10nm or collect $200

Globalfoundries has announced it is ignoring 10nm and will go directly to the 7nm FinFET chip production by early 2018.

In a statement, GloFo said that it will skip "the marginal performance and power benefits for the high cost of the 10nm process node". This will let it  become a leading differentiated 7nm chip fabricator before anyone else.

The outfit said that it will be re-using significant portions of the tools and processes currently used in 14nm FinFET and will have a multi-billion dollar investment in its Fab 8 campus to facilitate 7nm FinFET production.

There do seem to be a few problems with 10nm. Intel could not make it work for Cannonlake and so far the only one who appears to have had much success with it has been Qualcomm.

GloFo CEO Sanjay Jha thinks that 7nm will be "the next long-lived node" and that his outfit can become a "leading edge" foundry.

"We are well positioned to deliver a differentiated 7nm FinFET technology by tapping our years of experience manufacturing high-performance chips, the talent and know-how of our former IBM Microelectronics colleagues and the world-class R&D pipeline from our research alliance. No other foundry can match this legacy of manufacturing high-performance chips," he said.

Apparently GloFo has Big Blue backing for its design, as analysts think it is a bit risky making a jump like that.

The company said that test chips have already started to be made in Fab 8 and "the technology is expected to be ready for customer product design starts in the second half of 2017, with ramp to risk production in early 2018”.


          Make an Affordable Home Design Statement with Bold Door Knockers        

cast iron door knockerPeople like to stand out from the crowd. It’s something that is particularly relevant for those who are looking to improve the overall design make-up of their home. Often though, it can be difficult to understand how this can be achieved in a cost-effective manner.

Door knockers are a fantastic way to make a bold design statement at your home - without the need to fork out hundreds of pounds. Our varying range of products presents customers with an enjoyable decision to make, allowing them plenty of scope to match their home design scheme with one of our many products.

Sprinkling of Luxury Design with our Door Knockers

All of the door knockers that we have on offer here at Handsome Handles allow our customers to add that special touch to their home - in an affordable way. We stock everything from the unusual to the pristine – providing you with the freedom of choice to make changes to your home in the way that is best suited to your individual tastes.

There is limitless potential, with our extensive product ranges catering to many different tastes. We understand that every perspective on design is different; and that everyone – particularly those looking to stand out – need choice of product to make an informed and highly satisfactory decision.

Variety is Our Specialty

You can impress visitors with one of our lion head door knockers – based around a popular English national symbol. Alternatively, why not create a more medieval feel at your home with one of our products from the black iron range. The dark casting resonates with themes from historical home design and could really help to ensure your home stands out to visitors.

Or maybe you want your home to stand out in a more subtle way? We can meet demand there too - with products such as our polished brass postal door knockers. Similarly, our Wealden door knocker from Carlisle Brass and Ludlow Foundries might be equally as perfect – it all depends on how you wish to make a statement.

Contact Handsome Handles for Door Knockers Today

You can be sure of obtaining only the highest quality of door knockers from our team here at Handsome Handles. Through calling us via 07961832812 – or getting in touch via our contact page – you can speak to one of our dedicated team and find out plenty more about our products. You’ll be amazed at the potential for positive change at your home.


          The TR Podcast 57: Viva Las CES        

Fresh back from CES 2010, the gang attempts to recap everything seen during and after this year's upbeat electronics expo. We start with Intel's new mobile and desktop platforms and other interesting technologies, like the Wireless Display (WiDi) feature included in a few different Arrandale laptops. From AMD, we have both external graphics and the new, $99 Radeon HD 5670. Nvidia, meanwhile, showed its next-generation Tegra system-on-a-chip and GeForce 3D Vision Surround, a 3D gaming scheme Scott actually likes.
Other CES delights include an exciting motion-control product coming soon from Razer and EVGA's ridiculously massive dual-Xeon motherboard, which we're not sure will actually fit into existing PC enclosures. We also go over Asus' new line of stylish-looking laptops, the fab behemoth that GlobalFoundries is becoming, and a bevy of new SSDs from, well, just about everybody.


          GlobalFoundries plans ‘multi-billion’ Fab 8 upgrade        
GlobalFoundries announced Thursday it plans a “multi-billion” investment at its Fab 8 computer chip factory in Malta to start making next generation 7 nanometer chips for customers.  The announcement, revealed to the Times Union and other local media outlets by Fab 8 general manager Tom Caulfield, follows the company’s successful launch of 14 nanometer chips
          Cylinders found at Fab 8 getting closer look this weekend        
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is planning to bring special containment lockers to the former Malta Rocket Fuel Area near GlobalFoundries this weekend after dozens of metal cylinders were found at the Cold War era site. The June 6 discovery of 34 stainless steel cylinders forced GlobalFoundries to close off a construction entrance, parts of its
          A Modern Sans Serif Goes To College: TT Polls        
TypeType foundry was established as one of the very first dedicated type foundries in St. Petersburg. Alexander Kudryavtsev and Ivan Gladkikh launched TypeType in 2013, enjoying a great deal of success over the years that have since passed. They’ve worked with international corporations that include Acer, Lego, and McDonald’s, and they release type designs that...
          IEDM 2016 – Setting the Stage for 7/5 nm        
At IEDM last month, there was much ado about the adjacent 7-nm late-news papers from TSMC and the GLOBALFOUNDRIES/IBM/Samsung group consortium from the Albany Nanotechnology Center, and with less ado, Samsung gave a 5-nm presentation later in the conference.
          ÐŸÐ¾Ð»ÐµÐ·Ð½Ñ‹Ðµ ссылки:        
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Годовой отчёт 2015
https://medium.com/@cstmfonts/%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B9-%D0%BE%D1%82%D1%87%D1%91%D1%82-a620f500cfdf#.lrlqibse4

Яндекс Санс
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          Vice President (VP) Operations - Pangborn LLC - Fairburn, GA        
Foundries, Primary Metals Manufacturers, Automotive Related Manufacturers, Aerospace, Machinery Manufacturers and General Metalworking....
From Pangborn LLC - Fri, 21 Jul 2017 18:28:50 GMT - View all Fairburn, GA jobs
          Thank You Conrad Manuel Hiraldo - part 4 - Astoria (day): Power        
This is part four of my seven-part essay "Thank You Conrad Manuel Hiraldo." Introduction and part one. Part two. Part three. I'll post the other three parts subsequently here on EWINY, one a week.

There has been a storm. Near our front door a phone cable trails across the street. Here in Astoria tangles of overhead power and communications cables are slung from wooden pole to wooden pole and I am always amazed they function. A man on his way to work suggests I call 311 about it – he cannot because he is in a rush – so I do, and feel good-neighborly-about it while also conscious that usually it would be me rushing down the street to work and savoring the fact I am not. Back in the apartment I put things into our bag for the day (blanket, diapers, wipes, notebook) and hear a fire engine approach then drive away. When we go back outside the cable has been tied up.

We walk to Astoria Park and sit for a while on a high grassy verge next to the running track, overlooking East River. Above our heads the traffic over the Triborough Bridge thunders into Manhattan and the Bronx (no-one has adjusted to calling it by its new name, the Robert F Kennedy Bridge). Like Flushing Meadows Corona Park, this one has the stamp of Robert Moses. He commissioned the bridge, and, himself an avid swimmer, also the city’s largest open-air swimming pool at the center of the park.

Below us the river rushes. In fact it is not really a river at all though, but a straight that links Long Island Sound with Atlantic Bay: the force of the ocean courses through it. It has tides. Its surface is scurried with eddies and stirred by currents. It has a dark underbelly. Just upstream from where we sit, over a thousand passengers of the General Slocum pleasure steamboat died when it caught fire in 1904, in the city’s worst disaster before 9/11. Downstream in Brooklyn, the bleached bones of patriots who had died on the sixteen British prison ships in Wallabout Bay – later the Brooklyn Navy Yards –would wash up regularly after the revolutionary war.

A hodgepodge of bodies jogs around the running track. This track is undiscriminating. There are svelte runners, flabby runners, young and old (the latter walking). A middle-aged couple for whom this is clearly a regular routine strolls in comfortable silence alongside one another. Ethnically the runners reflect Astoria’s mix, that is to say, a bit of everything, with a Greek, Italian, Latino and Middle Eastern emphasis.

We go down to the river’s edge and head North along Shore Boulevard. Conrad soon falls asleep in his stroller. The tide is low. Fallen branches, flotsam and jetsam from the storm are scattered across the sidewalk: the fragility of this city-meets-river fringe is more evident than usual. A single seagull stands sentinel by a sign marking the spot of the General Slocum disaster. There is an underling whiff of sewage, explained when we reach the top edge of the park by a notice entitled “wet weather discharge point.”

We reach the southern flank of the immense Con-Ed power station, whose presence is marked on maps of the area as a great blank gray swathe. New Yorkers may no longer depend on the river directly for sustenance but it sustains them in other ways: providing cooling water for multiple power stations is one of them. There are no people around and the strong sun feels desert-like as we move along 20th Avenue, power plant on our left and a row of rented garages on the right. Gradually there are signs of life, starting with the diner Two Greeks to Go, perched on a corner alongside a gas station, where I buy a bottle of water. “The Truth Hurts” shouts a New York Post headline. The previous day the tape of Republican Presidential candidate Mitt Romney was released, in which he dismissed 47% of the American population as dependent on government because they do not have to pay income tax and declared them irrelevant for his campaign.

Opposite the diner are three institutions: The Federation of Italian American Organizations of Queens’ soccer pitch (sponsored by Con Edison); Live Meat Market, with red painted signs that announce chicken, rabbit, guinea pig, lamb, goat and Halal meat; and Loumidis Foods factory whose slogan is “Bringing the culinary treasures of Greece to you.” I keep walking fast, headed towards the Steinway piano factory which I have heard so much about but never seen, and wanting to reach it before Conrad wakes up again.

In the second half of the nineteenth century, Henry Steinway, who had changed his German name Steinweg to Steinway on advice of friends who said it would be better for business, moved his piano factory from Manhattan to a site in Northern Astoria that was more or less an empty space. He built not only a factory but a whole village, with housing, foundries, and a mansion for his family, which has been on the market since soon after I moved to Astoria.

The wood for making the pianos used to be shipped to the factory’s back door where it bobbed in floating pens: walnut, pear, spruce, rosewood, mahogany. Now it is trucked in, but the factory is still active in much the same way as when it opened. Craftsmen transform the raw materials into the sleek finely tuned vessels whose notes grace concert halls throughout the continent (Steinway pianos sold in Europe are made in its factory in Germany). The meticulous process reportedly culminates with the elderly Wally Boot whose grandfather worked at the factory and whose job is to test and tweak the finished pianos. A note on his door reads “Pianos enter this room looking like a piano but leave sounding like one.”

One day I will visit the factory and see all this for my own eyes. For now, we just see the low red brick building from the outside before turning around and walking South. We rest and Conrad has his milk in a tiny patch of shade in Ditmars Park. Then onwards down Steinway Street, including the stretch known as Little Egypt that is lined with hookah bars and that earlier in the year had erupted in celebration at the toppling of Mubarak. We turn right down 30th Avenue which takes us home.

During 2011, I had interviewed one person a week along the Avenue. I posted the interviews on a blog I called “30th Ave – A Year in the Life of a Street.” The project was inspired in part by the fact that in 2008 the “Genographic Project” of National Geographic magazine had taken DNA cheek samples from passersby at the 30th Avenue street fair and found traces of every human ethnic lineage among them except for one (that of Khoisan hunter-gatherers in southern Africa). People often mention Queens’ diversity when describing the borough and leave it at that. But what are they saying? As author Junot Díaz puts it in an interview, “Saying a distinction is different from drawing a conclusion from that distinction…[I]t's okay for us to be able to talk and say, ‘I'm a person of color. This is a person who's white.’ And that's not a bad thing. It's saying that that means something, that that somehow is deterministic. That's the problem.”

My project was, in its small way, about listening to and collecting individual voices from the neighborhood. Among them was Halim who founded a café called Harissa: “You don’t feel like an immigrant. Because everybody is,” he said of Astoria. And the Ecuadorian crossing guard Julia Bravo, who helps children of multiple backgrounds cross the road to school. “Son niños, son iguales,” she said. There may be as many stories of the city as there are inhabitants, but more connects them than differentiates them. Successful neighborhoods are the ones that recognize that fact.

Part 5: "Astoria (night): Projection"

          TasteCamp Maryland: McClintock Distilling Co.        

Craft distilling is booming all across the country, and a significant number of these new, small producers are creating some delicious and interesting spirits, from whiskey to rum, gin to brandy. TasteCamp originated as a weekend-long immersion into lesser known wine regions, having visited areas including Long Island, the Finger Lakes, Quebec, Virginia, Niagara and Vermont. Over time, the concept of TasteCamp has evolved, so that not only do we explore wine, but we now also explore local beer, ciders, spirits, and food.

About 30 or so writers and wine industry people recently attended TasteCamp 2017, which was held in Maryland. Once again, we visited wineries, breweries and distilleries, sampling much of what Maryland has to offer, and I found much to enjoy. In downtown Frederick, one of our visits was to the McClintock Distilling Company, which only opened in December 2016. Despite its youth, I was impressed with their concept, objectives, and existing products. This is certainly a distillery with a bright future ahead of it.

In December 2014, the city of Frederick amended their city code and permitted small, craft distilleries to operate in the downtown area. Only a few distilleries have so far opened in Frederick but you'll likely see more in the near future. Tyler Hegamyer and Braeden Bumpers, who both graduated from Elon University, had an interest in producing spirits, and received some education and training in distillation at Cornell University and the American Distilling Institute.

On the site of an old mechanic's garage, they chose to open McClintock Distilling Company, which includes a distillery and tasting room. The distillery was named after McClintock Young, a famous inventor in the 19th century, who had over 100 patented inventions. With a passion for innovation, he also owned one of the first foundries in Frederick. And it is that passion for innovation which has inspired Tyler and Braeden.

The distillery uses only 100% certified organic ingredients and hopes to soon become a certified organic distillery. They currently use about 120 tons of grain annually, acquiring whole kernel grains from Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky and Ontario. Though they would like to use local grains, those grains still need to be organic and Perdue farms purchases most of the grain in Maryland. Their long term goal is to purchase as much local, organic grain as possible.

I was fascinated to learn that McClintock grinds all of their own grains, using a stone burr mill which once was used by an old bakery. They might be one of only two distilleries in the U.S. to use a stone burr mill. Also known as grist mills, they are able to grind grains into a fine flour which doesn't cause the grains to heat up, and also helps the flour maintain the flavor. This makes their distillery more unique, and could lead to a more flavorful end product. It also helps them keep quality control of every aspect of the process.

The milled grains pass directly into the mash tanks, which prevents oxidation. They have three fermenters, and the usual, full fermentation takes two days, using a proprietary distillers yeast. As they are very concerned with sustainability, and wish to be waste neutral, they use a closed loop cooling system, which reuses the water that chills the mash tanks. In addition, after fermentation, the spent grains are sent to local farms as pig food. I'm sure those are very happy pigs.

McClintock's stills, including a pot and column still, were created by Kothe Distilling, a renowned German company, and were made with lots of copper, which benefits distillation. On the left side, you can see their 1000 liter pot-column still.

Their column still has an attached Vapor Basket that allows them to better produce their gin, as they place all of the botanicals in the basket. This helps to better extract the flavors in those botanicals.

They currently have three products for sale, a Vodka, Gin and White Whiskey, and have been aging some of their spirits in 30 gallon barrels. They believe they will age their spirits for about 1-1.5 years before they are released for sale. For example, they have some used Hennessy Cognac barrels in which they are aging some of their gin. I had the chance to taste two barrel-samples, and they definitely show potential. I am very intrigued to see how they taste once the aging is complete.

The Epiphany Vodka ($28) is made from Northern Italian organic white wheat, and was double distilled and triple filtered. It has a relatively smooth and clean taste, with a hint of earthiness. Though you could probably drink this chilled, on its own, it probably would be best in a cocktail.  It was my least favorite of their three products, but it is still a good vodka.

The Forager Gin ($36) is a vapor infused New-World style gin using botanicals inspired by native herbs found in the Appalachian wilderness.

Here is the list of botanicals used to produce this gin. Quite an interesting combination. On the nose, there is a strong juniper aroma with subtle hints of other botanicals in the background. On the palate, the botanical mix is more balanced, and the complex melange of flavors delights the mouth. There are elements of fruit, mainly citrus, and floral flavors, with a sprinkle of spice elements. The gin should be served chilled, and would be delicious on its own, or used in cocktails. I'm not a huge fan of gin, as I find too many overdo it with the juniper flavors, but I really enjoyed the more balanced botanicals in this Forager Gin. Highly recommended.

The Maryland Heritage White Whiskey ($34) is made from a blend of about 80% Rye, with the rest being wheat and corn. It has a high rye content, intended to reflect the historic ryes from pre-prohibition Western Maryland distilleries. In addition, the whiskey was aged for about 24 hours in an oak barrel and is 84 proof. As a big Rye fan, this whiskey appealed to be, presenting with plenty of tasty, spicy notes, with a hint of sweetness from the corn. In general, it was smooth and easy-drinking, with only a touch of heat from the alcohol. This would be a nice choice in a Manhattan of other whiskey-based cocktail. Also highly recommended.

McClintock Distilling is on the right path, with passionate owners, who are trying to be sustainable, organic and produce quality spirits. Their initial products were impressive and I see great potential here, including with their aged spirits. I also feel they would be an excellent model for other craft distillers. If you ever get to Maryland, seek out their spirits. And if you have an interest in craft spirits, you should pay attention to what McClintock Distilling is doing.


          IE9 and TTF and 'embedding bits'        
The new IE9 ignores TTF webfonts whose 'embedding bits' do not say 'installable'. Do foundries need to offer TTF webfonts set to 'installable'? No.
          Introducing the American Type Founders Collection: Classic Typefaces Reinterpreted        
Many of today’s most familiar typefaces had their origins in a company known as American Type Founders (ATF), the United States’ most prominent type company of the metal era. Formed in 1892 as a consolidation of 23 independent foundries, ATF … Continue reading
          Some AMD Zen leaks (ES clocks, PCI info, Rambus DDR PHY, Roadmaps) [UPDATED]        
Update: Small corrections, comments on PCIe dump, AoTS leaks, link to more slides added.
TL;DR: First Zen OPN and PCIe info leaked. Additionally I do a recap of some other recent leaks.

Planet3DNow! forum user "Crashtest" posted a Zen ES OPN and PCI device info (behind the spoiler button), which somehow landed in the CPU-Z and SIV databases.

So the OPN is "1D2801A2M88E4_32/28_N". Using the already known schema, "D" stands for desktop, "28" for the base clock frequency (2.8GHz), the first "8" of "88" for the number of cores. And more clearly, "32/28" stand for turbo boost frequency (3.2GHz), and the base clock again (2.8GHz). This matches the information given for the 8C DT ES in an AnandTech forum posting recently:
"The most exciting part is core clock. The 8c/95W variant's base clock is 2.8GHz, all core boost is 3.05GHz and maximum boost is 3.2GHz."
This hasn't been confirmed in this way before (except that I heard it is true). So until now there was nothing available, that actually supported the information posted there.

The PCI information found in the SIV database looks as follows:
Bus-Numb-Fun IRQ Vendor-Dev-Sub_OEM-Rev Class (9:255) Vendor and Device Description Showing 39 of 39
[0 - 00 - 0] 1022-1450-14501022-00 Host Bridge AMD
[0 - 01 - 0] 1022-1452-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD
[0 - 01 - 2] 1022-1453-00000000-00 PCI Bridge (0-1) x4 (x4) AMD
[0 - 02 - 0] 1022-1452-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD
[0 - 03 - 0] 1022-1452-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD
[0 - 04 - 0] 1022-1452-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD
[0 - 07 - 0] 1022-1452-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD
[0 - 07 - 1] 1022-1454-00000000-00 PCI Bridge (0- x16 (x16) AMD
[0 - 08 - 0] 1022-1452-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD
[0 - 08 - 1] 1022-1454-00000000-00 PCI Bridge (0-9) x16 (x16) AMD
[0 - 20 - 0] 1022-790B-790B1022-59 SMBus Controller AMD
[0 - 20 - 3] 1022-790E-790E1022-51 ISA Bridge AMD
[0 - 20 - 6] 1022-7906-79061022-51 SD Host DMA Controller AMD
[0 - 24 - 0] 1022-1460-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD Summit Ridge (K17) Processor Link Control
[0 - 24 - 1] 1022-1461-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD Summit Ridge (K17) Processor Address Map Configuration
[0 - 24 - 2] 1022-1462-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD Summit Ridge (K17) Processor DRAM Controll
[0 - 24 - 3] 1022-1463-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD Summit Ridge (K17) Processor Miscellaneous Control
[0 - 24 - 4] 1022-1464-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD Summit Ridge (K17) Processor Link Control
[0 - 24 - 5] 1022-1465-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD Summit Ridge (K17) Processor Function 5 Configuration
[0 - 24 - 6] 1022-1466-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD Summit Ridge (K17) Processor Function 6 Configuration
[0 - 24 - 7] 1022-1467-00000000-00 Host Bridge AMD Summit Ridge (K17) Processor Function 7 Configuration
[1 - 00 - 0] 1022-43B9-11421B21-02 XHCI Controller x4 (x4) AMD Promotory USB 3.1 XHCI Host Controller
[1 - 00 - 1] 1022-43B5-10621B21-02 SATA (AHCI 1.0) x4 (x4) AMD
[1 - 00 - 2] 1022-43B0-00000000-02 PCI Bridge (1-2) x4 (x4) AMD
[2 - 00 - 0] 1022-43B4-00000000-02 PCI Bridge (2-3) x1 (x1) AMD
[2 - 01 - 0] 1022-43B4-00000000-02 PCI Bridge (2-4) x1 (x1) AMD
[2 - 02 - 0] 1022-43B4-00000000-02 PCI Bridge (2-5) x1 (x1) AMD
[2 - 03 - 0] 1022-43B4-00000000-02 PCI Bridge (2-6) x1 (x1) AMD
[2 - 04 - 0] 1022-43B4-00000000-02 PCI Bridge (2-7) x0 (x4) AMD
[3 - 00 - 0] 14E4-1687-168714E4-10 Ethernet Controller x1 (x1)Broadcom NetXtreme BCM5762 Gigabit Ethernet PCIe
[3 - 00 - 1] 14E4-1640-164014E4-10 SD Host DMA Controller x1 (x1)Broadcom
[5 - 00 - 0] 1002-68F9-010E1002-00 VGA Controller x1 (x16) AMD Cedar Pro [Radeon HD 5450/Radeon HD 6350] [GPU-0]
[5 - 00 - 1] 1002-AA68-AA681002-00 High Def Audio x1 (x16) AMD Cedar/Park HDMI Audio
[8 - 00 - 0] 1022-145A-145A1022-00 Other (0x130000) x16 (x16) AMD
[8 - 00 - 2] 1022-1456-14561022-00 Other Encryption x16 (x16) AMD
[8 - 00 - 3] 1022-145C-145C1022-00 XHCI Controller x16 (x16) AMD
[9 - 00 - 0] 1022-1455-14551022-00 Other (0x130000) x16 (x16) AMD
[9 - 00 - 2] 1022-7901-79011022-51 SATA (AHCI 1.0) x16 (x16) AMD
[9 - 00 - 3] 1022-1457-14571022-00 High Def Audio x16 (x16) AMD

Total of 7 PCI buses and 39 PCI devices in 0.040 seconds.
Source: SIV database

Update #1: As "Crashtest" explains in a later posting, the respective Summit Ridge system (w/ Myrtle mainboard) seems to have at least 36 PCIe lanes. According to him, the listed configuration seems to be a bit chaotic. BTW, "Promotory" should actually be written "Promontory".

Update #2: Thanks to the OPN, Planet3DNow! user "BoMbY" identified some Ashes of the Singularity benchmark results, which were run on two different Zen engineering samples. One had the same OPN, while the other had a slightly different one ("2D" instead of "1D"). As they've been removed from the AotS database, you can find them archived here.

Next there was a BitsAndChips article about the likely provider of the DDR4 PHY found on Zen based processors: Rambus. That speculation is based on the given details the author learned from his sources, which fit well to what Rambus recently announced regarding their 3200 Mbps DDR4 PHY available for Globalfoundries' 14LPP process. You can learn a bit more about their technology here.

Another interesting bit of info are two AMD roadmaps, which look real. But as one recently could see with this Athlon X8K die shot posted at Reddit, even the quality of die shot fakes can be rather high (also see my analysis there). In that case the creator of the die shot wrote me, that he actually just tried to check the viability of such a product regarding die size and thus processing costs. Back to the roadmaps.

For 2017 they show:
  • Raven Ridge APUs for the FP5 socket (4C/8T, <=12 gfx CUs, 4-35W TDP)
  • higher TDP models (65-95W) for the AM4 socket (also 4C/8T and an unknown number of gfx CUs)
  • also AM4 based Summit Ridge CPUs with 8C/16T and TDPs of 65 to 95W
Most of the boxes are marked as "AMD PRO", which usually stands for a separate series of products targeted at commercial customers. Due to special certification programmes, perhaps also additional testing, and of course the integration in ready to ship OEM hardware, these products might hit the shelves a bit later than consumer variants.

There is also a notable difference in the listed processes: "14nm SoC" for Raven Ridge, and "14nm FinFET" for Summit Ridge. I assume, that the "14nm SoC" process might refer to a different metal layer density, as recently covered in an article by Hiroshige Goto (Japanese) about APUs and AMD's FinFET efforts. Thus "FinFET" could stand for less dense lower metal layers, which would allow for somewhat higher clock speeds due to lower wire delays.

A note on the slides: I saw some unusual pixel patterns and spacings in the "14nm SoC" and "14nm FinFET" boxes (aside from different sizes). I'd expect a scaled, interpolated PowerPoint slide to show subpixel positioning of single characters. But I saw only pixel exact 1 or 2 pixel spacings with exactly similar interpolated pixels around the characters. I'll try to reproduce this in PPT.

In the end, these slides (if real) might mean, that there is no desktop Zen available in 2016 (even not as the promised sampling at the end of the year). But that is not for sure, yet. My own GCC patch based launch speculation gave a rough launch date range between 10/2016 and 05/2017.

Update #3: You can find the complete two slides and an additional one here. These don't look like being faked, although some details look a bit awkward. But this might be attributed to a smaller target audience (I suppose decision makers with more interests in dates and specs).
          AMD Zen and K12 (ARM) tapeouts confirmed by LinkedIn profile        
According to a LinkedIn profile, both Zen and K12 should have been taped out already. So this is a fact, as it isn't speculated based on sparse information. Interestingly the same guy (you have to find him yourself, if you need to), who only talks about CPU cores, mentions his working on 16nm and 14nm FinFet designs. So there will be one design made by TSMC and one by Globalfoundries. K12 by the first and Zen by the latter I suppose. And here is the snippet:



          How Many Days Until Zen?        
Last weeks headlines went back and forth about which foundry will be selected by AMD to produce wafers containing Zen based processors. After Jim Kellers departure, Mark Papermaster assured that Zen is on track for samples in 2016 and a full year of revenue in 2017. Before him pointing that out there was a comment on a LinkedIn profile, putting AMD's next gen x86 desktop processor straight into 2017.

So there are several data points of more or less official type. Let me add another one, which is based on the GCC patch publication pattern. This assumes, that there are work processes behind the patches and of course GCC related deadlines for inclusion of particular changes.

Days between GCC compiler patches and CPU launch of Bulldozer and Cat core family CPUs with speculation of Zen launch.

This chart shows the time delta in days between the publication of patches and the launch of a particular CPU containing a new core. For some launch dates only a month was given, so I took the last day of that month for the calculation.

The Zen bars show the timeline in months starting with publication of the specific patch. With this at hand, anyone can draw their own conclusions. The scenario of first Zen based server or desktop CPUs hitting the markets in 4Q16 doesn't seem unlikely.


          The Grand Floridian Resort & Spa        

Welcome back to a long-overdue Designerland Typography Case Study. This week we will look at the wonderful typefaces seen throughout the Grand Floridian Resort. Before we start, I'd like to give a BIG shout out to Cristy Greene for helping me with this post. Her photos helped me out in more ways than one. Thanks so much!

When looking at the typefaces used throughout the Grand Floridian, one thing can be certain: there are no frills or wacky display fonts. The font palette used for most of the signage and way-finding graphics use classic fonts to evoke a sense of tradition and elegance. When looking at type, the branding is very consistent with one main typeface used on most of the graphics. There are a few elegant yet classy display fonts, usually in the form of scripts used as well.




One font in particular was somewhat tough to track down since type foundries come and go. About a month ago, I stumbled across a fellow font aficionado whose mission is to track down typefaces from one particular foundry that was big in the 60s and 70s but is no longer. As I went through the collection, I noticed many fonts that Disney used in the early days of the park. In fact, one font that I had believed to be custom was included in the collection! Since this font appears on a graphic from a current project, I suspect Disney has the entire collection of this gone-but-not-forgotten foundry and are still using it today. Perhaps Disney acquired the rights to use these fonts when they were still developing Walt Disney World. 



While I have an appreciation for the fonts used within the Grand Floridian, they're not my favorite used within the parks. But my favorites will have to wait for another post, so tune in after Christmas when we head over to Epcot and begin our journey looking into the fonts and faces used to brand the 21st century. In the meantime, if there's an attraction or graphic that hasn't been covered within the Magic Kingdom thus far, let me know. I'd love to cover it between now and the holidays.

Well that does it for this week’s post. Tune in next week as I have a plethora of new Retro '71 and '55 shirt concepts just waiting to be released. Thanks for stopping by and have a swell week.

          Die Grenzen der Datenspeicherung überwinden – aber wie? - 13.07.2009        
BMBF fördert Dresdner Verbundprojekt mit 8,5 Millionen Euro --- Speichermedien können auf immer weniger Platz immer mehr Informationen aufnehmen. Auf absehbare Zeit stößt die Verkleinerung der elektronischen Datenspeicher laut Angaben der Halbleiterindustrie aber an eine physikalische Grenze: diese wird vermutlich im Jahr 2016 mit Strukturgrößen der Speicherbausteine von 22 Nanometern erreicht. In Zukunft kann man die Speicherdichte nur durch alternative Speicherkonzepte weiter erhöhen. Das BMBF fördert nun im Rahmen der Hightech-Strategie und des Forschungsprogramms IKT 2020* eine Bündelung der Kompetenzen unter Leitung des FZD. Weitere Partner des Konsortiums sind die TU Dresden, NaMLab Dresden (in Vorbereitung), das IPHT Jena, Innovent Jena und als industrieller Berater GLOBALFOUNDRIES.
          Thought leaders address ‘Smart’ future at SEMICON        

The a bevy of veteran speakers rounds out the keynote address lineup at this year’s SEMICON West conference, including executives from Intel, GlobalFoundries and Tokyo Electron Ltd (TEL).  The main focus to the presentations includes explanations of how the industry

The post Thought leaders address ‘Smart’ future at SEMICON appeared first on Electronic Products & Technology.


          iPad A4 Chipset Cost Apple $1 Billion?        
We typically don't run those stories about iPhone or iPad component costs anymore because they're just silly -- a couple of hundred dollars in metal parts per unit never takes into account R&D and marketing costs, and things like paying $1 billion for the new Apple A4 chipset in the iPad. Or so hints the New York Times: At the same time, Apple, Nvidia and Qualcomm are designing their own takes on ARM-based mobile chips that will be made by the contract foundries. Even without the direct investment of a factory, it can cost these companies about $1 billion to create a smartphone chip from scratch. And this would be for an ARM + PowerVR chipset assembly, how much will it cost when Apple starts spinning their own PA Semi designed chipsets whole? And what's the competitive advantage that they're willing to spend so much? ChipsetsIpadComponent CostsApple A4News...
          Mixed-signal and Low-power Demo -- Cadence Booth at DAC        

DAC is right around the corner! On the demo floor at Cadence® Booth #2214, we will demonstrate how to use the Cadence mixed-signal and low-power solution to design, verify, and implement a microcontroller-based mixed-signal design. The demo design architecture is very similar to practical designs of many applications like power management ICs, automotive controllers, and the Internet of Things (IoT). Cadene tools demonstrated in this design include Virtuoso® Schematic Editor, Virtuoso Analog Design Environment, Virtuoso AMS Designer, Virtuoso Schematic Model Generator, Virtuoso Power Intent Assistant, Incisive® Enterprise Simulator with DMS option, Virtuoso Digital Implementation, Virtuoso Layout Suite, Encounter® RTL Compiler, Encounter Test, and Conformal Low Power. An extended version of this demo will also be shown at the ARM® Connected Community Pavilion Booth #921.

For additional highlights on Cadence mixed-signal and low-power solutions, stop by our booth for:

  • The popular book, Mixed-signal Methodology Guide, which will be on sale during DAC week!
  • A sneak preview of the eBook version of the Mixed-signal Methodology Guide
  • Customer presentations at the Cadence DAC Theater
    • 9am, Tuesday, June 4  ARM  Low-Power Verification of A15 Hard Macro Using CLP 
    • 10:30am, Tuesday, June 4  Silicon Labs  Power Mode Verification in Mixed-Signal Chip
    • 12:00pm, Tuesday, June 4  IBM  An Interoperable Flow with Unified OA and QRC Technology Files
    • 9am, Wednesday, June 5  Marvell  Low-Power Verification Using CLP
    • 4pm, Wednesday, June 5  Texas Instruments  An Inter-Operable Flow with Unified OA and QRC Technology Files
  • Partner presentations at the Cadence DAC Theater
    • 10am, Monday, June 3  X-Fab  Rapid Adoption of Advanced Cadence Design Flows Using X-FAB's AMS Reference Kit
    • 3:30pm, Monday, June 3  TSMC TSMC Custom Reference Flow for 20nm -  Cadence Track
    • 9:30am,Tuesday, June 4  TowerJazz   Substrate Noise Isolation Extraction/Model Using Cadence Analog Flow
    • 12:30pm, Wednesday, June 5  GLOBALFOUNDRIES  20nm/14nm Analog/Mixed-signal Flow
    • 2:30pm, Wednesday, June 5  ARM  Cortex®-M0 and Cortex-M0+: Tiny, Easy, and Energy-efficient Processors for Mixed-signal Applications
  • Technology sessions at suites
    • 10am, Monday, June 3    Low-power Verification of Mixed-signal Designs
    • 2pm, Monday, June 3      Advanced Implementation Techniques for Mixed-signal Designs
    • 2pm, Monday, June 3      LP Simulation: Are You Really Done?
    • 4pm, Monday, June 3      Power Format Update: Latest on CPF and IEEE 1801  
    • 11am, Wednesday, June 5   Mixed-signal Verification
    • 11am, Wednesday, June 5   LP Simulation: Are You Really Done?
    • 4pm, Wednesday, June 5   Successful RTL-to-GDSII Low-Power Design (FULL)
    • 5pm, Wednesday, June 5   Custom/AMS Design at Advanced Nodes

We will also have three presentations at the Si2 booth (#1427):

  • 10:30am, Monday, June 3   An Interoperable Implementation Solution for Mixed-signal Design
  • 11:30am, Tuesday, June 4   Low-power Verification for Mixed-signal Designs Using CPF
  • 10:30am, Wednesday, June 5   System-level Low-power Verification Using Palladium

 

We have a great program at DAC. Click the link for complete Cadence DAC Theater and Technology Sessions. Look forward to seeing you at DAC!     


          Î— AMD ανακοίνωσε την οικογένεια καρτών γραφικών RX Vega        

Μετά από πολλούς μήνες αναμονής, έφτασε τελικά η ημέρα ανακοίνωσης της νέας gaming σειράς γραφικών της AMD, RX Vega. Η AMD ανακοίνωσε λοιπόν και επισήμως σήμερα την νέα σειρά, η οποία στοχεύει να επαναφέρει τον ανταγωνισμό στις κατηγορίες καρτών γραφικών με τιμές από $400 και πάνω. Δυστυχώς όμως, αν και η ανακοίνωση γίνεται σήμερα, όποιος ενδιαφέρεται για κάποιο μοντέλο της οικογένειας RX Vega θα πρέπει να περιμένει έως τις 14 Αυγούστου, οπότε και θα έχουμε τα σχετικά reviews και τις κάρτες στην αγορά.

 

Η νέα αυτή σειρά περιλαμβάνει τα μοντέλα Radeon RX Vega 64 Liquid Cooled Edition, Radeon RX Vega 64 και Radeon RX Vega 56. Τα μοντέλα Radeon RX Vega 64 Liquid Cooled Edition και Radeon RX Vega 64, διαφέρουν στο σύστημα ψύξης και τους χρονισμούς τους, ενώ το μοντέλο Radeon RX Vega 56 είναι το οικονομικό μοντέλο της σειράς, έχοντας μικρότερο αριθμό stream processors. Και τα τρία μοντέλα έρχονται με 8GB μνήμης τύπου HBM2.

 

large.vegaliquid.jpg

large.vegaair.jpg

 

 

Η σειρά Vega της AMD φέρνει μια νέα έκδοση της αρχιτεκτονικής GCN και νέες τεχνολογίες που στόχο έχουν πρωτίστως να προσφέρουν ομαλή εμπειρία στο gaming.  Στις νέες αυτές τεχνολογίες περιλαμβάνονται η Rapid Packed Math, ο High Bandwidth Cache Controller και οι νέες Geometry και Pixel μηχανές. Περισσότερα για αυτές τις νέες τεχνολογίες μπορείτε να μάθετε στο video που ακολουθεί.

 

 

Επιπλέον με την νέα σειρά RX Vega αναμένεται να δούμε και τον νέο Draw Steam Binning Rasterizer, ο οποίος ακόμα δεν είναι ενεργοποιημένος στους οδηγούς που είναι διαθέσιμοι για την Radeon Vega Frontier Edition.

 

large.siggraph_vega_architecture-41.jpg

 

Η νέα GPU, η οποία χρησιμοποιείται σε όλα τα μοντέλα της σειράς RX Vega, είναι η Vega 10. Αυτή διαθέτει 4096 Stream Processors, 64 Compute Units και 64 ROPs, θυμίζοντας σε μεγάλο βαθμό της Fiji GPU που είχε η σειρά Fury. Η Vega 10 όμως διαθέτει 3.9 δισεκατομμύρια επιπλέον τρανζίστορ, με την σχεδίασή της να είναι τέτοια, ώστε να επιτρέπει σημαντικά υψηλότερους χρονισμούς. Έτσι ενώ η Fiji λειτουργούσε στα 1.05GHz, η Vega λειτουργεί σε συχνότητες έως και 1.7GHz. Επιπλέον υποστηρίζει HBM2, έναντι HBM1 που υποστήριζε η Fiji, επιτρέποντας στην ενσωμάτωση πολύ περισσότερης μνήμης.

 

large.siggraph_vega_architecture-03.jpg

 

Η νέα Vega 10 κατασκευάζεται στα εργοστάσια της Global Foundries με τεχνολογία 14nm LPP και αν και έχει περισσότερα τρανζίστορ, είναι μικρότερη σε μέγεθος έναντι της Fiji.

 

large.chips.jpg

 

Αναλυτικά τα κύρια τεχνικά χαρακτηριστικά των νέων RX Vega, φαίνονται στον παρακάτω πίνακα, όπου γίνεται και μια σύγκριση με το έως τώρα κορυφαίο μοντέλο της AMD, την AMD Radeon R9 Fury X.

 

large.597ec1250b4fc_AMDRadeonVegaspecs.jpg

 

Το μοντέλο Radeon RX Vega 64 Liquid Cooled Edition διαθέτει σύστημα υδρόψυξης με ψυγείο των 120 χιλιοστών. Το μοντέλο Radeon RX Vega 64 θα έρχεται με κλασικό σύστημα αερόψυξης τύπου blower και θα είναι διαθέσιμο σε δύο διαφορετικά σχέδια, όπως φαίνονται αυτά στην παρακάτω φωτογραφία, αλλά χωρίς κάποια άλλη διαφορά στα τεχνικά τους χαρακτηριστικά.

 

large.raja_koduri_and_scott_herkelman_-_radeon_rx_vega-44.jpg


Τέλος, το μοντέλο Radeon RX Vega 56 έρχεται με GPU η οποία θα έχει ενεργοποιημένες τις 56 από τις 64 compute units και χαμηλότερους χρονισμούς σε GPU και μνήμη. Αυτό θα έχει μεν ως αποτέλεσμα χαμηλότερες επιδόσεις, αλλά από την άλλη, το μοντέλο αυτό έχει και σημαντικά χαμηλότερη κατανάλωση, καθιστώντας το ως το πιο energy efficient της σειράς.


Όσον αφορά τις επιδόσεις, τα κορυφαία μοντέλα Radeon RX Vega 64 Liquid Cooled Edition και Radeon RX Vega 64, θα είναι σε θέση να ανταγωνιστούν το μοντέλο GTX 1080 της Nvidia, με το μοντέλο Radeon RX Vega 56 να τίθεται απέναντι από την GTX 1070. Η AMD δημοσίευσε τα παρακάτω δύο slides για να τονίσει την δυνατότητα της Radeon RX Vega 64 να προσφέρει ομαλό gaming σε γνωστούς τίτλους παιχνιδιών.

 

large.raja_koduri_and_scott_herkelman_-_radeon_rx_vega-33.jpg

large.raja_koduri_and_scott_herkelman_-_radeon_rx_vega-35.jpg

 

Επιπλέον στο βίντεο που είδατε πιο πάνω, υπάρχει και το παρακάτω συγκριτικό στο Doom, σε Vulkan API.

 

large.597ec130af818_RXVegaDoom1440p.jpg

 

Όσον αφορά τις τιμές των νέων μοντέλων, όταν αυτά γίνουν διαθέσιμα στις 14 Αυγούστου, αυτές φαίνονται στην παρακάτω εικόνα.

 

large.raja_koduri_and_scott_herkelman_-_radeon_rx_vega-49.jpg

 

Οι Radeon RX Vega 64 και Radeon RX Vega 56 θα είναι διαθέσιμες φυσιολογικά ως απλές κάρτες γραφικών για αυτούς που ίσως διαθέτουν πιθανόν ήδη κάποιο έτοιμο σύστημα. Από εκεί και πέρα το μοντέλο Radeon RX Vega 64 Liquid Cooled Edition θα είναι διαθέσιμο μόνο ως τμήμα ενός Radeon Pack. Υπάρχουν τρία Radeon Packs, ένα για κάθε μοντέλο της σειράς Vega, με κόστος επιπλέον $100, που όμως παρέχουν στον αγοραστή δύο δωρεάν παιχνίδια και έκπτωση στην αγορά συγκεκριμένου hardware, στο οποίο περιλαμβάνεται ένα Samsung FreeSync monitor(δυστυχώς από ότι φαίνεται όχι στην Ευρώπη), Ryzen 7 επεξεργαστές και X370 μητρικές.

 

large.raja_koduri_and_scott_herkelman_-_radeon_rx_vega-42.jpg