'..Russia .. cyberpower proved the perfect weapon .. political sabotage..' (no replies)        
' “We’d have all these circular meetings,” one senior State Department official said, “in which everyone agreed you had to push back at the Russians and push back hard. But it didn’t happen.”

..

Mr. Putin, a student of martial arts, had turned two institutions at the core of American democracy — political campaigns and independent media — to his own ends..

..

..The Russians clearly had a more sophisticated understanding of American politics, and they were masters of “kompromat,” their term for compromising information.

..

..the hackings of the State Department, the White House and the Pentagon..

..

What seems clear is that Russian hacking, given its success, is not going to stop. Two weeks ago, the German intelligence chief, Bruno Kahl, warned that Russia might target elections in Germany next year. “The perpetrators have an interest to delegitimize the democratic process as such,” Mr. Kahl said. Now, he added, “Europe is in the focus of these attempts of disturbance, and Germany to a particularly great extent.” '



'..the White House’s reluctance to respond forcefully meant the Russians have not paid a heavy price for their actions, a decision that could prove critical in deterring future cyberattacks.

..

..President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia moved beyond mere espionage to deliberately try to subvert American democracy and pick the winner of the presidential election.

..

..A low-cost, high-impact weapon that Russia had test-fired in elections from Ukraine to Europe was trained on the United States, with devastating effectiveness. For Russia, with an enfeebled economy and a nuclear arsenal it cannot use short of all-out war, cyberpower proved the perfect weapon: cheap, hard to see coming, hard to trace.

..

The United States had two decades of warning that Russia’s intelligence agencies were trying to break into America’s most sensitive computer networks. But the Russians have always managed to stay a step ahead.

Their first major attack was detected on Oct. 7, 1996, when a computer operator at the Colorado School of Mines discovered some nighttime computer activity he could not explain. The school had a major contract with the Navy, and the operator warned his contacts there. But as happened two decades later at the D.N.C., at first “everyone was unable to connect the dots,” said Thomas Rid, a scholar at King’s College in London who has studied the attack.

Investigators gave it a name — Moonlight Maze — and spent two years, often working day and night, tracing how it hopped from the Navy to the Department of Energy to the Air Force and NASA. In the end, they concluded that the total number of files stolen, if printed and stacked, would be taller than the Washington Monument.

Whole weapons designs were flowing out the door, and it was a first taste of what was to come: an escalating campaign of cyberattacks around the world.

..

The Russians were also quicker to turn their attacks to political purposes. A 2007 cyberattack on Estonia, a former Soviet republic that had joined NATO, sent a message that Russia could paralyze the country without invading it. The next year cyberattacks were used during Russia’s war with Georgia.

..

Mr. Obama was briefed regularly on all this, but he made a decision that many in the White House now regret: He did not name Russians publicly, or issue sanctions. There was always a reason: fear of escalating a cyberwar, and concern that the United States needed Russia’s cooperation in negotiations over Syria.

“We’d have all these circular meetings,” one senior State Department official said, “in which everyone agreed you had to push back at the Russians and push back hard. But it didn’t happen.”

..

Last year, the attacks became more aggressive. Russia hacked a major French television station, frying critical hardware. Around Christmas, it attacked part of the power grid in Ukraine, dropping a portion of the country into darkness, killing backup generators and taking control of generators. In retrospect, it was a warning shot.

..

..CrowdStrike’s nicknames for the two Russian hacking groups that the firm found at work inside the D.N.C. network. Cozy Bear — the group also known as the Dukes or A.P.T. 29, for “advanced persistent threat” — may or may not be associated with the F.S.B., the main successor to the Soviet-era K.G.B., but it is widely believed to be a Russian government operation. It made its first appearance in 2014, said Dmitri Alperovitch, CrowdStrike’s co-founder and chief technology officer.

..

Only in March 2016 did Fancy Bear show up — first penetrating the computers of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, and then jumping to the D.N.C., investigators believe. Fancy Bear, sometimes called A.P.T. 28 and believed to be directed by the G.R.U., Russia’s military intelligence agency, is an older outfit, tracked by Western investigators for nearly a decade. It was Fancy Bear that got hold of Mr. Podesta’s email.

..

It was bad enough that Russian hackers had been spying inside the committee’s network for months. Now the public release of documents had turned a conventional espionage operation into something far more menacing: political sabotage, an unpredictable, uncontrollable menace for Democratic campaigns.

..

Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks founder and editor, has resisted the conclusion that his site became a pass-through for Russian hackers working for Mr. Putin’s government or that he was deliberately trying to undermine Mrs. Clinton’s candidacy. But the evidence on both counts appears compelling.

..

Mr. Putin, a student of martial arts, had turned two institutions at the core of American democracy — political campaigns and independent media — to his own ends. The media’s appetite for the hacked material, and its focus on the gossipy content instead of the Russian source, disturbed some of those whose personal emails were being reposted across the web.

..

In late 2014, hackers working for Kim Jong-un, the North’s young and unpredictable leader, had carried out a well-planned attack on Sony Pictures Entertainment intended to stop the Christmastime release of a comedy about a C.I.A. plot to kill Mr. Kim.

In that case, embarrassing emails had also been released. But the real damage was done to Sony’s own systems: More than 70 percent of its computers melted down when a particularly virulent form of malware was released. Within weeks, intelligence agencies traced the attack back to the North and its leadership. Mr. Obama called North Korea out in public, and issued some not-very-effective sanctions. The Chinese even cooperated, briefly cutting off the North’s internet connections.

As the first Situation Room meetings on the Russian hacking began in July, “it was clear that Russia was going to be a much more complicated case,” said one participant. The Russians clearly had a more sophisticated understanding of American politics, and they were masters of “kompromat,” their term for compromising information.

..

..code was put out in the open by the Russians as a warning: Retaliate for the D.N.C., and there are a lot more secrets, from the hackings of the State Department, the White House and the Pentagon, that might be spilled as well. One senior official compared it to the scene in “The Godfather” where the head of a favorite horse is left in a bed, as a warning.

..

As the year draws to a close, it now seems possible that there will be multiple investigations of the Russian hacking — the intelligence review Mr. Obama has ordered completed by Jan. 20, the day he leaves office, and one or more congressional inquiries. They will wrestle with, among other things, Mr. Putin’s motive.

..

Did he seek to mar the brand of American democracy, to forestall anti-Russian activism for both Russians and their neighbors? Or to weaken the next American president, since presumably Mr. Putin had no reason to doubt American forecasts that Mrs. Clinton would win easily? Or was it, as the C.I.A. concluded last month, a deliberate attempt to elect Mr. Trump?

In fact, the Russian hack-and-dox scheme accomplished all three goals.

What seems clear is that Russian hacking, given its success, is not going to stop. Two weeks ago, the German intelligence chief, Bruno Kahl, warned that Russia might target elections in Germany next year. “The perpetrators have an interest to delegitimize the democratic process as such,” Mr. Kahl said. Now, he added, “Europe is in the focus of these attempts of disturbance, and Germany to a particularly great extent.” '

- Eric Lipton, David E. Sanger and Scott Shane, The Perfect Weapon: How Russian Cyberpower Invaded the U.S., December 13, 2016


Context '[Russia] may become a threat to the world. That is the worst thing that could happen to Russia.' - Yegor Gaidar

'..Russian strategy of hybrid influence and destabilization .. German Council on Foreign Relations.'

'German intelligence says Russia is trying to destabilize German society..' - '..war that Moscow is waging against the West..'

'[Putin is doing] anything that can and will expand Russian influence to U.S.S.R.-era levels of power.'


'..Zero tolerance for Russian intrusions .. Estonia .. policy of publicly naming or prosecuting spies..'

'..the Soviet Union was cut off from Western financial markets and was effectively under permanent sanctions..'

          Choppy fringe heat resistant board size large - (start from 5 set or 7 boards free shipping) by NATUREDESIGN        

Sold

Timber sectors, which are fastened on a round wooden base to combine nise pattern. This scented board is the basis for hot pots and pans to but them with the hot food on the table. It may also be used for simple decoration or as a souvenir. Quite popular is in Estonia and in Finland to decorate saunas walls with such juniper patern, but then with angular boards.


This board is a part of the board set
(5,8 inch, 7,8 inch board)



240g (0,53 pound, 8,5 ounce)
Ø20cm (7,8 inch)

Sending up to four sets or one to six of theese boards the sending fee is $11.


          NATO: myśliwce Sojuszu znów przechwytywały nad Bałtykiem rosyjskie samoloty        

"Obecnie, w ramach misji Baltic Air Policing, Siły Powietrzne RP operują myśliwcami F-16 stacjonującymi w Szawlach na Litwie, a Hiszpańskie Siły Powietrzne myśliwcami F-18 z bazy Amari w Estonii. Ponieważ Estonia, Łotwa i Litwa nie mają własnego lotnictwa myśliwskiego, ich przestrzeń powietrzną chronią od 2004 roku samoloty z innych państw NATO. Jest to wyraz solidarności sojuszniczej" - przypomina NATO.

Od 1 do 5 sierpnia myśliwce te osiem razy przechwyciły rosyjskie samoloty, które leciały nad wodami międzynarodowymi w pobliżu przestrzeni powietrznej Sojuszu. Informowało o tym również ministerstwo obrony Litwy. 

1 sierpnia samoloty NATO cztery razy identyfikowały i eskortowały wojskowe samoloty Federacji Rosyjskiej w międzynarodowej przestrzeni powietrznej nad Morzem Bałtyckim. Pierwszy przypadek dotyczył samolotu transportowego An-26 lecącego do Kaliningradu (samolot ten zachowywał łączność radiową i miał włączony pokładowy transponder) oraz eskortujących go dwóch myśliwców MiG-31 bez kontaktu radiowego i z wyłączonymi transponderami. 

W drugim przypadku przechwycenie dotyczyło dwóch myśliwców Su-27 lecących nad Morzem Bałtyckim także bez kontaktu radiowego i z wyłączonymi transponderami. Tego samego dnia podobny alarm wywołały dwa myśliwce Su-33 i cztery Su-27. 

Następnego dnia samoloty myśliwskie NATO poderwano dwukrotnie w celu przechwycenia lecących w międzynarodowej przestrzeni powietrznej nad Morzem Bałtyckim rosyjskich morskich samolotów patrolowych - dwóch typu Tu-142 i dwóch typu Ił-38. Nie utrzymywały one kontaktu radiowego i nie miały włączonych transponderów. 3 sierpnia myśliwskie NATO przechwyciły dwa samoloty Ił-38, a 5 sierpnia jeden An-26.

Z Brukseli Łukasz Osiński (PAP)
          ALIRAN-ALIRAN DAN TOKOH UTAMA STRUKTURALISME HINGGA SEMIOTIK TEKS        

BAB II
PEMBAHASAN
A.    Strukturalisme, Posstrukturalisme, dan Neostrukturalisme
1.   Strukturalisme dalam linguistik
Linguistik strukturalime memainkan peran patron general strukturalisme, suatu peran yang telah diprediksikan oleh Saussure bagi linguistik berkenaan dengan semilogi, dalam linguistik dibedakan dua strukturalisme, yaitu strukturalisme Eropa dan Amerika. Dasar-dasar strukturalisme Eropa dikemukakan oleh Saussure dan Hjemslev yaitu mengenai para ahli linguistik Praha.
Sebagai kelanjutan genealogi ini, strukturalis Perancis A. Martinet harus disebutkan disini tesisnya tentang pengartikulkasian bahasa secara ganda memainkan peran penting dalam perkembangan yang mengarah dari strukturalisme ke semiotik . Teori strukturalis bahasa yang dibawakan Jacobson membawa pengaruh perkembangan paling langsung pada perkembangan strukturalimse Perancis. Berbeda halnya dengan penganut strukturalisme yang murni, yakni Saussure dan Hjemslev, aliran Praha tetap menolak untuk menganggap bahwa sebagai suatu sistem sinkronis bentuk asli yang terpisah. Pendekatan mereka terhadap struktur bahasa didasarkan pada istilah-istilah kunci dan komunikasi.
Para ahli linguistik aliran praha seperti Vachek, Dudrot dan Todorof telah menetapkan pendekatan mereka sendiri sebagai strukturalisme fungsional. Inti kontribusi aliran praha terhadap linguistik terletak pada bidang fonologi. Penemuan ciri-ciri desain sebagai atom-atom bahasa dan prinsip-prinsip fungsional analisis fonologis memberikan kontribusi secara signifikan terhadap penelitian struktural sistem tanda, tetapi kontribusi aliran praha terhadap semiotik tidak terbatas pada lingusitik saja. Jacobsson, Mukadovsky, dan yang lain-lain merupakan orang-orang yang memberikan kontribusi yang berpengaruh terhadap estetika.
1.1  Fungsi, Komunikasi, dan Sistem
Diantara inovasi-inovasi progamatis para ahli linguistic aliran Praha merupakan upaya mereka untuk mengatasi perbedaan tajam antara statika dan dinamika dalam linguistik sinkronis dan diakronis. Bahasa dideskripsikan sebagai suatu sistem fungsional yang berguna untuk tujuan komunikasi. oleh karena itu, sistem bahasa tidak dapat tetap bersifat statis, tetapi harus mempertahanakan keseimbangan yang dinamis. Pendekatan dinamis terhadap bahasa juga diperluas untuk mengkaji sintaks (struktur kalimat) dan teks. Dalam teori perspektif kalimat fungsional, analisis dilakukan terhadap distribusi unsur-unsur informasi yang diberikan dan yang baru dalam kalimat dan teks. Dsitribusi dinamis dan kemajuan unsur-unsur dalam teks ini dideskripsikan sebagai dinamisme komunikasi.
1. 2Penemuan fonem
Penelitiannya dalam bidang fonologi, Turbetzkoy menjadi penemu struktur atom bahasa yang memperkenalkan perbedaan antara fonologi dan fonetik. Fonetik adalah kajian bunyi-bunyi materiil dan pengartikulasian dalam tuturan (parole) apapun sifat-sifat sistemiknya. Fonologi (para ahli linguistik Amerika lebih memilih fonemik) mengkaji bunyi-bunyi suatu bahasa sebagai unsur-unsur fungsional dalam sistem bentuk dan isi (langue). teori ini sependapat dengan Sasussure yang membedakan antara langue dan parole.
Dari sudut pandang fonetis, sejumlah perbedaan fonetis yang hamper tak terbatas dapat ditemukan dalam analisis terhadap bunyi-bunyi yang benar-benar diucapkan (yang kemudian yang disebut phone) fonologi mereduksi perbedan-perbedaan ini menjadi perbedaan-perbedaan yang memainkan peran fungsioanal dalam sistem tersebut, yakni apa yang disebut oposisi fonologis. Kriteria fungsionalitas merupakan efek perbedaan-perebedaan terhadap makna efek ini dites dengan menggunakan penggantian bunyi dalam konteksnya (tes komutasi) kelas-kelas bunyi yang komutasinya (saling bergantian) dalam kata-kata menyebabkan perbedaan makna disebut fonem, misalnya kata KUCING yaitu berasal dari fonem /K//U//C//I//N//G/ apabila fonem-fonem tersebut diubah akan menyebabkan perbedaan makna.
1. 3Prinsip kejituan analisis etik ke analisis emik
Kejituan (relevansi) mengacu pada ciri keberbedaan dalam suatu sistem. Prinsip ini menuntut pembedaan tingkat-tingkat analisis yang berbeda. Relevansi pada sistemik pada tataran fonem dapat diputuskan hanya dengan mengacu pada tataran struktur linguistik yang lebih tinggi pada tataran morfem (morfologi, dan semantik), karena hanya perbedaan semantik dalam komutasi membuktikan relevansi sistemik perbedaan fonetis.
Pike (1967) dalam buku semiotik memperkenalkan istilah etik dan emik, etik dari kata fonetik bersifat nonstruktural dan mengkaji fenomena-fenomena dalam struktur lahirnya, sedangkan emik berasal dari fonemik dan akhirnya dari kata sistemik. Pendekatan emik dalam fenomena semiotik menganggap unsur-unsur sistem tanda dalam kaitannya dengan fungsinya dalam kode.
1. 4Ciri-ciri yang berbeda dalam oposisi-oposisi biner
Jakobson mereduksi fonem-fonem menjadi sistem ciri-ciri yang berbeda dalam oposisi-oposisi biner. Di dalam sistem biner ciri-ciri yang berbeda, setiap fonem secara struktural dikarakterisasikan oleh ciri-ciri yang dimilikinya. Jakobson sendiri mengembangkan prinsip-prinsip analisis ciri yang berbeda terhadap morfologi.


STRUKTURALISME AMERIKA
Dasar-dasar strukturalisme Amerika telah dikemukakan oleh Bloomfield (1933) dan dengan Haris (1951) pada buku semiotic, metodologi strukturalis dalam linguistik Amerika mencapai puncaknya. Dua karakteristik utama pendekatan-pendekatan terhadap bahasa ini adalah deskriptivisme, antimentalistik dan distribusionalisme .
DESKRIPTIFISME ANTIMENTALISTIK
Aliran linguistik Bloomfield bersisat antimentalistik dan lebih memilih pendekatan behavioristik terhadap bahasa tidak ada fakta-fakta mental internal seperti gagasan, konsep, atau niat yang harus dipertimbangkan dalam analisis semiotik.
DISTRIBUSIONALISME
Merupakan pendekatan kaum strukturalis Amerika terhadap aspek-aspek system bahasa. Distribusi adalah kejadian unsur-unsur bahasa dalam lingkungan linguistiknya yang pas. Unsur-unsur ini ditentukan menurut tipe-tipe konteksnya.
Antropologi Struktural Levi Strauss
Fonologi sebagai paradigm ilmu manusia
Levi straus menemukan fonologi strucKtural dan menjadi yakin bahwa linguistik struktural harus menjadi patron general ilmu tentang manusia. Ia berpendapat bahwa sesungguhnya linguistik struktural dapat memainkan peran yang sama berkenaan dalam kaitannya dengan ilmu-ilmu sosial. Levi Strauss memperoleh keempat prinsip analisis berikut: (1) perubahan dari kajian terhadap fenomena-fenomena kesadaran ke kajian infrastruktur bawah sadar, (2) perubahan dari istilah-istilah tersebut ke hubungan-hubungan antara istilah-istilah tersebut, (3) kajian terhadap sistem tersebut secara keseluruhan, dan (4) penemuan hukum-hukum yang bersifat umum di dalam sistem. Levi Strauss menekankan karakter inovatif pendekatan struktural dalam berbagai ilmu pengetahuan tentang manusia. Tema yang selalu muncul dalam berbagai kajiannya adalah analogi struktural antara bahasa dan kebudayaan.
Struktur-struktur kekerabatan
Sistem-sistem kekerabatan mengungkapkan aturan-aturan perkawinana terlarang. Dalam sistem-sistem ini, Levi staruss memisahkan unit-unit kekerabatan terkecil sebagai struktur-struktur dasar suatu masyarakat. Namun, struktur-struktur ini tidak diberikan secara biologis, tetapi mewakili simbolisme kulturalisme.
FORMALISME RUSIA, ALIRAN PRAHA DAN SEMIOTIK SOVIET
-          Formalism Russia
Tujuan kalangan formalis adalah untuk mengembangkan suatu pendekatan ilmiah terhadap sastra dan seni. Para penentang kalangan Formalis menuduh aliran ini hanya menaruh perhatian terhadap bentuk dan mengabaikan dimensi isi. Seni dan puisi dikaji sebagai sistem-sistem yang otonom yang menarik perhatian terhadap dirinay sendiri dan tidak dapat direduksi pada isinya. Menurut Sklovskij (1916), piranti seni memiliki fungsi sentral untuk “membuat aneh”, menyebabkan pembaruan persepsi terhadap latar belakang proses otomatisasi di mana kita menjadi terbiasa dengan tindakan-tindakan dan persepsi-persepsi sehari-hari. Berbagai pertimbangan pragmatis dan fungsional terhadap seni ini menunjukkan bahwa kalangan Formalisme mengembangkan analisis mereka di luar tataran ekspresi bentuk. Dalam kontribusi mereka terhadap narativitas, kalangan formalism bahkan tertarik pada struktur-struktur isi. Salah satu konsep yang paling berpengaruh dalam bidang ini adalah pembedaan antara cerita dan alur cerita yang diajukan Sklovkijj.
-          Semiotik teks aliran praha
Para ilmuwan seperti B. Havranek, R. Jakobson, J. Veltrusky, F. Vodicka, dan sebagai tokoh utama, Jan Mukarovsky, mengembangkan sebuah teori estetika dan sastra dengan unsure-unsur semiotic khusus.  Strukturalis Praha mengembangkan konsep struktur yang dinamis, struktualis praha menekankan pendekatan fungsional terhadap kebudayaan, Strukturalis Praha mengembangkan analisis mereka dari ekspresi linguistic ke struktur-struktur isi
-          Semiotik Soviet
Dua pusat penelitian yang dominan di Soviet adalah Moskow dan Tartu, Estonia. Pusat-pusat penelitian ini juga dikenal sebagai Moscow-Tartu Semiotics School. Semiotik Soviet berkembang dari proyek-proyek sebelumnya dalam terjemahan mesin. Proyek ini terus mengembangkan semiotic dengan landasan yang kuat dalam informasi, komunikasi, dan teori system. Karakteristik penelitian semiotic Soviet adalah semantisasi bentuk ekspresi. 
Semiotik Teks Barthes
  1. Konotasi dan metabahasa
Barthes (1957; 1964a; 1967b) mendefiniskan tanda sebagai suatu sistem yang terdiri atas hurf E, expression= ekspresi (atau signifier= penanda), in relation (R) to (dalam hubungannya dengan) C, content = isi (atau signified =petanda) : ERC. Sistem tanda primer semacam ini dapat menjadi unsur sistem tanda yang lebih komprehensif jika perluasan tersebut adalah perluasan isi, tanda primer (E1R1C1) menjadi ekspresi tanda sekunder: E2(=E1R1C1) R2C2  (Barthes 1964a: 89). Dalam hal ini, tanda premier tersebut adalah tanda semiotik denotatif sedangkan tanda sekundernya adalah tanda semiotik konotatif. (dalam Noth, 2006: 315)


 







Ekspresi2
 
Isi 2
Ekspresi1                                                                     isi1
 
metabahasa
 
Tanda sekunder
 
Gambar B 2. Model Konotasi Barthes sebagai perluasan semantik tanda denotatif (cf. Barthes 1957: 115; 1964b: 28) (dalam Noth, 2006: 315)






(R2)
 


 



Gambar B 3. Model metabahasa Barthes (1964a: 90) (dalam Noth, 2006: 315)
Dalam tanda-tanda metalinguistik (cf. Gambar B3 ), dimana sistem primernya adalah bahasa objek, dan sistem sekundernya terdiri atas metabahasa. (dalam Noth, 2006: 315)
  1. Mitologi dan ideologi
Dalam Mythologies-nya  (1957: 131), dia mendefinisikan sistem-sistem makna sekunder semacam ini sebagai mitos (q. V. 3.). kemudian, Barthes mendeskripsikan bidang konotasi ini sebagai bidang ideologi (q. V. 2. 1. 1). Media massa menciptakan mitologi-mitologi atau ideologi-ideologi sebagai sistem-sistem konotatif sekunder dengan berupaya memberikan landasan kepada pesan-pesan mereka dalam alam, yang dianggap sebagai sistem denotatif primer (cf. Ibid.) (dalam Noth, 2006: 316)
  1. Penelitian dalam sistem semiotik
Dalam The Fashion System (1967b), Barthes melakukan usaha yang terperinci dan pada saat yang sama melakukan upaya yang dapat dicontoh untuk mengkaji sistem tanda di luar lingkup bahasa dan sastra. Objek kajian ini adalah mode (pakaian) di Prancis menurut dua majalah tahub 1958—1959. Ciri-ciri utama pendekatan strukturalis semiotiknya dapat dirangkum sebagai berikut:
1.      Sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip strukturalisme linguistik, Barthes memilih bentuk tertutup (yakni, majalah mode satu musim) agar dapat mengaitkannya dengan analisis sinkronis.
2.      Metode-metode linguistik struktural, seperti analisis distribusional dan tes komutasi, diterapkan pada data-data analisis tersebut agar dapat menentukan ciri-ciri sistem mode yang selalu ada dan atau yang berbeda.
3.      Analog dengan dikotomi Saussure antara langue dan parole, Barthes membedakan antara kode vestimenter (keagamaan), yakni sistem unsur-unsur dan kaidah-kaidah mode, aktualisasi individunya dalam garmen. 
... . Mode adalah “sistem semantik yang tujuan satu-satunya adalah untuk merongrong makna yang diuraikannya begitu berlebihan. [...] Tanpa isi, mode [...] membuat sesuatu yang tidak signifikan menjadi berarti” (Barthes 1967b: 269, 288). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 316—317)
  1. Sistem objek sebagai sistem sekunder
Barthes berpendapat bahwa pakaian pada majalah mode dapat bermakna di luar tataran dasar tertentu hanya karena uraian-uraiannya mengarahkan perhatian pembaca pada ciri-ciri pakaian tertentu, dan penjelasan-penjelasannya hanya menghasilkan makna dengan “mengurangkan penanda-penandanya” dari objek-objeknya dan dengan “menyebutkan petanda-petandanya” (Barthes 1967b: xi; 1964a: 10). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 317)
  1. Hubungan antara linguistik dan semiotika
Barthes menyimpulkan bahwa “ linguistik bukan bagian dari ilmu tanda secara umum, bahkan bukan merupakan bagian yang istimewa, ia  merupakan semiologi yang merupakan bagian dari linguistik” (1964a: 11). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 317)
  1. Barthes tentang keterbatasan semiotik strukturalis
Dengan membedakan antara “semiologi [...] sebagai ilmu tanda yang positif” dan “semiologi saya” (ibid. : 471), dia mendeskripsikan bahasa sebagai sebuah sistem yang menindas, sastra sebagai pemberontakan terhadap bahasa, dan semiotika sebagai aktivitas kreatif:
Semiologi [...] tidak bertumpu pada “semiofisis,” suatu kealamiahan tanda yang tak berdaya, dan ia juga bukan merupakan “semioklastri,” yakni penghancuran terhadap tanda. Malahan, [...] ia merupakan semiotropi: yang berubah ke arah tanda, semiologi ini terperangkap oleh dan menerima tanda, memperlakukannya, dan jika perlu, menirukannya sebagai kacamata imajiner. Singkat kata, ahli semiologi adalah seorang seniman ... .(ibid.: 474—475). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 318)
Semantik Struktural Greimas dan proyek Semiotik Teks
  1. Proyek Semiotik Greimas
1.      Dari Strukturalis ke Semantik Struktural
Strukturalisme dalam inguistik dan dalam antropologi Levi-Strauss, serta dalam teori-teori tindakan formalis awal propp dan Souriau dalam naratif serta dalam drama telah memengaruhi semiotik Greimas. Titik tolaknya adalah berasal dari upayanya untuk menerapkan metode-metode penelitian mulai dari linguistik struktural (fonologi, semantik, dan sintaksis) hingga analisis teks, yang didefinisikan Greimas sebagai wacana. Kerangka linguitiknya ditentukan oleh konsep struktur Saussure sebagai perbedaan, prinsip perlawanan  biner dsn keberbedaan fonologi fungsional, dan model tanda glosematikHjelmselve (cf. Greimas 1974a: 58). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 320)
2.      Konsep Semiotik Greimas
Terhadap Pierce, Greimas & Courtes mengajukan keberatan terhadap konsep semiotik sebagai teori tanda. Menurut mereka, semiotik harus merupakan “teori penandaan” yang “dapat beroperasi hanya bila ia menempatkan analisis-analisisnya pada tataran dan yang lebih rendah daripada tanda”(1979: 287, 147). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 320)
  1. Model Analisis Wacana Generatif
1.      Lintasan Generatif
Lintasan generatif mendeskripsikan pemroduksian wacana ekonomi sebagai sebuah proses yang berkembang dalam berbagai macam tahap, yang masing-masing memiliki subkomponen sintaksis dan semantik . ... . Seluruh lintasan mendeskripsikan struktur-struktur “yang mengaturpengorganisasian wacana sebelum terwujud dalam bahasa alam tertentu (atau dalam sistem semiotik non-linguistik): Greimas & Courtes 1979: 85). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 320)
2.      Struktur-struktur Semio-Naratif
Struktur semio-naratif mendeskripsikan kompetensi
          Die Verschwundenen von Utö        
Mehr als 850 Menschen ertranken 1994 beim Untergang der Ostseefähre „Estonia“. Über die mysteriöse Katastrophe rätseln Experten bis heute - und noch immer hält sich das Gerücht von einem Bombenanschlag.
          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
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          Video from South Korean launch of new iPad        

Today Apple launched the new iPad in an additional 12 countries around the world. While eleven of the countries -- Brunei, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Malaysia, Panama, St Maarten, Uruguay and Venezuela -- are relatively small markets, the new iPad also went on sale in South Korea, one of the most technologically advanced countries on the planet and one of the major tech markets in Asia. Check out the video below, first posted by Apple 2.0, to see South Korean Apple fans lining up for the new tablet at a local Apple reseller.

Apple's new iPad international rollout isn't done for the month either. One week from today on Friday, April 27, Apple will begin selling the new iPad in an additional nine countries: Colombia, Estonia, India, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, South Africa and Thailand. The new iPad will then be available in 56 countries around the world.


          New iPad launching in 21 additional countries this month        

Apple today issued a press release announcing the new third-generation iPad will go on sale in another twleve countries starting on Friday, April 20. Notably, one of the twelve is the important South Korean market. The other eleven countries include Brunei, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Malaysia, Panama, St Maarten, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Then one week later on Friday, April 27, Apple will begin selling the new iPad in an additional nine countries: Colombia, Estonia, India, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, South Africa and Thailand. Both the Wi-Fi and 4G models will be on sale and available through Apple's online store and at select Apple Authorized Resellers.

The new iPad will be available in 56 countries around the world as of April 27th.


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          Tracking Russian Propaganda In Real Time ... Kevin Rothrock for Meduza        
NEWS
Tracking Russian propaganda in real time The trouble with a new automated effort to expose Moscow's ‘active measures’ against Americans
 Meduza  04:31, 03 августа 2017 
Pixabay edited by Meduza
On August 2, The German Marshall Fund of the United States unveiled a new online tool — a “dashboard” — designed to “provide a near real-time look at Russian propaganda and disinformation efforts” on Twitter. The organization describes the project as a direct response to Russia’s alleged interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, noting that “many have warned Putin will be back in 2018 and 2020.” In an opinion piece for Meduza, Kevin Rothrock reviews the recent history of American efforts to unmask Russian propaganda, and takes a critical look at potential flaws in this latest online resource.

What was PropOrNot?

Last November, The Washington Post published a remarkable article about how a “Russian propaganda effort helped spread ‘fake news’” during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, citing a report by “experts” at an anonymous website called PropOrNot.
After initial excitement about the story, the newspaper came under fire for promoting unverified allegations against alternative American news outlets. Critics called PropOrNot a “McCarthyite blacklist.” To PropOrNot, merely “exhibiting a pattern of beliefs outside the political mainstream” was “enough to risk being labelled a Russian propagandist,” Adrian Chen wrote in The New Yorker.
Simply put, PropOrNot bungled its mission completely. On the one hand, the anonymity of the website’s managers invited suspicions about their expertise and agenda. On the other hand, PropOrNot was so transparent about its methodology (talking openly about “red-flagging Russian propaganda outlets” and of course naming specific websites) that it was easy to dispute and dismiss the blacklist. Add to this PropOrNot’s childish, sometimes obscene behavior on Twitter, and it’s no mystery how this project ended up a humiliating dumpster fire.

What is the Hamilton 68 dashboard?

Hamilton 68: A Dashboard Tracking Russian Propaganda on Twitter
The Alliance for Securing Democracy / The German Marshall Fund of the United States
Researchers at The Alliance for Securing Democracy, an initiative housed at The German Marshall Fund of the United States, say they’ve been observing and monitoring â€œRussian online influence” for three years, so it’s a good bet that they took notice of PropOrNot’s spectacular failure, while developing the “Hamilton 68 Dashboard,” released on August 2.
According to The German Marshall Fund, the “dashboard” is designed to “shed light on Russian propaganda efforts on Twitter in near-real time.” The “Hamilton 68” website offers a dozen automatically-updated columns tracking “trending hashtags,” “trending topics,” “top domains,” “top URLs,” and so on.
“Our analysis is based on 600 Twitter accounts linked to Russian influence activities online,” Laura Rosenberger (a senior fellow at the alliance) and J.M. Berger (a non-resident fellow) wrote in a blog post on August 2.

How does Hamilton 68 differ from PropOrNot?

Hamilton 68’s propaganda list is a secret. Unlike PropOrNot, Hamilton 68 does not disclose the identities of the 600 Twitter accounts. All we know of the project’s methodology is that its researchers selected 600 Twitter accounts according to three types (whether there are 200 accounts for each type is unclear): “accounts that clearly state they are pro-Russian or affiliated with the Russian government”; â€œaccounts (including both bots and humans) that are run by troll factories in Russia and elsewhere”; and “accounts run by people around the world who amplify pro-Russian themes either knowingly or unknowingly, after being influenced by the efforts described above.”
The German Marshall Fund says it refuses to reveal the specific accounts in its dataset because it “prefers to focus on the behavior of the overall network rather than get dragged into hundreds of individual debates over which troll fits which role.”
The lack of methodological clarity (for the sake of avoiding “debates”) has already led to some misleading coverage in the media, with outlets like Business Insider reporting that “Hamilton 68 is now working to expose those trolls — as well as automated bots and human accounts — whose main use for Twitter appears to be an amplification of pro-Russia themes,” despite the fact that the website doesn’t actually reveal the names of any Twitter accounts.
For people unimpressed by talk of “600 Twitter accounts,” J.M. Berger told Ars Technica that his team could have expanded the dashboard to “6,000 almost as easily, but the analysis would be less close to real-time.” If that doesn’t sound scientific enough, Berger also emphasized that the 600 selected accounts were identified with a “98-percent confidence rate.”
The German Marshall Fund is no ragtag bunch. Unlike the anonymous potty mouths who launched PropOrNot, Hamilton 68 sports some impressive talent. The project is reportedly the brainchild of Clint Watts, a “former FBI special agent-turned disinformation expert,” who worked alongside J.M. Berger, a fellow with the International Center for Counterterrorism studying extremism and propaganda on social media; Andrew Weisburd, a fellow at the Center for Cyber and Homeland Security; Jonathon Morgan, the CEO of New Knowledge AI and head of Data for Democracy; and Laura Rosenberger, the director of the German Marshall Fund's ‎Alliance for Securing Democracy.
The Alliance for Securing Democracy has a hell of a mission statement. It begins simply, “In 2016, American democracy came under unprecedented attack,” before outlining the organization’s commitment to “documenting and exposing Vladimir Putin’s ongoing efforts to subvert democracy in the United States and Europe.” Putin’s name appear six times in the text.
The Alliance for Securing Democracy also boasts an all-star Advisory Council that includes members like former U.S. Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff, former Estonian President Toomas Ilves, journalist and conservative pundit Bill Kristol, former U.S. Ambassador to Russia Michael McFaul, and former Supreme Allied Commander in Europe Admiral James Stavridis, just to name a few.
With figures like these backing Hamilton 68, it’s no surprise that the project is enjoying a lot of favorable attention from prominent people on Twitter.

What are the problems with Hamilton 68?

The researchers say “the accounts tracked by the dashboard include a mix of such users and is the fruit of more than three years of observation and monitoring,” citing a November 2016 article by Weisburd, Watts, and Berger, titled, “Trolling for Trump: How Russia Is Trying to Destroy Our Democracy.” The text outlines a wide array of Russian “active measures” designed to erode Americans’ faith in their democracy, including efforts as serious as military-orchestrated hacker attacks. Hamilton 68, however, doesn’t claim to track secret Russian hackers, and what we (supposedly) get is relatively underwhelming.
“Attributed government or pro-Russian accounts.” We actually have some idea which accounts Hamilton 68 is tracking, when it talks about this group of Twitter accounts. At the top of the dashboard, there is a widget called “Top Tweets of the Last 24 Hours” featuring a repeating rotation of “top tweets” by Russian state Twitter accounts. At the time of this writing, the accounts displayed belong to the Russian Foreign Ministry, RT America, RT.com, Sputnik International, and RT UK News.
The Alliance for Securing Democracy says its goal with this project is to “spread awareness of what bad actors are doing online” and to help journalists “appropriately identify Russian-sponsored information campaigns.” But what journalist needs a “dashboard” to know that the Russian Foreign Ministry’s Twitter account belongs to “Russian-sponsored information campaigns”? And what is the use of singling out that RT America tweeted about a school explosion in Minneapolis on August 2? Perhaps Russian “active measures” aim to “erode trust between citizens and elected officials and democratic institutions,” and maybe reporting on tragedies or infrastructure failures in America furthers this aim, but characterizing such tweets as “what bad actors are doing” comes eerily close to branding such journalism a Russian propaganda effort.
“Bots and human accounts run by troll factories.” All we know about this category in Hamilton 68’s methodology is that researchers periodically have to “replace accounts that are suspended,” meaning that the dashboard possibly doesn’t monitor a full 600 Twitter accounts at all times, if the deleted bots on the list aren’t replaced automatically. According to Weisburd, Watts, and Berger, bots are a “key tool for moving misinformation and disinformation from primarily Russian-influenced circles into the general social media population,” citing fake reports about a second military coup in Turkey and a gunman at JFK airport.
These incidents stand out, however, because they’re so rare and extreme, and Hamilton 68’s focus on bots risks overlooking the typically futile background noise these accounts produce online. Because the accounts aren’t identified, moreover, there’s no way of knowing if the bots reflected in the dashboard weren’t temporarily hired to promote pro-Russian content before some other client — a shoe company or a vitamin manufacturer, for instance — ordered the latest campaign. This may be a wild, silly hypothetical, but we don’t know any better, with the raw data hidden from us.
“Accounts run by people who amplify pro-Russian themes after being influenced by Russian propaganda efforts.” This is far and away the trickiest, most problematic aspect of The Alliance for Securing Democracy’s new project, and it’s also presumably where researchers wanted most to avoid “debate” about their selection criteria. How do you identify “pro-Russian amplifiers” if Russian propaganda’s themes dovetail with alternative American political views? One of the problems with PropOrNot, in Adrian Chen’s words, was that it unfairly targeted media outlets that “exhibited a pattern of beliefs outside the political mainstream.”
Hamilton 68 tries to dodge this issue by concealing the people it says are “pro-Russian amplifiers.”
J.M. Berger says the project’s selection process has a “98-percent confidence rate,” but that’s an easy claim to defend, when you won’t tell anyone who's on the list.
Kevin Rothrock

          Planet moves to Intertrust orbit        
Estonian geospatial environmental data provider bought by US tech outfit
           Erosion-corrosion of Cr3C2-Ni cermets in salt water         
Antonov, Maksim and Stack, Margaret and Hussainova, I. (2006) Erosion-corrosion of Cr3C2-Ni cermets in salt water. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Science and Engineering , 12 (3-1). pp. 176-187. ISSN 1736-7530
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          A Lesson from Scandinavia        
  • During the years 2005 and 2006, American sociologist Phil Zuckerman spent fourteen months in Denmark and Sweden to study these two societies. In a recent book, he reports these findings: (1)
  • Denmark and Sweden have among the lowest rates of violent crime in the world. (pp. 28-29) (2)
  • Denmark and Sweden have the lowest rates of HIV and AIDS in the world. (p. 27)
  • Sweden is third and Denmark is fifth in the world in economic competitiveness. (p. 27)
  • On gender equality, Denmark is second and Sweden is third in the world. (p. 27)
  • On access to the Internet, Sweden is third and Denmark is fourth in the world. (p. 28)
  • Denmark and Sweden are tied for the lowest infant mortality rates in the world with Norway, Iceland, Japan, and Singapore. (p. 26)
  • Denmark and Sweden are tied for first place with the Netherlands in the health and safety of children. (p. 26)
  • Denmark ranks fourth and Sweden ranks eighth in the world in the standard of living. (p. 27)
  • Political corruption is virtually non-existent in Denmark and Sweden. (p. 28)
  • Denmark and Sweden are tied for first in the world in a recent international study of social justice (p. 30) (3), and
  • Denmark ranks second and Sweden ranks third in the world in financial aid to poor nations. (p. 29)


Thus, according to Zuckerman, Danes and Swedes are among the most contented and generous people on the planet. But that's not all that Zuckerman has to report about these two nations. Remarkably, he notes, two of the most prosperous societies in the world are also two of the least religious. (4) Indeed, a huge majority in both countries are atheists or agnostics. Only 24% of Danes and 16% of Swedes believe in a personal God compared to more than 90% in the United States. (p. 24) Only 18% of Danes and 33% of Swedes believe in heaven compared to 80% of Americans. Only 10% of Danes and Swedes believe in hell compared to 75% of Americans. (p. 11, pp. 24-25) This is the lowest rate of belief in hell in the entire world! (p. 25) Next, only 7% of Danes and 3% of Swedes believe that the Bible is the literal word of God compared to 33% in the United States. (p. 25) Further, Danes and Swedes have the lowest church attendance in the world with only 3% of Danes and 7% of Swedes attending regularly. (p. 25, p. 162) (5) Also, only 8% of Danes and 15% of Swedes consider it important for a politician to believe in God compared to 64% of Americans who do (p. 12), and contrary to public and private practice in America, very few Danes and Swedes pray. (p. 2) Finally, more than 80% of Danes and Swedes accept evolution while less than half our population does. (p. 10) (6)

Professor Zuckerman sees an important lesson for us in his study of Denmark and Sweden. Contrary to what we've heard from "certain outspoken conservative Christians" (7), the sociologist suggests, a secular society need not be a scene of violence and depravity. (p. 4, pp. 17-18) Denmark and Sweden, he says, are not only "impressive models of societal health" (p. 17) but living proof that humans can survive and prosper without religion. (pp. 55-56) (8)


 

  1. Zuckerman reports his findings in Society without God: What the Least Religious Nations Can Tell Us About Contentment, New York University Press, 2008. All references hereinafter are to page numbers of this book.
  2. For instance, in Aarhus, Denmark, a city of 250,000 residents, there was a total of one murder in 2004. (p. 6)
  3. This study was done by a German group of social scientists associated with an institute called Hans-Bocker Stiftung. (p. 30) Denmark and Sweden are not without problems, however. Taxes are high, there is social friction due to recent waves of immigration, children eat too much candy, rates of bicycle thefts are high, fertility rates are low, and alcohol consumption is high. (p. 34)
  4. Other irreligious societies are the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, South Korea, Estonia, France, Japan, Bulgaria, Norway, England, Scotland, Wales, Hungary, and Belgium. (p. 25) Zuckerman points out that in all of these relatively secular societies the citizens freely gravitated from a religious to an irreligious perspective unlike North Korea, the former Soviet Union, China, and Albania where the governments attempted to impose secularism on the citizens. Zuckerman says that forced secularism doesn't work. See pp. 20-22.
  5. Paradoxically, despite the fact that most Danes and Swedes are atheists or agnostics and don't attend church regularly, 83% of Danes and 80% of Swedes continue voluntarily to pay a tax to the National Church, which is Lutheran (p. 112), and many hold traditional events such as weddings, baptisms, confirmations, and funerals in church. Zuckerman says that Danes and Swedes, while rejecting the supernatural dimensions of Christianity - Jesus performed miracles, Jesus was God, Jesus rose from the dead, the Bible is God's revelation, the Genesis account of creation is accurate, there is an afterlife with a heaven and a hell, etc. – maintain a "cultural religion" similar to many Jews. (pp. 153-155) Oddly, in Denmark a person may be a pastor and an atheist. (p. 154)
  6. Despite the fact that Danes and Swedes are irreligious, they are not hostile to religion, they shun serious discussions of it, they deem a person's views about religion a private matter, and many non-believers dislike being labeled an atheist because they take the term to imply hostility to religion. Further, many non-believers self-identify as "Christians." When one asks them what it means to be a Christian, they say it means being kind, helping people who need help, not hurting others, etc. As a rule they reject the supernatural components. See Chapter 8, "Cultural Religion," pp. 150-166. Also, see pp. 97-109.
  7. Zuckerman lists the following examples of Christian conservatives who claim that a society that is irreligious will fail: Pat Robertson, the late Jerry Falwell, Ann Coulter, Bill O'Reilly, Laura Schlesinger, William Bennett, Rush Limbaugh, and Paul Weyrich. (p. 4, pp. 17-18)
  8. American fundamentalists will no doubt object to Zuckerman's strongly favorable evaluation of Denmark and Sweden by noting that in these countries abortion has been legal for more than thirty years, prostitution is legal, and homosexuality is tolerated.

© 2008 Tom Shipka


          The Austerity Argument        
What does Estonia say about the merits of belt-tightening in a crisis?
          Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian        

Pengundian babak kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2018 akan dilakukan Sabtu malam, sekitar pukul 23.00 WIB. Di bawah ini adalah daftar unggulan dan berbagai skenario buruk maupun baik yang bisa menimpa negara-negara asal sepakbola: Inggris, Wales, Skotlandia dan Irlandia Utara.

Berita Bola: Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian
Pot 1: Jerman, Belgia, Belanda, Portugal, Romania, Inggris, Wales, Spanyol, Kroasia
Pot 2: Slovakia, Austria, Italia, Swiss, Republik Ceko, Prancis, Islandia, Denmark, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Pot 3: Ukraina, Skotlandia, Polandia, Hungaria, Swedia, Albania, Irlandia Utara, Serbia, Yunani
Pot 4: Turki, Slovenia, Israel, Republik Irlandia, Norwegia, Bulgaria, Kepulauan Faroe, Montenegro, Estonia
Pot 5: Siprus, Latvia, Armenia, Finlandia, Belarusia, Makedonia, Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Moldova
Pot 6: Kazakhstan, Luksemburg, Liechtenstein, Georgia, Malta, San Marino, Andorra
Inggris dan Wales tidak mungkin bertemu dalam satu grup karena mereka sama-sama tim unggulan yang masuk dalam Pot 1.
Namun, mereka masih bisa ketemu dengan negara tertentu dari Pot 2 seperti Italia (saat ini peringkat 17 di dunia) atau Perancis (peringkat 22), sementara tandang ke negara-negara tertentu seperti Swedia, Polandia atau Ukraina bisa menjadi laga yang sulit.
Wales, Irlandia Utara dan Skotlandia bisa saja masuk ke dalam grup yang berisikan lima tim, bukan enam – yang dapat membantu peluang mereka lolos ke putaran final di Rusia.
Tim-tim Eropa akan dibagi ke dalam sembilan kelompok – tujuh grup dengan enam tim dan dua grup hanya beranggotakan lima tim.
Berikut adalah skenario terbaik dan terburuk dari empat negara asal sepakbola itu.
Inggris
Tiket impian:
Inggris, Islandia, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova, Andorra
Skenario terburuk:
Inggris, Italia, Swedia, Turki, Finlandia, Kazakhstan
Wales
Tiket impian:
Wales, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Wales, Prancis, Ukraina, Turki, Siprus, Georgia
Skotlandia
Tiket impian:
Skotlandia, Wales, Islandia, Estonia, Lithuania
Skenario terburuk:
Skotlandia, Jerman, Italia, Turki, Makedonia, Kazakhstan
Irlandia Utara
Tiket impian:
Irlandia Utara, Rumania, Islandia, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Irlandia Utara, Spanyol, Prancis, Republik Irlandia, Belarusia, Malta

          Estonia        
Yosep stealing from the safe of his father, freak hunting weapons. Ends with a bloodbath at the school canteen ... The film's director said: "In Estonia itself of the kind. But we remember the tragic events of Columbine in college in 1999, when two students - 17 and 18 years old - was shot a few dozen fellow students and teachers themselves and committed suicide. 'Columbine syndrome' may hit different countries. So our movie is not so much about a particular event, but rather about causes of school violence. " So, we are faced with three questions whose answers we can truly simulate the behavior of an ideal life enters into a young man in a hostile world (after all, if we're not going to search for ideal behavior in the present, why do anything at all to read or watch?): 1. What is the motivation of students, pushing them to the humiliation of Yosepom? 2. Learn more about this topic with the insights from Jeff Feig. The reasons impelled by Caspar and Yosepa to take the plunge? Could this step be any different? 3. What should substitute the enemy when burning is both cheeks? We examine these questions in order. 1. WHAT IS THE MOTIVATION OF STUDENTS, pushing them to mockery YOSEPOM? As has been said (and the film is clearly visible), children (including - teens) are without any parental attention and general attention from adults. The world is cruel to them, and they repays him in kind, as they develop in exactly as required by existing conditions subject to the strong and weak inhibiting, while fully expecting to life only for themselves and their past accomplishments, prestige and status - may be useful in the present and future.
          What next for Eastern Europe?        
While President Trump tweets, the United States and Russia drift towards war over Syria, and the new Thirty Years War between Shi'ite and Sunni continues on many fronts, another critical drama is playing out in the Eastern half of the European continent.  I find it particularly interesting because it is a replay of the drama I described about 40 years ago in my first book, Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War, which is linked at left and available as an e-book.

For the first few centuries of the modern era the peoples of Eastern Europe lived under large empires.  The Ottoman Empire had reached Europe in the 15th century and eventually included what is now Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Rumania, some of the nations of the former Yugoslavia, and Hungary.  The Tsar of Russia ruled what are now the Baltic States and, by the 19th century, Poland.  The Holy Roman Empire--which in 1806 became the Austrian Empire, and in 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Empire--included parts of Poland and the present-day Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia and Slovenia.  All these peoples, to varying degrees, developed nationalist movements during the 19th century.

The enormous strain of the First World War proved too much not only for the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires, but also for the German Empire.  The Allies--France, Britain, Italy and eventually the US as well--sponsored the claims of some of the national movements in their territory.  In January 1918, in his Fourteen Points, Woodrow Wilson endorsed an independent Poland and autonomy (not independence) for the peoples of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires.  When those nations collapsed ten months later, various national movements proclaimed new states.

As the brilliant but eccentric English historian A. J. P. Taylor noted in 1961, the post-1919 settlement in Eastern Europe reflected the astonishing fact that both Germany and Russia had been defeated. Only that allowed for the re-creation of an independent Poland, the new states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia,a larger Rumania, independent Poland and Finland, and the three Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.  It seemed in 1918-9 that things might go even further and that Ukraine might become independent as well, but the Bolsheviks managed to secure control over it in the Russian civil war.  These states were economically and politically weak.  Nearly all of them initially formed some kind of democratic government, encouraged down that path by the western powers.

In the short run, several of the new states--Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania--were threatened by Hungary, which had lost huge territories at the peace conference, while in the long run Czechoslovakia and Poland had to worry about a resurgent Germany. France, eager to cement its status as the leading power in Europe, offered all those states some kind of alliance.  Clearly the French would have trouble defending them once the Germans or Russians regained their military strength, but the French were counting on keeping the Germans weak.  The alliances faced no serious threats until after the rise of Hitler.

By then all these countries had undergone profound political changes.  While all of them had begun as democracies, only Czechoslovakia, Finland and the Baltic States were still electing their governments by the early 1930s--the rest had come under some form of authoritarian rule.  The agricultural states among them, as I showed in my book, came under German influence after 1935 because the Germans, desperate for food, offered them a market for their produce.  In 1938 Hitler managed to destroy Czechoslovakia when the French abandoned their alliance.  In 1939-40, Hitler and Stalin concluded the Nazi-Soviet Pact. They partitioned Poland and the Soviets incorporated the Baltic States.  Hungary and Rumania became allies of Hitler while Yugoslavia was occupied by the Italians and the Nazis.  In 1945,  the whole region (except Finland) came under Soviet occupation and the USSR installed Communist governments.

The collapse of the USSR in 1991--77 years after the start of the First World War--started this process over again.  Once again, as in 1919, the entire region was liberated from foreign rule.  This time the proliferation of new states has gone much further, with Czechoslovakia and former Yugoslavia giving way to no less than 8 new states, and not only the Baltic States, but also Ukraine and Belarus, becoming independent.  Once again the new states established various forms of democracy.  And once again, powerful nations from outside the region offered them alliances. NATO, led by the US, offered membership to virtually every new state in the region, including the Baltic states--after initially promising the new Russian government not to do so.  The EU also offered many of them membership, choosing to ignore the enormous economic and cultural differences that still divide Europe somewhere around the frontiers of Germany and Poland.

Germany is no longer an imperialist nation, although it leads the EU and played a key role in its enlargement.  Russia once again went through a chaotic period but by 2000 it was recovering its strength under Vladimir Putin.  He is clearly determined to reassert Russian influence--if not more--over many of the states of the former USSR.  Belarus lost any real independence very quickly, and Putin is actively contesting the West in a bid for influence in Ukraine, and using the Russian military at the border to do so. He also very obviously has designs on the Baltic states, which are extremely vulnerable militarily.  And while Putin cannot offer these states markets the way the Germans did 80 years ago, he can provide them with energy.

And once again, democracy has proven fragile in Eastern Europe.  Rightist parties now lead the governments of Hungary, Poland, and some of the other states of the region. The governments of the Czech Republic and Slovakia are weak and subject to corruption and outside influence.  These nations face a choice between  western-style democracy--which is having enormous problems in the west--and Russian-style authoritarianism.  It is not at all clear which path they shall take.

Only a gigantic war settled the question of Eastern Europe's future 80 years ago.  Such a war does not seem in prospect now, but limited wars, such as a lightning Russian occupation of one or more Baltic states, cannot be ruled out.  Russian and NATO aircraft are constantly confronting one another in the region.  The Russians also seem to be using cyberwar against Ukraine, and they may use it elsewhere. To reach a new equilibrium diplomatically would require a level of statesmanship which is not apparent on the world scene.  Nearly thirty years ago, when the Soviet empire collapsed, I commented frequently that this time, Eastern Europe had taken a new shape without a new world war.  Now it seems that the process may involve a larger conflict--albeit of a possibly different kind.
          Announcing our 9th annual Short Film Competition        
Do you have a story that needs to be told? Get inspired – EstDocs 9th Short Film Competition now accepting submissions Filmmakers have until October 2, 2017 to submit If you've got a camera, passion for filmmaking and an idea for an Estonian-themed documentary or docudrama, enter your short film into this year’s EstDocs Short […]
          Have you ever met an Estonian?        
Think of the person you know with the most consecutive vowels in their name. You might be close.  Next to Helsinki, Toronto is home to the largest Estonian population outside of Estonia.  It’s also host to EstDocs Film Festival, November 4th-8th. This year’s festival brings a wide range of multi-vowelled talent to the screen and kicks off […]
          Drum roll please… And the winners are…        
2015 EstDocs Audience Award “Those Who Dare” Director: Ólafur Rögnvaldsson Iceland, Estonia, 2015 2015 EstDocs Jury Award “The Journey To the Maggot Feeder” Directors: Priit Tender & Liivo Niglas Estonia, 2015 Short Film Awards First Prize: Hilda Directors: Jaak Kilmi & Aleksandr Heifets Estonia, 2015 Second Prize: Seedrioru Director: Steve Zilberman USA, 2015 Honourable Mentions: Wabadus Director: Joanna Laast […]
          Jón Baldvin Hannibalsson: Northern Alliance with Baltic Countries Welcomed by Nordic Nations        
2015 ESTDOCS PRESS RELEASE Oct 20, 2015 (Toronto, Canada) EstDocs, the highly successful Estonian Documentary Film Festival in Toronto (Oct 15-20, 2015), had the honour of presenting Jón Baldvin Hannibalsson, the former Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iceland at the gala film screening of “Those Who Dare” at Toronto’s Bloor Hot Docs cinema. As part […]
          EstDocs, Short Films and Democracy Come Together        
September 29, 2015 – Toronto, Ontario: This year, the Estonian Documentary Film Festival (EstDocs) will screen a series of films that nicely coincide with the fact that Canada is in the midst of a Federal Election. For example the film, “Those Who Dare,” features an in-depth look at how, during the independence movement in Estonia, […]
          EstDocs Announces the 2015 Films!        
Today, the Toronto-based Estonian Documentary Film Festival (EstDocs – October 15 – 20) announces this year’s lineup of films from Estonia, about Estonia, or featuring Estonian filmmakers and artists.   All films are in English or in Estonian with English subtitles. With themes ranging from the reinvigoration of democracy in the Baltic States, to music and […]
          2015 Official Press Release        
May 6, 2015, Toronto – EstDocs 2015 (Estonian Documentary Film Festival) unveils this year’s graphics design by Kylli Sparre. Drawing upon Estonia’s long and rich tradition of sacred forests and its strong relationship with the sea, this year’s image evokes a mix of whimsy, magic, and contemplation. EstDocs is an annual audience festival and juried […]
          Seminar Extended Use of Churches        
  TIME: 7 October 2013, 9.00-17.30 PLACE: Niguliste Museum, Tallinn, Estonia LANGUAGE: English For centuries churches have been the central pillars of the communities around them – congregations’ manifestations of pride and wealth. In these days the status of a church … Continue reading
          Podcast: Super Mario to the rescue        

As the European Central Bank meets in Estonia this week, is it time for Mario Draghi to withdraw support from the Eurozone economy? Emerging Markets Editor Simon Cox on why the BRICs label is still relevant. And, how investors are taking care of the planet. Simon Long presents
          Kollane        
  Kollane is an album created during a residency at the Estonian Artists’ Association, Tallinn, October 2011. The single long track …

Continue reading


          Translate your favorite with Google        
Sebelumnya telah diuraikan perihal Priority Inbox, dimana fitur ini bekerja pada Gmail dan saat ini Ambae.exe berkesempatan menggunakannya bersama others AMBAE. Lebih awal disampaikan bahwa Google mengeluarkan 2 (dua) fitur terbarunya. Yang akan diuraikan di bawah ini adalah Google Translate dengan fitur yang lebih hebat. Bagi sobat Googler, Google Translate bukanlah hal baru, tapi mungkin saja masih ada rekan-rekan yang ingin mengetahuinya dari awal terutama Ambae.exe yang masih awam.

Layanan ini diperkenalkan pada tahun 2007 dan mulai memasukkan Bahasa Indonesia ke dalam pilihan bahasa yang bisa diterjemahkan sejak 25 September 2008. Adapun sasaran utama dari Google Translate yakni untuk menerjemahkan bagian teks atau halaman web dalam satu bahasa ke bahasa lain.


Lalu mengapa diklaim memiliki fasilitas canggih dibanding penerjemah lainnya...? Tidak seperti layanan terjemahan lain seperti Babel Fish dan AOL yang menggunakan SYSTRAN, Google menggunakan perangkat lunak terjemahan sendiri. Itulah hebatnya mbah Google, si empunya tidak mau meminjam apapun dari pihak lain. Kalau perlu Sergey M. Brin dan Lawrence E. Page membeli produk pihak lain agar bisa menguasai dunia maya.

Lanjut fren, satu persatu kita bahas perihal Translate milik mbah Google. Dukungan Google Translate mencakup :
- Google Translate versi standar
- Google Search
- Google Toolbar
- Google Chrome
- Google Labs
- Google Mail (Gmail)
- Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
- Google Talk
- Google Groups
- Google Moderator
- Google Docs (Google Documents)
- Google Video (YouTube)
- Google Mobile
- Google Android
- Google Web Element
- Google AJAX API
- Google Toolkit

A. Google Translate versi standar

Steps A1
Kunjungi Google Translate, lalu ketik atau paste karakter, kata maupun kalimat yang ingin diterjemahkan. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan yang akan digunakan dan klik Translate. Tukar arah terjemahan dengan mengeklik tombol Swap languages.


Steps A2
Klik Listen untuk mendengarkan terjemahan versi suara Google. Klik Read phonetically untuk membedakan suara/lafadz dari yang diperdengarkan Google. Metode Read phonetically memanfaatkan sistem notasi fonetis (International Phonetic Alphabet), yakni kumpulan tanda yang dengannya semua bahasa manusia dapat ditulis dan dijelaskan. Seperti halnya membedakan lafadz fa dengan pa dan va atau sa dengan xa dan za atau ca dengan ka dan qa serta ei dengan ee dan ey dan bahasa planet lainnya.


B. Google Search

Steps B1
Silakan meluncur ke Google Homepage dan ketikkan keyword yang akan dicari. Hasil pencarian pun muncul sebanyak 10 URL/Website di halaman pertama Google yang paling terkait dengan keyword tersebut. Untuk menerjemahkan URL, klik link Translate this page atau Terjemahkan laman ini di sisi kanan salah satu URL hasil Searching. Translate dapat dimaksimalkan dengan mengatur metode pencarian pada menu Advanced Search atau Preferences.


Steps B2
Setelah mengeklik link Translate this page, Google segera menerjemahkannya. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan pada tampilan halaman berikutnya. Untuk menukar arah terjemahan, tidak disiapkan tombol Swap languages. Sehingga harus mengganti bahasa secara manual pada kedua drop down menu.


Steps B3
Temukan hal unik dari namamu, pada kolom pencarian ketik perintah Translate 'My Name is xxxxxxx' to yyyyyyy.
~ xxxxxxx : Nama
~ yyyyyyy : Bahasa


C. Google Toolbar

Steps C1
Google Toolbar bekerja pada browser Microsoft Internet Explorer dan Mozilla Firefox versi 2.0 atau yang lebih tinggi. Operation System (OS) yang direkomendasikan yakni Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista atau yang lebih tinggi. Untuk mengaktifkannya Download dan Install Google Toolbar, ikuti langkah selanjutnya hingga Finish. Bila Google memerintahkan untuk Restart, sobat Googler ikuti saja, jangan membantah perintah orang tua (mbah Google), mumpung GRATIS. Setelah terinstall, Google Toolbar akan terpasang di bagian atas halaman browser, tepatnya pada Toolbar Menu.



D. Google Chrome

Steps D1
Serupa tapi tidak sama, Google Chrome mirip dengan Google Toolbar. Perbedaannya, Google Toolbar merupakan Add-ons yang bekerja pada browser IE dan Mozilla Firefox. Sedangkan Google Chrome merupakan browser yang di dalamnya telah dibenamkan fitur Google Translate dengan tampilan Google Toolbar. Bekerja hanya pada Operation System (OS) Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista dan Windows 7. Daripada bingung, Download versi teranyar Google Chrome dan rasakan kehangatan Google Translate bersamanya. Untuk versi Beta, disini downloadnya.


E.
Google Labs dan Google Mail (Gmail)

Steps E1
Email yang masuk tidak selalu menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Bahkan orang Indonesia pun terkadang memakai bahasa Alien dalam mengirimkan email atau di saat chatting. Install salah satu fitur Google Labs pada Menu Settings. Pilih Sub Menu Labs, aktifkan fitur Message translation lalu Simpan pengaturan.


Steps E2
Masih pada Menu Settings, pilih Sub Menu General dan tentukan bahasa terjemahan secara default lalu simpan kembali pengaturan terakhir.


Untuk menonaktifkan fitur ini, centang Disabled pada Menu Labs. Namun, bila ingin menonaktifkan Google Labs secara utuh tanpa memilah-milah fiturnya, kunjungi OFF.

F.
Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
dan Google Talk

Steps F1
Fitur ini memanfaatkan Google Bots dalam menerjemahkan setiap pesan Chat. Googler yang terbiasa dengan Google Wave, kiranya tidak mengalami kesulitan dalam mengaplikasikan Google Bots. Guna memudahkan sobat Googler, Ambae.exe menyuguhkan daftar Google Bots yang dapat ditambahkn pada Gmail Chat atau Google Talk.




Google Bots pada fitur ini dimaksudkan sebagai robot Google yang akan menelusuri data yang dicari para Googler. Selanjutnya para Robot ini menerjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa masing-masing Bots. Jangan lupa menambahkan @bot.talk.google.com. Format penulisan Bots yakni xxxxxxx@bot.talk.google.com.
~ xxxxxxx : Salah satu Bots
~ Contoh zh2en@bot.talk.google.com : Google Bots untuk bahasa Chinese ke English.

G.
Google Groups, Google Moderator
dan Google Docs (Google Documents)

Steps G1
Berdiskusi bersama rekan sesama Googler, mengedit dokumen, merespon, bertanya, menjawab, menyarankan atau memberi ide dan masukan kepada dan/atau dari Google. Dengan fitur Google Translate di dalamnya, serasa kuliah dengan fasilitas Dwi Bahasa. Sobat tidak perlu mengutak-atik Setting dan Preferences. Cukup mengunjungi Translate ala Google Groups, Google Moderator dan/atau Google Docs (Google Documents).

H. Google Video (YouTube)

Steps H1
Halaman pencarian YouTube, mirip dengan Google Homepage. Klik Translate untuk menerjemahkan Keterangan Video atau klik Show original untuk mengembalikan ke dalam bentuk aslinya.


Steps H2
Sobat Googler sering menikmati tayangan HBO atau HBO Asia, Cinemax, Star Movie, Star World dan sebagainya...??? Menonton Film kesayangan di channel termasyur tersebut benar-benar mengasyikkan. Tersedia dalam Bi-Lingual atau Dwi Language. Di samping itu tersedia pula Running Text di setiap Film, meski film itu telah berganti bahasa dari English ke Indonesia. Wajarlah HBO mengklaim dirinya It's not TV, it's HBO

Bagaimana dengan Google Video atau YouTube...??? Video yang disertai dengan keterangan Teks alias Caption dapat pula diterjemahkan ke dalam berbagai bahasa. Dengan catatan bahwa video tersebut memiliki Caption atau lazim dikenal dengan Running Text sebagai terjemahan teks dari apa yang diucapkan dalam video bersangkutan. Klik Icon (^) lalu pilih Icon (cc), keduanya berada di pojok kanan bawah Video. Lalu klik Translate Captions untuk mengatur bahasa terjemahan.


Steps H3
Tentukan bahasa terjemahan dengan mengeklik drop down menu. Selanjutnya klik tombol Translate. Maka sekejap, Caption Video diterjemahkan sesuai bahasa yang dipilih.


I. Google Mobile dan Google Android

Steps I1
Translate via Google Mobile melalui perangkat seluler sobat Googler dengan mengunjungi Google Mobile

Steps I2
Dengan Google Android, fitur Google Translate benar-benar dimaksimalkan. Tidak hanya berupa teks ke teks, Googler dapat menerjemahkan teks ke dalam bentuk suara. Demikian sebaliknya, suara diterjemahkan kembali ke dalam bentuk teks. Download Google Android untuk merasakannya.

J. Google Web Element,
Google AJAX API dan Google Toolkit

Steps J1
Ingin memiliki Tool Translater di Webpage sobat Googler...??? Benamkan Code Google Translate ke dalamnya.

Copy dan Paste Script Code berikut

Script di atas hanya contoh, pengaturan secara manual silakan kunjungi Google Web Element. Mengenai penempatan HTML tersebut, posisikan pada BODY section.

Sobat tidak menginginkan Google menerjemahkan halaman Webpagenya. Copy dan Paste Meta Tag berikut dan posisikan pada HEAD section :


Steps J2
Terjemahan Webpage maupun Web Element lebih dimungkinkan lagi dengan fitur Google AJAX API. Tentunya Googler akan lebih sering bermain dengan Javascript.

Steps J3
Yang ini lebih hebat lagi. Googler dapat mengupload dan mendownload data yang diterjemahkan dengan fitur Google Toolkit. Lebih lengkapnya, kunjungi Google Tranlator Toolkit karena pada halaman tersebut diuraikan dengan jelas melalui media Video Tutorial versi mbah Google.

Sobat Blogger dan rekan Googler yang ingin mengetahui lebih banyak tentang fitur ini, silakan mengunjungi mbah Google. Mengingat panjangnya artikel ini dan rumitnya pembahasannya. Sebagai newbie, mohon dikoreksi bila terdapat kesalahan di dalamnya.

Persembahan berikutnya berupa Daftar Bahasa yang didukung Google Translate hingga saat ini sebanyak 57 Bahasa, yakni :
* Afrikaans
* Albanian
* Armenian (Alpha)
* Azerbaijani (Alpha)
* Arabic
* Basque (Alpha)
* Belarusian
* Bulgarian
* Catalan
* Chinese (Simplified)
* Chinese (Traditional)
* Croatian
* Czech
* Danish
* Dutch
* English
* Estonian
* Filipino
* Finnish
* French
* Galician
* Georgian (Alpha)
* German
* Greek
* Haitian Creole (Alpha)
* Hebrew
* Hindi
* Hungarian
* Icelandic
* Indonesian
* Italian
* Irish
* Japanese
* Korean
* Latvian
* Lithuanian
* Macedonian
* Malay
* Maltese
* Norwegian
* Persian
* Polish
* Portuguese
* Romanian
* Russian
* Serbian
* Slovak
* Slovenian
* Spanish
* Swahili
* Swedish
* Thai
* Turkish
* Ukrainian
* Urdu (Alpha)
* Vietnamese
* Welsh
* Yiddish

          Womad review – from Mexico to Mali, ska to the squeezebox, world music celebrates fusion        

Charlton Park, Wiltshire
Seu Jorge did Bowie, Estonian folkies took on bagpiping and a knock-out celebration of global sounds was packed with highlights despite a rainy weekend

Thirty-five years ago, the first Womad festival introduced global styles to rock and folk audiences. It was a financial disaster. Today, it is thriving and almost overcrowded with good music, as 35,000 people gathered in an increasingly mud-clogged Charlton Park to watch close to 100 acts from some 50 countries. Highlights of a strong lineup included ska veterans Toots and the Maytals singing Pressure Drop in a rainstorm, China’s avant-garde Zhou Family Band imitating chicken noises, the Tanzania Albinism Collective touchingly showing how music has helped them face stigma and health challenges, and an a cappella treatment by Australia’s Spooky Men’s Chorale of Picture in a Frame by Tom Waits. But the major theme was fusion, and there were new combinations of the ancient and contemporary from around the globe.

From Europe, there was the long-awaited debut by Xáos, a Greek-UK experimental band led by Nick “Dubulah” Page of Dub Colossus fame, who has a Greek mother. Electric guitar and a wash of keyboard effects from the microtonal composer Ahetas Jimi were matched against Nicki Maher’s clarinet and ney flute and Cretan bagpipes from Kalia Lyraki, which at its best was a brooding, atmospheric and epic fusion. Mysteriously, Lyraki was only allowed one vocal, on Pontos Blues, their best song of the night.

Continue reading...
          "The Silence" - DJI MAVIC PRO TEST        

"The silence of the winter 2017"

Filmed and edited by: Henry Tombak | aerovideod.ee
Music: Mick Pedaja - Seis
Drone shots: All shots by DJI MAVIC PRO

Võtete asukohad: Eesti / Locations: Estonia

- Järlepa allee / Järlepa Alley
- Tuhala "Nõiakaev" / Tuhala "Witch well"
- Pahkla "Eestimaa kivide kuningas" / Pahkla " The King of Rocks"
- Kõnnu järv / Kõnnu lake
- Lohu mõis / Lohu Manor

aerovideod.ee | droonimaailm.ee | professional-multirotors.com | 2017

Cast: Aerovideod.ee

Tags: mõis, manor, tuhala, kaev, witch, well, stone, lake, järv, mick, pedaja, henry, tombak, aerovideod, aeromeedia, droonimaailm and rändrahn


           Eversheds Sutherland Ots&Co consulted PRFoods in a purchase transaction worth 15.4 million eurs        
    One of the largest Estonian seafood producers PRFoods acquired 85% fish processing companies John Ross Jr Ltd (JRJ) and Coln Valley Smokery Limited (CVS), both located in the United Kingdom. The Leigh family who have been running the c...
           Eversheds Sutherland Baltic Law Offices are Nasdaq Baltic First North Certified Advisors        
Eversheds Sutherland Bitans (Latvia), Eversheds Sutherland Ots & Co (Estonia) and Eversheds Saladžius (Lithuania) are now Certified Advisers on the First North Market in Baltics. Certified Adviser’s role is to guide growth companies throug...
           Eversheds Sutherland Bitans represents Republic of Estonia in a matter against road construction company SIA “Binders” recovering over EUR 4,5 million.        
Eversheds Sutherland Bitans in cooperation with Eversheds Ots&Co has represented Republic of Estonia (through Estonian Road Administration) in connection with recognition and enforcement of Estonian arbitral award in Latvia against one of the bi...
          Ð¯ тебе кохаю        
Afrikaans - Ek is lief vir jou!
Albanian - Te dua!
Amharic - Afekrishalehou!
Arabic - Ohiboke (m to f), Nohiboka (f to m, or m to m)
Armenian - Yes kez si'rumem!
Azerbaijan - Mjan sjan sevirirjam
Basque - Maite zaitut!
Bengali - Ami tomake bahlobashi!
Bosnian - Volim te!
Bulgarian - Obicham te!
Catalan - T'estimo!
Creole - Mi aime jou!
Croatian - Volim te!
Czech - Miluji tev!
Danish - Jeg elsker dig!
Dutch - Ik hou van je!
English - I love you!
Esperanto - Mi amas vin!
Estonian - Mina armastan sind!
Farsi - Tora dost daram!
Filipino - Iniibig kita!
Finnish - (Ma) rakastan sua!
French - Je t'aime!
Frisian - Ik hald fan dei!
Galician - Querote!
German - Ich liebe dich!
Greek - S'ayapo!
Gujarati - Hoon tane pyar karoochhoon! tane chaahuN chhuN!
Hawaiian - Aloha wau ia 'oe!
Hebrew - Anee ohev otakh (m to f), Anee ohevet otkha (f to m), Anee ohev otkha (m to m), Anee ohevet otakh (f to f)
Hindi - Mai tumase pyar karata hun (m to f), Mai tumase pyar karati hun (f to m)
Hungarian - Szeretlek!
Icelandic - Eg elska thig!
Indonesian - Saya cinta padamu!
Irish - t'a gr'a agam dhuit!
Italian - Ti amo!
Japanese - Kimi o ai shiteru!
Korean - Dangsinul saranghee yo!
Latin - Te amo!
Latvian - Es tevi milu!
Lithuanian - As tave myliu!
Malaysian - Saya cintamu!
Mandarin - Wo ai ni!
Marshallese - Yokwe Yuk!
Norwegian - Jeg elsker deg!
Polish - Kocham ciebie!
Portuguese - Eu te amo!
Romanian - Te iubesc!
Russian - Ya tyebya lyublyu!
Sanskrit - twayi snihyaami
Serbian - Volim te!
Sesotho - Kiyahurata!
Slovak - Lubim ta!
Slovenian - Ljubim te!
Spanish - Te quiero!
Swahili - Nakupenda!
Swedish - Jag alskar dig!
Tagalog - Mahal kita!
Thai - Phom rug khun (Male speaker) Chan rug khun (Female speaker)
Turkish - Seni seviyorum!
Ukrainian - Ya tebe kokhayu!
Urdu - Main tumse muhabbat karta hoon!
Vietnamese - Anh yeu em (m to f), Em yeu an (f to m)
Welsh - Rwy'n dy garu di!
Yiddish - Kh'hob dikh lib!
Zulu - Ngiyakuthanda!




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          Someone Prayed for This        

    by Reb Gutman Locks
     

 

Someone Prayed for This

 

     He came over, pointed to the tefillin and asked, "What are these?"

     I explained that they are a Biblical command to Jewish men to take G-d's words and bind them to our arms.

     "It means that we will do what G-d tells us to do"

      I asked him where he was from.

      He said, "Estonia."

      I cannot recall ever meeting anyone from Estonia. I asked him what he was doing in Israel. He said that he had just gotten married and came here for a vacation.

     "Why Israel? Was anyone in your family Jewish?"

     "My mother's grandparents were Jews, but because of the holocaust many of the family were killed and her grandparents changed their name."

     "So, your mother's grandmother was a Jew?"

     "Both her grandparents were Jews."

     "How do you know?"
     "My grandmother told me."

     "Are you sure your mother's grandmother was a Jew?"

     "That's what they said."

     "If your mother's grandmother was a Jew… then your mother's mother was a  Jew… and if your mother's mother was a Jew… then your mother is a Jew… and if your mother is a Jew… then you are a Jew… and you can put these on."

      I took his arm, put tefillin on him and had him read the Shema in English. I explained what a big day it was for him to learn that he is a Jew and to put on tefillin for the first time. I showed him how to pray in his heart and I talked to him about the role of a Jew in the world.

     I was about to tell him that he had to marry only a Jewish girl but I remembered that he just got married to a girl from Estonia and I thought, "There's no way I can tell him that he has to marry a Jewish girl. What's he going to do, divorce his Estonian bride now that he found out that he's a Jew?"

     I held back and didn't say anything, but then for some reason I asked, "Anyone in your wife's family Jewish?"

     "My wife is Jewish."

     "What! Are you sure?"

      He said that he was sure.

     "Does she know that you are Jewish?

     "No. She's standing right over there."

     "Well, go tell her that for some very good reason, maybe her grandparents' prayers, or maybe your grandparents' prayers, but for some reason two young people living in a place where almost no Jews live and you two met and married. This is really amazing."

     He started to walk away. He wanted to tell his bride that she married a Jew.

     I quickly told him about Shabbos and told him that he had to follow up on this blessing.

     He certainly looked different then when he first walked up to me.

     Nothing happens by accident. There is a reason for everything especially when something so very unlikely happens. Someone's prayers were answered.


                  
Harvest Estonia GUS 2017





Global Underscore 2017
Sat. June 24, 2017, 5–9pm
Viljandi, Estonia site

facilitator: Nancy Stark Smith
producer: Notafe festival
participants:
Jenni Ristkari (Finland), Toni Vaahtera (Finland), Lara Bogataj (Austria), Angela-Mara Florant (Germany), Kaisa Kukkonen (Finland), Evelyn Tuul (Estonia), Nadja Parssinen (Finland), Niina Rejeva (Estonia), Tina Smeja (Canada), Ursula Rummel (Estonia), Valeria Januškevitš (Estonia), Helina Karvak (Estonia), Caitlin Sidney (UK), Veronika Yakushevich (Finland), Sini Haapalinna (Finland), Marli Laur (Estonia), Elina Reineck (Finland), Kadri Noormets (Estonia), Katrin Kubber (Estonia), Merle Saarva (Estonia), Victoria Kovalenko (Finland/Ukraine), Barbara Dumont (France), Antti Marjakangas (Finland), Hari Choudhary (India), Anne Expert (France), Lidia Mertins (Estonia), Alexandre Westerlund (Sweden), Anne-Mari Anderson (Estonia), Tatjana Romanova (Estonia), Donats Rudzitiz (Latvia), Olga Trebuhina (Latvia), Helin Jürmann (Estonia), Marta Jamsja (Estonia), Janika Koppel (Estonia)


We were in a gorgeous big school assembly hall, with renovated wood floors, high ceilings, a balcony and high stage, freshly painted bluegray walls, and a deck outside that overlooked a beautiful grassy hillside with lovely wooden houses, sloping down to a large and always-inspiring lake. Big trees on the top edge of the hillside blew musically throughout the Underscore. Peonies are blossoming now and we brought several stalks of white ones into the corner of the space in a large Roman-looking urn that mysteriously showed up in the space during our workshop earlier in the week.

The maps and lists and Underscore pages were on the wall, snacks in the hall, art supplies in the corner by the peonies.

No one came to the computer for Real Time Harvest or Live Harvest during the dancing!!

Here is a live transcript of our Final Sharing Harvest and some photos.

Thank you, Nancy Hughes, Brandin Steffensen, and Patrick Crowley—our Global Underscore coordinators—for your work in bringing us together this year. It felt strong and more important than ever for us to connect worldwide, in real time, through our dancing.

It also felt important to acknowledge in this Global Underscore the call for more open discussion within the worldwide CI community about restrictions of freedom occurring in the world based on ethnicity, race, religion, nationality, gender, and other political and cultural conflicts. Can and should CI, Underscore, and Global Underscore flourish in an a-political framework? How and where do political and moral stances have a place in our CI, improvisation, somatics, and dance world and work?

Thank you, Penny Chivas and team in Glasgow, Scotland, for exposing and weathering the first harsh winds of dissent of your Global Underscore site (based on the fact of there being an Israeli site in the network!), and then thanks to Nicole Bindler, Dan Bear Davis, and Lailye Weidman for their work on a petition and video conference about political consciousness in the contact improvisation community. I look forward to a report in CQ on these conversations, perhaps in our CI Newsletter Online where there is a place for Comments.

That said, I felt again the power of our nonverbal practice— to be confronted, over and over again, with “difference” and contrast (styles, backgrounds, intentions) within the dance space, and cultivating the practice of finding generous, creative, inventive solutions. Hard work. Good humor.  Serious study. Joyful play. All at once. What a composition that is!

With love and appreciation to all who participated in this year’s Global Underscore.
xoxo Nancy SS


Our Sharing Harvest:
(transcribed live by Kaisa and Anne, thank you!)

Ienni (Finland)
I would love to sing a song
I am a bad singer
it stays in my mind:
All I want from you is forever to remember me as loving you

Angela-Mara (Germany)
Hamburg, Köln, where my friends are
feeling a lot of different emotions at the same time
Final Resolution hearing the sound of the rain and the sound of people drawing

Caitlin (UK)
I was low energy to start
I felt like I had too much
Someone came and I stayed with it
it was so fun
it was making me laugh

Hari (India)
I felt I lost myself many times
I found myself many times
getting lost in my body, getting lost in the trees
getting lost and finding myself again

Tatjana (?)
a long and multilayered journey
being with my body and the composition at the same time
it’s a game between recording the things around me and staying here in my body
it’s very subjective for me
When you meet a person, you meet a whole world. You can communicate and get know it through the movement. It is therapeutic.

Sini (Finland)
my uncle passed away this morning, so i was orientating globally, cosmically. Forms appearing and disappearing into light and then it didn’t make sense anymore. Final Resolution: light.

Alexander (Portugal/Sweden)
Many states today, another long jam, right now a feeling that I can’t really recall what happened. Was fun, intense, slow. Very absorbed in myself, sometimes out of my self. Always needing to let go to step into something next. There’s freedom there, I feel, with the work that we did. There’s a bigger picture, wholeness.

Barbara (France)
Gratitude. I wonder if grace and gratitude have a connection. I liked to see and give generosity, How dance is generated through movement. It’s about giving and taking. Was a good seed. I found humor in my dances. I went through very different phases, looking very close to the floor, trying to look very far, contrasts; looking around. What I find in underscore and dance, it’s the density of time because of the awareness of space. Time flies and at the same time it’s expanding, fullness. I was very nourished from the week, not only the workshop, but walking here, eating, swimming, watching the trees, flowers, the wind.

Victoria (Ukraine/Finland)
I feel very close to something super important of my life. CI came to my life one year ago; before, I did other things. I never saw dance as anything then. I wasn’t sure about it. Then contact happened and I met many great teachers and immediately all the puzzles came together. It’s something that can transform you so fast, compassion, practice, wisdom practice, presence, freedom. Combination of all this. I feel WOW. Thank you.

Nancy (USA)
I want to check in about time. I’m feeling the stress about the time. Could we break the rules and continue around the circle after standing, so everyone has time to talk?. [All agree.]

I was very intrigued with the open space gap we had after the Assembly. We had 10 minutes to do nothing (having finished all Assembly activities earlier than expected). I liked that—the unexpected and undesignated space.

I visited each site around the world as I stood facing Moscow in the Opening Stand. Starting with Moscow, I found myself hopping to each site (having almost memorized them from writing them several times for the wall), visiting for a moment, looking around, saying hi to some people I knew were there, then hopping to the next. Such a strong feeling knowing that they were actually there, right now, standing, facing the next place, and we were in this together.

Ann (France)
Being connected to the planet, learning to find my ease in the uncomfort and releasing into what welcomes me.

Kaisa (Finland)
I was struggling with changing states
feeling it has to come from me
it was hard to take any touch from outside
then somebody came to me
I relaxed to it and then it changed
I relaxed to that help somehow, and then it changed

Antti (Finland)
I had one of the most difficult beginnings ever
emotional outburst
this time confirmed to me the old truth
to trust the body, the movement, to find expression
movement is a way to regulate the emotional state
the emotiomal state became a compositional element
I was suffering and enjoying at the same time
not having any touch for the whole jam and finding a deeply connected dance at the end

Lara (Austria)
Sweat and tears are both salty.
I feel like cancelling the date with the earth/world.
Itchy feeling from inside, like i am scratching my skin from the inside.

Elina (Finland)
I had this moment outside, watching the trees, those impressively big trees. Suddenly I saw that each of them was dancing their small dance, then i came inside and had my small dance.

Nadja (Finland)
I have a lot to say. I enjoy the undescore, i wasn’t expecting anything. But in the warm up you said that just be in the space. I opened the movement to the body.

Each couples I had, I had really nice dances today, and I thought why it happened. There were many things. Most important was Arriving, that i could arrive before I start the dance. I also enjoyed, and the most important thing: trust the kinesthetic feelings of the body. Concreteness in the sensation of the body. Trust the body. I found this week, it has been like meditation, lots of confronting my own obstacles. Contrasts was happening this week. Most important thing was that when I had these processes. And allowing people to be how they are.

Janika (Estonia?)
I want to say thank you. Now I feel the pain in all my body, I needed it. That’s important moment for me, the small dance. It’s inspiring, all the people in the world. And i want to say about coincidence. There is a shoe holding the door open, like someone should come in.

Toni (Finland)
This nourished me:
the colour yellow, toes, flashes of smiles, dryness, the smell of sweat, cucumbers, friction, ignorance, pencils.
Concentrating on the things that nourish me.

Marta (?)
It wasn’t easy for me. I have done some CI, but i felt that i coudn’t open up. And the voices in my head were saying many things.

Lydia (?)
I said about losing myself to the information. I didn’t expect that today. I already found myself. About coincidence, there was one moment, when I found myself with three red shirts. I don’t know where they are right now. Was fun.

Merle (Estonia)
I feel today many beautiful moments, I surprised myself, because my body wanted to move very different ways, i just let it go and some moments I don’t understand what my body is doing. And there’s lots of energy and power and freedom. And after when I go out, then I understand better.

Helinä (Estonia)
When we did facing towards other coutries, it was interesting to feel the other place, almost seeing the backs from the other countries. And then here hearing the names and countries and people are still similar, from so many different places. Still doing the same stuff. I had a lot of different emotions, sensations and qualities; we started to laugh at the same time when the ear of the vase came off and it was interesting to feel that happening.

Kadri (Estonia)
I had skype with two friends of mine, from Brazil and Kyoto. When we started you were telling about the countries. Why didn’t i tell them! We could have met in the undescore. Small dance was very important and that it happened in the beginning and end.

Helin (Estonia? nonworkshop woman)
When people started this thing, I was very energetic, let’s go! But when we did the small dance, and we were facing Russia, then it changed. I didn’t know what i was doing, I was scratching the floor. That was that. I don’t know why, but i was really egoistic, i wanted just my personal space. I tried to connect with wall and it didn’t work. I sat in the corner and was painting, i took some pencils and was drawing. Many different emotions, when i watched everyone. Maybe one day i will show what i draw.

Anne-Mari (Estonia? nonworkshop)
Ci is always understanding and others better. Who am I and who are others, thinking of do I see who they are and who am I? And also curiosity. Freedom. Also i was thinking if there are some people who need more, stronger, impulse to move and other people need less impuls. Is it so, or? And with few people that we were moving like one body. Remembering my own body, I am here, trying to look it from one step away.

Tina (Montreal, Canada)
I was thinking, feeling, different states, and in the global sense I was curious about global and local, about permeability, sensing borders, boundaries, how sometimes there is free trade and sometimes heavily guarded borders. Seeing if it’s possible to sneak across the border and retreat when it’s too dangerous.

Danat (Riga, Latvia)
Thank you all of you. For that beautiful moment of healing. I think CI is very great open structure for ideas, movement. We are all very open and excited and fresh and open to the world. It’s a great thing nowadays.

Olga (Riga, Latvia)
It was my first underscore. I had many feelings. Feels like gravity, losing myself, trying to find some connections between CI, contemporary art, some ideas came to my mind, it’s so contemporary but at the same time searching for spirituality like ancient things.


  

          Gol a favor en 14 segundos sin tocar el balón        
Sin tocar el balón. Así sumó el Levadia el primer gol. Durante el partido de la Copa de Estonia, a los catorce segundos de empezar ya había subido el tanto al marcador. Lo diferente fue que el Praide ... - Fuente: www.abc.es
          alice mange son coeur: You’re In My Blood        

alice mange son coeur is barely out of its infancy and it already has a 16-track compilation under its belt. The Prague imprint’s roster is not geo-specific, rather sourced from the limitless sonic hatchery that is the internet. Spice Mouse, an Estonian songstress with a penchant for fragile melodies, industrial pop flavoured Doe Eyes from …

The post alice mange son coeur: You’re In My Blood appeared first on Electronic Beats.


          Mondiali Volley, terzo turno di qualificazioni: tre gare in programma        

Mondiali Volley, terzo turno di qualificazioni: tre gare in programma
LaQuotaVincente.it.

Continuano le qualificazioni ai Mondiali Volley. Siamo al terzo turno: il programma prevede tre sfide del gruppo Europeo.

Belgio-Slovacchia è la prima sfida. Comincia il girone che permetterà ad una sola delle squadre di qualificarsi alla fase finale. La Slovacchia arriva dal doppio successo in amichevole contro la Bielorussia per 3-1, con in mezzo, però, lo 0-3. Il Belgio, invece, è uscito dalla World League, con il Girone 1 chiuso al settimo posto con 4 vittorie e 5 sconfitte. L'ultimo precedente vede la Slovacchia vincente per 3-1 negli European Games, ma con lo stesos risultato il Belgio ha vinto le altre tre sfide giocate tra il 22 giugno e il 6 luglio 2013 in European League.

Spagna-Germania è la seconda sfida. Grande incertezza in questa sfida: le due formazioni si sono affrontate nella semifinale Playoff, con gli iberici che hanno vinto per 3-0, qualificandosi per la finale (poi persa contro l'Estonia). Il penultimo precedente, però, vede la vittoria dei tedeschi in tre set.

Bielorussia-Estonia è la terza sfida, l'ultima di questa giornata di qualificazioni ai Mondiali Volley. Favoriti gli ospiti, capaci di vincere il Gruppo 3 grazie al doppio 3-0 contro Messico in semifinale e Spagna in finale. La Bielorussia, invece, non ha partecipato alla World League, ma ha ottenuto la qualificazione a questo terzo turno grazie al secondo posto nel Gruppo E, conquistato grazie alle quattro vittorie di fila ottenute dopo la sconfitta inaugurale con la Serbia.

Mondiali Volley, terzo turno di qualificazioni: tre gare in programma
LaQuotaVincente.it.


          Levadia Tallinn U21 vs Rakvere JK Tarvas, Aug 12, 2017 – Live Stream, Score, Prediction        
Estonian Esiliiga, Levadia U21 – Rakvere JK Tarvas, Saturday, 12:00 pm ET Short Preview Recent matches Levadia U21 is playing unstable (in the last 5 games wins – 2). Rakvere JK Tarvas in the latest match got series victories and it is in excellent form (in the last 5 games wins – 5). Levadia U21 […]
          European Commission issues "black list" of 30 "tax havens"        


Action Plan on Corporate Taxation

On 17 June 2015, the Commission adopted an Action Planpdf Choose translations of the previous link for fair and efficient corporate taxation in the EU.
The Action Plan sets to reform the corporate tax framework in the EU, in order to tackle tax abuse, ensure sustainable revenues and support a better business environment in the Single Market.
See the timelinepdf. 

5 Key Areas for Action have been identified:

1. Re-launching the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB)
2. Ensuring fair taxation where profits are generated
3. Creating a better business environment
4. Increasing transparency
5. Improving EU coordination 
map of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions has also been published, in a move to reinforce the EU's response to external threats to Member States' tax bases.
The Commission also adopted a decision to prolong the Platform on Tax Good Governance, and revise its scope and working methods.
For further information


The map was drawn up on the basis of work done by the Platform for Tax Good Governance and the information provided by EU Member States.

Top 30 listed countries: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Guernsey, Monaco, Mauritius, Liberia, Seychelles, Brunei, Hong Kong, Maldives, Cook Islands, Nauru, Niue, Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, Panama, St Vincent and the Grenadines, St Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, US Virgin Islands.

Panama is listed by Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain.

Full text in the European Commission website http://ec.europa.eu/





          Meten gol a los 14 segundos del partido y sin tocar el balón        

Este partido de futbol dejó sorprendidos tanto a los espectadores como a los jugadores y es que algo curioso sucedió en la cancha, apenas había iniciado el encuentro cuando se marcó la primera anotación.

Lo más extraño es que fueron los jugadores visitantes los que marcaron el gol, en su propia portería, nada menos.

El marcador final fue 3 – 1, a favor del equipo local, el FC Levadia, que disputaban el partido contra el Paide Linnameeskond, en un encuentro de la Copa de Estonia.

Más información en https://www.elsiglodetorreon.com.mx


          Estonian presidency in the EU: the FSFE asks for truly interoperable IT services in public sector        
The FSFE submitted its comments for the upcoming Tallinn Declaration for e-government drafted by the Estonian presidency of the Council of the EU. Therein the FSFE asks the current Estonian presidency to promote greater inclusion of Free Software in delivering truly inclusive, trustworthy and interoperable digital services to all citizens and businesses across the EU. The Tallinn Declaration will be signed by EU ministers in October 2017, expressing member states' joint vision for e-government and political commitment to follow the goals set. The proposal for Tallinn declaration is open for public comments until 14 July. The FSFE is asking organisations, companies, and individuals to let EU ministers know how Free Software is important for transparent and accountable e-government. Support FSFE, join the Fellowship: https://fellowship.fsfe.org/login/join.php Make a one time donation: http://fsfe.org/donate/donate.html
          Seminar: Software as a Medical Device        
Seminar: Software as a Medical Device:
Safety and security. 
January 5, 9-11 am 

Teaduspargi 6/1, Tallinm, Estonia
Seminar room: Merkuur 

Connected Health cluster presents a practical seminar to help health IT developers and startups plan and manage smoothly their products to comply with needed standards and rules.

9:00 What is a software as a medical device and what is required to get regulatory compliant products on the market - overview of medical device software safety, regulations in EU and US, standards and FDA guidance - Dr. Marion Lepmets, Co-Founder & CEO of SoftComply – 30 min presentation + 15 min Q&A

9:45 Privacy Engineering and Health Data: IT and IoT - Dr. Ian Oliver, Security Specialist at Bell Labs – 30 min presentation + 15 min Q&A

10:30 Discussion and 1-2-1 Q&A

Please register by January 3 the latest: services@tehnopol.ee 

Free for Science Park Tehnopol network and service clients and Connected Health cluster members. 30€ + vat for others.
          6 Jembatan Paling Romantis di Dunia        
Tahukah Anda bahwa di dunia ini ada berbagai jembatan cinta di dunia? Jembatan-jembatan ini bukan hanya dilewati dan disukai oleh banyak pasangan yang sedang kasmaran, namun bisa menjadi saksi bisu kisah cinta dua hati yang terikat.
Penasaran kan dengan bentuk dari Terowongan Cinta Ini? Mari kita simak ulasannya berikut ini.

1. Strong Russian Commitment - Tallin, Estonia
Sebuah jembatan yang nampak biasa, namun terkenal punya sejarah unik, ada di Estonia. Jembatan ini kelihatan biasa, namun bila melihat pinggirannya, akan membuat kita bertanya-tanya. Rupanya ada sebuah tradisi unik di Estonia.

Bagi pasangan di sana yang menikah, para pengantin harus membeli gembok dan menuliskan nama mereka di atasnya. Kemudian gembok itu akan dikunci di pinggiran jembatan dan kuncinya dibuang ke aliran sungai. Dengan demikian, kisah cinta mereka akan terikat selamanya.


2. Unbreakable Bonds - Florence, Italia
Jembatan lain yang tak kalah romantis terletak di Italia. Jembatan ini memang memberikan pemandangan indah bagi pasangan yang melewati jembatan itu. Dan di tempat itulah banyak pasangan mengikat janji dan cinta mereka dengan gembok di pinggiran jembatan. Wah, bayangkan romantisnya mengikat tali kasih dengan pemandangan kolosal ala Italia yang romantis.


3. All Red, All Heart - Penglai, Shandong, China
Aiiih, lucunya hati-hati berwarna merah ini. Rupanya ini adalah gembok-gembok cinta yang dipasang di pinggiran jembatan cinta di Penglai. Bukan hanya penduduk lokal, namun juga turis. Menurut tradisi China, saat pasangan menikah, mereka akan memasang gembok di rantai jembatan dan membuang kuncinya ke sungai sebagai lambang keabadian cinta.


4. Jembatan Tumski di Wroclaw Polandia
Ini merupakan jembatan yang dibangun pada tahun 1889 untuk menghubungkan dua kota. Namun ternyata jembatan ini juga bisa menjadi tempat untuk menyambungkan dan mengunci dua hati yang bertaut. Bagi siapa saja yang melewatinya, akan merasa bahagia melihat gembok-gembok penuh makna lambang cinta sejati dan abadi bertengger di pinggirannya.


5. Yunagi no Hashi - Jepang
Jepang juga punya jembatan cinta yang mengabadikan momen romantis para pasangan. Ini adalah sebuah jembatan istimewa bernama Yunagi no Hasih yang terbentang 120 meter dan terbuat dari kayu.
Mitosnya, bila Anda dan pasangan memasang gembok di sana, maka cinta Anda akan berlangsung selamanya hingga happy ending. Banyak orang yang mempercayai itu dan mereka memasang gembok mereka sambil menikmati indahnya sunset terbesar dunia di sore hari.

6. Love In The Rhine - Cologne, Jerman
Anda akan melihat banyak sekali gembok warna-warni yang bertengger di jembatan kereta api Jerman ini. Memang terdapat sebuah mitos yang mengatakan bahwa bila Anda mengabadikan cinta Anda dengan pasangan dengan gembok di jembatan tersebut, maka Anda akan merasakan indahnya cinta abadi.

Sumber : pt-o.com


          SMALL PEOPLE WITH HATS        

There are small people wearing hats in the society.

Graduation film from the Royal College of Art, 2014
Hand-drawn on paper

A film by Sarina Nihei

Sound design by Horret Kuus B6 STUDIOS
et-ee.facebook.com/B6Studios.Sound
imdb.com/name/nm1841731/

Awards

Grand Prize and Best Sound prize at Ottawa International Animation Film Festival 2015
Grand Prix of Primanima 2014, Budaörs, Hungary
Best Student Film at Anim'est 2014 in Bucharest, Romania
Korea Animation Producers Association President’s Prize at PISAF, Puchon, Korea
Special mention Anima 2015, Brussels
Grand Prix student film at HAFF 2015
Grand Prix of IdeasTap Graduate award Short Film
Special mention at Countryside Animafest Cyprus 2015

SCREENINGS

Anim'est 2014 Bucharest, Romania
PISAF 2014 Puchon, Korea
ReAnimania 2014 Yerevan, Armenia
Primanima 2014 Budaörs, Hungary
London International Animation Festival 2014
Greenhorn short film festival, London
IFF Etiuda&Anima 2014 Kracow, Poland
Animated Dreams, Tallinn Estonia
GIRAF, Calgary
Sommets du cinema d'animation
Animateka, Ljubljana Slovenia
Istanbul Animation Festival, Turkey
Clermont-Ferrand International Short Film Festival 2015
Anima 2015, Brussels
HAFF, Netherlands
Flatpack film festival, UK
Animex awards 2015, UK
EYEWORKS festival 2015, US
Mecal 17, Spain
IndieLisboa, Portugal
Athens Animfest, Greece
Anifilm, Czech Republic
Northwest animation festival
Annecy International Animated Film Festival 2015
Rooftop Films, NY 2015
Lago Film Fest 2015
Countryside Animafest Cyprus 2015
Anima Mundi, Brazil
Guanajuato International Film Festival
Anibar Animation Festival 2015, Kosovo
Concorto Film Festival, Italy
Fantoche 2015
Ottawa International Animation Festival 2015
Encounters short Film and Animation Festival 2015
ARS Independent Festival, Katowice, Poland 2015
Uppsala international short film festival, Sweden 2015

Cast: Sarina Nihei

Tags: graduation film, RCA, Royal College of Art and Sarina Nihei


          Belly        

I can feel you in my Belly

Credits:

A film by: Julia Pott
Production: Royal College of Art
Sound Design: Joseph Tate
Animation Assistance: Robin Bushell
Eammon O’Neill
Ben Cady
Stephen Middleton
Theo Nunn
Voices: Olivia Gurney Randall
Cornelius Clarke
Joseph Tate
Robert Blythe
Laurence Weedy

Supported by: Passion Pictures

Screenings

The Summer Show, RCA, London, 2011
See No Evil, The City Arts & Music Project, London, 2011
Short and Sweet, The Pheonix, London, 2011
Hackney Film Festival, RIO Cinema, London, 2011
Canterbury Anifest, Augustine House, Canterbury, 2011
Chicago Film Festival, 2011
Playgrounds Festival, Netherlands, 2011
L’Alternativa, 18th Barcelona Independent Film Festival, 2011
Encounters International Film Festival, Bristol, 2011
Adobe Design Achievement Awards, Taipei, Taiwan, 2011
Pictoplasma, New York, 2011
Animated Dreams, Estonia, 2011
Rencontres Henri Langlois 34th Festival, Poitiers, France, 2011
Les Sommets du cinéma d’animation de Montréal, Canada, 2011
Animateka International Animation Film Festival, Slovenia, 2011
Anilogue International Animation Festival, Vienna and Budapest, 2011
Sundance Film Festival, 2012
Clermont Ferrand Film Festival, France 2012
Premiers Plans Film Festival, France, 2012
Flickerfest, International Short Film Festival, Australia, 2012
Tricky Women, International Competition, Vienna, 2012
Mecal International Short Film Festival, Barcelona, 2012
SXSW, 2012
Charleston Film Festival, 2012
Holland Animation Film Festival, Utrecht, 2012
San Francisco International Film Festival, 2012
Lisbon International Independent Film Festival, 2012
Ashland Independent Film Festival, 2012
Boston Independent Film Festival, 2012
Stuttgart Festival of Animated Film, Germany, 2012,
Flatpack Festival, Birmingham, UK, 2012
Visueltdagene (The Visual Days), Oslo, Norway, 2012
Maryland Film Festival, 2012
ANIFILM, Trebon, Czech Republic, 2012
Vienna Independent Shorts Film Festival, 2012
Sarasota Film Festival, 2012
Southside Film Festival, PA, 2012
San Francisco Film Festival, 2012
Newport Beach Film Festival, 2012
Catalina Film Festival, 2012
World Festival of Animated Film – Animafest Zagreb 2012
Pictoplasma, Berlin, 2012
Kyiv International Short Film Festival, Ukraine, 2012
Rooftop Films, NYC - May 25th and June 15th
Provincetown International Film Festival 2012
Wiesbaden International Weekend of Animation, Germany, 2012
Short Shorts Film Festival, Japan, 2012
CFC Worldwide Short Film Festival, Toronto, 2012
Hiroshima International Animation Festival, 2012
Royal Television Society Awards, UK, 2012
Seoul International Cartoon and Animation Festival, 2012
Leiden International Short Film Experience, 2012
Sequence Short Film Festival, France, 2012
5.International Animated Film Festival, Poland, 2012
Edinburgh International Film Festival, 2012
Animation Block Party, NYC, 2012
International Competition at Fantoche, Switzerland, 2012
Sidewalk Film Festival, Alabama, 2012
Free Range Film Festival, Minnesota, 2012
International Competition at Fantoche, Switzerland, 2012
Milwaukee Film Festival, 2012
Kloosterkino, Netherlands, 2012
Les Perceides – 4E - Festival International de Cinema et D’art de Perce
Concorto Film Festival, Italy, 2012
Free Range Film Festival, Minnesota, 2012
Milano International Film Festival, 2012
Animacursed Festival, Rio De Janeiro, 2012
Calgary International Film Festival, 2012
3D Wire Festival, Spain, 2012
XXII Message to Man International Film Festival, Russia, 2012
Sedicicorto Film Festival, Italy, 2012
The Grand Cinema, Tacoma, 2012
Fantoche International Film Festival, Sweden, 2012
Giraf Animation Festival, Canada, 2012
31st Uppsala International Short Film Festival, Sweden, 2012
St. John's International Women's Film Festival, Canada, 2012
Cucalorus Film Festival, North Carolina, 2012
Corona Cork Film Festival, Ireland, 2012
Underwire Film Festival, UK, 2012
AFI Film Festival, Los Angeles, 2012

Awards

Passion Pictures Prize, 2011
Shortlisted, Ridley Scott Associates Residency, 2011
Nominated, Conran Award, 2011
Best Graduation Film, Chicago Film Festival, 2011
International Jury's Special Prize, Anilogue International Animation Festival 2011
Canal + Award, Clermont Ferrand Film Festival, France 2012
Best European Student Film, Holland Animation Film Festival, 2012
Golden Gate Award for Best Animated Short film, San Francisco International Film Festival, 2012
Royal Television Society Award, Postgraduate Animation, Finalist, 2012
New Talent Award - Fantoche International Film Festival, Sweden, 2012
Best Short, Philadelphia Film Festival, 2012
Special Jury Award for Animation at AFI Film Festival, 2012
Best Director, Underwire Film Festival, UK, 2012

Archived in the British Film Institue, 2011

Cast: Julia Pott

Tags: belly, animation, adventure, royal college of art, julia pott, joseph tate, 2d, childhood, coming of age, summer, elephant, nostalgia, short film, sundance and sxsw


          YA-NE-SEN a Go Go        

me(Shishi Yamazaki) dancing through Yanaka, Nezu, and Sendagi area in Taito-Ku, Tokyo.

Director & Animation : Shishi Yamazaki

Music:
« YOKOMO » by Yamasuki’s
Jean Kluger/Daniel Vangarde
©1971 Bleu Blanc Rouge

Special Thanks to Risa Nomura

2012
Screened at TOKYO ANIMA! 2012 SPRING at THE NATIONAL ART CENTER, TOKYO
Selected for Staff Picks on Vimeo.com
SXSW(Austin,Texas)
EXIT "High Tech vs Low Tech" (Paris, France)

2011
Animated Dreams (Tallin, Estonia)

Cast: ShiShi Yamazaki

Tags: shishi, yanesen, yanaka, nezu, sendagi, tokyo, japan, animation, yamasuki, yokomo and #GAKUSEICG18


          Life After Guantánamo: Yemeni Freed in Estonia Says, “Part of Me is Still at Guantánamo”        
Please support my work! I’m currently trying to raise $2500 (£2000) to support my writing and campaigning on Guantánamo and related issues over the next three months of the Trump administration.   For some months now, I’ve been meaning to post a handful of articles about former Guantánamo prisoners resettled in third countries, as part […]
          Estonian Reference Corpus        
Estonian Reference Corpus is a morphologically annotated corpus by the tagging tool Filosoft. The corpus is comprised from written texts. There two type of POS tag: abbreviated tag contains only basic information about part of speech longtag contains detailed information including other categories for specific part of speeches For more information and longtag summary, see the Estonia […]
          etTenTen corpus        
Estonian web corpus was crawled by SpiderLing in 2013. It was encoded in UTF-8, cleaned and deduplicated. You learn more about corpus and its tagset in documentation (available here ). The current version of the corpus has 330 million tokens. v. 1.0 the initial version obtained from the web in 2013
          For sale - Cane Seat - Auction        

Cane 6710, Australia
Posting to: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Russian Federation, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait ...
ebay.com.au

          Narva, Estonia        

6153 222a 400

Narva, Estonia

[Reposted from kanusia via tangowithlions]


          Holding fire        
Last month I travelled up the East Coast to the Scottish Sculture Workshop in Aberdeenshire, where my fellow editor Nick Hunt and I told the story of Dark Mountain around the fire and later gave a workshop on the 8 Principles of Uncivilisation in a field. We were part of the Breakdown Break Down camp where cultural workers, artists and activists were engaged in an 11-day exploration of 'deindustrialising our sense of self'. 

One of the evening talks was by the centre's director, Nuno Sacramento, on taking oil out of our relationships with the land. He was beginning to document different ways of interacting with the surrounding lush terrain with its estate-dominated larch woods and grouse moors and mammoth cattle. He called it the Lumsden Method (after the village where the centre is situated). Already on his list of methodologies was the work of some of the camp's speakers and teachers - from soil sampling and animal communication to land rights and bio-remediation. 

'Have you got a land dreaming?' I asked him. 'It's a way to directly perceive a place with others.' He hadn't. So I resolved to send him a method I used to use years ago. It was called Earth Dialogues.

For a long time now I have been  focused on the social aspects of downshifting, engaged in the methodologies of community activism. Now when I look at the land I see it in terms of geology mythology and history. I see roads and fossil fuel extraction, I see crops and the industrial food system; I see clouds and think of climate change. But I didn't always see like this.

'The land is always political,' said John Jordan at the Breakdown Break Down Workshop in London that preceded the Camp. Steve Wheeler, another of the DM ed team, and I were holding a discussion after our presentation called 'Finding Your Way in the Dark'. A lot of people were getting hot under the collar about the word 'rewilding'. It seemed that social justice and climate activism were being sidelined.

'Sure,' I replied. 'I go out foraging and meet a fence and that tells me the land is someone else's property and straightaway I bump into history and hierarchy. Rewilding is about taking down that fence - literally and metaphorically - and seeing the land and yourself in a different way. 

'You can see a mountain being exploited for its forests or minerals or tourism. But the mountain also exists in and of itself. It is Mountain in the way you are Human and that's an uncivilised relationship I think Dark Mountain explores.'

The Uncivilisation Principles caused a similar disquiet in the field at Lumsden. However the living systems of the planet are not 'Nature' that exists outside the metropolis for the benefit of tourists or 'privileged people' (as one participant called those of us who live in rural backwaters). Unless we have a relationship with the planet on its own terms, in its own language, through our own planetary beings, we cannot really speak on its behalf. We will only be talking in geo-political terms and pussyfooting around the needs of other human beings (our own 'tribes' or those we deem worthy, depending on our political persuasion). Or we will want to manage everything back to a pristine state of wilderness and so write ourselves (and 7 billion others) out of the story.

Either way this is a human-centric story, told by people looking through civilised eyes. Somewhere along the line you will hit a wall when you try to tell a new collective story that includes the planet and all its elements and beings. We hit that wall in those Breakdown discussion circles. Something needed to break us out of our mental straitjackets. That's when I remembered a small workbook Mark and I put together in 2007. It was in essence a manual of practices that explores what happens when you stop talking from your head and start using other parts of your intelligence to see and communicate with the Earth and each other.

The following 'recipe for action' is a skeleton key to the Earth Dialogue practice. In his talk Nuno poked fun at the nature writing of the 'lone, enraptured male' surveying the world from his mountaintop eyrie. What made me suggest our 'method' was because speaking practices are not individual endeavours. Having an expansive time on your own in nature is not hard if you have the resources and time; perceiving a landscape with others is work. 

The Dialogues were a kind of springboard for that work. 

Earth dialogues


When we travelled to America in the summer of 2000 we took the practice out of the room and started to dialogue under the cool shade of trees. We started to use the techniques we had found working with dreams and plants in order to locate ourselves in time and space. We would get a feel for the certain places we visited and find out what they were communicating to us. 

We had already begun to explore this with others in England. Four or five of us would meet in a place and then go and sit in different positions within it. Later we would regroup and relate out loud the impulses, directions, information and messages we had received. We’d make a tea of the leaves gathered there and put together a collective vision or dream map.

As the millennium turned we travelled to many different places in this spirit of enquiry: an old quarry floor, an ancient coppice, a burial mound surrounded by a circle of beech trees, a city scrubland, an ancestral mountain, a hot spring under the stars. Assisted by our communications with the Earth in our dreams - mountains, seas, animals, birds, flowers, insects and stones - we found we were able to behold a whole geography in 'reality'.

We called this way of seeing perceiving within the field. This meant beholding the planet as a participant, rather than from the separated control position of our minds. The group energetic readouts enabled everyone to speak freely from their hearts about the planet instead of being trapped into talking from any ecological or fix-it mindsets.

The Earth Dialogues allowed us to experience the Earth not as ‘landscape’ or ‘nature’ or ‘the environment’ but as a complex of dimensions, a vast meeting place of many kinds of being in which being human is only one strand. However we also saw that this strand has a vital meaning within this dimensional web that is linked with our native ability to perceive. 

Instead of looking inward to understand a plant medicine or dream, we found ourselves looking outwards, into the composite fabric of life. We were not just receiving information, we were also transmitting. 

Perception we realised was a two-way process.

conditions for an earth dialogue

Earth dialogues are essentially communications between the natural world outside your front door and your own physical beings. You go forth with a small group in a particular attention. You need to be able to include everything you experience and hold many kinds of awareness at once. Unlike the hermetic space of a room, the outside world is full of distractions and invisible interferences. Your head can quickly become full of words that block your view and interrupt your engagement. 

The essential act of an Earth Dialogue therefore is tuning into and physically connecting with the place you are visiting. Perceiving within the field is best understood in terms of transmission and reception. To receive you need to become conscious of your body's ability to perceive, using your senses to become aware of temperature, light, sound, pattern, the direction of the wind and clouds. To transmit you need to become aware of your inner forces and relate them to the outer world: connecting with the air, for example, by breathing in its scent of salt or pine, and breathing out the warmth of your being; connecting your feet with the land, as your toes grip the rock or bare earth; your movement within the water, as you glide with the currents of the river.

To perceive with the body requires adjusting to the tempo of the Earth and the tempo of your heart which go at the same pace - the same wingspeed as the bird in the sky, the same rhythm as the sea wave rolling to the shore, the same stillness of the hill with the sun rising behind it.

In daily life we walk around with the talking heads of our mindsets fully switched on. As a result the Earth is rarely seen, never felt, never lived on. A never-never land you may dimly remember seeing as a child and in your heart privately long for. The Earth Dialogues were all about return, not to childhood but to the place that is always here.

How to frame a dialogue that takes place 'outside' and includes the outside 

1 Tuning into the time and place When you (the group) have arrived at the place you wish to visit, establish the conditions for a dynamic dialogue between everyone taking part. 
Agree upon a time-frame and meeting place for your readouts. 
Fan out.
Find your position within the territory (you may not find this straightaway). A spot where you feel at home. A plant or tree can act as a good anchor.
Greet the land in your own way.
Sit in a state of attentive stillness. Feel your feet and take a few deep breaths.
Connect with your inner core and the beat of your heart. 
Open your consciousness and become aware of the elements of the place and time - the quality of light, the weather, the season, atmosphere of place, the mood of the day. 
Now take note of the various beings that inhabit this place - animals, rocks, trees, plants, other people. You do not need to rush. A period of silence and patience is required for the whole picture to be revealed.
Listen to the sounds, notice how everything is moving - creatures, birds, the wind in the trees, yourself. 
Take note of any subtle feelings and realisations that arise, what ideas and sensations, memories or shifts of perception that come as you sit there, listening, observing, feeling.
Become aware of the correspondence between the elements of this place and your self.
See how everything connects, how this hill is all hills, how this ocean is all oceans.
Remember what you have experienced. 

2 Energetic readouts Return to your chosen place of dialogue.
Relate your findings to each other, taking turns to speak. 
Relate what happened and also any feelings that came up, what was going on around you, your communications with other beings during the time.
Your fellow visitors can then ask questions about your experience.
Listening to others is as key to this process as speaking, as you are forming a composite picture. One person might just report a shift of awareness, another relate a whole story. Note the correspondences between your accounts. Each person holds a part of the map.
When everyone is finished make an agreement to write or draw some kind of creative record and send it to everyone else.
Go out and celebrate together. 

* * *
At Lumsden one of the key post-
meeting places was the sauna built out of old whisky barrels (whisky production is a key local industry, due to the area's unusually pure water). No matter what happened during the day everyone could pile into the dark, scented warmth, or if they were lucky have a Finnish/Estonian 'energy whisk' with leaves of rowan and maple and sometimes nettles (ouch!). Sharing the physical elements of fire, water or earth takes you right into the heart of an Earth Dialogue. The mind is pushed out and you can get close with your fellows.

All Dark Mountain stories are told round a real or metaphorical fire with people listening. All Earth Dialogues happen outdoors with people immersing themselves in the fabric of the planet and then speaking. Or sometimes the other way round.

Here is how it started years ago in New South Wales at the end of our travelling and the beginning of the practice years, where we had rented a bungalow fringed with frangipani trees by the ocean, and met up with Sarah who we had crossed paths with in Colombia.

Tea tree lake

byron bay, australia 1998


We had been focusing on the dreaming practice all morning with Sarah. 'Let’s go to the tea tree lake,' she said. 'There’s something amazing that happens there.' So we walked down to a warm still pool behind the beach, where the roots of the tea tree go deep into the water and stain it red brown. We swam out to the middle. 

 â€˜Now,’ said Sarah, ‘you have to dive down as deep as possible, then just let yourself float up. Keep your eyes open and look up. Whatever you do, remember the light!’

We all dived down together. I opened my eyes. Everywhere was dark-brown. Then I looked up and saw a dim golden colour above my head. As I floated up from the dive it got stronger and stronger, until it burst into a shower of diamonds as I surfaced with my two companions and burst into laughter. We were all laughing and splashing water around us. 

Amazing we all agreed. And immediately dived down again.

Nothing really ‘happened’ at the lake. It was an intense experience for a few moments. But in those moments, naked, diving into the brown and golden water, bursting through the surface of the glittering sunlight, we had become different beings. It was as if our modern European histories no longer existed, our city biographies. We were suddenly just three human beings in the middle of their lives, enjoying the Earth together, starting again at a certain point in time. Mark and I were beginning our dreaming practice in this ‘rainbow’ sea town where people from all parts of the world, like Sarah, were gathering to live in a more heart-based way.

The tea tree lake visit was the energetic basis for the practiice we would call the Earth Dialogues, though we didn’t know it at the time. It had the three key components: trees, water and human beings who had been speaking their dreams out loud together. The combination of these three energies provides a matrix for a subtle transformation. The oil of the tea tree has become the world’s most effective natural germicide. It can see off opportunist white fungal growth, in the same way speaking with heart deals with the monologue of the mind.

Swimming in wild water, as we would find found in the years that followed, instantly decrystallises rigid thinking; pettiness and anxiety dissolve in the flow of a river or in the vastness and fluidity of the sea. The dreaming practice, inspired by a lecture on Aboriginal dreamtime, had connected us with our archaic roots - the roots of common humanity - so that we could move forwards. We were feeling our bare feet on the red earth, walking along a track we had not taken before. Except perhaps in a dream. 

Here at the end of the twentieth century in these soft brown waters, infused by the great medicinal tree of Australia, a mind-dominated parasite culture we had held inside ourselves for aeons, was starting to be replaced by another way of life entirely.

We were remembering the Earth for our future.

(from Speaking with the Fire 2007) 


Making fire

When I looked back at this time among the medicine trees, I wrote that Australia was an ancestral place of fire where our old civilised lives could be burned away and we could begin again. It was also the place where we decided it was time to come back to England.

I did not realise then that fire is not just about burning away dross. Nor did I realise how many years it would take me to return to my homeland and find it as rich as the world I had travelled across for almost a decade. But I have found its treasures still lying in the deep places and the seeds of the future buried in the hearts of people. You just have to peel away the layers of history and look at the hills and the windy roads with different eyes. And sometimes with your fellows sitting around a fire.

Here I am with Nick as we introduce ourselves before a great metal fire-dish forged in the workshops behind us, among the foothills of the Grampian Mountains. I am talking about the mythical Saxon smith Wayland whose name-place was the site for one of the first Earth Dialogues Mark and I held in 1999. I am talking about forging the future, and how going into the material and finding its fiery spirit is the only way for humans to really understand their place on the planet which has sheltered us for so long. 

What does this have to do with a swan feather and writing? The answer will be in the next Dark Mountain journal, our first themed issue on technology and tools and now in full swing production. It will be published on 15th October, we will be launching it with readings, songs, performance and conversation at Iklectik Art Lab, Old Paradise Yard, London. Hope to see you there!

Jumping the midsummer fire, Suffolk (Josiah Meldrum); mountain, Vilcabamba, Ecuador (Mark Watson); sauna, Scottish Sculpture Workshop, Aberdeenshire (SSW);  speaking round the fire (SSW)


           The influence of habitat and landscape on small mammals in Estonian coastal wetlands         
Scott, Dawn, Joyce, Christopher and Burnside, Niall (2008) The influence of habitat and landscape on small mammals in Estonian coastal wetlands Estonian Journal of Ecology, 57 (4). pp. 279-295. ISSN 1736-602X
           The relationship between microtopography and vegetation in Estonian coastal wetlands: implications for climate change         
Burnside, Niall, Joyce, Christopher, Berg, Maureen and Puurman, E. (2008) The relationship between microtopography and vegetation in Estonian coastal wetlands: implications for climate change Publicationes Instituti Geographici Universitatis Tartuensis, 106. pp. 19-23. ISSN 1406-3069
           Use of vegetation classification and plant indicators to assess grazing abandonment in Estonian coastal wetlands         
Burnside, Niall, Joyce, Christopher, Puurmann, Elle and Scott, Dawn (2007) Use of vegetation classification and plant indicators to assess grazing abandonment in Estonian coastal wetlands Journal of Vegetation Science, 18 (5). pp. 645-654. ISSN 1100-9233
          Pengalaman Mengajukan Visa Schengen (Belanda) di VFS Global Surabaya (Mei 2017)        
Europe, wait me! (Sumber : Disini)

Setelah kemarin sempat menulis Cara Mengajukan Visa China di Surabaya, pada kesempatan ini aku akan berbagi pengalamanku kembali mengurus Visa Schengen di VFS Global Belanda Surabaya. Sebelum mengajukan Visa Schengen ini, aku sering searching informasi di google dan mendapati postingan blogger yang menceritakan pengalamannya apply visa itu sangat-sangat membantu. Jadi lewat postingan ini aku ingin balas budi, supaya bisa membantu teman-teman lainnya yang mau mengajukan Visa Schengen juga.

Mendapatkan Visa Schengen mungkin adalah salah satu hal yang paling membahagiakan untukku. Karena inilah pertama kali aku akan ke Eropa dan bisa backpackeran di luar Asia. Meskipun sampai detik ini belum beli tiket (karena hampir semua harga tiket melambung tinggi dikarenakan waktu keberangkatanku mendekati waktu lebaran), belum booking bus, pesawat, selama disana, ditambah sedikit masalah terjadi sewaktu aku akan refund tiketku Kuala Lumpur - Moscow - Kuala Lumpur via Traveloka, tapi aku memandang semuanya dengan optimis.

Aku mengajukan Visa Schengen via VFS Global Surabaya (perwakilan Belanda, Belgia dan Luksemburg) yang beralamat di Lantai 15 R.1506 Garaha Pena Surabaya. Lokasi Graha Pena sendiri berada di Jalan Ahmad Yani No 88, cukup dekat dari Terminal Bungurasih (naik gojek pakai Gopay cuma Rp 6000). Alasan klasik mengajukan di VFS Global Belanda Surabaya, selain karena aku memang mau mengunjungi Belanda, juga karena aku malas ke Jakarta. Karena domisiliku di Surabaya Pusat, aku cukup naik motor saja ke Gedung Graha Pena (daripada naik kereta atau pesawat ke Jakarta kan, mehooong hehehe).

Jadi langkah pertama yang harus teman lakukan untuk mencari update/informasi terbaru mengenai ketentuan visa, persyaratan lengkap visa, biaya pembuatan visa, hari kerja, hari libur, jam penyerahan aplikasi/pengambilan paspor, maka teman harus menuju ke situs resmi VFS Global Surabaya disini.


Jika teman sudah masuk ke website resmi VFS Global, maka tampilan diatas adalah tampilan yang akan muncul. Terdapat tiga langkah sederhana untuk pengajuan visa ke Belanda yakni 1) Mengetahui Tipe Visa Anda 2) Cara Mengajukan Aplikasi Visa dan 3) Setelah Pengajuan Aplikasi Visa.

1) Mengetahui Tipe Visa Anda
  • Jika Anda ingin mengunjungi Belanda untuk waktu yang singkat, Anda harus memperoleh visa untuk masuk jika Anda datang dari negara dengan persyaratan visa untuk datang ke Belanda.
  • Visa biasanya memberi Anda hak untuk tinggal di seluruh wilayah Schengen. Negara-negara Schengen adalah: Austria, Belgia, Republik Ceko, Denmark, Estonia, Finlandia, Perancis, Jerman, Yunani, Hungaria, Islandia, Italia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luksemburg, Malta, Belanda, Norwegia, Polandia, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanyol, Swedia dan Swiss. Visa dapat memberikan Anda hak untuk menghabiskan maksimal 90 hari per 6 bulan di wilayah Schengen.
  • Semua aplikasi visa harus ditandatangani oleh pemohon yang bersangkutan.
  • Semua bagan dalam formulir aplikasi harus diisi dengan benar, formulir yang tidak lengkap dapat membuat proses berjalan lebih lambat bahkan penolakan.
  • Kedutaan berhak untuk meminta dokumen serta informasi tambahan saat memproses aplikasi.
  • Warga negara Non-Indonesia harus tinggal secara legal di Indonesia, baik atas dasar visa untuk Indonesia atau ijin kerja / tinggal yang sah di Indonesia.
  • Paspor harus berlaku minimal 3 bulan setelah berakhirnya visa.
  • Huruf berwarna biru adalah ketentuan umum yang ada di website VFS Global Surabaya. Jadi tipe visa ke Belanda itu ada beberapa seperti:
  • Visa Turis (yang akan saya jabarkan di postingan ini), 
  • Visa Undangan (keluarga/teman)
  • Visa Pelaut
  • Visa Bisnis
  • Transit Bandara
  • Kerabat Uni Eropa
  • Visa Studi Jangka Pendek
  • serta Visa Kunjungan Resmi
2) Cara Mengajukan Aplikasi Visa

Langkah 1

Aplikasi-aplikasi visa untuk negara Belanda, Belgia dan Luxembourg diterima di Pusat Aplikasi Visa negeri Belanda. Mohon menjadwalkan perjanjian kepada pusat aplikasi visa sebelum melakukan penyerahan.

Buat janji temu untuk menyerahkan dokumen aplikasi di Pusat Aplikasi Visa (Wajib). Anda Wajib membuat janji temu terlebih dahulu sebelum melakukan aplikasi . Pelayanan ini tidak dikenakan biaya akan tetapi tergantung dari ketersediaan tempat. Untuk membuat perjanjian, silahkan klik di sini

Untuk informasi lebih lengkap mengenai pembuatan Janji Temu, mohon klik di sini.

Langkah 2

Sebelum aplikasi mohon memastikan anda sudah jelas sekali ‘maksud kunjungan’ anda – ingatlah kami ada untuk membantu dan menolong anda melalui proses aplikasi visa secara keseluruhan tetapi tidak diizinkan untuk memberi advis atau memandu anda mengenai pemilihan kategori visa. Karena pekerjaan utama kami adalah bersifat administratif kami tidak mempunyai hak apa pun apakah anda akan diberi visa dan berapa lama diperlukan untuk memproses aplikasi anda karena hal itu secara keseluruhan merupakan prerogatif Kedutaan atau Konsulat.

Langkah 3

Mohon ke link “Jenis-Jenis Visa” untuk mengerti rincian berbagai macam visa.

Langkah 4

Mohon pastikan anda telah membaca pemberitahuan-pemberitahuan peraturan keamanan sebelum anda mengunjungi Pusat Aplikasi Visa. Mohon dicatat: direkomendasikan untuk menyerahkan aplikasi jauh sebelum tanggal kepergian yang diperkirakan. Semua pemohon visa direkomendasikan untuk mengkonfirmasi rencana perjalanan mereka hanya setelah memperoleh visa.
Diperlukan secara rata-rata 15 hari kalender untuk memutuskan permohonan aplikasi-aplikasi visa. Mungkin akan ada penangguhan sesuai dengan musim dan jenis visa.
Mohon dicatat: Setelah aplikasi untuk Visa, pemohon tidak dapat meminjam paspor mereka dari Kedutaan.
Juga mohon merencanakan kepergian lain anda HANYA setelah menerima kembali paspor anda dari Kedutaan.
Huruf berwarna biru adalah ketentuan umum cara mengajukan aplikasi visa yang ada di website VFS Global Surabaya, sedangkan huruf hitam adalah apa yang saya lakukan dan siapkan berdasarkan syarat tersebut. Sekarang mari kita rincikan langkah demi langkah sesuai dengan yang saya lakukan pada Mei 2017 lalu.

A. Sebelum melakukan Langkah 1, membuat janji temu dengan VFS Global Belanda Surabaya, maka pemohon harus menyiapkan persyaratan-persyaratan Visa Schengen terlebih dahulu. Syarat lengkapnya bisa dilihat disini. Daftar syarat tersebut berbentuk PDF, dan daftar itu pula yang akan digunakan oleh petugas VFS untuk mengecek kelengkapan pemohon. Di bawah ini adalah dokumen-dokumen yang kupersiapkan sebelum membuat janji temu:

PERSYARATAN VISA SCHENGEN VIA BELANDA (Mei 2017):

1. Formulir Pengajuan Visa Schengen yang sudah diisi lengkap dan ditandatangani. Formulir aplikasi Schengen bisa didownload disini.


2. Paspor asli dengan masa berlaku minimal 3 bulan, tapi untuk jaga-jaga sebaiknya masa berlaku paspor minimal 6 bulan. Hal itu dikarenakan penerbangan ke Eropa pasti akan transit (entah di Kuala Lumpur, Singapura, Doha, Abu Dhabi, Istanbul, dll), sehingga untuk menghindari penolakan penerbangan. Kemudian paspor anda harus setidaknya mempunyai 2 halaman kosong, 1 halaman untuk stiker visa, 1 halaman untuk cap ketibaan/kepergian.


Aturan untuk paspor menurut Kedutaan Belanda adalah sebagai berikut:

> Paspor atau dokumen travel anda harus valid setidaknya 3 bulan sejak tanggal anda meninggalkan Area Schengen.
> Paspor atau dokumen travel anda setidaknya harus mempunyai 2 halaman kosong.
> Paspor atau dokumen travel anda tidak boleh dikeluarkan lebih dari 10 tahun yang lalu.

Paspor asli tersebut harus dilengkapi dengan:

> Fotocopi halaman detail informasi pribadi (halaman depan paspor)
> Fotocopi Visa-visa sebelumnya yang pernah dipunyai dari semua cap masuk/cap keluar (saya fotocopi semua visa dan cap masuk di semua halaman paspor saya)
> Fotocopy Halaman detail informasi pribadi paspor yang pernah dimiliki sebelumnya beserta visa-visanya

3. Jika anda mengajukan Visa Schengen untuk anak anda yang akan traveling sendiri atau hanya ditemani dengan 1 orangtua, mohon untuk menambahkan dokumen berikut ini (saya langsung copi dari Bahasa Inggrisnya supaya tidak membuat perbedaan pemahaman.Jika anda akan traveling sendiri/traveling dengan teman/traveling dengan anak dan suami/istri anda, maka tahap ini dapat dilewati.
An extract of the minor’s birth certificate. 
An identity document bearing the parents’ signature (1document for each parent).

A declaration of consent from both parents, stating that the minor can travel.
If relevant: a court judgement stating which parent has been allocated parental responsibility for the minor. 
If relevant: a declaration from the minor’s school consenting to his/her absence.


4. Bukti Tempat Tinggal Resmi
Evidence of legal residence in the country you are applying from, e.g. a passport, visa or residence permit and a copy. Residence permit should be valid for at least 3 months after departure from Schengen.
Work permit (if applicable).

Aku cukup bingung pada tahap ini, bagi WNI maksudnya KTP , KK dan Akta Lahir. Jadi aku memberikan fotocopi ketiganya dan translate Bahasa Inggrisnya yang kubuat sendiri (tidak perlu penerjemah tersumpah - Mei 2017). Contoh Translate KTP, KK dan Akta Lahir bisa didownload di bawah ini:


Terjemahan KTP dan KK

Terjemahan Akta Lahir

5. Foto 3,5 x 4,5 cm yang memenuhi persyaratan foto Kedutaan Belanda. Foto ini tidak boleh diambil lebih dari 6 bulan yang lalu dan harus jelas. Ketentuan foto lebih lanjut silahkan dilihat disini. Background foto putih. Saran saya, fotolah di studio foto yang mempunyai nama ternama. Dijamin foto tidak akan salah. Bilang saja untuk pengajuan Visa Schengen.



5. BUKTI PERJALANAN


Itinerary Travel (Reservasi perjalanan menuju dan meninggalkan Area Schengen atas nama anda, bukan tiket). Maksudnya adalah reservasi tiket pesawat menuju dan meninggalkan area Schengen. Reservasi tiket pesawat gratis bisa dilakukan sendiri via website Turkish Airline atau KLM. Reservasi ini sebaiknya jangan dibayar dahulu, tetapi menunggu keputusan visa keluar atau tidak. Hal yang menjadi perhatian, karena saya apply melalui Kedutaan Besar Belanda, maka supaya lebih meyakinkan saya buat reservasi tiket pesawat saya Jakarta - Amsterdam - Jakarta menggunakan Turkish Airline. Keuntungan membuat reservasi di Turkish Airline adalah, reservasi tersebut bisa bertahan selama seminggu. Jadi cukuplah waktunya sampai berkas kita diterima oleh Pejabat di Kedutaan Belanda. Tips lainnya, sebaiknya reservasi tersebut penerbangannya berasal dari Indonesia, jangan Malaysia atau Singapura.


Contoh tiket hasil reservasi di website Turkish Airline yang kubawa ke VFS Global.

>Itinerary/rencana perjalanan. Karena mengajukan visa di Kedutaan Belanda, maka Belanda haruslah negara yang pertama kali anda kunjungi atau paling lama anda kunjungi. Contoh itinerary yang kumasukkan ke dalam aplikasiku adalah sebagai berikut:



> Dokumen-dokumen yang membuktikan bahwa kunjungan anda adalah untuk tujuan turisme. Selain reservasi tiket pesawat, itinerary perjalanan, reservasi hotel, asuransi kesehatan, saya juga menyertakan surat izin dari atasan saya yang menyatakan bahwa saya bepergian untuk traveling ke Eropa dari tanggal 23 Juni sd 4 Juli dan akan kembali bekerja setelah pulang dari Eropa.


Contoh surat keterangan kerja dan surat izin dari atasan yang kubawa ke VFS Global.

> Reservasi penginapan/hotel selama durasi kunjungan. Ini sangat mudah, kunjungi saja booking.com dan booking saja hotel yang bisa dibatalkan gratis (free cancellation). Hal yang harus diperhatikan, bookingan tersebut jangan terburu-buru dibatalkan setelah aplikasi diserahkan ke VFS. Batalkan setelah keputusan visa anda keluar.

> Surat Pernyataan dari Bank tentang Transaksi Rekening 3 bulan terakhir (dalam Bahasa Inggris)

Karena status saya pegawai pemerintahan, maka saya menggunakan Rekening Bank Jatim. Sewaktu saya meminta pernyataan transaksi 3 bulan terakhir, mereka hanya memberikan surat pernyataan yang menyatakan bahwa rekening saya aktif, tidak ada kata-kata jumlah uang di debet terakhir. Akhirnya saya memberikan surat pernyataan tersebut ditambahkan fotocopi buku tabungan 3 bulan terakhir. Waktu itu itinerary saya 12 hari, dan jumlah uang di rekening sekitar Rp 63 juta.

> Jika anda pekerja, surat pernyataan dari atasan anda yang menyatakan waktu absen anda. 

Ini mudah, anda hanya perlu meminta surat pernyataan bekerja dari kantor anda, ditandatangan oleh Manajer/HRD/Sekretaris Dinas (untuk yang bekerja di Kantor Pemerintahan). Jangan lupa diberi cap. Contoh punya saya seperti ini:

> Dokumen-dokumen yang membuktikan bahwa anda akan kembali ke negara anda setelah perjalanan selesai.


Contohnya (dari website VFS):

• A recent declaration from your employer, an employment contract or other information proving you are employed in your country of origin. 
• A document proving you are in education or training in your country of origin. 
• A document proving your children attend school in your country of origin. 
• A document proving you have a home or other immovable property in your country of origin. 
• A document proving you are a caregiver in your country of origin
.
Kalau saya, ini saya satu paketkan dengan surat pernyataan dari kantor seperti format diatas. Karena di surat pernyataan kantor diatas sudah saya sebutkan bahwa saya adalah pegawai kantor saya dan akan kembali ke Indonesia setelah menyelesaikan perjalanan saya.


6. BUKTI ASURANSI KESEHATAN
Bukti asuransi kesehatan ini mencakup dokumen resmi dari penjamin asuransi anda yang membuktikan bahwa:
a. Ketentuan tentang asuransi kesehatan tertulis atas nama anda.
b. Asuransi ada valid digunakan di Area Schengen selama durasi kunjungan anda.
c. Tanggungan uang kesehatan yang bisa diklaim setidaknya 30.000 euro, termasuk perawatan rumah sakit, penanganan keadaan darurat dan termasuk pemulangan (termasuk kematian).

Untuk asuransi kesehatan, kemarin aku memakai asuransi AXA Gold dengan tanggungan maksimal Rp 3.000.000.000. Kebetulan dapat pas promo cuma Rp 130.000 untuk setahun. Satu tips untuk asuransi, jika membeli online dan mendapatkan konfirmasi dan asuransinya via email, yang diprint dan dibawa ke VFS Global jangan hanya halaman iktisar polis dan konfirmasi polis saja ya, tapi termasuk rincian tabel biaya santunan dan yang halaman yang menyatakan jumlah maksimal tanggungan.

7. VISA
Visa, Izin tinggal atau paspor yang memberi anda izin masuk ke tujuan akhir anda setelah mengunjungi Area Schengen.

Karena tujuan akhirku adalah negara tercinta, Indonesia, maka ya cuma butuh paspor itu sendiri. 

8. PEMBAYARAN
Pembayaran biaya visa pada saat mengajukan aplikasi.

Sewaktu aku mengajukan Mei 2017 kemarin, biayanya sebesar Rp 1.200.000, meliputi 60 euro untuk biaya visa itu sendiri dan sisanya untuk biaya pemrosesan VFS. Jika menambah pemberitahuan sms, menambah Rp 20.000.

B. Setelah mempersiapkan persyaratan seperti diatas dan membuat janji temu disini, saya datang pada waktu perjanjian yang telah ditentukan (17 Mei 2017) dengan membawa syarat-syarat ke VFS Global Belanda Surabaya. VFS Global Belanda Surabaya di Lantai 15 R.1506 Garaha Pena Surabaya. Lokasi Graha Pena sendiri berada di Jalan Ahmad Yani No 88. Untuk parkir motor berada di sebelah barat KFC.

C. Begitu masuk Gedung Graha Pena, saya langsung naik ke Lantai 15 dan menuju kantor VFS Global. Saat masuk ke dalam, seorang satpam wanita yang sangat ramah langsung menyapa saya dan menanyakan lembar konfirmasi janji temu saya. Setelahnya dilakukan pemeriksaan badan singkat dan isi tas. Dari sini, HP harus dinonaktifkan dan dilarang memotret di dalam.

D. Masuk ke dalam ruangan VFS, di dalam sudah menunggu beberapa orang yang akan mengajukan Visa Schengen juga. Berdebar rasanya hati ini, sekaligus senang. Waah, akhirnya ane bisa juga mengajukan visa ini setelah sekian lama hanya bermimpi hehe. Akhirnya satpam yang lain, yang tidak kalah ramah juga, memanggil saya kemudian meminta lembar konfirmasi janji temu saya untuk digantikan dengan nomor urut dan secarik kertas.

E. Setelah menunggu sejenak, akhirnya nama saya dipanggil oleh Mbak VFS. Saya langsung menyerahkan berkas-berkas persyaratan yang sudah saya siapkan. Mbak VFS dengan sigap memeriksa berkas saya dengan sangat ramah.

Mbak VFS : "Ini asuransinya asli ya?"

Saya : " Iya asli mbak. Saya beli online dan dapat soft copinya."

Mbak VFS : " Pergi sendiri atau sama teman?"

Saya : "Sama teman mbak, ini sebelah saya." (dan akhirnya teman saya ini membatalkan perjalanan sehingga saya terpaksa solo traveling huhu)

Sembari bertanya, Mbak VFS terus menegtik-ngetik informasi di PCnya. Dan ane lega setengah mati saat dia mencetak lembar konfirmasi permohonan. Berarti lengkap sudah syarat ane, nggak perlu bolak-balik untuk melengkapi syarat. Setelah membayar Rp 1.220.000, saya menunggu kembali di bangku untuk menunggu pengumpulan data biometrik.

F. Menunggu beberapa saat. akhirnya saya dipanggil oleh seorang Bapak untuk pengumpulan data biometrik (foto dan cap jari). Saat masuk ke ruangannya tiba-tiba tegang juga ya hehehe, takutnya ane diwawancara macam-macam dan kalau jawabnya gugup maka aplikasi bisa ditolak. Tapi ternyata disini ane cuma ditanya tanggal lahir aja, kemudian foto dan cap jari. Selesai. Gitu doank.

G. Tahap F merupakan tahapan terakhir dalam pengajuan Visa Schengen di VFS Global Surabaya. Setelah ini tinggal tahap penantian, apakah Visa Schengenku diterima atau ditolak? Hanya Kedutaan Belanda yang tahu... Hehehehe...Waktu pemrosesan sekitar 2 minggu, cukup lama karena paspor dan aplikasi kita akan dikirimkan ke Kuala Lumpur dahulu.

UPDATE:
18 Mei 2017
Email dari VFS Global


31 Mei 2017
Email dari VFS Global


2 Juni 2017

Yeaaaaahhhh... Visa Schengeku granted. Thank you GOD.....! Dikasih 3 bulan kurang.... rencana perjalanan yang kutulis di aplikasi 24 Juni 2017 sd 4 Juli 2017, diberi visa dari 22 Juni 2017 sd 6 Agustus 2017. Lumayanlah!

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          Charlene Rennit - Playboy Estônia - Dezembro de 2008        

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Edição: Novembro de 2008
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          Karina Nesterova - Playboy Estonia - Novembro de 2008        

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          Música coral - Ya llegó la primavera - 18/04/13        

Saludamos la primavera con piezas de estilos dispares: desde Le Printemps de Zygmunt Stojowsky sobre versos del rapsoda romano Horacio, pasando por Revoici le printems de Paul Ladmirault y Salut le printemps de Debussy hasta la música de Carl Orff y Paul Hindemith sobre textos de Bertol Brecht. El punto medio lo pone Mendelssohn con una selección de su op. 59: lieder para cantar al aire libre. Intervienen: Coro y Orquesta filarmónicos de la ópera de Podlaise, el Ensemble vocal Melisme, el Coro Lieder Camera, el Coro Carl Orff, el Coro Monteverdi de Hamburgo, el Coro de la Radio de Berlín y el Coro de la Radio de Estonia.


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          Música coral - Estonia: Pärt, Kreek, Uusberg, Mägi - 07/02/13        

Escuchamos tres hermosos arreglos para coro de Arvo Pärt sobre tres de sus composiciones. Además, parte de un concierto que nos llega desde Tallin con música de compositores estonios a cargo del Coro de niños y hombres de la Ópera Nacional de Estonia.


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          Música coral - Estonia - 17/01/13        

KUNILEID: Mu isamaa on minu arm (2'49"). TUBIN: Igatsus (1'28"). SAAR: Karjase laul (1'17"), TORMIS: Paisajes otoñales (8'50"). Coro de la Radio de Estonia. Dir.: T. Kapten. TORMIS: Invierno en Vepsia (4'44"). Coro Nacional masculino de Estonia. PÄRT: I am the true vine (10'15"). Polyphony. Dir.: S. Layton.


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          Chile goleó sin problemas a Estonia        
Matías Fernández abrió la cuenta con un golazo

La Selección Chilena derrotó por un claro 4 - 0 a su similar de Estonia, en partido preparatorio para la Copa América. Los dirigidos por Claudio Borghi fueron ampliamente superiores a su rival, pudiendo haber marcado más goles. La "Roja" viaja el próximo miércoles a Asunción para enfrentarse al seleccionado Guaraní.

Desde antes del pitazo inicial se sabía que el oponente de hoy no tenía grandes pergaminos, pero ante un rival claramente inferior, es una obligación marcar claramente las diferencias, y Chile lo hizo hoy. Sánchez e Isla se entendieron a la perfección por la banda derecha, Matías Fernández se mostró muy participativo en el juego del mediocampo ante una Estonia muy débil y tímida.

A los 21' Fernández haría estéril la volada del meta visitante con un remate de unos 30 metros, un auténtico golazo para el 1 - 0. Chile siguió dominando y teniendo ocasiones de gol, pero fue a los 42' cuando Waldo Ponce aprovechó un mal despeje del portero rival para con un nuevo remate lejano marcar el 2 - 0. Parecía que el primer lapso finalizaba así, pero Alexis Sánchez se fabricó un penal poco después, que Humberto Suazo transformaría en el 3 - 0 a los 45'.

Comenzaba el segundo lapso y la "Roja" seguía presionando a su rival. El "Niño Maravilla" marcaría el definitivo 4 - 0 a los 50', tras una buena jugada colectiva. Borghi decidió darle descanso a sus principales figuras, realizando 6 cambios en muy pocos minutos. No obstante, los nacionales siguieron creándose varias jugadas de peligro, dejando en claro que Estonia nunca fue un rival de peso, pasando sin pena ni gloria por los pastos del Monumental.

Ahora la escuadra nacional viaja a Paraguay para enfrentarse al conjunto local, en lo que se espera sea un apretón más fuerte que el de hoy. Pocas conclusiones se pueden sacar ante un rival tan discreto como Estonia, pero queda claro que desde el mediocampo en adelante Chile tiene con que hacer daño al contrario y aspirar a una buena participación en Copa América.

*Mejor jugador del partido: Alexis Sánchez.

* Datos:
  • Humberto Suazo con 19 goles y Alexis Sánchez con 13 tantos, ya se ubican entre los 10 máximos goleadores históricos de la Selección Chilena.
  • Con Borghi en el banco, Chile tiene 2 victorias y 1 empate.
  • Estadio Monumental, 20.000 espectadores aprox.
Goles del Partido:



Cruyff.

          Alemania se impuso a Austria en el clásico.        

Mario Gomez le dio el triunfo a Alemania sobre Austria, en Viena, por las clasificatorias a la Eurocopa 2012. La visita se puso en ventaja poco antes de terminar el primer tiempo, a través de su delantero Gomez. Austria pudo conseguir el empate en el minuto 50, tras autogol de Arne Friedrich. Cuando el empate parecía definitivo, Gomez apareció nuevamente, y en el minuto 90, le dio la victoria a los dirigidos por Joachim Löw. Con este resultado, Alemania sigue imparable en su grupo y es líder con 18 puntos. Austria por su parte está cada vez más lejos de una posible clasificación, ya que queda cuarta con 7 unidades. 



Grupo A:

Alemania  18 pts.
Bélgica     11 pts.
Turquía     10 pts.
Austria      7 pts.
Azerbaiyán  3 pts.
Kazajstán    3 pts. 

*Datos:
  • Alemania ha ganado los 4 partidos por clasificatorias a la Eurocopa, en los que anotó un autogol, por 2 a 1. 
  • Mario Gomez lleva 46 goles con la selección de su país. 


Otros resultados de hoy:


Rossi anotó para Italia



Kazajstán 2 - Azerbaiyán 1
Islas Feroe 0 - Eslovenia 2

Rumanía 3 - Bosnia y Herzegovina 0
Croacia 2 - Georgia 1
San Marino 0 - Finlandia 1
Moldavia 1 - Suecia 4
Bélgica 1 - Turquía 1
Italia 3 - Estonia 0 (*líder del grupo C con 16 pts)







Don Elías. 
          Vice President Pence Reassures Allies In Eastern Europe        
Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit AUDIE CORNISH, HOST: If Russian President Vladimir Putin thought he'd be in a better place with the U.S. after interfering in the election last year, he's not. And there was more evidence of that today. President Trump is supposed to sign tough new sanctions on Russia into law any day now, and American troops continue deploying to Eastern Europe for military exercises. Vice President Mike Pence is in Eastern Europe now on a tour designed to assure American allies that the U.S. has their backs if Russia tries anything. NPR's Tamara Keith covers the White House. She joins us now to talk more about this. Welcome to the studio. TAMARA KEITH, BYLINE: Thank you. CORNISH: So talk about where Mike Pence has traveled to. And what specifically has he been saying to world leaders there? KEITH: So he has been to Estonia and Georgia, and now he's in Montenegro. These are all countries formerly in the Soviet sphere and also countries that are all looking over
          etnies Eastern European Vacation        

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          L'uomo nuovo        
Marco Cedolin

Quando intorno alla metà del secolo scorso l'elite mondialista che di fatto gestisce le sorti del pianeta e dei suoi abitanti iniziò a strutturare le basi per la costruzione di un nuovo ordine mondiale (o comunque lo si voglia chiamare di una nuova società che potesse risultare funzionale ai propri interessi) comprese immediatamente come la globalizzazione fosse la strada migliore da percorrere per ottenere il risultato voluto. Le basi di un progetto di questo genere erano già state poste negli anni 30, quando il Council on Foreign Relations americano concepì strutture come la Banca Mondiale ed il Fondo Monetario internazionale che nacquero ufficialmente a Bretton Woods nel luglio 1944 ed ebbero senza dubbio modo di affinarsi quando a partire dal mese di maggio 1954 iniziarono le riunioni del gruppo Bilderberg, deputato a fare sintesi e delineare le strategie.......
Nello stesso periodo, ad ottobre del 1947 a Ginevra vide la luce il GATT (General Agreement on Tarifs and Trade) composto inizialmente da 18 paesi fra i quali l'Italia (che entrò a farne parte nel 1949) e destinato a comprenderne 37, che si proponeva l'obiettivo di eliminare tutto ciò che potesse in qualche misura ostacolare il commercio internazionale.
Il capitalismo fordista, inteso come modello basato sulla produzione ed il consumo, aveva ormai fatto il suo tempo, così come stavano diventando anacronistici i paletti imposti dalla presenza degli stati sovrani, delle politiche protezionistiche dei vari governi e di tutto un universo di peculiarità e differenze che di fatto ostacolava la creazione di un mercato unico globale. Nei decenni successivi sarebbe stato necessario smantellare in maniera certosina ogni ostacolo che potesse frapporsi alla costruzione di una società globalizzata, dove le merci e gli uomini (merce) potessero circolare senza alcun intralcio, per venire incontro alle esigenze di profitto e dove la finanza e le grandi banche di affari, a braccetto con le società multinazionali, acquistassero sempre più peso rispetto alla politica, fino ad arrivare a dirigerne e determinarne le scelte.
I cittadini occidentali da poco usciti dalla guerra mondiale vivevano il boom economico, lavoravano, risparmiavano, consumavano ed anelavano ad un futuro migliore. Abbandonavano le campagne per andare a lavorare in città, "modernizzavano" le propre usanze ed i propri costumi, sempre guardando all'America come al faro illuminante dal quale trarre ispirazione. Erano indirizzati sulla buona strada, ma avrebbero avuto ancora molto cammino da fare.
I cittadini del blocco sovietico vivevano racchiusi in un bozzolo, impermeabile a tutte le ingerenze esterne, fra le pieghe dell'economia pianificata. Di strada da fare ne avevano ancora tanta, ma un bel giorno sarebbero arrivati anche loro alla meta.
Quelli del "terzo mondo" vivevano soprattutto grazie all'autoproduzione, praticavano l'agricoltura e la pastorizia finalizzate alla propria sussistenza ed il loro peso sullo scacchiere del progresso, basato sulla società crescita e sviluppo risultava tutto sommato di poco conto. Al contrario di quello dei paesi in cui vivevano, spesso ricchi di risorse che per la crescita e lo sviluppo occidentale sarebbero diventate indispensabili. Comunque un giorno non così lontano anche loro avrebbero concorso alla formazione del villaggio globale.


Il processo di globalizzazione avrebbe necessitato di tempi lunghi, di strumenti tecnologici nuovi che permettessero la creazione di una non - cultura globale volta a sostituire la miriade di culture preesistenti, della collaborazione di tutti gli organismi di potere, in qualsiasi luogo ed a qualsiasi livello.


La fine del novecento


Nel gennaio del 1995, dopo 8 anni di negoziati fra i paesi aderenti al GATT, sempre a Ginevra nacque il WTO (World Trade Organisation), al quale attualmente aderiscono 161 paesi che rappresentano circa il 97% dell'intero commercio mondiale di beni e servizi. Lo scopo principale della nuova organizzazione era quello di perfezionare il lavoro fino a quel momento svolto dal GATT, nella creazione di un mercato unico globale che di fatto godesse di un potere sovranazionale e fosse in grado di determinare e gestire le politiche economiche su scala mondiale, di concerto con istituzioni come il Fondo Monetario Internazionale e la Banca Mondiale. Un altro passo importante sulla via della globalizzazione era stato compiuto, le nazioni avrebbero progressivamente ceduto sempre maggiori quote della propria sovranità, mentre gli "uomini merce" si sarebbero omologati sempre più gli uni con gli altri, abbandonando la propria identità e le proprie tradizioni, trasformandosi in soggetti interscambiali fra loro, da potere gestire e spostare a piacimento sullo scacchiere mondiale.
In Occidente la popolazione aveva raggiunto intorno alla metà degli anni 80 il maggior momento di "benessere economico", sull'asse del modello crescita e sviluppo. Le città erano densamente popolate, inquinate e vivaci, all'acme di una migrazione trentennale dalle campagne. Il livello di occupazione era alto, quello dei salari discretamente buono, i diritti dei lavoratori, dopo le "conquiste" dei decenni precedenti risultavano elevati. Ormai tutte le famiglie possedevano una o più auto, fiorivano le seconde case, le persone avevano tempo libero e risorse da dedicare ai viaggi e alle vacanze. I consumi erano estremamente elevati, l'impegno politico stava sparendo, sostituito dai nuovi modelli sociali ispirati dai media e dalla televisione. L'uomo della strada si considerava tutto sommato felice, attraverso i viaggi organizzati iniziava a sentirsi cosmopolita, lavorava, consumava ed andava a divertirsi, nella maniera in cui i nuovi modelli sociali gli suggerivano di fare.
La caduta del muro di Berlino, avvenuta nel 1989 ed il crollo dell'Unione Sovietica verificatosi a cavallo del 1990, seguito dalla disintegrazione della ex Jugoslavia, mandarono in frantumi quella sorta di bozzolo in cui vivevano i cittadini dell'Est, diventati improvvisamente permeabili e ricettivi al canto delle sirene occidentali. Entro breve tempo anche loro avrebbero potuto godere di tutti i benefici del modello crescita e sviluppo, mangiare al Mc Donald's, guardare i film americani e sentirsi cittadini del mondo.


In quegli stessi decenni, nei paesi del "terzo mondo", già pesantemente depredati delle proprie risorse durante il periodo coloniale, la Banca Mondiale ed il FMI, attraverso i vari organismi da essi controllati, hanno imposto una nuova forma di colonialismo declinata nel segno dello sviluppo.
I governi locali (spesso collusi con la stessa elite mondialista) sono stati convinti a svendere ulteriormente le proprie risorse e ad indebitarsi per cifre esorbitanti, al fine di poter costruire mega infrastrutture sul modello occidentale, il più delle volte destinate a rimanere sottoutilizzate, dopo avere determinato gravissimi danni agli equilibri ambientali. Le piccole industrie, che producevano beni di consumo semplici, destinati al consumo della popolazione locale, sono state sotituite da mega industrie inquinanti ed energivore, spesso di proprietà delle multinazionali occidentali impegnate a delocalizzare la propria produzione in paesi che potessero offrire legislazioni di comodo e manodopera a bassissimo costo.
Le colture di sussistenza che contribuivano a sfamare le polazioni locali, sono state estirpate per far posto alle monocolture intensive, in larghissima parte destinate all'esportazione. La cosidetta "rivoluzione verde", spacciata sotto le mentite spoglie della solidarietà pelosa, ha di fatto trasformato milioni di contadini che vivevano del proprio raccolto in milioni di "contadini poveri" dipendenti in tutto e per tutto dalle quotazioni della propria monocoltura di riferimento nelle borse internazionali. Dopo averli fatti indebitare per l'acquisto dei macchinari agricoli e dei pesticidi e in un secondo momento anche delle sementi ogm che erano state rese indispensabili.
La pesca tradizionale, praticata rispettando i pricipi ecologici che preservavano la riproduzione e proteggevano le riserve di pesce, finalizzata a sfamare le famiglie locali è stata sostituita dalla pesca moderna con reti a strascico (spesso finanziata da programmi di aiuto internazionali) assai più distruttiva e letale per le riserve di pesce. I pescatori tradizionali che attraverso il loro lavoro sfamavano le proprie famiglie, si sono così trasformati in pochi decenni in dipendenti sottopagati al soldo di compagnie di pesca straniere che avevano come unico scopo il profitto immediato, potendo trasferirsi altrove nel momento in cui le acque non sarebbero state più produttive. E questo sarebbe avvenuto molto presto, anche con la complicità dei pesticidi e degli scarichi velenosi determinati dalle industrie di "nuova generazione".
Le foreste tropicali, abitate dai popoli indigeni usi a praticare le coltivazioni a rotazione, sono state oggetto di una pesantissima deforestazione, conseguente all'abbattimento massiccio degli alberi da parte delle società transnazionali legate all'industria del legname e dei mobili o degli allevamenti intensivi destinati alle catene di fast foods americane. Basti pensare che solamente tra il 1900 ed il 1965 la metà della superficie occupata dalle foreste nei paesi "in via di sviluppo" è stata disboscata, mentre nei decenni successivi il ritmo della deforestazione è stato ancora superiore, con la conseguenza di aver privato milioni di persone dei propri strumenti di sussistenza, oltre ad avere causato danni ecologici incalcolabili.
Negli ultimi decenni del 900 i cittadini del terzo mondo, che per secoli avevano vissuto in comunità in gran parte autosufficienti, praticando la coltivazione e la pesca, con un'industria manifatturiera su piccola scala, basata sulle risorse locali ed in grado di rispondere alle esigenze ed ai bisogni di una società "semplice" in armonia con l'ambiente naturale, avevano visto il proprio ambiente stravolto in maniera tanto radicale quanto irreversibile. Avevano perso tutte le coordinate con le quali orientarsi, non possedevano le risorse per vivere e fare fronte ai nuovi bisogni indotti dalla propaganda dei paesi "sviluppati" ed iniziavano a sognare di trasferirsi nelle sfavillanti metropoli che vedevano in televisione.




I mass media, la TV ed internet


La creazione "dell'uomo nuovo" e più in generale l'intero processo di globalizzazione, non sarebbero stati possibili senza tutta una serie di strumenti che permettessero di superare le differenze culturali, le tradizioni, gli stili di vita, le peculiarità che ancora distinguevano profondamente gli uomini l'uno dall'altro, rendendoli un qualcosa di estremamente eterogeneo, difficilmente omologabile in uno standard globale come quello voluto.
Già subito dopo la fine della seconda guerra mondiale la musica ed il cinema "americani" iniziarono ad invadere l'Europa, contaminando culture profondamente estranee a quella statunitense, ma il vero strumento principe della globalizzazione fu senza dubbio la TV ed in un secondo tempo la TV satellitare.
La diffusione massiccia della televisione fu la vera chiave di volta che ampliò a dismisura gli orizzonti della popolazione, prima occidentale e poi mondiale, rendendo l'individuo cittadino di un mondo che fino a quel momento gli era estraneo. Attraverso la TV, a prescindere dal fatto che si trattasse di un telefilm americano, di pubblicità, di un festival della canzone, di un telegiornale, di un documentario o di un programma d'intrattenimento, le persone vennero vezzeggiate, coccolate ed istradate a nuovi usi e costumi, nuove realtà, nuovi modi di pensare, nuove mode (spesso di derivazione americana), nuove sensibilità, sempre declinati sul piano inclinato della modernità, necessaria ed uguale per tutti. Presente in ogni casa ed accesa per sempre più ore al giorno, la TV non ha tardato a manifestarsi come il migliore strumento di orientamento del pensiero, dei costumi, dei modelli sociali e delle sensibilità, consentendo a chi ne ha gestito i contenuti di plasmare prima milioni e poi miliardi di persone, prendendole per mano e portandole nella direzione voluta. Grazie a decenni di film e telefilm statunitensi per molti italiani, città come New York o Chicago risultano essere molto più "familiari" di quanto non lo siano Roma o Milano, feste come Halloween sono diventate patrimonio di culture alle quali non appartenevano, gli stravizi e le feste folli dei college americani sono riusciti a contaminare realtà scolastiche profondamente differenti rispetto a quella di oltre oceano. Per non parlare del linguaggio, ormai trasformatosi in una sorta di slang americanizzato, tanto nell'ambito dei rapporti sociali, quanto in quello professionale. Dove si organizzano
briefeng, si va a fare l'happy hour, si compra il ticket, si pubblicizza un brand, occorre fare la spending review, si scrive un abstract, si acquistano viaggi all inclusive, si crea audience, si curiosa nel backstage, si partecipa ad una convention,si usufruisce di un benefit, si fa un break, si valorizza il proprio core business, si paga cash, si prenota un catering, si va all'ospedale per un check up, si porta avnti una class actione via discorrendo. Ma la Tv non è solamente film, telefilm ed intrattenimento, bensì anche informazione, sempre più in tempo reale, destinata a portare "il mondo" in casa a tutte le ore della giornata, costruendo di fatto la realtà secondo i dettami di chi la gestisce per conto terzi, naturalmente di concerto con la carta stampata e le trasmissioni radiofoniche.
A cavallo degli anni 90 del secolo scorso la TV compie un passo decisivo, con l'avvento del satellitare che le permette di assumere una dimensione trasnazionale, raggiungendo tutti quei paesi del "terzo mondo" e dell'ex blocco sovietico dove gli abitanti, affamati di Occidente, non tardano a dotarsi degli apparecchi necessari a ricevere il segnale. Anche loro potranno gustare i telefilm americani e posare gli occhi sulle fantasmagoriche metropoli brulicanti di luce e di vita, vedere i loro connazionali giocare nei miliardari campionati di calcio europei, portare a casa qualche briciola di quel mondo "moderno", sfavillante, ricco di promesse e di prospettive come suggeriscono le immagini patinate della pubblicità. Anche loro potranno ottenere informazioni dal mondo e conoscere la realtà nella forma in cui è stato deciso che essa esista. Ma soprattutto anche loro potranno fare propri usi e costumi che gli erano completamente estranei ed assimilare una "non cultura" che possa sostituire la loro, ormai persa durante i decenni precedenti.
In concomitanza all'avvento del satellite la TV inizia a cambiare pelle anche nell'ambito dei contenuti, destinati a diventare sempre più globali e globalizzanti. Le trasmissioni d'intrattenimento vengono confezionate in format destinati ad essere venduti in decine e decine di paesi differenti, l'informazione si standardizza sempre più, non solo nel contenuto, ma anche nei tempi e nei modi in cui viene portata. La TV si fa sempre più globale, rivolgendosi ormai a miliardi di persone che ne seguono fedelmente il percorso, accettando supinamente di venire omologate.
Se la TV si è distinta come lo strumento principale della globalizzazione, non meno importante è stato l'apporto di internet alla "causa", a partire dai primi anni del nuovo secolo, in concomitanza con la diffusione sempre più massiccia del computer, non solo in Occidente, ma anche nei cosidetti "paesi in via di sviluppo". A differenza della televisione la rete è uno strumento interattivo, dove l'utente non si limita ad essere spettatore passivo, ma al contrario scrive e si rapporta con gli altri tramite il web. La creazione del mondo virtuale, senza confini ed omnicomprensivo, dove ciascuno di noi può scegliere un alias e ridisegnare un nuovo sé stesso attraverso il quale rapportarsi all'interno dei social network, sicuramente risulta essere funzionale ad una nuova visione del "mondo", deprivata dagli usi e costumi tradizionali e al tempo stesso molto vicina all'icona del villaggio globale tanto cara all'elite mondialista. Proprio i social network, con Facebook, Instagram e Twitter a tirare la cordata, incarnano meglio di ogni altro strumento lo spirito "dell'uomo nuovo", sempre connesso nel villaggio virtuale, dove non esistono confini e differenze, ma sempre più solo nel mondo reale, dove sta perdendo la propria identità, i legami familiari, la capacità di rapportarsi con gli altri in maniera costruttiva, la consapevolezza delle proprie origini e della propria umanità. Proprio sui social network sempre più spesso gli uomini politici ed i vip fanno i propri annunci, che verranno poi ripresi dalle TV e dai giornali, diventando a loro volta notizie di notizie, in un circolo vizioso dai ritmi sempre più sincopati.
Ma la rete non è solamente social network, bensì anche informazione, una valanga d'informazione di ogni genere e di ogni provenienza della quale si può fruire a proprio piacimento in qualsiasi momento della giornata. Dove accanto alla poca "buona informazione" costruita attraverso l'impegno e la fatica degli utenti, dilaga la tanta "cattiva informazione" dispensata da quegli stessi media che gestiscono le TV ed i giornali. Il risultato è quello di una massa d'individui costretti a gestire mentalmente una marea d'informazioni superficiali e spesso fuorvianti, ma totalmente incapaci di approfondire qualsiasi argomento, dal momento che proprio la superficialità e la fretta sono le parole d'ordine attraverso le quali navigare in internet. Anche in questo caso internet si presta a plasmare lo spirito "dell'uomo nuovo", forte del convincimento di essere iper informato su qualsiasi argomento e di conoscere tutto, ma totalmente incapace di comprendere come la propria onniscienza sia costituita esclusivamente da una massa di nozioni usate per costruire una realtà a suo uso e consumo che non è più reale di quanto possa esserlo un serial TV.


Le "guerre preventive", l'effetto disgregazione e le rivoluzioni colorate


La prima fu quella " del Golfo" nel 1990 contro l'Iraq di Saddam Hussein, l'ultima potrebbe essere (ma speriamo di no) quella contro la Siria di Assad, passando attraverso la guerra nella ex Jugoslavia, l'invasione dell'Afghanistan, la definitiva conquista dell'Iraq, la distruzione della Libia di Gheddafi. Tutte guerre "preventive" portate dall'elite mondialista occidentale, sotto la guida degli USA e di organismi internazionali di comodo come l'ONU e la NATO, contro stati sovrani dallo spiccato carattere nazionalista, poco propensi ad abbracciare il mito della globalizzazione. Tutti stati dagli equilibri interni particolarmente delicati a causa della convivenza di varie etnie e gruppi sociali che i governi esistenti erano riusciti a ricomporre non senza difficoltà. Tutti paesi che dopo i bombardamenti e l'invasione hanno perso ogni equilibrio, andando incontro alla completa disgregazione, degenerata in guerre tribali, terrorismo, sangue e distruzione, costituendo terreno fertile per la globalizzazione e l'emigrazione di massa della popolazione locale.
Ma non sempre per abbattere uno stato sovrano il cui governo si manifestava riluttante a collaborare con l'elite mondialista, disgregare il paese e gettarlo nel caos, prima di sostituire il leader poco collaborativo con un fantoccio di comodo, sono stati necessari bombardamenti ed invasioni. Molto spesso sono state sufficienti le "rivoluzioni colorate", inaugurate dalle rivoluzioni d'autunno nel 1989, quando Solidarnosc prese il potere in Polonia, Ceausescu fu prima deposto e poi ucciso in Romania, ed i governi preesistenti vennero rovesciati in maniera "pacifica" nella Germania Est, in Cecoslovaccia, Ungheria, Bulgaria, Estonia, Lettonia, Lituania. E poi proseguite nei decenni successivi, in Serbia nel 2000, in Georgia nel 2003, in Ucraina nel 2004, in Kirghizistan nel 2005. Per finire con la "Primavera araba" del 2011 che coinvolse fra gli altri la Tunisia, l'Egitto, la Libia di Gheddafi (poi ucciso durante l'invasione occidentale) e la Siria, dove Assad riuscì a resistere solamente grazie all'appoggio della Russia e allo stoicismo del suo popolo che si strinse intorno a lui. Ultima in ordine di tempo la rivoluzione ucraina del febbraio 2014, culminata con la cacciata del presidente in carica Yanukovich, colpevole di non avere mostrato sufficiente condiscendenza nei confronti della UE. Una rivoluzione che ha di fatto tagliato in due il paese, provocando forti attriti fra la UE, spalleggiata dagli Stati Uniti e la Russia, determinando una lunga scia di sangue tuttora in atto.
Attraverso una lunga serie di guerre preventive e rivoluzioni colorate, l'elite mondialista è riuscita dunque ad ottenere negli ultimi decenni la disgregazione di un gran numero di stati sovrani, imponendo di fatto con l'uso della forza o con il sotterfugio l'eliminazione di confini scomodi, di culture refrattarie al "cambiamento", di tradizioni in contrasto con il disegno globalizzatore e creando l'humus necessario affinché potesse realizzarsi nella sua completezza il disegno stesso.


Le crisi economiche e il fenomeno migratorio


Solamente con l'avvento del nuovo millennio, dopo tanto duro lavoro, i tempi erano maturi perché il processo di globalizzazione potesse entrare pienamente a regime, iniziando a dare i propri frutti.
Nei paesi occidentali una lunga serie di crisi economiche e finanziarie, create a tavolino, aveva privato le popolazioni di tutte le proprie certezze e anche di buona parte dei loro diritti e delle loro risorse. La disoccupazione era salita progressivamente a livelli sempre più alti, il potere di acquisto dei salari risultava in caduta libera, l'ambizione di "costruire un futuro migliore" stava lasciando il passo a quella di tentare di mantenere il proprio tenore di vita e ben presto sarebbe stata sostituita da quella di riuscire a sopravvivere con un minimo di dignità. I governi si erano ormai ridotti al ruolo di meri passacarte al servizio di banche e multinazionali e imponevano senza sosta le politiche di rigore imposte dall'elite mondialista. Tutti i punti fermi attraverso i quali le persone erano abituate ad orientarsi da sempre venivano smantellati, ad iniziare dall'istituzione della famiglia, del "posto di lavoro fisso", del rapporto di coppia uomo - donna e più in generale di tutti gli usi e costumi e le peculiarità che le differenziavano le une dalle altre.
Le metropoli e le grandi città avevano smesso di crescere, la chiusura delle industrie, molte delle quali delocalizzate nei paesi del "terzo mondo", trasformava vaste aree urbane (e talvolta perfino intere città come Detroit) in quartieri dormitorio degradati dove crollava il valore degli immobili, spesso bruciando senza pietà i risparmi di una vita. Sempre più persone "convinte" nei decenni precedenti a contrarre pesanti mutui per acquistare le proprie case si ritrovavano nell'impossibilità di fare fronte ai pagamenti. Il lavoro si trasformava sempre più da fisso a precario, allargando a dismisura la categoria dei "nuovi poveri" costretti ad arrabattarsi fra un'occupazione saltuaria e l'altra, senza alcuna ambizione che potesse prescindere dalla mera sopravvivenza.
L'uomo occidentale si scopriva sempre più solo, sempre più privo di coordinate atraverso le quali orientarsi, sempre più incapace di costruire il reddito necessario a soddisfare i bisogni indotti dai modelli di vita imposti dalla pubblicità, senza più un'identità, senza qualcosa in cui credere che non fosse il denaro e il successo, mentre anche il denaro ed il successo stavano diventando dei miraggi.
I cittadini dei paesi dell'ex blocco sovietico si sono ormai in larga parte omologati con quelli occidentali, molti di loro sono emigrati o emigrano verso ovest, molti altri hanno parzialmente migliorato il proprio tenore di vita lavorando nelle aziende delocalizzate in patria. Hanno realizzato il proprio "sogno occidentale" ma stanno anche rendendosi conto di come nei fatti si tratti di un'esperienza onirica di cartapesta.
Gli abitanti del terzo mondo hanno ormai rotto gli argini e inseguendo le promesse accattivanti portate dalla TV satellitare, decidono di emigrare in massa dentro al mondo rappresentato in quegli schermi. Con la complicità dei trafficanti di esseri umani, dei professionisti dell'accoglienza (nascosti sotto la bandiera della solidarietà pelosa) impegnati a gestire un traffico assai più redditizio di quello della droga e dell'elite mondialista che ha disperatamente bisogno di loro, si imbarcano a centinaia di migliaia su barconi fatiscenti o danno vita via terra ad un esodo disperato e disperante, durante il quale molti di loro perdono la vita.
Sono il "materiale umano" di cui la globalizzazione ha bisogno per livellare al ribasso i salari dell'Europa intera, per praticare l'eutanasia degli ultimi diritti che ancora sopravvivono, per sradicare definitivamente le identità, gli stati sovrani, le tradizioni e le differenze.


Secondo i dati forniti dall'Organizzazione internazionale per le migrazioni nei soli primi 9 mesi del 2015, sarebbero stati 432.000 i migranti arrivati in Europa dal Mediterraneo, più del doppio di quelli sbarcati nell'intero 2014. Stando ai numeri forniti da Amnesty international nella sola Grecia, nei primi 9 mesi del 2015 sarebbero sbarcati circa 200.000 migranti, con un rapporto di un migrante ogni 70 abitanti locali. Il vice-cancelliere tedesco Sigmar Gabriel ha dichiarato che nei prossimi anni la Germania dovrà farsi carico di almeno un milione di "profughi" richiedenti asilo.
Questi sono solo alcuni numeri, estrapolati dai giornali degli ultimi mesi, che dimostrano come l'esodo degli emigrati verso l'Europa stia diventando sempre più significativo, ma non ancora così significativo come l'elite mondialista vorrebbe.
L'economista
Leonid Bershidsky, in un articolo pubblicato su Bloomberg, dove vuole arrivare l'elite mondialista (della quale senza dubbio è al servizio) dimostra di averlo capito perfettamente, quando dichiara candidamente che l'Europa avrebbe bisogno di accogliere (o forse sarebbe meglio dire deportare) almeno 250milioni di migranti entro il 2060, praticamente un terzo della sua intera popolazione attuale. Bershidsky attraverso complesse calcolazioni tanto care agli economisti tenta di dimostrare come un "sacrificio" di questo genere sarebbe necessario per "salvare" le pensioni future dei cittadini europei, nell'evidente intenzione di dare di un fenomeno come quello dell'immigrazione di massa una visione positiva e per alcuni versi quasi salvifica. Mente spudoratamente sulle reali ragioni per cui è stato innescato il fenomeno, ma si dimostra assai efficace nel descrivere le dimensioni e la portata globale dello stesso in quello che è il piano della globalizzazione.
Come non domandarsi con quali prospettive un continente in profonda crisi economica, che non riesce più a fornire gli strumenti per una sopravvivenza dignitosa alla propria popolazione potrebbe mai accogliere una simile marea di profughi, permettendo loro di vivere dignitosamente? E come non domandarsi che fine faranno nel prossimo futuro i paesi dai quali i migranti provengono, privati di larga parte della propria popolazione in età lavorativa, emigrata in Occidente in cerca di fortuna?








"L'uomo nuovo" è ormai una realtà


Al termine di tutto questo percorso l'uomo nuovo è ormai diventato una realtà concreta e risulta del tutto aderente al disegno che l'elite mondialista aveva in mente quando più di mezzo secolo fa iniziò a costruirlo con pazienza. Si tratta del cittadino del mondo, una figura apolide, priva di qualsiasi senso di appartenenza, senza alcuna cultura di riferimento, senza valori e senza tradizioni, con legami familiari e affettivi in via di dissolvimento, interscambiabile con gli altri come può esserlo un pezzo di ricambio, sopravvivente all'interno di una vita ad interim, senza diritti e coordinate con le quali orientarsi, alla perenne ricerca dei mezzi economici che possano permettergli di acquistare i beni di consumo imposti dalla pubblicità e altrettanto perennemente frustrato dall'impossibilità di poterlo fare.
L'uomo nuovo potrà essere spostato a piacimento all'interno del villaggio globale, laddove risulta essere più utile la sua presenza, dal momento che in mancanza di un'identità e di una famiglia non esiste alcun senso di radicamento. Potrà essere pagato il "meno possibile", poiché la sua interscambiabilità ha pregiudicato qualsiasi capacità di contrattare il proprio salario ed è impotente di fronte all'arma del ricatto occupazionale. Potrà essere manipolato a piacimento, grazie al fatto che una persona deprivata della cultura di riferimento e delle tradizioni è come un foglio bianco sul quale i media e l'orientamento del pensiero hanno modo d'imprimere qualsiasi cosa risulti funzionale ai progetti dell'elite mondialista. Non sarà in grado di fare valere i propri diritti, di protestare e di opporsi, dal momento che l'uomo merce è una figura atomizzata, totalmente incapace di aggregarsi con gli altri, eternamente in competizione con il proprio vicino e irrimediabilmente sola anche in mezzo alla calca.
Non si opporrà alle decisioni calate dall'alto, perché convinto che vengano prese per il suo bene, accetterà supinamente il proprio destino, così come lo fa una merce che deve essere costruita, venduta, usata e poi gettata via quando risulta non essere più utile. Si mostrerà sinceramente convinto di essere libero ed informato e si professerà felice di appartenere al villaggio globale, vero simbolo della modernità, senza confini, senza differenze, senza retaggi del passato, senza inutili tradizioni e discriminazioni di sorta, ma purtroppo anche senza più una briciola di umanità, dal momento che fra la merce e l'uomo che intendesse essere tale qualche differenza dovrebbe esserci per forza.

          Take Two Tuesday and Gotta keep ’em separated — Liberated Negative Space o’ the Day: What life will you choose?        
Election day special. Tartu, Estonia. Choose … wisely. This post’s picture originally appeared on November 9, 2010 at 9:53 am. Check that near-synchronicity.Filed under: It happens, Liberating Negative Space, photography, Pictures, Take-Two Tuesday Tagged: a confession, advice, candids, choices, David Whyte, destiny, election, Estonia, facebook is the opiate of the masses, Friendohs, Goose, Gotta keep […]
          Liberated Negative Space o’ the Day: What life will you choose?        
Tartu, Estonia. Last night I was hitting up the facebook to see if my friend’s breeched baby had turned yet (yes) and, at the top of my feed, another friend had just posted this great quote from David Whyte: “Anything or anyone that doesn’t bring you alive is too small for you.” It was really […]
          Famous People With “Olav Roots”        
Born 1910-02-26. Olav Roots, Estonian pianist and composer (d. 1974)
          Let’s take a look at Albion, a new map from Battlefield 1: In The Name of the Tsar        
Battlefield 1: In The Name of the Tsar takes us to the site of a 1917 battle for the frozen reaches of Estonia. Battlefield 1 players on PC have been lucky enough to check out a third map from the upcoming In The Name of the Tsar expansion over on the CTR server. Battlefield expert […]
          At His Master’s Bidding: John Brennan Colluded With Foreign Spies to Overthrow Trump        

  More Obama moles are being uncovered in scandal after scandal, but this one is HUGE. In a damning report originally reported by the Guardian, and picked up by the American Spectator, it has been confirmed that former CIA director John Brennan, an Obama puppet, colluded with British and Estonian spies who sought to both to manufacture […]

The post At His Master’s Bidding: John Brennan Colluded With Foreign Spies to Overthrow Trump appeared first on .


          Cats Wallpapers Download         
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Cats Wallpapers Download Biography 
Cats wallpaper download are  (stylized as CATS) is a musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats by T. S. Eliot. It introduced the song standard "Memory". Cats first opened in the West End in 1981 and then on Broadway in 1982, each time directed by Trevor Nunn and choreographed by Gillian Lynne; it won numerous awards, including both the Laurence Olivier Award and the Tony Award for Best Musical. The London production ran for twenty-one years and the Broadway production ran for eighteen years, both setting long-run records. Actresses Elaine Paige and Betty Buckley became particularly associated with the musical. One actress, Marlene Danielle, performed in the Broadway production for its entire run (from 1982 until 2000). The show tells the story of a tribe of cats called the Jellicles and the night they make what is known as "the Jellicle choice" and decide which cat will ascend to the Heaviside Layer and come back to a new life.

Cats wallpaper download is the second longest-running show in Broadway history, and the fourth longest-running West End musical. It has been performed around the world many times and has been translated into more than 20 languages. In 1998 Cats was turned into a made-for-Composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber, Cats is based on Eliot's Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats (1939), which the composer recalled as having been a childhood favorite. The songs of the musical comprise Eliot's verse set to music by the composer, the principal exception being the most famous song from the musical, "Memory", for which the lyrics were written by Trevor Nunn after an Eliot poem entitled "Rhapsody on a Windy Night". Also, a brief song entitled "The Moments of Happiness" was taken from a passage in Eliot's Four Quartets. Andrew Lloyd Webber began composing the songs in late 1977 and premiered the compositions at the Sydmonton festival in 1980. The concert was attended by T.S. Eliot's wife, Valerie Eliot and she loved the songs that Webber had composed. She gave her blessing for the songs to be adapted into a musical stage play. Rehearsals for the musical began in early 1981 at the New London Theatre. Due to the Eliot estate asserting that they write no script and only use the original poems as the text, the musical had no identified plot during the rehearsal process, causing many actors to be confused about what they were actually doing. An unusual musical in terms of its construction, the overture incorporates a fugue and there are occasions when the music accompanies spoken verse. The show is completely told through music with virtually no spoken dialogue in between the songs. Dance is also a key element in the musical especially during the 10 minute Jellicle Ball dance sequence. The set, consisting of an oversized junk yard, remains the same throughout the show without any scene changes. Lloyd Webber's eclecticism is very strong here; musical genres range from classical to pop, music hall, jazz, rock and electro-acoustic music as well as hymnal songs such as "The Addressing of Cats".
Cats premiered in the West End at the New London Theatre on 11 May 1981. There was trouble initially as Judi Dench, cast in the role of Grizabella, snapped her achilles tendon during rehearsals prior to the London opening. The role of Grizabella was subsequently taken over by Elaine Paige, who only had 3 days of rehearsal before beginning previews. The role was beefed up for Paige and the song "Memory" (originally to be sung by Geraldine Gardner in the role of the red cat Bombalurina) was given to Paige. The musical was produced by Cameron Mackintosh and Lloyd Webber's Really Useful Group, directed by Trevor Nunn, with associate director and choreographer Gillian Lynne, design by John Napier, and lighting by David Hersey. It played a total of 8,949 performances in London. Its final performance in London's West End was on its 21st birthday, 11 May 2002, and broadcast on a large screen in Covent Garden to the delight of fans who could not acquire a ticket for the final performance. It held the record as London's longest running musical until 8 October 2006, when it was surpassed by Les Misérables.


The original 1981 London cast of Cats.
The show made its debut on Broadway on 8 October 1982, at the Winter Garden Theatre with the same production team. On 19 June 1997, Cats became the longest-running musical in Broadway history with 6,138 performances. It closed on 10 September 2000, after a total of 7,485 performances. Its Broadway record was surpassed on 9 January 2006 by The Phantom of the Opera. It remains Broadway's second longest-running show in history. Lloyd Webber stated that when the original show was produced, it cost £900,000, but on Broadway, it cost $5,000,000.[1]
In 1998, Lloyd Webber produced a video version of Cats, based upon the stage version, starring Elaine Paige, who originated the role of Grizabella in London; Ken Page, who originated Old Deuteronomy on Broadway; Sir John Mills as Gus; Michael Gruber as Munkustrap; John Partridge as The Rum Tum Tugger; Jo Gibb as Rumpelteazer with many of the dancers and singers drawn largely from various stage productions of the show.[2] It was directed by David Mallet, with choreography and musical staging by the show's respected original creator Gillian Lynne in London's Adelphi Theatre, and was released on VHS and DVD, as well as broadcast on television worldwide. Andrew Lloyd Webber and others on the production team for the film wanted to keep the feeling that viewers watching the film could still get the sense of seeing the show live, by having all views be facing the stage, therefore, getting multiple views of the set, with several close-ups. Beyond the productions in England, the U.S., Canada, and Australia, the musical has been produced professionally in Hungary, Austria, and Japan, 1983; Sydney and Toronto, 1985; Germany, 1986; France, 1989; Mexico, 1991; Netherlands, 1992; Argentina, 1993; Hong Kong, 1994; Spain, 2003; Poland and Czech Republic, 2004; Russia and Estonia, 2005; Israel, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, China and Finland, 2007; Singapore, Hong Kong, Dominican Republic, Norway, Sweden, South Africa, China, Italy, Bulgaria and Japan, 2009; and Brazil and the Philippines, 2010. Cats has been translated into over 20 languages.[3]
A West End revival of Cats is being planned for 2013,[4] along with a rumored Broadway revival.[citation needed] It was announced on August 3, 2012 that a UK tour of the show will open on February 9, 2013, at the Edinburgh Playhouse.[5]
[edit]Detailed synopsis

[edit]Act I — When Cats Are Maddened by the Midnight Dance
After the overture, the Cats gather on stage and explain the Jellicle tribe and their purpose (Jellicle Songs for Jellicle Cats). The Cats (who constantly break the fourth wall, in the musical) spot the human audience and explain how the different Cats of the tribe are named (The Naming of Cats). This is followed by a dance from Victoria the White Cat that signals the beginning of the Jellicle Ball (The Invitation To The Jellicle Ball) and Munkustrap tells us that tonight is the night when Old Deuteronomy will choose a cat to be reborn into a new life on the Heaviside Layer.
Munkustrap appears and introduces Jennyanydots (The Old Gumbie Cat), a large tabby cat. She "sits and sits and sits" all day, while at night she rules over the mice and cockroaches, teaching various activities to them. Jennyanydots finishes, greets the other cats, but is interrupted. The music instantly changes, and The Rum Tum Tugger makes an extravagant entrance (The Rum Tum Tugger). The Tugger is a Tom with a wild mane and leopard spots on his chest. He is very fickle and unappeasable, "for he will do as he do do and there's no doing anything about it".
A shabby old grey cat stumbles out and looks around. It is Grizabella. All the cats back away. The cats sing of her saddened, unfortunate state (Grizabella: The Glamour Cat). Grizabella leaves and the music changes to a cheerful upbeat. Bustopher Jones, a fat cat in "a coat of fastidious black", appears (Bustopher Jones: The Cat About Town). Bustopher Jones is among the elite of the cats, and visits prestigious gentleman's clubs. A loud crash startles the tribe. Could this be Macavity? The cats run off the stage in fright. Hushed giggling signals the entrance of Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer, a pair of near-identical cats. They are petty burglars, very mischievous, and they enjoy causing trouble for human families (Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer).
Finally, the Jellicle patriarch, Old Deuteronomy, shows up (Old Deuteronomy). He is a large old Cat that "has lived many lives" and "married nine wives (And more, I am tempted to say – ninety-nine)". He is the one who will choose which Jellicle cat will go to the Heaviside Layer. In most productions, at this point, the cats perform a song (The Awful Battle of the Pekes and the Pollicles) for Old Deuteronomy. It is a story about two dog tribes clashing in the street and subsequently being scared away by the Great Rumpus Cat, a cat with flashing red eyes. After a few words from Old Deuteronomy on the destiny of Jellicle Cats and Pollicle Dogs, a second loud crash, presumably from Macavity, sends the alarmed cats scurrying. But Old Deuteronomy calls them back and the main celebration begins (The Jellicle Ball), in which the cats sing, dance and display their "terpsichorean powers".
After the Ball, Grizabella reappears and tries to dance, but her age and decrepit condition prevent her from doing so. Once again, she is shunned by the other cats, but that does not stop her from singing a short version of Memory.
[edit]Act II — Why Will the Summer Day Delay — When Will Time Flow Away?
After the Jellicle Ball, Old Deuteronomy sings of "what happiness is", referring to Grizabella. This message naturally goes over everyone's heads, so he sends the message again and Jemima (or Sillabub, depending on the production) sings it for everyone to hear, (The Moments of Happiness). Gus — short for Asparagus — shuffles forward ('Gus: The Theatre Cat'). He is the cat that once was a famous actor but now he is old and "suffers from palsy which makes his paws shake". He is accompanied by Jellylorum, who tells of his exploits. Gus then remembers how he once played the infamous Growltiger, Terror of the Thames (Growltiger's Last Stand). He tells the story about the pirate's romance with Griddlebone and how he was overtaken by the Siamese and forced to walk the plank.
Back in the present, after Gus exits, Skimbleshanks is sleeping in the corner (Skimbleshanks: The Railway Cat), a cat who is unofficially in charge of the night train to Glasgow. He is very clever and very important because if he is gone "the train can’t start". Within his song, a whole locomotive train engine is assembled out of objects in the junkyard, with various cats spinning wheels, holding up the structure and lighting the headlights.
With a third crash and an evil laugh, the "most wanted" cat, Macavity appears. He is a "master criminal" and never is found at the scene of the crime. He is a horrifying looking cat and a "villain" of the Jellicle Tribe. Macavity's minions throw a net over Old Deuteronomy and capture him. As the other cats try to follow him, Demeter and Bombalurina sing what they know about Macavity, as they have had some sort of past with him (Macavity: The Mystery Cat). When they are finished, Macavity returns disguised as Old Deuteronomy. When revealed by Demeter, he fights with Munkustrap and Alonzo. Though he holds his own for a time, Macavity is overwhelmed by the two younger tomcats; as the rest of the tribe begins to gang up and surround him, he shorts out the stage lights and escapes in the confusion.
Rum Tum Tugger suggests that the cats find Mr. Mistoffelees (Magical Mr. Mistoffelees). Mr. Mistoffelees is black and small and can perform many feats of magic that no other cat can do. Mr. Mistoffelees performs his dance, which is often one of the most intricate and challenging dance solos in the show. The magical cat restores the lights and brings back Old Deuteronomy, earning praise from all the cats. The Jellicle choice can now be made.
After Old Deuteronomy sits down, Grizabella returns to the junkyard and he allows her to address the gathering. Her faded appearance and lonely disposition have little effect on her song (Memory). With acceptance and encouragement from Jemima and Victoria, her appeal succeeds and she is chosen to be the one to go to the Heaviside Layer and be reborn to a new Jellicle Life. (Journey to the Heaviside Layer). A large tire rises from the junk piles, carrying Grizabella and Old Deuteronomy partway toward the sky; he then steps off so she can finish the journey on her own. Old Deuteronomy gives his closing speech to the human audience (The Ad-dressing of Cats) and the show comes to a close.
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Cats Hd Wallpapers Biography
The HD Cat has two estrus periods, one in December–February and another in May–July.[59] Estrus lasts 5–9 days, with a gestation period lasting 60–68 days.[60] Ovulation is induced through copulation. Spermatogenesis occurs throughout the year. During the mating season, males fight viciously,[59] and may congregate around a single female. There are records of male and female wildcats becoming temporarily monogamous. Kittens usually appear in April–May, though some may be born from March–August. Litter size ranges from 1-7 kittens.[60]
Kittens are born blind and helpless, and are covered in a fuzzy coat.[59] At birth, the kittens weigh 65-163 grams, though kittens under 90 grams usually do not survive. They are born with pink paw pads, which blacken at the age of three months, and blue eyes, which turn amber after five months.[60] Their eyes open after 9–12 days, and their incisors erupt after 14–30 days. The kittens' milk teeth are replaced by their permanent dentition at the age of 160–240 days. The kittens start hunting with their mother at the age of 60 days, and will start moving independently after 140–150 days. Lactation lasts 3–4 months, though the kittens will eat meat as early as 1.5 months of age. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of 300 days.[59] Similarly to the housecat, the physical development of African wildcat kittens over the first two weeks of their lives is much faster than that of European wildcats.[47] The kittens are largely fully grown by 10 months, though skeletal growth continues for over 18–19 months. The family dissolves after roughly five months, and the kittens disperse to establish their own territories.[60] The species' maximum life span is 21 years, though it usually only lives up to 13–14 years.[59]
The Hdcat's distribution is very broad, encompassing most of Africa, Europe, and southwest and central Asia into India, China, and Mongolia.[2]
The northern African subspecies, F. s. lybica, occurs across northern Africa, extending around the Arabian Peninsula's periphery to the Caspian Sea, encompassing a wide range of habitats, with the exception of closed tropical forests. It occurs in small numbers in true deserts such as the Sahara, particularly in hilly and mountainous areas, such as the Hoggar. In North Africa, the subspecies occurs discontinuously from Morocco through Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and into Egypt. It occurs throughout the savannahs of West Africa, ranging from Mauritania on the Atlantic seaboard, eastwards to the Horn of Africa, Sudan and Ethiopia. In the south, F. s. lybica is replaced in all East and southern African countries the southern F. s. cafra. The border range between the two subspecies encompasses Tanzania and Mozambique. The Asiatic wildcat, F. s. ornata, ranges from the eastern Caspian into western India, and north to Kazakhstan and into western China and southern Mongolia. The Chinese F. s. bieti is indigenous to western China, and is particularly abundant in the Quinghai and possibly Sichuan provinces. The European subspecies, F. s. silvestris, was once very widely distributed in Europe, being absent only in Fennoscandia and Estonia. However, between the late 1700s and mid 1900s, the species underwent declines and local extirpations, resulting in a fragmentation of its range. It is now extinct in Holland, and possibly extinct in the Czech Republic. It is considered regionally extinct in Austria, though vagrants from Italy are spreading into Austrian territory. In the Pyrenees, the wildcat occurs from sea level to 2,250 m. It is possible that in some areas, including Scotland and Stromberg, Germany, pure wildcats have crossbred extensively with domestic cats. The only island in the Mediterranean to house wildcats is Sicily, with other populations in Sardinia, Corsica and possibly Crete possibly being descended from feral populations introduced there from Neolithic times.[2]The Hdcat is considered an icon of the Scottish wilderness, and has been used in clan heraldry since the 13th century.[82] The Picts venerated wildcats, having probably named Caithness (Land of the Cats) after them. According to the foundation myth of the Catti tribe, their ancestors were attacked by wildcats upon landing in Scotland. Their ferocity impressed the Catti so much, that the wildcat became their symbol.[84] A thousand years later, the progenitors of Clan Sutherland, equally impressed, adopted the wildcat on their family crest.[12][84] The Chief of Clan Sutherland bears the title Morair Chat (Great Man of the Cats). The Clan Chattan Association (also known as the Clan of Cats) is made up of 12 different clans, the majority of which display the wildcat on their badges.
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          Sustaining learning        
I am in Tallinn in Estonia experiencing an early reminder of how cold and wet north European winters can be. I am here for a consortium meeting of the EU sponsored Learning layers project. Consortium meetings in these large projects can have a considerable number of participants, some 50 researchers and application partners attended the […]
          Reverend Phillip Berliner        
Pinkhas (Phillip Berliner)

(Written by his son-in-law Chaim Freedman in “The Pen and the Blade, Super Family” 1992).

Pinkhas (Phillip) Berliner was born in London, England in 1916, the youngest son of immigrants from Lodz, Poland. He attended Yeshivah Etz Chaim in London where he learned under the prominent Lithuanian leaders of English ultra-orthodoxy at the time, Rabbis Eliya Lopian and Eliyahu-Eliezer Dessler. He was such an excellent student that his teachers selected him to join a group which went to study at the recently established Gateshead Yeshiva in 1931 under Rabbi N.D.Landinsky.

In the mid 1930’s a proposal was made by the rabbis of Etz Chaim and Gateshead to further the higher religious education of English Yeshiva students at prominent eastern European Yeshivot. Pinkhas Berliner was selected to join a group of about ten students who went to Mir Yeshiva in Poland (now Belarus) and to Telz (Telsiai) Yeshivah in Poland. The group included Rabbi Nakhum-Zev (Velvel) Dessler, Josh Chinn, Rabbi Shlomo Davis, Rabbi Koppul Rosen, Rabbi Chaim Gutnik, Montie Moore, Rabbi Shmuel Bloch, Rabbi Dovber Silver and others who became leading orthodox rabbis and scholars, mainly in the United states. Details are to be found at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~rkimble/Mirweb/YeshivaStudents.html .

Pinkhas Berliner studied in Mir under the renowned Rosh Yeshivah Rabbi Eliezer-Yehudah Finkel and the Mashgiakh Rabbi Yekhezkel Levinstein. On the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the foreign students fled Poland, by order of the Rosh Yeshivah, the day before the Germans invaded Poland. For several months the group wandered backwards and forwards through Latvia and Estonia since they had inadequate papers. During this period of extreme physical deprivation and exposure. Pinkhas’s health suffered irreparably. Eventually visas were obtained through a Jewish member of the Latvian parliament, Rabbi Mordekhai Dubin, and the group settled in Lithuania at Telz Yeshivah under the soon to be martyred Rabbi Avraham-Yitskhak Bloch.

After nine months in Telz, in February 1940 Pinkhas rejoined Mir Yeshiva which had been relocated in Keidan, Lithuania. There he was finalizing his studies to qualify for Semikhah (rabbinical ordination) when the Soviet Army invaded the Baltic States. The Yeshivot were constantly harassed by the Communist regime and as the Germany army hovered in nearby Poland, the future looked ominous.

The British Government finally arranged a means of evacuating British and other foreign nationals. Travelling on visas issued by the famous Japanese consul in Kovno (Kaunas) Sugiharo, the group was sent eastwards via the Trans Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. From there they went to Hong Kong but were unable to continue to America due to hostilities at sea. Instead the group travelled to Brisbane, Australia. After several months of futile attempts to establish a Yeshivah in Melbourne, most of the group made their way to America and were amongst the founders of Mir, Telz and Lakewood Yeshivot. Some returned to England after the war.

Those remaining in Australia were Rabbi Dovber Silver, Rabbi Chaim Gutnik and Pinkhas (now Phillip) Berliner. Although he had a visa for America and had been accepted to Yeshiva Mesifta Torah Vadaat in New York, Phillip remained in Australia. He taught briefly in Sydney until he went to Melbourne in 1941 to marry Edna, daughter of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov and Lena Super. They had three daughters Mirel-Shulamit (Muriel) Kleerekoper, Leah-Nekhama (Lena) Pose and Sheindel (Jane) Freedman.

In order to support his family Phillip learnt Shekhitah and joined his father-in-law at this arduous vocation. He also taught religious classes for the United Jewish Education Board and was assistant Chazan at the St.Kilda Hebrew Congregation. In 1946 he was granted the title “Reverend” by Rabbi Jacob Danglow in recognition of his services to the congregation.

Phillip Berliner was widely respected throughout the community. He approached his vocation with a deep sense of dedication and his sincere enthusiasm for Judaism inspired his students, in particular a small group that studied with him. One of these, Professor Louis Waller wrote to Phillip’s daughter Jane Freedman:

“Your father was a generous teacher in terms of time and energy. He drilled us rigorously in formal Hebrew grammar, introducing me to the patterns and paradigms which became ingrained. Though he was not a scientific linguist, he was very knowledgeable and very determined that our foundations in structure would be well laid. He invited Max Jotkovitz, Sonja Black and me to your home in Crimea Street on Saturday afternoons in the latter part of 1948 and 1949 for revision of the set books and lightening like parsing, declension and conjunction. Your mother would give us tea and cake to sustain us, and your grandfather viewed us with a bemused but benevolent eye. In addition to the biblical set books, grammar and history, we also studied a tractate of Mishnah, Baba Batra.”

Berliner’s work as a Shokhet was very taxing, both from the long work hours and the nature of the work. As recalled by Waller: “I asked your father about his work as a Shochet. He showed me his Khalef (blade) which he carried in a case in his breast pocket. I have an impression, but not a strong one, that he found his work in the slaughter house not only physically but also mentally very demanding.”

Reverend Berliner had regular duties to perform for the St.Kilda synagogue. Aside from services, in particular reading the Torah and teaching, he had to attend weddings, funerals and other occasions in the life of the congregants. In this way he built up a wide circle of people who held him in respect for his mild manner and friendly disposition. Professor Waller, in a memorial to Rabbi Danglow (St.Kilda Hebrew Congregation Chronicle, March 1981), mentions Berliner both as his teacher and paints a picture of the Bimah at the St.Kilda synagogue whilst Rabbi Danglow conducted the Neilah service:

“It is Neilah. On the Almemar stand Reverend Kowadlo and Mr. Berliner – as always. Each is enveloped in white Kittel and woolen Tallit. But both are at the back of the Almemor, in their respective corners. At the desk stands the Rabbi. He is davening Neilah.”

Berliner’s communal duties were not without considerable aggravation, as was common among the Melbourne synagogues, internal politics often claimed innocent victims, in this case Phillip Berliner. His health was never the best, he suffered severely from asthma, and the machinations of several members of the Board of his synagogue wounded him deeply.

On Shabbat, 20th Kheshavn 5720, November 21, 1959 Phillip Berliner died suddenly following a severe asthma attack. The entire community was shocked that this man, beloved by so many, had been struck down in his prime at the age at the age of forty-three.

Phillip’s widow Edna was faced with the awesome task of bringing up their three daughters.




Phillip Berliner C.V. (click to enlarge)






















Novoyelna summer camp about 1938





Reference from Rabbi Eliezer Yehudah Finkel, Rosh Yeshiva of Mir













Reference from Rabbi Avraham Yitskhak Bloch, Rosh Yeshiva Telz.
















Visa from Japanese Consul Sugihara, Kovno 1940




Phillip Berliner married in 1941 Edna, the daughter of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super of Melbourne. Berliner served the Melbourne community as Shokhel, Chazan and teacher until his premature death in 1959.








An archive of his papers is to be donated to the Jewish Museum in Melbourne.
          ....And another question.....        
So, we've answered the big question- what is the NBN. Anyone who would like some more detail, please feel free to comment and I'll try to answer any questions, or, there are some great websites out there that will give you some detailed looks into the technology involved in the NBN. The main government site, NBN.gov is quite good in the information it delivers. Although as usual when dealing with governments, the information is delivered in quite a syrupy rhetoric and is relatively simple in its' nature. NBN Co's website is also relatively basic and its' overview is skewed more towards information about the company and its' goals as well as the actual rollout of the NBN. There are some interesting "Case Study" sections which look at how the NBN will affect individuals, schools and businesses on a one-by-one basis. Obviously, these are overwhelmingly positive, as one would expect of any company trying to hock their own goods and services. But it at least gives an idea of what individuals can do with their new connection. There is also an older site (not updated now) that gives a few good analyses of the NBN here.

This is a link to the National Broadband Network Implementation Study, done by the government just before the rollout of the NBN began on a trial basis. This is the study that brought about alot of political contention as to whether it was an achievable goal to have an FTTH NBN that reached over 90% of premises. The study was, of course, paid for by the Labor Federal Government, commissioned by then PM Kevin Rudd and done by McKinsey & Company and KPMG. One interesting point of note on this study, if we look at the overview page, is the last 2 points (quoted directly from the site):


1- NBN Co can build a strong and financially viable business case with the Study estimating it will be earnings positive by year six and able to pay significant distributions on its equity following completion of the rollout; and


2- The Government can expect a return on its equity investment sufficient to fully cover its cost of funds


This is interesting to note, as the vast majority of infrastructure a government builds and maintains is either fiscally neutral or a tax payer burden. In this case, the money NBN Co. receives will be funnelled back to the Federal Government once costs and maintenance have been taken out and the profits will, presumably (although this is, of course, up to the Government of the day) be used to pay back the debt borrowed to build the NBN. This leads me to my next question:


Is the NBN worth the money?


People might say this is an inherently subjective question. But in real monetary terms, IS the NBN worth what it is giving Australia?

It's estimated the NBN will have a final cost around $37 Billion, down from the originally, and much debated, $43 Billion. This includes $27.5 Billion invested (and borrowed) directly by the Government. The remainder will be paid for by private investment (shares in NBN Co.). So, the direct government cost will be $27.5 Billion, assuming, of course, NBN Co. can actually raise the $10-13 Billion odd of private investment; this seems likely, as such a large project, once underway, would limit the high risk of investment. $27.5 Billion is alot of money, no matter where you're from (unless you're Apple, who seems to sneeze and have that much money). But it is not, by any means, an insurmountable, nor particularly large single amount of money for a Government of Australia's size and economic standing. Obviously, some explanation is needed.....I'm afraid this will be quite dry.....

Australia's current GDP (PPP adjusted- read up) is hovering at just under the $1 Trillion mark, around $925 Billion (US). Now, GDP is not ACTUALLY a particularly useful measure in todays economics as it is only a measure of a countries goods and services produced WITHIN a country. In a globalised world, this does not take into account companies that are international, both owned BY Australians and by other countries working IN Australia. Mining companies are a good example. It is only a measure of all companies and services inside of a country. It is also NOT a measure of living standards or income. However, it IS used to determine an economies health, as a general rule. The idea being, a healthy growth in GDP (usually 2%) shows an increase in trade overall and therefore a corresponding increase in income, wealth and capital. For this reason, it is usually also used as a measure of debt.

International debt has been in the spotlight since the 2008 GFC. More recently, the European debt crisis has shown how sovereign debt (that is debt of a government, not private debt, as in the GFC) can destabilise not only the country who owns the debt, but also its' trading partners. A country MUST have room to move fiscally. A government needs borrowing power for the adjustments of budget, building and essential maintenance of infrastructure and the general running of the country. Governments usually borrow money for infrastructure by issuing Government bonds. These are bonds that are issued with a specified annual return interest at a specified maturity date in the future, that other countries governments and private companies can buy as investments. The higher risk the investment in the country (ie. the more unstable the economy) the higher the interest rate for the bonds usually are. There comes a point where the risk is such that other governments and companies refuse to buy the bonds and the issuing government runs into trouble as they cannot borrow enough money. This is the position countries such as Italy and Greece have found themselves in. This is, of course, a generalisation, as there are MANY variables and also other ways governments borrow money. But for our purposes, it is good enough.

The level of national debt a country has is usually measured as a percentage of GDP (hence using GDP as an economic measure). The lowest levels of debt in the world (using IMF statistics) are countries like Estonia, Saudi Arabia, Chile and Brunei. These countries do not necessarily have good, healthy economies, they simply do not borrow heavily internationally. Partly because they may not want to (in the case of North Korea, which doesn't even rank) or because they can't (Estonia, Chile) as other countries consider them too big an investment risk due to instability. There are countries that have healthy economies in this bunch though too, such as Saudi Arabia, Brunei and Luxembourg. Australia, if you look in terms of healthy economies, is just above Luxembourg for ranking in highest debt, about 1/5 of the way up and just below the United Arab Emirates. We have a %GDP debt of 20%. But once you take into account all sorts of corrections like net debt, PPP etc, in monetary terms, this means we have a debt of around $100 Billion dollars. The US has a %GDP debt of 94%, UK 75%, Europe 80% and Italy and Greece, 119% and 142% respectively. Of course, all these are significantly different MONETARY amounts. The US GDP is $14.6 Trillion (US). So it's monetary debt is nearly $14 Trillion. But the US also produces much more, and therefore has greater cash flow, so, technically better ability to pay back. I won't get into the nitty gritty, but suffice to say, lower levels of %GDP debt for a healthy economy are better. But, while no debt is excellent, it is rarely possible, nor likely. So low levels are considered normal and healthy.

It varies widely what IS considered "healthy" debt, but in general anything under 50% is considered reasonable and healthy, depending on the economy. Here is a global map of %GDP debt (reference).


This map will be slightly different to one made from the %GDP debt I was quoting as it is made from rankings done by the CIA not the IMF. But the principle is illustrated.

Australia's debt, at 20% is considered very healthy and is among the lowest in the Western world. Our government does not live beyond its' means, although it has done in the past and will probably do so in the future, should our economy be mismanaged at some point again. To give an example of dubious relevance, but easy to understand, Australia's income is $100 000 a year. We want to buy a block of land that costs $20 000. It would not be difficult to get financing for said land, nor would it be inadvisable to do so, assuming the land will appreciate (which it almost certainly will). It is a reasonable investment. This is an example of our current debt in one lump sum.

When it comes (finally) to the NBN, we want to build a national network that will cover the country (or 93% of it fixed line) with fast, reliable, cheap (I'll get to this in a following post) and essential communications. The NBN will cost the government $28 Billion dollars, which it will borrow;

Note- this does NOT come from the budget as some media outlets have reported. This is government debt (or government capital debt) and only the interest is paid from the budget. Obviously interest, even at an average 3.5% (Bloomberg) on $28 Billion dollars is significant, but this is only accumulated until NBN Co. begins to turn revenue and pays back to the Government.  Bond maturities (interest payouts) are calculated and taken into account in the National budget. They are planned, as each bond can have a different maturity time, and contingencies are in place for early terminations of maturity. See here for an interesting article about the politics surrounding these issues.

So the $28 Billion the Government ponies up for the NBN is approximately 25% of our current debt or 5% of %GDP debt. All that JUST to explain that single sentence?? Well yes, and it is even more complex than that (here's an interesting piece on CBA or Cost Benefit Analysis of the NBN usually done on infrastructure and how difficult and often useless they are). We haven't yet taken into account the monetary return the NBN will provide for the Government (NBN Co. are predicting 7% returns by 2020) the ongoing returns from revenue and cash flow and the possibility (hopefully not in my opinion) of the sellout of the NBN after it is complete and a lump sum return. And THAT doesn't even include the actual, tangible economic growth gain the NBN will provide! There is a great Blog article by Google Australia which shows how much the Internet contributes to the Australian economy.  It's estimated it will "boost GDP by $27 Billion in 2011." So the Internet, at its' current demand, will boost the Australian economy by almost the same amount estimated the Government will spend on the NBN.....and that's BEFORE we take into account the increased economic activity the NBN will provide once built.

Now some might say this is a narrow view, "blinkered" if you like, by a love of technology and all cats playing the piano videos on youTube.  But the fact is, there is measurable, quantifiable data that shows the Internet is, quite literally, revolutionising the way we live. There is anecdotal evidence, such as the verb "to Google" something being entered in the Oxford Dictionary. There is the observable consumer evidence which shows Australia has the 2nd fastest uptake of smartphones in the world (behind only Singapore) and more than 50% of us are now using them. There is personal evidence; when was the last time you looked up an address in the Yellow Pages? Or even a phone number for that matter? And if you did, was it in the paper book, or online? Did you REALLY get that idea to see The Hunger Games from TV, or was it on an Ad next to your email? Businesses like JB HiFi, Harvey Norman and Myer have been realising in the past 2 years they've been late getting on the band wagon of online and their plummeting revenues reflect this. Why would your average consumer pay $100 for something from Harvey Norman, when they can buy the same from an Australian selling on eBay for $75 including postage if they know what they want?

The fact is, we have only been living with the commercial Internet for around 20 years (and that's being optimistic, global information traffic on the Internet was around 1% in 1993) and we are only beginning to see the potential it has. Currently, Australian demand bandwidth is at between 10 and 20Mbps. By 2016 it is predicted to be close to 100Mbps and by 2025 to be close to 1 Gbps. Even if Telstra were to roll out HFC in massive quantities, it would not be able to afford to do it to even half the country by 2021, around the time the NBN is due for completion. The Internet is ever expanding and ever consuming. The only way for Australia to grow, both nationally and internationally, is to keep pace with growing Internet demand. The NBN is a golden opportunity to allow and encourage this growth. It is large national infrastructure. But, considering the growth of Australia since the late 1940's (7.5 Million) compared to now (~23 Million), it is not much more expensive than building the original CAN (Customer Access Network) that we still have now for the increased population (£42 Million- or $10 Billion in todays money). And this is not counting the life of the network, pegged at 50 years in its current form, but with upgrades to the hardware, but not the lines, well beyond that.

And if we were to cancel it now? Cut our losses and go with the cheaper option (explained next!) Well, I won't go into detail, many people have done that already. Suffice to say, it'll save us.....about $1 Billion. Sounds like alot. What would that get us? Well, in the 2011 budget, $1.1 Billion was saved with "Public service efficiency." It is also about 1/8 of the budget of Community Services and Culture, our lowest budget category. Or 1/120 of Welfare, our highest budget spender. $28 Billion is about twice the current yearly infrastructure budget. That's BUDGETED infrastructure, such as upgrades of major highways and motorways like the M5 and Pacific Highway. So for twice the annual budget we spend on infrastructure, we have an almost entirely new network of cables in the ground and hardware to run them at current speeds of 100Mbps, rising to 1 Gbps in 10 years......now if that's not bad, tell me what isn't?



          Tiny Estonia Takes Tall Stand Against Russian Rights Abusers        

MOSCOW, RUSSIA—“The adoption of the Magnitsky law in Europe would be an absolute catastrophe for Putin,” Boris Nemtsov, leader of the Russian opposition, said soon after the United States barred corrupt Russian officials and human rights abusers from entering its territory and using its financial system. “He finds the American law disagreeable, but he’s aware that it’s in Europe that the overwhelming majority of corrupt functionaries have assets, children, property and bank accounts...So tremendous force is being exerted to defeat the adoption of the Magnitsky law in Europe.”

Indeed, in the four years that have passed since the US Magnitsky Act came into effect in December 2012, no European country dared follow the example. There were motions, statements, recommendations, resolutions—but no practical steps.

This changed last week in Tallinn, where, at a conference held on the eve of International Human Rights Day, Estonian President Kersti Kaljulaid signed a law—unanimously passed by the country’s parliament—providing for the denial of visas “if there is information or good reason to believe that the alien has participated in or contributed to the violation of human rights in a foreign state, which has resulted in the death, serious physical harm or unfounded conviction of a person for a crime for political motives, or some other serious consequences.”

Where the grand powers of the so-called “old Europe” fell short, a 1.3 million country on the Russian border had the tenacity to become the first European Union member state to close its doors to those who abuse their own citizens but prefer the comfort and freedom of the West for themselves and for their families.

Four years on, the principle set by the US law—that there should be personal accountability for human rights abuse, and that it should not stop at national borders—has been accepted on European soil. Estonia’s lead should now make it easier for more timid EU governments to follow. Notably, the very nature of European pan-national arrangements—including the 26-nation Schengen free travel zone—also means that when a human rights abuser is denied an Estonian visa, he or she is also denied entry into the rest of the Schengen area.

“When we in Russia establish law and order, when the country has an established independent judiciary, I will be the first to go to Brussels and Strasbourg and lobby for the law to be repealed, because we will deal with our scoundrels ourselves,” Nemtsov said in 2013. It will not be him—but one day, a leader of a democratic Russian government no doubt will argue that external visa sanctions should be removed as obsolete. That day has not yet come. For now, it is up to European democracies to tell Kremlin crooks and abusers that they are not welcome.

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           The 2009 European Elections in Estonia         
Sikk, A; (2009) The 2009 European Elections in Estonia. (European Parties, Elections and Referendums Network 41 ).
           Force Mineure? The Effects of the EU on Party Politics in a Small Country: The Case of Estonia         
Sikk, A; (2009) Force Mineure? The Effects of the EU on Party Politics in a Small Country: The Case of Estonia. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics , 25 (4) 468 - 490. 10.1080/13523270903310852 . Green open access
           Without a Tinge of Red: The Fall and Rise of Estonian Greens         
Sikk, A; Andersen, RH; (2009) Without a Tinge of Red: The Fall and Rise of Estonian Greens. Journal of Baltic Studies , 40 (3) 349 - 373. 10.1080/01629770903118740 . Green open access
          [IWS] Eurostat: MATERIAL DEPRIVATION STATISTICS: EARLY RESULTS [30 March 2015]        

IWS Documented News Service

_______________________________

Institute for Workplace Studies-----------------Professor Samuel B. Bacharach

School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies

Cornell University

16 East 34th Street, 4th floor--------------------Stuart Basefsky

New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau

________________________________________________________________________

NOTE: Funding for this service ends on 31 March 2015. Postings will end on this date as well.

 

 

European Commission

Eurostat

 

MATERIAL DEPRIVATION STATISTICS: EARLY RESULTS [30 March 2015]

http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Material_deprivation_statistics_-_early_results

 

Data extracted in March 2015. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: May 2015.

Increased timelines of the EU-SILC data

Eurostat disseminates early results for severe material deprivation rates so that trends in poverty levels can be tracked more closely. 2014 data are available for over half the European Union (EU) Member States, and Iceland. The coverage and the timeliness is expected to increase in the coming years. Latvia and Hungary have provided final data for the early results, while Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Spain, Italy, Malta, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, the United Kingdom and Iceland have transmitted provisional data. Early EU-28 aggregates are not yet available for 2014, as not all Member States have transmitted final or provisional material deprivation variables.

In 2014, of the countries that sent data to Eurostat, early severe material deprivation rates increased for Greece (+1.4 percentage points), Belgium and Spain (both +0.8 pp) and for Malta (+0.7 pp) The rates fell significantly in Bulgaria (-9.9 pp), Latvia (-4.8 pp), Poland (-1.5 pp), Hungary (- 2.9 pp), Estonia (-1.4 pp), Italy and United Kingdom (both -1.0 pp). No large variations were seen in the other countries for which data is available.

 

This article is based on data sent to Eurostat by end of March 2015. Final EU-SILC cross sectional data for 2014 are already available for two Member States[1] and 15 Member States and Iceland have provided provisional material deprivation and ‘economic strain’ data[2]. In Eurostat’s online database, provisional indicators are flagged ‘p’ (provisional) to distinguish them from final data. The difference between provisional data and final data is explained below in the section on ‘Data sources and availability’. For the countries for which only provisional data is available, the analysis is merely indicative: in some cases, there may be discrepancies between provisional and final data. Although we refer to the severe material deprivation indicators for the 18 countries as early indicators, for Latvia and Hungary the values are already final.

Material deprivation rates gauge the proportion of people whose living conditions are severely affected by a lack of resources. The severe material deprivation rate represents the proportion of people living in households that cannot afford at least four of the following nine items:

·         mortgage or rent payments, utility bills, hire purchase instalments or other loan payments;

·         one week’s holiday away from home;

·         a meal with meat, chicken, fish or vegetarian equivalent every second day;

·         unexpected financial expenses;

·         a telephone (including mobile telephone);

·         a colour TV;

·         a washing machine;

·         a car; and

·         heating to keep the home sufficiently warm.

The severe material deprivation rate, broken down by gender, age group and household type, is the main indicator for material poverty in this article.

 

________________________________________________________________________

This information is provided to subscribers, friends, faculty, students and alumni of the School of Industrial & Labor Relations (ILR). It is a service of the Institute for Workplace Studies (IWS) in New York City. Stuart Basefsky is responsible for the selection of the contents which is intended to keep researchers, companies, workers, and governments aware of the latest information related to ILR disciplines as it becomes available for the purposes of research, understanding and debate. The content does not reflect the opinions or positions of Cornell University, the School of Industrial & Labor Relations, or that of Mr. Basefsky and should not be construed as such. The service is unique in that it provides the original source documentation, via links, behind the news and research of the day. Use of the information provided is unrestricted. However, it is requested that users acknowledge that the information was found via the IWS Documented News Service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


          Comment on Feedback by Mattias Oja        
I have known Jarko since my first steps and first spinning casts in my life. All knowledge I have acquired during my fisherman life I own mostly because of my close relative and ''older brother'' Jarko. He has taught me fishing all kind of fishes that Estonian waters have to offer and making best fish dishes of them. In addition to this, I have learned how to enjoy and take maximum pleasure from nature. Words that come to mind with Jarko: 110% of passion, love of nature, fly-fishing, trout, salmon, life experience, peace of mind, green. When you want to get maximum from Estonian fishing opportunities and nature, Jarko is THE PERSON you need to contact! Otherwise take a rod, go to nearest lake you can find and open a beer..
          Comment on Feedback by Martin Mandel        
I have worked with Jarko for one year at the Estonian Environmental Inspectorate. During that time we got to know each other pretty well. So what can I say about him. Hmm... The more I got to know him the more I saw that behind that 190 + cm long height and short hair (no offence :) was the kindest heart and the friendliest guy I have ever known. For real! Fishing is his passion. His wife doesn't get much attention cause of that. There is all, and I mean ALL, about fishing when it comes to Jarko. I bet the guy even has sheets with little fish (I guess salmon or little perches) on them. Fishing really is his life. And he doesn't only catch the fish. He is the best cook I know when it comes to cooking fish. As I lived alone during our working days, he often invited me to his place and gave me his filleted and marinated salmon or pike, which, believe me, was the best I have had. And also thank You for teaching me how to fillet a fish. So when You guys decide to come fishing in Estonia and really want to catch some fish, learn how to cook it the Estonian way, see the most beautiful spots here that even most estonians don't have a clue – this is the guy You want to call. Trust me, I know!!!
          Krokus at the California State Fair 2012        
At the California State Fair Awards Ceremony

Last weekend was the California State Fair awards ceremony. Paul and I had decided to attend when I received a notice in the mail that my blue Krokus, a table center designed by Herbert Niebling, had won First Place, Best of Class and Best of Division. I was so excited! Paul and my friends Nora and Jeanne and I trooped through the blistering heat of the Fair together.

Due to this extreme heat in Sacramento, the awards ceremony was not well-attended. Even though the awards were held in the morning at 10 a.m., the temperature was already up, around 90 degrees F. By the afternoon, it was over 100, and people were wilting.

Krokus won two ribbons!
My category was Other Fiber Arts, which included lace (knitted, crocheted and all others), tatting and weaving.The competition was stiff. Overall, the exhibit classes had attracted 4,500 entrants this year. I don't know how that compares with other years, as this was my first time entering.

The Master of Ceremonies cracked a few jokes and handed out the 20 Golden Bear trophies to the Best of Show winners. The other winners got ribbons. No trophies for me this year, but maybe next time. I was happy with my two ribbons!

The Golden Bear Trophy
The youth awards were the most inspiring. A 10-year-old girl sitting in front of us won a Golden Bear trophy for youth photography -- the smile on her face was priceless!








The Best of Show winner: a crochet table covering
The Best of Show in the overall Fiber Arts category was a crocheted lace table center. It was a beauty!

Announcing the special awards inside the Exhibit Hall
We stepped inside to view some exhibits and shop. Nora got a tarot reading, and I bought a photo frame for Ellie's picture and some salsa seasoning.







JD's special Salsa Seasoning

At first I was skeptical of this seasoning from Minnesota, but it's really good, and can be used for dips or salsa or seasoning meat or veggies.






Two lovely shawls



The green Estonian lace shawl on the left was beautiful, but it was hard to see the stitchwork because of the way it was draped.  I felt the same about the way mine was displayed.  It would have been nice to see all the detail, with the lace spread out over a table.



Another beautiful shawl


More beautiful work

The large quilt is made entirely of silk ties
Spanish Peacock from A Gathering of Lace, Meg Swansen
Did I say it was hot?  It was HOT! and I don't mean hot from the salsa.  It was difficult to enjoy the agriculture and farm animal exhibits outdoors.  In the Livestock Nursery, I saw some Jacobs lambs, only a few days old. 






We decided to have lunch in restaurant at Arden Fair Mall rather than swelter outside and eat Fair food.  Ahh, air conditioned relief!

Nora and Jeanne headed back to the city, and Paul and I checked into Le Rivage Hotel next to the Sacramento River.  We had a lovely view, but it was impossible to sit outside on the balcony for more than a few minutes in the heat.

I will never complain about fog again. :)
          Knitted Lace of Estonia at Lacis        
I visited the Knitted Lace of Estonia exhibit at Lacis Museum of Lace and Textiles in Berkeley, CA yesterday.  The exhibit featured a lovely collection of knitted lace shawls provided by Nancy Bush.  Nancy wrote the book: Knitted Lace of Estonia.

Flash photography is not permitted in the Museum, so please forgive the quality of some of these cell phone photos.
















          More photos from Knitting Lab        
Jane and Nina

A real Estonian shawl on the silent auction table.  Last bid was $200, and climbing.

Another silent auction item from the cover of Interweave Knits

Waiting for the Market to open

The line forming outside the Market

In my hot little hand ... alpaca/silk/merino from Just Our Yarn

And the shopping frenzy begins

Oodles of spindles at Carolina Homespun's booth

          European Union presidency discussions consider policy options for alcohol labelling         
One of the priorities of the 2017 Estonian Presidency of the Council of the European Union is the reduction of alcohol-related harm in Europe. In particular, Estonia will address cross-border alcohol policy issues, including advertising and labelling of alcoholic beverages.

          Peace Revolution episode 044: The Ultimate History Lesson with John Taylor Gatto / Hour 4 + Commentary        
itunes pic

 

Peace Revolution episode 044: The Ultimate History Lesson w/ John Taylor Gatto / Hour 4 + Commentary

Notes, References, and Links for further study:

Your invitation to the Tragedy and Hope online critical thinking community

Peace Revolution Podcast’s primary hosting site (2009-2011)

Peace Revolution Podcast’s backup hosting site (2006-2011, also includes the 9/11 Synchronicity Podcast episodes, starting at the bottom of the page)

Tragedy and Hope dot com (all of our media productions, freeto the public). On the top menu, there is a “Trivium” selection, which includes the Brain model discussed in Peace Revolution episodes.

 

  1. Ultimate History Lesson Hour 4, minutes 1 -15 (approx.)
  2. (Book) “The Metalogicon: A Twelfth-Century Defense of the Verbal and Logical Arts of the Trivium” by John of Salisbury
  3. Thomas Becket (on Wikipedia)
  4. John of Salisbury (on Wikipedia)
  5. R. Gordon Wasson (on Wikipedia)
  6. (Book) “Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality” by R. Gordon Wasson (1972)
  7. (Book) “Mushrooms, Russia and History” by Valentina Pavlovna Wasson and R. Gordon Wasson (1957) (click here to read Volume I & click here to read Volume II)
  8. Antony Sutton
  9. Lysander Spooner (on Wikipedia)
  10. Frédéric Bastiat (on Wikipedia)
  11. (Book) “The Law” by Frédéric Bastiat
  12. Daughters of the Barons of Runnemede
  13. St. Ignatius Loyola (Catholic encyclopedia)
  14. Protestant Reformation (on Wikipedia)
  15. Counter-Reformation (on Wikipedia)
  16. The Society of Jesus (“Jesuits”; Catholic encyclopedia)
  17. Adam Weishaupt (on Wikipedia)
  18. (Book) “The Leipzig Connection: Basics in Education” by Paolo Lionni (1993)
  19. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (on Wikipedia)
  20. Johann Kaspar Lavater (on Wikipedia)
  21. Prussian Education System (on Wikipedia)
  22. (Book)  “The Story of Civilization” (11-volume set) by Will & Ariel Durant
  23. Admiral David Farragut (on Wikipedia)
  24. Hemp + George Washington/Thomas Jefferson
  25. (Book) “The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The Authoritative Historical Record of Cannabis and the Conspiracy Against Marijuana… and How Hemp Can Save The World” by Jack Herer (1973)
  26. Hearst  + HEMP prohibition
  27. Hour 4 Roundtable Discussion of minutes 1-15:
  28. UNCED (Youtube Video) (6:00 Talks about Rothschild funding of Rhodes)
  29. John of Salisbury(Wikipedia)
  30. Metalogicon (Wikipedia)
  31. Thomas Beckett (Wikipedia)
  32. R. Gordon Wasson (Wikipedia)
  33. JP Morgan (Wikipedia)
  34. (Book) "Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality (Ethno-Mycological Studies)" by Robert Gordon Wasson
  35. Life Magazine May 13th 1957 "Seeking the magic mushroom" (Magazine Article)
  36. Robert Gordon Wasson (Library / Archives)
  37. JP Morgan (Library / Archives)
  38. Century Club (Wikipedia)
  39. Wall Street – The Corner (Wikipedia)
  40. Edward Bernays (Wikipedia)
    1. (Book) "Propaganda" by Edward Bernays
  41. All Souls College, Oxford (Wikipedia)
  42. (Book) "Hall-Carbine Affair" by R Gordon Wasson
  43. Allan Nevins letters (Wikipedia)
  44. American Historical Association (Wikipedia)
  45. Carnegie Endowment (Wikipedia)
  46. Psilocybin Mushrooms (Wikipedia)
  47. John G Bourke (Wikipedia) 
    1. (Book) "Scatological Rites of All Nations" by John G Bourke
  48. (Book) "Sacred Mushroom Seeker: Tributes to R. Gordon Wasson" by Thomas J. Riedlinger
  49. Mazatec Indians (Wikipedia)
  50. Mazatec Indians (Catholic Encyclopedia)
  51. Maria Sabina (Wikipedia)
  52. Council on Foreign Relations (Wikipedia)
  53. Charles Douglas Jackson (Wikipedia)
  54. Henry P Davidson (Wikipedia)
  55. Henry Luce (Wikipedia)
  56. Time Life Magazine (Wikipedia)
  57. Allen Dulles (Wikipedia)
  58. National Geographic (Wikipedia)
  59. Clair Booth Luce (Wikipedia)
  60. When the Elite Loved LSD” (Time Article)
  61. “Cary in the Sky with Diamonds” by Cari Beauchamp and Jude Bachrach  (VanityFair Article)
  62. Timothy Leary (Wikipedia)
  63. “IMAGE OF AN ASSASSINATION; A new look at the Zapruder film” (YouTube Video) (CD Jackson is referenced as the man who bought the Zapruder film)
  64. (Book) “SYKEWAR: Psychological Warfare against Germany, D-Day to VE-Day” by David Lerner (Includes William Paley and CD Jackson as psychological warfare during WWII)
  65. Abe Zapruder (Spartacus Educational Blog – Wikipedia Links imbedded within text)
  66. Lee Harvey Oswald (Wikipedia)
  67. Valentina Pavlovna Wasson (Erowid Entry)
    1. (Book) “Mushrooms, Russia, and History” by Valentina Pavlovna Wasson (.pdf’s are at the bottom of the page)
  68. History of the Hippie Movement (Wikipedia) (Wasson + Psychedelic Revolution + New Age)
  69. Psychedelic Experience (Wikipedia)
  70. Heraldo Show (YouTube Video) (March 6, 1975; First Public Showing of the Zapruder Film)
  71. Kennedy’s Executive Order 11110 (Wikipedia)
  72. Cold War (Wikipedia)
  73. (Book) "Compromised Campus" by Sigmund Diamond
  74. Harold J. Berman (Wikipedia)
  75. James Bryant Conant (Wikipedia)
  76. Utopia (Wikipedia)
  77. The Republic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  78. The Laws (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  79. (Book) "Family of Secrets" by Russ Baker
  80. London School of Economics (Wikipedia)
  81. Thomas Campbell Wasson (Wikipedia)
  82. Antony Sutton (Wikipedia)
  83. Stanford University (Wikipedia)
  84. Daughters of the Barons of Runnymede (Wikipedia)
    1. (Book) “Underground History of American Education” by John Taylor Gatto; Chapter 12 entitled “Daughter’s of the Barons of Runnymede”
  85. (Book) "America’s Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull and Bones" by Antony Sutton
  86. (Book) "The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America" by Charlotte Iserbyte
  87. Jan Iserbyte (SunJournal Article)
  88. King Leopold - White King Red Rubber Black Death (Google Video)
  89. U.S. Department of Education (Wikipedia)
  90. (Book) "The Underground History of American Education" by John Taylor Gatto
  91. Dark Ages (Wikipedia)
  92. Adoption (Wikipedia)
  93. Ignatius of Loyola (Wikipedia)
  94. Ignatius of Loyola (Catholic Encyclopedia)
  95. The Jesuits (Catholic Encyclopedia)
  96. Alumbrados (Wikipedia)
  97. Alumbrados (Catholic Encyclopedia)
  98. Bavarian Illuminati (Wikipedia)
  99. Protestantism (Wikipedia)
  100. Counter-Reformation (Wikipedia)
  101. Counter-Reformation (Catholic Encyclopedia)
  102. "The Role of the Venetian Oligarchy in Reformation, Counter-reformation, Enlightenment, and the Thirty Years’ War" by Webster Tarpley  (Essay)
  103. (Book) "The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, Freemasonry, and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus" by Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas
  104. Webster Tarpley (Wikipedia)
  105. (Book) "Institutes on the Christian Religion" by John Calvin
  106. Institutes of the Christian Religion by John Calvin (Wikipedia)
  107. Adam Weishaupt (Wikipedia)
  108. Bavarian Illuminati Reference materials
    1. Oxford English Dictionary
    2. Illuminati: ‖‖ illuminati, n. pl.
      1. Also sing. illuminato (-ˈɑːtəʊ); †plur. -oes.
      2. Plural of L. illÅ«minātus, It. -ato ‘enlightened’, used in fig. sense.]
    3. A name assumed by or applied to various societies or sects because of their claim to special enlightenment in religious, or (later) intellectual, matters.
      1. a.a Applied to a sect of Spanish heretics which existed in the 16th c. under the name Alumbrados or ‘enlightened’; subsequently, to a similar but obscure sect of Familists which arose in France in Louis XIII's reign.
      2. 1599 Sandys Europæ Spec. (1632) 166 An other pestilent Sect there was not long since of the Illuminati in Aragon.    1652 R. Boreman Countr. Catech. ii. 5 The Illuminatoes of the times, the Anabaptists.    1686 tr. Bouhours' St. Ignatius ii. 77 The Inquisitors‥were induced to believe, that‥the Person‥might either be an Illuminato or a Lutheran.    1749 G. Lavington Enthus. Methodists & Papists (1754) I. ii. 114 The Alumbrado's or Illuminati of Spain.
    4. b.b Used to render Ger. Illuminaten, the name of a celebrated secret society, founded at Ingolstadt in Bavaria, in 1776, by Professor Adam Weishaupt, holding deistic and republican principles, and having an organization akin to freemasonry; hence applied to other thinkers regarded as atheistic or free-thinking, e.g. the French Encyclopædists.
      1. 1797 J. Robison (title) Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies.    1798 Washington Lett. Writ. 1893 XIV. 119 The doctrines of the Illuminati and principles of Jacobinism.    1802 Kett Elem. Gen. Knowl. 71 (Jod.) The Freethinkers of England, the Philosophists of France, and the Illuminati of Germany.
    5. c.c gen. Persons affecting or claiming to possess special knowledge or enlightenment on any subject: often used satirically.
      1. 1816 T. L. Peacock Headlong Hall i, The conversation among these illuminati soon became animated.    1846 H. Rogers Ess. I. iv. 157 What was dark to himself was happily quite clear to these illuminati [the alchemists].    1850 Marg. Fuller Life without & Life within (1860) 41 Wilhelm is deemed worthy of admission to the society of the Illuminati, that is, those who have pierced the secret of life, and know what it is to be and to do.    a 1878 Sir G. Scott Recollect. iii. (1879) 111 All thanks and honour‥to the older Pugin, however much our illuminati may sneer.    1887 Contemp. Rev. Apr. 592 An illuminato like Katkoff may write as if Russia was invincible; practical men know better.
  109. 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica 11th Edition (Pre-Censorship for mass distribution)
  110. Illuminati
  111. Catholic Encyclopedia
  112. Illuminati
    1. At first (1774) he aimed at an arrangement with the Freemasons. Closer inquiry, however, destroyed his high estimate of this organization, and he resolved to found a new society which, surrounded with the greatest possible secrecy, would enable him most effectually to realize his aims and could at all times be precisely adapted to the needs of the age and local conditions.
  113. Estonian Wikipedia entry for Illuminati (translated)
  114. Cites “Kindergarten” as a novice initiative level of the Illuminati
  115. Illuminati Sightseeing: The Masonic Congress of Wilhelmsbad (1782)
  116. Illuminati (and all Secret Societies) banned in Bavaria (1785)
  117. How to enforce such a law?
  118. Documents published by the Bavarian Government 1796
  119. Nachtrag von weitern Originalschriften welche die Illuminatensekte (1787)
    1. Amazon.com “Nachtrag Von Weitern Originalschriften, Welche Die Illuminatensekte Überhaupt, Sonderbar Aber Den Stifter, Derselben Adam Weishaupt ... Betreffen, Und ... Illuminaten-Neste, Vorgen...” (German Edition) [Paperback]
    2. Duke University. Library. Jantz Collection. German Baroque Literature (Author)
    3. Google Books: “Nachtrag von weitern Originalschriften, welche die Illuminatensekte überhaupt, sonderbar aber den Stifter, derselben Adam Weishaupt ... betreffen, und bey der auf dem Baron Bassusischen Schloss zu Sandersdorf, einem bekannten Illuminaten-Neste, vorgenommenen Visitation endeckt, sofort auf Churfürstlich höchsten Befehl gedruckt ... ; zwo Abtheilungen” (Google eBook)
    4. Archive.org: “Nachtrag von weitern Originalschriften, welche die Illuminatensekte überhaupt, sonderbar aber …” (1787)
  120. Einige Originalschriften Des Illuminaten Ordens Munich (1787)
    1. Scribd.com: “Einige Originalschriften Des Illuminaten Ordens, Munich, 1787 Color
  121. Die Neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo (1793)
    1. Google Books: “Die neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo in dem Illuminaten-Orden” (Google eBook)
    2. Amazon.com: “Die Neuesten Arbeiten Des Spartacus Und Philo In Dem Illuminaten-orden” (German Edition) by Ludwig Adolf Christian von Grolmann
    3. Scribd.com: “Die Neuesten Arbeiten Des Sparticus Und Philo, Munich” (1793)
    4. Yet the “Illuminati” and “Illuminism” continue to spread in America…
  122. “Illuminati Conspiracy Part One: A Precise Exegesis on the Available Evidence” - by Terry Melanson, Aug. 5th, 2005
  123. (Book) “Proofs of a Conspiracy” by Professor John Robison (1798)
  124. Member of the Royal Society and Professor of Physics – John Robison (Wikipedia)
  125. George Washington’s Letters (October 24, 1798)
  126. George Washington acknowledge the Doctrines of the Illuminati were Spreading in the United States
  127. Library of Congress (Search “Illuminati”)
  128. Thomas Jefferson’s Letters
  129. “The Writings of Thomas Jefferson”, Volume VII, 1795-1801, pp. 419-421
  130. See also: "As Weishaupt lived under the tyranny of a despot and priests, he knew that caution was necessary even in spreading information, and the principles of pure morality. This has given an air of mystery to his views, was the foundation of his banishment.... If Weishaupt had written here, where no secrecy is necessary in our endeavors to render men wise and virtuous, he would not have thought of any secret machinery for that purpose." - Thomas Jefferson
  131. John Quincy Adams’ “Letters on Freemasonry” (1832) (Archive.org)
  132. The Morgan Affair of 1826 (Death of William Morgan)
  133. Anti-Masonic Party (Wikipedia) (1st third-party formed in America)
    1. Creation of Mormonism: "Mormonism is designed to appear to be a religion, but it is instead a secret society at its core. In fact, since its inception, it had a structure and goals similar to the Bavarian Illuminati. Its mysticism and religious doctrine read just as if lifted from Masonic texts and Kabbalistic writings. It was created after the Morgan Affair of 1826 when the Freemason sect was nationally under attack and virtually came to an end. Mormonism was a means of continuation by another name, but with clever modern occult doctrines of communism and plural wives added in the mix. " 
  134. Moses Hess (Wikipedia)
  135. (Book) 1861: “The Revival of Israel / Rome and Jerusalem: The Last Nationalist Question” by Moses Hess
  136. 1917: Balfour Declaration / Letter from Arthur James Balfour to Lord Rothschild on behalf of the Monarchy of Great Britain
  137. (Book) “Morals and Dogma” by Gen. Albert Pike
  138. Scottish Rite Freemasonry
  139. New England and the Bavarian Illuminati” (Columbia University)
  140. Faculty of Political Science of Columbia University 1918
  141. Jews and Freemasons in Europe 1723-1939” by Jacob Katz, The University of Jerusalem and published by Harvard University Press (1970)
  142. (Book) “Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time” by Professor Carroll Quigley (1966)
  143. Carroll Quigley (Wikipedia) (Tutor to Rhodes Scholar William J. Clinton)
  144. (Book) “Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith” by James H. Billington
  145. James H. Billington (Wikipedia) (Rhodes Scholar and Librarian of Congress)
  146. The Real New World Order” by Anne-Marie Slaughter
  147. Council on Foreign Relations Publication
  148. Noam Chomsky (Wikipedia) “The New World Order” C-SPAN presentation (1998)
  149. (Book) “Perfectibilists: The 18th Century Bavarian Order of the Illuminati” by Terry Melanson
  150. Computer Scientists Crack “Unbreakable” Code, Find Minutes of 250-Year-Old Secret Society” (Discover Magazine, 2011)
  151. (Book) “The Leipzig Connection” by Paolo Lionni (Amazon)
  152. The artificial extension of childhood
  153. Rendering children harmless
  154. Training future recruits
  155. Hazing in fraternities
  156. To marginalize the young, considered to be the ‘most dangerous’
  157. (Book) “The 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written The History of Thought From Ancient Times to Today” by Martin Seymour-Smith
  158. Page 49 According to Plutarch Alexander wrote a letter to Aristotle
  159. Hemp Facts / North American Hemp Council (NAIHC Website)
  160. (Book) Jack Herer “The Emperor Wears No Clothes” (See Links Below)
  161. It’s like public schooling puts blindfolds on us, and the elite are so confident that everyone is blinded by the school system; that they’re now walking around nakedly exhibiting their greed and malign for the public… and it’s time we called them out, and show everyone how to un-blindfold themselves.
  162. (Book) "The Emperor Wears No Clothes" by Jack Herer
    1. Chapter 4: A Conspiracy to Wipe Out the Natural Competition (Benjamin Franklin + Paper Mills)
    2. Chapter 1: American Historical Notes
    3. Chapter 9: Energy and the Economy (Henry Ford Hemp for Fuel)
  163. William Randolph Hearst (Wikipedia)
  164. RKO 281 (Movie)
  165. “The American Experience” The Battle Over Citizen Kane (Documentary)
  166. Citizen Kane (Movie)
  167. DuPont (Wikipedia)
  168. Ultimate History Lesson Hour 4, minutes 15 -30 (approx.)
  169. (Book) “A Dictionary of the English Language” by Samuel Johnson (1755)
  170. (Book) “Meditations” by Marcus Aurelius Antonitus (circa 180)
  171. (Book) “The Works of Julius Caesar”
  172. John Taylor Gatto + Trivium + Gnostic Media
  173. Trivium (on Wikipedia)
  174. Quadrivium (on Wikipedia)
  175. “The Lost Tools of Learning” by Dorothy Sayers 
  176. Hour 4 Roundtable Discussion of minutes 15 -30 (approx.)
  177. Bionomics (Wikipedia)
  178. (Book) "Molecular Vision of Life" by Lily E. Kay
  179. Rockefeller Foundation (Wikipedia)
  180. Eugenics (Wikipedia)
  181. Science of Man / Edward Alsworth Ross (Yale Review, Volume 2)
    1. The Rockfeller Foundation's Molecular Vision of Life — How the Aims of Eugenics, Social Control, and Human Engineering Shaped Molecular Biology and 20th Century Science.  A Review of Lily E. Kay's The Molecular Vision of Life: Caltech, The Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology (Oxford University Press, 1993), January16, 2009.  Reviewed by Chris Masterjohn. (Search term “social control” – Coined by Edward Alsworth Ross)
  182. Lionus Pauling (Wikipedia)
  183. Clarence Streit (Wikipedia)
  184. (Book) “Union Now with Britain” by Clarence Streit
  185. Rhodes Milner Round Table Movement (Wikipedia)
  186. Elwood P Cubberly (Wikipedia)
  187. Teachers College, Columbia University (Wikipedia)
  188. Edward Thorndyke (Wikipedia)
  189. (Book) "Manager’s of Virtue" by David Tyack and Elizabeth Hansot
  190. Definition of Allusion (Wikipedia)
  191. (Book) "Perfectibilists" by Terry Melanson 
  192. (Book) "Illuminati Manifesto of World Revolution 1792 by Niccolas Bonneville translated by Marco de Luchetti"
  193. (Book) 1797 J. Robison (title) "Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies"
  194. Abbe Barruel (Wikipedia)
  195. Free Draft Chapters of The Illuminati of Bavaria by Marco de Luchetti
    1. Chapter Nine - Illuminati Aims.pdf: Taking Education of Children Away from Parents
  196. (Book) "Brave New World" by Aldus Huxley
  197. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Wikipedia)
  198. Zeitgeist Movement (Wikipedia)
  199. All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace by Adam Curtis (TopDocumentaryFilms.com)
  200. Dan Brown (Wikipedia)
    1. The Da Vinci Code (IMDb)
    2. Angel’s and Demons (IMDb)
  201. Esalen Institute (Wikipedia)
  202. Terence McKenna (Wikipedia)
  203. 2012 Phenomenon (Wikipedia)
  204. Tavistock Institute (Wikipedia)
  205. MK-Ultra (Wikipedia)
  206. Strict Observance Lodge (Wikipedia)
  207. Scottish Rite Freemasonry (Wikipedia)
  208. York Rite Freemasonry (Wikipedia)
  209. Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria (Wikipedia)
  210. Aldolph Freiherr Knigge (Wikipedia)
  211. Congress of Wilhelmsbad (Metapedia)
  212. French Revolution (Wikipedia)
  213. (Book) "Tragedy and Hope" by Carroll Quigley
  214. Jacobins (Wikipedia)
  215. French Revolution (Wikipedia)
  216. (Book) "Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith" by James H. Billington
  217. Nicholas Bonneville (Wikipedia)
  218. J.C. Bode  (Illuminati of Bavaria)
  219. Amis Reunis Lodge (Bavarian Illuminati: Home of the Original Writings of the Illuminati)
  220. Thomas Paine’s ménage a trios with Bonneville’s wife (Chapter 4: The Occult Origins of Organization)
  221. Benjamin Bonneville (Wikipedia) (Astor financed his western expeditions)
  222. The Hidden Faith of the Founding Fathers (YouTube Video)
  223. Johann Gottlieb Fichte (Wikipedia)
  224. Alfred the Great (Wikipedia)
  225. Aide-de-champ Marquis De Lafayette (Wikipedia)
  226. Honore Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau (Wikipedia)
  227. (Book) "Age of Reason" by Thomas Paine (Expose on Christian Paganism)
  228. Niccolò Machiavelli (Wikipedia)
    1. (Book) "The Art of War" by Niccolo Machiavelli
  229. Johann Gottlieb Fichte c. Ficthte’s Return to the University and his Final Years (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  230. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Wikipedia)
  231. V for Vendetta (Wikipedia)
    1. Movie (IMDb)
    2. Script (IMSDb)
  232. Immanuel Kant (Wikipedia)
  233. Jacob Friedrich von Able (Wikipedia)
  234. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (Wikipedia)
  235. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Wikipedia)
  236. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  237. Friedrich Schiller (Wikipedia)
  238. (Book) "Hegel and the Hermetic Tradition" by Glen Alexander Magee
  239. (Book) "Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry" by Albert Pike
  240. Kabbalah (Wikipedia)
  241. Etymology of Pedagogue (Online Etymology Dictionary)
  242. “WEARERS OF FEZZES: Facts About An Arabic Order And Its American Uses: KNOWN AS MYSTIC SHRINERS: Has Existed in Arabia Since A.D. 664, and Was Instituted by Son-in-Law of Mohammed” (The Saint Paul globe., September 08, 1901, Page 14, Image 14)
  243. Wahhabi Islam (Wikipedia)
  244. “The Hidden Faith of the Founding Fathers” (Youtube Video)
    1. Ben Franklin is referenced as being a Freemason at the Amis Reunis Lodge, a lodge infiltrated by the Illuminati
  245. ( Book) "Freedom and Religion in Kant and his Immediate Successors: The Vocation of Humankind, 1774-1800" by George di Giovanni  (Weishaupt’s Critiques of Kant)
  246. James Pierpont Greaves (Wikipedia)
  247. Yverdon School (heinrich-pestalozzi.de)
  248. (Book) “History of the Philosophy of Mind: Embracing the Opinions of All Writers on Mental Science from the Earliest Period to the Present Time” by Robert Blakey
  249. Alcott House (Wikipedia)
  250. Amos Bronson Alcott (Wikipedia)
  251. Elizabeth Peabody (Wikipedia)
  252. Horace Mann (Wikipedia)
  253. American Transcendental Movement (Wikipedia)
  254. Fruitlands (Wikipedia)
    1. Amos Bronson Alcott (Wikipedia)
    2. Charles Lane (Wikipedia)
  255. (Book) "Leipzig Connection Basics of Education" by Paolo Lionni
  256. Johan Kaspar Lavater (Wikipedia)
  257. (Book) "America’s Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skill and Bones" by Antony Sutton (for “Yale Troika” reference, see the chapter “How The Order Controls Education”)
  258. Macy Conferences (Wikipedia)
  259. “The Net – The Unabomber, LSD, and the Internet” (YouTube Video)
  260. (Book) "Tripping" by B.H. Friedman
  261. Albert Hoffmann (Wikipedia)
    1. Search “Sandoz Laboratories” within the Wikipedia
  262. (Book) “A Terrible Mistake: The Murder of Frank Olson and the CIA’s Secret Cold War Experiments” by H.P. Albarelli Jr.
  263. Johann Friedrich Herbart  (Wikipedia)
  264. Wilhelm Wundt (Wikipedia)
  265. G. Stanley Hall (Wikipedia)
  266.  John Dewey (Wikipedia)
  267. Daniel Coit Gilman (Wikipedia)
  268. Timothy Dwight (Wikipedia)
  269. Andrew Dickson White (Cornell University
  270. Andrew Dickson White (Wikipedia)
  271. Edward Everett (Wikipedia)
  272. “National Academy of Sciences: James Rowland Angell 1869 – 1949” A Biographical Memoir by W.S. Hunter (National Academies Press)
  273. (Book) "Memorable Things of Socrates" by Xenophon
  274. Trivium (Wikipedia) + Quadrivium (Wikipedia)
  275. "The Lost Tools of Learning" by Dorothy Sayers (Essay)
  276. (Books) "The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, Freemasonry, and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus"
    1. Page 336, 2nd paragraph has the description of the Wood Manuscript
  277. Julius Caesar’s Carthaginian Wars (Wikipedia)
    1. Divide and Rule (Wikipedia)
  278. History of the University of Chicago (Wikipedia) (Rockefeller’s Removal of the Classics from American Education)
  279. Abraham Lincoln to the Wisconsin Agricultural Society (USDA National Agricultural Library)
  280. Mudsill Theory (Wikipedia)
  281. Temet Nosce (Wikipedia) (Know Thyself)
  282. Ultimate History Lesson Hour 4, minutes 30 -45 (approx.)
  283. 14 Principles of Elite Private Boarding Schools (John Taylor Gatto)
  284. Groton School (on Wikipedia)
  285. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (attended Groton School)
  286. St. Paul’s School (on Wikipedia)
  287. John Kerry (attended St. Paul’s School)
  288. Phillips Academy Andover (on Wikipedia)
  289. George W. Bush (attended Phillips Academy)
  290. George H. W. Bush (attended Phillips Academy)
  291. Choate Rosemary Hall (on Wikipedia)
  292. President John F. Kennedy (attended Choate R.H.)
  293. Episcopal High School (on Wikipedia)
  294. John McCain (attended Episcopal H.S.)
  295. Anglican (on Wikipedia)
  296. Church of England (on Wikipedia)
  297. Quakers (on Wikipedia)
  298. President Herbert Hoover /Quaker
  299. President Richard Nixon /Quaker
  300. Literacy (on Wikipedia)
  301. The Lawrenceville School (on Wikipedia)
  302. The Gunnery (on Wikipedia)
  303. The Hotchkiss School (on Wikipedia)
  304. Groton School + J. P. Morgan (benefactor)
  305. Hour 4 Roundtable Discussion of minutes 30 -45 (approx.)
  306. 14 Principles of Elite Private Boarding Schools
  307. (Book) “Principles of Secondary Education” by Alexander Inglis
  308. Etymology of Anglican (Etymology Dictionary)
  309. (Book) Freemasonry + Mormonism (.pdf)
  310. (Book) “Letters on Masonic Institution” by John Quincy Adams
  311. Anti-Freemasonic Party (Wikipedia)
  312. William Morgan (Wikipedia)
  313. Ultimate History Lesson Hour 4, minutes 45 –end (approx.)
  314. Columbia University (on Wikipedia)
  315. Definition of “Idiom”
  316. Poetry (on Wikipedia)
  317. Poetry Elements (on Wikipedia)
  318. William Shakespeare (on Wikipedia
  319. Sergei Eisenstein (on Wikipedia)
  320. Hour 4 Roundtable Discussion of minutes 45 –end (approx.)
  321. Definition of Idiom (Wikipedia)
  322. Roman Collegia (Wikipedia)
    1. “Collegia could function as guilds, social clubs, or furerary societies; in practice, in ancient Rome, they sometimes became organized bodies of local businessmen and even criminals, who ran the mercantile/criminal activies in a given urban region, or rione.”
  323. (Book) “Weapons of Mass Instruction” by John Taylor Gatto (Open Source Education)
  324. Socialism (Wikipedia)
  325. Communism (Wikipedia)
  326. Nazism (Wikipedia)
  327. Prussian Education System (Wikipedia)
  328. Muckraker
  329. Trivium Method of Critical Thinking and Creative Problem Solving
  330. Dialectic (The Classical Internal Dialogue using Logic)
  331. (Book) “Astrotheology and Shamanism: Christianity’s Pagan Roots” by Jan Irvin

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          Peace Revolution episode 040: Consumer Kindergarten / How Corporations Prey on Children        
itunes pic

Notes, References, and Links for further study:

  1. Use the donation buttons at the bottom of these notes, or on the sidebar of this site, or the sidebar of Tragedy and Hope dot com,  for “The Ultimate History Lesson: A Weekend with John Taylor Gatto” multi-DVD interview project, currently in post-production. With over 5 hours of interview footage, this is a collection of education which is invaluable.
    1. If you donate $50 or more towards the completion of this project, you will receive the entire DVD set; as our way of saying Thanks!
  2. Your invitation to the Tragedy and Hope online critical thinking community
  3. Peace Revolution Podcast’s primary hosting site (2009-2011)
  4. Peace Revolution Podcast’s backup hosting site (2006-2011, also includes the 9/11 Synchronicity Podcast episodes, starting at the bottom of the page)
  5. Tragedy and Hope dot com (all of our media productions, free to the public)
    1. On the top menu, there is a “Trivium” selection, which includes the Brain model discussed in Peace Revolution episodes.
  6. A Peaceful Solution” by Willie Nelson w/thanks to the Willie Nelson Peace Research Institute
  7. T&H Partner Podcasts: Media Monarchy, Corbett Report, Gnostic Media, & Remedy Radio
  8. www.StartPage.com (It uses Google’s search algorithm, but doesn’t collect your private info and search history)
    1. StartPage search engine Firefox add-on
  9. The Brain (mind mapping software to organize your research) download for FREE
    1. The free version works for all functions except web publication
  10. (Video) Carpe Diem! / Dead Poets’ Society (on YouTube)
  11. (Video) Reel Wisdom: Lessons from 40 films in 7 minutes (on YouTube)
  12. (Video) Consuming Kids (on YouTube)
  13. (Video) Corporations in the Classroom (on YouTube)
  14. (Video) The Corporation (on YouTube)
    1. Dr. Robert Hare’s diagnostic checklist applied to Corporations
  15. (Video) Moment of Clarity with Lee Camp (on Lee Camp dot net)
  16. (Video) Ron Paul discussing Carroll Quigley’s “Tragedy and Hope” (on YouTube)
  17. (Audio) James Corbett interviews Richard Grove (on Corbett Report dot com)
  18. (Audio) from Consuming Kids (see above)
  19. (Audio) from Corporations in the Classroom (see above)
  20. List of Oldest Schools in the United Kingdom (on Wikipedia)
  21. Definition of Epistemology (on Wikipedia)
  22. Solipsism (on Wikipedia)
    1. “Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. The term comes from Latin solus (alone) and ipse (self). Solipsism as an epistemological position holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure. The external world and other minds cannot be known, and might not exist outside the mind. As a metaphysical position, solipsism goes further to the conclusion that the world and other minds do not exist. Although the number of individuals sincerely espousing solipsism has been small, it is not uncommon for one philosopher to accuse another's arguments of entailing solipsism as an unwanted consequence, in a kind of reductio ad absurdum. In the history of philosophy, solipsism has also served as a skeptical hypothesis.”
    2. Solipsism is first recorded with the Greek presocratic sophist, Gorgias (c. 483–375 BC) who is quoted by the Roman skeptic Sextus Empiricus as having stated:
      1. Nothing exists;
      2. Even if something exists, nothing can be known about it; and
      3. Even if something could be known about it, knowledge about it can't be communicated to others.
    3. Much of the point of the Sophists was to show that "objective" knowledge was a literal impossibility. (See also comments credited to Protagoras of Abdera).
  23. (Book) Principles of Secondary Education (1918) by Alexander Inglis (on Archive.org)
    1. See pages: 206; Chapter X, 340-380
    2. Propaedeutic Function (on Wikipedia)
  24. Prussian Ph.D. System / Wilhelm Wundt (on Wikipedia)
  25. (Book) The Leipzig Connection: Basics in Education by Paolo Lionni (on Amazon.com)
  26. Prussian influence in Japan
    1. Meiji Constitution 1890 (on Wikipedia)
      1. After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, it provided for a form of constitutional monarchy based on the Prussian model, in which the Emperor of Japan was an active ruler and wielded considerable political power (over foreign policy and diplomacy) …”
  27. (Book) Principles of Psychology by William James (1890)
  28. (Book) Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry by Albert Pike (1871)
  29. (Book) The Impact of Science on Society by Bertrand Russell (1953)
    1. “It is to be expected that advances in physiology and psychology will give governments much more control over individual mentality than they now have even in totalitarian countries. Fichte laid it down that education should aim at destroying free will, so that, after pupils have left school, they shall be incapable, throughout the rest of their lives, of thinking or acting otherwise than as their schoolmasters would have wished. But in his day this was an unattainable ideal: what he regarded as the best system in existence produced Karl Marx. In future such failures are not likely to occur where there is dictatorship. Diet, injections, and injunctions will combine, from a very early age, to produce the sort of character and the sort of beliefs that the authorities consider desirable, and any serious criticism of the powers that be will become psychologically impossible. Even if all are miserable, all will believe themselves happy, because the government will tell them that they are so.” – page 61 of the 1953 first edition
  30. (Document) Kindergarten as the first Initiation level of the Illuminati (from Estonian Wikipedia and Translated)
    1. “Illuminati seem borrowed from modern mandrivabamüürluse kujundlikkusest blossoming, with levels of breeding like rabbits . They had three separate sets of steps, and each set of four or five steps:
      1.  KINDERGARTEN
          1. Preparation
          2. Novice
          3. Minerva
          4. Illuminatus Minor
        1. FREEMASONRY
          1. The Apprentice (symbolic)
          2. Vennasmüürlane
          3. Champion
          4. Illuminatus Major, or Scotch novice
          5. Illuminatus Conductor or Scottish Knight (Scotland)
        2. SECRETS
          1. Presbyter, or priest (at least)
          2. The Prince Regent, or
          3. Magus (Magus) (MAJOR)
          4. King (Rex)
  31. (Book) Illuminati of Bavaria: Chapter 7, Illuminati Strategies of Indoctrination (with footnotes, secondary and primary references)
  32. (Book) America’s Secret Establishment: An introduction to the Order of Skull and Bones by Dr. Antony Sutton; Chapter 8: How the Order Controls Education (Illuminati influence on Public Schooling)
    1. Antony Sutton dot com
  33. (Book) Unequal Protection: The Rise of Corporate Dominance and the Theft of Human Rightsby Thom Hartmann
  34. (Book) The Story of the Rockefeller Foundation by Raymond Fosdick
  35. (Video) The Corporation Nation by Clint Richardson (on YouTube)

Q: Why are we not taught that we're being preyed on by Corporations?

A: Predators designed the system.

Peace Revolution partner podcasts:

Corbett Report dot com

Media Monarchy dot com

Gnostic Media Podcast

School Sucks Project Podcast

Remedy Radio Podcast

Meria dot net

The Unplugged Mom Podcast

Other productions by members of the T&H network:

Navigating Netflix (2011) our new video series wherein we conduct a critical analysis of films you might have missed; Navigating Netflix is available for free on YouTube.

"Memories of a Political Prisoner", an interview with Professor Chengiah Ragaven, graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, and Sussex; AFTER he was a political prisoner, who was exiled from South Africa, during Apartheid. (2011)

What You've Been Missing! (2011) is our video series focusing in on the history of corruption in our public education system.

Top Documentary Films dot com: Hijacking Humanity by Paul Verge (2006)

Top Documentary Films dot com: Exposing the Noble Lie (2010)

Top Documentary Films dot com: The Pharmacratic Inquisition by Jan Irvin (2007)

THANK YOU FOR YOUR SUPPORT! If you would like to donate so that we can continue producing independent media without commercial advertising, simply click the button below for a one-time donation:

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Yearly @ $120.00 / year

*Subscription details on Subscribe page in the Top Menu.


          The Outlaw Sea: A World of Freedom, Chaos, and Crime        
The Outlaw Sea: A World of Freedom, Chaos, and Crime
author: William Langewiesche
name: Joe
average rating: 3.77
book published: 2002
rating: 4
read at: 2009/10/01
date added: 2013/10/22
shelves: 2009
review:
A riveting and revealing story about anarchy on the high seas. There is so much ocean, and no one is in control of it at all. The shipping industry is barely regulated. Piracy is just a small problem compared to the environmental and larger security concerns about the tens of thousands of boats carrying all the things we buy and sell. Langewiesche displays his usual mastery of showing the big picture by telling the small stories: pirates, captains, military men and regulators all get their turn to shine. The only disappointment is that the author spends so much time on one ferry, the Estonia, which killed 850+ people in the North Sea. While the carnage is incredible, especially given that it occurred in the last 10 years on a boat traveling between two of the most advanced countries in the world, it does seem that Langewiesche gets a bit obsessed with disproving some of the conspiracy theories surrounding it. But after this digression, the book finishes strongly on the shores of India, examining shipbreaking yards, where men and fire destroy what's left of the world's largest boats, revealing the problems and potential within.

A completely new way to look at the world; highly recommended. Unless the idea that a terrorist could easily put any sort of bomb on one of these freighters and slip it undetected into any port in the world is likely to frighten you.

          ANEXOS        
Artículo Enciclopedia encarta:




Constitución

Constitución (ciencia política), ley fundamental, escrita o no, de un Estado soberano, establecida o aceptada como guía para su gobernación. La constitución fija los límites y define las relaciones entre los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial del Estado, estableciendo así las bases para su gobierno. También garantiza al pueblo determinados derechos. La mayoría de los países tienen una constitución escrita. La de Gran Bretaña, encarnada en numerosos documentos (por ejemplo, la Carta Magna) y el derecho consuetudinario que definen las relaciones de los ciudadanos con la Corona, el Parlamento y los tribunales, no está escrita, pese a que, en muchas ocasiones, se ha postulado su redacción para que Gran Bretaña disponga de un texto análogo al de la gran mayoría de estados.


Las constituciones pueden clasificarse mediante varios criterios: si están protegidas contra enmiendas (constituciones blindadas), si presentan una clara separación de poderes, si las disposiciones pueden ponerse en vigor mediante revisión de la actuación del ejecutivo o del legislativo, si establecen un Estado unitario o federado, etc. Las constituciones escritas están asociadas históricamente al liberalismo político y a la Ilustración. Tal es el caso de la historia del constitucionalismo español. Muchos estados autoritarios y totalitarios poseen unas elaboradas constituciones, pero, en la práctica, no tienen vigor para ser respetadas por el gobierno en el poder, que siempre puede no acatarlas, suspenderlas o invalidarlas.


Constituciones en el mundo
Constituciones vigentes en el mundo





1. Afganistán: 1987 .suspendía tras el golpe fundamentalista al gobierno marxista en 1992
2. Albania : 39 de abril de 1991
3. Alemania: ley fundamental. promulgada en 1949
4. Andorra : 1983
5. Angola: noviembre de 1975. modifica en 1976,1980,1991
6. antigua y barbuda: noviembre de 1981
7. Arabia saudita: desde el 1 de marzo de 1992 , el gobierno monárquico absolutista se rige por intermedio del sistema básico gubernamental
8. Argelia : febrero de 1989
9. argentina : 1853. modificada en 1860,1866,1898y 1994
10. Armenia: en 1993 entro en vigencia una nueva constitución
11. Australia : 1 de enero de 1901
12. Austria:1920 .enmendada en 1929
13. Azerbaiján: se prepara una constitución dentro del sistema autoritario que impera en el es país islámico
Bahamas : 10 de julio de 1973.
14. Bahrein : 1973, bajo la monarquía absolutista
15. Bangla Desh: es enmendada e 1973,74,75,77,79,81.88.89 y 91
16. barbados : 30 de noviembre de 1966
17. belarus: se redacta una nueva constitución
18. Bélgica: 1831.enmendada varias veces y revisadas en 1949 y 1971
19. Belice: 21 de septiembre de 1981
20. Benín: el dictador Kereskou al abandonar el marxismo establece una constitución el 2 de diciembre de 1990 .propiciando el multipartidismo por primera vez
21. bhutan : 1953
22. Bolivia 1967
23. bophuthatswana : se rige por la constitución de Sudáfrica
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1974.Modifica en 1989,90,91
25. Botswana: 30 de septiembre de 1966.En una de las pocas democracias del África
26. brasil: 5 de octubre de 1988.la primera constitución , en un gobierno civil en 24 años
27. Brunei darussalam :1959. algunos preceptos fueron suspendidos en 1962 , por el reino absolutista mas rico del mundo
28. Bulgaria :13 de junio de 1991 , ante la caída del viejo régimen marxista pro soviético y la instauración del pluripartidismo
29. burkina faso: con el establecimiento del multipartidismo se consolida una nueva constitución el 11 de junio de 1991
30. Burundi : 13 de marzo de 1992.suspendida por el golpe militar de 1993 que derroco al primer presidente civil .Melchior Ndadaye en plena vigencia
31. cabo verde : 7 de septiembre de 1980 modificada en septiembre de 1990
32. Camboya : 27 de junio de 1981. modificada por el régimen pro soviético de Samrin en 1989
33. Camerún : aprobada en 1996
34. canada : acta constitucional de 1982
35. ciskei : suspendida por el nuevo régimen militar en 1990
36. Colombia : 6 de julio de 1991
37. congo: al establecerse e nuevo sistema multipartidista , se redacto una nueva constitución en 1992
38. corea del norte : la constitución del 27 de diciembre de 1972
39. corea del sur: 25 de febrero de 1988
40. costa rica : 7 de noviembre 1949
41. cote d” Ivoire: (antes costa de marfil ) 31 de octubre de 1960. modificada por el presidente vitalicio Houphoner
43.Croacia: Diciembre de 1990
44. Cuba: 1976
45. Chad: Aprobada en 1996
46. Chile: 1980, Enmendada en 1989
47. Chipre Septentrional: 5 de mayo de 1985, aprobada por referéndum
48. Chipre, 16 de Agosto de 1960
49. Dinamarca, 5 de junio de 1953
50. Djibouti, 1991 y 1984. Leyes constitucionales realizadas pro la dictadura de Aptidón.
51. Dominica: 3 de noviembre de 1978
52. Ecuador: 10 de Agosto de 1978
53. Egipto: 11 de Septiembre de 1971
54. El Salvador: 20 de Diciembre de 1983, modificada en 1991.
55. Emiratos Árabes unidos: Siembre de 1971, en provisional establecido por la monarquía absolutista.
56. Eritrea: El país más joven de la tierra esta redactando su primera constitución bajo el gobierno provisional de Osaías Afwerki, Ex líder de la guerrilla del Frente de Liberación popular de la Eritrea (FLPE).
57. Eslovaquia: El país más joven de Europa se rige bajo la misma constitución de la Republica Checa creada el primero de enero de 1993, ambos estados pertenecían a la antigua Checoslovaquia
58. Eslovenia, Diciembre de 1991
59. España, 29 de diciembre de 1978
60. Estado Vaticano, no hay constitución,(Ley fundamental) 2001
61. Estados unidos, 1787, tiene 26 enmiendas
62. Estonia, una nueva constitución fue sometida a referéndum el 28 de junio de 1992, el país Báltico fue uno de los primeros en independizarse y establecer el sistema multipartidista.
63. Etiopía, promulgada en 1994
64. Fiji: 25 de julio de 1990
65. filipinas: El régimen democrática Corazón Aquino estableció una nueva constitución el 2 de febrero de 1987, que fue sometida a referéndum.
66. Finlandia: 17 de Julio de 1979
67. Francia: 6 de octubre de 1958
68. Gabón: 21 de febrero de 1961, modificada por Omar Gongo, uno de los dictadores mas antiguos del mundo en 1967-1975-1981-1986-1990.
69. Gambia: 24 de abril de 1990 , enmendada en 1982 por el régimen democrático de Dawda K. Jawara.
70. Georgia: Aprobada en 1995
71. Ghana: Marzo de 1992, el nuevo régimen democrático somete a referéndum la nueva constitución.
72. Granada: 1974 fue suspendida por el golpe marxista de 1979 y reestablecida en 1984, luego de la invasión norteamericana.
73. Grecia: Válida desde 1986
74.Guatemala: 14 de enero de 1985
75. Guinea Bissau: 16 de mayo de 1984, bajo la dictadura izquierdista de Luis Cabral y modificada en 1991 por su seguidor Joao Vieira.
76. Guinea Ecuatorial: Obiang Nguema establece una nueva constitución en noviembre de 1991 y es sometida a consulta popular.
77. Guinea: 23 de diciembre de 1991
78. Guyana: El régimen izquierdista de Forbes Burham establece una nueva constitución el 6 de octubre de 1980 y modificada en 1988 por sucesor Desmond Hoyte
79. Haiti. 1987
80. Honduras: Noviembre de 1982,
81. Hungría: 18 de Agosto de 1989. Modificada en 1972, 1983, 1989.
82. India: 26 de Enero de 1950, Modificada en 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1992 en la democracia más grande del mundo.
83. Indonesia, agosto de 1945, modificada en 1969 por régimen autoritario más antiguo del mundo del dictador Suharto.
84. Irak: 22 de septiembre de 1968, enmendada en 1969,1970, 1973, y 1974 de manera provisional.
85. Iran: Creada por el gobierno fundamentalista islámico del desaparecido Ayatollah Khomeini en diciembre de 1979, enmendada en 1989.
86. Irlanda del Sur: 29 de Diciembre de 1937
87. Islandia: 17 de junio de 1944
88. Islas Camoras: 7 de junio 1992
89. Islas Marianas del norte: 1986
90. Islas Marshall: 1 de mayo de 1979
91. Islas Micronesia: 10 de mayo de 1979
92. Islas Palau: 1 de enero de 1981
93. Islas Salomón: 7 de julio de 1978
94. Israel: No existe constitución política como tal sino un conjunto de leyes; desde 1950 se han incorporado durante un periodo no específico.
95. Italia: 1 de enero de 1948
96. Jamaica: 6 de Agosto de 1962, conjuntamente con la independencia nacional
97. Japón: 3 de noviembre de 1946. En vigor en mayo de 1947.
98. Jordania: 1 de enero de 1952, enmendada en 1974, 1976 y 1984.
99. Katar: 2 de abril de 1970, creada por la monarquía Absolutista con carácter provisional.
100. Kazajstán: Aprobada en 1995
101. Kenya : 12 de diciembre de 1963, enmendada en 1982, 1986, 1991 durante los gobiernos autoritarios de Jommo Kenyata y Danieal Arap Moi.





Las 10 Constituciones mas jóvenes del mundo

1) Chad: 1996
2) Camerún: 1996
3) Sudáfrica: 1996
4) Georgia: 1995
5) Armenia: 1995
6) Kazajstan:1995
7) Malwi:1994
8) Bielorusia:1994
9) Lusemburgo: 1994
10) Rusia: 1993








No Existen constituciones en los siguientes países

1) Israel
2) Nueva Zelanda
3) Reino Unido (Escocia, Inglaterra, Gales, Irlanda del Norte)
4) San Marino
5) Vaticano
6) Bhutan
7) Omán
8) Somalia




Se han suspendido las funciones de la Constitución en los siguientes países

1) Afganistán: Tras el derrumbe del gobierno marxista en 1992.
2) Togo: El régimen autoritario de Eyadema la suspendió en 1991, tras los disturbios políticos que reclaman mayor para el multipartidismo al igual que otros países africanos.
3) Sudán: El nuevo régimen fundamentalista, que llegó vía golpe militar en 1989, suspendió la constitución de 1985 y ahora se rige a base de leyes coránicas.
4) Venda: El nuevo régimen castrense de 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la constitución.
5) Ciskei: Los golpistas militares que asumieron el gobierno en 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la Constitución.
6) Myanmar: El régimen castrense que asumió el poder en 1998 prohibió la constitución de 1974.
7) Burundi: Los golpistas que llegaron al poder a finales de 1993 y derrocaron la primera democracia del país, suspendieron la constitución de marzo de 1992
8) Transkei: Los golpistas encabezados por el general Bantu Holomisa suspendieron la constitución de 1987.
          New stable version 2.9        
with lots of improvements

I finally found enough time to release the new version I've been working on for past monthes (maybe even years).

You may not see a lot of changes but trust me, there are quite a few under the hood.

I am still amazed by how many people are using LiLi in the world. I would never have thought when I started this project for fun that one day it would be used by 6.7 million people and would create 20 millions live USB !

So thank you all for using and sharing LiLi.

Here is a list of new features/linux for LiLi 2.9.0 :

 

New Linux distributions supported

  • Ubuntu 14.10 "Utopic Unicorn" (Unity/KDE/Xfce/LXDE/GNOME)
  • Ubuntu Studio 14.10 (DVD)
  • UbuntuKylin 14.10 "Utopic Unicorn"
  • CentOS 7.0 (CD)
  • CentOS 7.0 (DVD) (Gnome/KDE)
  • Debian Live 7.6.0 (Gnome/KDE/LXDE/Xfce/Standard)
  • OpenMandriva Lx 2014.1
  • Tails 1.2
  • Lightweight Portable Security 1.5.5 (Deluxe)
  • KNOPPIX 7.4.2
  • CDlinux 0.9.7.1
  • ReactOS 0.3.17
  • Ubuntu 14.04.1 "Trusty Tahr" (Unity/KDE/Xfce/LXDE/GNOME)
  • Edubuntu 14.04.1 (DVD)
  • Mythbuntu 14.04.1 LTS
  • Ubuntu 12.04.5 LTS and Variants
  • SystemRescueCD 4.4.0
  • Gentoo Live DVD 20140826 x86/amd64
  • Gparted Live CD 0.20.0-2
  • Trisquel 7.0
  • Puppy Linux 6.0 (Tahrpup)

New major features

  • Improved support for 64-bit variants
  • Support for ReactOS / OpenMandrivaLX / CDLinux
  • Smarter autodetection of Syslinux version, INITRD and VMLINUZ files
  • Retry to format 5 times instead of 1 (with 5 seconds delay)
  • Retry to install boot sectors 5 times instead of 1 (with 5 seconds delay)
  • Error is returned to user when formatting failed
  • Autorun creation has been disabled (can be re-enabled in the advanced options)
  • Code has been simplified and commented
  • Storage controller in virtualbox is automatically changed to the best one (IDE or SCSI) to improve chances of booting
  • Type of VM automatically set (useful for 64-bit Linux)

Improvements

  • Flush old logs (keep 1 month)
  • Latest AutoIT compiler 3.3.12.0
  • Syslinux 5 and 6 support
  • fat32Format 1.07 (GPT support + fix for boot sector when using Windows AIK's bootsect.exe)
  • Use a more reliable method to fetch UUID/MBRID and physical drive numbers
  • Recognition options can be changed without reselecting the ISO
  • Changelog on website will give more info (new distribs, major features, improvements, fixed bugs and known bugs)
  • Warning when selecting a ZIP file containing only an ISO
  • Improved sourceforge download from global mirrors
  • Lighter compatibility list, should be faster to load
  • New languages : Armenian, Catalan, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Estonian, Malay, Persian (Farsi)
  • Default RAM requirement for VirtualBox is now 384 MB
  • Removed unmaintained/unpopular distro : Meego / WifiWay / LiveHacking /Elive / Vyatta / Vortexbox / VectorLinux / Zenwalk / Zenix / SolusOS / PureOS / BlankOn

Fixed bugs

  • fix some crash when WMI was corrupted/not working
  • Could not cancel download when selecting the destination folder
  • Previous betas may not check for new beta availability (and option display was wrong)
  • Removed windows 7/8 progress bar in taskbar because it was crashing on other OSes
  • Hiren's boot / Fedora / CentOS support was broken/compromised
  • Icons/names changed on all drives (autorun creation is now disabled by default)

Known Bugs

  • Graphic interface may flickers or hang when LiLi is busy but usually comes back
  • cannot stop a Linux download unless you shut LiLi down
  • Asian characters not displaying in the progress bar

Author

Tibo

          Hopes and Fears        
Watching the UK election from afar has been a sad and chastening experience. The fact is that neither the Prime Minister nor the Leader of HM Opposition are fit for office. 

The partisan media scream for their particular political brand but have utterly failed to dissect the issues that threaten to wrench the UK into crisis and possible collapse. Biased, incoherent and feral, the British press has systematically undermined democratic debate and even basic rules of decency. Frankly the drivel that most of the print media serve up is a slop of insults to the intelligence and out-and-out depravity that genuinely makes me ashamed of the country of my birth. That the FT, The Economist and sometimes the Guardian do provide nuanced and thoughtful opinion doesn't off-set the verminous alt-right lies published by the off-shore owned, tax avoiding right wing bastards in the Dailies Telegraph, Express, Mail, or the Times or the Sun. In future years we will not need to look far to understand the roots of the British national crisis: it has screamed from every disgusting front page.

So apart from fury at the vile press, what is a thoughtful, liberal minded, basically patriotic voter to make of the state of the nation on the eve of the general election?

Firstly that the country is on the brink of an epochal political change. The election of such a woefully inadequate figure as Theresa May is only possible because the electorate refuses to consider that the are being presented with a false choice. The economic suicide of "no deal" with the EU should not be presented as any kind of choice and the nauseating and empty rhetoric of "no deal being better than a bad deal" is childish nonsense. The shear irresponsibility shown by the so-called negotiating team of "Team Theresa" is as outrageous as it is hollow and pointless. 

Meanwhile there is the tortured retelling of the Corbyn story as some kind of virtue tale. Yes, he may be sincere, he may even be a genuine idealist, but the simple fact is that on almost every issue, from Ireland to Venezuela, Jeremy Corbyn has been wrong, and often badly, totally, completely wrong. he may indeed have stuck to his principles, but they are wrong principles.

A straw woman or an inflexible tin man is not the choice that the UK should be making.

There is a better choice- one that is derided and deliberately ignored by the witches coven of the right wing press. It is very simple: for the good of the country and for ourselves we should vote Liberal Democrat. 

I have voted Liberal or Liberal Democrat in every election except once, here in Estonia where I voted for a friend standing for the Social Democrats in the Tallinn City Council. At this general election I found that owing to boundary changes my oversees vote had been moved from the safe Conservative seat of the Cities of London and Westminster into Westminster North, which is a marginal Labour seat. I was very thoughtful, since although I disagree with much of her point of view, I regard the incumbent Labour MP as a reasonable figure to serve in Parliament and her defeat would, I thought, serve to reinforce a the Conservative Prime Minister, who I hold in contempt. Yet in the end I decided to vote for the Liberal Democrat. This was not merely a negative anti-Tory, anti Labour vote, but also a positive statement that the Liberal Democrats represent an idology whicch is better and stronger than the alternatives.

An open society, tolerant principles and social cohesion based on a more efficient economy are not on offer from Labour, and still less for the provincial and shrill Conservatives. The Liberal Democrats understand the need to rebuild British politics based on a more open electoral system and a more responsive administration. Where we get MPs elected, they serve with these principles in mind and consistently, Liberal Democrat MPs are better rated by the people that they serve. The fact is that politics is not all the same and the Liberal Democrats are better.

So I have voted for hope, for better politics and the chance of change. The fears of the other alternatives may yet be well founded, but I have decided that in the battle of hope over fear that Hope should get a better chance.

We will see on Friday whether the British people have chosen likewise.  
          Fighting the Culture War        
After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the creation of a raft of new liberal and democratic states in 1989 and 1991, the argument about the values of the open society went into a kind of stasis. The debate was deemed by many to be closed, and the virtues of liberal democracy self-evidently triumphant.

25 years later that "end of history" seems at best more nuanced. At worst, the closed authoritarian model seems to have made a spectacular come-back.

This blog references Cicero, and in previous posts I have explained why. I have feared for a long time that the values and virtues of democracy are being eroded from within and without. The fact is that mass societies can be manipulated and subverted. Vladimir Putin spends billions of dollars on propaganda, and while much of this is to persuade Russians not to challenge his regime, equally his purpose has been to undermine confidence in the states of Europe and North America that he deems to be his enemies. He is achieving a remarkable success in promoting closed, right-wing models of society. His admirers are a rogues gallery of anti-democrats: Marine Le Pen, Diane James, Geert WildersDonald Trump, the Vlaams Belang in Belgium and many members of the Cinque Stelle in Italy.

The weakness that this subversion is demonstrating should give all of us some pause for thought. The fact is that both our media and our education system have already let us down severely. 80% of the UK print media is in the hands of foreign or off-shore ownership, with an extreme right-wing agenda. On my recent visit to London, I was staggered how many people read the Mail and the Express- two newspapers who seem to have given up on the truth altogether. The fact is that in a world of post truth politics, our general education level seems simply too low to challenge the false narratives that the biased and self-serving media is promoting.

When people ask me why Estonia is so much more successful than, say, Russia. I generally reply by pointing out that Estonian culture so strongly promotes education. It is a history of Lutheran respect for education, combined with strongly rooted values of hard work, discipline and openness. It is next to impossible to beat a bright kid with a good work ethic. Yet even in Estonia, I see signs of a culture being assailed. The astonishing growth in graffiti in recent months is one example, the rise of EKRE- an unpleasant and intolerant right-wing nationalist party- is another. Of course both are still much weaker than in the UK, but the fact that they even exist in Estonia is reflective of possible problems ahead.

In the end, across Europe and North America, the heartland of the West, it is our values, our culture and way of doing things that is being challenged. Some of this is the subversion of openness by the enemies of the open society, but we must also admit that we have made too many mistakes. The promotion of the Bush-Blair war agenda, against strong internal resistance was, in retrospect, the beginning of a crisis of confidence in democracy. Cynical politics has created a cynical society. Amoral decisions have contributed to a climate of moral indifference which is highly corrosive of the open society. The result has been the growth of an alienated and angry electorate. The result has included the economic, political and moral mistake of the Brexit referendum result.

As we contemplate the challenge of Putin, and indeed the coming challenge of Brexit, it seems to me that we will need more and more to renew our national political cultures. The cheerless and backward-looking managerialism on offer from Theresa May already looks dated, and such values as she offers- a return to the 1950s- are hardly robust enough to meet the demands of the new century. Although Taavi Rõivas, the Estonian Prime Minister, offers a younger face, he remains the captive of older figures, and Estonia too needs to renew its political culture. The party-list electoral system is too closed for the increasingly open society that Estonia wishes to be, and the three ring circus of the current presidential election has shown just how locked-out the voters are from the process. 

In both countries a voice that reiterates the values and virtues of openness is much needed. The complications of a tolerant and free society must be explained, and that is difficult enough in thoughtful and educated Estonia, never mind the shrill and poisoned atmosphere of British politics. However, if we do not renew our culture and reinforce our values, I fear that all the gains of the global society could be rolled back and the locust years will be upon us. It is not just a question of economics, it is a question of ethics and morality. It is a question of good and bad. 

Cicero lived at the time of the death of the Roman Republic. The Republic had existed for 500 years in turbulent vigour. Cicero was instrumental in defeating the first conspiracy against the Republic- the Cataline conspiracy- but though he knew the Republic needed reform, he could not provide the leadership to thwart Caesar's coup d'etat. Within a very few years Rome was the prisoner of its Emperors and the power of the Republic was broken. Cicero, and his ally Cato had failed and the decadence and corruption of the Empire lingered in place of the vigour of the Republic. 

Is that to be the fate of the West?  In the end we could fail and with the failure of the global society a smaller, weaker, more violent world could come. Instead of creating a more open and integrated planet we could fall back on the failures of the past, possibly not excluding war and the eventual use of nuclear weapons.

Thus it is not for small stakes that we must fight. The renewal of our values in a world where virtually limitless data or information is free, but knowledge and understanding just as difficult as it ever was cannot be easy. Yet now- in a world of surveillance, both overt and covert-  we need to set the limits of power more than ever. It comes down to renewing our philosophy and living rigidly to our values. We must not let political compromise become moral weakness. Whether the challenge comes from Vladimir Putin, Xi Jinping or our own media-political complex, we have to understand the scale of the problem- and the terrible price, if we fail. In the new cultural war, we cannot afford to fail.  
   
          Back to School        
September 1st is the traditional date when schools in Estonia reopen after the summer break. It is not only of significance for children, because for most adults, the summer is also definitively over. The season is one of the end of leisure and the beginning of work. So, after a long break from blogging, I return. 

However I do not hold out much optimism for the new season. Most of the things that I would like to see for the country of my birth- a more open society and a more Liberal (and indeed liberal) politics- have been defeated so heavily in recent years that any ultimate success seems to be years, and maybe decades, away. Of course some things can change suddenly, and by definition Liberals are required to be optimistic. Yet, as Theresa May settles into office as Prime Minister, it is clear that the UK will continue to be pushed further way from the kind of changes that it needs in order to create a more prosperous and harmonious society. "Hard Brexit" or not, the fact is that the Conservatives will continue to inflict policies that will create more inequality and less social or political harmony. Post Brexit Britain is set to struggle even to define what kind of country it wishes to be. After the phony war of the summer, the new season will reveal to London, as much as to the rest of the European capitals, just how daunting the scale of the task ahead truly is.

And I have not recovered from the anger that the vote brought me. We rejected our friends and pleased our enemies. We will now be diverted for years into a self-destructive mess. The worst leaders in the UK: George Galloway, Nigel Farage, Bernard Jenkin - a rogues gallery of shits- have come out on the winning side, but the thoughtful and the intelligent, from Mark Carney to Delia Smith, have been forced to take the abuse of the triumphantly stupid. 

On a wall in the old town of Tallinn some Brexit cretin has written "Rule Britannia, down with the Euro-Socialist EU". I tend not to take political lessons form those who write on walls, but what ignorance it is to write such drivel in a country that has just celebrated the 25th anniversary of the fall of genuine socialism. The temptation is just to mutter "arseholes" under the breath and pass on down the street, yet actually I feel that this arrogance and stupidity is actually the dominant characteristic of the political discourse in Britain. 

They call it "post truth politics", and I find it hard not to becomes outraged at the way it pervades so much of what is happening in the UK. For example, the Daily Express is a newspaper that attracts a certain kind of readership, it pretends to an intellectual equality with other newspapers. Yet it refuses to comply even with the voluntary- and extremely light- code of press regulation that other newspapers do accept. The fact is that the Express prints stories which it knows to be totally false. It is a propaganda rag. It is a contemptible piece of crap, and yet it is treated as though it actually had something valid to say. The problem is that, although extreme, the Express actually reflects the way the majority of the British press does its business: the Mail, the Sun even broadsheets such as the Telegraph and the Times knowingly twist the facts to suit their predetermined point of view. This is not just the op-ed pages, but across the newspaper as a whole,facts are ignored, balance is ignored, honesty is ignored. Cheap laughs, cheap journalism and a profoundly cynical contempt for the truth characterizes the British press in a way that would appall a previous generation. In the end the huge economic and political mess we are setting up for ourselves can and should be laid at the feet of the foreign-owned (Murdoch), foreign domiciled tax avoiders (Rothermere, and the Barclay brothers) and fraudulent (Desmond) hypocrites who dominate press ownership in the UK. Unless this festering pus-filled canker can be lanced, I have come to think that the future of the UK will continue to lie in the hands of people who have little care for the best interests of anyone except themselves, and certainly not the country.

So where does that leave us?

The phony war, as I say, is now over. The three Brexiteers- Johnson, Fox and Davis that Mrs. May has, perhaps cynically, deployed to negotiate have spent the summer engaged in a turf war, but even they must now see that the next few years will be nothing but a slog. The European Union -continuing and possibly reinforced, despite Farage's schtik that it would simply collapse, post Brexit- is not prepared to roll over in negotiations. When Australia announced that it could- kinda, sorta, maybe- consider a UK free trade pact, this was taken by Dr. Fox as a sign that the UK could negotiate a pact "10x the size of the EU". He obviously did not understand that such a pact would have to include neighbouring star systems, given that the EU is a part of 40% of global trade flows. Incidentally, Australia has an economy smaller than Spain. New Zealand- another "Commonwealth hope" has an economy smaller than Romania. Both antipodeans are mostly primary producers, and it is the 1.3 billion of China, not the 65 million of the UK that can support those economies. We do 60% of our trade with the EU, but the Brexiteers stupidly believe that we can unpick our trade from our neighbours and rebuild it with countries that are as far away as you can get on this planet and which do not want our goods anyway. With such generals in place, the next step will be a retreat to Dunkirk and the comprehensive trashing of the Brexit idea- too late of course, but hey, the crushing of UK asset prices and employment will just be collateral damage. 

In the face of such a mess, one might expect Her Majesty's loyal opposition to be making hay. 

Err.. not quite.

It is not just that Jeremy Corbyn is an obvious dud- a politician who has been wrong about everything and whose incompetence alienates on a daily basis his entire Parliamentary party. It is that Owen Smith is a dud too- his left wing platform, however insincerely held, is an absolute gift to the Tories. The fact is that none on the Labour front bench have what it takes: mealy-mouth cowardice, even in the age of post-truth politics, is pretty hard to hide. The childish attempts to re-run Thick-of-It sketches as some kind of The Office-style documentary is about as painful as watching David Brent dance. If ever you had a doubt that Labour were past-it, then your worst fears are exceeded by the grim reality.

As the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness draws in, we see the naked British Emperor in all his stunted and flaccid glory. For the problem of government, press or opposition are linked by a failure so huge and so clear that sometimes it takes a second or two to grasp it. As David Cameron hummed his way off the Downing Street stage, (aged, let us not forget, only 49 after just over six years in office) the horrible truth began to dawn.

These people are not up to the job

Neither is it just the failed entitlement of the Etonian Jeunesse Doree. This is a systemic failure, not only of Tories but of our entire political-media complex. Whether the economic illiteracy of the Brexiteers, or the hypocritical calumnies of the press, or the tiresome playground antics of the Labour party, the UK faces a leadership vacuum on an industrial scale. Ignorance and arrogance are endemic across the media and across the political establishment. It is a poisonous brew to be taking into negotiations where we are much the weaker party.

So what should I say to the arseholes who write on a wall in the old town of Tallinn; those who buy the shitty Kardashian laden scandal sheets of right wing cant that masquerade as newspapers; those who call Corbyn "Jeremy", instead of "get out of the way you shit"; those who are prepared to see Theresa May eviscerate any pretense of Parliamentary sovereignty as she leads us out of the EU?

Well probably I should say that it will get worse. The redrawing of constituency boundaries over the next three years will probably reduce Labour to a rump, and may remove all other parties except the Tories from England and Wales. Mrs. May, despite leading the stupid party at prayer, will not flinch from what is necessary to hold power. Those who I despise will continue to dominate for some years to come- to the huge cost of our country. 

Secondly though, I ask myself some fundamental questions. Once day, I hope that those who have caused this catastrophe will be thrown out bag and baggage- preferably with a level of ignominy that prevents their return. However I don't think I want to return to the UK while the lunatics continue to wreck the asylum. I see many intelligent youngsters reading the same runes and coming to the same conclusion. I devoted decades of my life to fighting for a more open society in the UK, but in the face of the entrenched evils we face, I feel dejected and very angry.

Still, it is a new term and I have much to learn. If I can pass the exams I can at least settle here. Perhaps I should. The Estonian fight has always been my fight, just as much as the fight for openness, tolerance and freedom anywhere else, and for the same length of time. However it comes with the bitter sense that these fools would have taken my birthright away from me. Their self serving drivel would have driven me and many far better than me away from a country that for all its faults I still profoundly love. 

One day, one day, maybe the storm-tossed green hills, the moors and the great cities will host a people great enough to overthrow the imbeciles and poltroons who govern them and those in the media whose twisted lies support the whole disgusting structure.

We will see.     
          Euro 2016 Qualifying Upsets         
Upset wins (10+ FIFA ranking difference) in UEFA EURO 2016 Qualifying games between September 7-9

Format:
FIFA Ranking Difference
Score - Nation (Current FIFA Ranking)
Score - Nation (Current FIFA Ranking)


121
2 - Cyprus (140)
1 - Bosnia/Herzegovina (19)

61
2 - Northern Ireland (95)
1 - Hungary (34)

59
1 - Albania (70)
0 - Portugal (11)

54
1 - Estonia (93)
0 - Slovenia (39)

32
2 - Czech Republic (35)
1 - Netherlands (3)

23
1 - Slovakia (45)
0 - Ukraine (22)

14
1 - Romania (27)
0 - Greece (13)

14
3 - Iceland (46)
0 - Turkey (32)

          Network with senior procurement decision makers at SMi's UAV Technology Eastern Europe conference        
SMi's UAV Technology Eastern Europe conference will provide insights into emerging UAV technology from those leading capability development in the region including the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovenia and Estonia.
          NEXT STEP - WUOC 2008 Estonia        

Nach einer gemütlichen Arbeits- und Urlaubswoche in Wien und zuhaus im schönen Burgenland gehts morgen wieder los - wir werden zur Studentenweltmeisterschaft in Tartu in Estland anreisen.


Österreichisches Team:


Ladies:

Ursula Polzer
Anita Seeböck
et moi (Karin Leonhardt)


Gentlemen:

Martin Binder
Wolfgang Kampel
Gernot Kerschbaumer
Markus Lang
Martin Pongratz
Wolfgang Siegert

und so sieht das Programm aus:

Montag Anreise
Dienstag Model-Event
Mittwoch Sprint
Donnerstag Long
Freitag Middle
Samstag Staffel (leider nicht für uns Mädls- da wir nur 3 sind und es ist eine 4er Staffel) und Festl
Sonntag Heimreise


Anbei findet ihr noch den Link für die Studentenwm- ich hoffe dass er ab dem Beginn der WM etwas öfter abgedatet wird:
http://www.easl.ee/wuoc2008/

Obs wieder live-results gibt kann ich leider noch nicht sagen.

Auf jeden Fall heißts: Bitte Daumen halten!
Auf gehts!!!

          Estonia: Rosną ceny skupu mięsa i mleka        
W ciągu roku od marca 2016 r. silnie wzrosły ceny skupu wieprzowiny i mleka.
          A Classic Monday 04-13-2015 with Ron Nadel        
Playlist:

- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
Antony Pitts Tonus Peregrinus- Nesciens Mater - Music From The Eton Choirbook
Choir Of St Johns College Cambridge George Guest Stephen Cleobury- Gloria RV589 - Vivaldi Glorias
Antonello Palombi Hungarian Radio Chorus Hungarian State Opera Orchestra Pier Giorgio Morandi- Messa Di Gloria Credo In Unum Deum Et Incarnatus Est - Puccini Collectionpremiere Light Bitter
Pier MorandiAntonello PalombiGunnar LundbergHungarian Opera Orchestra Radio Chorus- Messa Di Gloria 3 Crucifixus - Puccini Messa Di Gloria Preludio Sinfonico Crisantemi
Hungarian Opera Orchestra- Messa Di Gloria Et Resurrexit - Puccini Messa Di Gloria
Hungarian Opera Orchestra- Messa Di Gloria Sanctus - Puccini Messa Di Gloria
Hungarian Opera Orchestra- Messa Di Gloria Benedictus - Puccini Messa Di Gloria
Hungarian Opera Orchestra- Messa Di Gloria Agnus Dei - Puccini Messa Di Gloria
Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir Tallin Chamber Orchestra Tnu Kaljuste- Magnificat - Prt Te Deum
Barnaby Smith Voces Cantabiles- Magnificat - Parsons First Great Service Responds For The Dead
Barnaby Smith Voces Cantabiles- Ave Maria - Parsons First Great Service Responds For The Dead
Sarah Brightman James Lancelot English Chamber Orchestra Lorin Maazel- Requiem III Recordare - Lloyd Webber Requiem
Sarah Brightman Plcido Domingo Choir Of Winchester Cathedral James Lancelot English Chamber Orchestra Lorin Maazel- Requiem IV Ingemisco Lacrymosa - Lloyd Webber Requiem
Paul MilesKingston Choir Of Winchester Cathedral James Lancelot English Chamber Orchestra Lorin Maazel- Requiem V Offertorium - Lloyd Webber Requiem
Sarah Brightman Plcido Domingo Choir Of Winchester Cathedral James Lancelot English Chamber Orchestra Lorin Maazel- Requiem VI Hosanna - Lloyd Webber Requiem
Sarah Brightman Paul MilesKingston Choir Of Winchester Cathedral English Chamber Orchestra James Lancelot Lorin Maazel- Requiem VII Pie Jesu - Lloyd Webber Requiem


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/8/playlistDate/2015-04-13
          Philosophical Musings on Performance        

TL;DR: performance optimization (and the other things, too) will soon need to become much more automated than now.

I haven’t done quite a lot of blogging recently, despite my earlier plans. I have been living in peaceful Estonia for three months now. There’s been a lot of time to think.

In this blog post, I will share my rather philosophical musings about performance optimality. Incidentally, it also applies to monitoring and designing complex systems. There shouldn’t be any hardcore stuff inside, not even low-level optimization of pipelines. Just some ideas I have contemplated.

Getting On The Same Page

With IPv6 and the Internet Of Things coming soon, the amount of data and individual processing nodes will continue to explode. As complexity grows with the ever-growing number of levels of abstractions, new and new classes of potential performance or correctness issues are discovered.

Because the larger the number of states a system can be in, the larger the absolute value of the number of states that are not optimal. But still, the smallest things on the low level can greatly affect high-level behavior. Kind of like a butterfly effect. No matter how hard you try, you will never ever have full correctness and optimality. Because Gödel. But you can always try to do better than you did earlier.

To illustrate this trend, about 10 years ago the ideas of a Performance Engineer and of an APM came around. Then, about 7 years later, as the scales grew further, a notion of a Site Reliability Engineer appeared.

But it is just the beginning.

More Complex Than Us

I find it likely that within a few years, a human mind will become literally unable to comprehend the whole complexity of a system. A single human’s mind will be unable to both fully understand the low-level root cause of a particular problem on a given execution node, and the full impact that this particular outage has on the system’s high-level behavior.

While the narrow-down-to-the-execution-node-level thingy is not very hard to automate, It’s usually humans who take it from there. But in the nearest future, the root cause and the fix will need to be found faster than humans can do.

It is not possible to offer a flawless solution, but we will have to do something. So, the first level of defense here is an automated tool that detects and even predicts some of the possible issues. To succeed in it, we will need a knowledge base, of sorts. Common low-level problems that often lead to visible high-level issues and the symptoms of such problems.

What’s Happening Now

One of the tools that aim to automatically detect root causes is Plumbr — a java performance monitoring solution that can detect, predict and suggest fixes for memory leaks, contended monitors, long GC pauses, and more. That’s where I work, so to be fair, another example would be jClarity Illuminate that, according to the web site, is able to detect over usage of system resources, application code inefficiencies, GC problems, and more. There are probably many more tools that I have not mentioned, too. Add them in if you know any, I would be glad to find more people working on the same problem!

What’s To Happen

Going further, what we really need in order to make progress, are the tools that enable us to research high-level changes in application’s behavior depending on low-level changes in an application’s individual node setup or code or whatnot. Only armed with these will we be able to fill up the knowledge base of the potential issues.

A simple example of such problem (and incidentally the same one that has set me on this train of thought) is minimizing the overhead of Plumbr. To minimize it, we need to be able to measure and monitor it. But to do that, we require to have a model of how our agent’s actions influence the performance of different types of applications.

At the moment, there’s no customary way of doing this, so I had to build a more macro-level tool that helps analyze the changes in the performance behavior of various workloads with and without the Plumbr agent. Actually, it immediately generalizes to just analyzing the differences in performance with various JVM args, and is something that the community can make use of, so it is likely (but not certain) that it will be opensourced as a small contribution to the things to come.

This might all seem like abstract stuff, but I really do believe that the future will look like this. And I’d like to take part in making it all happen. Also, the above is definitely very concrete compared to the below:

More Meta

It has also occurred to me that performance optimality is a Universal Instrumental Value. I am not referring to Roko’s ideas of promoting “Universal” Instrumental Values to Terminal Values, but am using this term to describe things that a supermajority of agents would do instrumentally. It seems pretty obvious that any sufficiently rational agent will be interested in ensuring that its utility function is being fulfilled in an optimal way. And, quite obviously, the time that it takes to get some utilons is a factor in that.

An AGI is a great example to illustrate my reasoning. To build so complex of a system that performs well, we would almost certainly require tools far more advanced than those that we have now. For this particular system, though, correctness is of much more importance than performance. Because would you rather have a superintelligence which requires an extra month of thinking before finding a cure to cancer, or a superintelligence that dropped nukes because of a programming error?

Discuss!


          I Am Now A Part Of Plumbr        

Good News, Everyone!

I am currently en route to Tartu, Estonia. This is where I will live and work for some time to come, in all likelihood at least a year, and probably longer. This is a radical change, but I have a smile on my face, because this is definitely a step in the right direction.

Monday is my first work day at Plumbr, an Estonian startup that pinpoints performance issues in your java applications before they have a chance to give you a world of trouble. I first heard of it from one of its founders, Nikita, over a year ago. I instantly liked the idea, and it has developed a lot since then.

I am really excited to get started, as I really believe that I can help make the product, and with it, the lives of engineers, a lot better. Also expect that there will be more tech blog entries from me soon, although conference appearances might become a bit scarcer.

What I Have Left Behind

After a year of working for Deutsche Bank, I have realized that such a big company with lots of corporate politics (and policies) and a competitive environment is not something that I enjoy much. There is not really much that I want to say on the subject. I liked my team a lot, and I liked my management for at least two levels up. That is not very representative, because I am convinced I was very fortunate to end up in this exact team (although there are people in other teams that are awesome, too)

With Leaving St. Petersburg, there is a number of great people that I will now not see as often as I am used to, but hey, we live in the twenty first century here. Geographical distance is not that much of an issue. After all, a lot of people who I enjoy spending time with are distributed across the globe, from Europe to US to Asia to Whatever.

On the bright side, I am very happy to finally leave Russia, with its… uh, mentality. I am not exactly a russophobe, for I equally dislike idiots of any nationality, but even after correcting for the Availability Bias, it seems to me that there are much more of those in Russia.

(If you are not much of an expert on Russian memes, I clarify that this is one)


          Klaus Härö's THE FENCER -- shortlisted for 2015's BFLF Oscar -- finally opens in the USA        

Lovely, old-fashioned movie-making that has a splendid, based-on-real-life story to tell, it's easy to understand why THE FENCER made the early cut for a Best Foreign Language Film nomination two years back. It's also easy to see why it did not make the final cut of five films, as -- good as it is -- it's a little too predictable in its style, storytelling and just about all else. But that should not detract from the pleasure and enjoyment the movie will bring to audiences, particularly, I suspect, the senior crowd.

As written by Anna Heinämaa and directed by Klaus Härö (shown at left), the film is consistently a treat to view -- even if it is set in a pretty ugly Estonia of the 1950s. That little country, bordering the Baltic Sea across from Finland, was invaded by Germany during World War II, and then occupied post-war by the USSR until that Communist behemoth dissolved into its continuing orgy of Oligarchy Capitalism after 1991. The film begins with a title card explaining how certain Estonian men, having been forcibly conscripted into the German Nazi army, had to then hide their past from the Russian authorities or face prison and worse -- for something over which they had no control.

Such is the fate of the film's hero, Ender, played with a understandable combination of fear and withholding by Märt Avandi (shown above), who flees Leningrad for Estonia and there takes a job teaching physical education in a small-town school.

In better days, he was a competitive fencer, so when he is forced by his nasty superior to coach a Saturday sports class, he ends up teaching that class how to fence.

If his nemesis, the school principal (nicely played by Hendrik Toompere, above center), is a bit too much of a lip-smacking villain (as is his overly eager assistant (Jaak Prints, above, left), well, this is all part of the film's old-fashioned fun.

As is Ender's newly-found girlfriend, another teacher at his school, portrayed with the necessary obeisance-masking-deeper-grit that was required by women back in the 1950s (and, oh gosh, often today, too) by the lovely actress, Ursula Ratasepp (above, center right).

The students are pretty much standard-issue, except for two of them: Jaan, a boy whose caring and intelligent grandfather (Lembit Ulfsak, above, left, of the wonderful Tangerines) evidently has in his past some issues of interest to the Russian police, and the quietly intense girl, Marta (a terrifically alert and focused performance from young Liisa Koppel, shown

at bottom and on the poster image, top), who is the first to ask for fencing lessons and goes on be a part of the fencing team entered into the competition in Leningrad (above) that will bring all the movie's plot strands together for an effective climax.

As I say, other than the unusual tale told, together with its accompanying history and location, the movie is relatively predictable. But it is every bit as enjoyable, too.

From CFI Releasing, in Estonian and Russian with English subtitles, and running 99 minutes, The Fencer opens theatrically this Friday, July 21, in New York City at the Angelika Film Center, and on August 11 in the Los Angeles area at Laemmle's Royal and Playhouse 7 and in other cities simultaneously. Here in South Florida, it will open on August 18 at the Coral Gables Art Cinema. To see all currently scheduled playdates, cities and theaters,
click here and then scroll down.


          We’re in Uncharted Territory With President-Elect Trump        

Everyone is talking about unity, as tradition demands after a bitter election, but Wednesday’s rhetorical flourishes are more improbable than usual. In his victory speech early Wednesday morning, Donald Trump called on his fellow citizens to “bind the wounds of division,” pledged to be “president for all Americans” (adding, “This is so important to me”), and said of Hillary Clinton, “We owe her a major debt of gratitude for her service to our country.”

To buy any of this—after his repeated jabs at “Crooked Hillary,” Mexican rapists, and various screeds against women, Muslims, black people, and anyone who dares criticize him, including leaders of his own party—is to believe either that sudden ascension to high ennobles a flawed mortal or that his whole campaign has been nothing but theater. Neither theory is plausible.

In the realm of foreign and military policy, his election has hurled U.S. officers and allied leaders into shock, and with reason. He has, over the past year, dismissed NATO as an obsolete entity and said America shouldn’t defend its member-nations from attacks if they hadn’t paid their proper dues. He has advocated withdrawing troops from Asia and shrugged at the possibility that Japan and South Korea might react to the abandonment by going nuclear. He’s talked about nuclear weapons with alarming nonchalance. He’s spoken of banning Muslims from American borders, unaware of the propaganda victory such a move would hand jihadis everywhere. He says he’d “bomb the shit out of” ISIS, clearly unaware what this would mean on an urban battlefield. By his own admission, he has read no history and, partly as a result, has no understanding of international politics, war, or diplomacy.

This wouldn’t necessarily be disastrous if Trump were aware of his limitations and turned for advice to those versed in the subjects. But he has said that national security is one of his strengths, that he knows more about negotiating than the diplomats and more about ISIS than the generals. He is that most dangerous individual who aspires to power: a man who doesn’t know how much he doesn’t know. And now he’s heading to the White House as the leader of a party that controls both chambers of Congress and, very soon, a majority of the Supreme Court.

As the election returns spilled his way in the wee hours Wednesday morning, some commentators assured their anxious colleagues that the Republican establishment would rein in Trump’s baser impulses. But few of these Republicans stood up to him during the campaign; many who spoke out against him, like House Speaker Paul Ryan, still endorsed him, and now, in the wake of his victory, they’re praising him as a party savior, perhaps out of fear that Trump will either sic them with a challenger in the next primary or personally remove them from their leadership posts.

We will learn much about the direction the nation will soon take when Trump announces his Cabinet, especially his national security team. This is a man who has long valued loyalty and, when circumstances allow, has long punished betrayal. Most members of the Republican foreign-policy establishment spoke out against him long ago. Among those who have prominently stuck with him, Newt Gingrich and John Bolton have been mentioned as possible secretaries of state, retired Maj. Gen. Michael Flynn as national security adviser or director of national intelligence, and Rudy Giuliani as attorney general or secretary of homeland security. These are all nightmare specters—arrogant advocates of strong state power who brook no dissent, have never seen an arms-control treaty they support, and harbor resentments toward anyone who ever passed them over.

Michael Steele, the former head of the Republican National Committee, said on one of the cable-news shows Tuesday night that the names commonly tossed about aren’t necessarily those who will be appointed; that a transition team, staffed with professionals, has been vetting possible candidates. Maybe. But the head of this transition team is New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie (who is known to crave a top job, perhaps attorney general), with heavy assistance from Alabama Sen. Jeff Sessions, one of the most right-wing denizens on Capitol Hill.

It’s possible that President Trump will sober up with power, sense the complexities of the problems before him, and implore a crew of stalwart establishment experts to help him steer the ship of state. Jimmy Carter did this to some degree, as did Bill Clinton. But this seems unlikely; it doesn’t fit the profile of the man we’ve seen up close in the last year—or that many in the New York business world have warily watched for the last few decades.

So what difference will any of this make? Plenty. We can expect, in the next few weeks or months, that many of the world’s leaders will try to chum up to Trump. He is the president-elect, after all; the United States, though not the superpower it once was, remains an essential power. In their psychological profiles of the new American leader, the analysts in foreign intelligence agencies have no doubt advised their bosses to treat the man with all the courtesy and respect they can muster. They’ve no doubt learned some lessons about which of Trump’s buttons to push from his mistaken belief that Vladimir Putin called him “brilliant,” when, in fact, the Kremlin leader’s description of the man—zharkii—is more accurately translated as colorful. Maybe for a while Trump will respond to their compliments in kind. (This president of Estonia, he might think, is worth defending after all.)

But it’s doubtful Trump’s deep nativism might be so easily dislodged. Again, unless he turns more establishment than anyone would now predict, here are a few things that are likely to happen in the early weeks or months of his presidency:

Allies will start looking elsewhere for protection and deals. The Baltics and Ukraine might have to scale back their Western-leaning ambitions and make an arrangement with Moscow. The other European countries are less likely to keep up sanctions against Russia, which their business leaders are already eager to drop. Asian allies may react more swiftly. Already, President Putin is planning a December trip to Japan to discuss settling territorial disputes left over from World War II. South Korea will likely turn to China for a security arrangement, especially if Seoul’s current scandal-ridden government falls. The rest of the region might follow Filipino President Rodrigo Duterte’s drift toward China, especially in the wake not only of Trump’s isolationist (or unilateralist) tendencies but also of the utter collapse of the Trans-Pacific Partnership treaty—which, contrary to Trump’s rantings, would have strengthened America’s leverage in the region and reduced China’s.

Trump voters (and many other Americans) may regard all this as abstract stuff about faraway countries, but the clichés about global interdependence are true. Some trade agreements do have dislocating effects on certain sectors of the American economy, but many of them are, on balance, beneficial. Exports make up a huge share of gross domestic product; imports have a calming effect on inflation.

Hard as this may be to imagine, the Middle East is likelier to get messier still. American leadership—political, diplomatic, and military—hammered together the ramshackle coalition that’s currently pushing ISIS out of Mosul in Iraqvand Raqqa in Syria, and it will take even more persistent American leadership to maintain the peace afterward. Trump will not be eager, or remotely able, to make the effort.

As for the Iran nuclear deal, one of President Obama’s shining achievements, it’s unclear what Trump means when he says—and he’s said this over and over—that he’ll tear it up on Day 1. First, it’s a multinational accord, signed not just by the United States and Iran but also by the European Union nations, Russia, and China. If Trump pulls out, that doesn’t mean the deal is off. He might re-impose sanctions against Iran, but the other signatories are already doing business there and aren’t likely to go along. If U.S. banking sanctions require that they go along, then Iran may well respond by restarting its nuclear program. Either way, the hard-liners will be strengthened and the Western-leaning modernizers will be forced out. (For those who doubt that Iranian politics is beset with factions, please read Laura Secor’s Children of Paradise: The Struggle for the Soul of Iran.) If that happens, will Trump bomb Iran—as some of his advisers (and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who wants to meet with the president-elect ASAP) have long wanted to do? If that happens, we are seriously screwed. When Robert Gates first became George W. Bush’s secretary of defense, he told some Israeli officers that they might do well the first few days after such an attack—but then the terrorists would launch strikes, the Straits of Hormuz would be cut off, every Muslim nation that had been warming up to Israel would have to back off, and then, a few years later, Iran would resume its nuclear program, this time with little foreign opposition.

Starting today, President-elect Donald Trump begins receiving the same highly classified daily intelligence briefing that President Obama receives. We can all hope (and I join in this hope) that he pays close attention to these sessions and to the many other briefings offered by Obama and his security team. We can hope that he’s sobered by their insights and realizes that we face problems not because “we’re led by stupid people” (as he’s said in campaign rallies) but because the world is a complicated place. We can hope that he then appoints, as Cabinet secretaries and advisers, people of quality who can help him deal with these complexities.

But everything we’ve learned about Donald Trump splashes not just buckets but tidal waves of doubt on this transformation having the slightest chance of happening.


          The Scariest Nominee of Our Time        

Imagine if Donald Trump’s foreign policy ideas were uttered in a saner tone by someone who seemed to have a little bit of knowledge about global politics. Would his ideas sound quite so dangerous? Maybe not, but they’d still be dangerous enough. In fact, they’d qualify as the most dangerous, disruptive, self-destructive ideas that any major party’s nominee has peddled in any living American’s memory.

These are the hardest times since the end of World War II for an American president to set and manage foreign policy. From 1945–91, the rules of the game were fairly clear: It was the U.S. versus the USSR, and power was measured by the relative stockpiles of weapons they would need in a conflict. Most of the wars fought by smaller nations were viewed (sometimes misleadingly) in terms of their impact on the East–West balance.

When the Cold War imploded, so did the entire system of international relations it had spawned. Power blocs dissolved; the subjects and allies in each now-shattered sphere of influence were free to pursue their own interests without regard to the former superpowers’ wishes. In the Middle East, Cold War politics had propped up artificial borders and oppressive regimes that otherwise would have collapsed a decade or so after World War II, along with the whole string of French and British colonies. When the Cold War ended, this collapse resumed—triggering the chaos in the region today.

In one of those ironies common to history, America won the Cold War but emerged from it weaker, not stronger. President George W. Bush’s strategic error lay in failing to grasp this fact. He, Vice President Dick Cheney, and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld thought they’d entered a “uni-polar” era with the United States reigning as “the sole superpower,” able to impose its will with little effort or the need for pesky allies. They didn’t realize that the old tokens of power (tanks, missiles, atom bombs) and the old devices of leverage (Do what we ask or succumb to the Soviet bear) had lost much of their former potency and that, as a result, allies—and compromising with them on strategic goals—were now not just useful but necessary.

Bush’s father, George H.W. Bush, understood this even at the dawn of the new era. Hence his fervent campaign to preserve the vast alliance against Saddam Hussein during the 1990–91 Gulf War and his call for a cease-fire when the mission binding the alliance—ousting Iraq’s invasion forces from Kuwait—was complete. This awareness also informed the elder Bush’s decision not to rub America’s Cold War victory in Russia’s face.

Barack Obama, from early on in his presidency, understood very clearly these limits of power, the need for alliances, and the distinctions between interests and vital interests (and the levels of commitment that they justified) in this new multi-polar (or, in some ways, nonpolar) era.

Hillary Clinton understands these things as well, though she might be less resistant than Obama to using military force; some who have worked with her say she hasn’t internalized the lessons of Vietnam, Iraq, and Libya to the same degree. But her experiences have taught her that, in this new era, nations with common interests in one realm often have opposing interests in other realms, and the job of a top diplomat or president is to navigate these shoals without surrender or collision. (In some ways, this is nothing new: The United States and the Soviet Union practiced diplomacy and signed treaties, without ever dropping guard on the East-West German border, through all but the tensest years of the Cold War.)

Donald Trump, on the other hand, grasps none of these things—not the history, not the concepts, not the tools or limits or creative possibilities of power. He is not so much an isolationist as a unilateralist. It’s easy to envision him barging into a foreign war, driven as much by avenging some personal slight as pursuing a national interest—and, in the process, waving off help from others, believing that he can win alone (or that he alone can win) with the right combination of firepower and rhetoric.

Even if he didn’t start a war, or escalate one with no notion of how to end it, he is likely—judging from what he says—to wreck the few remnants of the post–World War II order that sustain America’s influence and its broad network of (mostly) democratic allies.

When the Cold War’s demise gave smaller powers the license to go their own way and follow their own interests, several of them eventually decided to remain in the American camp. This was particularly true in East Asia, after China started flexing its naval muscle, and in Europe (especially among the more recent NATO members of Eastern and central Europe), after Vladimir Putin started living his dream of restoring the old empire out loud (or at least trying).

Trump says he wants to blow up the whole edifice. He mistakes the mutual benefits of NATO for a strictly monetary transaction, telling allies that he’d pull out America’s troops—and cancel the country’s obligation to come to their defense in the event of armed aggression—unless they paid up their fair share, as he defined it. He issued this threat in response to a question about whether he’d defend the tiny Baltic states—which Putin could invade with little trouble if physical force were all that mattered and he had no worries of a Western response. In a later interview, Trump went further and said he might bring the American troops home as a first step, predicting that the Europeans would beg him to send them back, promising to pay the U.S. as much as he wants them to pay. “You always have to be prepared to walk away,” he explained, as if he were discussing a contract dispute or a real-estate deal (which is how he seems to view all relationships), not a trusted alliance based on a 67-year-old treaty that recent events have made newly relevant.

He has issued similar warnings about what he sees as meager payments from Japan and South Korea. When CNN’s Jake Tapper suggested that a U.S. withdrawal might compel those countries to build their own nuclear weapons, as the only way to deter North Korean aggression, Trump shrugged and said “maybe we would be better off” if all three of those countries had nukes.

Trump doesn’t understand the consequences of even talking like this; he doesn’t understand the messages he’s sending to all sides. He doesn’t understand that Putin in particular must be agog at his potential good fortune. A man who might be the next president of the United States—quite aside from the fact that some of his aides have ties to Russia—has all but invited Putin to invade Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania. This impression must have been confirmed when Trump said he accepted Russia’s annexation of Crimea as a done deal and possibly a desirable one, as he’s been told that many of the island’s residents consider themselves Russian, not Ukrainian.*

No American president would, or should, go to war with Russia over the Crimea or even Ukraine. George W. Bush recognized this when he ruled against offering Ukraine NATO membership. And many people in Crimea do regard themselves as Russian. (It was part of Russia until Nikita Khrushchev gave it to Ukraine in 1954 at a time when both republics were part of the Soviet Union, and the distinction was thus fairly meaningless.) But it’s one thing to acknowledge these facts and quite another to accept with indifference a violent breach of long-standing borders. Acceding to a forcible annexation without objections, or a negotiated settlement, or even a trade of some sort (a deal), is to invite other violent breaches—and to announce to friend and foe that all borders, treaties, obligations, and alliances are moot.

Here are a few of the things that would likely happen within days if Trump were elected. South Korea and Japan, as he concedes with a shrug, would start work at once on an atomic bomb (they certainly have the technology and resources), setting off a nuclear arms race and the possibility of catastrophic crises in northeast Asia. The web of sanctions against Russia, which Obama has woven with Western European leaders in response to the Crimean grab, would collapse. Ukraine’s political leaders, who still aspire to an affiliation with the European Union, would likely cut the best deal they can get from Moscow—as would the smaller NATO nations (including the Baltics) once they realize that the other large Western European powers can do little to ensure their security without American leadership.

This is another irony of history: In his articulation of American power’s limits, Obama has highlighted those as vital interests that warrant an unbridled commitment of the nation’s power. His erasure of the “red line” in Syria did have an impact on U.S. credibility in the Middle East—but little effect on U.S. standing in Europe or East Asia. Trump often lambasts President Obama for signaling weakness in the red-line episode; but Trump is now proclaiming that, in his presidency, there would be no red line in Europe or East Asia, short of one purchased with cold cash—a transaction subject to continual review and revision, like the terms of an adjustable-rate mortgage. And yet, Trump somehow thinks his words beam a signal of awesome strength.

In the Middle East, where the Cold War’s demise has wreaked the most calamitous damage, Hillary Clinton has few compelling ideas beyond doing what Obama has done, just a little fiercer and faster. But Trump has no ideas at all. He says he will get rid of ISIS “fast.” How? Not a clue. He has also said he would form an anti-ISIS coalition of the region’s nations, a tough task given that they fear and loathe one another more than they fear and loathe ISIS. How would he do this? By holding “meetings,” he told the New York Times, as if diplomats—American, Russian, European, and Arab—haven’t held hundreds of meetings already. Trump doesn’t seem to recognize that some of the world’s problems are simply hard, maybe intractable. He seems to think that the world’s a mess because American leaders are “very, very stupid” and that the globe’s bad guys will snap to order with a tough guy like him in the White House.

Trump may have an idea, after all, of how to crush ISIS “fast,” and if my suspicions are right, it’s his most dangerous idea of all: I suspect he thinks he can make the jihadi commanders cower by threatening to incinerate them with nuclear bombs. Richard Nixon tried this with North Vietnam, telling his aides to put out the word that he was a “madman” who could do anything, even go nuclear, to avoid losing. At least Nixon, it turned out, was bluffing. Would Trump be? Would he feel compelled to follow through on his threat if they scoffed? He has revealed himself, on several occasions, to have a cavalier, even clueless attitude toward the bomb.

And it’s worth noting (as the New York Times reminded its readers, who probably haven’t had cause to ponder these matters for a quarter-century or so, on Wednesday) that, when it comes to using nuclear weapons, the president decides and acts alone; the system is set up that way because, in the event of a surprise attack, there would be no time to consult with the National Security Council, much less with Congress. Electing a president bestows upon a single man or woman the power to blow up the world.

Former diplomat Richard Burt told an enlightening story to Politico about Trump’s notion of a tough negotiator. Around 1990, when Burt was U.S. ambassador to the Soviet-American nuclear arms talks, he ran into Trump at a reception in New York:

According to Burt, Trump expressed envy of Burt’s position and proceeded to offer advice on how best to cut a “terrific” deal with the Soviets. Trump told Burt to arrive late to the next negotiating session, walk into the room where his fuming counterpart sits waiting impatiently, remain standing and looking down at him, stick his finger into his chest and say, “Fuck you!”

Needless to say, that is not how Burt maneuvered the talks so that presidents George H.W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin came to sign the START II arms-reduction treaty in 1991. One wonders if Trump thinks it might have been how it happened and if he thinks that’s how to handle adversaries today. Trump has said, “I know more about ISIS than the generals” and, just in August, “I know far more about foreign policy” than Obama.

My guess is he really believes these things.

Most of Trump’s dangerous qualities boil down to these two fundamental dangers. He knows very little but thinks he knows a lot. And most of the things he doesn’t know, he doesn’t know they’re worth knowing.

Correction, Aug. 8, 2016: An earlier version of this article misidentifed Crimea as Ukraine and misstated that the former is an island. Crimea is a peninsula. (Return.)

Read more from Slate on the 2016 campaign.


          Trump Is Dangerously Incompetent on National Security        

If Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping read the New York Times on Thursday morning, they must be hoping and praying for the election of Donald Trump. And if serious Republicans read the same paper, they must be sickened with fear—if they weren’t nauseated already—that their party’s presidential nominee is a threat to national security.

For on the front page of the Times, in an interview on foreign policy, Trump says that, despite our treaty obligations, he would not defend NATO allies from an invasion if they haven’t been reimbursing us for the cost of protecting them; that he would abandon our military bases in Asia; and that he wouldn’t pressure Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan to relax his crackdown because “the world looks at how bad the United States is” on civil liberties, too.

Thursday morning, Trump spokesmen disputed the Times story, claiming that he wasn’t quoted accurately. Since then, the Times has released a transcript of the full interview, and the story, it turns out, is not only accurate but even more distressing than the boiled-down story suggested.

Look at the following exchange between Trump and Times reporters David Sanger and Maggie Haberman:

Trump: I would prefer that we be able to continue [with NATO allies], but if we are not going to be reasonably reimbursed for the tremendous cost of these massive nations with tremendous wealth—you have the tape going on?

Sanger: We do.

Haberman: We both do.

Trump: Then yes, I would be absolutely prepared to tell those countries, “Congratulations, you will be defending yourself.”

Sanger reminds Trump that Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty obliges member nations to treat an attack on one as an attack on all. Trump replies, “How is it helping us? We have massive trade deficits.” He also says, “In a deal, you always have to be prepared to walk”—as if the 28 nations of NATO were opposing sides in a contract dispute, not members of a mutually beneficial, trusting alliance.

Then comes the shocker.

Sanger: Can the members of NATO, including the new members of the Baltics, count on the United States to come to their military aid if they were attacked by Russia? And count on us fulfilling our obligations—

Trump: Have they fulfilled their [financial] obligations to us? If they fulfill their obligations to us, the answer is yes.

And if they haven’t paid the amount that Trump considers their proper share, the answer is no.

Then, to make matters specific, there’s this:

Sanger: I was just in the Baltic States. They are very concerned obviously about this new Russian activism, they are seeing submarines off their coasts, they are seeing airplanes they haven’t seen since the Cold War coming, bombers doing test runs. If Russia came over the border into Estonia or Latvia, Lithuania … would you come to their immediate military aid?

Trump: I don’t want to tell you what I’d do because I don’t want Putin to know what I’d do.

No! The whole point of NATO is to tell potential enemies, in no uncertain terms, that the United States and every other member-nation will respond to an attack with force.

In talking about U.S. commitments in Asia, Trump reveals himself as completely ignorant about military matters. If we shut down our bases in Japan and South Korea, and some crisis compels us to move back, Trump says, “We can always deploy” troops and weapons from bases in the United States, adding, “It would be a lot less expensive.” In fact, it would be a lot more expensive. It costs more to base troops at home than abroad, and it costs a lot more to deploy from home—we would need more cargo-transport planes and ships as well as the pilots, crews, and fuel to operate and maintain them. And it would take weeks, in some cases months, to mount a large deployment—possibly too long to make a difference.

If Trump is elected president, and if he actually does what he says he’ll do, every ally in Europe and Asia will scramble to form partnerships that do not include the United States. Some of the weaker allies will feel compelled, seeing no other choice, to cut a deal with Russia or China. Allies in every realm of international relations will view America as an untrustworthy guarantor.

Trump’s view of the world isn’t entirely out to lunch. If he and the Republican Party were trying to prompt a debate on America’s role in the world, if they were running on an avowed platform of isolationism, that would at least be taking a position. Such a debate is long overdue, and isolationism has its place as one school of thought in the American political tradition.

But it’s untenable for nearly every speaker at the GOP convention to lambast President Obama and Hillary Clinton for weakening our defenses, abandoning our allies, and “leading from behind” when the Republican candidate talks about our allies as expendable customers and prefers not to lead at all.

Trump reveals himself in the Times interview as an odd combination of isolationist and mercantilist. To him, every relationship is transactional, and the transaction’s currency is money—and only money. He sees alliances as a financial drain, carrying no geopolitical benefits. Geopolitics don’t enter into his calculus. If a commitment costs too much, cut it loose, cut the losses, balance the books, period.

Everything is a deal, and all deals are like the real estate deals that have made him a fortune. When the Times reporters ask him how he would deal with ISIS, he says that he would get the Turks to do more. When he’s reminded that the Turks care more about bashing the Kurds than defeating ISIS, he says, “It would be wonderful if we could put them somehow both together.” What’s his diplomatic plan for doing that? “Meetings,” Trump replies. “If I win, we will have meetings … very early on.”

One wonders: Does Trump think that President Obama and Secretary of State John Kerry haven’t already had “meetings” with Erdogan and the region’s other leaders about doing more to beat ISIS? Does he think his idea is novel? This may explain why he thinks the Obama administration—the entire U.S. government—is filled with idiots. Don’t they see, he might be thinking, that they have to hold meetings? He may see meetings with Erdogan and other national leaders as no different from meetings with the New York City Department of Buildings, a tenant who’s behind on his rent, an indebted hotelier that he wants to buy out, or a supplier that he’s trying to fleece.

The fact that the world is a mess, that America isn’t winning better deals, is proof to Trump that our people in power don’t know how to run a slick meeting. He thinks his opponents and critics know nothing. He doesn’t know how much he doesn’t know.

Read more of Slate’s election coverage.


          Ruby Dreams font + Dingbats by birdesign        

14.00 USD

Ruby Dreams is a crispy and playful font with a unique personality. This handwritten font features an ink-like style replicating an ink pen look, allowing limitless applications from logos, magazines, menus, books, invitations, product packaging, labels and even wedding/greeting cards or stationery.

It includes a series of themed dingbats with nature, objects, food, arrows and text box hand drawing characters, perfect for customizing your content and text creations with an organic handmade touch.

This font also features standard double letter ligatures for a more natural look between letters.

Commercial use allowed!

This Set Includes:

- 2 font files (OTF)
- Full upper and lowercase
- Stylistic Set
- Numerals and Punctuation (OpenType Standard)
- Accents (Multi-lingual support)
- Traditional Double Letter Ligatures
- Bonus font including dingbat graphics and brushes

Supported Languages: Afrikaans, Albanian, Catalan, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish French, German Icelandic, Italian, Maltese, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Turkish among others.

Feel free to reach out if you have any questions or comments. I'd love to see what you do with this script font. Enjoy! :)

SKU: FT006


          Estonia History        
By Henry Albinson. Published by: Sonit Education Academy. Price: Free. Category: Nonfiction / History / European / Europe / Former Soviet Republics / Fiction / Adventure / General.
          Eastern European Countries Are Getting Very Good at Responding to Cyberattacks        

The same countries are regularly ranked as having the greatest offensive cyber capabilities: Russia, the United States, Israel, China. But when it comes to the nations with the greatest ability to absorb, withstand, and recover from cybersecurity incidents, there’s a strong case to be made that we all have something to learn from Eastern Europe. The classic case is Estonia, which bounced back from aggressive denial-of-service attacks in 2007 to become a world leader in promoting international efforts for computer security. But this week’s reports of malware directed at Ukraine’s state power distributor and banks appear to offer another model for how to respond to a cybersecurity breach.

Ukraine is no stranger to seeing its computer systems targeted—earlier this month, Wired’s Andy Greenberg described in incredible detail Russia’s ongoing efforts to compromise Ukraine’s cyber infrastructure over and over and over again. This most recent strain of malware may or may not come from Russia. In one of the most understated accusations ever made in the immediate aftermath of a cybersecurity incident, Ukraine’s security council secretary reportedly said of the breach, “it is possible to talk of Russian fingerprints.”

Ukraine seems to be rallying surprisingly well in the wake of the intrusions. Reuters reported that Ukrainian lender Oschadbank had not lost any customer data due to the unidentified virus, while power distributor Ukrenergo said the malware had not affected its power supplies. Meanwhile, the deputy prime minister, Rozenko Pavlo, tweeted a photo of his computer screen showing a suspicious error message, and the country’s main Twitter account tweeted a surprisingly humorous announcement reassuring people:

Certainly, the attacks were disruptive. There were reports of ATMs not working and subway passengers who were unable to enter the metro using their bankcards. The boards listing flight schedules at the Boryspil International Airport in Kiev, as well as the airport’s website, were malfunctioning. Ukrainian officials have not commented on what type of malware they’re seeing, referring to it only as an “unknown virus,” and the screenshot that Pavlo tweeted doesn’t indicate any ransom demands. But Christiaan Beek, a lead scientist at McAfee, told Wired that it appeared to be a strain of the ransomware family dubbed Petya or Petrwrap, itself a relative of the WannaCry ransomware that affected systems worldwide earlier this year.

But where WannaCry was disastrous—crippling the U.K.’s National Health Service and leaving hospitals unable to treat patients—in Ukraine at least, this latest incident seems ultimately to have been only disruptive, not destructive. Ukrainians were clearly inconvenienced, but pretty much every single piece of infrastructure targeted there was able to limit the damage. Though banks were unable to perform some services, their customers’ money and data were secure. The power distributor saw some of its computers infected but did not witness another blackout due to the compromise, as it did late last year. People couldn’t use their bank cards to enter the subway, but the trains were still running. The airport’s website and flight boards were affected, but flights continued to arrive and take off, though airport director Pavlo Ryabikin warned that there might be some delays. At the Chernobyl nuclear plant, computers were down, but workers were continuing to monitor radiation manually.

It’s possible that this incident was never meant to be anything more than an inconvenience—that whoever launched it only wanted to cause minimal damage and disruption rather than all-out catastrophe. But it’s also possible that this was in fact meant to cause damage of a comparable scale and scope to WannaCry and previous cyberattacks directed at Ukraine—that it was intended to shut down businesses, black out cities, and stop trains and flights. And if that’s the case, then Ukraine did a remarkable job containing the damage and defending the most critical elements and functions of its critical infrastructure.

In the United States, it was not clear that things were going as smoothly. Pharmaceutical company Merck, which is based in New Jersey but also has an office in Ukraine, had to shut down computer systems and the Washington Post reported that “critical information tied to Merck drug research could be lost.” Meanwhile, the New York Times reported hospitals being forced to cancel operations in Pennsylvania.

Like Estonia, Ukraine seems to have learned from past cyberconflicts how to do a better job protecting computer systems and ensuring that daily life can continue largely unhindered even in the face of serious compromises. Of course, both Eastern European nations have much smaller populations than the United States, and it would be difficult to scale some of their solutions to a country so much larger and more decentralized. But Estonia and Ukraine also have fairly advanced, online infrastructure, suggesting that they may well have defensive lessons to offer even to countries with relatively sophisticated technology, who may have spent more time and energy thinking about how to use computers to attack others than how to protect themselves.


          10 years of Telecom Innovations with TravelSim!        
Celebrating its 10th anniversay this year, TravelSim has grown to become the world’s leading alternative roaming service and a well-known international brand during the last decade. What is behind the scenes of this international success stoy? TravelSim started its roaming service in 2006, first launched in regions close to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Russia.…
          TravelSim has successfully exhibited at CommunicAsia 2016        
TravelSim has successfully exhibited at CommunicAsia 2016 trade show, which was held in Singapore between 31 May and 3 June. Being the only Estonian company present at this show, Travelsim held over 100 fruitful meetings and concluded several distribution agreements. We presented our new marketing strategy for Asian region including unlimited data packages for people…
          Would You Like Your Private Information to be Available on a VHS or Betamax Tape?        

When I was a young child growing up in the late 1980s, my parents were lucky enough to be able to afford to have both a VHS-tape video-recorder in the living room and a Betamax tape recorder in their bedroom. This effectively meant that to me, the great video format wars weren't a decade-defining clash of technologies, but rather they consisted mainly of answering the question "in which room can I watch my favorite cartoons?". It is only now with the perspective of time that I realize that my small dilemma was the result of two distinct groups with contradictory interests bidding for control of a massive market of home video users.

I was reminded of this piece of digital archeology with the recent news regarding the repeal of the FCC rules regarding internet privacy, partly because I'm starting to recognize similar patterns to the video wars in the field of digital privacy, the kind of patterns that should give business leaders and stakeholders in privacy-sensitive business pause as to a potentially strategic business consideration that lies in the immediate future.

It comes as no news to privacy practitioners that there is a long-existing schism between the European approach to digital privacy and the American approach to the subject: The US legislative and administrative bodies generally tend to adopt more business-friendly regulations prohibiting the abuse of information but permitting its commodification and trade, while the European stance is to consider digital privacy as a human rights issue (in some European-influenced jurisdictions, such as Israel, the concept of privacy is even explicitly designated as a basic human right and afforded constitutional protection).

The European legal institutions have consistently shown that they are not deterred by the international implications of their rulings (as demonstrated recently by the repeal of the Safe Harbour program that took place following the October 2015 decision in Schrems v. DPC, necessitating the expedited negotiations of the Privacy Shield agreement) — which is why I believe we're on the verge of a major event, one in which the distance between the two legal perceptions of privacy systems becomes impossible to bridge.

When one takes into account the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (set to enter into effect in spring of 2018) and contrasts it with the recent repeal of the FCC's rules, it is impossible not to notice that battle lines are being drawn. This is particularly true given the fact that the GDPR applies not only to data processed or located inside the scope of the EU itself — but also applies personally to the citizens of the EU nations themselves, even if they are not physically currently in the EU.

Under this principle, the latest move by American authorities not to prohibit ISPs from selling information that was until now accepted as private poses therefore an interesting challenge: if a German citizen purchases the services of an American VPN provider to mask her IP address, and said VPN provider routinely sells the information of its clients — would it be allowed to sell the sensitive information it gathers regarding the browsing habits of its German customer? Alternatively, if an American citizen purchases the services of an Estonian VPN — would the information gathered by the Estonian ISP be eligible for sale under the FCC's new, slimmer rules? Furthermore - suppose a more remote but still possible case in which an ISP with multiple local subsidiaries or partnerships wishes to balance the load on its network by routing some of its Icelandic or Irish traffic through its New York sister-company. Would the information of the Irish users be available for sale under the laws of the United States, and if so, to what extent would the sale be permissible?

It will be interesting to see if these trends will fully materialize into radically distinct views of the concept of digital privacy. The ever-growing distance between the two views is slowly but surely leading to a situation in which Europe's stance on digital security and privacy is not only noticeably stricter than the American interpretation, but it is also becoming effectively incompatible with it. This may eventually force all of us to choose whether to comply with either the American rules or the European rules, as we will be unable to conform to both at the same time.

Both sides have strong arguments, and both can make compelling cases for their position, but both sides also have weaknesses in their positions and neither are immune from criticism. But more interestingly, both sides also have significant economic advantages and disadvantages that can quickly turn the debate from a principled discussion on what privacy means and how it's enforced, into a stand-off between two of the world's largest economies.

If the debate between the two approaches eventually evolves into a business decision at the level of independent corporations and people, then much like the video format wars of old, it is only a matter of time until eventually one set of rules triumphs over the other, as markets are wont to do. But unlike the question of where a young boy in Mexico will spend the early hours of a lazy weekend in front of the television, the decision as to who can access our browsing habits and for what purpose can have far more comprehensive ramifications. Which approach will ultimately triumph remains to be seen.

Written by Jonathan Braverman, Legal and Operations Officer at Cymmetria


          Re: 20+ Charlestonians we miss the most        
My fondest memory of Greenberg was seeing someone point out one Sunday morning to the chief that he was going the wrong way down Market St. His reply? "Call a fucking cop!"
Posted by Ima Oldman
          Khasiat Habbatus Sauda        

Khasiat Habbatus Sauda’

Amalan pemakanan

Khasiat Habbatus Sauda’

Erti Habbatus Sauda

Arab = Habbatus Sauda’, Habbatul Baraka, Kamun Aswad, Sinauj
Armenia = Shoushma
Estonia = Mustkoomen
India = Kalounji
Inggris = Nigella, love in a mist. Fennel Flower, Onion Seed.
Italia = Nigella
Jerman = Zwibelsame, Schwarzkummel
Kanada = Korijigi
Norwegia = Svartkave
Perancis = cheveux de venus, Aligelle
Rusia = Chamustika
Spanyol = Niguilla, Pasionara
Tamil = Karun Jiragam
Turki = Corekotu Siyah

Melayu : Jintan Hitam

Habbatus Sauda ialah sejenis tumbuhan yang banyak didapati di kawasan Mediterranean dan di kawasan yang beriklim gurun. Banyak kajian telah dijalankan. Bagaimanapun kebanyakkannya ditulis di dalam Bahasa Arab, oleh itu pendedahan terhadap dunia antarabangsa tidak banyak dibuat.

Habbatus Sauda digunakan secara tradisional untuk beberapa keadaan seperti untuk menghasilkan kulit muka yang cerah, membantu merawat batuk dan asma, kencing manis, selsema, keguguran rambut, tekanan darah tinggi, masalah untuk tidur, sakit-sakit otot dan sendi, rasa loya dan muntah, mengurangkan kolesterol, merawat batu karang dan sebagainya.

Nabi Muhammad S.A.W. bersabda dalam Haditsnya yang dikutip dari kitab Ash Shahihain ”Gunakanlah Habbatus Sauda’ kerana di dalamnya terdapat sejenis ubat dari segala jenis macam penyakit kecuali As Sam (maut)” (HR.Bukhari, Muslim)

Ibnu Sina di dalam bukunya Canon of Medicine menyatakan Habbatus Sauda …… merangsang tenaga dan membantu pemulihan kepenatan dan semangat.

Ibnu Qayyim di dalam bukunya Medicine of the Prophet menyatakan Habbatus Sauda berupaya memulihkan penyakit-penyakit seperti batuk, bronchitits, masalah perut, kecacingan, masalah kulit seperti jerawat, sakit senggugut dan haid yang lain, menambah susu badan, menambah pengaliran air liur dan sebagainya.

Dr Ahmad Elkadi pula membuat kajian dan mendapati Habbatus Sauda mempertingkatkan daya tahan sakit (immune system).

Antara bahan-bahan kandungan Habbatus Sauda ialah Fixed Oil (saturated dan unsaturated), Minyak-minyak Asas (sterol, thymohydroquinone, carvone, limonine, cymene), Alkaloids, Saponin dan Asid Amino.

Dalam kitab Al Tibb An-Nabawi (Pengobatan Cara Nabi) yang ditulis Ibnu Qayyim Al-Jauziyyah, Habbatus Sauda’ dikenal juga sebagai Al Habbah Al Barokah. Dalam kitab tersebut disebutkan bahwa Habbatus Sauda’ dapat mengubati 50 macam penyakit tanpa efek. Suatu ulasan ilmu kedoktoran menampilkan bahawa kandungan Habbatus Sauda’ antara lain:

* Antiinflamasi, mengubati perih/radang tenggorokan.
* Antiarthritis, mengubati reumatik.
* Analgesik, mengubati sakit gigi dan sakit kepala (migrain).
* Aktivitas hormon, mengatur haid dan meningkatkan aliran susu.
* Antiseptik, mengubati bau mulut.
* Antivirus, mengubati demam dan flu.
* Dermatologi, mengubati jerawat dan eksim.
* Urinary tract, mengubati saluran kemih dan batu ginjal.
* Sistem kekebalan, meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh untuk menangkal penyakit.
* Gastrointestinal tract, mengubati mabuk, diare, kejang konstipasi, dan empedu.
* Sistem sirkulasi, meningkatkan kinerja jantung.
* Nematocidal, mengubati cacing pita.
* Respiratory tract, mengubati sesak nafas (asma).

Di bawah ini kami sertakan 7 ciri-ciri utama habbatus Sauda:

1. Nilai pemakanan

Habbatus Sauda kaya dengan:

monosaccharide glukosa, xylosa dsb.

polysaccharide

fatty acid yang tidak tepu (unsaturated essential fatty acids, EFA). EFA tidak boleh dihasilkan oleh badan kita, oleh itu sumber utamanya ialah dari pemakanan

amino acid yang membentuk protein

karotene iaitu sumber vitamin A

kalsium, zat besi, dsb.

2. Sistem imunisasi

Kajian yang dilakukan di Arab Saudi mendapati, habbatus Sauda berupaya meningkatkan sistem imunisasi anda (daya melawan penyakit). Oleh itu ia mungkin penting dalam pengawalan kanser, AIDS dan penyakit-penyakit berkaitan yang lain.

3. Anti-histamine

Histamine ialah bahan yang dikeluarkan oleh sel-sel mast di dalam badan yang menyebabkan kesan-kesan allergik (alahan). Habbatus Sauda mengandungi bahan yang menghalang protein kinase C, sejenis bahan yang mencetus penghasilan histamine. Oleh kerana penghidap penyakit asma selalunya mengalami masalah alahan, habbatus Sauda mungkin baik diambil secara berterusan oleh pesakit-pesakit ini.

4. Anti-tumor

Kajian in vitro mendapati habbatus Sauda berupaya menghalang pembentukan sel-sel tumor. Oleh itu, ia baik untuk digunakan untuk membantu menghalang penyakit kanser.

5. Anti-bakteria

Penyelidikan ke atas bahan ini mendapati ia mempunyai aktiviti anti-bakteria . Habbatus Sauda didapati berupaya mengawal bakteria seperti E.coli, V.cholera dan spesies Shigella. Ini bermakna habbatus Sauda baik untuk mereka yang menghidapi beberapa jenis penyakit seperti cirit-birit dan masalah-masalah perut yang lain.

6. Anti-radang (anti-inflammation)

Habbatus Sauda didapati boleh mengurangkan radang (bengkak). Oleh itu ia baik untuk pesakit asma (mengurangkan radang dalam paru-paru), eczema (alahan yang menyebabkan gatal, kulit merah dsb.) dan arthritis (bengkak sendi).

7. Menggalakkan pengeluaran susu

Kombinasi lemak dan hormon yang didapati di dalam habbatus Sauda menyebabkan pengeluaran susu ibu yang menyusukan bayi bertambah.

Hasil Kajian

Di Amerika, Nigella Sativa yang merupakan nama latin dari minyak jintan hitam, telah mendapat kejayan luar biasa sebagai makanan suplemen. Di Jerman, minyak habbasSauda telah tersedia dalam bentuk kapsul di farmasi.

Analisis ekstrak mengenai minyak dan kesan-kesannya juga telah dilakukan di Amerika dan hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa minyak kuno itu juga mujarab untuk segala macam penyakit. Para saintis Amerika telah merasa yakin bahwa kesan antibakteri dan antimikotis dari minyak habbasSaudayang merupakan obat Asia Timur dan di Asia berlangsung dalam waktu yang lama. Para dokter di Mesir dan Cina menggunakannya untuk obat segala macam radang serta infeksi jamur. Bahkan, para ilmuwan kanker Amerika secara meyakinkan telah membuktikan bahwa minyak habbasSaudamenurunkan kadar gula. Ekstrak Nigella Sativa membantu merangsang tulang sumsum dan sel-sel kekebalan. Demkian tulisan para ilmuwan kanker Immuno-Biology Laboratory dari Carolina Selatan. Selanjutnya, produksi interferon menghasilkan sel-sel normal terhadap kesan-kesan virus sel-sel yang merusak, menghancurkan sel-sel tumor, dan meningkatkan jumlah antibodi yang menghasilkan sel-sel B.

Seluruh fungsi ini menyebabkan minyak habbasSaudasebagai calon (alternatif) yang ideal untuk pencegahan dan pengobatan kanker. Para ilmuwan Amerika telah memplubikasikan bukunya yang pertama mengenai temuan “Study Of Black Cumin Oil On Human”. Para ilmuwan di Jerman kini juga sibuk menemukan kesan-kesan minyak Mesir yang berkaitan dengan tubuh manusia. Dr. Med. Peter Schleicher, ahli immunolog di Munich yang pada 1986 telah dinominasikan sebagai anggota termuda World Academy Scientists, menguji minyak habbasSaudadi lembaganya untuk menemukan terapi baru bagi penyakit kronis dan kesan-kesannya. Temuan-temuannya indentik dengan para koleganya di Amerika.

Schleicher menyatakan bahwa dengan menggunakan minyak habbasSaudayang memiliki asam lemak tak jenuh, misalnya unoleat dan asam gammalinolen masuk ke organisme. Dengan demikian, kemungkinan mencapai sintesa kekebalan yang penting dan mengatur zat-zat yang diambil seperti dari prostaglandin E. Minyak linoleat menstabilkan membran-membran sel dan prostaglandin memiliki kesan mencegah radang. Dengan demikian, reaksi kekebalan berhenti yang menimbulkan penyakit dan bahkan merupakan awal dari penyakit kronis seperti jerawat dan demam hingga kanker.

Di samping fungsi sel yang berlebihan pada orang yang menderita alergi distabilkan, melalui zat minyak habbasSauda antibodi juga ditekan. Sistem kekebalan yang berlebihan pada kajian (ilmuwan) Amerika juga menguji bahwa sistem kekebalan yang salah dapat diatur kembali dengan kesan yang kuat dari minyak ini. Sementara itu, Scheleicher telah menguji kesan minyak ini terhadap 600 pesakit. Sebagai hasilnya, dia meyakinkan pengobatan untuk alergi sekitar 70% dari pesakitnya. Di antara mereka adalah alergi terhadap serbuk dan debu serta jerawat dan penyakit neuro-dermatologis. Pesakit asma dan lainnya pada umumnya memiliki ketahanan yang lemah dan mudah terkena infeksi. Dari alasan itu Dr. Schleicher di Munich akan memasukkan minyak itu ke dalam pengobatan preventifnya terhadap pilek dan influenza.

Di Timur Tengah, minyak ini telah digunakan selama ribuan tahun sebagai obat untuk segala macam penyakit alergi, radang, gangguan menstruasi, tekanan moral, dan depresi, tetapi terutama terhadap bronkhitis, asma, dan neurodermatitis serta pencernaan yang buruk, bahkan impotensi.

Sumber;Aja49.wordpress.com
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauEurope is the second smallest continent in the world .Here is the list of 47 countries in Europe and their capitals.

 Europe




S.no
Countries
Capitals
1.
Albania
Tirana
2.
Andorra
Andorra la Vella
3.
Austria
Vienna
4.
Belarus
Minsk
5.
Belgium
Brussels
6.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sarajevo
7.
Bulgaria
Sofia
8.
Croatia
Zagreb
9.
The Czech Republic
Prague
10.
Denmark
Copenhagen
11.
Estonia
Tallinn
12.
Finland
Helsinki
13.
France
Paris
14.
Germany
Berlin
16.
Greece
Athens
17.
Hungary
Budapest
18.
Iceland
Reykjavík
19.
Ireland
Dublin
20.
Italy
Rome
21.
Kosovo
Pristina
22.
Latvia
Riga
23.
Liechtenstein
Vaduz
24.
Lithuania
Vilnius
25.
Luxembourg
Luxembourg City
26.
Macedonia
Skopje
27.
Malta
Valletta
28.
Moldova
Chisinau
29.
Monaco
Monaco
30.
Montenegro
Podgorica
31.
The Netherlands
Amsterdam
32.
Norway
Oslo
33.
Poland
Warsaw
34.
Portugal
Lisbon
35.
Romania
Bucharest
36.
Russia
Moscow
37.
San Marino
San Marino
38.
Serbia
Belgrade
39.
Slovakia
Bratislava
40.
Slovenia
Ljubljana
41.
Spain
Madrid
42.
Sweden
Stockholm
43.
Switzerland
Bern
44.
Turkey
Ankara
45.
Ukraine
Kiev (Kyiv)
46.
The United Kingdom
London
47.
The Vatican City
Vatican City

          A COMPLETE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MY BOOKS        

My first 25 books - click picture to enlarge (© Dr Karl Shuker)

Today is the fourth anniversary of my mother Mary Shuker's passing. I owe my lifelong love of reading, writing, and nature to Mom - her love for all wildlife nurtured my own from my earliest days, and her impeccable command of the English language tutored and guided my own throughout my life. Consequently, to commemorate and celebrate her kindly, positive, and truly immeasurable influence upon my entire existence and career, the present ShukerNature blog article is dedicated to my mother, and consists of a frequently-requested, currently-complete listing of all of the books that I have written, have acted as consultant for, have contributed to, or to which I have written a foreword. It will be updated whenever new books need to be added here.

Without you, Mom, none of my writings would have existed - God bless you, and thank you for the inestimable love, joy, happiness, and blessings that you gave to me and bestowed upon me by being in my life as my mother.

Mom and my Jack Russell terrier Patch during the mid-late 1970s (© Dr Karl Shuker)



Extraordinary Animals Worldwide (Robert Hale: London, 1991)


Dragons: A Natural History (Aurum Press: London/Simon & Schuster: New York, 1995)



From Flying Toads To Snakes With Wings: From the Pages of FATE Magazine (Llewellyn Publications: St Paul, Minnesota,1997)


The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature (Reader's Digest: Pleasantville/Marshall Editions: London, 2001)

The New Zoo: New and Rediscovered Animals of the Twentieth Century [fully-updated, greatly-expanded, new edition of The Lost Ark] (House of Stratus Ltd: Thirsk, UK/House of Stratus Inc: Poughkeepsie, USA, 2002)










Dragons in Zoology, Cryptozoology, and Culture (Coachwhip Publications: Greenville, 2013)





Still In Search Of Prehistoric Survivors: The Creatures That Time Forgot? (Coachwhip Publications: Darke County, 2016)

Some alternative-cover editions of various of my books (© Dr Karl Shuker)

NB - Several of my books have also been published in editions sporting various alternative covers and/or titles, and/or also in various foreign-language editions, as demonstrated via the selections of examples depicted directly above and directly below this present paragraph, but for reasons of conciseness I have not itemised these editions separately here.

A selection of the many foreign-language editions of my book Dragons: A Natural History currently published - click picture to enlarge (those shown here are as follows - From left to right, top row: English, Czech, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese; bottom row: Estonian, Hungarian, German, Dutch, and French. There are others, but I don't have copies of them so far - publishers are not always good at sending complimentary copies to the authors!) (© Dr Karl Shuker) 

Consultant and also Contributor

Man and Beast (Reader's Digest: Pleasantville, New York, 1993)

Secrets of the Natural World (Reader's Digest: Pleasantville, New York, 1993)

Almanac of the Uncanny (Reader's Digest: Surry Hills, Australia, 1995)



Consultant

Monsters (Lorenz Books: London, 2001)


Contributor

Fortean Times Weird Year 1996 (Fortean Times/John Brown Publishing Ltd: London, 1996)

Mysteries of the Deep (Llewellyn: St Paul, 1998)

Guinness Amazing Future (Guinness: London, 1999) 

The Earth (Channel 4 Books: London, 2000) 

Chambers Dictionary of the Unexplained (Chambers: Edinburgh, 2007) 

Chambers Myths and Mysteries (Chambers: Edinburgh, 2008) 

The Fortean Times Paranormal Handbook (Dennis Publishing: London, 2009) 


Folk Horror Revival: Field Studies (Wyrd Harvest Press/Lulu, 2015) 

Tales of the Damned: An Anthology of Fortean Horror (Fortean Fiction: Bideford, 2016)

Plus numerous contributions to the Centre for Fortean Zoology's Animals and Men Yearbooks, Fortean Studies volumes, and various other annual publications.


Contributor (CD ROM Format)

Of Monsters and Miracles (Croydon Museum Services & Interactive Designs Ltd: Oxton, 1995)


Editor

Journal of Cryptozoology [currently the world's only peer-reviewed scientific journal devoted to cryptozoology] (CFZ Press: Bideford, 2012-present day)


Contributor of Foreword to Other Authors' Books

DOWNES, Jonathan, The Smaller Mystery Carnivores of the Westcountry (CFZ Publications: Exwick, 1996) 

SCREETON, Paul, Whisht Lads and Haad Yor Gobs: The Lambton Worm and Other Northumbrian Dragon Legends (Northeast Press Ltd: Pennywell, 1998)