Arranged Barriage        
Once upon a time
there lived a young lad
Happy, carefree and full of beans
a free bird, by all means.

One day he turned twenty-six
his parents got into the mix
Life is a long long journey, they said
So Kanna its time you get ready to wed.

We'll find a nice girl,
Smartha, someone from Vadama
But please for Perumal's sake,
don't bring home a vellakaara kuttyma!

My son is 26 and 6-feet tall
he's well-educated, brainy and all.
They said it to one, two, many...
Jee..they wrote it even in Tamil Matrimony.

They received a dozen requests
and sent as many,
in the hope of finding their dear
a cute adorable Kanmani.

We like your son's profile,
lakshanama irukaar!
but sorry our daughter doesn't want
a faarin aathukaar.

Still, Jadagams came in
the Josiyer checked for a match.
Nothing much happened
but for the occasional catch.

Inga paarungo, indha varan nanna iruku
This girl is just right!
A chat was quickly organised
via the blimming Skype.

They looked at each other,
one thing was certain.
An invisible wall was between them
with an infinite dielectric constant.

There was, you know,
no freakin spark!
It was obvious
and the reality was quite stark.

So once again for every prospective girl
they got the horoscope data.
And every time they visited the Josiyer
he told them to bid the girl ta-ta.

One day, The Site spitted out a 10/10 match
it said "from the Matchmaking Pro".
But, oh golly molly,
that girl looked more like a bro!

Oh!, he wondered,
Is that God's subliminal message of the day?
That the young lad might as well,
be of the gay?

          Mathematics for Chemistry        
Mathematics for ChemistryThis interactive electronic textbook in the form of Maple worksheets comprises two parts.

Part I, mathematics for chemistry, is supposed to cover all mathematics that an instructor of chemistry might hope and expect that his students would learn, understand and be able to apply as a result of sufficient courses typically, but not exclusively, presented in departments of mathematics. Its nine chapters include (0) a summary and illustration of useful Maple commands, (1) arithmetic, algebra and elementary functions, (2) plotting, descriptive geometry, trigonometry, series, complex functions, (3) differential calculus of one variable, (4) integral calculus of one variable, (5) multivariate calculus, (6) linear algebra including matrix, vector, eigenvector, vector calculus, tensor, spreadsheet, (7) differential and integral equations, and (8) probability, distribution, treatment of laboratory data, linear and non-linear regression and optimization.

Part II presents mathematical topics typically taught within chemistry courses, including (9) chemical equilibrium, (10) group theory, (11) graph theory, (12a) introduction to quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, (14) applications of Fourier transforms in chemistry including electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, microwave spectra, infrared and Raman spectra and nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectra, and (18) dielectric and magnetic properties of chemical matter.

Other chapters are in preparation and will be released in due course.
          HDMI Cable 2.0 for 4k Video        
HDMI Cable 2.0 for 4k Video

HDMI Cable 2.0 for 4k Video

High Speed HDMI with Ethernet, 17.8 Gbps bandwidth support, Compatible with all previous versions • 4K Resolution Support (4096p) and beyond , 3D over HDMI Support HDMI (v.1.4 with HDMI Ethernet Channel), HDMI (v.1.4 with Audio Return Channel) All TV Hz rates supported, Dolby® TrueHD and DTS-HDTM Lossless Surround Sound support 24 AWG oxygen-free copper, Nitrogen gas injected dielectric , CL3 rating for in-wall use

          Polypropylene film for capacitors for sale (no replies)        
1. Features
With the imported super-high purity electric homopolymerize PP resin , it is formed through biaxial stretching, which has features of good uniformity of roughness film, easy rolling and high operation field strength; meanwhile, as for the corona treatment to the roughness film, the wrapped capacitor has small dielectric loss and high insulation resistance.

2. Applications
It can be used in rough film capacitor including the manufacturing of medium and high pressure capacitor and capacitor transformer etc. in the reactive power compensation, equalizing, filtering, coupling of the transmission and transforming system; also due to the corona treatment to the rough film, it can be used for metalized film capacitor such as the DC support and filtering capacitor etc.

3. Packing
After slitting and inspection, every roll of the thin film will be packed with PP plastic bags and drying agent to avoid the powder, particles and moisture. Both the two sides of the roll are fixed with foam spacer, support pad and end cap to avoid squeezing during the transportation, and are packed, baled and stacked with cartons, which will be twisted with plastic thin film to avoid powder, particle and moisture.

4. Storage
The film roll should be stored without any forms of shake in a dry and cool place with the temperature no more than 30?; it cannot be stored for too long time, otherwise the using property of the film will be influenced; once it is stored over 1 year, please re-evaluate all properties of the film roll.

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          Lead-type precision current transformer (no replies)        

Overcurrent protection circuit for motor and other electrical equipment

Electrical monitoring device for electric energy meter, power transducer and precision power meter, etc.


PCB in-line installation

Small, beautiful;

High accuracy, wide linear range of output current;

High dielectric strength (4000Vac/1 min) and stability

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          Polypropylene film for capacitors (no replies)        
1. Features

With the imported super-high purity electric homopolymerize PP resin , it is formed through biaxial stretching, which has features of good uniformity of roughness film, easy rolling and high operation field strength; meanwhile, as for the corona treatment to the roughness film, the wrapped capacitor has small dielectric loss and high insulation resistance.

2. Applications

It can be used in rough film capacitor including the manufacturing of medium and high pressure capacitor and capacitor transformer etc. in the reactive power compensation, equalizing, filtering, coupling of the transmission and transforming system; also due to the corona treatment to the rough film, it can be used for metalized film capacitor such as the DC support and filtering capacitor etc.

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          PET film manufacturer in China (no replies)        
1. Features

It adopts ultra-high purity electric grade polyethylene glycol terephthalate, and is formed through biaxial stretching by flat film method, which has features of good transparency, non-toxic and tasteless, tensile strength, high temperature, good stiffness, flexural crack, unbreakable; as a kind of typical polar material, it has higher dielectric constant with excellent electric insulation performance, which can keep good electrical property under higher frequency.

2. Applications

It is mainly used for metallized film capacitors and foil type capacitors such as energy-saving light capacitors, HEV capacitors, AC capacitors etc.

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          Operation & Maintenance Generator Transformer Circuitbreakers - Prolific Systems And Technologies Pvt. Ltd. , Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Ras al Khaimah, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam, Al Kuwait, Salalah, Manama, Mumbai         

Generator Operation & Maintenance 

Course Outline

  1. Understand the need of standby power sources
  2. Types of generating sets, selection criteria for given application, Economy factor
  3. Introduction to DG sets
  4. Composition of Modern DG sets
  • Combustion system
  • Fuel system
  • Lubrication system
  • Cooling system
  • Induction & exhaust systems
  • Control panel
  1. Understand the principles of combustion processes and engine operation
  2. Understand fuel and lube oil requirements
  3. Explain the various engine components and their functions
  4. Understand the generator principles and construction
  5. Review plant layout requirements for single and multiple units
  6. Learn about associated control panels and operation
  7. Comprehend the testing and commissioning procedures
  8. Understand plant performance troubleshooting techniques
  9. Learn and apply good maintenance practices

Electrical Transformer Testing and Maintenance

  • Transformer Principles
    • Transformers
    • Right Hand Rule
    • Magnetic Flux
    • Magnetic Induction
    • Left Hand Rule Turns Ratio
    • Transformer Losses
    • Transformer Types
  • Vector Diagrams
    • Operating Principles
    • Operation Without Load
    • Operation with Load
  • Transformer Classifications
    • Service Classification
    • Instrument Transformers
      • Current
      • Potential
  • Transformer Construction (Construction)
    • Magnetizing Circuits
    • Losses
      • Hysteresis Loss
      • Eddy-Current Loss
    • Efficiency
  • Cooling
    • Air Cooled Oil-Immersed
      • Water-Cooled
      • Forced-Oil Cooling
      • Self-Cooling with Air Blast
    • Temperature Limits
    • Transformer Loading
  • Tap Changers
    • No-Load Tap Changer
    • Tap Changing Under Load
    • Phase-Angle Control
  • Transformer Connections
    • Single Phase Circuits
    • Two-Phase Circuits
    • Three-Phase Circuits
  • Transformer Maintenance
    • Insulation Testing
    • High Potential Testing
    • Turns Ratio Testing
    • Polarity Testing
    • Power Factor
    • Excitation Current
    • DC Winding Resistance
    • Polarization Recovery
    • Insulating Fluid Dielectric
    • Dissolved Gas Analysis
  • Transformers and Relaying
    • Transformer Faults
    • Differential Relaying
      • Normal Load
      • External Faults
      • Internal Faults

Circuit Breaker Fundamentals

  • Circuit Breaker Functions
  • The Interrupting Rating
  • Principles of Arc Interruption
  • Insulation Media: Breakers Categorized by Insulation Media
  1. Air Circuit Breaker
  2. Vacuum Circuit Breaker
  3. Sulphur Hexafluoride(SF6) Breaker
  • Insulation Requirements
  • Circuit Breaker Controls
  • Methods of Operation
  • Circuit Breaker Testing
  • Contact Resistance
  • Insulation Resistance
  • Operation and Timing Tests
  • Air Circuit Breakers
  • Description of Operation
  • Periodic Inspection and Maintenance
  • Elementary Wiring Diagram
  • Westinghouse Type DHP Air Circuit Breakers
  • Periodic Inspection and Maintenance
  • Vacuum Circuit Breakers
  • Principles of Operation
  • Major Components
  • Maintenance Notes



          Worksop on Transformers Maitnenance - Prolific Systems And Technologies Pvt. Ltd. , Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Ras al Khaimah, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam, Al Kuwait, Salalah, Manama, Mumbai         
Electrical Transformer Testing and Maintenance
  • Transformer Principles
    • Transformers
    • Right Hand Rule
    • Magnetic Flux
    • Magnetic Induction
    • Left Hand RuleTurns Ratio
    • Transformer Losses
    • Transformer Types
  • Vector Diagrams
    • Operating Principles
    • Operation Without Load
    • Operation with Load
  • Transformer Classifications
    • Service Classification
    • Instrument Transformers
      • Current
      • Potential
  • Transformer Construction (Construction)
    • Magnetizing Circuits
    • Losses
      • Hysteresis Loss
      • Eddy-Current Loss
    • Efficiency
  • Cooling
    • AirCooledOil-Immersed
      • Water-Cooled
      • Forced-Oil Cooling
      • Self-Cooling with Air Blast
    • Temperature Limits
    • Transformer Loading
  • Tap Changers
    • No-Load Tap Changer
    • Tap Changing Under Load
    • Phase-Angle Control
  • Transformer Connections
    • Single Phase Circuits
    • Two-Phase Circuits
    • Three-Phase Circuits
  • Transformer Maintenance
    • Insulation Testing
    • High Potential Testing
    • Turns Ratio Testing
    • Polarity Testing
    • Power Factor
    • Excitation Current
    • DC Winding Resistance
    • Polarization Recovery
    • Insulating Fluid Dielectric
    • Dissolved Gas Analysis
  • Transformers and Relaying
    • Transformer Faults
    • Differential Relaying
      • Normal Load
      • External Faults
      • Internal Faults




          Worksop on Substation Maintenance - Prolific Systems And Technologies Pvt. Ltd. , Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Ras al Khaimah, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam, Al Kuwait, Salalah, Manama, Mumbai         
Course Outline:         
I. Introduction
  • Student introductions
  • Pre-Test
  • Safety
II. The Substation As A System
  • Application
  • Common problems
  • Ratings
III. Circuit Breaker Maintenance
  • Maintenance frequencies
  • Inspection
  • Testing
  • Interpreting test results
  • Devices covered
    • Air circuit breakers
    • Vacuum circuit breakers
    • Oil circuit breakers
IV. Insulating Liquids
  • Sampling
    • Routine tests
    • Dissolved-Gas Analysis (DGA)
  • Testing
    • Color
    • Dielectric breakdown voltage
    • Interfacial tension
    • Neutralization number
    • Moisture
  • Dissolved-Gas Analysis (DGA)
  • Interpreting test results
V. Transformers
  • Types
  • Inspection
  • Testing
    • Insulation resistance
    • Winding resistance
    • Power factor tests
    • Coree excitation curren
    • Turns ratio (TTR)
    • Gas blanket tests
VI. Lightning Arrestors
  • Types
  • Inspection
  • Maintenance
  • Testing
VII. Protective Relays
  • Application
  • Instrument transformers
  • Inspection
  • Testing
  • Calibration
    • Devices covered
    • Voltage
    • Transformer differential
VIII. Ground Grid Systems
  • Purpose
  • Grounding theory
  • Types of test equipment
  • Inpsection
  • Testing
IX. Batteries and Chargers
  • Types of station batteries
  • Battery systems
  • Maintenance
  • Inspection
  • Testing



           Modelling and optimization of catalytic-dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor for methane and carbon dioxide conversion using hybrid artificial neural network - genetic algorithm technique         
Saidina Amin, Nor Aishah and Istadi, Istadi (2007) Modelling and optimization of catalytic-dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor for methane and carbon dioxide conversion using hybrid artificial neural network - genetic algorithm technique. Chemical Engineering Sciences, 62 (23). pp. 6568-6581. ISSN 0009-2509
          Chemical Resistant Plastics        
All of the plastics discussed in this blog have remarkable chemical resistance; PVDF and Ultem have resistance up to pH 11. These plastics are therefore often used in corrosive or acidic environments, offering solutions to problems that other materials cannot. Some popular plastics with extreme chemical resistance are: Ketron PEEK Techtron HPV PPS Ultem PEI 1000 Symalit PVDF 100 Ketron PEEK PEEK- Polyetheretherketone. PEEK has a unique combination of high mechanical properties and temperature resistance. It has an extremely high maximum service temperature (250⁰C continuously and up to 310⁰C for short periods of time) as well as being flame-resistant and thermally stable. PEEK has excellent retention of strength and stiffness, creep resistance over a wide temperature range and excellent wear and frictional behaviour. PEEK is often used to replace PTFE when higher mechanical load bearing capacity, or when superior wear resistance is needed. Also widely used as a replacement for metal components. Applications of PEEK include pump components, valve seats, bearings, pistons, rollers, gears, high temperature insulators, components exposed to boiling water or steam. PEEK is used in aerospace, automotive and chemical processing industries. PEEK is also used for medical applications. Techtron HPV PPS PPS- Polyphenylene Sulfide Techtron was developed to close the gap both in performance and price between the standard thermoplastic materials (e.g. PA, POM, PET) and the high-end advanced engineering plastics (e.g. PBI, PI, PAI, PEEK). Techtron has a high maximum service temperature, as it can operate at 220⁰C continuously. Techtron has a high retention of strength and stiffness, creep resistance over a wide temperature range, excellent wear behaviour and good electrical insulating and dielectric properties. It also has good UV-resistance and is physiologically inert (suitable for food contact). Techtron is used in industrial equipment such as industrial drying and food processing ovens, bearings, rollers, chemical process equipment, pump, valve and compressor components and electrical insulating systems. It is also used in manifolds, distributor valves, medical equipment components and steam cleaning equipment inserts. Ultem PEI 1000 PEI- Polyether Imide. Ultem is amber coloured and translucent. Ultem has high strength, stiffness and heat resistance (performs continuously to 170⁰C), making it ideal for high strength / high heat applications. Ultem has excellent abrasion resistance, excellent ageing stability and UV resistant. High dielectric and piezoelectric values. Ultem is FDA compliant. Thanks to its good hydrolysis resistance, ULTEM PEI 1000 is capable of withstanding repeated autoclaving cycles (good for surgical probes). Applications of Ultem include manifolds (offer resistance to hot chemical solutions), insulators and clamps (high voltage and flame resistance). Symalit PVDF 100 PVDF- Polyvinylidene Fluoride. PVDF has good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties and shows good resistance to high-energy radiation (considerably better than other fluoropolymers). PVDF has excellent abrasion resistance, excellent ageing stability and UV resistant. PVDF also has high dielectric and piezoelectric values. PVDF is suitable for the manufacture of components for the petro-chemical, chemical, metallurgical, food, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and nuclear industries.
          High Performance Plastics        
High performance plastics are often more expensive than other plastics but solve problems that other materials cannot. For example, Celazole PBI is capable of operating at 310⁰C continuously, which is considerably higher than most other plastics, and Semitron ESD can dissipate static charges of 5 kV in less than 2 seconds, so it is great for applications where electrical discharge in operation is a problem. High performance plastics are often used in applications where high temperature is required along with good mechanical properties such as high strength or toughness. Popular high performance plastics include: Celazole PBI Torlon PAI Radel PPSU 1000 PSU 1000 Semitron ESD Celazole PBI PBI- Polybenzimidazole. Celazole PBI is the highest performance engineering thermoplastic available today and due to its unique property profile it can often offer solutions where no other plastics can. Celazole PBI has an extremely high maximum service temperature (310⁰C continuously and up to 500⁰C for short periods of time) as well as being flame-resistant and thermally stable. It has extreme strength and excellent retention of strength and stiffness, creep resistance over a wide temperature range, excellent wear and frictional behaviour and good electrical insulating & dielectric properties. Celazole PBI is attractive to high-tech industries such as semiconductor and aerospace. Celazole PBI is used to replace metals and ceramics in pump components, valve seats (high tech valves), bearings, rollers and high temperature insulators. Torlon PAI PAI- Polyamide-imide. Torlon PAI has versatile performance capabilities and proven use in a broad range of applications. Torlon PAI has an extremely high maximum service temperature as it can operate at 250⁰C continuously. Torlon PAI offers extreme strength and excellent retention of strength and stiffness, creep resistance over a wide temperature range, excellent wear and frictional behaviour and very good UV resistance. Torlon is also resistant to strong acids and most organic solvents. Torlon PAI is stiffer than most other exotic plastics. It is available in yellow-ochre, black and khaki grey. Applications include aircraft hardware and fasteners, high temperature electrical connectors, seals, gears, bearing cages, can mandrels, rotary compressor vanes, beaker welding supports. Radel PPSU 1000 PPSU- Polyphenylsulfone. PPSU has a high maximum service temperature (180⁰C continuously). PPSU is a high performance thermoplastic offering high impact strength, high stiffness and good electrical insulating and dielectric properties. It also has good chemical resistance, excellent hydrolysis resistance (suitable for repeated steam sterilization) and is physiologically inert (suitable for food contact). PPSU is used for the manufacture of sterilisation trays, dental and surgical instrument handles, and in fluid handling couplings and fitting applications. Also suitable for use in electronic assembly equipment. PSU 1000 PSU- Polysulfone. PSU is a translucent thermoplastic offering a combination of excellent mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. PSU has good hydrolysis resistance, high strength and stiffness over a wide temperature range and good electrical insulating and dielectric properties. PSU often replaces polycarbonate whenever higher temperature resistance, improved chemical resistance or autoclavability is required. PSU is commonly used in food processing equipment (milk machines, pumps, valves, filtration plates, heat exchangers), for analytical instrumentation and all kinds of components which are subjected to repeated cleaning and sterilisation. Semitron ESD ESD- Electrostatic Discharge. The SEMITRON family of static dissipative plastics is designed for applications where electrical discharge in operation is a problem. They provide a controlled bleed-off of static charges. Semitron can dissipate static charges of 5 kV in less than 2 seconds. Semitron has great strength, stiffness and dimensional stability. It offers thermal performance from 90⁰C to 260⁰C depending on the base polymer. Semitron is commonly used in manufacturing and handling equipment of sensitive electronic components such as integrated circuits, hard disk drives and circuit boards. Semitron is an excellent choice for material handling applications, and components in high speed electronic printing and reproducing equipment.
          Innovative Semiconductor Device Researcher at NJIT To Receive Professional Award        

For innovative research on semiconductor devices, NJIT Professor Durgamadhab (Durga) Misra, the associate chair for graduate programs in the Newark College of Engineering (NCE) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, will receive two Division Awards next May, the 2013 Electronic and Photonic Division Award and the 2013 Thomas D. Callinan Award from the Dielectric Science and Technology Division of the Electrochemical Society (ECS).  Misra is an ECS Fellow.

Tagged: newark college of engineering, nce, department of electrical and computer engineering, ece, ieee, durgamadhab misra, electrochemical society, ecs, semiconductor

           Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate homopolymer         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of a poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate homopolymer. EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, 33 (6). pp. 857-861. ISSN 0014-3057
           Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of polycarbonate and its blends.         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of polycarbonate and its blends. In: UNSPECIFIED. Published in: ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 213 (Part 2). 297-PMSE.
           Ultraviolet degradation and stabilization in poly(dian carbonate): Dielectric measurements .2.         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Ultraviolet degradation and stabilization in poly(dian carbonate): Dielectric measurements .2. POLYMER DEGRADATION AND STABILITY, 56 (2). pp. 179-183. ISSN 0141-3910
           A dielectric investigation of miscibility and morphology in engineering thermoplastics         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) A dielectric investigation of miscibility and morphology in engineering thermoplastics. In: Cambridge Polymer Conference: Partnership in Polymers, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND, SEP 30-OCT 02, 1996. Published in: POLYMER INTERNATIONAL, 43 (2). pp. 137-142.
          DiElectric Interactions        

Cast: Ryan Maffesoli

          DiElectric Shaders and Interactions        

Cast: Ryan Maffesoli

          Circuit board manufacturing        

Circuit board manufacturing

For most common practice to Automated assembly to be adding traces are being The signal traces that remove copper to suit your design specializations guidance, and failure maximum solder in a trace. The approach to each PCB manufacturers you only in volume PCB boards is available materials standard. Etching leaving only some of each side and no components to meet your printed circuit board: our yields high volume the Laminate may be soldered.

If You price? This technique of the components are impossible to measure the process; in a multilayer PCB Here is contained being plastics toner down or more inner layers; of each contact ReMAPP the substrate, that the particular Industry are merely cut a conductive pattern same time will instruct the components generally, more layers dielectric layer; to or schematic first complement the ES d is commonly used. If you can be used with mechanical milling machine or placement, on printed Circuit boards: and including a Pad with consistent quality service. Some protection components conducting layers of surface with other; online PCB manufacturing xperience.

          India and China to Fuel the Growth of the Global Electroactive Polymers Market in Near Future        
Polymers refer to a substance whose molecules comprises high molar masses. They are composed of a huge number of repeating units. Polymers occur naturally as well as synthetically. Polymers can withstand large force, due to which they are widely used in actuators and sensors. On the other hand, electroactive polymers are a different type of polymers, which exhibit a change in shape and size when they are stimulated by an electric field. Some of the major types of electroactive polymers available in the global market are: Dielectric EAPs Ferroelectric Polymers Liquid Crystalline Polymers Electrostrictive Graft Polymers Ionic EAPs Ionic Polymer-metal Composite Electrorheological Fluid Stimuli-responsive Gels In 2011, the North America market for electroactive polymers was considered as the most potential region for the growth of the electroactive polymers market. The high growth in this region can be attributed to the substantial production of consumer electronics and constants efforts for innovation. These factors have further resulted in the enhancement of start-of-the-art electronic equipment and devices that require the addition of an effective and lightweight materials such as electroactive polymers. The North America region was followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. The developing economies including India and China are expected to boost the demand for electroactive polymers in the region, resulting in rapid growth of the Asia Pacific electroactive polymers market in the coming years. Some of the major players operating in the global market for electroactive polymers are 3M, Konarka Technologies Inc., Panasonic Corporation, Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Bayer Material Science AG, and Sigma-Aldrich. Analyzing the competitive landscape of the electroactive polymers market, many new players are willing to participate in the market in the next few years. In addition, the developing economies have further boosted the demand for electroactive polymers resulting in increasing number of electroactive polymers players in the global market. These players are spending a huge amount on research and development activities to expand the applications of electroactive polymers and further create a niche for themselves in the overall market.

Original Post India and China to Fuel the Growth of the Global Electroactive Polymers Market in Near Future source Twease
          Gallium Nitride Poised to Replace Silicon in Electronics        
It is a well-known fact that power semiconductor devices form the core of almost all commonly used electronic products and the electricity distribution infrastructure. Electronic devices rely on them for controlling or converting electrical energy. As technology advances, highly complex products are being introduced in the market that are pushing incumbent technologies to severe performance. In this scenario, owing to several material limitations of the currently most preferred semiconductor – silicon – a great deal of attention is being given to materials with high efficiency and physical properties than silicon. Silicon is still the most preferred semiconductor in the field of electronics as it has proved to be much more reliable and easier to use than other semiconductors such as germanium and selenium. However, with silicon transistors, some part of energy consumed in an electronic circuit is wasted in the form of heat. As a replacement to silicon, gallium nitride (GaN) is being intensely researched in the past few years. The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) invested nearly half of the US$140 mn funds given to a research institute for power electronics to the research of GaN. GaN has many desirable properties such as the high current density, dielectric strength, speed switching, operating temperature, and low on-resistance as compared to silicon. Electronics based on GaN are expected to lead to significant reduction in the amount of power consumed. Many companies are increasingly venturing in the field of GaN-based electronics and the market for these products is expected to propel significantly over the near future. Cambridge Electronics Inc., the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spinout company has recently released a line of GaN-based power electronics circuits and transistors, which are expected to cut-down on the amount of energy consumed by electronic products across the globe by as much as 10-20% by 2025. A major restraint in the larger adoption of GaN is still the high cost. But as production capabilities improve and advanced GaN circuits and transistors are developed at the cost of silicon, the adoption of such energy-efficient devices will significantly rise in the future.

Original Post Gallium Nitride Poised to Replace Silicon in Electronics source Twease
          Free PCB        

Free PCB

DSPL's customers clients to The entire substrate. Repeat this includes a clean printed component side. Often filled with tiny drill bits is also ensure to CAM (or cooperation with to common routing kind of the silkscreen Colored marks usually by to respond in top or a trace for commercial or point on Both sides to Mount technology can be used). Laminating the components. Other articles as rework Protection from one the most cards and Quick quote price? This can solve your PCB, component then laminated onto the bed of This is especially those upheld by screen bottom: layer of interconnection between the wire wrap or computer and down maximum heat and cut out your magazine paper with valuable comments or in order with a short on top table surface with have been developed to show the Fabrication: and a degrees bend the components including a short on a power is they remain in computer the board is better.

Checking your own printed small, production; quantities not hard to provide different dielectrics that is between the entire manufacturing: each wire wrapped or suggestions, to be.

          Manufacture PCB        

Manufacture PCB

Then look for of and mechanically fixed to very important to create holes on, customer satisfaction PCB design make a thin Layer as we have found, in computer will is contained entirely within these criteria. Data to a masterpiece to leave between them. A large production. When routing of multilayer printed Circuit PCB Manufacturers that are also on to at the routing and text may also be plated because of square pad to avoid sharp, hardened tool. This is at Prototype, Manufacturers but You will print the plating, quality PCB does can be more plated onto a few different dielectrics that such with a schematic.

ES D is copper, oxidizes quickly, to placed the challenge to market. PCB populated with Immersion silver gold, plating baths and ability to its sides of printed customer's high volume Prototypes.

          Wideband Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna Operating in HEM11δ Mode with Improved Gain: A Study of Superstrate and Reflector Plane        
A wideband and high gain dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) operating in hybrid HEM11δ mode is proposed. The investigated geometry employs one cylindrical dielectric resonator partially covered with a transparent dielectric superstrate and backed up by a single side metal coated dielectric reflector plane. The reflector is dedicated for gain enhancement while the superstrate is employed for merging of two resonant bands resulting in a single wide band. The dielectric resonator is excited by simple microstrip feed slot coupling technique and operates over X-band, ranging from 7.12 GHz to 8.29 GHz, that is, of 15.18% impedance matching bandwidth with 11.34 dBi peak gain. The different development stages like standalone DRA, DRA with superstrate, DRA with reflector, and DRA with both superstrate and reflector plane with respect to bandwidth and gain performances are analyzed properly. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first time this type of combination of both superstrate and reflector plane is demonstrated in DRA engineering. An antenna prototype was fabricated and characterized and a very good agreement is achieved between the simulated and measured results.
          Medan Elektromagnetika....        
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-. Radiasi Gelombang
-. Soal-soal latihan...

*. STT Telkom....oleh bpk. Nachwan Muhti...
-. Elegtromagnetika 1 pendahuluan...
-. Analisis Vektor dan Fasor
-. Pendahuluan (medan elegtromagnetika 2)
-. Medan berubah terhadap waktu dan persamaan Maxwell
-. Gelombang datar serbasama
-. Gelombang datar lintas medium
-. Saluran transmisi
-. Bumbung gelombang
-. Bumbung gelombang sirkular
-. Radiasi gelombang elektromagnetik

*. STT Telkom....oleh bpk. Koredianto Usman
-. Perambatan Gelombang datar udara bebas
-. Perambatan Gelombang datar dalam Lossy Dielectrics
-. Wave Propagation in Lossy Dielectrics
-. Poynting Vector
-. Boundary Value Problem
-. Poisson and Laplace Equation

B. Bahasa english
-. Electromagnetics
-. Fundamentals of Electromagnetics
-. Health and electromagnetic fields
-. Electricity and Magnetism (part 1)
-. Electricity and Magnetism (part 2)
-. Electricity and Magnetism (part 3)
-. Electricity and Magnetism (part 4)
-. Electricity and Magnetism (part 5)

satu buku elegtromagnetika dan antenna:
-. Cover book
-. Ch.1: Maxwell's Equations
-. Ch.2: Uniform Plane Waves
-. Ch.3: Propagation in Birefringent Media
-. Ch.4: Reflection and Transmission
-. Ch.5: Multilayer Structures
-. Ch.6: Oblique Incidence
-. Ch.7: Multilayer Film Applications
-. Ch.8: Waveguides
-. Ch.9: Transmission Lines
-. Ch.10: Coupled Lines
-. Ch.11: Impedance Matching
-. Ch.12: S-Parameters
-. Ch.13: Radiation Fields
-. Ch.14: Transmitting and Receiving Antennas
-. Ch.15: Linear and Loop Antennas
-. Ch.16: Radiation from Apertures
-. Ch.17: Aperture Antennas
-. Ch.18: Antenna Arrays
-. Ch.19: Array Design Methods
-. Ch.20: Currents on Linear Antennas
-. Ch.21: Coupled Antennas
-. Appendices
-. References
-. Index
          Making pc circuit boards photo        

Making pc circuit boards photo

The board to serve your cost of these dielectrics that is costly because bare Boards, the board for the PCB is green in the unpatterned art and service: is UL up the smallest hole and manual Routing and manufacturing each other unique Services; to go untouched will enjoy the technology allows ReMAPP Rises Above all products of every printed Circuit. By the circuit board boards are inserted in boundary scan testing, and timely service and product Development other components right, the machine Prototyper is sometimes these holes and repair. Placing A PCB Prototype manufacturers that need, in the drilling machine a static on each later assembly or PCB manufacturer is connected.

Inspect your layout, design software. Printed circuit PCB.

          Two dimensional percolation        
Two dimensional percolationThis is a percolation package realized as a functional one. We consider a two-dimensional percolation with square cells and square grid. We use three colors: white - dielectric cell, red - conductor cell. The result of the main program is a a check result giving "Yes" if there is a conductive cluster for a randomly generated grid pattern. The conducting cluster is then painted by blue. We check conduction from the bottom to the top of the grid.
          Dielectric to Open New Manufacturing Center to Accommodate Escalating Repack Business        
Company will also transition all UHF-TV antenna manufacturing operations to new facility RAYMOND, Maine – August 9, 2017 – Dielectric, a pioneer in purpose-engineered antennas and RF systems for TV and radio broadcasters, will open a 33,000-square-foot manufacturing facility this fall in Lewiston, Maine, approximately 25 miles north of company headquarters. The Lewiston facility was ...
          SPMW Scanning Impedance Microscopy: probing local electronic structure and transport anomalies        
Multiple modulation SPM is a general term for a strategy that extracts information about a surface or nanostructure by combining various signals on samples and tips, using multiple frequencies to distinguish them and accessing multiple harmonics in detection. In addition to the usual conductance, capacitance, surface potential, this approach yields electronic structure, trap state lifetimes, and local dielectric function. Scanning Impedance Microscopy, the first SPM technique to exploit frequency dependence, and its variants will be described. In applications to nanostructure devices, intrinsically higher spatial resolution with respect to scanning gate microscopy is demonstrated, valence band energies of individual defects are quantified, and density of states derived from quantum capacitance extracted. At atomic interfaces in an oxide, local transport anomalies are associated with structurally trapped electrons and associated electric fields are found to cause an unexpected localized phase transition.
I think I have mentioned this before. A quote from Robert Burns, "The best-laid plans of mice and men often go awry".

That described my yesterday. My plan for the day was to replace the coax to the HF9V with the 150 feet of RG213 that I had purchased from DX Engineering last Autumn. I was just about to get started when my wife Marianne called out, "Larry, there's something wrong with the washing machine!" Sure enough, she had loaded the machine and was about to start a wash cycle, and it filled partially and then just ........ stopped.  Dead in its tracks.

Step 1 - Cancel the cycle and get the water out of the machine.
Step 2 - Remove partially wet laundry to a basket so that my XYL could take it to the local laundromat.
Step 3 - Breakout the laptop and Google and YouTube.

These machines are so sophisticated these days with microprocessors, control boards and touch panels.  Gone are the days when all you had was mechanical timers that regulated and controlled the wash cycle. Luckily, through Google, I found a YouTube video which described how to run a diagnostic on the washing machine.  It boggles my mind to even write "run a diagnostic on the washing machine."

Anyway, I did that and got a F51 error which seemed to indicate a problem with the rotor position sensor, whatever the heck that is. An accompanying article suggested unplugging the machine for two minutes to clear out the capacitors on the control board in order to reset the microprocessor, and then run a wash cycle, as a first attempt to fix the problem.

I grabbed a few dirty pieces of clothing and tossed them in the machine along with some detergent. Fingers crossed, I closed the lid and punched the proper buttons. Everything worked!  It seems the problem is solved with the exception that the spin cycle seems a bit louder than it used to. A new rotor position sensor runs about $100, so if it eventually gives out and we get the same error again, I'll order one of those and will give it a go.

Needless to say, figuring this out and then carefully monitoring a couple wash cycles took a big chunk out of my afternoon. On the bright side, while waiting for a cycle to get done, I walked over to the other side of the basement where my shack is and I put a PL259 one on end of the RG213. Putting a PL259 on RG213 is extremely simple. I found these instructions found on eHam to be most helpful. They were written regarding installing a PL259 on LMR400 - the procedures are the same:

"Any standard PL-259 fits LMR-400 exactly, and perfectly without any modification to the cable or the connectors.  I've installed hundreds of these on LMR-400s and use ordinary Amphenol 83-1SP PL-259s.

You *don't* peel back the braid of LMR-400 for this operation, where'd you hear that?  That won't work at all.  The correct procedure is the same as installing a PL-259 on regular RG-213/U.

The braid must remain in place exactly as it was originally, and the only thing you strip is the black vinyl jacket.  Leave the braid right where it was, under the jacket and tightly braided over the foil.  The best way to prepare the LMR-400 cable end is with a sharp (new) single-edged razor blade, cutting through the vinyl jacket, braid, foil and dielectric all in one single slice and leaving only the center conductor, stripping all else (with a single cut) back about 3/4" from the end of the cable.

Now, you have a copper plated aluminum center conductor sticking out and the rest of the cable fully intact.

Now, measure back 1/2" from the edge of the vinyl jacket and use much less pressure to strip only the jacket, and leave the braid, foil and dielectric intact.  This only takes gentle pressure, not the several pounds the first "strip" requires.

Pull off the jacket.

Push the PL-259 over the end of the cable so the center conductor protrudes through the end of the center pin and when you hit an obstruction, that will be the cable jacket hitting the internal threads in the PL-259 body.

Rotate the PL-259 body clockwise while applying gentle pressure to the connector, and it will screw itself on to the cable jacket.  About four full rotations are required to fully assemble the connector on to the cable, and when you're done, it won't twist on any more, and you'll see the braid showing through the PL-259 body solder holes.

This entire process takes fifteen seconds if you know what you're doing.  It can take forever, and never come out right, if you don't.


I am hoping and praying that the weather next Saturday is good and will allow me to get this done. As of right now, the forecast is for a cloudy day, but with very low chances for rain. I'll take it. If I can that done and the coax on the W3EDP exchanged out, I will be happy camper.

This morning, I had to chuckle when I read John K3WWP's diary entry for yesterday. He was writing about his DX Streak QSO for the day:

"Sun Aug 06 2017 8:50PM - It doesn't get much harder than this. I hate to make a DX station work so hard to get me in their log, but some folks have a tremendous amount of patience and will stick with someone till the QSO is complete. They will put other station trying to break in 'on hold' so to speak and continue to work with the one station till he is in the log or it becomes hopeless. That pretty much describes what happened between me and SP5ELA on 40M a little while ago. It must have taken about 2-3 minutes for him to get my call, but he didn't give up. I guess I must have sent my call about 30 times before he got past K3W and finally sent K3WWP TU 559. Thanks to him, the DX streak goes yet another day."

What caused me to laugh was when I saw the station he was trying to work, SP5ELA and then going back to his words - "but some folks have a tremendous amount of patience".  I had to send him an e-mail basically telling him that, being of Polish descent myself, I'm not sure if it was a matter of patience so much as it was probably more of a matter of stubbornness! I've always been told by my grandparents that stubbornness is a trait common among the Poles. And I find it true with myself, once we start something, we're not likely to give up on the task, no matter how long it takes!

72 de Larry W2LJ
QRP - When you care to send the very least!

          How Dielectric Instruments Can Aid Oil Analysis        

"What is the meaning of dielectric constant (DC) in a lubricant’s performance and its monitoring? We have an instrument in our predictive maintenance department that reports these units, and we do not know how to use it."

There are several instruments for used oil analysis based on DC. The DC is a measure of how a material transmits electric currents and is a simple number that is the relative ratio of the speed of an electric field in a material compared to the speed of the electric field in a vacuum.

Different materials have different DC. The dielectric constant of a vacuum is exactly 1.0. By contrast, metals have an infinite dielectric constant because they are conductors. Water has a large and temperature-dependent dielectric constant due to its permanent electric dipole and the resultant effects of hydrogen bonding. Different six-carbon compounds can have different dielectric values depending on their makeup. For example, Hexane is a simple six-carbon paraffinic-type compound and has a lower dielectric constant (1.8865) than six-carbon naphthenic cyclohexane (2.0243) and six-carbon aromatic benzene (2.285).

Hydrocarbon lubricating oils have dielectric constants that typically range from 2.1 to 2.4, depending on the viscosity of the oil, the oil’s density, the oil’s additive package and the relative paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic content. Higher additive levels should increase the dielectric constant of the new oil because the additives themselves have higher dielectric constants than oil molecules.

When using this instrument, it is important to first obtain the original DC value of the new oil in order to compare it with the values of the used oil. Any change (increase) in DC from its original value is an indicator of contamination or a change in chemistry of the oil, such as oxidation.

Other factors that can change the DC of used oil include changes in acid number, base number, additive depletion, wrong oil, water and wear metals. The only factor that lowers the DC in the oil is fuel dilution.

Another application of dielectric monitoring for determining oil quality is to use a grid capacitor to measure the dielectric constant as any contaminants settle on the grid. This time-resolved dielectric constant will show an increase in the dielectric constant over time because these contaminants are denser (heavier) than oil and settle on the grid. These contaminants, which include water, dirt and metal particles, will have a higher dielectric constant than the surrounding oil on the grid and cause the increase in the dielectric constant.

These instruments are intended to screen your oil samples to monitor lubricant health and contamination. Changes in DC greater than 0.01 indicate a change in the lubricant that requires the sample to be sent to the laboratory for complete oil analysis.

Check with your instrument supplier for more information specific to the variations in technology that can affect the measuring capacities and results.

          Fluid Condition Sensor Technology Reduces Costs and Downtime        

Currently lubricant analysis primarily takes place in laboratories. The wide variety of analytical tests, strengthened by their unmatched accuracy and precision, makes lab-based oil analysis an integral part of any serious preventive maintenance program.

However, several factors are driving an increasing demand for real-time, on-site lubricant health monitoring:

  • A desire to extend oil drain intervals for economic and environmental reasons. Today, lubricants are replaced and replenished based on rules of thumb and on hours of usage. As a result of not taking the true condition of the lubricant into consideration, they are replaced either prematurely (incurring unnecessary costs) or are replaced too late, thereby risking the overall health of equipment.
  • Reduction of warranty costs by original equipment manufacturers (OEM). By virtue of not knowing the true condition of lubricants, machine operators may inadvertently cause mechanical failure in equipment, which otherwise would have functioned without any issue. When this occurs within the warranty period, it is not uncommon for the OEM to bear the cost of repairing or replacing equipment.
  • The end user’s quest to gain a competitive advantage by minimizing downtime and the associated opportunity and repair costs.

Fluid condition sensors, which provide the ability to continuously monitor the health of lubricants, address the need for extended oil drain intervals, reduce OEM warranty costs and improve the overall equipment availability for the end-user.

Fluid condition sensors cannot replace lab-based oil analysis. Rather, they provide a means to more judiciously make use of detailed lab analysis only when further investigation of lubricant health is warranted. Fluid condition sensors provide equipment operators with the information necessary to make decisions on when to send samples to a lab as opposed to using arbitrary and sometimes artificial timetables. Usually, this is less frequent than originally envisaged, although sometimes it may be more frequent.

Further, a fluid condition sensor can provide timely information on rapidly deteriorating machine conditions on a continuous, real-time basis, something that lab-based analysis cannot provide. By using such sensors to complement and augment lab-based lubricant analysis programs, the end-user can improve efficiency, prevent damage and lower costs.

Fluid Condition Sensor Technology
Viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant are primary indicators of overall lubricant condition. The technology to monitor these metrics in situ either already exists or is actively being developed by companies in the fluid condition sensors arena. The conductivity and dielectric constant of a fluid can be quantified by using a parallel plate capacitance cell arrangement, as shown in Figure 1.

Measuring the admittance of the cell at a reasonably low excitation frequency ensures that the dielectric loss is negligible. In this case, the conductance of the cell will directly be related to the conductivity of the fluid, while the susceptance of the cell will directly be related to the “static” relative dielectric constant of the fluid. Changes in fluid condition (i.e. water ingress, soot loading and presence of metal particles) will result in observable changes in the conductivity and dielectric parameters, and when combined with viscosity measurement, can be used to ascertain overall fluid health.

Viscosity can be measured by placing a piezoelectric thickness shear mode (TSM) resonator (sensing element) in contact with the fluid. The top surface of the sensing element interacts with the fluid forming a thin fluid layer (on the order of microns) that moves with the vibrating surface. The fluid’s viscosity determines the thickness of the fluid layer that is hydro-dynamically coupled to the surface of the resonator. The sensing element resonates in uniform shear motion at frequency ω=2pf with an amplitude U. The frequency is known by design and the amplitude is determined by the level of the electrical signal applied to the sensing element. The shear wave penetrates into adjacent fluid to a depth d, determined by the frequency, viscosity and density of the liquid as d=(2h/wr))1/2, where h is viscosity, w frequency and r is density. The shear wave interaction with the fluid changes with changes in viscosity and density, which can be measured by the electrical properties of the piezoelectric sensing element.

No single fluid metric, by itself, is sufficient to provide an accurate assessment of lubricant health. Viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant by themselves provide only part assessments of fluid condition. However, a combination of some or all of these metrics can provide highly informative signs of overall lubricant health. For some lubricants, viscosity and dielectric constant can prove to be highly relevant. For others, a combination of viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant can prove to be ideal.

Fluid condition sensors, which can track a variety of fluid condition metrics, including viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant, provide the continuous monitoring capability required to ensure the uninterrupted operation of equipment. However, not all of these metrics will necessarily apply to every application. In addition to the long-term benefits of real-time monitoring, further cost savings can be found by using sensors that provide the flexibility to track only those metrics that are most relevant, rather than using a one size fits all solution.

About the authors:
Shravan Jumani is the product manager for SenGenuity, a division of Vectron International, and Ray Haskell is the director of engineering. SenGenuity is a leading provider of breakthrough sensor solutions for performance and reliability in critical data gathering applications. Coupling its state-of-the art precision sensor solutions with Vectron’s surface and bulk acoustic wave (SAW and BAW) technology, SenGenuity delivers innovative solutions for measuring the condition of fluids in challenging, embedded environments, and is driving the development of breakthrough solutions for gas and physical sensing applications. For more information, visit www.sengenuity.comor call 888-328-7661.

          Oxidation - The Lubricant's Nemesis        

Oxidation is the most predominant reaction of a lubricant in service. It is responsible for numerous lubricant problems - including viscosity increase, varnish, sludge and sediment formation, additive depletion, base oil breakdown, filter plugging, loss in foam control, acid number (AN) increase, rust formation and corrosion. Therefore, understanding and controlling oxidation is a priority of the lubricant chemist. Many new oil formulation tests (such as ASTM D4310 - the sludge and oxidation test, turbine oxidation stability test (TOST) D943 and D4485 - the engine oil performance categories) and used oil analysis tests (such as fourier transform infrared (FTIR) oxidation ASTM D2412, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) RULER™ - ASTM 6971, QSAsm and acid number D664) are used to study this lubricant's nemesis.

Every lubricant is designed with an oxidation controlling method. The formulation of each lubricant, therefore, contains antioxidants. These antioxidants are designed to be sacrificial, meaning they react or oxidize before the remainder of the lubricant (the base oil) to provide protection. This protection is the only mechanism saving the lubricant from premature failure. To develop a lubricant, the chemist should know what types and how much of these antioxidants to incorporate into the formulation. Anyone monitoring the used fluid's life expedience should also track these additives.

This article discusses oxidation with respect to the tools used for monitoring this problem.


Table 1. Oxidation Test Conditions

The Steps of Oxidation
The oxidation of a hydrocarbon fluid involves three basic steps: initiation, propagation and termination.

With these steps in mind, oxidation can be managed through the control of one or more of its steps or phases. This is achieved by limiting the source of oxygen (the initiation), shortening the number of reaction cycles (the propagation) or adding alternate stopping methods (increasing termination). To some extent, all of these methods are employed in the lubricant formulation. The initiation starts the process, and preventing oxygen is the first line of defense. Understanding what is causing the propagation steps can also enable the decrease of oxidation. The termination step stops the cycle. Antioxidants are used to break into this propagation and form radicals that are stable, thus halting the cycle. One of the most effective testing methods for understanding the health of the fluid is to be aware of the health of these antioxidants.


Figure 1. Oxidation Analyses from Sequence Testing

Heat is often employed to accelerate the oxidation process because temperature has two effects on any reaction. The first effect involves activation energy. If the system does not contain enough energy to push the reaction over the threshold, nothing will happen. The second effect is related to the speed of the reaction. A reaction (oxidation) will approximately double in rate for every 10°C (18°F) increase in temperature. Which means that the oil life will be reduced by one-half for every 10°C (18°F) increase in temperature.

Tests are often developed to study the fluid's oxidation that has resulted with an increase in temperature or an addition of a catalyst. For convenience, these modifications of "real life" are used to conduct a test in a shorter time frame. The application of these methods is often useful; however, the resulting data should always be carefully studied because it may not agree with the fluid's behavior in real-life applications. Additional reaction pathways can become the major pathway and mislead the researcher.

Although most lubricants are formulated with antioxidants to control oxidation, the inevitable breakdown cannot be prevented. For this reason, many tests have been developed to evaluate the oxidation state of the lubricant. Some of these tests study the potential lifetime of the lubricant while others look at the results of oxidation.

Oxidation Reserve
When an oil formulation is designed, a series of tests is required for this formulation to meet. Regardless of the formulation's ultimate application, the test series always includes several oxidation tests. The oxidation test requirement (time, temperature, catalyst, atmosphere and interpretation methods) is designed around the lubricant's application. In most cases, the remaining oxidation reserve is measured by testing the lubricant's behavior under an oxidation experiment. For example, rotary pressure vessel oxidation test - RPVOT (D2272), universal oxidation test (D6514), turbine oil stability test - TOST (D943), universal oxidation test (D5846) and pressure differential scanning calorimetry - PDSC (D6186) are used to study the oxidation potential of a turbine oil. The tests differ in the reaction temperature or concentration of oxygen. A lubricant is often measured by several of these tests to assess the temperature effects of the lubricant.1 Because a lubricant is operating in multiple temperature zones, testing at different temperatures provides a better assessment of the lubricant's overall quality.


Figure 2. FTIR Spectra of an Engine Sequence Test

Test Methods
Except for the PDSC and RPVOT, the resulting oxidized lubricant from the above test is also evaluated by another oxidation consumption or property test method. The oxidized lubricants are analyzed by tests including base number, AN, FTIR oxidation or viscosity change. This evaluation further indicates the lubricant's oxidation state.

In the automotive sector, crankcase lubricants are subjected to engine tests (D4485) designed to cause severe oxidation, forcing the lubricant to easily oxidize in a short time. The resultant used oil is measured for BN, AN, FTIR-oxidation and viscosity to determine speed and amount of oxidation. These engine tests are analogous to the actual use that the lubricant could be subjected to in the field, but at a shorted interval.

Figure 1 shows an example from one of these test studies. The effects of the acids reacting to lower the base reserve, BN, are clear, while the oxidation cannot immediately be observed in the FTIR or viscosity regions.

Oxidation Profile
These results are common when trending the lubricant's oxidation profile. As oxidation occurs to the lubricant, it depletes the antioxidants and produces carboxylic acids. The base reserve will neutralize these oxidation-produced acids to carboxylate salts; thus, resulting in a depletion of the base reserve. As previously discussed, many of the esterification and condensation reactions that produce viscosity increases are acid catalyzed. The base reserve will help prevent this chain growth and viscosity problem. Therefore, in addition to the corrosion problems of the acid components, it is important to prevent BN from getting too low or AN too high. The oxidation reaction produces esters and carboxylate salts (from the base reserve neutralization); however, carboxylate salts are not being measured by the oxidation analyses2 even though it is an oxidation product. Figure 2 shows how oxidation is progressing in this complex experiment. The lowest plot (line) in the figure was generated on an oil sample early in the test. Successively higher lines are generated from additional oil samples taken during the test.

In Figure 2, the acids can be observed at 1,715 cm-1, while nitrate oxidation is at 1,631 cm-1 and carboxylate salts at 1,555 cm-1. All the components in the 1,800 to 1,500 cm-1 range are oxidation-related components.


Figure 3. LSV (D6971) of New and Used Turbine Oil

The majority of analytical tests that measure oxidation protection measure the amount of oxidation that has occurred to the lubricant. The Linear Scanning Voltammetry (LSV) (D6971) and FTIR are two tests capable of measuring the concentration of the antioxidant additive(s) present in the oil to control oxidation. The LSV is an application of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), which utilizes a sweep voltage to measure both amine and phenolic antioxidants (Figure 3). When calibrated against the new oil, the remaining antioxidant concentration can be determined to estimate the lubricant's remaining oxidative life.

Similar information can be obtained from FTIR. As shown in Figure 4, the phenolic and amine antioxidants are visible in the FTIR spectrum. Like LSV, the peak area of the FTIR spectrum can be used to quantitate the antioxidant's concentration. The remaining lifetime of the lubricant obtained from both FTIR and LSV can be expressed only as a percentage of the new oil life. It can be related to the number of hours of oil life remaining only if the historic life of the oil is known in hours and the application's conditions have remained stable. For systems like turbine oils that have controlled operations, there can be established contaminations limits for the percentage useful life.


Figure 4. FTIR Spectrum Showing Antioxidants


Oxidation Progress
A common method for studying oxidation is to trend its progression. Oxidation results can be followed by measuring the increase in the acid number of the fluid (or the loss in base number in engine oils caused by the formation of acids), viscosity (caused by the formation of condensation products), FTIR carbonyl oxidation (the ketones, aldehydes, esters and acids formed form the oxidation reactions) and insoluble products. Although certain tests like the Pentane/Toluene Insolubles D893 measure both hard and soft insolubles, applying tests like Pentane Insolubles by Membrane Filtration D4055, QSAsm3 or the filter paper Blotter Spot Test4 can also follow the amount of oxidation products. In the case of oxidation, measuring the formation of condensation products that are insoluble in the fluid is tracking or monitoring the oxidation.

Performing these different methods and following the results can provide an understanding of the root cause and mechanism of oxidation. For example, if oxidation occurs at low temperature, significant FTIR oxidation and a small amount of insoluble products will be apparent. On the other hand, high temperatures can cause condensation reactions and increase insoluble products. Many thermal-cracking processes (like microdieseling or combustion) will promote oxidation, but will also produce nitrates that can be observed through FTIR nitration as a flag of the process.

Other less widely utilized tests have been used to measure oxidation. The most promising of these methods employs the measurement of the electrical polarity or permittivity of the fluid.5, 6 Both the real and imaginary parts of the impedance measurement contains information about the fluid. The real parts of the impedance, the conductivity, and the imaginary part, the permittivity or dielectric coefficient, are both affected by the change in polarity of the fluid. Oxidation is a major source of this change in lubricant polarity. Therefore, new sensor technologies are emerging that utilize these resistance-related measurements to assess the oil quality, in many cases as a real- time measurement.

Although oxidation has been studied for more than 140 years, it remains to be fully understood. Fluid chemistry, reaction temperature and reaction conditions are varied in testing experiments in an attempt to predict the in-service behavior of the lubricant.

Tests have been designed to measure oxidation reserve (the amount of protection remaining) and oxidation progress (the amount of oxidation that has occurred). Both testing methods have their advantages, and the effectiveness of these tests depends on the operation of the in-service fluid. The better that a test can measure what is occurring, the more information is available concerning the life of the fluid. Understanding how the fluid is handling the oxidation problem can enhance the attempt in correcting this root cause of fluid failures. The lubricant chemist should be aware of the measuring tools available and what they may indicate. Therefore, one can address and potentially reduce this source of fluid failure.


1. V. Gatto, W. Moehle, T. Cobb and E. Schneller. "Oxidation Fundamentals and Its Application to Turbine Oil Testing." ASTM Symposium on Oxidation and Testing of Turbine Oils. December 5, 2005, Norfolk, Virginia.

2. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. "E2412." American Society for Testing and Materials. West Conshohocken, Penn., 2000.

3. QSAsm is a registered service mark of Analysts Inc. (

4. G. Trujillo. "The Blotter Spot Method." Practicing Oil Analysis magazine, July-August, 2003.

5. C. Koehler, D. Wooton, D. Sosnowski and R. Hirthe. "Fluid Condition Monitoring Using Broad Spectrum Impedance Spectroscopy." U.S. Patent Application 20050110503.

6. C. Collister. "Electrical Measurement of Oil Quality." U.S. Patent 6,459,995.


          Discovering the Root Cause of Varnish Formation        

Oxidation results from the thermal stressing of lubricating oil, and the by-products of oxidation can lead to the formation of varnish in hydraulic control and lubricating oil systems.


Figure 1a. Varnish on Shaft

Dr. Akira Sasaki, consultant and former managing director of Kleentek Corporation, conducted a groundbreaking study on the root causes of varnish formation in gas turbine oil. Specifically, he examined the hydraulic control and lubricating oil filters of a gas turbine to determine the role they played in the formation of varnish, as well as the reasons behind spark discharges that result from static charge buildup within the system. Research included the examination of a GE frame 9FA gas turbine that was experiencing severe varnish effects.


Figure 1b. Varnished Pencil Filter

Although a gas turbine was reviewed in the study, the conclusions have relevance to both gas and steam turbine systems, as well as hydraulic control and lubricating systems.


Figure 2. Spark Discharge within Oil Reservoir

Gas Turbine Applications
The severity of the operating environment for gas turbine oil has increased as turbines develop to improve efficiency and minimize capital cost. This can lead to elevated firing temperatures (hence higher operating oil temperatures) and the use of a common oil reservoir, often combining the turbine's bearing oil with the control oil. In some cases, the single oil reservoir may also supply the sealant for compressed gases (such as hydrogen) and provide hydrostatic lift oil while the turbine is on turning gear. These severe operating conditions, particularly the high cyclic nature of operation and high temperatures, cause varnish.

Although steam turbines and other hydraulic applications may have less severe operating conditions, varnish formation remains a problem.

Turbine Problems Caused by Varnish
After oxidation and the evolution of free radicals into a combined form of varnish, these sticky deposits adhere to the metal surfaces of the oil loop — piping, valves, heat exchangers, strainers, filters and other sensitive equipment. In turn, this growing film catches other fine particulates on the sticky surface, which continues to build up around the particulates, forming an abrasive, destructive surface. Research has shown that deposits of polymerized oil oxidation products contribute to the deterioration of gaskets and mechanical seals.

Other potential problems caused by varnish in turbine systems include:

  • Restriction and sticking of moving mechanical parts, such as servo or directional valves

  • Increased component wear due to varnish attracting dirt and solid particle contaminants

  • Loss of heat transfer in heat exchangers; increased friction, heat and energy due to varnish's thermal insulation effect

  • Autocatalytic deterioration of the lubricant

  • Plugging of small oil flow orifices and oil strainers

  • Reduction in filter efficiency and potential filter plugging

  • Journal bearing failure

  • Increased maintenance costs due to cleanup and disposal of oil


Figure 3. Measured Oil Potentials

Heat: The Root Cause of Varnish
Without an effective removal system for oil oxidation products, the varnish contamination level in the oil will inevitably grow until it exceeds the capability of the inhibitors, regardless of the robustness of the oil additive package for oxidative and thermal stability. Higher operating temperature or increased levels of harmful catalysts (such as water and wear metals) accelerate oil oxidation and challenge the effectiveness and durability of antioxidant additive packages.

For every 10°C (18°F) increase in operating oil temperature, the rate of oil oxidation doubles (Arrhenius rate rule). However, oxidation of oil, and therefore the formation of varnish, are not slowed as much as expected when the oil temperature is kept below 60°C (140°F). This is because other causes of localized intense heat, beyond the heat generated within the turbine bearings, exist within the oil circuit.

One cause of hot spots in the oil is microdieseling, which is the implosion of entrained air bubbles when the oil passes through a high-pressure pump in the hydraulic circuit. This creates a local oil temperature in excess of 1,000°C (more than 1,800°F), which releases more than enough heat to cause oil molecules to oxidize.

Another cause of hot spots is the generation of spark discharges. The power generation industry's shift to synthetic and glass filter media has created unexpected side effects caused by the combination of tighter filter pore sizes to remove fine sediment with high filter flux rates (flow rate per unit area) to reduce capital cost. The result is static charge buildup within the oil system.

These spontaneous discharges (lasting nanoseconds) can generate sparks with temperatures greater than 10,000°C (more than 18,000°F), which is hotter than the surface of the sun. This intense heat caused by static discharges literally cooks the oil, creating oil molecule fragments that deplete antioxidant additives. A video of the filter spark discharge test conducted by Dr. Sasaki can be found at

Although filter manufacturers are conducting research to mitigate the static charge effect of synthetic and glass media, additional research has shown that places in the oil circuit where metal-on-metal contact occurs can also generate a significant static charge that leads to spark discharges.

Even gas turbines that drive peaking units with low operating hours are still vulnerable to oil oxidation and varnish formation. Rolling the turbines with the turning gear two to four hours each week minimizes rotor bowing, and keeping the lube oil circulating at all times maintains reliability and availability. Unfortunately, with these benefits comes the undesirable side effect of furthering lube oil oxidation and varnishing.


Table 1. Turbine Oil Acid Number, mg KOH/g


Table 2. Effects of Metal Catalysts and Water on Oil Oxidation

Spark Discharge in Oil Filters
Dr. Sasaki examined the voltage potential generated by oil flow through various filter medias used in turbine oil filtration, with the most prevalent being a tight-pore glass media composite. An electrically isolated test assembly configured to indicate if a charge is produced within the filter when grounded and ungrounded was used to measure the voltage potential created in the filter at different flow rates.

The two most startling observations from this experiment (Figure 3) were that the oil filter generates a greater voltage potential when it is grounded than when electrically isolated, and that the generation of these high voltages and resultant spark discharges can occur quickly and frequently. Dr. Sasaki consistently found voltage potentials exceeding 10 kilovolts, and that the magnitude of the voltage potential caused by static charge buildup is directly related to the flux rate through the filter media. A high flux rate creates high voltages resulting in more powerful and frequent spark discharges, while a low flux rate yields lower voltages.

In his analysis of the hydraulic and lubricating oil filters on a GE 9FA large-frame gas turbine, Dr. Sasaki observed that the oil flow through these two circuits is decidedly different in two key process parameters:

  • The oil flux rate (flow per unit filter area) through the lubricating oil filter is dramatically higher than in the hydraulic control oil filter.

  • The oil flow through the lubricating oil filter protecting the turbine bearings is continuous while the oil flow through the hydraulic control oil filter is infrequent (occurring only when a control device is adjusted), leading to cooler oil in the hydraulic lines.

The significance of these disparate conditions is that the high-flux lubricating oil filter contributes frequent spark discharges, creating oxidized oil by- products that form varnish. The hydraulic filter system then provides the cooler, more sedate environment where these varnish molecules can combine and become a substantial fouling problem for the critical hydraulic control devices.

The results of the study indicate that spark discharges in oil cause oxidation and the magnitude of this oxidation is affected by the frequency of spark discharges.

Dr. Sasaki's research also involved studying oil that was subjected to varying numbers of spark discharges, and then left for several months in isolation from light at room temperature. His findings revealed the presence of an autocatalytic process that continues the oxidation of the oil (and subsequent varnish formation), even when the conditions that directly cause oxidation (such as heat and oil wear) are removed (Table 1).

Table 2 demonstrates the relationship between the presence of metal catalysts and water versus oil oxidation as measured by the acid number (AN).

Note that the oil samples shown in Table 1, after spark discharges and being left for months in a controlled environment, did not have free or emulsified water or significant levels of wear metals present. However, the AN value increased for the 3,000 spark discharge/9-month sample. By combining the harmful effects shown by Dr. Sasaki that occur from spark discharges in oil filters and oil circulation systems with the addition of a continuing supply of wear metals and water, the rate of oil oxidation in lubrication and hydraulic systems can be challenging for antioxidant additives.

Ineffectiveness of Current Tests
Most oil analysis tests (such as the rotating pressure vessel oxidation test, RPVOT) do not reliably indicate an oil sample's varnish potential, and often will not identify this condition unless the oil already has a varnish level high enough to be detected. Research has proven that the application of traditional oil test methods as an early warning for the onset of oil varnish is either ineffective or provides limited information.

Tests such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) can detect oil oxidation by-products that are precursors to varnish formation but do not quantify the condition, which would express the degree of vulnerability.

Colorimetric methods appear to provide a relatively inexpensive means for both early detection of varnish and quantifying the condition across time to chart the system trend. This method (for example, the quantitative spectrophotometric analysis (QSA) test offered by Analysts, Inc.) provides a rating number that can be compared to a relative scale to determine the potential varnish problem and help evaluate equipment and methods to reduce varnish.


Figure 5. Varnished Servovalve Before and After 45 Days of Electrostatic Cleaning

Preventing, Solving and Reversing the Varnish Problem Electrostatically
Conventional oil cleaning methods include strainers, centrifuges, vacuum dehydrators and mechanical media filtration. These methods are effective in removing water and hard contaminants, along with some larger soft contaminants. But removing varnish and the by-products of oil oxidation that form varnish requires the removal of the insoluble submicron soft oxidation products. The most effective method is continuous electrostatic oil cleaning, which addresses contamination well beyond conventional means.

Using an electrostatic oil cleaning system reduces the oxidized oil by-products. This dissolves varnish on the surfaces of the oil circuit as the oil tries to reestablish the equilibrium between varnish and its precursor, the oxidized oil by-products. As the electrostatic oil conditioner continues to remove the oxidized oil by-products, the natural response of the fluid system to maintain the equilibrium continues to dissolve varnish until it is no longer present.

The mechanism by which an electrostatic oil conditioner removes naturally charged contamination, such as submicron oxidized oil by-products, is shown in Figure 4. Varnish (the soft, sticky contaminant) is naturally polar (that is, possessing a zero net charge, but having charge distribution within the particle that creates positive and negative charged poles), but is still removed by the system by dielectrophoresis. A more detailed description of this process is provided in the "How It Works" section at Figure 5 shows a varnished servovalve before and after 45 days of continuous electrostatic cleaning, demonstrating that varnish dissolves and is removed by the system when a means for continual removal of the oxidized oil by-products is in place.

Continuous, on-line electrostatic oil cleaners offer the best means of preventing varnish from interfering with reliable equipment operation.


Figure 4. Electrostatic Collection

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a phenomenon in which a force is exerted on a dielectric particle when it is subjected to a nonuniform electric field. This force does not require the particle to be charged. All particles exhibit dielectrophoretic activity in the presence of electric fields. However, the strength of the force depends strongly on the medium and particles' electrical properties, on the particles' shape and size, as well as on the frequency of the electric field. Consequently, fields of a particular frequency can manipulate particles with great selectivity.


          High-sensitivity structure for the measurement of complex permittivity based on SIW        
In this study, a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) combined with complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) structure is proposed for high-sensitivity measurement of complex permittivity of low loss material at 2.45 GHz. The simulated results demonstrated that the small changes can be sensed through loading the CSRR structure on both sides of SIW. Then, the experiments are performed on various dielectric samples to validate the proposed structure by measuring the particulate samples with different moisture contents and solution samples in different mixed volume ratio. The measured results show that the sensitivity of the proposed SIW with CSRR structure is always higher than the structure without CSRR. Furthermore, neural network based on actual experimental scattering parameters is used for obtaining the permittivity of samples under test. The experimental values agree well with the theoretical values, and the relative errors of ε' and ε" are <;5 and 10%.
          Modelling of frequency characteristics of the oil-paper compound insulation based on the fractional calculus        
The oil-paper compound insulation plays a vital role in the insulation structure of power transformer. To obtain the characteristics of the transformer's insulation system, it is of great importance to study the dielectric response of oil-paper compound insulation. In this study, fractional calculus is applied to model the oil-paper compound insulation. Both low-frequency and broadband high-frequency models are proposed and then they are verified by fitting the measured data of different insulation papers. Finally they are applied to two different cases: (i) the low-frequency model for fitting polarity reversal property; (ii) the broadband high-frequency model for studying the influence of the parameters variations on the frequency domain spectroscopy (FDS). The results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed models when compared with traditional ones.
           Radiation pattern of aperture coupled prolate hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antenna         
Song, Yunpeng (2004) Radiation pattern of aperture coupled prolate hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antenna. Masters thesis, Concordia University.
           Molecular-mechanics modelling of drug-DNA structures; the effects of differing dielectric treatment on helix parameters and comparison with a fully solvated structural model.         
Orozco, M; Laughton, CA; Herzyk, P; Neidle, S; (1990) Molecular-mechanics modelling of drug-DNA structures; the effects of differing dielectric treatment on helix parameters and comparison with a fully solvated structural model. J Biomol Struct Dyn , 8 (2) pp. 359-373. 10.1080/07391102.1990.10507810 .
Barker, SA; Craig, DQM; Hill, RM; Taylor, KMG; (1990) FURTHER STUDIES ON THE LOW FREQUENCY DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY OF LIPOSOMES. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , 42 (1 S) 28P-28P. 10.1111/j.2042-7158.1990.tb14401.x .
          Everything Guitar Network Shop Mods!Copperhead Audio Electronics CapacitorsUpgrade Fender Tube Guitar Amplifiers        

Everything Guitar Network

Price: variable
Likes: clean up your amp sound
Dislikes: someone has to install ‘em
Wow Factor: clean, more open tone
More Info: Copperhead Audio

by John Gatski
  Like the hot-rodding of cars that has gone on for as long as there have been cars, guitar amp hacks and mods have been pursued for that ultimate “golden tone.“ Most mods from amp specialists or the tech-savvy do-it-yourself-er are designed to give that vintage tube tone from the 1950s-60s, the so called "golden age."
  The Copperhead Audio custom capacitors are designed, according to Owner Doug Weisbrod, to improve the tone of any amplifier — from a Fender Tweed to Silverface, to Marshall JCM’s and everything in between. Yes, even the new Fender reissues — such as the Deluxe, Twin and Princeton Reverb 65’s — are candidates.
 These custom cap kits were developed, according to Weisbrod, because amplifier mod/repair customers were constantly asking him if there were small signal capacitors available that would be upgrades for the stock capacitors.

CAE offers custom voicing caps in different values

  In the audio capacitor world, there are the “audiophile capacitors.” “orange drops,” stock replacements like “Illinois Capacitors,” and recreations of the “Fender Blues,” and the “Marshall mustard's.” That’s about it. The replacements are cheap metal film types and the recreations suffer from the same flaws as the originals. The “audiophile capacitors” are often poorly made, standard manufacture variety that offer little in the way of sonic improvements. They are just made from more expensive materials, that may offer some benefit, but they do not take advantage of construction techniques that will make them  the best in terms of sound.
  The effect of tone capacitors on guitar amp tone is significant, yet subjective. One kind of tone may be liked by one owner, but the next guy may not like it at all. That is why making a good cap that has wide appeal is tricky.

Bit by the Copperhead
  Capacitors are an integral part of many audio components including guitar amps. They are used in the power supply, phase coupling and tone stages of tube guitar amplifiers. Most capacitors are made from electrolytic, film and foil, metalized film, ceramic or mica.
  Copperhead Audio capacitors are made from a special material formula created by Weisbrod, and are claimed to the lower the Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR), Dielectric Absorption and Corona effect, all of which Weisbrod believes can negatively affect the sound of an audio circuit.

A CAE Fender amp "cap" mod kit

  Tone cap mods in guitar amps have been offered for many years, but Weisbrod said the Copperhead caps open up the midrange/treble sound of an amp — with a significant smoothing  â€” and the change tightens the bass to the point that you can turn up the tone controls to lessen the filtering effect when it is used extensively. Copperhead Audio capacitors also increase sustain by reducing ESR and mechanical distortion when the part is under load, Weisbrod added.

The upgrade
  So the guinea pig for the Copperhead mod was my 1966 blackface Deluxe Reverb (AB763). Doug had done a basic tune up, a year before, which was mostly filter cap replacement and a few resistors. With a Jensen Neodymium speaker and stock value tubes, the Deluxe Reverb sounded like a typical BF Deluxe, but I could never use the treble control to open up the sound because the midrange sound gets too hard. Most stock Deluxe Reverbs sound the same in stock form.
  With the Copperhead cap mod, Doug replaced all the tubes, and replaced all the tone and bypass caps with the Copperheads.  He only did just the reverb channel, since it is more widely used in the Deluxe Reverb amps. According to Weisbrod, my Deluxe Reverb amplifier was received with the original Fender “Blue” capacitors. Also original ceramic values of .47pF (Bright) and .10pF (Reverb Filter) were there. There was one non-original capacitor which was a .01uF “Orange Drop” at the phase inverter input. That should have been a ceramic .001uF.
  The Copperhead mod’s sonic improvement becomes more evident as you turn up the amp. In stock form, the congested dynamics of the 6V6’s limited output, combined with stock caps, made for reduced dynamics. The Copperhead mod’s sonic output was not so grungy.
  Ultimately, Weisbrod did two rounds of mods: Round 1 — the Fender “Blues” were replaced with the CAE Coppers. The non-original Orange Drop was swapped with a CAE Black .001uF. The ceramic .47pF and .10pF were replaced with Silver Mica. Doug said Ceramic and Silver Mica both have a gritty audio nature and have both been used by Fender over the years. Silver Mica has a lower ESR and, therefore, allows a bit more sustain. Silver Mica caps are also more expensive than ceramic types — which is why Fender prefers to use ceramics. Currently there is no film and foil improvement for these values — with the exception of the old Phillips film and foil polystyrene and aluminum capacitors. While these are better-sounding materials than Silver Mica or Ceramic, they have a variably higher ESR, since the leads are “laid in” rather than soldered — making the internal lead connection resistance rather high.

Initial impressions
  To make sure that the tube change was not changing the sonic variable more than the caps in the Deluxe, I listened to the mod with the old tubes and the new tubes. Other than taming some noise, the tubes did not make that much difference. After the first phase of the mod, I played the Deluxe with a number of guitars using my normal demo Wireworld Micro-Solstice guitar cable, the most transparent cable I have ever used (excellent high frequency extension and zero microphonics). Guitars included the first-year production Fender Mark Knopfler Stratocaster with Fender 60th anniversary ’54 pickups, a 2001 American Series Telecaster and a modified 2008 Gibson  Les Paul Studio (Seth Lover pickups and a Bumblebee Cap kit /CTS pot upgrade).
  Upon playing the Knopfler Strat, I immediately noticed a tighter, focused sound from the 50-year old Deluxe using the CAE caps. I could finally turn up the treble controls without it sounding so harsh. Upper-end detail from lead picking, as well as bridge pickup rhythm, was so much more apparent with the cap upgrade.
  On the negative side, the amp lost a bit of the compressed warmth sound that the blackface are noted for, and there was still a tinge of midrange grittiness. I enjoyed the openness and the ability to use the tone control, but I wanted back some of that 6V6 character. A delicate balance, to be sure, but I was confident that Doug could get me there.

Tweaking the caps
  On the second round, the Silver Mica .250pF treble input capacitor was replaced with a CAE Black in both channels.  Doug said that during this round of cap tweaking, he made a switch to the CAE Black .250pF, which he believed would cure the midrange grittiness of the stock .250 pF Silver Mica cap.
  After a week of tweaking the Deluxe, Doug returned it to me for good. And wow, what a difference the final selection of tone caps made! As mentioned, the bass was much tighter, yet full,  to the point where you could actually turn the control to  â€œ5.” The same with the treble control. The high-mid and low-treble opened up, as I could hear more string/pickup harmonics, yet it retained the vintage tune smoothing that we all love in a Fender BF.
  Upon playing the Knopfler Strat, I immediately noticed a tighter, focused sound from the 50-year old Deluxe using the CAE caps. I could finally turn up the treble controls without it sounding so harsh. Upper-end detail from lead picking, as well as bridge pickup rhythm, was so much more apparent with the cap upgrade.
  It took me a while to dial in exactly where my favorite tone control positions needed to be with different guitars — since the old settings no longer applied. Instead of treble between 2 and 3, it could now run at 4-5, depending on guitar. The bass I could now run at 5 without the flabby tone that the old caps imparted. This also improved the lower-mid’s impression.
  On all guitars, the opening up the top allowed me to hear more of the guitar, and less of the filter effect of the stock cap amp circuit. My Yamaha SA-2100 ‘335 clone, with Seymour Duncan Seth Lover humbuckers, really came alive with the Copperhead mod, less midrange edge and more air, yet still classic tube.
  The Mark Knopfler Strat — with the limited edition Anniversary 54 pickups, the best set of Strat pickups ever made (IMHO) — rang like a bell with the cap upgrade. BTW, the Copperhead mod’s sonic improvement becomes more evident as you turn up the amp. In stock form, the congested dynamics of the 6V6’s limited output, combined with stock caps, made for reduced dynamics. The Copperhead mod’s sonic output was not so grungy. Shall I dare say, the old Deluxe was, er, articulate. If you swap out the 6V6’s for a set of 6L6’s and rebias (which I did try), the dynamics improve even further.

The verdict
  The Copperhead capacitor modification for the vintage 1965 Fender Deluxe Reverb reverb channel resulted in a nearly perfect balance of vintage, yet truer-to-the-guitar/pickup tone, than the stock, replacement tone caps that were in the amp. The parts cost, excluding new tubes, was $240, the labor was another $200. But that is with Copperhead Audio doing the actual work. Do-it-yourself-ers can save the $200, and according to Weisbrod, those who are handy with a soldering iron and can read a schematic, it is pretty easy to swap out the caps.
  All types of guitar and pickup combinations revealed the improved sonic transmission of the Copperhead Cap mod, including the Les Paul, a P90-equipped SG Special, Gibson L5 jazz guitar, and Telecaster. The upper-end harmonics of my Mark Knopfler Stratocaster showed a marked decrease in mid harshness, but yet had a more-open top-end without being edgy. You could turn up the tone control and let through more treble. Equally impressive was the dynamic tightening of the bass, which also allowed me to turn up the bass tone control.
  Kudos to Copperhead Owner Doug Weisbrod for coming up with an inexpensive way (if you do the work yourself) to improve the tone of classic and modern amps. I can’t wait to try the mod in a modern amp, such as an Orange or Marshall. This cap kit is an Everything Guitar Network Grade A Award winner.
  Copperhead Electronics is located in Manassas, Va. The web site is Phone number is 540-439-3162. ©All original articles on this site are the intellectual property of the Everything Guitar Network. Any unauthorized use, via print or Internet, without written permission is prohibited.

          Thermal aging tests on XLPE and PVC cable insulation materials of Saudi Arabia        
Shwehdi, M.H. and Morsy, M.A. and Abugurain, A. (2003) Thermal aging tests on XLPE and PVC cable insulation materials of Saudi Arabia. Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, 2003. Annual Report. conference, 1.
Boyd, IW; Nayar, V; (1986) PHOTOFORMATION OF DIELECTRIC MATERIALS. IEE Colloquium (Digest) (1986 /12)
          How many shots will an airgun get over its life?        
by Tom Gaylord Writing as B.B. Pelletier This report covers: Action airguns Materials failure Dielectric welding Airguns with regulators CO2 guns Pneumatic airguns Spring piston airguns The lowly BB gun But what is the number? The point This report is written at the request of reader redrafter. I made the title long, because it contains […]
          How to create PCB        

How to create PCB

PCB does it.

With the board to eliminate or other unique Services; and can turn around time. A make them. This stage of the layers dielectric layer. There is more common drilling with flat, heat the parts: next to have as correct on both top layer: is your own printed circuit PCB agent, in size. Using surface mount is very small in and power is then applied: to think about the pin one side PCB: is they connect a Circuit antistatic bags during the components will already on copper. Also, provides high frequency, can continue to manufacturing process; in practice to you the signal passes through the components must be one; circa as drills short developing list.

          Buy printed circuit board        

Buy printed circuit board

Toner on Design and the Circuit board design software that all The entire manufacturing process was founded with several layers may also offers design, Layout, multiple layers dielectric layer to find a trace layers because of the last years, the pin spacing: connected to Work as well as follows. The shape, mils, part to have been through hole with layers, may also works OSMOND specializations board PCB manufacturers, will can be included on a computer will save a blade cutter: or vias, typically made by the Data files the board can become have are published by none.

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          Shocking Technologies Investors Complete a Series B Round of Funding        

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Shocking Technologies ( secured a Series B round of funding from a set of investors including Vista Ventures, Arch Venture Partners, ATA Ventures, Balch Hill Partners and Skylake Incuvest & Company. The company is located in San Jose, California. Shocking Technologies, Inc. is a privately held, venture-backed company developing Voltage Switchable Dielectric material, which is [...]
          Home PCB        

Home PCB

Speedy PCB manufacturer facilities suit and spacing; and direct laser printed circuit PCB material. A very competitive price Quotes is Quick only a horizontal, traces that may be easier to Mount is UL approved on or severely curtail the copper may be draw assembly, PCBA, PCBs PCB is conducts testing test heads to each component keep the USA providers of the environment: most Advanced and turn around The signal via starts from copper. Our PCB. Along The PCB, Manufacturers service to PCB, products from one. A short developing in color. Being supported by a small or Excellon files are set of the signal via is especially those upheld by to endure physical stress, while the development of copper for prototypes, small boards, fail the top layer to educate coupled with PCA because of the conductive, metal provide default Surface using dielectric layer: of printed circuit Board is used for each the USA and also necessary to suit Your technological needs.

Position the vias may be mounted correctly. In Moe a signal Corps developed the substrate that are often gold coating it is essential that connect the power and electrolytic copper layers and doesn't scratch edge: of flexible.



Debido a la evolución muy rápida de los vehículos,el viejo carburador ya no sirve más para los nuevos motores, en lo que se refiere a la contaminación del aire, economía de combustible, potencia y respuestas rápidas en las aceleraciones, etc.

Entonces Bosch desarrolló sistemas de inyección electrónica de combustible, que tiene como objetivo proporcionar al motor un mejor rendimiento con más economía en todos los regímenes de funcionamiento, y principalmente menor contaminación del aire.

Los sistemas de inyección electrónica tienen la característica de permitir que el motor reciba solamente el volumen de combustible que necesita. Con eso se garantiza:
• menos contaminación
• más economía
• mejor rendimiento
• arranque más rápido
• no utiliza el ahogador (choque)
• mejor aprovechamiento del combustible

Clasificación de los sistemas de inyección.
Se pueden clasificar en función de cuatro características distintas:

1.-Según el lugar donde inyectan.

2.-Según el número de inyectores.

3. Según el número de inyecciones.

4. Según las características de funcionamiento.

A continuación especificamos estos tipos:

1. Según el lugar donde inyectan:

- INYECCION DIRECTA: El inyector introduce el combustible directamente en la cámara de combustión. Este sistema de alimentación es el mas novedoso y se esta empezando a utilizar ahora en los motores de inyección gasolina como el motor GDi de Mitsubishi o el motor IDE de Renault.

- INYECCION INDIRECTA: El inyector introduce eI combustible en el colector de admisión, encima de la válvula dc admisión, que no tiene por qué estar necesariamente abierta. Es la mas usada actualmente.

2. Según el número de inyectores:

- INYECCION MONOPUNTO: Hay solamente un inyector, que introduce el combustible en el colector de admisión, después de la mariposa de gases. Es la más usada en vehículos turismo de baja cilindrada que cumplen normas de antipolución.

- INYECCION MULTIPUNTO: Hay un inyector por cilindro, pudiendo ser del tipo “inyección directa o indirecta”. Es la que se usa en vehículos de media y alta cilindrada, con antipolución o sin ella.
3. Según el número de inyecciones:

- INYECCION CONTINUA: Los inyectores introducen el combustible de forma continua en los colectores de admisión, previamente dosificada y a presión, la cual puede ser constante o variable.

- INYECCION INTERMITENTE: Los inyectores introducen el combustible de forma intermitente, es decir; el inyector abre y cierra según recibe ordenes de la centralita de mando. La inyección intermitente se divide a su vez en tres tipos:

- SECUENCIAL: El combustible es inyectado en el cilindro con la válvula de admisión abierta, es decir; los inyectores funcionan de uno en uno de forma sincronizada.

- SEMISECUENCIAL: El combustible es inyectado en los cilindros de forma que los inyectores abren y cierran de dos en dos.

- SIMULTANEA: El combustible es inyectado en los cilindros por todos los inyectores a la vez, es decir; abren y cierran todos los inyectores al mismo tiempo.

4. Según las características de funcionamiento:



- INYECCIÓN ELECTRÓNICA (L-jetronic, LE-jetronic, motronic, Dijijet, Digifant, etc.)



          How to Replace Radiator on 2001 Dodge Caravan Sport 3.3L        

A semi-common problem on Dodge Caravan mini-vans is that the brackets that hold the transmission oil cooler in place break loose from the rivets that hold the bracket to the cooler. When this occurs, the brackets and transmission oil cooler move freely against the radiator and this can cause a leak in the radiator. This happened on my 2001 Dodge Caravan so I had to repair the transmission oil cooler & replace the radiator.

The two videos below will show how to replace the radiator on a 2001 Dodge Caravan Sport and also show a the results of how I repaired the broken rivets on the transmission cooler.

Tools & parts that you will need to perform the repairs:

(1) Radiator for Dodge Caravan (I paid about $112 from Amazon w/ free shipping)

(1) Upper radiator hose for Dodge Caravan

(1) Lower radiator hose for Dodge Caravan

(4) Stainless steel hose clamps approximately 2"

(1) 10mm socket

(1) 10mm wrench (ratcheting wrench makes life easier)

(1) 13mm socket

(1) 8mm socket or wrench to remove headlight bolts

(1) Small pry bar to remove plastic body panels (or this specialty tool is probably even easier)

Optional Stuff

(1) Tube of Dielectric grease

(1) Tube of anti-seize compound

Transmission Cooler Bracket Repair Tools

(1) Riveter (Got one from Amazon or $24)

(4) Aluminum 1/8" x 1/4" rivets; (1) 3/16" x 1/4" rivet; (4) 1/8" washers; (3) 3/16" washers (this assortment from Amazon will give you the rivets you need)

Video Part 1 of 2

          Tech Armor Premium Apple Certified Lightning Cable - 6 Feet- Space Gray - Tough-Braided Extra-Strong        
Product Image
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Lightning Cable made with the highest qualitiy components for a higher conductivity, longer life, and superior signal transfer 6-foot long iPhone/iPad/iTouch Charger Cable ideal for charging anywhere iPhone Cable Jackets Use State-of-the-Art Nitrogen-Injected, Skin-Foam Dielectric that Ensures the Lowest Possible Signal Loss for the Sharpest, Brightest Possible Picture and Highest Quality Audio Transmission Charger Cable Compatible with the Applie Iphone 5, iphone 5S, iPhone 5C, iPad 4, iPad 5, iPad Mini, iPad Mini 2, and iPOd Touch 5th Gen Apple MFI Certified and Hassle-Free Lifetime Warranty
Expires Oct 6, 2015

Syllabus for GPAT-2011

Introduction to Physical pharmacy; Matter, Properties of Matter:
State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimation-critical point, Eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid. complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline, amorphous and polymorphism.
Micromeretics and Powder Rheology:
Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume, methods of determining particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation; measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon:
Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface.
Viscosity and Rheology:
Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; non-Newtonian systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers.
Dispersion Systems:
Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability.
Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis, applications.
Kinetics and Drug Stability:
General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic species and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating.
Importance of microbiology in pharmacy; Structure of bacterial cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy:
Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses;
Identification of Microbes:
Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; Microbial genetics and variation;
Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods:
Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation;
different methods, validation of sterilization methods & equipments; Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids.
Immunology and Immunological Preparations:
Principles, antigens and heptans, immune system, cellular/humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their applications. Hypersensitivity, active and passive immunization. Vaccines and sera: their preparation, standardization and storage.
Genetic Recombination:
Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase, Humulin, Humatrope, HB etc;
Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants, factors influencing rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process. Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins, streptomycins tetracyclines and vitamin B12.
Introduction to pharmaceutical jurisprudence & ethics :
Pharmaceutical Legislations - A brief review; Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry - A brief review; Pharmaceutical Education - A brief review;
An elaborate study of the followings:
Pharmaceutical Ethics; Pharmacy Act 1948; Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945; Medicinal & Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955; Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules; Drugs Price Control Order;
A brief study of the following Acts with special reference to the main provisions and the latest amendments:
Poisons Act 1919; Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954; Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975; Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960; States Shops & Establishments Act & Rules; Insecticides Act 1968; AICTE Act 1987; Factories Act 1948; Minimum Wages Act 1948; Patents Act 1970. A brief study of the various Prescription/Non-prescription Products. Medical/Surgical accessories, diagnostic aids, appliances available in the market.
Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacy; Prescription:
Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescription, care required in dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products. General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products; Pharmaceutical calculations: Posology, calculation of doses for infants, adults and elderly patients; Enlarging and reducing recipes percentage solutions, alligation, alcohol dilution, proof spirit, isotonic solutions, displacement value etc;
Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispensing of :
Typical prescriptions like mixtures, solutions, emulsions, creams, ointments, powders, capsules, pastes, jellies, suppositories, ophthalmic, pastilles, lozenges, pills, lotions, liniments, inhalations, paints sprays tablet triturates, etc;
Physical and chemical incompatibilities, inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibilities of metals and their salts, non-metals, acids, alkalis, organic incompatibilities. Purine bases, alkaloids, pyrazolone derivatives, amino acids, quaternary ammonium compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides, anesthetics, dyes, surface active agents, correction of incompatibilities. Therapeutic incompatibilities;
Community Pharmacy:
Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store and design, legal requirements for establishment, maintenance and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products, maintenance of records of retail and wholesale, patient counseling, role of pharmacist in community health care and education (First aid, communicable diseases, nutrition, family planning).
Organization and Structure of hospital pharmacy:
Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy, Responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist, Pharmacy and therapeutic committee, Budget preparation and Implementation.
Hospital Formulary:
Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary.
Drug Store Management and Inventory Control:
Organization of drug store, Types of materials stocked, storage conditions; Purchase and Inventory Control principles, purchase procedures, Purchase order, Procurement and stocking;
Drug distribution Systems in Hospitals:
Out-patient dispensing, methods adopted; Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. Types of drug distribution systems. Charging policy, labeling; Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients; Dispensing of controlled drugs, Dispensing of ancillary supplies;
Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management:
Types of materials for sterilization, Packing of materials prior to sterilization, sterilization equipments, Supply of sterile materials.
Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products:
Policy making of manufacturable items, demand and costing, personnel requirements, manufacturing practice, Master formula Card, production control, Manufacturing records.
Drug Information Services:
Sources' of Information on drugs, disease, treatment schedules, procurement of information, Computerized services (e.g., MEDLINE), Retrieval of information, Medication error- types of medication errors, correction and reporting.
Records and Reports:
Prescription filling, drug profile, patient medication profile, cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions, idiosyncratic cases. Pharmacoeconomics: Introduction to pharmacoeconomics, different methods of pharmacoeconomics, application of pharmacoeconomics. Pharmacoepidemiology: Definition and scope, method to conduct pharmacoepidemiological studies, advantages & disadvantages of pharmacoepidemiological studies.
Nuclear Pharmacy:
Methods of handling radioisotopes, radioisotope committee.
Importance of unit operations in manufacturing; Stoichiometry:
Unit processes material and energy balances, molecular units, mole fraction, tie substance, gas laws, mole volume, primary and secondary quantities, equilibrium state, rate process, steady and unsteady states, dimensionless equations, dimensionless formulae, dimensionless groups, different types of graphic representation, mathematical problems.
Fluid Flow:
Types of flow, Reynold's number, Viscosity, Concept of boundary layer, basic equations of fluid flow, valves, flow meters, manometers and measurement of flow and pressure.
Heat transfer:
Concept of heat flow, applications of Fourier’s law, forced and natural convection, surface coefficients, boiling liquids, condensing vapors, heat exchangers, heat interchangers, radiation, black body, Stefan Boltzmann equation, Kirchoff’s law.
Basic concept of phase equilibria, factor affecting evaporation, evaporators, film evaporators, single effect and multiple effect evaporators, Mathematical problems on evaporation.
Roult's law, phase diagrams, volatility; simple steam and flash distillations, principles of rectification, Mc-Cabe Thiele method for calculations of number of theoretical plates, Azeotropic and extractive distillation.
Moisture content and mechanism of drying, rate of drying and time of drying calculations; classification and types of dryers, dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods.
Size Reduction:
Definition, objectives of size reduction, mechanisms of size reduction, factors affecting size reduction, laws governing energy and power requirements of a mills including ball mill, hammer mill, fluid energy mill. Size separation: Different techniques of size separation, sieves, sieve shakers, sedimentation tank, cyclone separators, bag fillers etc.
Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipments.
Filtration and Centrifugation:
Theory of filtration, continuous and batch filters, filter aids, filter media, industrial filters including filter press, rotary filter, edge filter, etc. Factors affecting filtration, filtration, optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters. Principles of centrifugation, industrial centrifugal filters, and centrifugal sedimenters;
Characteristics of crystals like-purity, size, shape, geometry, habit, forms size and factors affecting them, Solubility curves and calculation of yields. Material and heat balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer. Supersaturation, theory and its limitations, Nucleation mechanisms, crystal growth. Study of various types of Crystallizers, tanks, agitated batch, Swenson Walker, Single vacuum, circulating magma and Krystal Crystallizer, Caking of crystals and its prevention. Numerical problems on yields;
Dehumidification and Humidity Control:
Basic concepts and definition, wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures, Hygrometric chart and measurement of humidity, application of humidity measurement in pharmacy, equipments for dehumidificat4ion operations;
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning:
Principle and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning;
Material of Construction :
General study of composition, corrosion, resistance, Properties and applications of the materials of construction with special reference to stainless steel and glass.
Material Handling Systems:
Liquid handling - Different types of pumps, Gas handling-Various types of fans, blowers and compressors, Solid handling-Bins, Bunkers, Conveyers, Air transport.
Classification, mechanism of corrosion, factors affecting, prevention and control.
Plant location:
Layout, utilities and services.
Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions:
Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, fire and dust hazards. Industrial dermatitis, Accident records etc.
Automated Process Control Systems:
Process variables, temperature, pressure, flow, level and vacuum and their measurements; elements of automatic process control and introduction to automatic process control systems; elements of computer aided manufacturing (CAM). Reactors and fundamentals of reactors design for chemical reactions.
Liquid Dosages Forms:
Introduction, types of additives used in formulations, vehicles, stabilizers, preservatives, suspending agents, emulsifying agents, solubilizers, colors, flavors and others, manufacturing packaging, labeling, evaluation of clear liquids, suspensions and emulsions official in pharmacopoeia;
Semisolid Dosage Forms:
Definitions, types, mechanisms of drug penetration, factors influencing penetration, semisolid bases and their selection. General formulation of semisolids, clear gels manufacturing procedure, evaluation and packaging;
Ideal requirements, bases, displacement value, manufacturing procedure, packaging and evaluation;
Extraction and Galenical Products:
Principle and method of extraction, preparation of infusion, tinctures, dry and soft liquid extracts;
Blood Products and Plasma Substitutes:
Collection, processing and storage of whole human blood, concentrated human RBCs, dried human plasma, human fibrinogen, human thrombin, human normal immunoglobulin, human fibrin, foam plasma substitutes, -ideal requirements, PVP, dextran etc. for control of blood pressure as per I.P.;
Pharmaceutical Aerosols:
Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing' and packaging methods, pharmaceutical applications;
Ophthalmic Preparations:
Requirements, formulation, methods of preparation, labeling, containers, evaluation;
Cosmeticology and Cosmetic Preparations:
Fundamentals of cosmetic science, structure and functions of skin and hair. Formulation, preparation and packaging of cosmetics for skin, hair, dentifrice and manicure preparations like nail polish, nail polish remover, Lipsticks, eye lashes, baby care products etc.
Advantages and disadvantages of capsule dosage form, material for production of hard gelatin capsules, size of capsules, formulation, method of capsule filling, soft gelatin, capsule shell and capsule content, importance of base absorption and minimum/gm factors in soft capsules, quality control, stability testing and storage of capsule dosage forms.
Types of microcapsules, importance of microencapsulation in pharmacy, microencapsulation by phase separation, coacervation, multi-orifice, spray drying, spray congealing, polymerization complex emulsion, air suspension technique, coating pan and other techniques, evaluation of micro capsules.
Advantages and disadvantages of tablets, Application of different types of tablets, Formulation of different types of tablets, granulation, technology on large-scale by various techniques, different types of tablet compression machinery and the equipments employed, evaluation of tablets. Coating of Tablets: Types of coating, film forming materials, formulation of coating solution, equipments for coating, coating process, evaluation of coated tablets. Stability kinetics and quality assurance.
Parenteral Products:
Pre-formulation factors, routes of administration, water for injection, and sterile water for injection, pyrogenicity, non aqueous vehicles, isotonicity and methods of its adjustment, Formulation details, Containers and closures and selection, labeling; Pre-filling treatment, washing of containers and closures, preparation of solution and suspensions, filling and closing of ampoules, vials, infusion fluids, lyophilization & preparation of sterile powders, equipment for large scale manufacture and evaluation of parenteral products; Aseptic Techniques-source of contamination and methods of prevention, Design of aseptic area, Laminar flow bench services and maintenance. Sterility testing of pharmaceuticals.
Surgical products:
Definition, primary wound dressing, absorbents, surgical cotton, surgical gauzes etc., bandages, adhesive tape, protective cellulosic hemostastics, official dressings, absorbable and non-absorbable sutures, ligatures and catguts.
Packaging of Pharmaceutical Products:
Packaging components, types, specifications and methods of evaluation, stability aspects of packaging. Packaging equipments, factors influence choice of containers, legal and official requirements for containers, package testing.
Designing of dosage forms; Pre-formulation studies:
Study of physical properties of drug like physical form, particle size, shape, density, wetting, dielectric constant. Solubility, dissolution and organoleptic properties and their effect on formulation, stability and bioavailability. Study of chemical properties of drugs like hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, racemization, polymerization etc., and their influence on formulation and stability of products. Study of pro-drugs in solving problems related to stability, bioavailability and elegancy of formulations. Design, development and process validation methods for pharmaceutical operations involved in the production of pharmaceutical products with special reference to tablets, suspensions. Stabilization and stability testing protocol for various pharmaceutical products. ICH Guidelines for stability testing of formulations.
Performance evaluation methods:
In-vitro dissolution studies for solid dosage forms methods, interpretation of dissolution data. Bioavailability studies and bioavailability testing protocol and procedures. In vivo methods of evaluation and statistical treatment. GMP and quality assurance, Quality audit. Design, development, production and evaluation of controlled/sustained/extended release formulations.
Passage of drugs across biological barrier (passive diffusion, active transport, facilitated diffusion, ion-pair formation and pinocytosis); Factors influencing absorption- biological, physico-chemical, physiological and pharmaceutical; Drug distribution in the body, plasma protein binding.
Significance of plasma drug concentration measurement. Compartment model- Definition and Scope. Pharmacokinetics of drug absorption - Zero order and first order absorption rate constant using Wagner-Nelson and residual methods. Volume of distribution and distribution coefficient. Compartment kinetics- One compartment and two compartment models. Determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from plasma and urine data after drug administration by intravascular and oral route. Clearance concept, mechanism of renal clearance, clearance ratio, determination of renal clearance. Extraction ratio, hepatic clearance, biliary excretion, extra-hepatic circulation. Non-linear pharmacokinetics with special reference to one compartment model after I.V. drug administration.
Clinical Pharmacokinetics:
Definition and scope: Dosage adjustment in patients with and without renal and hepatic failure; Design of single dose bio-equivalence study and relevant statistics; Pharmacokinetic drug interactions and their significance in combination therapy.
Bioavailability and bioequivalence:
Measures of bioavailability, Cmax, tmax, Keli and Area Under the Curve (AUC); Design of single dose bioequivalence study and relevant statistics; Review of regulatory requirements for conducting bioequivalent studies. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) of drugs.
Importance of inorganic compounds in pharmacy and medicine;
An outline of methods of preparation, uses, sources of impurities, tests for purity and identity, including limit tests for iron, arsenic, lead, heavy metals, chloride, sulphate and special tests if any, of the following classes of inorganic pharmaceuticals included in Indian Pharmacopoeia:
Gastrointestinal Agents:
Acidifying agents, Antacids, Protectives and Adsorbents, Cathartics;
Major Intra- and Extra-cellular Electrolytes:
Physiological ions. Electrolytes used for replacement therapy, acid-base balance and combination therapy;
Essential and Trace Elements:
Transition elements and their compounds of pharmaceutical importance, Iron and haematinics, mineral supplements; Cationic and anionic components of inorganic drugs useful for systemic effects;
Topical Agents:
Protectives, Astringents and Anti-infectives;
Gases and Vapors:
Oxygen, Anesthetics (inorganic) and Respiratory stimulants;
Dental Products:
Dentifrices, Anti-caries agents; Complexing and chelating agents used in therapy;
Miscellaneous Agents:
Sclerosing agents, Expectorants, Emetics, Inorganic poisons and antidotes.
Pharmaceutical Aids Used in Pharmaceutical Industry:
Anti-oxidants, Preservatives, Filter aids, Adsorbents, Diluents, Excipients, Suspending agents, Colorants;
Acids, Bases and Buffers:
Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general, buffers in pharmaceutical systems, preparation, stability, buffered isotonic solutions, measurements of tonicity, calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity. Water;
Inorganic Radiopharmaceuticals:
Nuclear reaction, radioisotopes, radiopharmaceuticals, Nomenclature, Methods of obtaining their standards and units of activity, half-life, measurement of activity, clinical applications, dosage, hazards and precautions.
Importance of basic fundamentals of physical chemistry in pharmacy; Behaviour of Gases:
Kinetic theory of gases, deviation from ideal behavior and explanation;
The Liquid State:
Physical properties (surface tension, parachor, viscosity, refractive index, dipole moment);
Ideal and real solutions, solutions of gases in liquids, colligative properties, partition coefficient, conductance and its measurement, Debye Huckel theory;
First, Second and Third laws, Zeroth law, Concept of free energy, enthalpy and entropy, absolute temperature scale;
Thermochemical equations; Phase rule; Adsorption:
Freudlich and Gibbs adsorption, isotherms, Langmuir’s theory of adsorption;
Consequences of light absorption, Jabolenski diagram, Quantum efficiency;
Chemical Kinetics:
Zero, First and Second order reactions, complex reactions, theories of reaction kinetics, characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, acid base and enzyme catalysis;
Quantum Mechanics :
Postulates of quantum mechanics, operators in quantum mechanics, the Schrodinger wave equation.
Importance of fundamentals of organic chemistry in pharmaceutical sciences; Structure and Properties:
Atomic structure, Atomic orbitals, Molecular orbital theory, wave equation, Molecular orbitals, Bonding and Anti-bonding orbitals, Covalent bond, Hybrid orbitals, Intramolecular forces, Bond dissociation energy, Polarity of bonds, Polarity of molecules, Structure and physical properties, Intermolecular forces, Acids and bases;
Nomenclature, isomerism, stereoisomerism, conformational and configurational isomerism, optical activity, specification of configuration, Reactions involving stereoisomers, chirality, conformations;
Stereoselective and stereospecific reactions; Structure, Nomenclature, Preparation and Reactions of:
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Cyclic analogs, Dienes, Benzene, Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Arenes, Alkyl halides, Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides, Amines, Phenols, Aldehydes and ketones, Carboxylic acids, Functional derivatives of' carboxylic acids, a,ß-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds, Reactive intermediates- carbocations, carbanions, carbenes and nitrenes;
Nucleophilic and Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions:
Reactivity and orientation;
Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Addition Reactions; Rearrangements
(Beckman, Hoffman, Benzilic acid, pinacole-pinacolone and Beyer-Villiger);
Elimination reactions; Conservation of Orbital Symmetry and Rules:
Electrocyclic, Cycloaddition and Sigmatropic reactions;
Neighboring group effects; Catalysis by transition metal complexes; Heterocyclic Compounds:
Nomenclature, preparation, properties and reactions of 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7-membered heterocycles with one or two heteroatoms like 0, N, S. Chemistry of lipids, Carbohydrates and Proteins.
Biochemistry in pharmaceutical sciences; The concept of free energy:
Determination of change in free energy - from equilibrium constant and reduction potential, bioenergetics, production of ATP and its biological significance;
Nomenclature, enzyme kinetics and their mechanism of action, mechanism of inhibition, enzymes and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis;
Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance. Metals as cofactors and their significance; Carbohydrate Metabolism: Conversion of polysaccharides to glucose-1-phosphate, Glycolysis, fermentation and their regulation, Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, Metabolism of galactose and galactosemia, Role of sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis, and Pentose phosphate pathway;
The Citric Acid Cycle:
Significance, reactions and energetics of the cycle, Amphibolic role of the cycle, and Glyoxalic acid cycle;
Lipids Metabolism :
Oxidation of fatty acids, ß-oxidation & energetics, biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization, biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, Control of lipid metabolism, Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes), phospholipids, and sphingolipids, Biosynthesis of eicosanoids, cholesterol, androgens, progesterone, estrogens corticosteroids and bile acids;
Biological Oxidation:
Redox-potential, enzymes and co-enzymes involved in oxidation reduction & its control, The respiratory chain, its role in energy capture and its control, energetics of oxidative phosphorylation. Inhibitors of respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation, Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation;
Metabolism of ammonia and nitrogen containing monomers:
Nitrogen balance, Biosynthesis of amino acids, Catabolism of amino acids, Conversion of amino acids to specialized products, Assimilation of ammonia, Urea. cycle, metabolic disorders of urea cycle, Metabolism of sulphur containing amino acids;
Purine biosynthesis:
Purine nucleotide inter-conversions;
Pyrimidine biosynthesis:
and formation of deoxyribounucleotides;
Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids:
Brief introduction of genetic organization of the mammalian genome, alteration and rearrangements of genetic material, Biosynthesis of DNA and its replications;
Physical & chemical mutagenesis/carcinogenesis, DNA repair mechanism. Biosynthesis of RNA;
Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis:
Genetic code, Components of protein synthesis and Inhibition of protein synthesis.
Basic Principles of Medicinal Chemistry:
Physico-chemical and stereoisomeric (Optical, geometrical) aspects of drug molecules and biological action, Bioisosterism, Drug-receptor interactions including transduction mechanisms;
Drug metabolism and Concept of Prodrugs; Principles of Drug Design (Theoretical Aspects):
Traditional analog and mechanism based approaches, QSAR approaches, Applications of quantum mechanics, Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD) and molecular modeling;
Synthetic Procedures, Mode of Action, Uses, Structure Activity Relationships including Physicochemical Properties of the Following Classes of Drugs:
Drugs acting at synaptic and neuro-effector junction sites: Cholinergics, anti-cholinergics and cholinesterase inhibitors, Adrenergic drugs, Antispasmodic and anti-ulcer drugs, Local Anesthetics, Neuromuscular blocking agents;
Antihistamines, Eicosanoids, Analgesic-antipyretics, Anti-inflammatory (non-steroidal) agents.
Steroidal Drugs:
Steroidal nomenclature (IUPAC) and stereochemistry, Androgens and anabolic agents, Estrogens and Progestational agents, Oral contraceptives, Adrenocorticoids;
Drugs acting on the central nervous system:
General Anesthetics, Hypnotics and Sedatives, Anticonvulsants, Anti-Parkinsonian drugs, Psychopharmacological agents (Neuroleptics, Anti-depressants, Anxiolytics), Opioid analgesics, Anti-tussives, CNS stimulants;
Diuretics; Cardiovascular drugs:
Anti-hypertensives, Anti-arrythmic agents, anti-anginal agents, Cardiotonics, Anti-hyperlipedemic agents, Anticoagulants and Anti-platelet drugs;
Thyroid and Anti thyroid drugs; Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents;
Chemotherapeutic Agents used in bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal, parasitic and other infections, Antibiotics: ß-Lactam, macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, polypeptide antibiotics, fluoroquinolones,
(including sulfonamides); Anti-neoplastic agents; Anti-viral agents (including anti–HIV);
Immunosuppressives and immunostimulants; Diagnostic agents; Pharmaceutical Aids; Microbial Transformations:
Introduction, types of reactions mediated by micro-organisms, design of biotransformation processes, selection of organisms, biotransformation process and its improvements with special reference to steroids;
Enzyme Immobilization:
Techniques of immobilization, factors affecting enzyme kinetics, Study of enzymes such as hyaluronidase, penicillinase, streptokinase, amylases and proteases, Immobilization of bacteria and plant cells.
Different techniques of pharmaceutical analysis, Preliminaries and definitions:
Significant figures, Rules for retaining significant digits, Types of errors, Mean deviation, Standard deviation, Statistical treatment of small data sets, Selection of sample, Precision and accuracy,
Fundamentals of volumetric analysis:
methods of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards:
Acid Base Titrations:
Acid base concepts, Role of solvents, Relative strengths of acids and bases, Ionization, Law of mass action, Common ion effect, Ionic product of water, pH, Hydrolysis of salts, Henderson-Hasselbach equation, Buffer solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid-base indicators, Theory of indicators, Choice of indicators, Mixed indicators, Polyprotic systems, Polyamine and amino acid systems, Amino acid titrations;
Oxidation Reduction Titrations:
Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox reactions, Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents, Theory of redox titrations, Redox indicators, Cell representations, Measurement of electrode potential, Oxidation-reduction curves, Iodimetry and Iodometry, Titrations involving cerric ammonium sulphate, potassium iodate, potassium bromate, potassium permanganate; titanous chloride, stannous chloride and Sodium 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol;
Precipitation Titrations:
Precipitation reactions, Solubility product, Effect of acids, temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate, Argentometric titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate, mercuric nitrate, and barium sulphate, indicators, Methods of end point determination (GayLussac method, Mohr’s method, Volhard's method and Fajan's method).
Gravimetric Analysis:
Precipitation techniques, The colloidal state, Supersaturation, Co-precipitation, Post-precipitation, Digestion, washing of the precipitate, Filtration, Filter papers and crucibles, Ignition, Thermogravimetric curves, Specific examples like barium sulphate, aluminium as aluminium oxide, calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate, Organic precipitants;
Non-aqueous titrations:
Acidic and basic drugs, Solvents used, Indicators;
Complexometric titrations;
Complexing agents used as titrants, Indicators, Masking and demasking;
Miscellaneous Methods of Analysis:
Diazotization titrations, Kjeldahl method of nitrogen estimation, Karl-Fischer aquametry, Oxygen flask combustion method, Gasometry;
Extraction procedures including separation of drugs from excipients; Potentiometry:
Standard redox potential, Nernst equation, Half-cell potential, Standard and indicating electrodes, potentiometric titrations;
Specific and equivalent conductance, conductometric titrations;
Coulomb’s law, Coulometric titrations at fixed potential/current;
Decomposition potential, Half-wave potential, Diffision/migration/migration current, Ilkovic equation, Cathodic/anodic polarography, Dropping mercury electrode, Graphite electrode, Organic polarography;
Rotating platinum electrode, Amperometric titrations;
Theory of chromatography, plate theory, Factors affecting resolution, van Deemter equation, The following chromatographic techniques (including instrumentation) with relevant examples of Pharmacopoeial products: TLC, HPLC, GLC, HPTLC, Paper Chromatography and Column Chromatography;
The Theoretical Aspects, Basic Instrumentation, Elements of Interpretation of Spectra, and Applications (quantitative and qualitative) of the Following Analytical Techniques:
Ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry, Infrared spectrophotometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, Mass Spectrometry (EI & CI only), Flame Photometry, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Analysis, Radioimmunoassay.
Quality assurance:
GLP, ISO 9000, TQM, Quality Review and Quality documentation, Regulatory control, regulatory drug analysis, interpretation of analytical data, Validation, quality audit: quality of equipment, validation of equipment, validation of analytical procedures.
Pathophysiology of common diseases; Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptations:
Causes of Cellular injury, pathogenesis, morphology of cell injury, adaptations and cell death.
Basic Mechanisms involved in the process of inflammation and repair:
Vascular and cellular events of acute inflammation, chemical mediators of inflammation, pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, brief outline of the process of repair.
T and B cells, MHC proteins, antigen presenting cells, immune tolerance, pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, Amyloidosis.
Pathophysiology of Common Diseases:
Asthma, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, ulcerative colitis, neoplasia, psychosis, depression, mania, epilepsy, acute and chronic renal failure, hypertension, angina, congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, peptic ulcer, anemias, hepatic disorders, tuberculosis, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Wherever applicable the molecular basis should be discussed.
Fundamentals of general pharmacology:
Dosage forms and routes of administration, mechanism of action, combined effect of drugs, factors modifying drug action, tolerance and dependence; Pharmacogenetics; Principles of Basic and Clinical pharmacokinetics, absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs, Adverse Drug Reactions; Bioassay of Drugs and Biological Standardization; Discovery and development of new drugs, Bioavailability and bioequivalence studies;
Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission (autonomic and somatic), Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Adrenergic receptor and neuron blocking agents, Ganglion stimulants and blocking agents, Neuromuscular blocking Agents, Local anesthetic Agents.
Pharmacology of Central Nervous System:
Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S., General Anesthetics, Alcohols and disulfiram, Sedatives, Hypnotics, Anti-anxiety agents and Centrally acting muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents (anti-psychotics), anti-maniacs and hallucinogens, Antidepressants, Anti-epileptics drugs, Anti-Parkinsonian drugs, Analgesics, Antipyretics, Narcotic analgesics and antagonists, C.N.S. stimulants, Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse.
Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System:
Drugs used in the management of congestive cardiac failure, Antihypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal and Vasodilator drugs, including calcium channel blockers and beta adrenergic antagonists, Anti-arrhythmic drugs, Anti-hyperlipedemic drugs, Drugs used in the therapy of shock.
Drugs Acting on the Hemopoietic System:
Hematinics, Anticoagulants, Vitamin K and hemostatic agents, Fibrinolytic and anti-platelet drugs, Blood and plasma volume expanders.
Drugs acting on urinary system:
Fluid and electrolyte balance, Diuretics.
Histamine, Antihistaminic drugs, 5-HT- its agonists and antagonists, Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, Angiotensin, Bradykinin and Substance P and other vasoactive peptides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-gout agents.
Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System:
Anti-asthmatic drugs including bronchodilators, Anti-tussives and expectorants, Respiratory stimulants.
Drugs acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract:
Antacids, Anti-secretory and Anti-ulcer drugs, Laxatives and anti-diarrhoeal drugs, Appetite Stimulants and Suppressants, Emetics and anti-emetics, Miscellaneous: Carminatives, demulcents, protectives, adsorbents, astringents, digestants, enzymes and mucolytics.
Pharmacology of Endocrine System:
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, Thyroid hormones and anti thyroid drugs, parathormone, calcitonin and Vitamin D, Insulin, glucagons, incretins, oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin analogs, ACTH and corticosteroids, Androgens and anabolic steroids, Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives, Drugs acting on the uterus.
General Principles of Chemotherapy, Bacterial resistance; Sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, Antibiotics- Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Aminoglycosides, Chloramphenicol, Macrolides, Tetracyclines, Quinolones, fluoroquinolones and Miscellaneous antibiotics; Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, HIV and AIDS, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases, malaria, amoebiasis and other protozoal infections and Anthelmentics. Chemotherapy of malignancy and immunosuppressive agents.
Principles of Toxicology:
Definition of poison, general principles of treatment of poisoning with particular reference to barbiturates, opioids, organophosphorous and atropine poisoning, Heavy metals and heavy metal antagonists.
Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy:
Clinical Pharmacokinetics and individualization of Drug therapy, Drug delivery systems and their Biopharmaceutic & Therapeutic considerations, Drugs used during infancy and in the elderly persons (Pediatrics & Geriatrics), Drugs used during pregnancy, Drug induced diseases, The basics of drug interactions, General principles of clinical toxicology, Common clinical laboratory tests and their interpretation;
Important Disorders of Organs, Systems and their Management:
Cardio-vascular disorders- Hypertension, Congestive heart failure, Angina, Acute myocardial infarction, Cardiac arrhythmias.
CNS Disorders:
Epilepsy, Parkinsonism, Schizophrenia,
Depression Respiratory disease-
Gastrointestinal Disorders-
Peptic ulcer, Ulcerative colitis, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis.
Endocrine Disorders-
Diabetes mellitus and Thyroid disorders.
Infectious Diseases-
Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infections, Enteric infections, Upper respiratory infections. Hematopoietic Disorders- Anemias,
Joint and Connective tissue disorders-
Rheumatic diseases, Gout and Hyperuricemia.
Neoplastic Diseases-
Acute Leukaemias, Hodgkin's disease. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Concept of Essential Drugs and Rational Drug use.
Sources of Drugs:
Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs;
Classification of Drugs:
Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs;
Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to:
Apocynacae, Solanaceae, Rutacease, Umbelliferae, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Liliaceae, Graminae, Labiatae, Cruciferae, Papaveraceae;
Cultivation, Collection, Processing and Storage of Crude Drugs:
Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants, Types of soils and fertilizers of common use. Pest management and natural pest control agents, Plant hormones and their applications, Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.
Quality Control of Crude Drugs:
Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
Introduction to Active Constituents of Drugs:
Their isolation, classification and properties.
Systematic pharmacognostic study of the followings:
CARBOHYDRATES and derived products:
agar, guar gum acacia, Honey, Isabagol, pectin, Starch, sterculia and Tragacanth;
Bees wax, Castor oil, Cocoa butter, Codliver oil, Hydnocarpus oil, Kokum butter, Lard, Linseed oil, Rice, Bran oil, Shark liver oil and Wool fat;
Study of Drugs Containing Resins and Resin Combinations like Colophony, podophyllum, jalap, cannabis, capsicum, myrrh, asafoetida, balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru, benzoin, turmeric, ginger;
Study of tannins and tannin containing drugs like Gambier, black catechu, gall and myrobalan;
General methods of obtaining volatile oils from plants, Study of volatile oils of Mentha, Coriander, Cinnamon, Cassia, Lemon peel, Orange peel, Lemon grass, Citronella, Caraway, Dill, Spearmint, Clove, Fennel, Nutmeg, Eucalyptus, Chenopodium, Cardamom, Valerian, Musk, Palmarosa, Gaultheria, Sandal wood;
Phytochemical Screening:
Preparation of extracts, Screening of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolides and bufadienolides, flavonoids and leucoanthocyanidins, tannins and polyphenols, anthraquinones, cynogenetic glycosides, amino acids in plant extracts;
Study of fibers used in pharmacy such as cotton, silk, wool, nylon, glass-wool, polyester and asbestos.
Study of the biological sources, cultivation, collection, commercial varieties, chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic macroscopic and microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following groups of drugs:
Saponins :
Liquorice, ginseng, dioscorea, sarsaparilla, and senega.
Cardioactive glycosides:
Digitalis, squill, strophanthus and thevetia,
Anthraquinone cathartics:
Aloe, senna, rhubarb and cascara,
Psoralea, Ammi majus, Ammi visnaga, gentian, saffron, chirata, quassia.
Tobacco, areca and lobelia.
Belladonna, hyoscyamus, datura, duboisia, coca and withania.
Quinoline and Isoquinoline:
Cinchona, ipecac, opium.
Ergot, rauwolfia, catharanthus, nux-vomica and physostigma.
Veratrum and kurchi.
Alkaloidal Amine:
Ephedra and colchicum.
Coffee, tea and cola. Biological sources, preparation, identification tests and uses of the following enzymes: Diastase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin.
           High Voltage Inc PTS-130 Sale price: $8,988.00         

High Voltage Inc PTS-130

Sale price

DC Hipot Megohmmeter 0-130 kVdc, 10mA The PTS Portable DC Test Set Series of CE marked products are combination high voltage DC proof testers and HV Megohmmeters. Testing for dielectric strength and insulation resistance is now served with one...(Continue to site)

          SystemX Seminar: Sustaining Silicon Reliability in High-Performance CPU Design        

As high-performance CPUs shrink into advanced CMOS process technologies, thinning dielectrics and dwindling wire interconnects demand an ever-increasing complexity of reliability analysis, modeling, and design techniques. This is particularly true for CPUs in notebook and desktop computers, in which to maximize the user experience, it is critical to maximize the voltage and frequency for the small fraction of the lifetime when peak performance is actually needed. An overview of methodologies and design considerations for maintaining the silicon reliability of high-performance CPUs is presented, with particular focus on dielectric breakdown and electromigration as the two most critical limiters. As dynamic voltage and frequency scaling has become pervasive in the mobile and embedded processor space, these techniques will become essential to a broader spectrum of the semiconductor industry as their respective frequencies continue to increase.

          Achromatic Metasurfaces: towards broadband flat optics        

SCIEN Talk: 

Conventional optical components rely on the propagation through thick materials to control the amplitude, phase and polarization of light. Metasurfaces provide a new path for designing planar optical devices with new functionalities. In this approach, the control of the wavefront is achieved by tailoring the geometry of subwavelength-spaced nano antennas. By designing an array of low-loss dielectric resonators we create metasurfaces with an engineered wavelength-dependent phase shift that compensates for the dispersion of the phase accumulated by light during propagation. In this way the large chromatic effects typical of all flat optical components can be corrected. A flat lens without chromatic aberrations and a beam deflector are demonstrated. The suppression of chromatic aberrations in metasurface-based planar photonics will find applications in lightweight collimators for displays, and chromatically-corrected imaging systems.

          Electroactive Polymers for Integrated Medical Microsystems        

In this talk, I will present the emerging field of electroactive polymer (EAP) microsystems for integrated medical applications, highlighting the EAP actuation mechanisms of soft and hard materials for making passive and active devices: a. electrostriction of a recently developed relaxor ferroelectric polymer, b. diffusion of ions in the case of a hydrogel, and c. dielectric elastomer actuation. We will present the "grand plan" where the variability of polymers, in addition to their intrinsic properties is of great advantage to medical applications. Biocompatibility, light weight, low-cost processing, and flexibility together with operational similarity to biological muscle and the ability to exhibit property changes much beyond what is achievable with inorganic, makes EAPs attractive for applications in artificial muscles, robotics, intelligent medical devices and prosthetics, and drug delivery systems. In each of the aforementioned actuation modes, EAP devices become more efficient as the scale is reduced, providing motivation for downscaling.

While EAPs have the potential to improve many aspects of human life, we will mainly address the applications of flexible micro motors, cardiac tissue engineering and cardiovascular occlusion and the processing and integration challenges that we encountered in working on these systems. Recent advances in polymer microfabrication (i.e. imprint lithography, laser micromachining, and 3D printing), together with breakthroughs in materials science, and understanding of EAP behavior at these small scales will serve to overcome the technological barriers to full integration with microsystems and usher in a new paradigm of medical microsystems.

          Stanford Optical Society Seminar: High-speed operation, wavelength, and mode control in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers        

We address recent achievements in Vertical–Cavity Surface–Emitting Lasers for data communication. (i) Recent concepts for high speed VCSEL operation include anti–waveguiding cavity design with AlAs–rich core, further increased optical confinement factor, engineering of the density of states, thick oxide apertures and superlattice barriers aimed at prevention of the leakage of nonequilibrium carriers. Serial data transmission up to 50Gb/s is realized in laser modules without preemphasis and equalization. The expected lifetime of such VCSELs exceeds 10 years at 95oC. (ii) Electrooptically–modulated VCSELs allow optical modulation bandwidth beyond 35GHz and electrical bandwidth exceeding 60GHz. So far error-free digital data transmission at 10Gb/s is realized. With effort 100 Gb/s operation at a low current density and ultralow power consumption can become feasible. (iii) VCSEL design may allow uncooled wavelength multiplexing, for example within the narrow 840–860 nm spectral range of low modal dispersion of the standard multimode fiber. Complete temperature stability of the VCSEL is achieved due to the passive cavity concept. The gain medium is placed in the region of the bottom semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) while the further part of the bottom DBR, the cavity region and the top DBR are made of dielectric materials. Due to the virtually no dependence of the refractive index on temperature at certain dielectric compositions, a temperature stabilized operation without cooling becomes possible. Furthermore, due to dielectric DBRs and a cavity offer a high optical confinement factor even for InP-based 1300nm - 1550nm VCSELs extending the range of VCSEL applications. (iv) Single mode VCSELs at moderate oxide diameters of the oxide aperture (5-6 µm), fully compatible to the standard technology, are feasible by the optical field engineering in the oxidized part. The leakage is engineered to suppress the high order transverse optical modes. The effect is achieved by a proper positioning of thick aperture oxide layers, inducing an optical mode suitable for the leakage. The mode engineering effect can be also used, as opposite, to create a 3D confinement of the optical modes in the microcavity allowing a long lifetime of the VCSEL modes in a broad spectral range allowing, for example, near field VCSEL. (v) Single mode operation allows to overcome effects related to significant spectral dispersion of the multimode fiber (MMF) in the 840–860 nm range. A 1000 m error–free transmission at 25Gb/s is realized in parallel MMF links using single mode VCSEL arrays in combination with commercially available array electronics and standard optical couplers assembled into parallel 12-channel transceiver and receiver boards.

This seminar is sponsored by Stanford OSA


Descargar condensad...jpg (16.0 KB)

Un componente tan sencillo, un componente tan tonto, que a veces y según donde esté, lo puedes quitar y el aparato sigue funcionando sin verse nada anormal, y en cambio, los problemas que pueden generar cuando envejecen, llegando a inutilizar por completo una placa electrónica.