The Art of Lovin' Animals --- Featured Group of Artists Inspired by Their Beloved Pets.        
"Enilde And Our Children" Oil on Panel 42" x 60"
Painting by Luke Van Hook, 2003
Painting and Photograph copyright by Luke and Ginger E. Van Hook, 2004
Courtesy of the Van Hook Collection

The Art of Lovin' Animals
Features a group of artists inspired,
motivated or influenced by their beloved pets
and appear in this blog in the following order:

Joshua Elias, Simone Gad, Betty Glass, David Newsom,
Monrovia Association of Fine Arts supporters
(KidsArt Studio, PaintNPlay Art Studios, Tyson & Tillman Skate Dogs)
Family Dog and Cat Hospital in Monrovia, California (displays animal artwork).
Ginger Van Hook, Luke Van Hook,
Alex in Welderland, Elena Wolek, and Zareh.

Additionally as part of the "Art of Lovin' Animals"
there is a special book and movie review of
John Grogan's book "Marley and Me", and the recent hit movie
starring Jennifer Aniston and Owen Wilson


Written by Enilde G. Van Hook with special thanks to all participating artists!


Do you remember your first pet? I do. I even have a picture of how much bigger my cats’ paws were than my two feet put together at the age of three. My mother, tells me I had a yellow duck, a small dog and a large yellow tabby cat that owned me as a child.
These three pets were protective, possessive and they were my first companions as I ventured out, for the first time, into my wild back yard of dirt and weeds. I was born in Rosario Argentina and to me now as an adult, my backyard is still my world. I live in Los Angeles, California but the romance of the Argentinean Pampas is not lost on me. From the pictures of my past, I gathered that my Belgian Grandfather, Francisco, ran a plant nursery in Buenos Aires and that my father, Luis, grew up to be an inventor in America. But the most unique connection I have to my past is my relationship with animals. I’ve had a pet at almost every age as I grew up. The importance of this type of companionship has not been explored enough in the art world, at least, this is my opinion. This is the reason I am blogging about the subject of the art and inspiration of lovin’ pets. I hope to instigate discussion, if not compassion. I hope to motivate an artistic response to my thoughts as well. You may have a completely different experience, so I personally encourage you to post your comments after you read this entry.
This is what I asked myself for the subject of the essay for Ginger's Art Journal. What is the relationship of animals and pets to the art world? How involved are animals throughout the art strata? How much inspiration is gathered from the love of a pet? Can that even be measured? Does the love of a pet inspire political causes? Activism? How does one explain the pangs of loneliness from the loss of a pet? Does the death of a pet make an artist create more art? Does the gift of a new life of a pet inspire hope and renewal in artists? How do artists express their love and affection for the four-legged critters of our earth? How do animals, pets, pet trees, pet rocks or pets of any kind affect the process of making art?
There are a number of artists that I have followed for a period of time to investigate the questions that will make up this entry. Studying the work of a number of local artists from the Los Angeles and surrounding areas that work with pets in their art practice, I will present some of their unique stories with photos. The artists, in alphabetical order, include Joshua Elias, Simone Gad, Betty Glass, David Newsom, Ginger Van Hook and Luke Van Hook, Alexandra from Alex in Welderland, Lena Wolek and Zareh. Additionally, the art of lovin’ animals has made a seamless transition from the literary art into the film arts so I will discuss one of my favorite books by John Grogan named “Marley and Me” as it compares to its latest movie version of “Marley and Me” starring Jennifer Aniston and Owen Wilson which opened in December for Christmas Day.
The method selected to choose these artists was random. I began my animal photographic study in 2006. Through my daily practice of studying the arts, I have come across people who were “in my back yard” and came to connect with me in a special way. I didn’t set out to write a story about animals. I merely went about my daily routine of photographing people and artwork that caught my “eye” because I was at the right place at the right time. Believing that the universe has a special plan for me, I allowed this story to evolve of its own volition. What I discovered both surprised me and opened me up. What I mean by this is that I was surprised to discover that artists who had pets had a great deal in common with other artists who had pets. Most people know and understand the history that reveals how the Egyptians revered cats and how the dog is considered “man’s best friend”. While it was common to have general conversations about how great it was to have pets and create pet portraits, I rarely came across artists that spoke to the deeper underlying significance in the arts about this specifically. While doing this research, I came across the most extreme case of worshiping our pets. The act of cloning has been in the news ever since the cloning of “Dolly” the sheep, but did you know that now there is a company that has launched itself into a commercial venture to clone man’s best friend? I discovered this and lots more so enjoy the new year in 2009 with a renewed commitment to your beloved pet. This is an ongoing story so don’t feel left out if your best friend isn’t included in this entry. I’m still reviewing artwork and pet portraits,
feel free to send me an email about your animal story and I’ll include it in the followup stories!

*********************************************************************************

JOSHUA ELIAS
Fine Arts Painter

Joshua Elias, Exhibition, DCA Fine Arts
Santa Monica, California
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2007
Winston and Lucille read art literature on the couch and
wait for Joshua Elias to become inspired to feed them.
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2008
Paintings by Joshua Elias
Art in the making at the Brewery Artist Colony
Los Angeles, California, 2008
Studio visit by Ginger Van Hook
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook
Artist brushes belonging to Joshua Elias
The instruments by which Joshua Elias creates the canvas of weather and inspiration.
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2008
DCA Fine Arts Gallery, Joshua Elias with Mathew Heller and his girlfriend
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook 2007
Joshua Elias, Exhibition at DCA Fine Arts Gallery
Santa Monica, California
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2007
Joshua Elias with his cats Winston and Lucille
in his studio at the Brewery Arts Complex in Los Angeles, California
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2008

Joshua Elias
Artist Statement

Art has become about large quantities of Resin, masquerading as Content. The focus has been on Process, confusing it with Content. Enough. I wish to focus on Content. Story and Vibration lead the way for me to paint.

I work in oil because of the depth and movement that it allows for me, as a medium. I focus on Landscapes that are rearranged. Traveling spirits act as guides, to the movement of a particular painting. The influence of Moorish architecture and its many doorways offers and allows entryways into paintings.

At present we are in a period of Time where there seems to be long standing fights over Space, Time Religion, Money, Ideology, and Relationships. Enough. The one thing we do all share is Weather. Through the action of Creating our own environment, our own personal Weather, the Repositioning of Weather can illuminate and allow for more Creation to happen, more of a Life Force to shine and to take shape.

ï¿_ Joshua Elias

Courtesy of the DCA website
*************************************************************************************************************************



SIMONE GAD
Fine Arts Painter, Collage Artist, Actor and Performer
Simone Gad, Artist, Solo Show, L2Kontemporary Gallery
February 2008 Chinatown, Los Angeles, California,
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008


Selfportrait with Max and Bella/Autoportrait avec Max et Bella
Private collection, photo courtesy of Simone Gad, Artist, copyright 2005
Gad/Rin-Tin-Tin Collection Long Beach Museum of Art
Courtesy Simone Gad, Artist, copyright 2005


Picture Holocaust Clowns - Pinups 127, Gad and Poodle
Courtesy Simone Gad, Artist, copyright 2005

Selfportrait with Cat and Jesus
Private collection, Courtesy of Simone Gad, Artist, copyright 2005

Hommage a Ma Mere 2005 Painting Collage
Copyright and Collection- Simone Gad
Courtesy Simone Gad-Artist
Photograph by Antonio Garcia





Autoportrait avec Kashmir, painting collage 2005/06
Courtesy Simone Gad- Artist and L2Kontemporary Gallery
Chinatown, Los Angeles, California. Copyright Simone Gad


Portrait of Bella, the Brindle cat, acting secretary for Artist, Simone Gad
Los Angeles, California, Artist studio visit
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008



Bella the Brindle Cat, (on the Marilyn and JFK Installation)
Photo copyright and courtesy of
Jesse Bonderman and Simone Gad,

Bella, the Brindle Cat #2 (Marilyn Installation)
Photo courtesy of Jessie Bonderman and Simone Gad


Portrait of Simone Gad, Artist with companion, Bella.
Los Angeles, California, Artist studio visit
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008

Portrait of Bella
The Brindle cat, Artist assistant, model
and loyal companion to Simone Gad.
Los Angeles, California, Artist studio visit
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008

Max and Bella pose for pictures in the window of Simone Gad's artist studio
Los Angeles, California
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008

Simone Gad poses with one of her paintings of Chinatown
during her solo show at L2Kontemporary Gallery
Chinatown, Los Angeles, California
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008



Enilde Van Hook writer's notes: I met Simone Gad at an exhibition of her work in Chinatown in the spring of 2008. The L2Kontemporary Gallery is a unique gallery located at 990 N. Hill Street #205 in Downtown Los Angeles (90012), California. I received an email from ArtScene, a wonderful source of local Art Events that is produced by the staff of Coagula Art Journal. Special thanks to Michael Salerno and Mat Gleason, because somewhere in the announcement, I read that Simone Gad was a Belgium-born artist and this led me to want to meet her to talk about the art in Belgium, where my grandfather had been born. Once I attended her exhibit and got a chance to meet Simone, I realized there was a distinct cultural connection we had through our reverence to the animals. She used images of her cats to make intriguing and poignant self-portraits and insightful photographic collages.
I have followed Simone Gad’s work into 2009 and you will enjoy visiting her site through the L2Kontemporary Gallery located in Chinatown in Los Angeles: Follow these links to get to know a renaissance artist, a versatile film and TV actress, a woman of many talents and an artist who has a great deal of compassion to show for her animal friends: visit the online gallery site at http://www.l2kontemporary.com to view her solo show at L2k for Feb 08 plus her updated resume which may be viewed at saatchigallery.org by writing in her name or wooloo.org by writing in Simone Gad’s name.
Special thanks to the L2Kontemporary Gallery for cooperating with my interview! (www.L2Kontemporary.com and L2Kontemporary@sbcglobal.net and phone: 323-225-1288)

Simone Gad
Artist Statement and Biography: 2009

I've been showing in museums and galleries for 40 years-am a 6 times grants recipient, including a CRA Grant 1986, the Woman's Building 1985/6, New Orleans Contemporary Museum of Art 1984, the Gottlieb Foundation-NYC/Painting Medical Emergency Grant, Change Inc-Robert Rauschenberg Foundation Grant-both in 2002 for painting and medical emergency, and Artist Fellowship Foundation Grant in 2007-NYC. I am included in the Archives of the National Portrait Gallery/Smithsonian-Washington, DC, and will also be included in the Lyn Kienholz Encyclopedia of Los Angeles Artists who have shown between 1944 and 1979. In Los Angeles, I am represented by L2kontemporary Gallery-Chinatown, Jack Fischer Gallery in San Francisco, and am showing in Spain. I am also in the traveling museum exhibition-Your Documents Please thru 2010 in Japan/Europe/Mexico curated by Daniel Georges of Brooklyn, NY. I was born in Brussels, Belgium to holocaust survivor parents, from Poland. We came to the US in the early 1950's and settled in Boyle Heights/E.L.A, after arriving at Ellis Island. My mother got me into show-biz at the age of 4 upon our immigration. I grew up in the entertainment field as a young actress-have been working professionally in film, tv, commercials and theatre ever since. Have always had a dual career-.visual/performance artist and actor. George Herms and Wallace Berman were my first mentors. Al Hansen was my mentor from 1972 to 1995 when he passed away in Koln, Germany.

My cats Max and Bella Bettina Kashmir are my inspiration for many of my painting collages-have been so for many years. I've always been inspired by my cats and dogs that I've had since I arrived to this country from War torn Europe. My father got me my first dog-Teddy Queeny when I was a child living on Folsom Street-We had just returned from a movie on Brooklyn Avenue when we saw the puppies on our way home. I was allowed to have one-and I was so happy. But my mother hated animals and wouldn't let me keep my pet with me in my bedroom and it cried all night. I was heartbroken when I got home from Nursery School the following day and found that my dog was gone. My mom told me she had sent it to New Jersey to live with my Tante Sally. I wasn't allowed to have any animals after that. Years later I visited my aunt and asked her if she had taken care of my Teddy Queeny and she told me she never did-she never got the dog-didn't know what I was talking about. I realized that my mother had lied to me and had possibly killed my beloved doggie. I had moved to Topanga Canyon for a while in the late 1960's-that's where I got to know Wallace Berman and George Herms. I was given a miniature sheppard-who I named Lady. She was my constant companion and I adored her. She was run over by a couple of friends who were staying with me one night. I found her bleeding from her mouth by the driveway. She died in my arms and I could feel her spirit leave her body. We buried her the next morning. I was devastated for years. A friend of mine gave me a dash-hound and I took it home to be with me when I left Topanga and stayed with my parents for a while. I named her Wiggle Butts because she had this habit of wiggling her behind when she walked. I was not allowed to keep her-once again-so I called a friend and had her drive from The Canyon to pick Wiggles up and take care of her for me. When I left my parents and got an apartment, I got a cat-Nathaniel-my very first cat-who was with me for 15 years until he passed away. It was then that I started to incorporate animal objects into my collages-in the mid 1970's.

copyright Simone Gad 2009

http://www.l2kontemporary.com to view Simone Gad’s solo show at L2k for Feb 08 plus her updated resume-you may also get it on saatchigallery.org by writing in her name or wooloo.org by writing in Simone Gad’s name-

************************************************************************************


BETTY GLASS

Focus One Gallery in Monrovia, California. Sponsored by M.A.F.A.,
the Monrovia Association of Fine Arts and Focus One Community Credit Union.
Photo by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2006

Betty Glass celebrates Christmas with Lulu at home in 2008.
Lulu, wearing her new holiday sweater,
pokes her nose into the gift bag
to see if she likes what Santa has brought her.
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty Glass and James Glass.
Turtle Painting, Watercolor Artwork by Betty Glass reminiscent of her pet turtles.
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass.
Trojan Horses, Watercolor painting by Artist, Betty Glass
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass.
Hummy, Watercolor Painting by Artist, Betty Glass.
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass.

Yankee and Sugar, Watercolor Painting by Artist, Betty Glass
memorializing the life of her beloved friends.
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass.

Yankee (5-17-80 --- 4-20-94)
the larger white and orange Brittany on the right,
and Sugar (7-20-90 --- 12-24-04)
the smaller Brittany on the left.
"Beloved Friends and Forever in our hearts!"
Loyal Friends, Inspiration and Companions
to Artist, Betty Glass and her family.
(Special thanks to husband, James Glass
for his technical computer assistance
with digital photography formating of Betty Glass Artwork.)
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass


Enilde Van Hook, Writer's Notes:
I met Betty Glass through the Monrovia Association of Fine arts in 2006. We were showing together at the Focus One Gallery on Huntington Drive in Monrovia, California. When Betty came into the gallery, she was toting her adorable poodle named Lulu. I was charmed immediately and I just had to have a photo of this beautiful female pooch with a twinkle in her eye and the gumption to come into an art gallery where only humans gathered. This little poodle had no clue there was any difference between her and her owner, and she acted like she was looking at the art just like everyone else. At the time, I considered this a very cultured poodle and I told Betty so. Betty giggled and let me take her snapshot with Lulu and then we did not see each other again until we had another show together, also at Focus One Gallery two years later in December of 2008. When I saw Betty this time, I saw the connection of her artwork and the love of her animals come through her work and later, she agreed to participate in the interview for my blog. You may enjoy Betty Glass's artwork by visiting her website at www.bhglassart.com

Betty H. Glass
Artist Statement about Animal Art

Through art we communicate our feelings and thoughts.
Our art reflects what experiences in life have influenced us.
I have had a lifetime of pets
ranging from goldfish, parakeets, and turtles and, of course,
the loyal dog—always your friend even when the sky seems to be falling.
I am still sketching and painting animals, birds, and fish.
The softness of their fur, the texture of their feathers and fins,
the variations of color are very appealing to me,
because color is part of my artistic signature.
Sometimes they are presented in a realistic fashion.

Other times I use animals in a more stylized way—
using their shapes as patterns, semi-abstracting them and their background.
For example, my painting Trojan Horses shows flattened stylized figures of horses.
Hopefully artistically pleasing and calling to mind ancient Greece.




If the thought of having a fungus growing on your body makes you feel a bit queasy, there's probably a reason. The bad news is that fungal infections aren't any fun; the good news is that they can be relatively easily treated. So if you have an infection on your body caused by a fungus, do something about it - quick!



What is a Fungus?



A fungus is a certain type of organism belonging to the fungus kingdom, which has more than 80,000 species (but sadly, no king or queen). Fungi are notoriously difficult to characterize, especially as they share traits with both plants and animals, although they lack both chlorophyll and vascular tissue. They can multiply both sexually and asexually (by cloning themselves), and they feed on many different types of organic material, ones that are both living and dead.



Many things fall under the classification of fungi, including mushrooms, toadstools, spores, smuts, yeasts, molds and lichens, to name but a few. Some people choose to call fungi "primitive vegetables", and as such they are able to live in air, soil, on plants or in water. Often, they live on our skin.



Fungal infections are caused by a harmful fungus (about half of all fungi fall into this category) which has infected your skin or has been breathed in by you and invaded your lungs, and they can appear in many different forms. Often it's difficult to ascertain whether a specific health complaint is caused by a fungal infection or not; this is where a dermatologist can be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis.



General Fungal Infections



Fungal infections are incredibly common and can happen to anyone, regardless of personal hygiene - although poor hygiene can definitely contribute to burgeoning infections. Here are a few you are most likely to encounter...

Athlete's Foot. Also known as tinea pedis. Perhaps the most common fungal infection of all. Makes the foot red, itchy, scaly and often smelly. Occurs as the ringworm fungus loves feet, because they are so often encased in warm sweaty socks. This nice moist environment is a prime place for the fungus to thrive, and if not treated properly can even allow transfer to other parts of the body, such as the groin, nails, trunk etc. For some reason athlete's foot is more common among men (boys, take note) and usually affects the area between the fourth and fifth toes (foot fetishists, take note).

Nail Infections. Can begin as a small yellow or white spot underneath a fingernail, but then spreads. As it burrows deeper and deeper into your toenail or fingernail it can cause discoloration, thickening or crumbling, and can be incredibly painful. In some cases the nail will separate itself from the nail bed and an unpleasant odor can occur. Usually caused by a group of fungi called dermatophytes, sometimes caused by yeasts or molds. Can easily be picked up in swimming pools or other moist, warm places where fungi thrive, much like athlete's foot.

Scalp Ringworm. If your scalp is turning red, crusting and becoming incredibly itchy, there's a chance you have scalp ringworm. This is fairly common among young children, and it's estimated that 50 percent of all child hair loss is caused by this nasty fungus. It occurs primarily in one of three different guises: gray patch ringworm, black dot ringworm and inflammatory ringworm.

Body Ringworm. Also known as tinea corporis. Usually occurs on parts of the body not covered by clothes, such as hands and face. Not as revolting as it seems as it not actually caused by a worm but by - surprise! - a fungus. Gets its name as it can cause a ring-shaped rash with scaly center. Can sometimes be passed on by cats although usually is passed on through human contact. So always wash your hands after stroking a feline... or a human.

Lung fungal infection. Also known as aspergillosis, this fungus thrives in places such as air ducts and compost heaps, then it attacks your lungs. Can be most dangerous to people who have had lung disease in the past and therefore have cavities in their lungs which can become infected. However, this infection can be treated and does not usually spread outside the lung area.



Personal Fungal Infections



Also incredibly common, these fungal infections are the most unpleasant because they infect our most personal areas. Not to be confused with sexually-transmitted diseases, but they can be just as irritating - and sometimes even more so! And as the symptoms so often mimic those of STDs, sometimes it's hard to tell between the two. That's where a proper diagnosis by a doctor or dermatologist can be so important..

Jock Itch. If you spend too much time flaunting a tight, wet Speedo on the beach in hot weather, chances are you'll develop jock itch. This fungal infection of the groin can attack both men and women, but it more common among the boys. Heat and humidity are the biggest factors contributing to this irritating itch, although wearing tight clothing or being very overweight can play a role as well. Results in nasty red pustules that are uncomfortable and unsightly and require medical treatment. Also called Ringworm of the Groin.

Vaginal Yeast Infections. Caused by an overgrowth of the Candida albicans fungus, this unpleasant infection can cause extreme itchiness around the vagina, as well as an unpleasant discharge and smell as well as occasional pain and burning. It's estimated that ?? of all women have at least one yeast infection in their lives, which can easily spread to sexual partners. Easily treated in the vast majority of cases.



Treatment of Fungal Infections



Most fungal infections are treated with anti-fungal medications, but along with the correct meds you should also wash regularly and keep the affected areas clean and dry. Following a strict skin-care regime is important to avoid re-infection, or infecting others. That means, depending on which type of infection you have, not sharing towels or combs, wearing flip-flops in changing areas or poolside, using an anti-fungal foot spray, wearing clean cotton socks and underwear and changing into clean cotton clothes regularly.



Here, in alphabetical order, are a few of the anti-fungal drugs you may be prescribed, follow the doctor or dermatologist's instructions and let them know beforehand if you are taking any other medications:

Clotrimazole

Ciclopirox

Fluconazole

Itraconazole

Ketoconazole

Terbinafine Hydrochloride



Fungal infections can affect anyone, and if you have a busy, active lifestyle chances are you'll come down with at least one - if not more - at some stage of your life. While fungal infections are never fun, there's no need to suffer in silence, so if you have any of the above symptoms, get thee to a doctor pronto. You'll have a new, fungal-free you in no time!



The information in the article is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advice of your health care provider. We encourage you to discuss any decisions about treatment or care an appropriate health care provider.


Sarah Matthews is a writer for Yodle, a business directory and online advertising company. Find a dermatologist or more personal care articles at Yodle Consumer Guide.

fingernail fungus cures: toe nail fungus treatments

fingernail fungus cures: nail fungus remedy

Article Source: www.articlesnatch.com


          alanvanroemburg: They’ve done it! Human Cloning.         


alanvanroemburg:

They’ve done it! Human Cloning.


          Replied to a forums thread Cloning PC's with OEM-keys without sysprepping - legal? in the Windows Vista Deployment and Imaging Forum.        
Replied to a forums thread Cloning PC's with OEM-keys without sysprepping - legal? in the Windows Vista Deployment and Imaging Forum.
          Cloning Windows 7 VMs Using FOG        
FOG can clone Windows 7, but if you have had troubles with it, this article shows you what you can do. Continue reading
          Cloning        

Warning: strpos() [function.strpos]: Offset not contained in string in /home/imarijua/public_html/wp-content/plugins/advanced-excerpt/advanced-excerpt.php on line 230

          Comment on Oracle 12c RAC on Oracle VirtualBox by MANZOOR udinoor        
Assalamu alaikum You missed the cloning part and its set up. Can you please explain that ? Regards Manzoor
          Studying Mathematics with Anki and MathJax        

In this tutorial, we will learn how to effectively use Anki flashcards for learning mathematics. For this, we are going add a little bit of magic to our cards by using MathJax and LaTeX.

This approach has the following benefits over Anki’s built-in LaTeX support or other users’ solutions:

  • Resolution-independent rendering (your equations will look sharp on any device, be it your phone or your laptop)
  • Card editing does not require any additional software except Anki (even AnkiWeb works)
  • Works flawlessly in Anki desktop, AnkiWeb and AnkiDroid (and probably on iOS as well, although I have not tested it there)
  • Does not require the JS Booster addon
  • Relatively easy to setup

And if you have been wondering, it also works offline on AnkiDroid after you have synced and reviewed your cards with an active internet connection once. The MathJax code will be cached by AnkiDroid.

Requirements

This tutorial assumes that you are already familiar with the Anki software and have edited card templates before. If not, have a look at the Anki manual, particularly the Cards and Templates section. Some knowledge of HTML and JavaScript might come in handy, but is not required. For that extra bit of fine tuning, take a look at Anki 2: Styling Cards as well. Now to the interesting parts.

Integrating MathJax with Anki

To make use of MathJax in our cards, we have to add some boilerplate code, which I will explain in detail.

First, we will add the MathJax configuration script. Insert the code at the end of your front and your back template. The card type does not matter, but I personally prefer cloze cards for mathematics. I also suggest cloning one of the default card types instead of modifying them directly.

<script type="text/x-mathjax-config">
MathJax.Hub.processSectionDelay = 0;
MathJax.Hub.Config({
  messageStyle: 'none',
  showProcessingMessages: false,
  tex2jax: {
    inlineMath: [['$', '$']],
    displayMath: [['$$', '$$']],
    processEscapes: true
  }
});
</script>

Config by Dude_From_Canada, Reddit

This configuration sets the process delay to zero, so MathJax starts translating your raw input as soon as it has finished loading. Next, we tell MathJax to hide error messages (optional). Furthermore, we change the symbols for defining mathematic expressions to $ for inline equations and $$ for block equations. For my cards, I personally have only used inline equations so far, but you will have to experiment which one suits your needs better.

Next, let’s load MathJax itself. Again, insert this code at the end of both your front and back template.

<script type="text/javascript">
(function() {
  if (window.MathJax != null) {
    var card = document.querySelector('.card');
    MathJax.Hub.Queue(['Typeset', MathJax.Hub, card]);
    return;
  }
  var script = document.createElement('script');
  script.type = 'text/javascript';
  script.src = 'https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.1/MathJax.js?config=TeX-MML-AM_CHTML';
  document.body.appendChild(script);
})();
</script>

First, this checks if MathJax has already been loaded. This is necessary to avoid loading MathJax twice when reviewing more than one card. If MathJax has been detected, we also tell it to process the current card. Otherwise, we would be stuck with raw LaTeX code when reviewing our cards.

If MathJax has indeed not been loaded yet, we create a script tag that loads the MathJax code from cdnjs. In this case, MathJax will automatically process the card once it finished loading. The query parameter at the end of the script src (?config=TeX-MML-AM_CHTML) specifies that MathJax should be loaded with support for TeX/LaTeX, MathML and AsciiMath input and CommonHTML output. Note that Anki desktop does not properly support Common HTML as output, so you might want to switch the query to ?config=TeX-MML-AM_SVG for SVG output if you rely on Anki desktop for reviewing. This mode will work on AnkiDroid and AnkiWeb as well, but takes slightly longer to process than CHTML.

Writing cards

Now that we have finished the cumbersome parts, let’s get started with the real fun. For a real presentation, I have included the same MathJax code I have just shown you as part of this tutorial.

We may have simple equations like $x^2 = 4$ ($x^2 = 4$), but the complicated ones are far more interesting.

We can do sums:

$$\sum \limits_{n=0}^\infty a_n$$

And we can write some conclusions:

$$\forall n \in \mathbb{N}: n - 5 \ge 0 \rightarrow n - 4 \ge 0$$

To do this, simply wrap your equations in $ for inline equations, and $$ for block equations. When reviewing your cards, MathJax will turn your raw input into beautiful math:

anki-example.png

Further reading

Thanks for your attention. If you still have any questions, feel free to ask them below in the comment section.


          Re: Off topic topic        

I would have to say it is a toss up between ether Alvin C. York or Audie Murphy they were the most decorated U.S. soldiers in their respective wars WWI & WWII.  Or if they didn't mind cloning a foreigner then Otto Skorzeny would also be a good choice.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Skorzeny
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvin_C._York
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audie_Murphey


          346: Punishing a Pixel Pusher        
A Pulitzer Prize-winning Associated Press photographer is fired for cloning. The JPEG Standard goes lossless. Hasselblad announces a twelve thousand dollar DSLR. Plus an interview with photographers Jay and Varina Patel, Brent Mail and Johny Spencer.
          Download Software YUMI 2.0.4.6 | Membuat MultiBoot USB        
YUMI adalah Freeware untuk Membuat MultiBoot Untuk Install Windows, Linux, Antivirus, dan Utilities Menggunakan USB Flashdisk.


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LisensiFreeware
DeveloperPen Drive Linux
Sistem OperasiWindows XP/Vista/7/8/10

          M-phase promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) activities of domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro and in vivo        
Bogliolo, Luisa and Leoni, Giovanni Giuseppe and Ledda, Sergio and Zedda, Maria Teresa and Bonelli, Piero and Madau, Laura and Santucciu, Cinzia and Naitana, Salvatore and Pau, Salvatore (2004) M-phase promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) activities of domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro and in vivo. Cloning and Stem Cells, Vol. 6 (1), p. 15-23. eISSN 1557-7457. Article.
          Maternal-fetal transplacental leakage of mitochondrial dna in bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies: potential implications for offspring and recipients        
Hiendleder, Stefan and Bebbere, Daniela and Zakhartchenko, Valeri and Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter and Wenigerkind, Hendrik and Ledda, Sergio and Wolf, Eckhard (2004) Maternal-fetal transplacental leakage of mitochondrial dna in bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies: potential implications for offspring and recipients. Cloning and Stem Cells, Vol. 6 (2), p. 150-156. eISSN 1557-7457. Article.
          Association of Professional Genealogists Hit By Scam - Lessons Learned        
Last week the Association of Professional Genealogists announced it had been targeted by scam artists. The villains were able to impersonate the secretary's email and offered to pay APG members an hourly fee to lobby state legislatures regarding forensic genealogy.  In a further attempt, members received requests to "Support Diane's Brain Cancer Battle."  APG quickly quashed the scam by alerting members and asking them to report any such attempt at fundraising and asking that those affected to notify the organization.  

I have some professional knowledge of cyber security and I have been the target of email cloning and twice had my credit card accounts hacked.  I, therefore, would like to offer a few cautions of my own.  

1. Source. Be cautious of any solicitation via email or social media, especially Facebook. We have all heard about fake news on social media, yet it is hard not to click on that story about the baby with cancer.  Look carefully - is it a story supposedly about someone in a small Missouri town but the link takes you to a website that is not linked to any local, regional or state news source?  Don't be taken in just because it is a sad story or even a happy one!

2. Context.  Does the email read like a normal / regular communication you receive from an organization? Often databases are hacked by groups in foreign countries then they are sold to individual criminals or organizations.  If you closely read the fake email there will be grammatical mistakes or colloquialisms that don't fit.  For example, did a New England genealogical society end their request with "see y'all in the spring!" when you know their annual conference is in the fall and no self-respecting Bostonian would say y'all like we do in the south?  Sometimes it isn't that simple, but if you look you will often see things that just do not fit the norm.  

3. Legitimacy. If any legitimate organization is soliciting funding, take a minute to think about the source and what they are asking.  Would an organization such as APG solicit funding through their work emails for an individual?  The answer is never.  Most companies and non-profit organizations have rules about using their official communication sources for private funding. 

4. Check it out. At the national level any non-profit must register and are held accountable by federal law.  You can check out charity ratings at Charity Watch. For an organization such as a genealogical society, go to their website for information about events and solicitations.  If an organization is undertaking a fundraising campaign, you bet it will be front and center on their website.  Also, you can contact them via phone or mail, but use only phone numbers that you find officially linked to the organization not one provided in the suspect email.

5. Be familiar with the typical scam.  You can check  this US government website that lists common fraud types: https://www.usa.gov/stop-scams-frauds#item-35157.

According to an IBM report, the global cost of cybercrime will reach $2 trillion by 2019, a threefold increase from the 2015 estimate of $500 billion. Small, regional and even local organizations are not immune. The IBM report explains, "a staggering 50 percent of small and mid-sized organizations reported suffering at least one cyberattack in the last 12 months."

Your best bet is to be aware, be vigilant of your own finances and social media presence and most importantly when and if you are ready to give to a worthy cause, take the time to do the research and get your hard-earned dollars in needy hands, not those of criminal organizations.











Kathleen W. Hinckley, CG

Executive Director
          In the NO Podcast EP 217: The Wrap        

Michael and I talk Game 3 and Game 4.  Well, mostly Game 3 and who was to blame.  Was it Monty?  Then we talk about who should come back, who the Pelicans could and should target.  We talk Eric Gordon and his option, Davis and his extension, and Monty Williams and whether he should return.  We also wonder what would happen if the NBA got into cloning dudes.  Sorta.

 

Thank you for listening, everyone.  Hope you have an excellent off-season.

 

Enjoy the Podcast!


          READING COMPREHENSION        

1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.

  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE


            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?

6. Authoritarian regime


            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?

7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?


10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
                                        1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.


  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?
6. Authoritarian regime

            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?
7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?
  
10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
        
              1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.






1.HATES CRIMES

The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.
Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes
The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.





1.    How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
2.    How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
3.    Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
4.    How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
5.    How many hate groups are there nationwide?
6.    What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
7.    How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
8.    Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
9.    What was the increase in hate groups last year?
10.    Who is Hillary Shelton?   


2.PILOT  ACCUSED

Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .
 Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"
Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.
Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"
1.    When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
2.    How long has he been held in jail?
3.    Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
4.    What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
5.    What did he hide in 1993?
6.    Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
7.    What are the conditions of his bail?
8.    What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
9.    Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?



3.BOSNIA INJURIES

On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .
NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.
In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"
 And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".


1.    How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
2.    Where were the two American soldiers inured?
3.    Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
4.    Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
5.    How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
6.    Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
7.    What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
8.    Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
9.    Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
10.    Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4.CLONE SYSTEM

Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?
Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid .
as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .
After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.
A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.


1.    What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
2.    What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
3.    What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
4.    Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
5.    What is the main problem of cloning system?
6.    What does Australian scientist claim?
7.    What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
8.    For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
9.    What is the specific with mitochondria??
10.    Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?
5.    ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.
The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 
 The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.
The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.
The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.
 The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.
1.    When did the car stolen?
2.    What was the lost property?
3.    What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.    What was the demand of political party?
5.    What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.    What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.    How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.    En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.    What was the monitor action on the scene?
10. what action did the local police take ?

    

6.    Authoritarian regime

President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.
"We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.
It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 
The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.
The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.
    The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.
      Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

1.    Which countries are called golden triangle country?
2.    Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
3.    What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
4.    Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
5.    What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
6.    Where is the international court of Justice located?
7.    why were the thousands of people jailed ?
8.    What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
9.    How many political prisoners were jailed?
 10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?


7.  GAMBLE

November 27, 2001
Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.
Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested  one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports . And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.
 Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.
 The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.
The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved. 
1.    How may gang members arrested?
2.    What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.    Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.    How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.    How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.    What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.    What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.    What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.    What were weapons confiscated.
        10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?


8.  EBOLA

Sunday, December 9, 2001
An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in
France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.    What did government request to Media?
2.    Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.    Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.    When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.    What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.    What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.    How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.    What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.    Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    

9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

    US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .
    There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country .
    It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.    Who is Taras?

10. THE UNITED NATION

The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states.
    After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs

1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat

                                        1. International court of justice.

    The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

    America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

    Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


11.  UN FAILURE IN BOSNIA

    A long -awaited report into the failure of a Dutch UN peacekeeping force to prevent the murder of thousands of Muslims in the Bosnian town of Brebrenica will be published on Wednesday. The Netherlands is bracing itself for the results of the inquiry in to the worst massacre in Europe since world War second. The
    BBC's Europe correspondent says Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for their part in event leading up to the 1995 slaughter. In July 1995, Srebrenica was being protected by 110 Dutch troops who were supposed to ensure the safety of the town's mainly Muslim population against surrounding Bosnian Serb forces. The United Nations had declared it a safe area but when it  was attacked, the town fill with out the Dutch UN troops firings shot . Up to 8000 Muslim men and boys were then murdered.

Five years of research

                  While the Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for letting the town fall without a fight , fault is also set to be found with the over all UN commander for failing to order air strikes to protect the enclave. The report is also understood to criticize the Dutch government for showing lack of political will. The 7000-pages report by the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation is the official Dutch history of events in Srebrenica. It has taken more than five years to produce. In a 1999 report, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan blamed the international community for its failure to protect the enclave but insisted that it was impossible " to say whether a more decisive action by the Dutch would have saved lives" .A report two weeks ago by the Interchurch Peace Council ( IKV) in the Netherlands condemned Dutch troops, generals and politicians for failing to evacuate and protect the Muslims.

Scenes from hell

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague has ruled that the massacre was genocide. Last August it sentenced Bosnian Serb General Radisav Krstic, considered a key commander in the episode, to 46 years in prison. The judge in the case said the massacre was characterized by " scenes from hell, written on the darkest pages of human history" Survivors' reports, aerial photography and grisly evidence exhumed from mass graves indicate the most victims in the massacre were summarily executed ,Dutch MPs may now call for a public inquiry. Seven military commanders of Royal Dutch army have been sentenced to seven years jail . Ten army personnel have been fired from the service and 20 have been restricted from the promotion as per the report of the criminal tribunal.   The BBC's correspondent Mr. Havel Eastward has been facilitated by the Dutch Government as a friends of mankind . After the massacre in the Srebrenica the Dutch government begs pardon with the Bosnian people and saying that her troops could not do any thing to save the life of the people and she is responsible to the accident.


1. How many Dutch troops were protecting Srebrenica?
2. What ethnic group were the people of Srebrenica?
3. Why the Dutch government begs pardon with the people of Bosnia ?
4. How many people were killed in Srebrenica?
5. How many army personnel were punished?
6. Who is criticized in the report?
7. Where is the International Criminal Tribunal based?
8. Would more positive action by the Dutch troops have saved lives?
9    What sentence was General Krstic given?
10    Who was facilitated by the Dutch government and why?


12.  SWARM ATTACK

    Six people were hospitalized after they were attacked by a swarm of bees in Singapore, a news report said on Tuesday. The bees attacked contractors who were trying to remove a beehive in the tropical city-state .Two police officers who were on the scene to keep back the public, were among those attacked and hospitalized. Police public affairs officers could not immediately be contacted to confirm the report. The incident occurred at approximately 12:30PM on Tuesday afternoon. Two of the people who were injured in the attack were still in the hospital on Tuesday night at 10:00 PM; however they were in good condition. Such incidents are rare in heavily urbanized Singapore. But two years ago , a 51 years old taxi driver died after he was stung by a swarm bees .The driver was changing his back left tire and he removed the deflated tire , a beehive was in the wheel well . Witnesses said that the swarm covered the man's face and hands and repeatedly sting him as he cried out in pain .He died later that night while being hospitalized. Singapore is a very small country covered by the see in the east of Asia and known as a well industrialized country.
    The big industry installations have many nooks and corners where the swarm bees get shelters. firstly people do not care about it because it seems harmless and small in the beginning but after  a year it  appeared in large scale and bees become escort free so they undermine their stung so they try to destroy their hives and got stung and the result  become very adverse. The same accident happened in The US in 1990 when a farmer had gone to his farmhouse to clean the room , he saw that there is a bee hive in the ceiling of the room he thought it was full of honey , unfortunately it was poisonous  swarm bee's hive.  He collected his two sons and a black servant to take the honey . In the mean time when they lit a fire to fly the bees , the swarm bees started stung them . The younger son who was in the door side escaped from the room after having a look at the victims and called the police . The house got in to the gutter by the fire and three injured had been hospitalize in the city centre . The house owner Mr. Kally died during the medical treatment and two had been discharged after 2 weeks with swollen face and bruises for the whole life.  The same accident happened in Nepal too on 23 September 2002. The Raute , who are famous for honey hunter ,had tried to collect honey from the very steep hill near Manang District. they made rope ladder to climb the hill and with the aid of fire they started collecting the honey .
    It was a documentary program filmed by Scottish Director visualized to broadcast in Britain  by BBC. Al together there were 15 men. When the honey hunter was climbing down from the steep hill after the successful visualization of the film. Unfortunately, one of the hunters touched the bees hive. Due to the finished job, they did not prepare for next attack and they all were on very thin cloths and without cloves . Three among five hunters fall down from the cliff and died. Two were severely bitten by the bees were died on the way to hospital and ten crew members of the visualization  were admitted in the hospital and discharged after 2 weeks .  It is said that the bees seems so calm if they are not hurt and if anyone hurt their queen , they become so terrifying and take revenge from the hunter . The queen is the most powerful among the bees. if the queen of the bees  safely removed from the hive it will be so easy to get the honey from the hive   which is considered as medicine  in eastern countries . The working bees always follow the queen bee , if she abandon the hive silently , all the bees left the hive with out revenge. so if you want to get honey remove the queen tactically and calmly.
         
1.    How many people had been killed according to the passage.?
2.    How many people had been injured according to the passage?
3.    Where was the bees's hive in the taxi?
4.    Who was the authentic person to provide informations about injured police officers according to the passage.
5.    What had happened to the two Americans who escaped from the death?
6.    What is the ideal idea to get honey?
7.    What did the team doing in Manning District?
8.    How did the taxi driver killed?
9.    Where was the bees's hive in the room?
10.    Who is the most powerful in the hive?

13.  ARAFAT POLITICS
    Arafat is not the point. As Israelis and Palestinians use ever more lethal means against each other's civilians, the question being asked in Israel and the US is not how to end the occupation, but whether or not to end the career, or even the life, of Arafat. At the time of writing this coverage trend in early February 2002, in a further escalation Israeli tanks have confined Arafat in an area of 200m square in Ram Allah. And have destroyed the remainder of his helicopter fleet that it began to destroy on the attack of his compound on 3 December 2001.
    If Israel killed Arafat or sent in to exile, nothing would change. It seems almost absurd to have to point out that forcing millions of people to live for decades under hostile military rule with no end on sight inevitably produces violent resistance. Only a mind -set that steadfastly refuses to recognize this can become captivated by a lone figure who's real and imagined failings became a smoke screen that obscures the machinery that actually drives the conflict.
    If Israel truly seeks the moral high ground it invokes in the international arena, it should stop seeking a relative high ground whose only elevation stems from the weakness and failing of its historical enemies. Rather Israel should address the most obvious things it dies to perpetuate the conflict.
    The bottom line is that the single most identifiable factor that perpetuates the Israeli- Palestinian conflict in all its forms, both legitimate, is the Israeli military occupation that exists to protect the continuing Israeli colonization of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, including Jerusalem.
    Comparisons of Arafat with Bin Laden serve to legitimize Israel's continuing repression of the Palestinians and bear no reality to the dynamics that this particular conflicts, dynamics that Israel has played no small part in creating.
    Israel's killing of civilians is a form of terrorism. The United States  tacit support of Israel's so called retaliation in US support of terrorism .Although Israeli officials are occasionally note don record " apologizing" for the latest " accidental" death of a child , there comes a point -- after a year in which one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed were children and 50 percent of these children were killed for away from clashes- that it becomes imperative to note that Israel could always simply stop killing children , instead of merely apologizing for it.
    Israel's nightly shelling of Palestinian neighborhoods has accounted for one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed during the first year of the Second Intifada .  Israel's regular killing of innocent civilians including children as a "by product " of its ironically titled" targeted killings " of Palestinian activists most commonly with rockets fired from combat helicopters at these leader's vehicles while in cit streets offer more examples of the indiscriminate violence that characterizes 'terrorism' as most people understand the word.
    Following a series of suicide bomb attacks in February / March 1996, then Israeli President Weizmann bluntly described Israel's practice of using closure to turn Palestinian towns in to prisons for the entire population: "Sometimes, when you are searching for a needle in a haystack, you have to burn the haystack".
    Israel has been encouraged to carry out similar "retaliation" as in the case of the December 2001bombing, by the knowledge that the United States would not condemn it. America must refrain from "understanding" Israel's violence. This can only have the effect of encouraging the continued Israeli killing of innocent Palestinian civilians.

1.    How many Palestinian children have been killed this year?
2.    How many Palestinians have been killed during nightly shelling?
3.    Are children targeted by the Israelis?
4.    Who is Arafat compared to and why?
5.    Where is Arafat confined, and what size of area?
6.    How many people live under hostile military rule in Palestine?
7.    What is the question being asked in Israel and the US?
8.    Why is Israel not afraid to carry out retaliation attacks on Palestinians?
9.    What happened in 1996?
10.    What dies Israel do when it is faced with suicide bomb attacks?








14.  BUS LOOTED
    A bus, which started off in Kathmandu , at 5:30 PM , traveling to Biratnagar , was looted by some Indian dacoits, which had crossed the boarder in order to escape the authorities there. They had been in Nepal for at least a month and had been regularly stopping night buses and robbing the passengers of all their belongings as well as money.
    When the bus number Ba Ga 3987, first started off from Gongabu Bus Park there was a total of 30 passengers. Just near Thankot 3 more passengers got on. The journey was uneventful until they reached Muggling, where they stopped for dinner. Here, the bus conductor managed to find 4 more people wanting to travel to Biratnagar . After about half an hour stop for dinner, they set off again. At Bharatpur 2 of the passengers got off as they had only booked up to this point. The bus had to wait for about one hour as the engine had trouble and the driver had to fix it .After this they started  of again and had a short tea break at Hetauda where another 2 people got off and one got on.
    At about 2:00 PM in the morning, when most of the passengers were asleep, the driver suddenly stopped as there was a tree across the main road. The passengers all wake up as the bus had come to a sudden stop, and were all looking out of the windows. Two Indian men dressed in black were behind the fallen tree with country made rifles; at the same time 2 also came from the back and two on each side of the bus. At once they told all the passengers to come out of the bus and line up in front of the bus, even though it as a moonlight night, no body could make out the faces of the dacoits, and could tell only by the way they spoke that they were from India. Everybody was told to remove their watches, jewelries and to empty out their pockets and moneybags. One of the men colleted all this while the others told all the passengers to lie down with their faces facing down. During this time the dacoits all disappeared, as nobody wanted to follow them as they might get shot

1.    How many passengers were on the bus when it was robbed?

2.    How many dacoits were there in total?

3.    How long did they stop for dinner?

4.    Why did they stop a second time before the robbery?

5.    How did the passengers know that the dacoits were not Nepali?

5.    Where did the bus start first?

6.    How many got in the Baratpur?

7.    Why did the bus have to stop suddenly?

8.    How many we on the bus at Muggling?

9.    Although it was night time how could the passengers make out how many dacoits there were?  
15.    KOSOVO POLICE

    On Monday 17 March 2003 , at 0745 hours , two Kosovo Police Officers were on patrol duty in a police vehicle when they observed a white van type vehicle , license 496KS858 driving very fast. The officers stopped the white van type vehicle for questioning using their blue flash lights. When the driver stopped, the patrol team stopped five meters behind his vehicle, however the van did not turn off its engine. As the officers exited their vehicle, the drivers of the white van type vehicle sped away very quickly. The officers ran back to their vehicle and chased the white vehicle .They were driving on the road to the airport. The police vehicle was driving at almost 120 km/hour but was unable to catch up to the van. Suddenly, the van turned north on to an unpaved roadway. The officers continued the pursuit. The van drove for approximately a hundred meters more. There was a big hole by the side of the road which the van fell into as the driver had lost control of the van, then it rolled upside down into a deep ditch on the south side of the roadway at grid reference 184-846. The officers stopped their vehicle on the opposite side of the roadway and proceeded cautiously toward the offender's vehicle. When they were approximately two meters away form the white van type vehicle they could see that the offender was still in his vehicle but was not moving. There were no sign of blood or injury  to the offender .As the officers got closer they could see three bundles, approximately 35 cm by 20cm by 25cm in the rare cargo area of the vehicle . One of the bundles was ripped open and a dark green plant material was showing, the officers assumed that it was marijuana. The first officer proceeded to the front of the vehicle to check the physical condition to the driver. The offender was breathing but didn't respond to any of the officer's verbal commands.  The officer radioed for an ambulance and the offender was taken to the local hospital. The second officer searched the offender's vehicle and found another bundle under the front seat with a knife. The Knife was 20 cm long with old blood stains. There were no papers or registration found in the vehicle. All material were seized as evidence and taken to police station.

1.    What were the 2 officers doing at 0745 Hrs?
2.    Why did they ask the van to stop?
3.    What was their reason for stopping the van?
4.    At what distance behind did the police stop?
5.    How many bundles were seen?
6.    Approximately what speed was the van traveling when in pursuit?
7.    What did the officers assume it to be?
8.    Was the knife found before or after the suspect was taken to hospital?
9.    What distance did the van travel on the dirt road?
10.    How did the man crash the vehicle?
16.    GERMANY SOOTING

Germany was in shock yesterday after 19 years old, masked gunman shot 17 people, including two female students, before killing himself in a school massacre in the eastern city of Erfurt.
The black -clad gunman a recently - expelled student of the Gutenberg secondary school, burst into a classroom during an exam yesterday morning around 11 AM and started shooting with a pump action rifle mounted on his back. "He passed us in the corridor with out paying any attention and walked straight into the secretary's office and started shooting." He said. Witnesses said the gunman walked through the building, opening classroom doors and targeting staff, killing nine male teachers, four female teachers, a secretary and two female students all within minutes. Caretakers heard the shots and notified the local police. Two officers arrived on the scene and discovered two dead bodies in the entrance hall. Moments later the gunman appeared and opened fire, shooting dead one of the policemen. A special commando unit immediately surrounded the school, which has nearly 700 students. As the shooting continued, around 180 students were still trapped in the building. Commandos stormed the building shortly before noon and came upon what was described as terrible scenes. 'Bodies lay in the halls, in bathrooms and classrooms' said Mr.Rainer Grube, a police spokesman. The gunman, who had barricaded himself into a room, shot himself as officers approached. 'The gunman killed himself when he saw that there was no way out for him' said Mr., Grube.
    For the students trapped inside the building, their ordeals ended nearly three hours later when they were led, pale and shaking, out of the school to worried parents at the gate. They were all receiving counseling yesterday evening, while four people injured in the attack were brought to hospital. Police were last night still investigating students reports that there was a second gunman. They had no motive for the shootings yesterday evening. Friends of the as yet unidentified gunman described him as an intelligent student who was ' full of life' and often spoke of his wish to become famous. The massacre is one of the most violent attacks in German post -war history, and ranks alongside the 1996 school shooting in Dunblane and the 1999 massacre in Columbine , Arkansas. Yesterday evening Erfurt residents were in shock and German politicians speechless .
'We are stunned at this horrific crime. No explanation we could give would go far enough right now ' said the Chancellor, Mr. Gerhard Schroeder, expressing his sympathy for the families of the victims and the students who witnessed the attack. He ordered the German flag on the Reichstag in Berlin to flown to be flown at half mast. 'We are all in one room .One teacher is dead, we are crying.



1.    Which two other massacres are mentioned?
2.    How many people were injured in the attack?
3.    What time did the shooting start?
4.    What weapons were used?
5.    How many teachers were killed?
6.    Did the gunman target students?
7.     Who notified the police about the shooting?
8.    Who stormed the building and when?
9.    How many police men entered the building initially?
10.    How long it take to gunman to kill the people and was there only one gunman?



17.  DEAD BODY FOUND

Mr. John Edwards lives alone in his cottage in the southern part of Cambridge, UK. He was a retired officer who previously worked for the finance office which was based in London. He had been retired for 5 years now and spent most of his time in Cambridge. He had worked for 34 years and during that time lived in London. By the sides of his cottage, there was a husband and wife living who used to work for Mr. Edwards. The woman would cook his meals and the man would attend to the garden. Mr. Edwards had no close family or friends who would come to visit him regularly .On December 15 , 2002 ,Mr. Edwards was found dead in his study at 0700 hrs. His body was fund by the woman who did his cooking. She had informed the police when she had seen him lying on his desk at 0700hrs. All the doors were closed from the inside so the woman thought in quite suspicious so she looked through the window. This is when she saw Mr. Edwards at his desk. When the police arrived at 0730 hrs. They broke open the door and checked the body. Mr. Edwards was confirmed dead and his body sent for post mortem. By the side of the table there was a bottle and a letter which said that he was taking his life as he was fed up and didn't see any future in continuing. All these materials were sent to the police lab for the necessary testing. The reports all confirmed that Mr. Edwards did take the poison, traces of which were found in his blood and on his lips. On the latter, apart from Mr. Edward's finger prints, there were other prints found as well. When the police checked up they found that it belonged to the husband the woman who cooked for Mr. Edwards. The police found this very suspicious as the husband had said that he never came into the study at any time. The police brought the man in for questioning and under interrogation he at first denied that he had gone to the house ant any time. After 2 hours, he changed his story and said that he
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          How To Add Images To A GitHub Wiki        

Every GitHub repository comes with its own wiki. This is a great place to put the documentation for your project. What isn’t clear from the wiki documentation is how to add images to your wiki. Here’s my step-by-step guide. I’m going to add a logo to the main page of my WikiDemo repository’s wiki:

https://github.com/mikehadlow/WikiDemo/wiki/Main-Page

First clone the wiki. You grab the clone URL from the button at the top of the wiki page.

wiki-pic-clone

$ git clone git@github.com:mikehadlow/WikiDemo.wiki.git
Cloning into 'WikiDemo.wiki'...
Enter passphrase for key '/home/mike.hadlow/.ssh/id_rsa':
remote: Counting objects: 6, done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (3/3), done.
remote: Total 6 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
Receiving objects: 100% (6/6), done.

If you look in the cloned wiki’s repository you’ll see your pages as markdown files:

$ cd WikiDemo.wiki/

$ ls -l
total 2
-rw-r--r--+ 1 mike.hadlow Domain Users 29 Mar 20 10:29 Home.md
-rw-r--r--+ 1 mike.hadlow Domain Users 27 Mar 20 10:29 Main-Page.md

$ cat Main-Page.md
Hello this is the main page
$ cat Home.md
Welcome to the WikiDemo wiki!


Create a new directory called ‘images’ (it doesn’t matter what you call it, this is just a convention I use):

$ mkdir images

Then copy your picture(s) into the images directory (I’ve copied my logo_design.png file to my images directory).

$ ls -l
-rwxr-xr-x 1 mike.hadlow Domain Users 12971 Sep 5 2013 logo_design.png

Commit your changes and push back to GitHub:

$ git add -A

$ git status
# On branch master
# Changes to be committed:
# (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
#
# new file: images/logo_design.png
#

$ git commit -m "Added logo_design.png"
[master 23a1b4a] Added logo_design.png
1 files changed, 0 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100755 images/logo_design.png

$ git push
Enter passphrase for key '/home/mike.hadlow/.ssh/id_rsa':
Counting objects: 5, done.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (3/3), done.
Writing objects: 100% (4/4), 9.05 KiB, done.
Total 4 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
To git@github.com:mikehadlow/WikiDemo.wiki.git
333a516..23a1b4a master -> master

Now we can put a link to our image in ‘Main Page’:

wiki-images-edit-page

Save and there’s your image for all to see:

wiki-pic-result


          Clones, A Tale of Two Moods, and 'What Are You Afraid Of?'        

No matter how diligent a news consumer you are, you can only keep up with so much. Some stories you miss completely, or, somehow you miss important details in the news you do find. We can help close those gaps, so you "get" the trends that drive the news. In the past week, for example, did you catch the stories about cloning, or the declining influence of religion in the southern U.S. (of all places)? We caught those stories and then some -- plus we connect the socionomic thread that ties them together.


          On Steinbeck's Road        

In one scenario of my life, I would have been retired by this week, taking my dream trip - a recreation of John Steinbeck's trip with Charley the poodle across America. I had already charted the journey in Google Maps (see http://goo.gl/maps/cnzb). Now I am here solving problems (and creating a few) for the Mendik Library, so the 50th anniversary launch of "Travels with Yuji" was put aside for all time. However, I got to do the next best thing - have a long talk with one of the people who did set out on that pilgrimage. Recently, I was contacted by John Woestendiek, a retired Pulitzer Prize winning journalist and author. He has already started the western swing, getting as far as Arizona, but he wanted to leave from Sag Harbor on the exact anniversary. He suggested that we get together on the 22nd, and also asked if I knew the specific address of Steinbeck's house. I didn't but it's dangerous to throw a question like that at a librarian, so I had it within an hour.

On Wednesday he showed up at our house with his dog Ace, a giant mixed breed with a heart of gold. Ace and Yuji hit it off instantly. Donna stayed with the pups while John and I headed to Potter's in East Meadow for Irish food and brew. I asked him about the prize, and he said that he was a reporter in Philadelphia who had been given the task of writing about prisons and asylums. One prisoner he got to know was an 18 year old accused of murder in a robbery, serving a life sentence. John spent 6 months getting together enough information to force a retrial and, eventually, acquital. Later, he got a job driving all over America and reporting on what he saw.

John hopes to turn this into a book, and I have no doubt that he will succeed. Meantime, his first book is coming out later this fall - Dog, Inc., about the cloning of man's best friend. I read in his blog www.ohmidog.com that he made it to Sag Harbor, found the Steinbeck house, and paid his respects to Charley before heading off on the ferry. At dinner, I'd mentioned that he might meet another pilgrim on the ferry on the same mission. This actually happened.

          Internet Millionaire by Ewen Chia        
Ewen Chia's book, Internet Millionaire explains How I made my first million on the internet, and how you can too The book launches this coming Thursday at noon.. Internet Millionaire is greatly anticipated as Ewen is a true internet super affiliate from way back and is a respected guru. Don't be afraid of his credentials, his book is not "high brow and is easy to read. The book is over 350 pages and covers every aspect of internet marketing, it can be educational to beginners and seasoned internet marketers alike.


Ewen Chia has a great bonus included with his book--worth more than the price of the book. His system is easy to follow and is included as a bonus-simply follow his steps and the bucks will follow. The catch is, you have to purchase the book within 72 hours of release. After 72 hours, the system goes to the full price of $497.
His bonus is worth the price of the book and then some.


Internet Millionaire is a system which when followed by make you rich, it may take 12 months to 18 months and is for serious-minded people. This is no fly by night sloppily put together product. If you've been around internet business for any time you know what I mean--promises but not substance. Well, this book is the opposite--full of useful information, easy to follow and implement.


Here's a chapter list:

Chapter 1: The Journey Begins
Rags before Riches
The Power of Focus
My Success Story-and Yours

Chapter 2: The Million-Dollar Day
From Affiliate to Super Affiliate
From Super Affiliate to Product Creator
The Super Affiliate Cloning Program

Chapter 3: The Fab Five
Component #1: Your Market
Component #2: Your Offer
Component #3: Traffic
Component #4: Backend
Component #5: Duplication

Chapter 4: Understanding Internet Marketing
The Merchant and the Affiliate
What Is Affiliate Marketing?
Understanding the Internet Medium
What Is Information Marketing and What Is an
Information Provider?
The Affiliate as Middleman
Where E-Mail Marketing Comes into Play

Chapter 5: Tools of the Trade
A Web Site with Your Own Domain Name
An Autoresponder
Link-Tracking Software
Link-Cloaking Software

PART TWO: THE MILLION-DOLLAR BLUEPRINT

Chapter 6: Your Market
Market Affinity
Market Profitability
Profit Check #1: Is This a Market where People Are
Already Buying?
Profit Check #2: Are You Tapping into Current or Future
Hot Trends?
Profit Check #3: Which Markets Are Written About?
Profit Check #4: Validate Your Market with Free Keyword
Research Tools
Market Opportunity

Chapter 7: Your Offer
A: Finding and Knowing Your Product
Finding a Profitable Affiliate Product
Studying the Affiliate Product and Sales Copy
Noting Interesting Points and Benefits
Market Capture and List Building
Building a Relationship with Your List
Your Own Blog: The Best Place for Relationship-Building Content
Preselling
The Three Steps of Preselling
Watching the Sales Roll In

B: Making an Irresistible Offer
Creating Your Opt-In Landing Page
Creating a Thank-You Page
Building Rapport
Delivering Bonuses
Creating Follow-Up E-Mails in Your Autoresponder
Setting Up Your Autoresponder Account
Testing the Web Site and E-Mail before You Launch
Building a Responsive Opt-In List

Chapter 8: Easy Traffic
A: The Traffic Game
Rule #1: Everything Is Connected
Rule #2: It's All about Links
Rule #3: Every Market Has a Hub and a Minihub
Targeted Traffic
Short-Term versus Long-Term Traffic

B: Fourteen Tactics to Boost Your Traffic
Traffic Tactic #1: Pay-Per-Click Advertising
Traffic Tactic #2: Banner/Text- Link Advertising
Traffic Tactic #3: E-zine Advertising
Traffic Tactic #4: Article Marketing
Traffic Tactic #5: Market Forums/Groups
Traffic Tactic #6: Press Releases
Traffic Tactic #7: Classifieds Advertising Campaigns
Traffic Tactic #8: Social Networking
Traffic Tactic #9: Viral Video and Podcasting
Traffic Tactic #10: Stealing Traffic from Blogs
Traffic Tactic #11: Stealing Even More Traffic from
Big-Name Sites
Traffic Tactic #12: Content Syndication and Setting Up Your
Own Blog
Traffic Tactic #13: Viral Reports
Traffic Tactic #14: Natural Search-Engine Optimization

C: Your Traffic Plan
Chapter 9: Backend for Beginners
Step #1: Find More Affiliate Programs and at Least One
Residual Program
Step #2: Prepare an E-Mail Campaign for Affiliate Products You
Want to Backend
Notes and Tips on Preparing Backend Follow-Up Campaigns

Chapter 10: Duplicating Your Business Model
Performing Components #1-4 in Other Markets or across Your
Existing Market
Moving into Product Creation
Analyzing Survey Response and Creating Your First Real
Information Product
Creating Your Product in Twenty-Four Hours or Less
Launching Your Product and Cloning Yourself
Creating Incentive by Paying Commissions on All Levels
Making Sure Your Sales Funnel Is Set Up Correctly
Creating a Strong Sales Letter
Launching Your Product and Turning Every Customer into
an Affiliate
Following Up with Affiliates and Encouraging Them
Motivating Affiliates into Instant Action
Fine-Tuning and Creating Your Own System
Automation-Putting Your Business(es) on Complete Autopilot
Managing Your Business
Doing Something Every Day!
Reinvesting Your Profits
Creating Your Own Streams of Passive Income
The Power of Membership Sites: A Case Study
Summary and Conclusion

BONUS CHAPTERS
Chapter 11: Blogging
Chapter 12: A Beginner's Guide to Writing Great Ad Copy

Troubleshooting
Resources
Glossary
Bonus

Learn more, plus get a chapter list of Internet Millionaire
internet millionaires: Internet Millionaires


          Bandwidth Shaper Script di openSUSE        


# Tulisan ini digunakan sebagai bahan dasar saja untuk memahami
# Dibuat sudah lama sekali dan mungkin ada yang deprecated
# Use at your own risk

Seorang rekan menanyakan kenapa mengkonfigurasi openSuSE koq susah sekali. Katanya untuk ngejalanin script sederhana membuat default route aja musti ngebuat script yang njlimet. He…he..he….
Dia bilang kalau di RedHat dan turunannya seperti Fedora dan Centos khan ada rc.local, terus kalau di openSUSE padanannya apa?

OK. Sebetulnya masalah ini sudah pernah saya bahas diblog saya yang dulu dan dibeberapa email saya tapi tak mengapa saya ulang lagi di sini dan saya tambahkan beberapa hal yang saya anggap relevan karena kebetulan ada juga yang nanya tentang load balancing trafik internet ke dua gateway dan implementasi htb (hierarchical tocken bucket) untuk traffic shaping.

Jadi saya akan menjelaskan implementasi load balancing, traffic shaping dan rc.local di openSuSE sekaligus, mumpung lagi ada kesempatan nulis.


LOAD BALANCING TRAFIK INTERNET

Di tempat saya koneksi internet terhubung ke dua ISP, LC 128 kbps ke ISP-A dan ADSL ke ISP-B. Singkat cerita saya menggunakan sebuah server dengan 3 ethernet card

eth0 ip address 202.158.xx.yyy netmask 255.255.255.240 gw 202.158.xx.yyy
eth1 ip address 10.0.50.5 netmask 255.255.255.248 gw 10.0.50.1
eth2 ip address 192.168.117.171 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.117.171

Untuk load balancing trafik ini saya mengacu pada dokumen LARTC (Linux Advanced Routing & Traffic Control) How To yang disusun oleh Bert Hubert (thanks Om Bert). Syarat untuk load balancing adalah sudah terinstallnya paket iproute2, yang sudah terinstall saat saya menginstall openSUSE 10.3.

Selanjutnya

# pertama hapus semua default route dari ip route
#
ip route del default
ip route del 10.0.50.0/29
ip route del 202.158.xx.zzz/28
ip route del 169.254.0.0/16

# tambah ip route yang masuk akal
#

ip route add 10.0.50.0/29 dev eth1 proto kernel scope link src 10.0.50.5
ip route add 202.158.xx.zzz/28 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 202.158.xx.xxx

# tambah juga load balancing default route (ip router anda)
# weight menandakan mana yang lebih anda pilih, 2 > 1
ip route add default scope global \
nexthop via 202.158.xx.yyy dev eth0 weight 1 \
nexthop via 10.0.50.1 dev eth1 weight 2

# tambah table policy routing
#
ip route add via 202.158.xx.yyy dev eth0 src 202.158.xx.xxx table ISP-A
ip route add via 10.0.50.1 dev eth1 src 10.0.50.5 table ISP-B

# ini musti ditest sometimes we need this
ip route add 192.168.117.0/24 dev eth4 table ISP-A
ip route add 10.0.50.0/29 dev eth1 table ISP-A
ip route add 127.0.0.0/8 dev lo table ISP-A
ip route add 192.168.117.0/24 dev eth4 table ISP-B
ip route add 202.158.xx.yyy/28 dev eth0 table ISP-B
ip route add 127.0.0.0/8 dev lo table ISP-B

# jangan lupa setup dua ip rule agar sistem menggunakan policy routing diatas
#
ip rule add from 202.158.xx.xxx table ISP-A
ip rule add from 10.0.50.5 table ISP-B

# setting IP masquerade
#
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.117.0/24 -d 0/0 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.117.0/24 -d 0/0 -o eth1 -j MASQUERADE

# set TOS field agar router gak bingung, supaya ssh dan ftp bisa jalan

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -j TOS –set-tos 0x00
iptables -t mangle -A OUTPUT -j TOS –set-tos 0x00

perlu diingat bahwa balancing disini tidak sempurna, karena route based, dan routes di-cache. Jadi route ke site yang sering dikunjungi akan selalu melaui provider yang sama.
Contoh di server ini kalau saya traceroute www.detik.com akan selalu lewat ISP-A dan traceroute www.republika.co.id akan selalu melalui ISP-B.


TRAFFIC SHAPING

Tujuan traffic shaping di sini adalah (tentu saja anda bisa melakukan shaping dengan tujuan lain he..he…he..):
- menjaga low latency untuk interactive trafic, jangan sampai upload atau download mengganggu ssh.
- menjaga agar browsing berjalan pada reasonable speeds sementara melalukan up atau downloading.
- menjaga agar upload tidak mengganggu download dan sebaliknya.
- menandakan port atau host yang sering memakan traffic sebagai low priority.

Ada banyak sumber di intenet misalnya tulisan ini dan favorit saya adalah sekali lagi om Bert dengan dokumen LARTC. Jangan lupa baca pre-requisites untuk menjalankan HTB dan pastikan kernel anda mendukungnya.

Implementasi di tempat saya sederhana saja seperti di bawah:

untuk eth0 dan eth1:

DOWNLINK=96 # untuk eth0, untuk eth1 –> DOWNLINK=288
UPLINK=80 # untuk eth0, untuk eth1 –> UPLINK=20
DEV=eth0 # ganti dengan eth1 untuk eth1

# low priority OUTGOING traffic - you can leave this blank if you want
# low priority source netmasks
NOPRIOHOSTSRC=

# low priority destination netmasks
NOPRIOHOSTDST=

# low priority source ports
NOPRIOPORTSRC=

# low priority destination ports
NOPRIOPORTDST=

if [ "$1" = "status" ]
then
tc -s qdisc ls dev $DEV
tc -s class ls dev $DEV
exit
fi

# clean existing down- and uplink qdiscs, hide errors
tc qdisc del dev $DEV root 2> /dev/null > /dev/null
tc qdisc del dev $DEV ingress 2> /dev/null > /dev/null

if [ "$1" = "stop" ]
then
exit
fi

###### uplink

# install root HTB, point default traffic to 1:20:

tc qdisc add dev $DEV root handle 1: htb default 20

# shape everything at $UPLINK speed - this prevents huge queues in your
# DSL modem which destroy latency:

tc class add dev $DEV parent 1: classid 1:1 htb rate ${UPLINK}kbit burst 6k

# high prio class 1:10:

tc class add dev $DEV parent 1:1 classid 1:10 htb rate ${UPLINK}kbit \
burst 6k prio 1

# bulk & default class 1:20 - gets slightly less traffic,
# and a lower priority:

tc class add dev $DEV parent 1:1 classid 1:20 htb rate $[9*$UPLINK/10]kbit \
burst 6k prio 2

tc class add dev $DEV parent 1:1 classid 1:30 htb rate $[8*$UPLINK/10]kbit \
burst 6k prio 2

# all get Stochastic Fairness:
tc qdisc add dev $DEV parent 1:10 handle 10: sfq perturb 10
tc qdisc add dev $DEV parent 1:20 handle 20: sfq perturb 10
tc qdisc add dev $DEV parent 1:30 handle 30: sfq perturb 10

# TOS Minimum Delay (ssh, NOT scp) in 1:10:

tc filter add dev $DEV parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 \
match ip tos 0x10 0xff flowid 1:10

# ICMP (ip protocol 1) in the interactive class 1:10 so we
# can do measurements & impress our friends:
tc filter add dev $DEV parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 10 u32 \
match ip protocol 1 0xff flowid 1:10

# To speed up downloads while an upload is going on, put ACK packets in
# the interactive class:

tc filter add dev $DEV parent 1: protocol ip prio 10 u32 \
match ip protocol 6 0xff \
match u8 0x05 0x0f at 0 \
match u16 0x0000 0xffc0 at 2 \
match u8 0x10 0xff at 33 \
flowid 1:10

# rest is ‘non-interactive’ ie ‘bulk’ and ends up in 1:20

# some traffic however suffers a worse fate
for a in $NOPRIOPORTDST
do
tc filter add dev $DEV parent 1: protocol ip prio 14 u32 \
match ip dport $a 0xffff flowid 1:30
done

for a in $NOPRIOPORTSRC
do
tc filter add dev $DEV parent 1: protocol ip prio 15 u32 \
match ip sport $a 0xffff flowid 1:30
done

for a in $NOPRIOHOSTSRC
do
tc filter add dev $DEV parent 1: protocol ip prio 16 u32 \
match ip src $a flowid 1:30
done

for a in $NOPRIOHOSTDST
do
tc filter add dev $DEV parent 1: protocol ip prio 17 u32 \
match ip dst $a flowid 1:30
done

# rest is ‘non-interactive’ ie ‘bulk’ and ends up in 1:20

tc filter add dev $DEV parent 1: protocol ip prio 18 u32 \
match ip dst 0.0.0.0/0 flowid 1:20

########## downlink #############
# slow downloads down to somewhat less than the real speed to prevent
# queuing at our ISP. Tune to see how high you can set it.
# ISPs tend to have *huge* queues to make sure big downloads are fast
#
# attach ingress policer:

tc qdisc add dev $DEV handle ffff: ingress

# filter *everything* to it (0.0.0.0/0), drop everything that’s
# coming in too fast:

tc filter add dev $DEV parent ffff: protocol ip prio 50 u32 match ip src \
0.0.0.0/0 police rate ${DOWNLINK}kbit burst 10k drop flowid :1

Script ini bekerja cukup baik pada ADSL tapi harus dicoba-coba sampai didapat nilai optimum untuk nilai di DOWNLINK dan UPLINK. Masalah umum ADSL adalah kecepatan upload yang jauh dibawah kecepatan download, dan karena sifat TCP/IP yang terus mengirim paket sampai akhirnya tidak ada tempat lagi untuk paket, biasanya modem akan hang. Dengan kecepatan dowload yang kencang biasanya user terus mendownload beberapa sites sekaligus sehingga akumulasi upload menjadi besar. Bila traffic upload ini mencapai modem ADSL maka modem akan hang.

Karena itu harus diatur agar traffic upload kita kontrol dan tidak mencapai modem ADSL hal ini dilakukan dengan menurunkan nilai UPLOAD sampai nilai optimum. Hal ini tercapai jika network latency mencapai nilai terendah dan network tidak putus. Lebih jauh silakan baca pada dokumen LARTC Om Bert di atas.


rc.local di openSUSE

Tidak ada rc.local di openSUSE (he..he…he…)
Kalau kita lihat di RedHat (dan cloningnya) rc.local dijalankan setelah semua service selesai dijalankan di run level 5. Ini gak ada padanannya di openSUSE.

User biasanya mengira boot.local di /etc/init.d adalah padanan dari rc.local. Ini adalah perkiraan yang salah karena boot.local akan jalan paling awal sebelum service-service yang lain dijalankan. Sehingga seringkali user membuat script iptables dan disisipkan pada boot.local kemudian komplain karena scriptnya tidak jalan. Ini terjadi karena script iptables dipanggil sebelum service network dikonfigurasi di run level 3 sehingga sudah pasti tidak akan berfungsi.

Di openSUSE kita harus mengetahui pada saat mana script kita harus jalan apa saja syarat yang dibutuhkan, walaupun umumnya akan jalan di run level 3 dan 5. Misalnya kita ingin menjalankan script load balancing di atas, maka sebelum script ini jalan service network harus sudah jalan dulu.

Untuk dasar dari script tersebut kita dapat menggunakan file /etc/init.d/skeleton sebagai dasar, walaupun tidak tertutup kemungkinan menggunakan script lain seperti yang akan saya contohkan.

Script untuk traffic shapper:
#!/bin/sh
#
#
# /etc/init.d/bwshaper_eth0
#
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: bwshaper_eth0
# Required-Start: $network
# Should-Start:
# Required-Stop:
# Should-Stop:
# Default-Start: 3 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 2 6
# Short-Description: Custom shapping using htb for eth0 to ISP-A
# Description: decreased the upload traffic on eth0 to ISP-A by doing queuing using htb,
# script by medwin@gmail.com
### END INIT INFO
#

test -s /etc/rc.status && . /etc/rc.status && rc_reset

case "$1" in
start )

## letakkan script and di sini

rc_status -v
;;
stop)
# ok kita test
;;

esac

rc_exit

# end of script

Script di atas hanya satu contoh sederhana saja. Perhatikan bagian:
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: bwshaper_eth0 —> ini nama service anda
# Required-Start: $network —> ini adalah service yang harus jalan sebelum script anda di jalankan
# Should-Start:
# Required-Stop:
# Should-Stop:
# Default-Start: 3 5 —> ini run level script anda bekerja
# Default-Stop: 0 1 2 6
# Short-Description: Custom shapping using htb for eth0 to ISP-A
# Description: decreased the upload traffic on eth0 to ISP-A by doing queuing using htb, script by medwin@gmail.com
### END INIT INFO
bagian ini akan dipelajari oleh insserv untuk menjalankan script anda pada run level berapa.
Copy script anda di /etc/init.d
Untuk memasukkan service anda ke service maka daftarkan dengan perintah

> insserv (nama service)

kemudian check dengan

> chkconfig –list

untuk mengetahui kalau service anda sudah masuk ke daftar service di run level tertentu.

Anda juga bisa berkreasi dengan membuat script service yang bisa dijalankan dan diberhentikan seperti misalnya dengan menyisipkan

case "$1" in

start)

echo -n "Starting bandwidth shaping on eth0: "
start
echo "done"
;;

stop)

echo -n "Stopping bandwidth shaping on eth0: "
stop
echo "done"
;;

restart)

echo -n "Restarting bandwidth shaping on eth0: "
restart
echo "done"
;;

status)

echo "Bandwidth shaping status for $IF:"
show
echo ""
;;

*)

pwd=$(pwd)
echo "Usage: tc.bash {start|stop|restart|status}"
;;

pada script anda. Kemudian melakukan symbolic link file tersebut ke /usr/sbin atau /sbin, misalnya dengan nama rcbwshaper_eth0

> ln-s /etc/init.d/bwshaper_eth0 /usr/sbin/rcbwshaper_eth0

sehingga anda bisa memanggilnya dengan perintah

> rcbwshaper_eth0 {start|stop|restart|status}

OK selamat mencoba.
Till then keep safe and stop global warming.
          The Illegal Rebirth of Billy the Kid        

The Illegal Rebirth of Billy the Kid Rebecca Ore

In the not-too-distant future, 2067, human cloning is a part of everyday life. But it is a bizarre form of cloning; not actually the direct copying of a humans, but rather the construction of custom-made reproductions… More


          Comment on Cloning Class Instances by #Excel Super Links #114 – shared by David Hager | Excel For You        
[…] http://dailydoseofexcel.com/archives/2012/10/09/cloning-class-instances/ […]
          Opinion: Don't fear the cloned human stem cells        
There is nothing like an advance in human cloning to grab everyone's attention. So Wednesday’s news that scientists at the have and produced apparently viable stem cells has the whole world watching. 
          Stem cells created from cloned human embryos        
Scientists for the first time have derived thriving colonies of embryonic stem cells from human embryos created using cloning technology.
          Worst Movies From Bipasha Basu        
In an interview to internet site Rediff, 33 years old actress Bipasha Basu disscussed about her 11 year old career. She confessed that there are some films which might be terrible. Lets see the list of ten worst movies of Bipasha:

1. Rudraksh

In this absurd Ramayan-inspired fantasy, Sanjay Dutt and Suniel Shetty portray good vs evil, sport hideous wigs and pursue a precious seed which contains unimaginable powers. Bipasha plays a US-based scientist but it's hard to remember that when she's dressed up like Lara Croft. Considering its daft content, it's no surprise Rudraksh was a non-starter at the box-office.


2. Madhoshi

A girl loses her sister in a terrorist attack and the trauma triggers off strong hallucinations. Though engaged to be married, she begins to fall for another man. But he's not a person. So the fiance gets a plastic surgery to resemble this delusion and ensure a happily-ever-after.


3. Ishq Hai Tumse

Nobody showed any interest (understandably) in watching a bored Bipasha and blank Dino Morea in a synthetic Hindu-Muslim romance the year Yash Chopra's Veer Zaara came out.


4. Jane Hoga Kya

Don't fret if you don't remember this Aftab Shivdasani-Bipasha Basu starrer in which the Mast hero plays a scientist keen on conducting a cloning experiment leading to Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde kind of results.


5. Nehle Pe Dehla

This long-in-the-making comedy from David Dhawan's erstwhile assistant, Ajay Chandok features Sanjay Dutt and Saif Ali Khan as master swindlers while Bipasha pitches in the glamour as an affluent heiress. Only by the time Nehle Pe Dehla was out, its stars had moved on to greener pastures and showed no enthusiasm in rescuing this mindless farce.


6. Aetbaar

Here, John plays the obsessive chap while Big B gets into the shoes of a protective father. As for Bipasha, all she has to do is dress in skimpy outfits and looks scared or sexy in turns.


7. Barsaat

Suneel Darshan's thoroughly exasperating kerchief caper revolves around two women and a common love interest. But in truth both the girls deserve a spot in a museum of ancient artifacts for their astonishingly submissive attitude towards relationships.


8. Gunaah

What can you say about a film where Bipasha plays a no-nonsense cop in low cut blouses, ogles at beefy criminal Dino Morea in the shower and doesn't waste any time in starting an amorous affair?


9. Pankh

Some of the most obtuse films are the ones that pretend to be smart and independent in their creativity. One such hollow example is Pankh. Though the story had tremendous potential to impress, it is handled too frivolously to make any connect. Poor Bipasha, although she looks like a million bucks as a troubled soul's favourite illusion, the actress gets a rotten deal in this so-called indie flick.


10. Players

In an ideal world, nothing can wrong with an official remake of The Italian Job. But in Bollywood, even an action-packed thriller is reduced to a big-budget joke.

          Stem Cells and Cloning        
This week on the Award Winning Naked Scientists we find out about stem cells and cloning. We discuss the elusive 'stemness' that allows cells to specialise, and learn about cloning in the post-Dolly the sheep era. We also find out how genetics has revealed that Neanderthals were redheads, how soap affects shoals of fish and some turtles come equipped with anti-roll bars. We also pay a visit to the Manchester Science Festival for a chat with Johnny Ball, and in Kitchen Science, we "clone at home" and find out the future of the humble banana.
          Re:Politics - USA        
 Spinner wrote:
Asterios wrote:
 Dreadwinter wrote:
Asterios wrote:


problem with this is invitro fertilization pretty much ixnays this, so yes Lesbian couples I can see helping prolonging the human race, male gay couples though?


You know Gay Men still produce sperm, right?


but still not needed, heck its at the point women are not even needed, test tube babies rule.


Now we're getting somewhere. We've got a space ship with the last remnant of humanity on it and super-people-making technology. Just pick the 'best possible person', clone them seventy-nine times, and ship them off. No need to worry about inbreeding or genetic bottleneck - heck, no need to worry about homosexual vs. heterosexual couples, they're all clones anyway. There's nothing far-fetched, dystopian, or horrifying about this scenario, and it absolutely needs to be referenced when determining policy affecting actual people on Earth where we have no ark-type spaceship, insta-test-tube people, or Martian colony plans.

C'mon, Fraz. Get the weiner dogs to vote this guy out already.


Actually cloning and test tubes are the way of exploration considering the distance and time to travel to other stars it would be pointless, furthermore any major extrasteller disaster which would effect the Earth would most likely have an impact on Mars which is currently the only planetary body near us to potentially support life, which would remove that as an option, which leaves distance solar systems which would take forever to reach.
          Comment on Move Linux to Another Drive by copying a disk image (cloning) using standard UNIX tools | Data Blog        
[…] Also read this […]
          Facebook Has Killed The App It Was Using To Attract Teen Users        

Facebook has discontinued Lifestage, a standalone selfie-sharing app for iOS and Android aimed exclusively at high schoolers.

Thomas White / Reuters

The app, created by a 20-year-old product manager at the company named Michael Sayman, lasted less than a year, with Facebook officially ending support for it on August 4, according to a spokesperson. Sayman joined Facebook when he was 18. Business Insider first reported the news of the app's shutdown.

Lifestage opened to a phone's camera, much like Snapchat does. Teens on the app — it only allowed people under 21 to sign up — could share pictures and videos of themselves that only people at their school could watch, much like the app Afterschool. Twenty registered users or more comprised a school.

But not long after it first debuted Lifestage, Facebook largely obviated the need for it by creating in-app Snapchat clones with Instagram Stories, Whatsapp Stories, and Facebook Stories. The company said in a statement, "We've gotten some helpful feedback from this app that we're using to improve a number of visual and camera features across the Facebook app."

It continued, “Teens continue to make up an important part of the global community on Facebook, and we've learned a lot from Lifestage. We will continue to incorporate these learnings into features in the main Facebook app.”

Facebook never shared user numbers for Lifestage. Overall, the company had 2 billion monthly active users as of June 2017. In November 2016, Facebook said that a billion of its monthly users only access the social network on their phones.

Of all Facebook's standalone apps, only Facebook Messenger has reached a number of monthly active users — 1.2 billion in April 2017 — comparable to Facebook itself. The company's other apps, including Facebook Slingshot, Riff, Rooms, Moments, another Snapchat clone called Poke (RIP 2012-2014), and its Instant Articles predecessor Paper (RIP 2014-2016) have not achieved widespread adoption. Facebook shut down the team responsible for these experiments, the Creative Labs division, last year.

Lots of people on Twitter had not heard of Lifestage and joked that it had never been A Thing.

Facebook’s New App Is All About Getting Teens To Share Videos Of Themselves

The Facebook App Now Has Camera, Direct, And Stories, Three Features That Copy Snapchat

Instagram Adds Face Filters, Snapchat Cloning Complete


          How the Euro Could Break Up or Be Saved        

Natural scientists are now talking about the real possibility of cloning a woolly mammoth and possibly various varieties of dinosaurs, so it is not beyond the bounds of imagination to assume that the euro could be kept alive for a few more years before it becomes extinct.

The problem, however, is that Europeans would much rather have the woolly mammoth than the euro. Not everyone agrees, of course. John Major, Tony Blair and Barrack Obama still think the euro is a wonderful idea, presumably because they have never had to live with it as their own currency.

This item continues in the Subscriber’s Area.


          Four Common Questions on Cannabis Seeds – Answered         

Having identified the most commonly asked of all questions on cannabis seeds, we figured we’d share the answers publically…just in case you’d been wondering too:

 

Q - What Are Feminized Cannabis Seeds?
If you’ve ever wondered what exactly feminized cannabis seeds are, you’re basically looking at seeds that produce plants that are almost identical to their female parent plants. Seeds are feminized by a process that results in the subsequent plant developing as a hermaphrodite. This is achieved by the Rodelization method, spraying the plant with a colloidal silver solution or spraying it with gibberellic acid.

 

In essence, working with feminized seeds is a little like cloning, only from seeds rather than cuttings. No male plants will be produced whatsoever, in turn guaranteeing all female plants for those producing and using feminized seeds. The only downside being that in many instances, those producing such seeds do not make particularly concerted efforts to ensure that the mother plants themselves are suitably strong and stable. As such, it is advisable only to ever purchase feminized seeds from known and reputable brands.  

 

Q - What are Auto-Flowering Cannabis Seeds?
The flowering stage in a cannabis plant’s life cycle is triggered when the amount of light they are exposed to every day drops at the end of the summer season. Instead of getting around 18 hours of sunlight per day, they begin receiving 12 to 14 hours of sunlight, which triggers the beginning of their flowering cycle.

 

Through a careful process of cross breeding, cultivation experts have created a strain of cannabis plants that are essentially pre-programmed to begin flowering the moment they reach maturity, irrespective of the conditions they are exposed to. As such, auto-flowering cannabis seeds come particularly highly recommended for those living in regions where summers are short and daylight limited. It is impossible to keep auto-flowering cannabis plants in a vegetative state by manipulating their growing environment.  

 

Q - What is the Difference Between Cannabis Seeds and Cannabis Clones?
Cloning is one of the most popular approaches to cannabis cultivation as it can be faster, easier and cheaper than starting out from seed. It is a process that involves taking cuttings from a mother plant, which are then planted separately in order to produce identical copies of the plant from which they were taken. Where a strong and stable mother plant has been identified, it is possible to grow an infinite number of identical clones, making it an extremely simple and cost-effective approach to cannabis cultivation.

 

However, cannabis plants grown from seeds carry the genetics of their two parent plants, which can manifest in an endless number of ways. It is therefore perfectly possible that growing from seed can produce vastly superior results, albeit through a more intensive cultivation process. Many professional growers swear by cultivation from seed and see cloning as an affront to what they do.

 

Q - What is the Legality of Cannabis Seeds?
Last but not least, cannabis seed legality is a strange and sketchy subject across most of the world. The reason being that even in many countries where cannabis is illegal, cannabis seeds are still 100% legal to buy, sell and own. The only problem being that the moment you make any attempt to germinate them, you’re breaking the law. Which is why it usually states that the seeds are available for novelty purposes only, even though this clearly isn’t what 99.99% of buyers have in mind!

 

 

 

 


          tool untuk modding symbian s60v3,v5        

Salam blogger,disini saya mo share alat2 buat modding khususnya yg berbasis symbian.sebenarnya sudah banyak tersebar di blog temen2 saya cuma menambah dan cara menggunakanya.....yg gemar modding dan punya hp symbian silahkan download tool ini karna dipost berikutnya saya share modding yg menggunakan tool ini...


1-MBM TOOL
fungsinya untuk mengedit gambar dlm format mbm,yg biasanya digunakan pd file tema/icon di hp.dengan file ini kita bisa mengedit file tsb.misalkan kita suka sama tema A tp kita nggak cocok sama backgroun/walpaper tema tsb.nah kita bisa edit dengan tool ini.
2-MIF EDITOR
fungsinya untuk mengedit file ber ekstnsi mif,biasanya digunakan pd file icon tema,jd kita bisa mengedit icon2 di tema sesuka hati.misalkan kita suka sama tema A tp kita nggak cocok sama icon2nya nah kita bisa edit dengan tool ini.
3-HEX EDITOR
fungsinya untuk mengedit fil.eeeeeemmm apa ya....sebut aja fil cloning yg biasanya kita ambil dr sistem hp symbian kita,dengan tool ini kita bisa merubah teks di menu maupun teks notifikasi pesan/tlpn dll..
4-MENU EDIT
fungsinya untuk merename/menganti teks/nama2 icon di menu symbian sesuka kita.
5-Phyton
fungsinya sebagai induk dari tool2 diatas karna tanpa pyton ini tool2 diatas tidak akan jalan di hp
6-X-PLORE
fungsinya untuk me copas/mendisable attribute pd file agar bisa di edit dll

untuk saat ini tool diatas yg berperan penting dlm hal modding.semua sudah saya paket jd pilih/download file sesuai tipe symbian sobat
silahkan download filenya dbwh ini :





          Essential Tips for Healthy Cannabis Cloning        

A while back, we decided to get into the debate as to whether or not cloning cannabis plants represents a superior alternative to growing from seed. And as you’ll probably remember if you caught that particular post, we really don’t think there’s anything wrong with taking what’s undoubtedly the easier and faster approach to cultivating killer marijuana plants.

 

Which is why we figured that we’d follow the previous post with this particular article featuring a few tips and tricks on how to get the best out of your cloning activities. It’s the kind of process that’s technically quite difficult to get wrong, but at the same time it’s always worth arming yourself with a few helpful insights to make sure you come out with the very best results possible.   

 

So here’s what the experts have to say on the subject of quality cloning:

 

1 – Parental Preference


First and foremost, when it comes to selecting a mother plant from which to take cuttings, it’s crucial to ensure that the specimen you choose is at least two months old. It can sometimes be tempting to dive into a cloning project with a plant that seems to be doing pretty brilliantly at a younger age, but millions of cloning experiments to date have shown that older mums produce the best clones.

 

2 – High Humidity


If you’re looking to come out with the best possible result, you’ll need to ensure that your clones are kept in conditions where humidity stays at a constant 95% or higher. Suffice to say, you will need some sort of fogger or humidifier to make this happen. In the early stages, you want to ensure that you do your best to faithfully recreate the tropical conditions cannabis plants would be exposed to in their natural environment.

 

3 – Incubation


If you would like the roots of your clones to grow as fast as possible and as strong as possible…which of course you do…it’s important to ensure that the growing medium is kept at a higher temperature than the air. A heating pad is the most obvious, easy and inexpensive way of going about this, but be sure to keep a thermometer in there to ensure that things don’t end up getting a little too toasty.

 

4 – Cut Leaves in Half


In order to prevent leaves from overlapping any lower transpiration, it is often advisable to cut the leaves of clones in half. Fungus tends to thrive when leaves overlap, so give thought to both cutting them in half and misting them on a regular basis.

 

5 – More Roots = More Light


As more roots begin to form and appear beneath your clones, the more light you should provide for them. This basically means that as you begin to notice the roots forming and strengthening, you should think about lowering your lights a little closer or intensifying their brightness. This also tends to be a good time to take not of which clones are performing better than their counterparts – focus your efforts on these and weed out the duds if necessary.

 

6 – Hands Off!


Still on the subject of roots, never make the often-fatal mistake of tugging on your clones to see whether or not the roots have started to form. This will in the best case scenario result in stunted growth, though could easily kill what could have been a quality plant.

 

7 – Sterile Stuff


Last but not least, try to remember that just as is the case when tending to any kind of cannabis surgery, you need to ensure that your tools and accessories are sterile.


The very last thing you want is to end up introducing something nasty into the equation, killing your crops simply because you couldn’t be bothered to clean your scissors properly!

 


          The Pros and Cons of Growing Weed from Clones         

For generations, the art of growing weed from clones has been both extensively explored and refined. These days, thousands of the world’s best growers instinctively opt for cloning techniques, rather than the classic approach whereby seeds are germinated from scratch. But at the same time, there’s quite a lot of confusion when it comes to the true advantages and drawbacks of cloning, along with when and where it represents the most sensible approach.

 

Technically speaking, anyone interested in getting into marijuana cultivation really should read up on growing weed from both clones and seeds, in order to gain good understanding of what’s going on. Cloning is an incredibly popular and simple approach to growing, which involves taking cuttings from existing marijuana plants and using these to grow strong separate plants. Which in essence sounds like an obvious way of going about things, but there are both advantages and disadvantages to take into account before going ahead.  

 

The Advantages of Cloning


The list of advantages that accompany clone growing techniques is certainly extensive and appealing – the following examples in particular:

 

  • First and foremost, the fact that you don’t have to go through the seed germination process means that you can get up and running much quicker than if you were to grow from seed.
  • In addition to this, cloned marijuana plants generally grow at a much faster rate than plants grown from seed, while at the same time have the potential to produce even better buds.
  • To clone marijuana plants from a strong mother plant is to produce a second plant that has all the strength, resilience and qualities of the original. This may in turn mean a highly robust plant with excellent disease resistance.
  • Technically speaking, to enter into a process of cloning is to have the opportunity to grow literally infinite number of plants. For those who intend to expand their growing operations quite significantly, cloning can be an excellent way of going about it.
  • Given the fact that to take cuttings from existing marijuana plants will cost you nothing, cloning represents a significantly cheaper option of purchasing seeds and grow from seeds.
  • What’s more, by cloning marijuana plants you eliminate the risk of your entire crop of seedlings being wiped out by in perfect conditions – cuttings are naturally much stronger.

The Disadvantages of Cloning


Of course, the art of cloning is not without its fair share of critics and there are definitely a few disadvantages to take into account. Primary examples include the following:

 

  • If the mother plant selected for the cuttings is in any way inferior or of poor quality, each and every clone created by way of cuttings will present the same flaws. It is therefore possible to end up with an entire crop of plants that all carry the same defects.
  • There are certain types of marijuana plants that simply cannot be cloned successfully, in term limiting the strategy to certain types of marijuana plant only.
  • Some argue that to clone marijuana plants is to go against the important ceremony of starting out from scratch and finishing with something beautiful. They also argue that standard weed cloning does very little for weed strain diversity.
 

So it’s clear to see therefore that it is a process and a strategy that has its own unique mix of ups and downs. But if you were to consider all the facts from the perspective of the standard at-home weed grower, it’s hard to deny that the list of advantages does somewhat outweigh the drawbacks.

 

Just make sure you choose the most appropriate and high quality mother plant in the first place – the rest tends to take care of itself pretty naturally.

 

 

 


          Growing Autoflowering and Feminized seeds        

Choose Feminized Cannabis Seeds for Optimal Growth

If you want to cultivate a vigorous weed crop by growing auto-flowering seeds then it is optimal that you take assistance from a specialist in growing from seeds. Mastering the art of seed cultivation can help you increase your personal stash, save money on your medicine and ensure you are smoking the best ganja around. Foremost, it is imperative that you select a specialty cannabis strain for your seed cultivation process. Many first time growers choose feminized seeds to make their grow easier. With feminized seeds you won't grow any male plants, which can spoil a crop by pollenating the girl plants and turning your bud to seed. There are still some advanced techniques necessary though, especially when it comes to triggering the plant's flowering stage (when it grows those precious buds) which requires you to manually reduce the plant's exposure to light. Even easier is to use seeds from new auto-flowering strains, these enter the flowering stage once they reach a certain age so they don't need any intervention. They have short life-cycles and you can expect to be harvesting in eight weeks, making them perfect for mid-season grows or for small scale growers who want to rotate strains or crop regularly.

Growing Marijuana is an Easy Task with an Expert at your Assistance

If you want to grow the rarest of rare variants of auto-flowering strains, then you ought to allow yourself to be guided by an expert. If you want quality seed then you have to buy from specialist breeders who are masters of growing the hybrids of Cannabis Ruderalis and Sative/Indica varieties. In order to get the best aromas, colours and yields from auto-flowering marijuana you need to adopt a cultivation process which suits your strain. The expert tips available on SeedSupreme Seed Bank will ensure that you make the most of your crop.

Research on ways to Grow Cannabis

Checking your seed quality will enable you seek the best method of growing cannabis. It is your strain type that will ultimately decide the quality of your crop. It is necessary that you opt for seeds from a dependable source online so as to get the most formidable output that you did ever desire. A good soil can definitely work wonders for your cannabis cultivation; check for your soil having a pH level ranging from 6 to 7, make the crop flourish from adequate watering and make use of appropriate amounts of nitrogen or phosphate supplements so as to boost plant growth to another level. Search for a retail shop online which displays many variants of feminized Kush seeds as feminized versions of seeds are far superior to male types.

If you are one of the many individuals worldwide who appreciate growing weed seeds under organic and natural conditions, then you are all set for getting high quality and the finest cultivation. There is good amount of science which goes behind weed seed cultivation so it is imperative that you take guidance from an expert service provider so as to procure a bushy, resinous super plant for your daily usage as well as for the purpose of cloning.


          Cannabis Seeds-- Pick Yo' Mix!!!        

Cannabis Seeds- Pick Yo’ Mix!!!

What’s up Ganja Guardians? Do you know what I love? Seeds. I know the coolest new thing in cannabis cultivation is growing with clones, but( shh, keep it a secret) I don’t like them. Don’t get me wrong here amigos, I know good bud is good bud; but I personally don’t think that clones are as strong as seed grown plants. That’s a personal opinion. I also like the fact that they are all natural, no human manipulation. I’m kind of hippie when it comes to all natural, organic produce even when its cannabis. Cloning has been around for quite a few centuries but as far as weed goes, it really grabbed the mainstream’s attention after the legalization of medical marijuana in many states and countries. So, I know cloning is a practice with heritage, but I still prefer seeds in my garden. I’m cool with each plant being slightly different, because I know that if you give your ganja good, tender, love and care while they are developing, you’ll get good buds in return. Feminized seeds are the answer if you’re worried about keeping male plants out of your garden. Seed breeders have bred many strains and types of cannabis to meet the wide array of needs that growers have.

Many Cannabis enthusiasts and traditionalists will tell you that feminized and automatic varieties of cannabis are un-natural or subpar, but that’s simply not the case. Feminized seeds come from female interbreeding that happens naturally to both stressed and healthy females. It can occur when a female has reached full sexual maturity and still has not received male pollen, and will develop pollen sacks and pollinate its self to keep its linage alive. Females cannabis plants can also be stressed into developing pollen sacks as a result of light stress. Both scenarios can occur to cannabis naturally in the wild. Auto flowers are cannabis plants that have been crossbred with a type of cannabis called Ruderalis. Ruderalis grows and flowers based on age not based on changes in the photoperiods. Since Ruderalis has had lower amounts of THC, it is often bred with hybrid varieties to increase potency and variety. Both Feminized seeds and auto flower varieties are all natural, but some haters like to make both varieties out to be something like GMO’s. When it comes to your seeds, just get what works best for your garden, and you’re circumstances, don’t let the ill-informed keep you from trying out a wide variety of seeds.

There are plenty of breeders and vendors online that sell every type of seed imaginable. There are many strains out there, each as wonderful as the next. Seed breeders have crafted seeds to produce buds that have interesting color, flavor, and smell. Some are even bred to have low or no odor. Mostly when creating new varieties, breeders look for the new creation to have unique characteristics and a unique high. Every strain that has ever been created, has started out as a seed, because that’s how breeders create new strains. No vials or test tubes needed, they don’t splice new strains into existence. They take the plant of one type of variety and cross bread it with another variety of cannabis. When the cross bred seeds form on the mother plant, each will contain a mixture of characteristics from each of the parents. Breeders will then reproduce a sequence of unvaried lineage of the new strain to root out any undesired characteristics and produce more consistent characteristics. This is called stabilizing the strain. Stabilizing is the mark of a good breeder and it ensures quality for the customers growing the seeds. Stabilizing is something that is also implemented in creating good feminized seeds, it helps prevent the all-female offspring from going hermi without reason.

At this point, you have to admit; seeds are pretty wicked. They and can do anything that a clone can do, but they do it all with more strength due to the presence of a tap root. They are also made via nature and not the hands of man. Clones often times can’t produce a tap root and are limited to large amounts of feeder roots, if the weed clone is healthy. Cases of clones that have taproots have appeared here and there, but it doesn’t happen often at all. Now, you may be interested in buying some seeds for yourself, if you haven’t already but, before you head off to the coolest website you find let me give you a good piece of advice on what I think is the best method of buying your seeds. This method is guaranteed to save you some money and to perfectly meet you’re seed needs. My friends, it’s all about the Pick n’ Mix!

So, why Pick n’ mix? As a buyer, you want the best deal right? Not only do you want the best deal; you also want the product that you buy to suit your needs as much as possible. If this is the case then it’s a good chance buying pick and mix is probably the best option for you.. The pick n’ mix buying option many reputable breeders and suppliers have available gives you the option to buy your seeds one by one instead of whole pack. With the pick n’ mix option you only have to buy exactly what you need. So, let’s say you’re growing for your own medical needs and you live in a state where the law says that you can grow up to six plants, three mature, three immature. You’d like to grow three varieties of cannabis, each grow but you don’t want to pay the expensive cost for a full pack of each. With pick and mix you could buy the six seeds for the six plants your limited to growing. Then you would only have to pay for two seeds of each of three varieties you choose to grow. When it comes to cannabis seeds, that’s Buyer Power my friends!

Now if you are kind of a science nerd/naturalist like me or just a cannabis super-fan you may have considered collecting every type of cannabis seed available. I can only imagine how sweet it would feel to own one or two seeds of every strain available. That would be quite an accomplishment, one that you could certainly brag about to a few close buddies. For a serious grower or ganja enthusiast, it would be the equivalent of a pre-teen boy owning an issue of every playboy ever printed, mind blowing. It’s a cool dream, but one that would certainly cost a lot of dough if you were purchasing each strain available in costly packs. Even if you earn a good living and money isn’t really an issue, it just doesn’t make sense to buy more seeds than you need.

Pick n’ mix can be a good option for a great many of growers, breeders, or collectors, but be sure you’re getting the best deal when you're buying pick n’ mix seeds. Some of the less reputable distributors will charge you extra for buying pick n’ mix, or will charge higher than average prices for single seed packs. Some of those distributors will also put old seeds from back stock in their pix n’ mix selections, the problem is that some of them are so old they aren’t very likely to germinate. However many reputable sellers have stellar quality and awesome saving in store for growers that visit their pick n’ mix section. Check out some of the sites that have that option available to their customers, read their reviews compare prices, make sure you are getting the best deal possible, with a little click and scroll work you really can save yourself allot of money. Pick yo’ mix and save some cash. It’s simple and cheap option for any and all who buy cannabis seeds, get what you need and not what you don’t. Keep Growing!

-T.B. Green


          ã€Sublime Text2】【設定】Sublime Text2初心者だからこそ抑えたい設定まとめ        


デフォルトこそが正!!!



そんな時代が僕にもありました。
ましてや「Sublime Text2」においてはほとんど、触ったことがないので
デフォルト以外は怖くてカスタマイズをしていなかったのですが、

半角、全角の識別がしづらい

日本語入力したりすると「ガタガタ」動いてコメントとか入れづらい



といったことが多発したので、今回、以下の様な設定を行いました。

1・プログラムに最適なフォント『Ricty』を入れる。

Ricty (リクティ) は Linux 環境での研究・開発に適したフリーなプログラミング用 TrueType フォントです。Emacs や Vim を用いた C、C++、FORTRAN、Python、Perl、Ruby、AWK、sed、シェルスクリプト、LaTeX などのコーディングにおける使用を想定しています。

http://save.sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~yusa/fonts/ricty.html



コーディングに適したってのが良いですね!

前提条件:

  • macであること
  • Home brewをインストール済みであること
g08m11% brew tap sanemat/font

# 下の様なログが出れば成功
Cloning into '/usr/local/Library/Taps/sanemat-font'...
remote: Reusing existing pack: 104, done.
remote: Total 104 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
Receiving objects: 100% (104/104), 17.08 KiB | 0 bytes/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (40/40), done.
Checking connectivity... done.

g08m11% brew install ricty

# 以下のようなログが出れば成功
OS X provides the BSD gettext library and some software gets confused if both are in the library path.

Generally there are no consequences of this for you. If you build your
own software and it requires this formula, you'll need to add to your
build variables:

    LDFLAGS:  -L/usr/local/opt/gettext/lib
    CPPFLAGS: -I/usr/local/opt/gettext/include


2・『Ricty』などの設定をSublime Text2に反映させる。

上記の1だけではまだ未設定のままなので、それをSublime Text2に設定していきます。

・Sublime Text2を起動し、「Command + ,」で設定ファイルを開く
・以下のソースをコピペ
{
 "flatland_square_tabs": true,
 "ignored_packages":    [        "Vintage"    ],
 // "theme": "Flatland Dark.sublime-theme",
 // "color_scheme": "Packages/User/Flatland Dark (SL).tmTheme",
 "auto_indent": true,
 "draw_white_space": "all",
 "ensure_newline_at_eof_on_save": true,
 "font_face": "Ricty",
 "font_size": 13,
 "highlight_line": true,
 "ignored_packages":    [        "Vintage"    ],
 "indent_to_bracket": true,
 "line_padding_top": 0,
 "shift_tab_unindent": true,
 "smart_indent": true,
 "tab_size": 2,
 "translate_tabs_to_spaces": true,
 "trim_trailing_white_space_on_save": true,
 "use_tab_stops": true,
 "word_wrap": false
 }
・コピペした内容を保存するため「Command+ s」



以下の画面の様になれば成功です。
「"font_size": 13」の数字を変更することで、フォントサイズの変更が出来ます!

f:id:g08m11:20140530012121p:plain



           Cloning and expression of endochitinase gene from trichoderma virens UKM-1 IN Escherichia coli         
Alias, Nadiawati (2007) Cloning and expression of endochitinase gene from trichoderma virens UKM-1 IN Escherichia coli. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering.
           Cloning of xylanase gene from Trichoderma reesei ATCC 58350         
Mohamad Fuzi, Siti Fatimah Zaharah and Md. Illias, Rosli (2007) Cloning of xylanase gene from Trichoderma reesei ATCC 58350. In: The 32nd Annual Conference Of The Malaysian Society For Biochemistry And Molecular Biology, 5th-6th September 2007, Eastin Hotel, Petaling Jaya.
           Cloning of beta-xylosidase gene from aspergillus niger         
Muhammad Zaidi, Nor Fadzilah and Md. Illias, Rosli (2007) Cloning of beta-xylosidase gene from aspergillus niger. In: The 32nd Annual Conference Of The Malaysian Society For Biochemistry And Molecular Biology , 5th-6th September 2007, Eastin Hotel, Petaling Jaya.
           Cloning and expression of B-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene from trichoderma virens UKM-1 in escherichia coli         
Khalili, Amelia Ahmad (2007) Cloning and expression of B-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene from trichoderma virens UKM-1 in escherichia coli. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering.
          How to Copy Xbox 360 Programs        
How to copy Xbox 360 games? Is it easy? Unfortunately, copying of the Xbox games is a very complicated process, much more complex than, for example, the tutorials on "how to burn ps2 games". Furthermore, there is not one program nowadays capable of copying the Xbox 360 games straight from your PC DVD-ROM drive, since these programs will not be able to make your drive read the copied games. This leads to the necessity of following one of a rather complicated "how to copy Xbox 360 games" tutorials. I have to admit that "how to burn ps2 games" tutorials are about a dozen times easier than the ones for the Xbox.

The main thing to remember before starting to follow any "how to copy Xbox 360 games" tutorial (same stands for a "how to burn ps2 games" tutorial), is that your gaming console has to be modded and flashed.

Before you decide to do so, let's see what will be involved in any "how to copy Xbox 360 games" guide (unlike the "how to burn ps2 games", the Xbox guides are extremely complicated technically).

Unlike the "how to burn ps2 games" methods, allowing you to use a DVD decrypter for both copying and burning, Xbox images can only be burnt with a decrypter. Copying of the images is much more complex...

Now let's take a look at the set of tools that you will need in order to learn "how to copy Xbox 360 games":

- XBOX 360 c drive Toshiba Samsung TS-H943
- SATA cable
- PC with chipsets supporting SATA
- Xtreme Xbox 360 Firmware Modified
- xtreme_proper.bin
- Xtrm0800.bin
- Isobuilder.rar
- Mtkflash183c.rar
- MTK-NF4.rar
- Security sectors X360.rar
- KDX1.5-by-F360TEAM.rar (Keydrive Patcher / Xtractor)
- NERO
- CLONE CD
- ISOBUSTER

First of all, you will have to disassemble your Xbox 360; next, you will have to connect the SATA cable of the Xbox to the motherboard of your PC; next you will need to get the new key for the Xbox with the help of Keydrive Patcher / Xtractor...

If you have seen the "how to burn ps2 games" tutorials, you are sure to notice a huge difference between the "how to burn ps2 games" guides and the Xbox guides. The above are just the 3 steps from about a dozen complicated steps necessary to learn how to copy Xbox 360 games. Badly written "how to copy Xbox 360 games" guides can also lead to make you damage your Xbox 360.

Click here for more cloning guides for various consoles



Check out my other in depth research for various topics:
Great Wedding Toasts for Dads
Four Good methods of premature ejaculation remedy
4 Great methods of premature ejaculation remedy
Four Good methods for premature ejaculation remedy

          Don’t get cloned on Facebook        
We’ve all been seeing a rash of Facebook account cloning. You see it when you get a friend request from someone that you’ve already friended. If you have a lot of Facebook friends, you may just think, “Oh, I thought we were already friends,” and accept the invitation. Shortly thereafter, you’ll get a private message […]
          WIT Profile: Esraa Alwan '10        
Tessa Schneider
27 Jul 2016

Esraa Alwan, a native of Syria, won the Women in Triticum Early Career Award in 2010. She received her undergraduate degree in Agricultural Engineering from Aleppo University in Syria, during which she also completed an MSc in conjunction with ICARDA. The BGRI is launching a series of profiles based on WIT winner's answers to seven questions as we follow them, their careers, and the science that motivates them.

What is your current professional position, title, affiliation, responsibilities? How long have you been in this position? I am currently a fourth year PhD student in the Crop and Soil Science Department at Washington State University. My research focuses on biotic/abiotic resistance breeding to effectively control current threats to wheat production worldwide in an attempt to reduce yield losses and ensure sufficient quantities of food available on a consistent

 basis. I am presently a member of the National Association of Plant Breeders (NAPB) and the Crop Science Society of America. Previously, I worked as a research assistant in the ICARDA Biodiversity and the Integrated Gene Management Program (BIGM).My MSc research focused on the identification of new sources of resistance to wheat stem rust from wild tetraploid species.

Who or what inspired you to work in wheat science and research and why? I have always had a passion for agriculture and a desire to be part of a system that would help feed the hungry. Wheat is a leading cereal crop in Syria and globally feeds 35% of the world population. Wheat production, however, is not reaching its full potential; there is an urgent need to increase food production at the same or at an increased rate in order to cope with an increasing population. Therefore, I want to contribute to improving wheat productivity and to ensuring access to safe and healthy food worldwide.

My passion has amplified during my time with ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas). It was exciting to link the knowledge I acquired from years of study at college with practical experience I learned in the field. I also had the opportunity to interact extensively with farmers, to understand their needs, and to assist them in using efficient agricultural strategies. I worked closely with female farmers (the participatory plant breeding project), and gained appreciation for their significant contributions to agriculture. However, I noticed that women were significantly underrepresented in leadership roles compared to their male counterparts. This has motivated me to advocate, support, and empower other young women and to highlight their vital role in the success of agriculture.

I was fortunate to begin my career with great mentors, like Dr. Francis Ogbonnaya, Dr. Rajaram Sanjaya, and Dr. Amor Yahyaoui, who have all inspired me in so many ways through their dedication, generosity, and passion for wheat research. I have also been inspired by the achievements of Dr. Norman Borlaug and his great role in saving so many from starvation and hunger.

What effect did the WIT Early Career Award have on your professional development? Winning the WIT Early Career Award was a unique opportunity and opened numerous avenues for myself and my career. The award has provided me the opportunity to meet and interact with agricultural scientists from different spectrums of society, share my work, and learn from others through workshops and training courses. Winning broadened my horizons and opened my eyes to major constraints currently facing agricultural productivity and to developing possible solutions. I was introduced to many inspirational and supportive women, such as Ms. Jeanie Borlaug-Laube and Ms. Sara Davidson Evanega, and others. Overall, this experience will help me tremendously as I prepare for my career. 

What are you currently working on, and how does it relate to wheat production and/or food security in your country? My PhD research focuses on the identification of new sources of resistance to Hessian fly and stripe rust in wheat, via linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, and identifying diagnostic DNA markers associated with multiple agronomic traits in wheat useful for genomic selection. The above threats continue to cause significant economic losses in spring wheat producing areas globally and in the United States. Genetic resistance is the most credible and sustainable remedy to controlling the recurring epidemics, and thus reducing yield losses. However, as a result of the fast evolutionary pace of the pathogen, most of the resistance genes have been failing, which emphasizes the need for collective efforts not only to identify new sources of resistance, but also to identify ‘breeder-friendly’ molecular markers tightly linked to the target gene(s) to accelerate incorporating these genes into regionally adapted wheat cultivars (This is where the significance of my research stems out).

Which recent scientific discoveries or new technologies do you think will affect wheat production in the next 10-15 years? The leverage of high-throughput genotyping approaches, such as the 9K and 90K iSelect SNP assays, the use of PstI-MspI restriction enzymes in genotyping by sequencing (GBS), and the availability of the entire wheat genome sequence,  will continue to advance wheat genetics research by enabling robust selection, precise gene mapping, gene transfer, gene pyramiding, and map-based cloning. I hope that genetic engineering becomes less controversial, so that we can exploit its effectiveness in advancing agricultural sustainability, and help crops adapt to climate change.

If you had access to unlimited funding toward wheat research as it relates to food security and improving life of small scale farmers, how would you invest it? I would invest in seed program, soil management in regards to conservation agriculture, find out the best rotation for the farming community, and of course, breed the best varieties in regards to yield, stability, and disease resistance. I would invest in quality research and conduct a large number of large plot varietal trials on farmer’s fields. I would also invest in educating and training farmers, farm management skills, marketing, and building community resources. I’d establish activities focused on mentoring and empowering women as leaders, youth involvement, networking and communication, and technology and social media.

What advice do you have for other women who are beginning their careers in agricultural science? Work closely with farmers and consumers and listen to their needs, share your knowledge with others who don’t have access to information, resources, and technologies. Use all your potential, work together to develop solutions to agricultural problems, choose your job/mentor/boss wisely, believe in yourself, turn adversity into opportunity.

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          Marvel's October previews reviewed        
October will be a pretty big month for Marvel, as it is the beginning of their "Legacy" initiative, which, I confess, I don't quite understand.

Some of it is merely cosmetic, like the return of character boxes in the upper left-hand corners, where they used to help readers tell which comic was which when most comics were shelved on grocery store spinner racks.

They are also doing special variant covers, which are basically "cover versions" of previous famous covers, that will be recognizable to fans, like the Ben Caldwell cover for America #8above, an homage to the 1966 John Romita Amazing Spider-Man cover (Although, if we're being honest here, you have to be a pretty hardcore fan to really "get" all of these. For my part, I recognize many of the poses and the characters who appeared in the original images, but I couldn't tell you, like, which particular title, or the number of which particular book, the covers reference; I actually had to do some Googling to see what year that ASM cover was from, and if it was Steve Ditko or John Romita who drew it).

And then there's the numbering, which I don't get at all. Cognizant that the diminishing returns of relaunched books with new number one issues on an increasingly regularly basis have now gotten so diminished, they are actually a negative rather than a positive, Marvel has decided to...re-number all (well, most) of their books again...? Only this time with a completely randomly high number that is essentially meaningless (Well, it's not completely random, there is a nonsensical method in which, say, to get to the numbering for Incredible Hulk, they add up all the issues of all the previous Hulk series. Which...isn't really how issue numbers work on comic books).

But those cover-versions of covers are hardly the only variant covers! The solicitations list the following types of variants:
Design Variant
How-To-Draw Cariant Cover by Chip Zdarsky
Jack Kirby 100th Anniversary Cover
LH Variant
Legacy Headshot Variant
1965 T Shirt Variant
Trading Card Variant
Now not every issues will have all six types of variants, but most of the books seem to have between one and four of 'em.

Finally, the books will also feature "Primer Pages," which sound like they are meant to be something between the "Previously In..." prose synopses you find in many Marvel comics and trades, and those two-page origin stories that ran in the back of DC's 52 series. Of all of this business, these seem like the only things that might actually entice a new reader to try jumping-on to any of these books.

Which books? Well books like these, of course...




ALL-NEW WOLVERINE #25
TOM TAYLOR (W) • JUANN CABAL (A)
Cover by TERRY DODSON
LH Variant Cover by KRIS ANKA
...
ORPHANS OF X Part 1
DAKEN, the enigmatic son of Logan, has been kidnapped and it’s up to the ALL-NEW WOLVERINE to find him. But when the trail leads Laura, a genetic clone of the original Wolverine, back to the FACILITY where she was created and tortured, she will find new horrors waiting for her. Who are the ORPHANS OF X and what do they have in store for the children of Logan? PLUS: Includes 3 bonus MARVEL PRIMER PAGES! Story by Robbie Thompson and art by Mark Bagley!
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


Perhaps the All-New Wolverine can find Daken's shirt, while she's at it!

This sounds...the exact opposite of what I thought we would be getting after I finished the most recent All-New Wolverine trade. It really seemed like Taylor was ready to move on, and let the character move on, from all this facility and cloning and torture business.



AVENGERS #672
MARK WAID (W) • JESúS SAIZ (A)
Cover by ALEX ROSS
LH Variant Cover by MICHAEL ALLRED
...
Following the events of GENERATIONS comes the long-promised clash between the Avengers and the Champions! The countdown has started as the High Evolutionary, a twisted scientist determined to create a better world at all costs, sets the Earth on a collision course with destruction! The Avengers and the Champions are ready to meet this threat — but will their first cataclysmic clash deter them from Changing the World? PLUS: Includes 3 bonus MARVEL PRIMER PAGES! Story by Robbie Thompson and a TBA artist!
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


I do so love when Mike Allred draws superheroes...!

This Avengers vs. Champions story could be fun, and the two teams look surprisingly well-matched at this point. I really like when Marvel teams fight one another like this, and it's not, like, such a big deal it needs a line-wide event, just an issue or two or four of Marvel heroes hitting one another.

It will never happen, but one of my dream Marvel movies would be an Avengers/Defenders War using some iteration of the MCU's current line-ups, with maybe Namor thrown.


CABLE #150
ED BRISSON (W) • Jon Malin (A)
Cover by JON MALIN
LH Variant Cover by ROB LIEFELD
...
THE NEWER MUTANTS Part 1
The time-traveling mutant known as Cable has made it his one-man mission to preserve all of time itself. But when a disturbance in the timestream sends Cable back to the recent past, he’ll find a mutant killer he won’t be able to handle alone. Cable’s led teams of X-Men before and he’ll have to turn to some old allies and new friends to stop this deadly threat. Get ready for the newer New Mutants! PLUS: Includes 3 bonus MARVEL PRIMER PAGES! Story by Robbie Thompson and art by Mark Bagley!
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


I like "Newer Mutants" as a story title, and I think it would be an even better title for the series. I'd be much more likely to read a Newer Mutants or Cable and The Newer Mutants series than I would a Cable series.


Personally, I've grown to prefer the black costume, but Marvel neglected to ask for my input on the matter.


FALCON #1
RODNEY BARNES (W) • JOSHUA CASSARA (A)
Cover by JESúS SAIZ
...
TAKE FLIGHT Part 1
Sam Wilson – winged warrior, avian Avenger and one-time sentinel of liberty – takes to the skies again, reborn and recommitted as the fighter for freedom, THE FALCON! Engaged in an all-new assignment while training his new partner THE PATRIOT, Sam Wilson soars high and sees all. But Sam’s new mission finds him on a collision course with an enemy way out of his weight class—the demonic BLACKHEART! Writer Rodney Barnes (THE BOONDOCKS) joins artist Joshua Cassara (SECRET EMPIRE: UNDERGROUND) to challenge Sam Wilson as never before! From the stratosphere to the streets, the Marvel Universe now has a high-flying hero circling above them ready to strike! PLUS: Includes 3 bonus MARVEL PRIMER PAGES! Story by Robbie Thompson and art by Mark Bagley!
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


Hrrm. Well, I can't say I like the idea of Sam Wilson giving up the shield and title of Captain America to return to being The Falcon; that seems like a major step backwards for the character, personally, and I'm not sure how it can be spun or sold within the comics so as to make it seem like a positive choice for Sam Wilson (Writer Nick Spencer often presented Wilson's being Captain America as a real pain in the ass, but more in a burden-I-proudly-bear than a God-I-hate-my-job kinda way).

This also has a domino effect to it, as new character Joaquin Torres had taken up the name of the Falcon, so if Sam takes the name back, what becomes of Joaquin...?

Unless...that's not Joaquin on the shield/hoverboard cover, is it? There's already a character named The Patriot, from Young Avengers (although I haven't seen him in so long, maybe he's dead at the moment?), but I don't think that's him; if it is, then they gave him a much, much worse costume than the one he usually rocks.

Of course, they've given Sam a much worse costume, too. The red and black color scheme is perhaps preferable to the red and white (or the green!), but the cape feels off. I think I'd prefer that, if he must quit being Captain America, he just kept that costume with a red and black color scheme, taking the star and other American signifiers off it.

Also, in some of those images it looks like The Falcon's penis has long red wings.


HULK #11
MARIKO TAMAKI (W) • GEORGES DUARTE (A)
Cover by JOHN TYLER CHRISTOPHER
BUY THIS BOOK OR ELSE!
JEN WALTERS here, asking you to kindly pre-order your copy of HULK #11…or else I’ll come into your shop and rip up all of your issues of ASTONISHING X-MEN #1! That last-page reveal won’t be so revealing when it’s in shreds on the floor…What? No, I’m not deflecting. Yes, the events of the last arc WERE challenging, but I’m fine…Listen, I just told you, I AM FINE. If you keep asking me, you’ll make me mad…and you won’t like me when I’m mad…
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


So, um, what on earth is going on with Marvel's She-Hul/Hulk book, exactly? I was surprised and confused by this post , which indicated that Marvel was either changing the name of the book back to She-Hulk, or, at the very least, were collecting it in trade under She-Hulk rather than Hulk. Either way though, isn't the numbering remarkably low for the publisher's dumb-ass "legacy" initiative? I guess they folded all the (He-)Hulk book numbers into the new Incredible Hulk book, but, at the very least, shouldn't this Hulk book take on the numbering of all the various She-Hulk series there have been over the decades? Or is it excused for some reason?

Don't get me wrong, I think just-not-relaunching-constantly is a better method than randomly-adding-hundreds-of-issues-from-other-series, but it seems like Marvel is applying their legacy numbering rather haphazardly. Shocking, I know.


ICEMAN #6
SINA GRACE (W) • Robert Gill (A)
Cover by KEVIN WADA
...
CHAMPIONS REASSEMBLED Part 1
ICEMAN, one of the most powerful mutants within the Marvel Universe, discovers his powers and his outlook on life evolving. He needs to lead the charge with a team who stand proudly by his side in the war to “protect those who can’t protect themselves.” Hercules, Ghost Rider, Black Widow, Darkstar, and Angel re-unite with Marvel’s fearless frozen fighter setting ICEMAN on an all-new path. As more unexpected enemies emerge, can Bobby mature into the warrior he’s destined to become? Hope he survives the experience! PLUS: Includes 3 bonus MARVEL PRIMER PAGES! Story by Robbie Thompson and a TBA artist!
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


While I've certainly read plenty of comics featuring various Avengers and X-Men teams, it was the other Marvel teams I always had more affection for, teams like The Defenders and The Champions, with their ad hoc line-ups that don't make any sense at first glance...and never make more sense even when you read the comics they star in.

So I'm actually kinda jazzed about this story arc. I hope these Champions meet the other Champions at some point, too.

...

You know, I'm genuinely kinda surprised that Iceman is still wearing a red-and-black onesie. I know it won't last forever, as so few superhero costumes ever seem to, but that one was so dumb-looking I expected it to have a very, very short shelf life.


INVINCIBLE IRON MAN #593
BRIAN MICHAEL BENDIS (W) • STEFANO CASELLI (A)
Cover by ADI GRANOV
...
THE SEARCH FOR TONY STARK Part 1
Tony Stark has vanished! The mystery deepens as Stark friends and foes must decide, finally, who will wield the power of Iron Man! All the contenders are in position, and all the armor is polished. There can only be one Armored Avenger! The path to the most startling Iron Man story ever begins here! PLUS: Includes 3 bonus MARVEL PRIMER PAGES! Story by Robbie Thompson and a TBA artist!
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


So, Battle For The Cowl, but with Iron Man...? Oh wow, I'm sorry I even typed that sentence, because the very thought of it depresses me. Well, it can't possibly be that bad; Bendis is a better writer than Battle's Tony Daniel, and Caselli's a better artist than Battle's Tony Daniel.


I remain completely fascinated by what age Jessica and Luke's daughter Danielle is supposed to be, as she is constantly sliding up and down the spectrum between newborn and toddler, depending on who is drawing her.

This is David Mack's cover for Jessica Jones #13, by the way. So in terms of "Legacy" numbering, they seem to have left this book alone too, and not factored in the Alias issue numbers.


MOON GIRL AND DEVIL DINOSAUR #24
BRANDON MONTCLARE (W)
NATACHA BUSTOS (A/C)
MOON GIRL AND…?
After the earth-shattering events of issue #23, Moon Girl needs a new partner! Lunella takes three candidates for a test drive, but who will be the lucky hero to become her newest sidekick? Guest stars galore! Ghost Rider! Daredevil! The X-Babies!
32 PGS./Rated T …$3.99


I say Daredevil, because at least he's got a "devil" in his name. Otherwise, she should probably just go shopping around the Savage Land or Mole Man's kingdom; surely there are other dinosaurs and/or Kirby-created monsters she could team-up with.


PUNISHER: THE PLATOON #1 & 2 (of 6)
GARTH ENNIS (W) • GORAN PARLOV (A/C)
...
By the time the Punisher was born in Vietnam, Frank Castle had already become a dark legend of the battlefield. Stories about him were told in whispers, if at all. Now the legendary Punisher team of Garth Ennis and Goran Parlov (PUNISHER MAX, FURY MAX) brings the first of those stories to light: the tale of Frank Castle’s first command, and his first kill. Don’t miss this epic new series!
32 PGS. (EACH)/MAX/Parental Advisory …$3.99 (EACH)


Huh. Garth Ennis. Back on The Punisher. I didn't expect to see that. I'm not unhappy that I did, though.


RUNAWAYS #2
RAINBOW ROWELL (W) • KRIS ANKA (A/C)
Variant Cover by KEVIN WADA
The RUNAWAYS are back, but are they ever, ever, ever getting back together? Did Chase and Gert’s love survive their time apart? Have Karolina and Nico’s feelings made their friendship impossible? What emotional land mines lie in wait to DESTROY the Runaways?! And should we be more worried about those, or about the shadowy scientist watching them from a distance?
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


Maybe I'm shallow, but what I'm most worried about is the presence of their dinosaur.

Wait, is Old Lace not hanging out with The Runaways anymore? Because, if not, Moon Girl is looking for a new dinosaur pal...


SPIRITS OF VENGEANCE #1 (of 5)
VICTOR GISCHLER (W) • DAVID BALDEON (A)
COVER BY DAN MORA
...
WAR AT THE GATES OF HELL Part 1
A dead angel. A silver bullet. A kept promise. For ages, the war between Heaven and Hell raged in the unseen corners of society, both sides in delicate balance that could topple if the right weapons were in the wrong hands… When an undercover angel is murdered, Johnny Blaze, the Ghost Rider, must find the killers and punish them…But this time he won’t do it alone: A deadly team must rise from the darkest depths of the Marvel Universe to form an unholy alliance – HELLSTORM! SATANA! BLADE! They are the SPIRITS OF VENGEANCE! PLUS: Includes 3 bonus MARVEL PRIMER PAGES! Story by Robbie Thompson and a TBA artist!
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


I like all these characters, so I'll look forward to this miniseries in trade. I'm not crazy about Daimon's street-clothes look here, though. No one has designed or drawn Daimon in a suit as well as Nick Dragotta in the apparently-forgotten 2011 miniseries Vengeance (Which, I should take this opportunity to remind you, is the best thing ever).


U.S.AVENGERS #11
AL EWING (W) • PACO DIAZ (A)
Cover by DAVID NAKAYAMA
LH Variant Cover by CHRISTIAN WARD
Legacy Headshot Variant Cover by MIKE MCKONE
CANNONBALL RUN Part 1
The U.S. Avengers have a new mission—to find their missing teammate! Squirrel Girl, Red Hulk, Iron Patriot, and more head into outer space to find Cannonball! The search leads them to strangest planet of all…Glenbrook, U.S.A.! Home — and fiefdom — of Ritchie Redwood, America’s best loved teen! What shocking events will lead the U.S. Avengers to uncover the secrets of the seemingly idyllic planet of Glenbrook whose teenagers keep disappearing? And how will this lead them to Cannonball? PLUS: Includes 3 bonus MARVEL PRIMER PAGES! Story by Robbie Thompson and a TBA artist!
32 PGS./Rated T+ …$3.99


I've totally lost track of Ewing's ongoing Avengers adventures since the conclusion of his New Avengers, but I'm looking forward to catching up. This sure looks awesome.


Oh my God look at Venomized Rocket!!!!
          Federations        
Federations
author: John Joseph Adams
name: Mark
average rating: 3.61
book published: 2009
rating: 4
read at: 2015/06/04
date added: 2015/06/04
shelves:
review:
Federations
Author: Bujold, Card, Martin, McCaffrey, Reynolds, Silverberg, Valentine, Modesitt Jr, Turtledove, Anderson, Beason, Bradford, Wright, Guthridge, Lee, Foster, Silverberg, Rosenblum, Sawyer, Tolbert, Steele, Li, Hergenrader, Gardner, Valente,
Publisher: Prime Books
Date: 2009
Pgs: 379

REVIEW MAY CONTAIN SPOILERS

Summary:
Vast interstellar societies and the challenges facing them. Federations stories mix new fiction alongside reprints that represent what interstellar SF is capable of. Space is big.

Genre:
Adventure
Alternate History
Apocalypse
Cyberpunk
Disaster
Fiction
Military
Multiverse
Science fiction
Short stories
Space
Space opera
War

Why this book:
The cover. And the Wil Wheaton blurb on the back.
______________________________________________________________________
Mazer in Prison by Orson Scott Card
Favorite Character:
Mazer Rackham, war hero and deep space traveller, and Rip Van Winkle on a long trip through time on his roundtrip way to Earth and command a fleet that is on its way to enemy territory. The idea of his being launched on a trip like this so that he ages in conjunction with his crews as they race toward the enemy and will be of an age with his crew despite everyone else on Earth aging multiple decades in the interim.

The Feel:
The feel is claustrophobic through the early stages opening into infinity as Mazer and Graff make their play.

Favorite Scene:
When Mazer realizes the subtext in the previously omitted letters from home beamed to him on his relativistic trip as decades pass on Earth while a bare year has passed on his ship and the ship observing his upset tries to sedate him and reports his condition back to the panel of shrinks on Earth. Reminded me of the scene in Apollo 13 when Tom Hank’s Lovell ripped the sensors out of his space suit because he was tired of people knowing everything that was going on with him.

Pacing:
The pace of the short was great.

Hmm Moments:
Sending the commander into space at relativistic speeds on a trip to nowhere so that he maintains time with the fleets outbound from Earth for the Formic worlds.

Mazer’s take-it-or-leave-it was incredibly awesome.
______________________________________________________________________________
Carthago Delenda Est by Genevieve Valentine
The Feel:
Sort of a United Nations of space at the behest of an advanced civilization that drops into the local group and broadcast for all to hear, come join us. And then, leaves the locals hanging between contacts. The Carthaginian is on its way, but hasn’t arrived yet.

Hmm Moments:
The cloning ambassadors thing instead of having to send new ones out from Earth is odd. Cool...just odd. And just that quick, I’m confused, are the Yemenis clones or are they androids? Guess that will become clearer deeper into the text. They are clones. One of the aliens did send an AI instead of a flesh and blood being.

Clone ambassadors in deep space with other alien ships close at hand waiting on an “all powerful” alien to show up while keeping the peace between all those waiting for the arrival. What could possibly go wrong?

Casting call:
Reese Witherspoon as a young clone of Yemeni just awakened. And Helen Mirren as an older clone just before her expiration.
______________________________________________________________________________
Life-Suspension by L. E. Modesitt Jr
The Feel:
The text lends itself to a Godzilla movie cadence. Imagine the text in the narrative voice of the male lead from one of the Godzilla movies and the text flows better, for me anyway. I know how odd that seems. But just straight reading it, the flow is choppy. Employing this device makes the text more palatable. Not sure if this was the intention of the author or if this is the author’s normal style.

Plot Holes/Out of Character:
Flight Captain Ghenji Yamato’s physical description of the new officer entering the mess, which is presented as an inner monologue, doesn’t read like anyone would talk to themselves. The description is stilted.

Maybe I’m just being thick today, but I couldn’t figure out what Captain Rokujo Yukionna is/was. I looked up Yukionna and discovered that she is a snow ghost in Japanese folklore. She drains the life, vampire like, and takes away the heat of the body in cold weather. She is a winter spirit. This needed to be clearer within the text.
______________________________________________________________________________
Terra-Exulta by S L Gilbow
The Feel:
This is like a Reverse Earth Day diatribe hidden inside a discussion of language wrapped in a sci fi template. It’s grim. Very grim when viewed through that lens.
______________________________________________________________________________
Aftermaths by Lois McMaster Bujold
Favorite Character:
A wet behind the ears Pilot Officer on his first real mission and he’s doing recovery trips across dead battlefields recovering the bodies of troops from both sides. It would have to be a demoralizing bit of work for the newly minted officer, would be tough enough for the old hand who had been in the service for a long while.

The Feel:
Creepy. Wandering around a battlefield with the dead and the scavengers.

Hmm Moments:
The idea of carrion wagons crisscrossing interstellar battlefields to recover the bodies of soldiers and sailors. That’s not a concept that I recall running across in sci fi before. I’ve seen it used in Civil War and Revolutionary War stories.
______________________________________________________________________________
Prisons by Kevin J Anderson and Doug Beason
Favorite Character:
The Warden

Amu, the revolutionary.

Character I Most Identified With:
The Warden, the AI who while he did oversee the prison also was overseeing the terraforming of the Planet Bastille...and the production and process of ubermindist, a galactic drug that is very well received on the black market across the Federation.

The Feel:
One of the villains was an actual villain. The others were just people caught in the whirlwind of history.

Favorite Scene:
The climax and the aftermath. There are all kinds of prisons.

Pacing:
Well paced.

Hmm Moments:
I wonder if the the Federation’s Prasidentarix is a ubermindist addict and what that and her consort’s death all have to do with the uprising on Bastille. Excellent climax and denouement clear this up. Well done.
______________________________________________________________________________
Different Day by K Tempest Bradford
The Feel:
Too short. Reads more like the idea for a story than the actual story. I like the concept, just needed more.
______________________________________________________________________________
Twilight of the Gods by John C Wright
Favorite Character:
The last Watchman, his duty is to be carried through even if all is lost.

Least Favorite Character:
Acting Captain Weston II, he is every privileged silver spoon who thought that by virtue of birth he was chosen to lead that you’ve ever encountered in your life.

The Feel:
I like the idea of Wagner’s Ring Cycle in space.

Favorite Scene:
When the traitor Captain returns to the throne room and faced down the Acting Captain and went all Jedi on him and his knights in the darkness.

Pacing:
Great pace. Lots of action. This could have been much longer and still been awesome.

Hmm Moments:
How have we become so ignorant so soon?

My master said once that the Computer spoke to all the children, and instructed them. When the Computer fell silent, there were no written things aboard with which to teach the children. Much was lost; more was lost in the confusion of the wars and darkenings. What we know, we know by spoken lore; but in the past, all men knew the priestly arts, and could read the signs

That’s poignant in juxtaposition with what the future could hold IRL.
______________________________________________________________________________
Warship by George R R Martin and George Guthridge
Pacing:
Good pace, but what happened next. The ship did what the ship did and then...a bit of unsatisfying.

Hmm Moments:
Creepy when he uncovered the body of his dead lover and kissed her kneecap. I was worried where this part of the story was going.
______________________________________________________________________________
Spirey and the Queen by Alastair Reynolds
Favorite Character:
Spirey is us caught up in the flux of duty, honor, and what is right when all three don’t equal out.

Character I Most Identified With:
Spirey. He doesn’t want to surrender his humanity...perceived humanity for comfort in the ship’s aquatic interior atmosphere. He’s stuck in his job. He’s doing his duty. And he’s being challenged by the evidence before his eyes about what his duty truly is. And is he really seeing what he’s seeing or did the nanospores insides his suit survive the purge and infect him.

The Feel:
Love the concept. Two warring forces fighting over a nascent solar system filled with mineral riches. Winner is going to mine it. But the war has been going on forever, generation on generation. Intentional mutations and augmentations. Cyborgs. A.I.s taking control.

Favorite Scene:
Spirey’s surprise when he encounters the defector after crash-jumping to the splinter. And his ship having been taken over by the nanospores is trying to cook him from orbit with its particle beams.

Hmm Moments:
Posthuman men falling into barbarism while machines fight their wars. And across the Spiral, posthuman women who have evolved out of their need for men and bioengineered them out of existence, while they think they fight their war, but the machines fight for them too. And a wasp machine queen intelligence throwing out Noah’s arks into the depth of the Spiral’s oort cloud on long orbits to return them to the Spiral when the planets are fully formed and they can be settled. Wow! Just wow!

That’s a great twist on the evolution of the A.I.s.
______________________________________________________________________________
Pardon Our Conquest by Alan Dean Foster
Favorite Character:
Admiral Gorekii for that last line if nothing else, but he’s excellent throughout.

The Feel:
Love the “what the heck is going on here” feeling that the representatives of the Commonwealth engender in the Admiral.

Hmm Moments:
“...this war. We lost-didn’t we?” That made me laugh.
______________________________________________________________________________
Symbiont by Robert Silverberg
The Feel:
It’s a decent story about duty and honor.

Plot Holes/Out of Character:
But did he get it or not at the end?
______________________________________________________________________________
The Ship Who Returned by Anne McCaffrey
Favorite Character:
The ship is an excellent character.

Favorite Scene:
The rise of the flora

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
So much of the Ship books is internal dialogue against the backdrop of action happening off-screen or near screen that I’m not sure that it would translate.
______________________________________________________________________________
The Shoulders of Giants by Robert J Sawyer
Character I Most Identified With:
Toby MacGregor. He’s the narrator and the voice that leads us through the story. He’s our in to the world of giants.

The Feel:
This has that classic sci fi flavor.

Favorite Scene:
The moment when MacGregor and Woo realize that it isn’t vulcanism causing those lights on their target planet’s dark side.

Hmm Moments:
Love the Rip Van Winkle / Vance Astrovik / tortoise and the hare aspect of this story.
______________________________________________________________________________
The Culture Archivist by Jeremiah Tolbert
Favorite Character:
Bertie, the archivist, moving around the galaxy ahead of the swarm of the UP.

The Feel:
Join or be assimilated, no one has a body of uniqueness. If you aren’t conformed, you don’t belong and you are absorbed. Even when you conform, you are absorbed. Helluva concept. I disagree with the author on the concept of capitalism being about conformity. When it works best, it is absorbing culture and making it part of itself. The conformity here is more how I picture Soviet communism.

Favorite Scene:
When Captain Morgana recognizes Bertie and cries out his name and his non-human form attempts to respond as his human body would if aroused.

Pacing:
The pace is great.

Hmm Moments:
Love the idea that there are nodes out there with the “real” identiies of all these absorbed cultures, just waiting for their rediscovery by the drones who may escape the UP and rebegin again. The archivist’s job sounds very pyrrhic. The rebeginnings/regenesis may only last until the UP catches up with them again, but then, those nodes still exist out there waiting to be discovered again and causing another revolution.

The mindless Redshirts, basically flesh golem cannon fodder. Greatness.
______________________________________________________________________________
The Other Side of Jordan by Allen Steele
Favorite Character:
The narrator is great. His adventure and love story is very well told.

The Feel:
There is a great sense of wonder at the universe that the narrator is moving through.

Favorite Scene:
The climax scene, though I did see the storytelling part coming.

Pacing:
Greatness.

Hmm Moments:
The way that the danaii deal with warfare on The Hex.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
Would make an awesome movie, Message in the Bottle in space.

Casting call:
Would love to see Brad Pitt as the Narrator and Angelina Jolie as Jordan. Would make a beautiful movie. The love story would work for all genders. Great story.
______________________________________________________________________________
Like They Always Been Free by Gerogina Li
Favorite Character:
Kinger and Boy are great characters. Kinger’s voice is so well communicated I can almost hear it.

The Feel:
This feels like Shawshank.

Pacing:
The story is very short. But the pace is incredible. It flows so fast that the short pages fly passed.

Hmm Moments:
I’m so happy that there wasn’t a final twist that undid the happiness of the ending. I was afraid there was going to be one. That feeling of impending doom was upon me as I read the final pages.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Eskhara by Trent Hergenrader
Favorite Character:
Xenologist Kiernan. He’s what you’d hope a diplomat would be in space.

Least Favorite Character:
Rauder comes across as every hard ass, ever. Blow it up. Kill ‘em all. A stereotype.

Character I Most Identified With:
Kiernan.

The Feel:
Feels real. Could be a story about a representative of the Crown in a foreign land trying to keep a militant regular Army officer from burning everything down before he has a chance to find out what it is.

And it’s a tragedy.

Hmm Moments:
The planet naming conventions.
______________________________________________________________________________
The One with the Interstellar Group Consciousness by James Alan Gardner
Favorite Character:
Both the Union and the Didge are great characters in possibly the weirdest romantic comedy of all time.

Least Favorite Character:
The Abundance reminds me of my ex.

The Feel:
A Douglas Adams rom com.

Favorite Scene:
When the Union realizes that the Abundance isn’t all she’s cracked up to be.

Pacing:
The pace is great. I flew through the shortness of it.

Hmm Moments:
I kept wanting to read the line “and this was regarded as being a really bad idea” or some variation of that.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
This couldn’t translate to the screen.
______________________________________________________________________________
Golubash, or Wine-Blood War-Elegy by Catherynne M Valente
Favorite Character:
Our narrator and winetaster in chief

The Feel:
The illicit, illegal wine tasting history lesson is an awesome way to do world building for the background.

Favorite Scene:
Love the end. Love it.

Hmm Moments:
Possibly one of the oddest sci fi stories I’ve ever read. Interstellar wine wars...really? And now I’m thinking about writing a story about cheese smuggling...in space. It’s a cool concept and wrapped up in the power of corporations in the sci fi environ.

The Hyphens of Golubash could be elementals or parts of the Hyperion Cantos. Excellent stuff.

Why isn’t there a screenplay?
Considering how much of the story happens to Uncle Such-n-such so many years ago or Grandma This or Cousin That, the focus of the movie would skip around. Wouldn’t be impossible on the big screen, but the audience desire to be lead by the nose in too many films and studios wanting to make things as simple as possible would fight against anyone wanting to sink into the escapism of it. Would anyone really want to watch an outer space travelogue and history lesson with aliens using wine as its underpinnings? I wouldn’t have thought so either, but the story is good and well written.
______________________________________________________________________________
Last Page Sound:
This was a great collection of sci fi.

Author Assessment:
There are some incredible authors involved in this collection. Some I’ll no doubt read again. And some I might not. By and large, this has been a well written collection.

Editorial Assessment:
I give full marks to the editors.

Knee Jerk Reaction:
real genre classic

Disposition of Book:
Irving Public Library
South Campus
Irving, TX

Dewey Decimal System:
F FED

Would recommend to:
everyone
______________________________________________________________________________



          Recording Guitarist: In Search of Ancient Ambience        
Cloning the otherworldly sounds of the Southwest’s ruins.
          Having a Good Pet Death        
My latest pets column, The Good Good-Bye, has just hit the stands in the July issue of Prevention Magazine. As you'll see, it's about something near and dear: Dealing with the loss of a pet both emotionally, and logistically.

In my 10 years as a veterinary technician, I helped euthanize many animals, including one of my own, so I understand that side of the death experience all too well. What I didn't know until I set out to write this column was what an enormous industry pet death has become: You can get an incredible variety of pet urns and coffins (including lifesized ones), you can have your pet's hair or ashes turned into a diamond, you can cryopreserve your pet in case science catches up with science fiction to make cloning possible (don't count on that one), you can even have your pet freeze dried in a variety of natural positions, so you can keep it with you at home looking frighteningly lifelike. Okay, yeah: Some of it is definitely bizarre. But hey, like I said in my column, if this stuff helps people recover from losing pets, who cares it seems weird to others.

On another note: I've finally arrived in Memphis, where I'm surrounded by boxes and lacking an Internet connection at home. So this blog will continue to be pretty quiet for a while. But more news from The South soon ...
          Study Shows Patients Have Issues With Tissue Research        
In my ongoing coverage of all things human tissue related, I came across this article about a recent study examining public attitudes toward tissue banks: "Tissue banking raises cloning fears." Interestingly, there was absolutely no coverage of this study in the U.S., where tissue research is a huge issue. The study, conducted by the Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine at the University of Sydney, shows that Australians have many concerns over how their tissues are being used.

They're worried, for one, that scientists could clone them using stored tissue samples. There are many reasons people should question how their tissues are being used in research, but at this point, fear of being cloned isn't one of them (cloning humans isn't possible yet). But the study also found that people were opposed to tissues from their diagnostic samples -- like biopsies and blood tests -- being used "as a source of stem cells or by drug companies." to develop products. That is a very current and real issue worldwide: In the US, most people have their tissues in storage at this point, and the laws surrounding their use are unsettled and confused.

According to lead researcher Bronwen Morrell, this study shows exactly what I reported in my recent New York Times Magazine article: People want some level of control over how their tissues are being used in research and whether they'll be commercialized; they also want laws laying out requirements for consent, because at the very least, they want to know what's being done with their tissues.

Morrell also found that, when it came to the sticky issue of money, patients wanted to see profits funneled back into research, not into scientists' pockets (which is not standard practice now). Many said they trust the public sector more with their tissue than private companies: "As long as research was being done in a public hospital they would feel comfortable with that," she said. "But if it was a private company doing the research, especially drug companies, they wouldn't be that happy." This is interesting, in part because it indicates that the public isn't aware of how fuzzy the division between public hospitals and private companies can be these days.
          Tutoring on the dark side...        

Push for A’s at Private Schools Is Keeping Costly Tutors Busy


"Private SAT tutors have been de rigueur at elite New York private schools for a generation, but the proliferation of subject-matter tutors for students angling for A’s is a newer phenomenon that is beginning to incite a backlash. Interviews with parents, students, teachers, administrators, tutors and consultants suggest that more than half of the students at the city’s top-tier schools hire tutors, an open secret that the schools seem unable to stop." (Anderson, Jenny. June 7, 2011.http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/08/education/08tutors.html?src=me&ref=general (accessed June 8, 2011).

I can barely keep my head on.  

Unable to write coherent sentence.

Just read the article.  There are tutors in NYC charging $195-$795 per hour...nay...per 50 minutes. 


One the one hand, we get a sense of sweet freedom...a beckoning, a reminder of a distant bright possible future....of buying a gorgeous condo from the tutoring fees for one class alone....

On the other hand, it feels skeevy and wrong.

But to be fair, these companies also provide pro bono services, so the rich offset tutoring for poor kids.



There is so much to discuss here.  Why does Riverside high school discourage tutoring--that alone is enough for a Phd thesis.  Why is there a need to evaluate kids based only on the information disseminated to them whilst in your presence?  If we want to test or grade them only on what they could have possibly learned in your classroom, then forbid them from reading the newspaper, from trolling the internet, from visiting the library.


Why is a mother paying SIX FIGURES to tutor her child through high school?  What high school is that hard?  For six figures, those tutors had better be cloning themselves, getting face transplants to look like the student, and taking the tests themselves.


Also...does it make you as a student feel dumb when it takes $100,000 for you to get "A's"?


One sentence pops out at me:


"Michael Michelson, director of academic studies at Riverdale, said the school’s policy was to discourage tutors, and to make teachers accessible for extra help."


Um...at first this seems innocuous...but the word "make" clangs in my brain.  I'm sure they do "make"--as in "force"--the teachers to be available for extra help.  


I sincerely hope these teachers leave work promptly at 3 pm or whenever their work day officially ends...and make their way speedily to a tutoring center not terribly close to their own primary place of employment...and charges 500 bucks an hour for their services (oh, had I read the entire article FIRST..I would have seen that they are doing this!  SCORE!  NYC private school teachers... you make me proud...)


One almost feels tempted to barter a solution.  All the parents band together and pay the teacher(s) to make the class(es) less difficult.  If you were going to spend $10,000 on tutoring for ONE CLASS...wow...that teacher could stand to make millions!  I feel a dystopian novella coming on...


But to me, the saddest part of the story is how people feel unable to exercise their free speech rights: more than one parent in the story seems to feel squeamish about speaking to the press because the schools which their children attend discourage open communication.






(Thanks to L for this head-up.)  
          BLOG: Killing No Cure for Dying        

Naturally, people always contrive a means by which to make their motives pure.  So, for instance, those who wish to keep the abortion industry “alive” frequently tout the promise of healing offered by embryonic stem cells.  Forgetting for just a moment that embryonic stem cells have proven to be completely worthless in the research thus far, we can easily see behind these claims a kind of deluded dream and self-induced hype.  Naturally, people want desperately to believe that embryonic stem cells are a panacea for all that ails you.

 

If people could demonstrate that embryonic stem cells could save them from death, then they would no longer need a Savior from outside of our condition to enter in and offer salvation.  Rather, people could control every phase of life and death.  The problem with this deluded dream is that it proves to be little more than a death wish—mostly a death wish for others.  Folks begin to feel free to kill humans at the earliest (and most helpless) stages of life so that they might somehow become free to defy death in our healthiest stages of life.  The obvious impasse to this plan, of course, is that we simply cannot defy death.  As Emily Dickinson’s poem reminds us, “Because I could not stop for death, he kindly stopped for me.”  Indeed, he will stop for us all.  We will all enter his carriage which takes us to eternity.  Death will come for us, even if we harvest the stem cells from human embryos.  Our killing has never undone death and never will.  The dying life of Christ is the only power greater than death.

 

President Bush deserves our thanks for his veto against funding embryonic stem cell research and for making a statement concerning the value of human life—all human life, perhaps especially human life in its earliest and most vulnerable state.  As for the proponents of the ludicrous notion that embryonic stem cells would have saved Christopher Reeve, let us simply remind them of our recent past.

 

Not too long ago, we were told that women were butchering themselves in back alleys because of distress over crisis pregnancies.  We were told that safe, legal abortions were the answer.  Whatever the real number of “back alley abortions,” the number of main street abortions has far exceeded it.  Indeed, another recent article out of London informs us of the grim news that more than 4,000 abortions in the UK last year were performed on girls younger than 16.  Whatever the problem, natural man compounds it by proposing death as the solution: abortion, embryo destruction, assisted suicide, euthanasia, cloning, infanticide…

 

The natural mind has no other solution.  As Paul says, “All have turned aside…Their throat is an open grave, with their tongues they keep deceiving… Their feet are swift to shed blood, destruction and misery are in their paths, and the path of peace they have not known.  There is no fear of God before their eyes.”

 

 

          On Assignment: The Clone Zone        
Harry Smith travels to South Korea to investigate the science dog cloning.
          On Assignment: One More Thing - The Clone Zone        
Harry Smith travels to South Korea to investigate the science of dog cloning.
          The Clone Zone: The De-Extinction Download        
Dr. Beth Shapiro, author of "How to Clone a Mammoth," talks with Harry Smith about the controversial science around cloning extinct animal species. The full segment airs Sunday May 22nd at 7/6c during 'On Assignment.'
          The Clone Zone: Would you clone your dog?        
The 'On Assignment' team headed to the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show and asked owners if they would ever consider cloning their beloved family pets.
          The Clone Zone: Training Clones?        
Harry Smith travels to South Korea to visit the only lab in the world that offers commercial dog cloning. But it's not just pets they are cloning. You can watch the full report Sunday at 7/6c during 'On Assignment.'
          Experts on use of cloning to make human stem cells        

In a world first, scientists in the US have used a cloning technique to derive embryonic stem cells from human embryos. A paper released in Nature today describes the new research. Below, some Canadian and UK experts comment on this paper and what it means from a scientific and legal perspective. From the Cananda SMC: […]

The post Experts on use of cloning to make human stem cells appeared first on Science Media Centre.


          Dom Post: Animal death toll ends cloning trials        

Kiran Chug writes in the Dominion Post about AgResearch ending its cloning trials, due to the death rates of laboratory animals. While AgResearch will no longer be cloning animals, it will still be developing its transgenic cattle, sheep and goats, intended to produce pharmaceutically-useful proteins which cannot be easily made any other way. An excerpt: […]

The post Dom Post: Animal death toll ends cloning trials appeared first on Science Media Centre.


           Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato         
Jackson, Stephen D., Gascón, Jordi, Carrera, Esther, Monte, Elena and Prat, Salomé. (1997) Cloning and expression analysis of a gene that shows developmental regulation upon tuberization in potato. Plant Molecular Biology, Volume 33 (Number 1). pp. 169-174. ISSN 0167-4412
          Manifesto for the 2020 collective         
This is an accelerationist txt I wrote around 2002-2003 for the now defunct website 2020.ro


2020 BETTER FASTER LOUDER

Is there any need to comply with the current state of affairs?
Do you want to wallow in the current economic downturn?
Just ask yourselves what is there to be gained when you are endorsing the mistakes of past generations.
Have you learned nothing out of Running Man or Total Recall?

This is what this is all about, not only plain, unselfish, progression to a an International-Space-Station existence. We are the people who have always enjoyed deep-freeze nitrogen ice-cream. Try it sometimes. It may offer you a glimpse of the future.
IS TWENTY TWENTY A PROJECT YOU ASK?
It is more than a project – it is a mind-projection and a basic way to asses current approaches trough the lens of tomorrow.
2020 will make it easier for you to accept cloning, gene-sequencing techniques, food health-scares and space-tourism.
You already accepted cellular phone grafts on your body surface. You have already chosen the cryogenic beauty-sleep. Those blue potency pills already bring out the best in you.
Make the next step and see the cities of tomorrow: mightier than the scrapers of Coruscant. Walk the streets and surf the retail areas.
2020 is the GREAT LEAP FORWARD revisited.
It is moving ideas not people. This grand canal is already finished, and billions of bites are doing the job for you.
All you have to do is to participate. All there is needed is to draw the wireframe, to change the texture and to follow the shadow channels. With your help our hyper realistic cerebral illusions will become high resolution facts of life.
We don’t send our troops on a mission impossible. When our space-shuttles will get off the launching pad, there will be no manned missions in the sky. Everybody will be here, beneath the surface, tranquil in a pristine world, behind immaculate picket fences, in rows and rows of family homes with children playing in the freshly-mowed grass.

2020 doesn’t promise any tended ropes of extended unions, no hands-across-the-sea alliances.
It offers you the precrime departments of tomorrow.
The will to overcome inertia and the unfulfilled wish to restart the dream-machine again and again.
It offers you culture in the form of culture crash.

          Comment on Cloning by Ben M        
While this question has been asked and somewhat addressed already I think that the presence of this article contradicts the statements made in regard to a personhood amendment on IVF. I say this because the position it seems like you are taking in your responses to the two email questions addressed preciously is one of support for IVF, assuming it is done in a way in which both mother and embryo are treated as equal patients; this is incompatible with the position taken by Rev. Dr. Tadeusz Pacholczyk. I assume that the article's presence here on the blog means that you agree with it, and yet this quote seems pretty anti-IVF, "Human procreation should not take place in the laboratory because it is inherently dehumanizing to bring a new human being into the world through means which replace the marital act. Each of us has a right to be brought into the world as the fruit and expression of marital love, rather than as the product of technical domination and manufacturing protocols. Procreation is not meant to be replaced by production. There is a dignity both to the process of procreation as established by God through sexual self-giving, and the dignity of the life itself which is engendered by that process." - Rev. Dr. Tadeusz Pacholczyk from above article. I assume a response to this will be to say that Rev. Dr. Pacholczyk was talking about cloning, and while it is true that this quote comes from an article where he is addressing cloning; however everything in the excerpt quoted above seems to be applicable to IVF. The other important issue that I could not find a satisfactory reply to is the nature of the affect the proposed amendment would have had on various types of birth control/contraception. I realize that the specific issue of Amendment 26 to the Mississippi Constitution is a moot point, but these issues will need to be addressed if you intend to continue to pursue anything similar. I look forward to discussing these important issues with you. Ben M.
          Keyline 884 Decryptor MINI TKM Xtreme Kit ID48 Full Car Key Cloning Tool Keyline Smart Cloner 90        

Price: 1 099,00 € Special Price: 1 069,00 €


          WinSCP 5.5.2        
  • Cloning site without hostname when Enter key is pressed. 1115
  • Preventing “Message…

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          5 حيوانات منقرضة يمكن أن يستنسخها العلماء         

- إن فكرة إستنساخ الحيوانات المنقرضة .. فكرة خيالية نوعاً ما , فبالنظر إلى أن بعضها كان من عمالقة الماضي البعيد , وأن البعض منها قد إنقرض بسبب إنتهاكات البشر ضدها , فيجب علينا التفكير ملياً ودراسة التاريخ الطبيعي بشكل أوسع إذا أردنا تطبيق تلك الفكرة المجنونة .

- من أجل إستنساخ حيوان ما من الصفر - إذا جاز التعبير - فإن العلماء بحاجة إلى الحمض النووي DNA  ÙˆØ£Ù… بديلة متوافقة مع نوع الحيوان , حيث يستخدم الحمض النووي أساساً لنسخ الجينوم , وإنتاج الجنين الذي يحتوي على الحمض النووي الخاص بالحيوان المنقرض. 
بالطبع هي عملية صعبة , ولديها إحتمالات متفاوتة من النجاح , حيث إن كان الجنين بخير في مرحلة الزرع , فسيتم بعد ذلك نقله في رحم أم بديلة ليمر بشهور الحمل ويولد بصحة جيدة ... 
كل هذا يبدو كضرباً من الخيال العلمي .. ولكن في الحقيقة كانت هناك محاولات بالفعل من العلماء لإستنساخ حيوانات منقرضة حديثة مثل ( حيوان الوعل من نوع البرانس ) Pyrenean ibex , والذي إنقرض عام 2000 , حيث توفرت عينة حية من الحمض النووي للوعل لإستنساخه , وكانت الأم البديلة هي الماعز , ولكن للإسف عاش الحيون المستنسخ لأقل من عشر دقائق بعد ولادته بسبب مشاكل في عملية التنفس التي أودت بحياته .

- وجدير بالذكر أن التشوهات والعيوب الخلقية كانت نتاج عمليات الإستنساخ أيضاً سواء كان المخلوق إنقرض أم لا .. 

على الرغم من ذلك ... فإن العلماء يمكنهم أن يقوموا بإستنساخ حيوانات إنقرضت منذ 200،000 سنة بغض النظر عن النتيجة , ونذكر منها ما يلي : 

1- طائر الدودو - Dodo


- دعونا نبداً بطائر الدودو , وهو واحد من العديد من الطيور التي إنقرضت فقط بسبب جهل الإنسان , فقد كانت تعيش هذه الطيور فقط في جزيرة بالقرب من مدغشقر , وتعرضت لعمليات الصيد الواسعة التي أدت إلى إنقراضها .. ومع ذلك فإن طائر الدودو مرشح للإستنساخ بسبب توفر الحمض النووي له , ووجود بعض الأقارب الحية للدودو والتي يمكن إستخدامها كأمهات بديلة .

2- الماموث الصوفي ووحيد القرن الصوفي - Woolly Mammoths and Rhinos


- الماموث الصوفي ووحيد القرن تركوا وراءهم جثث محفوضة بشكل جيد  , والفضل يعود إلى طبقات الجليد السميك التي كانت موجودة في مناطق التندرا حيث كانت تجوب تلك الحيوانات في الماضي البعيد , ولأن هناك الكثير من الشعر وبعض الدم في تلك الجثث المحفوظة فإن هناك بالطبع الكثير من الحمض النووي الذي يمكن العمل عليه , فضلاً عن وجود بدائل كأمهات في حيوانات وحيد القرن الحديثة والفيلة .

3- كسلان الأرض - Ground Sloth


- عند التفكير في حيوان الكسلان , فإننا نتذكر ذلك المخلوق ذو الثلاث مخالب , والذي بالكاد يتحرك على أغصان الأشجار , ولكن ما لا تعرفه أن له إبن عم عملاق منقرض  Ù…Ù† آلاف السنين وهو كسلان الأرض , وكان أشبه بالدببة القطبية , وعلى الرغم من وجود الحمض النووي الخاص به لدينا الآن , إلا أنه لا يوجد حيوان ليكون بمثابة الأم البديلة , لذا فقط يلجأ العلماء إلى الأرحام الإصطناعية .

4- الحمام المهاجر - Passenger Pigeons


- حتى مطلع القرن العشرين كان الحمام المهاجر موجود بوفرة كبيرة , وكان يعيش في أمريكا الشمالية , حتى إنقرض بسبب الصيد , وإزالة الغابات , ولكن على الرغم من ذلك فإن العلماء لديهم الحمض النووي الخاص به , كما أن حمامة الحداد يمكن أن تكون الأم البديلة لتلك العملية . 

5- النمرالسيفي ( السيملدون )  - (Saber-Toothed Tigers (Smilodon


- نضيف إلى قائمة المرشحين للإستنساخ النمر السيفي , وهو احد تلك الحيوانات المتوحشة التي عاشت في الماضي البعيد , ويمكن القول بإن أنياب تلك القطط الكبيرة كانت قادرة على إختراق جمجمة بشرية والخروج من الجانب الآخر , كما أن العلماء لديهم كل ما يحتاجونه لإستنساخ النمر السيفي - ولكن في حالة ان شخص ما أراد أن يجازف بإستعادة تلك الوحوش المفترسة - .
جدير بالذكر : أن في عام 2011 أعلن علماء يابانيون عزمهم على محاولة إستنساخ حيوان الماموث الصوفي , كما أن جامعة أكسفورد , لديها الحمض النووي لطائر الدودو والعديد من عينات الحمض النووي لأنواع حيوانية عديدة منقرضة .. وعند تلك النقطة .. علينا أن ننتظر , هل سينجح العلماء يوماً في إستنساخ كائن منقرض بصحة جيدة .. أم أن هذه العملية قد تنتج ( فرانكشتاين ) من نوع آخر !

إقرأ أيضاً 
أشهر 6 مخلوقات إنقرضت بسبب الإنسان 

المصدر
histor5icmysteries

          Ubuntu Linux Software Raid – Replacing a Failing Drive        
Sometime back I setup my home server running Ubuntu Linux (6.06 – Dapper Drake LTS). I used two pairs of drives to do raid cloning. Two IDE drives were for the main system structure and two SATA drives for Audio/Video storage as well as CDimages and other large file sharing on the local network. Well… [...]
          Clonezilla/DRBL on Ubuntu        
I’ve talked about Clonezilla as a remarkably good an fast disk cloning utility previously, but there’s more to the clonezilla project than just rescue imaging of drives. There’s also a thin-boot server as well…. (diskless remote boot loader?) Anyway, This tutorial talks about how to setup clonezilla/drbl on a recent ubuntu install. Of course, there’s [...]
          Shape of Life, Shape of Fiction        

Ever read a non-fiction book or watch a documentary film and think to yourself, "If only I could write fiction that strange, that unpredictable, and have it be plausible to people?  If I wrote a story like that, no reader would believe it."  

I had that thought the other day when I saw the Errol Morris documentaryTabloid (2010) for the first time.  The movie documents a story that is not only bizarre, as one would expect from an Errol Morris film, but it also has an overall narrative arc, for lack of a better phrase, that would be hard to pull off in fiction without seeming arbitrary and ridiculous.

Tabloid gives us Joyce McKinney, the American woman who in 1977 was the instigator of the "Mormon Sex in Chains" case.  A former beauty pageant winner, McKinney met young Mormon Kirk Anderson in the United States, where they had a romantic and sexual relationship.  He cut the relationship off abruptly, however, and went to England to do his Mormon missionary work. Distraught at his depature, McKinney managed to put together enough money to go to England in pursuit of him.  She had a male accomplice in tow, and this guy helped her abduct Anderson, perhaps at gunpoint, from the steps of a Mormon meetinghouse and get him into a waiting vehicle.  The pair took Anderson to a cottage in Devon, where McKinney shackled him to a bed and then had sex with him for three days.  Anderson then escaped and went to the police.  He claimed not only that he had been the victim of kidnapping, but that all the sex that had occurred in the cottage with Joyce had been against his will.  Joyce was arrested, but she refuted the charges, saying that Kirk had gone with her willingly and that there had certainly been no rape. The sex had been consensual, and she loved Kirk.  Her accomplice, Keith May, it should be said, took no part in any sexual activity with either Joyce or Kirk, though apparently he lived his life feeling some sort of love for McKinney, a passion that would never be requited through any physical expression from her. Just being close to her, it seems, was enough for him.

That's the basic story, and it became a cause celebre in Britain, amusing fodder for the tabloids there when Britain, otherwise, was going through difficult political times. Among other things, through the betrayal of another previous boyfriend in the United States, the Daily Mirror discovered that Joyce, in order to raise money for her international escapade, had worked in California as a paid dominatrix offering S&M services.  In the end, both Joyce and Keith May jumped bail in England and escaped back to the United States on phony passports they'd acquired.  England never pursued extradition.

Plenty here for one story, and if you had made this up and written it, you might already be straining credulity.  You'd also be getting into the uncomfortable area of woman on man rape.  Joyce is adamant in saying no rape occurred, talks about how much physically larger Kirk was than her, and describes the whole idea of a woman raping a man as absurd. Like "trying to force a marshmallow into a parking meter," she says.

But the documentary doesn't end here, just like Joyce's life didn't end.  Thirty two years later, Joyce reappeared in the news for something completely unrelated to her Manacled Mormon adventure. As she tells it, she became soured on love when it became clear she would not end up with Kirk (though a few years later, she was questioned, back in Utah, for allegedly stalking Anderson), and turned her affections to animals, particularly dogs.  She lived quietly this way for decades.  But then because of bad dog medicine purposely given to her by a malicious veterinarian, a dog she owned attacked and nearly killed her.  The only thing that saved her was the intercession of her other dog, her pit bull Booger, himself killed in his rescue attempt.  She was grief-stricken over Booger's passing until she found out about the possibility of animal cloning, and after more time had passed, she agreed to let Korean scientists take the deceased Booger's cells for cloning.  She was hoping so much the procedure would work so that she could  have a new Booger.  Not only did it work, it succeeded beyond expectation, as the impregnated surrogate mother dog produced five puppies, all clones of Booger. 

And so, in 2008, Joyce  McKinney was cast back into the media spotlight.  She popped up in South Korea as the owner of five cloned baby pit bulls.  She insisted she was named Berman McKinney and denied any connection to the so-called Joyce McKinney of the 1977 Manacled Mormon case journalists kept referring to. They kept making this link because the Berman of 2008 looked a lot like the Berman of sex scandal fame.  She even threatened legal action against anyone who noted that she was in fact Joyce McKinney. Finally, though, she did come clean, and she admitted to the media that she was the person from the 1977 tabloid case. Not that she happily accepted the linking of the two episodes. As she says in the film to Errol Morris, "I don't see the connection between cloned dogs and a 32-year old sex-in-chains story."

Neither do I.  And when you think about it, would anyone?  If you wrote this exact tale as a novel, something you made up, wouldn't you have trouble selling its believability?  It would seem like too many far-fetched incidents piled atop one another.  You'd also have to wrestle with the complete tonal shift from the first media frenzy and what that was about to the second media eruption and what that had to do with. First you get sex, religion, abduction, and obsessive love; later you get a woman pining for the return of the pet she loved, the companion she never found in the human world.  First you have something like a trashy but funny crime story; then out of the blue the book switches gears and becomes a sci-fi tinged tale about scientific ethics and humans tinkering with nature.  You could see a reader saying, "This writer is really straining to give me twists, and I don't believe a single one of them.  Nothing holds together here."

Tabloid is just one example of a true story too implausible to write as fiction. Everyone has their favorites in this area, I'm sure, and there are many more examples.  But I have to say, every time I see or read or hear one of these "truth is stranger than fiction" narratives, I start to wonder how you could get as close as possible to writing a novel with this true to life oddness and downright unbelievability and somehow make it work as fiction. How could you forge a fictional narrative that has the shapelessness yet off-the-wall riveting quality of something like Tabloid?  I'm not sure, yet. Maybe I never will be.  But it's a fun problem to think about and a fun challenge to put to oneself.  It's something to strive for - a way to find a kind of plot that keeps a reader hooked yet has the preposterous, meandering freedom that real life provides.







          Cloning with Picnik        
After my last post on playing with Picnik a few people asked me to demonstrate how to use the cloning feature on Picnik to blend pictures.  I am more than happy to do so but please remember I am a novice at this but I will show you what I know how to do.  Please note that you must have a premium membership with Picnik to use the cloning feature.  I think it's about 25 bucks a year.

Here's the two pictures I would like to combine:


 A pretty background from the Graphics Fairy... &

 A cupcake picture (and I forgot where I got this from, sorry).


Once you're on the homepage of Picnik, click on the Library Tab, then click on "Make a Collage."  Of course you'll need to upload your pictures here.  You'll note on that on the left hand side you can select from a variety of different collage designs.  For simplicity I chose just 2 spaces for this design.  Once you've chosen your pictures (just drag and drop which pictures you would like) click done and you're ready to clone!

It will look like this.  But remember that you can choose as many pictures as you like.
 As you can see I want to clone my cupcakes to add to my new background.  So, click on the advanced tab at the top of the page and you will see a new menu of items on your left side.  The very top one is the cloning feature.  Click on the cloning feature and then click on the area of the picture that you want to clone.  Next, using your left click on your mouse, add the new picture to the second one (hold left mouse button down and drag on the area of the page that you want to add it to).  Note that you can change the size of the brush.  Remember too that you can click on "undo" in the right hand corner at any time if you don't like something.

I ended up with this

Notice in the top photo how my cupcakes have some of the former background in the new design?  No problem!  Simply click on the eraser (you can change the size of that too to get into really tight places) and drag your mouse around the areas that you don't want.

So I've cleaned up what I didn't want and I am happy with how my transferred cupcakes look like. 



Lastly, click on the edit tab and crop your picture.  What do you think????

 There is so much you can do with Picnik and they have the greatest fonts that you can add too.  So give it a shot, explore, experiment and have some fun.

I would loooovvee to see what you come up with! 

I hope this helps, even a little bit.

xoxoxox,
Jacalyn

          Fun with Piknic        
Am I the last person on Earth to find out how much fun Picnik is?  I have browsed it before but never really did anything with it until the last month or so and yes, I paid for the premium package.  It has a lot of wonderful tools but I know it's not as good as Photoshop.  I actually have Photoshop but it overwhelms me and I even bought a book, ha!  I am more of a visual learner though so I need to take a class and it is on my list of "things to do before I die."

I wanted to make some vintage type labels for my new cleaning products... more on that later. 


I loved these 2 graphics from Dover and the Graphics Fairy so I blended them together to create a label for my kitchen cleanser:

Picnik has a cloning tool which helped me add the flowers to cover up what was in the original label and to add the bird.  I used Marcella Font which I love!  As you can tell I cropped out some of the original picture too.  Since my kitchen is yellow and cobalt blue, this label goes very well!  The tag line "All the Clean You Need" is actual a saying I found on a vintage Tide advertisement.



Here you can see that I added a scrub brush from the picture on the right to the rose label.


Again, I added a wash tub to this graphic with the cloning feature.  I think this might be my favorite.

Just a couple of more examples...



Most graphics are from the wonderful Graphics Fairy, many of whom love her too! 

Some day I will learn to Photoshop but in the meantime I will continue to play with Picnik.

Hugs,
Jacalyn

          Comment on The Ramones – Why they were shit and how they ruined punk by Dan Zaster        
Your Opinion is skewed. the DIY Garage sound started in the US. it didn't have a look, it certainly wasn't the list of clothes the British Clone machine spewed out in compliance to uniformity. The whole article is as you're lot say SHITE. The Ramones were not proficient musicians. the could not get a gig playing Top of pops hits in a bar. The Punk rules of music,,,, He'll there are none. The Ramones 4 th L.P. is what you chose to compare to the Monkees of so called Punk ( Pistols) our bands are usually chums, youth that have a nice love for music, and with that The Ever present Can as in Ameri can Do do do spirit. none of this British Cloning crap that you're re Lot have copied and may I I add , been copying since great grandad heard an American Army regiment play Swing and Jazz, to counter the awfullt dull british Bands and music. The Brits were always a bit stiff for American tastes. YOU LEARN, WE TEACH. . GET IT STRAIGHT.
          The Clone Wars: A Look At The Science Of 'Orphan Black'        
If you've seen Orphan Black, the BBC America TV show whose season 1 finale airs June 1, you'd know that our antihero, Sarah, is a clone. Now someone is going clone hunting, and it's up to Sarah and her new-found clone sisters to learn who is behind their deaths—and their lives—before it's too late. In a phone interview with the creators of Orphan Black, co-creator John Fawcett said, "We saw an amazing chance in concept of cloning to create a character-driven series."
          I’m in Hell        

In Diablo III that is… There I go, not paying attention to where my cursor is again. What a way to ruin a shot, I couldn’t be bothered cloning it out though :P So far Hell mode doesn’t seem to bad, I have died a few times but that was due to those annoying chain […]

The post I’m in Hell appeared first on Bubbles of Mischief.


          Diary of a Minion        
Grand Navy of the Imperium
Imperial Third Fleet, Ninth Squadron
Gunstar-Class Battlecruiser "Vengeance"

Plasma Cannon Technical Team VTT-10
CT2 Armin Shale

Technician's Log
SID 23109.20
---------------------------------------------------------
Graeme was on me again today. First thing this morning, he was bitching about the column widths on the Weapon Test Report. I was all, like, "Graeme, I didn't realize the JWI for the WTR specified Imperium-preferred column-widths." Idiot. Then he gave me a hard time for ducking out in the middle of mid-morning department meeting. I'm like, "Dude, you should be glad I didn't hang around. Trust me. When I run out like that, there's usually a good reason," which, then, just led him to start whining about how long it had taken me. I'm like, "Uh, yeah, sometimes it takes a while, Graeme. It's not like I can plan these things." I swear, I hate that guy.

I don't hate that new blonde tech in AG, though. I don't hate her at all. Why'd she have to be in AG, though? "Most important tech team on the ship" my ass. Yeah. We get it. If the artifical gravity craps out, we all float around. Nobody can pilot the ship. The Star Lord gets pissed off, probably has someone executed. Ok. Look, I'm not denying that artificial gravity is important, but, hey, guess what else is important on a GUNSTAR? Yeah, that's right, the frelling GUNS. If the guns on a Gunstar don't work, well, then it's just, what, a medical frigate? Tugboat? So, yeah, cannon techs are pretty important, too. Anyway, maybe the dickishness of the AG group hasn't infected the pretty blonde yet. Maybe she'll get a clue that she works with a bunch of jerks and put in for a transfer.

Oh, yeah, there was kind of a commotion this afternoon. Some Confederation losers snuck onto the ship, apparently planning to spring a prisoner that we picked up last week (a former big-wig from Kamalos, supposedly). Anyway, these geniuses somehow made it down to the brig, where they ran smack into 2 platoons of Ghataki, as well as the Star Lord himself (he was "interrogating" the prisoner). So, anyway, long-story-short- big gun battle, corridors blown to bits, 3 service bots smashed, plus these guys get away! With the prisoner! I don't know, man. I guess they're not cloning Ghataki like they used to. On the bright side, I guess there are now two new openings for Ghataki platoon commanders! Yeah, thanks, but no thanks. I'm not interested in any job where being reprimanded involves a quick trip to the nearest airlock. On the other hand, at least I wouldn't have to deal with Graeme.
          BUT DO YA REMEMBER LAUGHING OUT LOUD?        
There are many things I don't want to do anymore: -

I don't want to write about fashion, style, media, film, internet trends without SUBJECTIVITY.
I don't want to collage, doodle, photograph or record any kind of data without retaining OWNERSHIP.
I don't feel like MASS REPRODUCTION or CLONING benefits my method of creating.
I don't want to edit, adjust or re-evaluate my own words by a dated language SISSY STEM.
And a SCANNER is so much fun but such a friggin LIAR, U GUISE!

and I realize all my interests draw back to the same things - desire to not be alone, desire to communicate with others - desire to attract?

I have an essay saved on my laptop called 'how we attract' which is unfinished. Like all my essays are unfinished and empty, since gaining a Bachelors of Farts in the school of Dropping Out With 25K Debt And Nothing To Show For It But 313 Twitter Followers.

You considerate try-hard, you Fool of A Took.

It's possible to be oblivious of how humorous this situation looks when your outside of the disaster area, so I'll 'paint a picture': Nobody who you live with in student accommodation will respect that you are a Bachelor of Arts student in FEEL UM when they are Doing Something Meaningful or care about Making Money. Surely everybody only attends uni to find out How To Make Money In Three Years Or Less, right?

You won't get to have the meaningful conversations you want to have about FILL 'O' SOPHIE or FEAR WEE but you will literally force yourself into a situation where you live with a PRAC TEA SING CHRIS TEA ANNE, a WANNA BEE ECO CON ADMIST and a VEG EGALITARIAN with QUEST JUNG ABLE VALUE SISSY TUM.

You will remember how five years at a GIRLS COMPREHENSIVE has made you terrified of interacting with your own gender and surround yourself with characters who you can basically fulfill your communication needs by  playing characters AND being sassy, selfish and stupid (sarah).

At the RUDE DOVE HIT you just want to be able to deal with different people, but in doing so minimize yourself into one room - and suddenly, surrounded by everything you have ever owned: you are sixteen again. you are restless. you are lonely. you are unhappy.

and most of all you want to justify your own existence, your decisions and your goals to a crowd which only uses you for movie night film selections and dragging you out to yet another pub that you just can't give a shit about. AND U ASK YRSELF>> WHY DOES NOBODY SEE MY VALUE? WHY DOES NOBODY WANT TO UTILIZE MY SKILLS AND THE BENEFITS OF BEING MY FRIEND? WAH WAH WAH WHY DOES NOBODY CARE?

So you flunk your final essay and run back home to your city and spend two years trying to recover from terrible decision making and tear all your skills and traits and anything anybody has ever mentioned about you to shreds. You essentially create a TEEN RENEE STANCE for yourself to hide within. You only accept things you have created yourself as genuine. You laugh off any compliment you receive. You furiously state everything you believe ASS A MAD DUH UGH FACKED.

You log on, and suddenly you aren't alone.

I'm Sarah and I've been trying to get your attention with urgency and desperation. I've been trying to coalesce all my sugary sadness and miasma of mopes into some kind of synthesized Defense Of mySelf.

I'm less broken than I was in twenty twelve and Reclaimer Reclaimer! Have you found your voice yet? Was it hiding under that mother bored? was it beneath the random abcess memory? what is m00-VINK U?
          Cara Install Windows 8 Di Hardisk Eksternal        
cara install windows 8 di hardisk eksternal Fun zone Ingin melakukan cloning windows? berikut ini adalah cara cloning windows 8/8.1 yang bisa kamu lakukan dengan mudah. Semenjak diperkenalkan di windows xp dengan nama internet connection firewall, windows firewall sudah mengalami beberapa perubahan signifikan khususnya untuk firewall. Sebenarnya tutorial cara membuat video slideshow dari gambar atau […]
                  
With Windows Server 2012, you now have the option to clone domain controllers. You no longer need to install a fresh copy of an operating system, and run dcpromo. By simply using a PowerShell command you prepare that domain controller for cloning, and when you power on the cloned domain controller it will have a different …

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          Comment on My Windows 8.1 doesn’t like the NTI Echo 3 cloning utility.. by Mike Hall        
Well, I didn't have a card reader installed at the time as I remember, and I certainly would not entertain use of a utility where I have disable parts of the computer hardware in order to get it working. Sorry NTI, but you lost out to a free application where the user does not have to disable anything. That you admit to it failing on other operating systems further reduces credibility in the product. To get people like me on board/back on board, you are going to have to do a lot better, and be a lot less dogmatic when a user tries to find an operating system upon which an NTI utility will actually run..
          Comment on My Windows 8.1 doesn’t like the NTI Echo 3 cloning utility.. by NTI Tech support        
Mr. Hall, After you contacted us we found that a flash memory card reader with empty slots will prevent Echo form opening. To work around it you can disable the drives associated with your memory card reader's slots and Echo will open and run. This happens on more than just Windows 8.1 because it is not a compatibility issue with Windows 8.1.
          Comment on My Windows 8.1 doesn’t like the NTI Echo 3 cloning utility.. by Mike Hall        
Aomei Partition assistant is what I am using now. NTI support was off-hand about it and decidedly unfriendly. It will not serve them well.. :-)
          Comment on My Windows 8.1 doesn’t like the NTI Echo 3 cloning utility.. by Mike Hall        
Aomei Partition assistant is what I am using now. NTI support was off-hand about it and decidedly unfriendly. It will not serve them well.. :-)
          Teorías de la Personalidad - Susan C. Cloninger.        

Hola chic@s, hasta el momento van conociendo y adquiriendo conocimientos relevantes, que contribuyen a su formación como futuros psicólogos; como tal es preciso que constantemente vayan reforzando lo aprendido, tratando de leer noticias, investigaciones, nuevas publicaciones, libros, entre otros medios informativos que enriquezcan sus conocimientos.

Con el fin de autoactualización, es que encontré un libro que les puede ser de gran utilidad para complementar o reforzar lo que ya han aprendido. Este libro tiene como nombre "Teorías de la Personalidad", 3era Edición, la autora es Susan C. Cloninger.

Esta autora pretende que el libro logre en los estudiantes, además de largos periodos de tiempo con una entretenida lectura, busca que comprendan las ideas o postulados básicos acerca de la Psicología de la Personalidad desde distintas corrientes teóricas; esta autora busca el equilibrio entre mucha información y mucha simplificación; es decir hizo un intento y una mejora a ediciones anteriores tratando de dejar la información relevante y/o principal, simplificando así mucha información, sin embargo las citas están presentes por si desean profundizar.

Para revisar este libro puede hacer un clic en el nombre : "TEORÍAS DE LA PERSONALIDAD"




Este libro es una cortesía de GOOGLE, quien lo otorga con la modalidad vista previa.



Espero que sea de su utilidad!


Renato Oviedo Perochena
Coordinador de la Asignatura
Psicología de la Personalidad
renatoviedo@gmail.com


          SWE- How to Screw         
Tips and topics include: Cloning your willy, crooked penises, Christ for Kegels, the oral sex "chin trick," and the oral sex "screw trick." Emily goes on to teach people how to function during sex. Stare lovingly into your partner's eyes without looking psychotic, have loud, ravenous sex whenever possible, and remember to breathe (yes, people forget). Emily also explains what to do if someone stops functioning during sex. People have a better chance of having a heart attack during sex than most other activities. At least they'll die happily on top of you.
           Recently Discovered Immune Cells may Help Treat Allergies and Infections        
Cell types with critical roles in adaptive immunity are antigen-presenting cells including macrophages and dendritic cells. The immune system is

           Stem cells made with just seven chemicals        
News in Brief

Cocktail of molecules turns adult mouse cells into embryonic-like ones

By
4:47pm, July 18, 2013
Citations

P. Hou. Pluripotent stem cells induced from mouse somatic cells by small-molecule compounds. Science. Published online July 18, 2013. doi:10.1126/science. [Go to]
Further Reading

M. Rosen. Cloning produces human embryonic stem cells. Science News. Vol. 183, June 15, 2013, p. 5. Available online: [Go to]

T.H. Saey. Skin cells transformed directly into neurons. Science News. Vol. 177, February 27, 2010, p. 5. Available online: [Go to]

P. Barry. Hold the Embryos: Genes turn skin into stem cells. Science News. Vol. 172, November 24, 2007, p. 323. Available Online: [Go to]

Whipping up a batch of stem cells just got easier.

A new recipe for transforming adult cells into embryonic-like ones calls for a chemical cocktail to erase signs of age. By adding just seven small molecules, scientists can turn back time for mature mouse cells, converting them into pluripotent stem cells. These cells hover at the brink of developing into virtually any type of tissue.

Researchers have previously created pluripotent stem cells using cloning, or by dosing a dish of adult cells with “master genes” that flip grown-up cells back to a youthful state. But cloning cells and tinkering with genes can be expensive and technically tricky.

So biologist Pingping Hou of Peking University in Beijing and colleagues scoured a collection of about 10,000 chemicals and found a combination that mimicked the cell-programming effects of master genes. Adding the combo to adult mouse cells turned them into pluripotent stem cells, which the researchers could then make into brain, lung or muscle tissue, Hou and colleagues report July 18 in Science.

If the chemical method works in human cells, it could one day make stem cells for medical use, the researchers suggest.


          Beware of missed call to check SIM cloning        

Next time if you get a missed call starting with +92; #90 or #09, don't show the courtesy of calling back because chances are it would lead to your SIM card being cloned. The telecom service providers are now issuing alerts to subscribers —particularly about the series mentioned above as the moment one press the call button after dialing the above number, someone at the other end will get your phone and SIM card cloned. According to reports, more than one lakh subscribers have fallen prey to this new telecom terror attack as the frequency of such calls continues to grow. Intelligence agencies have reportedly confirmed to the service providers particularly in UP West telecom division that such a racket is not only under way but the menace is growing fast. "We are sure there must be some more similar combinations that the miscreants are using to clone the handsets and all the information stored in them," an intelligence officer told TOI. General Manager (GM) BSNL, RV Verma, said the department had already issued alerts to all the broadband subscribers and now alert SMSes were being issued to other subscribers as well. As per Rakshit Tandon, an IT expert who also teaches at the police academy (UP), the crooks can use other combination of numbers as well while making a call. "It is better not to respond to calls received from unusual calling numbers," says Tandon. "At the same time one should avoid storing specifics of their bank account, ATM/ Credit/Debit card numbers and passwords in their phone memory because if one falls a prey to such crooks then the moment your cell phone or sim are cloned, the data will be available to the crooks who can withdraw amount from your bank accounts as well," warns Punit Misra; an IT expert who also owns a consultancy in Lucknow. The menace that threatens to steal the subscriber's information stored in the phone or external memory (sim, memory & data cards) has a very scary side as well. Once cloned, the culprits can well use the cloned copy to make calls to any number they wish to. This exposes the subscribers to the threat of their connection being used for terror calls. Though it will be established during the course of investigations that the cellphone has been cloned and misused elsewhere, it is sure to land the subscriber under quite some pressure till the time the fact about his or her phone being cloned and misused is established, intelligence sources said. "It usually starts with a miss call from a number starting with + 92. The moment the subscriber calls back on the miss call, his or her cell phone is cloned. In case the subscribers takes the call before it is dropped as a miss call then the caller on the other end poses as a call center executive checking the connectivity and call flow of the particular service provider. The caller then asks the subscriber to press # 09 or # 90 call back on his number to establish that the connectivity to the subscriber was seamless," says a victim who reported the matter to the BSNL office at Moradabad last week. "The moment I redialed the caller number, my account balance lost a sum of money. Thereafter, in the three days that followed every time I got my cell phone recharged, the balance would be reduced to single digits within the next few minutes," she told the BSNL officials.


          AppZero Announces Contest to Name Tool that Automates the Movement of Windows Applications To and From Any Clouds        

Real-time migration and cloning of enterprise applications by simply running them on target machine is newly available in AppZero release 4.8.

(PRWeb November 07, 2011)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/appzero/contest/prweb8940642.htm


          Storage Area Network: Infrastructure, Service and Benefits        

Storage Area Network (SAN) is that network which provides accessibility to block level consolidated data storage. The SANs are used primarily for enhancing storage devices like optical jukeboxes, disk arrays and tape libraries. SAN has server accessibility such that device appears to operating systems like attached devices locally. Typically SAN has own storage device networks which is not accessible generally by means of (LAN) local area network by different devices. Complexities and costs of SANs had dropped in 2000s year early to levels. It allowed wide adoption through small and enterprise to medium-sized environments of business. SANs do not provide file abstractions. It provides only block levelled operations. But, file systems created on top of the SANs provides file levelled accessibility. It is called shared-disk file systems.        

Benefits: Storage being shared simplifies usually administration of storage. It adds flexibilities as because storage devices and cables have no physical movement to shift storages from 1 server to other. A different benefit includes abilities of allowing servers booting from SAN itself. It allows easy and quick replacement of servers that are faulty. SAN could be reconfigured such that replacement servers use LUN of faulty servers. Whilst this realm of technology is greatly novice, many have visions that it is future of enterprise data centre. SANs tends enabling of very effective (DR) disaster recovery processes. SANs can span distant locations which contains secondary storage arrays. It enables replication of storage implemented either by server software, by SAN devices specialized or by disk array controllers. IP WANs are least costly methods of transports of long distances. iSCSI and Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP) protocols are developed for allowing SAN extension over networks of IP. Traditional SCSI physical layer supports few distance meters only. This is not enough nearly for ensuring continuance of business in disasters. Consolidation economic of disk arrays have enhanced and accelerated advancements of many features. This includes snapshotting, input-output caching and volume cloning (BCVs or Business Continuance Volumes).  

Infrastructure of SAN: The SANs use often topology of Fibre Channel Fabric. It is infrastructure which is designed especially for handling storage communications. This provides fast and most reliable accessibility than high levelled protocols that are used in NAS. It is fabric being same in concepts to network segments in local area networks. Fibre Channel SAN fabric typically is created of number of switches of Fibre Channel. Presently, all important vendors of SAN equipment offer few forms of routing solutions of Fibre Channel. These bring scalability benefits substantially to architecture of SAN. This allows data crossing in between various fabrics with no merging them. Offerings thereby use protocol proprietary elements and top levelled architectures that are promoted as being different radically. There is enabling of mapping Fibre Channel traffics over IP or over SDH/SONET.              

SAN Storage QoS (Quality of Service): SAN Storage QoS (Quality of Service) is performance and capacity coordination in storage area network dedicated. It enables storage desired performance being maintained and calculated for customers of network that access device. Important factors affecting SAN Storage QoS (Quality of Service) are: Latency: It is delay of time for operation execution of writing and reading. Queue depth: It is numbers of operations outstanding that wait for execution to disks that are underlying (SSD or traditional). Bandwidth: It is data throughput rate present on system.   QoS is impacted in storage system of SAN by increase unexpectedly in data traffics (usage spikes).

It is from 1 network user which causes decrease in performance for different users on similar network. This is called “Noisy Neighbour Effect”. When services of QoS are enabled in storage system of SAN then “Noisy Neighbour Effect” is prevented. Storage performance of network is predicted correctly.


           Cloning and mapping of the porcine cytochrome-p450 2E1 gene and its association with skatole levels in the domestic pig         
Skinner, T., Doran (nee Udovikova), O., McGivan, J. D., Haley, C. and Archibald , A. and University of Bristol, ROslin Insitute (2005) Cloning and mapping of the porcine cytochrome-p450 2E1 gene and its association with skatole levels in the domestic pig. Animal Genetics, 36 (5). pp. 417-426. ISSN 0268-9146 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/14905
          Rencana Menghidupkan Kembali Gajah Purba        

Melihat mammoth (gajah purba) hidup kembali kelak bukan suatu hal yang dianggap mustahil. Setidaknya dalam lima tahun ke depan kita akan bisa melihat lagi anggota keluarga gajah yang telah punah 10.000 tahun lalu. Peneliti asal Rusia juga sebagai Direktur Museum Mammoth Republik Sakha, Semyon Grigoriev, berencana mengkloning gajah purba itu setelah menemukan sumsum tulang paha yang masih utuh. Kantor berita Jepang, Kyodo, menyebutkan, fosil gajah purba itu ditemukan di wilayah Siberia. Proyek yang akan dilakukan bersama Universitas Kinki itu akan dimulai tahun depan. Menurut Grigoriev, kunci penting untuk mengkloning gajah purba adalah menggantikan inti dari sel telur gajah dengan sel-sel tulang paha gajah purba. Proses ini akan menghasilkan embrio dengan DNA gajah purba. 

Tahap-tahap peng-kloningan Mammoth seperti berikut :

[Klik gambar untuk memperbesar]

Kloning akan dilakukan dengan menanamkan sel sumsum tulang belakang gajah purba ke sel telur gajah yang telah dihilangkan intinya.Sel telur yang "dibuahi" oleh sel sumsum tulang belakang gajah purba itu kemudian diimplantasikan di kandungan gajah modern. Individu yang lahir nantinya memiliki DNA dari gajah purba. Mammoth dan gajah merupakan hewan yang memiliki kemiripan, hanya saja hidup di zaman berbeda. Karena alasan itu, gajah dipilih sebagai spesies yang akan dikawinkan dengan mammoth.


 
gambar ilustrasi




Pencarian inti sel gajah purba dilakukan sejak tahun 1990-an. Melihat gajah purba hidup kembali akan menjadi temuan yang menajubkan. Hanya saja ide meng-kloning hewan purba yang sudah punah memunculkan banyak perdebatan. Banyak yang khawatir gajah purba akan sulit beradaptasi dengan ekosistem yang ada saat ini meski akan hidup di kebun binatang khusus.
          VirtualBox Manual DPK Import Failure: Ran out of Virtual Disk        

The DPK scripts are simply amazing. I enjoy the flexibility of the new DPK system. I will confess, creating an HCM demo environment with DPK is not as easy as the prior PUM image method, but it is pretty close. As I prepared for OpenWorld 2016, I thought I would download the latest HCM DPK (update 18) and build out a new demo server on my MacBook. Unfortunately, I wasn't able to use the standard Windows PowerShell approach (PowerShell on Mac? Yes, maybe...) so went with the manual VirtualBox import method described in the document: PeopleSoft_Deployment_Packages_For_Update_Images_Installation_July2016, page 31 Task 2-2-2. Everything was running great until the VM attempted to extract HCM-920-UPD-018-OVA_12of15. The install process seemed to hang. With a little investigation, I found that the VM's second disk was full. The solution was rather simple: expand the disk and try again. Just in case you find yourself in this situation, here are the steps I performed to expand the virtual disk.

  1. Following the manual steps, I first imported the VirtualBox shell appliance, but I didn't boot the image
  2. Next, I cloned the second disk using the command VBoxManage clonehd VBOX_8_55_06_SHELL-disk2.vmdk VBOX_8_55_06_SHELL-disk2.vdi --format vdi. The point of cloning into a VDI is so we can use VirtualBox commands to expand the disk.
  3. I then expanded that new disk using the command VBoxManage modifyhd VBOX_8_55_06_SHELL-disk2.vdi --resize 122880. I didn't need to make the disk 120 GB. VirtualBox tells me the image is only using 65 GB, but it doesn't hurt to have extra capacity. The disk files grow as needed.
  4. Optional step: If you want, you can convert the disk back to a VMDK, but this is not necessary. I kept the VirtualBox VDI. VBoxManage clonehd VBOX_8_55_06_SHELL-disk2.vdi VBOX_8_55_06_SHELL-disk2.vmdk --format vmdk.
  5. You need to tell VirtualBox to use the new disk you just created. Open the Virtual Machine's settings and switch to the storage section. Replace the exising *disk2 entry with the name of the file you just created.
  6. Now, here is the interesting part... The virtual disk is bigger, but the operating system doesn't know that yet. We have to stretch the partition table on that disk so the operating system can use the free space we just created. The way I handled this was to boot the VirtualBox guest using one of the amazing Linux live ISO distributions. Specifically, I chose GParted. So, your next step is to download a Linux live distribution. You can find the GParted ISO here. Download the ISO so you can make it available to the VirtualBox guest
  7. With the ISO downloaded, open the guest's properties and switch to the storage settings. Add an optical drive to the IDE controller and select the ISO you downloaded.

  8. Boot the Virtual Machine. The live CD image should take over. If you chose GParted, then you should see the GParted program load. Use the list of disks in the upper right corner to switch to sdb. You should now see a disk with lots of unallocated space. Edit this disk so that it uses all of the available space

  9. Apply your changes, shutdown the virtual machine, and then remove the GParted disk ISO from the virtual drive.
  10. Continue with the rest of the DPK Install steps as described in the Oracle provided documentation.

You should now have a fully functional VirtualBox demo image. Tip: if your usage is light (no SES, not running payroll, etc), then you can easily drop the allocated memory for your VirtualBox image down to 2 GB. I've even run them as low as 1 GB. Memory is important, but I derive the most performance improvement from running these images on an SSD.


          Requiem for the Mad Scientist        

The National Institutes of Health happened to be hosting a gene-therapy conference last month when the makers of the film Gattaca launched their ad campaign. Gattaca's premise is the creation, in the not-so-distant future, of a genetic elite whose DNA has been rejiggered at the embryo stage to eliminate dispositions to such traits as premature baldness and attention-deficit disorder while heightening cheekbones and IQs. The newspaper ads for the film featured a mock promotion for a biotech company that offered prospective parents "children made to order." At the NIH conference, gene therapists reported that after seven years of trying to insert DNA into the cells of the genetically sick, not a single cure had been reported. Considering the difficulty of such relatively simple procedures as these, the world of Gattaca seems a distant nightmare. "There's not a chance in hell," said a conference participant, geneticist Huntington Willard of Case Western Reserve University, "that you could recombine all those genes and get a desired effect."

Still, Francis Collins, the guru of the Human Genome Project at NIH, which is sequencing and identifying all human genes, was intrigued enough to see Gattaca twice, the second time leading a matinee field trip of 60 NIH scientists and staff. Collins, a Christian in the C.S. Lewis mold, broods about the ethical reverberations of genetics quite a bit these days. What he worries about most is genetic redlining, where claims adjusters use tests, which he has helped develop for heritable illnesses, to deny Americans their health insurance. What fascinates and horrifies artists, on the other hand, is the impression that geneticists have more creative power than artists. (Ian Willmut, the Scotsman who cloned Dolly, would seem to be a guy whose work has really come alive.) In Gattaca, as well as in lots of other recent films and books, artists have dreamed up complex nightmares of genetic determinism, where characters are mere puppets of their DNA scripts or of the scientists and profit seekers who manipulate them.

T he wellspring of these works is H.G. Wells'The Island of Dr. Moreau. In this 1896 novel, a vivisectionist attempts to transform animals into men until the misshapen creatures revert and kill him, the forces of nature overcoming man's civilizing artifices. From The Boys From Brazil (Auschwitz doctor Josef Mengele, alive and well and cloning Hitlers at a secret lab in the Brazilian Amazon) to Jurassic Park (Richard Attenborough alive and well and cloning velociraptors), Wells' basic formula has become familiar: an island; a Frankensteinian experiment; a Faustian scientist; something gone terribly, terribly wrong.

But something else has gone terribly wrong since H.G. Wells' time. In the new genetic thriller, the scientist is no longer mad, because he has no illusions of mastery. Instead, he's a lone and often belated moralist, eaten up with remorse and anxiety, pushed into unsavory experimentation less by runaway curiosity than by unscrupulous corporate overlords. Genetic manipulation is a given. The yucky thing is the profit motive. And the mistreatment of lab animals.

In Gattaca, the victim is Vincent Freeman (played by Ethan Hawke), a "faith birth" whose parents didn't tamper with his embryonic DNA. Because baby Vincent's instant genome readout indicated a weak heart and a life expectancy of 30.2 years, he finds as an adult that nobody will hire him, particularly not at the space agency. The hero, in a sense, is the company doctor, who helps Vincent realize his dreams of becoming an astronaut in order to spite the biotech-state (the doctor's own eugenically planned son "didn't turn out the way they promised").

Or consider Robin Cook's thriller Chromosome 6. Molecular biologist Kevin Marshall works at a secret lab in Africa (shades of Moreau) fiddling with the DNA of apes to render their organs immunologically fit for transplanting into rich Americans. One day Marshall notices smoke rising from the island on which the organ-harvested apes are warehoused. Arriving to investigate, he finds them standing around a campfire, chatting. It seems that he has inadvertently re-created the missing link.

So what does Kevin do? Resign and register his ethical concerns with the NIH? Write up his results for publication in Nature? Order his broker to buy biotech? In the end, his nostalgia for fuzzy critters results in an act of defiance against his corporate boss: He throws biotech and science to the wind and helps the man-apes flee into the wilderness.

T he misgivings of scientists are particularly shrill in Frameshift, by Canadian sci-fi writer Robert J. Sawyer. It's a purple premise: The Treblinka death-camp guard Ivan the Terrible has adopted a new identity in California as the chief actuary for a health-insurance company. When a French-Canadian scientist working in the genome project at Berkeley stumbles onto a series of murders in which Ivan is implicated, he thinks he's found a neo-Nazi plot to eliminate the genetically challenged. But it turns out Ivan's goals are more banal: His company is bumping off clients whose genetic profiles indicate big future medical bills.

In Gattaca and elsewhere, genetic enhancement is harnessed to profit, reflecting capitalism's relentless remaking of the world in search of efficiency. This can backfire alarmingly, as in Nancy Kress' 1991 novel, Beggars in Spain. In it, genetic engineers adhering to an Ayn Rand-like philosophy called "Yagaism" create a race of people who don't need to sleep. The genetically altered kids are exceedingly bright, ambitious, and nerdy, as if cloned from Bill Gates, and grow up believing that a person's only value is what he or she produces. Eventually, this race of supergeeks becomes so thoroughly eugenicist that it turns on its makers.

In Dr. Moreau, it's the monsters who force the moral issues. They're sloppy, imperfect products, trying desperately to live up to an ideal of progress. "Are we not men?" they plaintively ask. Their struggle underscores Moreau's spiritual poverty and capacity for mischief. "To this day I have never troubled about the ethics," he says of his work. In the new genetic thrillers, it's the scientist who makes a last-ditch stand against an irresponsible society--reflecting a role for scientists as the defenders of ethical principles that were born at the Nazi doctor trials at Nuremberg and endured through the Cold War.

Treblinka and Nagasaki may have given scientists pause, but the doubts they occasioned came too late. They didn't stop the arms race or radiation experiments using human guinea pigs. The Human Genome Project, in fact, was built using the infrastructure of the nuclear-weapons program, taking over unused labs at Los Alamos, Berkeley, and Livermore. But unlike the Manhattan Project--in fact, like no other Big Science project in history--the Genome Project has equipped itself with a research division to explore the social and ethical ramifications of genetics. Its findings have armed Francis Collins in his crusade against genetic redlining. And it was Ian Willmut, whose work opened the door to human cloning, who most forcefully denounced that prospect at Senate hearings held last spring.

Which brings to mind a line from Fay Weldon's 1989 novel, The Cloning of Joanna May. "These days scientists talk a great deal more about God than does the rest of the world," she writes. "What is that but an obeisance to the shadow of the God who ran off, the God they drove off when bold and young and frightened of nothing!" But if God has taken flight, in Gattaca and elsewhere, at least a few of his imitators are trying to save their souls.


          Call for Hodgman impersonators        
Today I had one of those abrupt realizations: This world needs more John Hodgmans ("Hodgmen"). Until cloning technology is sufficiently advanced, we will have to settle for Hodgman impersonators.

There is some precedent for Hodgman impersonation. There was this guy:



He was supposed to resemble the PC character Hodgman plays in the Apple ads. But he's a little stern and a bit of a downer (perhaps because that is what was required of him for the commercial), so I'm not even going to link to the actual Microsoft commercial. Instead I'm going to move on and list some individuals for whom impersonators are available:

George Carlin

John Wayne

Babe Ruth

Albert Einstein

Jack Sparrow

Trinity from "The Matrix"

like every single Harry Potter character

Groucho Marx

Bill Murray

Michael Jordan

and Mark Twain

And that's great. But if you are going to pay someone hundreds of dollars to pretend to be someone else, you really would prefer to get an actual Hodgman. Hodgmen should be available to entertain at your child's birthday party or to referee at your hipster croquet outing.

If you know where I can find a Hodgman impersonator, or if you ARE a Hodgman impersonator drop me a line. Soon.



UPDATE: I found a New York Times article about Microsoft's reponse ads to the Apple ads, and in particular, information about the guy who was cast to play the Microsoft version of the PC character, based on his resemblance to Hodgman.
          3 More Reasons Why You Need a Strong Guarantee        
If you've read any of my 576 blog posts in the last 6 years, you know that I'm a strong believer in strong guarantees.

As long as you don't sell crap, a money-back guarantee can grow your business faster than almost anything else.

(NB: If you do sell crap, a money-back guarantee will put you out of business faster than almost anything else. Hey, sorry. Don't sell crap.)

Anyway, here are 3 reasons why you need a strong money-back guarantee in your business ...

... based on the "Lifetime Satisfaction Guarantee" from The Great Courses. That's it above.

Study it. Because that guarantee is worth millions to The Great Courses. And you need one like it in your business, for 3 important reasons.


Reason #1: You will get more new clients, faster, from the same marketing

Quick, which guarantee is stronger?
  • "Your satisfaction is 100% guaranteed" (which is how far most timid, lazy marketers go, i.e., not very)
  • "Your satisfaction is 100% guaranteed. If a course is ever less than completely satisfying, you may exchange it for another of equal value at any time. You may also return any course, within one year of initial purchase, for a full refund" (which is how far The Great Courses goes)
Duh. The one that promises you a refund. It's clearly stronger. And all things being equal, the stronger guarantee wins more sales. Consequently, The Great Courses got my money.


Reason #2: Your clients will buy and refer longer

Now, it may surprise you to learn that I just returned a DVD to The Great Courses for a refund today. And I've returned stuff to them before.

Yet, I've been buying from The Great Courses going on 10 years. I've given them at least $700 in business, minus about $75 in refunds. So they're still ahead.

BUT ... that doesn't take into account the referrals I've sent them, like family members and clients, to whom I rave about The Great Courses. And now you, my loyal readers.

One reason I recommend The Great Courses is because they offer ... great courses.

Another reason? I can't look like a dolt for recommending them. Because anyone who dislikes a purchase can get a refund. That kind of "insurance" is important to anyone before making a referral.

Now, think. If you don't offer a guarantee, what does that say about your business? Does it make you more referral worthy or less?


Reason #3: You will do better work. Which makes everything better

Look at that last line in The Great Courses' guarantee. It's brilliant: "This guarantee not only protects your investment in learning, it also compels us to produce great courses."

Nothing like tightrope walking without a net to compel your best effort, eh? I can tell you from experience, after offering an unconditional money-back guarantee on my copywriting and consulting services since 1998, that it compels you to do your best work. Which is good for everyone.

Hey, I'm not perfect. Neither are you. I give refunds about once a year. And if you offer a strong money-back guarantee, you'll give refunds, too. But if your sales go up 25% ... 50% ... or more, will you really care?

One more thing: If you own a business, you can get a box of 11 Marketing Multipliers delivered at no cost, if you hurry. Learn more at www.MarketingMultipliers.com
          The Lead Generation Kit That Works Wonders        
The word "kit" has always appealed to me.

It conjures up all sorts of childhood memories, like these ...

As a kid, I loved doing magic shows for my parents and friends. Never got good enough to charge admission, though.


This electronics kit was too safe. No matter how diligently I rewired it, I couldn't electrocute my little brothers.


NOW we're talking -- danger, danger! Scorched walls, chlorine gas, human experiments. Among my favorite childhood memories.

Okay, even if your formative years weren't as disturbing as mine, I'll bet the word "kit" has fun, positive connotations for you. And for your prospects, too.

Which is the point of this blog post.

If you want to get the attention of your prospects and make an emotional connection, why not deliver your lead-generation materials in the form of a kit?

Give them a bag, a box, or a tube. Include a CD, DVD, printed reports, tools, folders -- tangible stuff people can touch and feel. A kit.

Doing so can instantly set you apart and generate more leads for your business. Which leads to more sales of your product or service.

Exhibit A: Here's my lead generation magnet for the last 5 years (and counting), the decidedly odd and intriguing ...


Client Cloning Kit

I ship a free Client Cloning Kit to any qualified prospect who owns a real business in the U.S. (No part-timers, MLMs, or "wantrepreneurs," please.)

Yes, it looks like a pipe bomb. Which ALWAYS causes a stir when it arrives by mail.

It ALWAYS gets opened. It ALWAYS gets my prospects' attention. And it has MORE than paid for itself in new business for me.

Meanwhile, other marketing thought leaders give out digital downloads and special reports. Hey, more power to 'em. I hope they never change.

Cool packaging in the form of a kit is a Marketing Multiplier. It's a little thing that can deliver big profits. It's simple. And you can do it today.

Speaking of cool packaging, here's another, the Marketing Multipliers Welcome Box ...

http://www.marketingmultipliers.com/
If you own a business, there's a box of 11 Marketing Multipliers waiting to be shipped to you. You can try it Free. Click here now.


          A Fungus Threatens Chocolate Industry        
Chocolate production might get hit soon if a fungus has its way. According to scientists, a fungus that is impacting the cacao pods could be cloning itself rather than sexually reproducing. The fungus leads to frosty pod rot that can decrease the cacao plantations. The fungus, known as Moniliophthora roreri, is suspected to clone itself. Earlier, researchers and cacao producers were of the opinion that the fungus was reproducing sexually as it belongs to the group of fungi that produces mushrooms.  Frosty Cacao Pod Rot Caused by a Fungus That Might be Cloning Cocoa is one of the major crops produced by small farms. Volatility in the prices of cocoa makes it risky for the farm owners to invest in fungicides. The cocoa producers usually monitor their crop for the symptoms of frosty pod rot. Once detected, they bury the pods that show white dusting or dark lesions. In the last 60 years, the fungal disease has spread due to the accidental transportation of infected pods. Across some of the areas, frosty pod rot has decimated the cocoa yields by 100%. This has led cocoa producers to abandon their plantations. Researchers are taking special interest in the growth of this fungus to find out a remedy for the fungal infection in cacao pods. In the recent study, researchers have studied the genomics and population genetics of the fungus. The fungus is unusual as it might be cloning itself. Further studies on this fungus are expected to be economically and biologically valuable to reduce the disease’s damage to cocoa production. According to Jorge Diaz-Valderrama, a doctoral student at the Purdue University, biochemical components are being identified to control frosty pod rot.

Original Post A Fungus Threatens Chocolate Industry source Twease
          18th International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA18)        
We were pleased to present a prize at the 18th International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes to HeeJu Nah (Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Korea) for her poster on: “Precise Cloning and Heterologous Expression of Natural Product Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Using Streptomyces Artificial Chromosome System.” The symposium took place in Jeju, Korea on 23 – […]
          U.S. Department of Agriculture Develops ‘Bio-Oil’ from Agricultural Wastes        
Rapidly increasing demand for food and limited availability of non-renewable natural resources has boosted the growth of the global biotechnology market. Favourable regulatory scenario has further augmented the market growth. However, the ethical issues related to clinical trials, coupled with long research and development lead time might restrain the growth of the market. The global biotechnology market has a huge opportunity to grow with the emergence of biosimilars and growing application of biotechnology in medical sciences. Cloning, stem cell technology, and nanotechnology are expected to define the future outlook of the market. The global biotechnology market is broadly categorized into biopharmacy, bioagriculture, bioindustrial, and bioservices. In 2011, the biopharmaceuticals segment dominated the market owing to increase in government funding, widespread technological advancements, and availability of cheap labour in developing economies. Growing demand for food in developing countries is expected to boost the market. Bioseeds offer greater benefits compared to conventional seeds and hence, will register exponential growth during the forecast period. This will propel the growth of the bioagriculture segment.  Scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have developed a process to produce ‘bio-oil’¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬- a crude fluid from agricultural wastes. Crude bio-oil is produced through pyrolysis. The process refers to chemical decomposition of plants and other organic matter at a very high temperature. The technique, termed as "tail-gas reactive pyrolysis," better known as TGRP, has the potential to improve the bio-oil and transform it into finished biofuels. The raw biomass material contains non-food-grade plant matter collected from agricultural or household wastes such as wood, switchgrass, and animal manures. Using these materials, bio-oils are produced at an accelerated rate with the help of a new high-output mobile processing unit.  TGRP is a crucial step towards achieving the ultimate goal of producing cleaner bio-oils.

Original Post U.S. Department of Agriculture Develops ‘Bio-Oil’ from Agricultural Wastes source Twease
          Hair Tool WIP        

Work in progress of a 3D hair tool using softimage ICE and strands particles.
- I emit strands on a surface using or not a weight map to filter.
- I extrude my strands using the UVs of a surface to easily get the shape I want.
- Then I can add some hairs following a curve.

I have 3 different hairs modifiers :
- One to create locks by cloning each hair.
- One to curl the hairs.
- One to add some noise into the hairs.

Music : Bonobo - Cirrus

Cast: Francois Gressier

Tags: Hairs, Tool, softimage, ice, strands, shading, gressier francois and particles


          Tequila Nation: Mexico Reckons With Its Complicated Spirit         
The Mexican town of Tequila in the western state of Jalisco is the heart of a region that produces the legendary spirit. Any bottle of tequila must be made from the Weber Blue species of agave, grown and distilled in this region.Field after field of agave gives this land a blue hue, defining an economy and its traditions.But using just one species of blue agave to make 100 percent blue agave tequila is done through cloning the plants, without pollination or flowering. After "doing this for so many generations, the agaves are getting weaker, and the only way to protect them is by the increased use of pesticides and herbicides," David Suro of the Tequila Interchange Project tells us.That and other environmental issues have tequileros, or tequila makers, concerned about the future of the industry.The Spirit's Hidden HistoryGuillermo Erickson Sauza, a member of one of tequila's royal families, gives us a tour of his 125-year-old tequila distillery process in the town of Tequila on the
          In Depth Look At The Canon C300 Mark II – An Operators Point of View        

There’s a lot of information starting to circulate on the Canon C300 Mark II as it finds its way into the hands of owners. I’ve had one in for the last few days and wanted to share some fresh thoughts as a working operator.

We know Canon has a good track record for color rendition, great single operator ergonomics and have all heard about that revolutionary new auto focus system.
But how well does it actually function as, a camera? How well are the new features implemented, how intuitive is the menu? I spent a few days with two Canon C300 Mark IIs; in this article I will share my findings from a working operators point of view.
Lets start this off by first saying this is not an official review. Having only had two cameras with me for a few days (most of which was spent on the job/in transit) I haven’t spent anywhere near the amount of time it would take to cast a full review worthy opinion.
That said, I spent the little time I had spare with the cameras productively inspecting every aspect of the menu system and button layout, as if it were my own.
I’ve been looking for an in-house camera to replace my Canon C100 mark I for a while. Like many, the Sony FS7 and the Canon C300 Mark II are close to the top of my list. And like many, I’ve been trying to justify where the over 100% increase in cost comes with the Canon.
I’m not going to go over the same information that you can already find on the Internet. The spec can be found here, here’s the manual, here’s what we found when we did a lab analysis of the image and yes, the auto focus system is very impressive and will revolutionize the way many shoot.
So lets get started, and to kick things off I’ll start with what I liked about the C300 Mark II.

Positives
1. Focus Guide
OK, so lets give this feature a little more credit than a passing comment at the end of a paragraph. The auto focus system is great, if you’re familiar with the old Dual Pixel AF you’ll appreciate it’s potential.
I want to highlight the new Focus Guide feature. I’d heard about this a little in passing comments, but using it for 2 days on a shoot I can really see it’s worth.
It’s a bi-product of the intuitive Dual Pixel AF system. Activating it gives you a little square on screen that signifies the area in which the system is monitoring for focus.
Turning the focus wheel on your AF EF mount lens will display two markers that move in an arc shaped dial. When the focus is on point the box will go green.

What’s great about this is the fact that when activated you can tell which way you need to turn the lens barrel to hit focus (markers sit above or below the box depending of fore/aft focus correction).
I found this really helpful when in an interview environment and wanting to re-adjust focus, hunting would ruin the shot but with this feature you know exactly which way to adjust.
Canon have Focus Guide set to the custom function button on the handle, and once activated you can use the joystick to navigate to your desired position on the screen.
2. 12bit 4444
This was of the reasons I got these cameras in for the job I did and is a features that has been skipped over a little since announcement.
Many (including myself) have spent their time complaining about the lack of 4K 60p, but the inclusion of FullHD/2K 12bit 4444 is a very welcomed feature.
It’s for great green screen and one that I’ll probably use more myself than 4K 60p, although I still think it’s a huge oversight to exclude higher 4K framerates and would like both features in my camera, please.
Here’s a shot from my shoot, key at your hearts content (TIFF download at bottom of page).
JPEG frame of 12bit 4444 image from C300 Mark II. ISO 800, C log 2
3. Custom Marker Displays
Sifting through the menu system I found this a nice feature, custom markers displays.
You have your standard grid lines, centre crosshair and aspect ratios. But navigating further down and you’ll find a custom button for your own aspect ratio.
Custom Aspect Ratio Markers
4. Custom Options For Peaking/WFM/Zebra Outputs
There has been an overall improvement in terms of onscreen displays. Many complained that the mark I EOS cameras (both C100 and C300) didn’t display the waveform monitor on outputs (SDI, HDMI and even the inbuilt EVF) but you can now choose which output you wish to view WFM on (and which you don’t) and this translates to all assisting display features; WFM, peaking, Zebras etc.
Output options for peaking, same for zebras and WFM
5. WFM Displays Log When Viewing LUT
An overlooked feature in many existing cameras and monitors is the ability to monitor what you are recording, not viewing.
When you are shooting LOG, but viewing a LUT you’ll know by the color shift of the menu and a little overlay on the screen (not to mention the fact that the contrast and colour of your image will change) but the most important aspect of this workflow is that your Waveform Monitor adheres to the recorded log, not the viewed LUT.
Here is an image below of the camera recording in Canon C Log 2, but viewing a BT. 709 LUT, notice the WFM with a little overlay explaining it’s reference to log, nice.
WFM displays log exposure whilst displaying LUT
6. LUT & OSD In Assignable Buttons Menu
Another LUT/log related feature I like is the inclusion of LUT enable in the assignable buttons menu.
This means you can switch on/off your LUT with the press of button of your choice; I also found the inclusion of OSD (on screen displays) very handy in this list.
On set I can often find myself referring to bigger/better monitors for the most part of operation (compared to camera screen), which can often be shared by an output recording and/or viewed by other crew members and/or the client.
For both these reasons it is not possible to have your OSD on this output, so you often have to switch back to your inferior on-camera monitor to check settings before recording again.
OSD and LUT good to have in Assignable Buttons menu
Having the OSD on/off by one button is a really nice way to quickly check them on your output before hitting record; the same applies to switching between your LUT and your log.
It’s a shame I have to talk about this sort of feature as a reason I like a specific camera, I feel every camera should have every feasible feature accessible via assignable buttons as it completely personalizes the user experience.
Unfortunately this is not the case for the C300 Mark II as with 90% of other cameras on the market; not all features are available on the assignable buttons menu.
7. Dual Level Control For Single Audio Source
The audio options on the camera isn’t too surprising, 24-bit audio is nice and you can change all settings in the designated audio menu and most physically on the audio/monitor module.
Like previous EOS cameras you have the ability to choose what Channel 2 records (it’s own channel or a clone of channel 1). Cloning Channel 1 still gives you independent control on Channel 2 however.
This feature may have been on the C300 mark I, so forgive me if this is old news but as a C100 Mark I user I found this feature handy.
Single audio source for both channels, independent channel control
It means that you can record a source on Channel 1 and set your levels, then clone the input to Channel 2 at which you’ve set a few db lower for redundancy in case there’s a spike in your input and you haven’t time to adjust your levels.

These are just a few of the features I selected as things I liked about the C300 Mark II that you wouldn’t find in usual online information. You have to experience the camera first hand to discover the little gems hidden in the menus or work out how the software works for a given feature.
Speaking generally about the camera I am a big fan of the ergonomics, like previous EOS cameras it sits well in the hand (despite being a little on the heavier side). I really like the proxy recording to SD cards too, as well as the prospect of using a more advanced Dual Pixel AF for gimbal use (more on that below).
That said there’s also many things I don’t like about the camera. I’m a bit of a pessimist with kit, I always expect more from it, whether it’s a tripod, monitor, camera etc.
I therefore wasn’t surprised that I spent most of the two days that I was shooting with the C300 Mark II complaining about a lack of this & that, the placement of that button, the hard to find feature buried in the menu etc.
The lack of 4K 60p is a big blow for me (like many), the price is also another big factor, but keeping this article on track here’s some specific quirks I found that I wasn’t immediately expecting.

Negatives
1. Dual Pixel AF doesn’t work in Slowmo Mode
This is perhaps something you could have predicted ahead of working it out for yourself, but just so you know Dual Pixel Autofocus does not work in slow motion mode.
I guess this is down to the additional processing involved when sampling more frames and processing AF information.
That doesn’t mean you can’t achieve off speed auto focus however. The camera shoots up to 50/60p in normal mode (contrast to slow motion mode where the camera conforms higher framerates to your working framerate) and Dual Pixel AF works in this mode.
As with many other cameras with high framerate options, audio is also disabled in slow motion mode.
2. No Shortcut To Recording Mode
I found this very odd, and still scratching my head thinking, “am I doing this right, there’s surely a way?” but you can’t access slow motion via a single button press.
Sony has had this feature on the button for a long time (FS100 comes to mind but probably before that also). You press S&Q, it goes into slow mode and you can select your framerate, simple.
Not on the C300 Mark II, you have to go into the menu and change the recording mode to slow motion.
Slow motion function buried in the menu
Once in this mode, there’s a specific button on the side that when pressed you can choose your desired framerate; out of the box, this button serves no other purpose (it’s an assignable button also so can be configured to anything on the custom function menu).
Why it doesn’t activate slow motion mode first is beyond me, and to top it off your Recording Mode doesn’t feature in the assignable buttons menu so you can’t set the shortcut it manually.
The closet you can get is placing Recording Mode at the top of your My Menu (a custom menu that allows you to add pretty much any feature to it), and assigning My Menu to one of the custom function buttons.
2. No Custom Look Up Tables
This was a feature I just assumed was in the camera, but at the time of writing this the Canon C300 Mark II does not support custom LUTs.
There are 4 LUTs installed on the camera: BT.709, BT.2020, DCI and ACESproxy10.

I can see exactly what they’ve done here, they’ve included relevant LUTs to correctly display gamma on various different monitors, both current and future. I’m sure Canon will argue this is the correct implementation of Look Up Tables.
I feel this is the bare minimum however; LUTs have evolved from this in recent times. They’re more than just a profile to display a correct image.
Both the Arri Amira and Sony FS7 support custom load LUTs and provide a decent stock LUT pre-loaded on the camera.
You can record the Rec 709 LUT on the Amira and the LC (low contrast) Rec 709 LUT on the Sony FS7 and yield results that are good out of the box to look at and record to, with a little room for tweaking in post.
The advantage of this over just selecting an appropriate picture profile is that you can still record log to the internal cards/external recorder as a backup should you require extra post processing for incorrectly exposed/white balance images, or if you wanted to revisit a project when you have more time and apply a more dynamic grade.
I’ve gotten used to recording dual system on larger projects: log to internal cards and a LUT to an external recorder. It’s great for the above reasons plus puts your rushes in a ballpark as to where they should be for the grade, which is useful if handing over files to a different editor.
In my opinion, you cannot do this with the in built LUTs on the C300 Mark II. It’s clear they are designed merely to correct the gamma curve for correct viewing.
I experimented with all of them, the BT.709 most of all. I found it too rich in contrast and aliased fine detail very quickly, therefore unfit for recording,
There are of course work arounds; use LUTs as they were originally intended and shoot with a single and correct picture profile to start with, and/or loop out of a monitor that supports custom LUTs.

3. Waveform Monitor Cannot Be Re-Positioned
I thought Panasonic were really onto something with their move-at-the-touch-of-a-finger waveform monitor on the GH4.
A waveform monitor (WFM) takes up a lot of real estate on the screen, the inability of being able to move it on screen was a feature I felt was missing on the C100/C300 Mark I (it’s big and actually covers up the audio levels on the C100) and it was a shame to not find there was no change on the C300 Mark II.
The waveform monitor when active resides half way up on the right hand side of the screen. You can’t move it, only turn it off. No biggie, maybe Panasonic and SmallHD spoilt us (you can move it on the 502, too).
Caption test
4. Monitor Out/HDMI Out Are Grouped
The Canon C300 Mark II has two SDI outputs, one HDMI port and one proprietary video connection for the monitor module.
I find it a little frustrating to find the HDMI and two SDI ports are not simply three independent outputs; one SDI is labeled Rec Out, the other Monitor Out.
This means that only the Rec Out SDI can display OSDs (on screen displays) to which the HDMI port is paired with. This means if you want OSDs on SDI 1 (or Monitor Out) they’re on the HDMI feed also.
There’s usually a work around with your monitors, especially if more than one of them can cross convert signals. But working out which monitor should go on what monitor/recorder is brainpower on set that I’d rather spend on something else. The Sony FS7 annoyingly is similar in grouping outputs.
I’d prefer a stand-alone menu that labels each of the 4 outputs independently (SDI 1 & 2, HDMI and camera monitor) and you simply select which ones are active, feature OSDs and LUTs.
You’ll be delighted to know that all these features are hidden on different menus on the C300 Mark II. LUTs are buried in with exposure/focus assist, OSDs and port activation on another.

5. Perimeter Viewing Mode Impacts Other Outputs
This is an extension of the former point; due to grouping certain outputs you can’t use Perimeter View on the camera monitor and receive a clean feed on HDMI or SDI 1.
Perimeter View mode is a lovely feature on the C300 Mark II that shifts all-important overlays to the edge of your screen.

This creates a nice un-interrupted view of your image on the same screen that is displaying your OSD.
However when active it sends a letterboxed image to SDI 1 (Monitor Out) and HDMI even when OSDs are turned off; a problem if you want to record via the HDMI and use this mode.
6. The Battery Charger Is Huge?!
I won’t get too hung up on this as the batteries have doubled in voltage to 14.4V and the unit charges two simulteanously, but the size a consideration for travelling shooters. The charger is a chunky slab and like the C300 Mark I there’s a separate AC adaptor unit. Here’s the charge next to the popular LP-E6 battery charger for Canon DSLRs.

C300 Mark II And The Movi M5

The C300 Mark II makes a fantastic gimbal camera. The Dual Pixel AF provides face tracking detection, as well as movable zonal AF (select the position of your AF zone by toggling the white box around the screen). It’s a big upgrade from the C100/C300 Mark I that only offers a static, small centre portion of the screen as an active AF zone.
For those wondering about whether the C300 Mark II fits on the Movi M5, the answer is both yes and no.
The listed payload for the Movi M5 is 5lbs, however it’s been documented in the past of being physically capable of more, capped by fewer components then you may think (it shares the same motors as the larger M10).
Here’s the C300 Mark II with the 16-35mm f/4 IS lens, single Cfast card and Really Right Stuff EOS C Arca Swiss plate. Converted that’s 6.2 lbs., 5.8lbs if you go with the BP-A30 battery.
The Movi seems to take the weight just fine, balancing and tuning took little effort.
The problem lies in the physical size of the M5. The protruding EVF of the C300 Mark II clips the back of the gimbal when tilting:
Unfortunately unlike the C300 Mark I, the EVF is not quick release. I opened it up to have a look how easy is it to remove and it involves detaching two ribbon cables, so not ideal.
I’d consider the option of extending the Movi cradle arms a little forward. You’d need less than an inch to make this setup work.
The smaller  BP-A30 battery also fits the profile of the camera body so won’t protrude like the above BP-A60. Unfortunately this was the only sized battery the hire company supplied.
Of course smaller, lighter lenses would mean the camera sits further forward therefore creating more room at the rear. I’m sure a Pancake lens like the 24mm STM would result in a fuss free fit.
I’d say cine lenses are out of bounds for the M5 and C300 Mark II; the camera would sit too far back and it would likely enter nervy territory extending the arms of the Movi that far forward.
In order to get the top cage of the M5 to fit as pictured you need to upgrade the 8” rods to 10” rods. These give you enough height to clear the top of the camera (you need these for all EOS cinema cameras including both C100s).

Image
For me operation is a huge factor when considering a camera, it’s one so many people over look and as a result there’s less online information about this sides of things with cameras (hence this article).
With this said, I didn’t have much time to spend testing the image side of things for the public eye.
I plugged it into my Atomos Shogun; on the latest firmware the C300 Mark II is listed in compatible raw cameras for the recorder.
It indeed accepted a 4K raw feed just fine, below is a JPEG of a frame grab taken from the ProRes HQ recording of the Shogun. C-Log 2 ISO 800, F/2.8. TIFF download at the bottom of the page.

And here’s a very quick test looking at the crop factor of the slow motion mode.
Standard Shooting Mode (200mm focal length):

Slow motion Mode (x2 crop of 200mm focal length):

And here’s Standard Shooting Mode at 100mm to compare the two for sharpness:

And at 400%, slow motion mode (100mm at x2 crop):

400% Standard Shooting Mode (200mm):

It’s a very brief and unscientific test (100 & 200mm focal lengths on a zoom lens will have discrepancies) but I want to roughly see how close/far out they were. Settings for all are C-log 2 ISO 800, f/2.8 on a 70-200 F/2.8 IS II.
You can see a slight dip in quality on the 100p frame at 400%, and technically it should be sharper at 100mm compared to 200mm.
Post was import for all stills was into Premiere Pro CC, export to TIFF then convert to 100% JPEG in Lightroom. Here is the download link for all related TIFF files:
download link
I’d like to do some more testing on the C300 Mark II particularly in terms of the image. Real world slow motion and dynamic range would be top of my list as well as some Movi M5 and Dual Pixel AF fun.
Due to our extensive lab test for dynamic range that you can check out here, image quality wasn’t on the top of my list for tests with the short period I had the cameras.

Spending a few days with the camera hasn’t provided my quest for a new camera body with any more clarity, but it’s answered a few questions surrounding Canons latest offering.
I hope you found my thoughts of some use, if you have any questions regarding the C300 Mark II please ask below and I’ll do my best to put my 4 day experience with the camera to some use.
If you’ve already used the camera and have noticed any quirks or gems of your own, please share them. It would be great to hear some alternative views on what is becoming a very talked about camera.

The post In Depth Look At The Canon C300 Mark II – An Operators Point of View appeared first on cinema5D.


          Cloning a VMWARE image        
When you need a bunch of virtual machines with the same set up is really boring setting every single onRead the Rest...

          Ruralize, don't urbanize! Why do we clone our cities?        
A few years ago, living in Thiruvananthapuram and watching the city - a lovable overgrown village really - burst at the seams, these were thoughts that i had shared (see Stop the cloning of cities) - Indian cities have been trying hard at developing into clones of big cities across the world, and succeeding. (Aside: In the matter of solid waste management they are just clones of each other). Bangalore was a laid back garden city till about a couple of decades ago, even though it was the aerospace-cum-electronics hub of India. If we put together all the pros and cons of living comfort, standards of living, and quality of life, we will find that the present Bengaluru has unfortunately lost its overall charm. 
We have let globalisation and technological revolutions invade our urban spaces and our mind spaces so much, and at too fast a pace, that entire sections of urban residents have forgotten to pause, look around, smell the earth, and think of whole lots of other people to whom globalisation has meant deprivation, more financial burden and regress. 
Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram) is a uniquely endowed, endearing, overgrown village. But it is increasingly obvious that this city is also hurtling down the ‘progress and development’ path blindly, with foolhardy zeal and no imagination whatsoever. Think of the city 20 to 30 years from now: only more glass facades, more high-rise match boxes marring the green skyline, and humongous concrete masses looking down on snarling traffic, tempers adding heat to treeless avenues... 

Mahatma Gandhi is said to have termed the city of Trivandrum as “Evergreen city of India”, blessed as it is with plenty of tree cover, and nestled on small hills between the Western Ghats and the coast. 

It is evident that with globalisation, newer technologies and industries invade and take over / overtake the very thought processes of a city and end up thrusting a narrow concept of development. Prosperity and well-being of a city starts to be measured against such yardsticks as ‘world-class’ infrastructure and the upward mobility of city residents. The public have also been manipulated and steadily moulded to believe in advertised images and perceptions of what is desirable. The unnatural creation and projection of images of perfection and desirability by the media, advertising, marketing firms, and authorities who tout ‘global standards’ delude the masses into believing that their locality and the city will attain that kind of picture-perfection - if they have wider roads, bigger buildings, more indoor comfort and malls in which to ‘chill out’. (Parks and gardens aren’t ‘cool’ enough, you see). 

If you stand on a stretch of MG Road, you can easily forget that it is MG Road, Thiruvananthapuram; it could be MG Road, any other city. Do we need that kind of development that swallows a city’s original character? Nearly all of India’s metropolitan areas and urban spaces have gone that way. Cities have expanded to encompass suburban areas and have become nightmares to residents and the already (mostly) clueless administrators. Delhi’s tentacles extend to several sub-cities, Mumbai grows into the sea leaving its heart far behind, Chennai pincodes have grown to 600117 and Bangalore’s now joyless veins clutch outer villages. Why is Ananthapuri being compelled to follow those models? 
Heritage structures and rich, green spaces on Government-owned land should be left intact, preserved for posterity while possibly serving some public purpose. All the remaining green and open spaces within city limits – precious few of them – should serve as well-maintained oxygen pockets. 
We need to reclaim, revamp and take care of public places that had had grandiose plans bestowed on them by successive Governments. 
Why can’t we - concerned city residents – play a role in defining our vision for the city, guided by the principles of aesthetics, abundant local wisdom, heritage preservation and Nature conservation? 
In this context, it is good to note the introduction of programmes like the new Urban Design Master’s course offered at the CET, Trivandrum. Let us hope that such courses inculcate a holistic, long-term vision for cities. The budding future town planners should realize that there is much more at stake than the fortunes of the brick and mortar industry. 
A city’s growth lies not in numbers of Big Retail, multiple ‘brandnamas’, outsize cars, cooler and swankier malls, but in the numbers of residents who feel proud and happy about the right things – health, clean air, welcoming public places, mind-invigorating outlook of fellow-citizens. We must preserve what is left of the city’s character. Even if it means calling a stop to mindless real-estate expansion and ridiculous numbers of car dealerships.
"Unless citizens are motivated to live in ways not imagined before, the death of Indian cities will be rapid"
Gautam Bhatia writes in "The city's bleak future": "The Indian city’s undisguised fawning and mimicry of Western models bodes ill for an urban culture steeped in an altogether different life and pattern. Stockholm and Berlin may present a cohesive picture for initiating a computerised smartness into Indian urbanism, but they can hardly be imitated wholesale. When 60 per cent of the citizens are without local housing or access to municipal utilities, 40 per cent move about as pedestrians, with a third of those without conventional livelihood, the needs of urbanity are closer to those of Lagos or Cairo than of European or Chinese cities. A more generous and open-minded comprehension of traditional town structure by the government can provide a constructive direction to the country’s urban future."
Let's stop looking at cities as the 'engines of growth', because, these engines are adding to pollution at unmanageable rates. The government must ponder over former President Dr APK Abdul Kalam words written in the book 'Ignited Minds': The developed India will not be a nation of cities. It will be a network of prosperous villages empowered by tele-medicine, tele-education, and e-commerce....The political leaders would be working with the zeal born of the knowledge that the nation is bigger than individual interests and political parties. This attitude will lead to minimizing the rural-urban divide as progress takes place in the countryside and urbanites move to rural areas to absorb the best of what nature can give ..."

          Adaptation of the week: Adaptation (2002)        
Spike Jonze's Adaptation (2002)

Author: Susan Orlean (b1955) grew up in Cleveland, Ohio, before becoming a journalist in first Portland, Oregon, and then Boston. A collection of columns from the Boston Globe became her first book, Red Sox and Bluefish (1987). She moved to New York in 1986 and was taken on by the New Yorker magazine. A New Yorker article, Orchid Fever, became the basis for her book The Orchid Thief (1998), the basis for Adaptation. The same year saw another article, Life's Swell, about Hawaiian surfer girls, published in Outside magazine - this became the film Blue Crush (2002). In 2003, her dog Cooper "authored" a food book, Throw Me a Bone.

Story: Orlean travels to Florida to meet John Laroche, the eponymous "thief", after reading a news report of his trial for stealing orchids from the Fakahatchee state reserve. Laroche is setting up an orchid-cloning business for the Seminole people tribe, who claim immunity from laws protecting endangered wildlife and plants. Orlean soon finds herself immersed in the world of orchid collecting, tracing its history and chronicling Laroche's semi-legal activities at its fringe. She embarks on a quest to see a rare ghost orchid growing in the Fakahatchee, but her foray with Laroche into the swamp ends in failure when he gets lost.

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          Master spec-repo rate limiting post‑mortem        

Recently we were made aware of issues that our users had when cloning the CocoaPods Master spec-repo, which contains specifications for projects shared by and with the community. The GitHub infrastructure team were quick to explain that this was because of us hitting CPU rate limits on their end, which turned out to be caused, besides the high volume of clones, by the default options we chose to clone this repo.


          PERKEMBANGAN PERANGKAT LUNAK KOMPUTER        
TUGAS KELOMPOK PENGANTAR SISTEM KOMPUTER PERKEMBANGAN PERANGKAT LUNAK KOMPUTER DISUSUN OLEH : SELLY MERSILIA NIM. 201121067 JURUSAN : SISTEM INFORMASI DOSEN PENGASUH : ARIANSYAH S.KOM SEKOLAH TINGGI MANAJEMEN INFORMATIKA KOMPUTER YAYASAN PENDIDIKAN PRABUMULIH 2011 DAFTAR ISI HALAMAN JUDUL………………………………………………….……… i DAFTAR ISI ……………………………………………….……………….... ii 1. Definisi Perangkat Lunak (Software)……………………………………….. 1 2. Klasifikasi Perangkat Lunak………………………………………………… 2 2.1. Perangkat Lunak Sistem …….………..…………………….……….…. 2 2.2. Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi………………………..……………………... 3 3. Perkembangan Pembuatan Perangkat Lunak………………………………... 20 4. Evolusi Perangkat Lunak……………………………………………………. 21 5. Perkembangan Perangkat Lunak Bebas………………………………………25 6. Perkembangan Industri Perangkat Lunak di Indonesia……………………... 28 DAFTAR PUSTAKA 1. DEFINISI PERANGKAT LUNAK (SOFTWARE) Software Adalah rangkaian intruksi elektronik yang memerintahkan sebuah komputer untuk melakukan tugas tertentu sesuai dengan perintah yang diberikan oleh seorang pengguna komputer. Rangkaian intruksi tersebut sering disebut dengan “program”. Dan software juga dikenal dengan sebutan “Perangkat atau Piranti Lunak komputer”. Fungsi dari software adalah: • Untuk Membuat semua peralatan yang ada dalam seperangkat komputer dapat bekerja sesuai dengan fungsinya. • Sebagai Operation System untuk perangkat elektronik yang menggunakan basis sistem komputer. • Sebagai media penghubungkan antara komputer dengan penggunanya, agar terjadi suatu kerjasama yang menghasilkan sebuah output sesuai dengan keinginan dari pengguna komputer. Komputer merupakan mesin yang memproses fakta atau data menjadi informasi. Komputer di gunakan orang untuk meningkatkan hasil kerja dan memecahkan berbagai masalah. Yang menjadi pemroses data atau pemecah masalah itu adalah perangkat lunak. Bentuk terkecil dari perangkat lunak adalah operasi aritmatik (+, -, :, x) dan logika (AND, OR, >, <, =). Dari operasi dasar ini di susun program / perangkat lunak. Gambar Tingkat Pemroses Tingkat pemrosesan yang di kerjakan perangkat lunak pun dari machine-like, mulai berubah seperti human-like. Di dalam teori informasi, di susun hirarki informasi, mulai dari data/ fakta, kemudian setelah proses seleksi dan pengurutan menjadi sesuatu yang berguna menjadi informasi. Informasi yang di susun secara sistematis dengan suatu alur logika tertentu menjadi knowledge. Dan pada akhirnya gabungan knowledge yang di gabung dari berbagai sisi guna membangun wisdom. Data yang di proses pun telah banyak berubah, yang semula hanya berupa data bilangan dan karakter merambah ke audio visual (bunyi, suara, gambar, film). Sejauh perkembangan hingga saat ini, seluruh proses menggunakan format data digital dengan satuan bit (binary digit). 2. KLASIFIKASI PERANGKAT LUNAK Perangkat lunak secara umum dapat di bagi 2 yaitu perangkat lunak sistem dan perangkat lunak aplikasi. 1. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Perangkat lunak sistem adalah suatu istilah generik yang merujuk pada jenis perangkat lunak komputer yang mengatur dan mengontrol perangkat keras sehingga perangkat lunak aplikasi dapat melakukan tugasnya. Ia merupakan bagian esensial dari sistem komputer. Sistem operasi adalah suatu contoh yang jelas, sedangkan OpenGL atau pustaka basis data adalah contoh lainnya. Perangkat lunak jenis ini dibedakan dengan perangkat lunak aplikasi, yang merupakan program yang membantu pengguna melakukan tugas spesifik dan produktif, seperti pengolahan kata atau manipulasi gambar. Partisi memori dan sistem operasi merupakan contoh dari perangkat lunak sistem Perangkat lunak sistem dapat di bagi lagi menjadi 3 macam yaitu : a. Bahasa pemrograman : Merupakan perangkat lunak yang bertugas mengkonversikan arsitektur dan algoritma yang di rancang manusia ke dalam format yang dapat di jalankan komputer, contoh bahasa pemrograman di antaranya : BASIC, COBOL, Pascal, C++, FORTRAN. b. Sistem Operasi : saat komputer pertama kali di hidupkan, sistem operasilah yang pertama kali di jalankan, sistem operasi yang mengatur seluruh proses, menterjemahkan masukan, mengatur proses internal, memanejemen penggunaan memori dan memberikan keluaran ke peralatan yang bersesuaian, contoh sistem operasi : DOS, Unix, Windows 95, IMB OS/2, Apple’s System 7. c. Utility : sistem operasi merupakan perangkat lunak sistem dengan fungsi tertentu, misalnya pemeriksaan perangkat keras (hardware troubleshooting), memeriksa disket yang rusak (bukan rusak fisik), mengatur ulang isi harddisk (partisi, defrag), contoh Utilty adalah Norton Utility. 2. Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi Perangkat lunak aplikasi merupakan bagian perangkat lunak yang sangat banyak di jumpai dan terus berkembang. Sebelum tahun 1990-an aplikasi yang di kenal yaitu pemroses kata (Word Star, Chi Write), pemroses tabel (Lotus 123, Quatro Pro), database (DBASE), dan hiburan (game). Pada perkembangan pemroses kata, tabel dan database saat ini telah di bundel menjadi aplikasi office dengan tambahan aplikasi untuk pembuatan presentasi yang nanti akan di berikan pada pelatihan ini. Contoh aplikasi office adalah Microsoft Office yang terdiri dari Word(pemroses kata), Excel (pemroses tabel), Access (database), dan PowerPoint (presentasi). Yang berkembang sangat banyak saat ini adalah aplikasi multimedia dan internet. Contoh aplikasi multimedia adalah Winamp untuk memutar musik berformat MP3 atau CD Audio, kemudian RealPlayer yang dapat digunakan untuk menonton film atau VCD. Aplikasi internet yang umum di gunakan adalah untuk browsing, e-mail, chatting dan messenger. Aplikasi yang bersifat khusus di antaranya untuk membantu pekerjaan Engineer seperti AutoCAD (gambar struktur), Protel (gambar rangkaian elektronik), dan Matlab (pemroses dan visualisasi persamaan matematis). Perangkat lunak dalam penggunaannya dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 5 macam yaitu : 1. Sistem operasi (Operasi system) 2. Program Utilitas (utilities Program) 3. Program Aplikasi (Aplikasi Program) 4. Program paket (Package Program) 5. Bahasa pemprograman (Programming Language) 1. Sistem operasi (Operasi system) a. Definisi Sistem Operasi Sistem operasi (bahasa Inggris: Operating system ; OS) adalah seperangkat program yang mengelola sumber daya perangkat keras komputer, dan menyediakan layanan umum untuk aplikasi perangkat lunak. Sistem operasi adalah jenis yang paling penting dari perangkat lunak sistem dalam sistem komputer. Tanpa sistem operasi, pengguna tidak dapat menjalankan program aplikasi pada komputer mereka, kecuali program aplikasi boot diri. Waktu-berbagi jadwal tugas sistem operasi untuk penggunaan yang efisien dari sistem dan juga dapat mencakup akuntansi untuk alokasi biaya waktu prosesor, penyimpanan massa, cetak, dan sumber daya lainnya. Untuk fungsi-fungsi perangkat keras seperti sebagai masukan dan keluaran dan alokasi memori, sistem operasi bertindak sebagai perantara antara program aplikasi dan perangkat keras komputer,[1][2] meskipun kode aplikasi biasanya dieksekusi langsung oleh perangkat keras dan seringkali akan menghubungi OS atau terputus oleh itu. Sistem operasi yang ditemukan pada hampir semua perangkat yang berisi komputer-dari ponsel dan konsol permainan video untuk superkomputer dan server web. Contoh populer sistem operasi modern termasuk Linux, Android, iOS, Mac OS X, dan Microsoft Windows. Biasanya, istilah Sistem Operasi sering ditujukan kepada semua perangkat lunak yang masuk dalam satu paket dengan sistem komputer sebelum aplikasi-aplikasi perangkat lunak terinstal. Sistem operasi adalah perangkat lunak sistem yang bertugas untuk melakukan kontrol dan manajemen perangkat keras serta operasi-operasi dasar sistem, termasuk menjalankan perangkat lunak aplikasi seperti program-program pengolah kata dan peramban web. Secara umum, Sistem Operasi adalah perangkat lunak pada lapisan pertama yang ditempatkan pada memori komputer pada saat komputer dinyalakan. Sedangkan software-software lainnya dijalankan setelah Sistem Operasi berjalan, dan Sistem Operasi akan melakukan layanan inti umum untuk software-software itu. Layanan inti umum tersebut seperti akses ke disk, manajemen memori, skeduling task, dan antar-muka user. Sehingga masing-masing software tidak perlu lagi melakukan tugas-tugas inti umum tersebut, karena dapat dilayani dan dilakukan oleh Sistem Operasi. Bagian kode yang melakukan tugas-tugas inti dan umum tersebut dinamakan dengan "kernel" suatu Sistem Operasi. Kalau sistem komputer terbagi dalam lapisan-lapisan, maka Sistem Operasi adalah penghubung antara lapisan hardware dan lapisan software. Lebih jauh daripada itu, Sistem Operasi melakukan semua tugas-tugas penting dalam komputer, dan menjamin aplikasi-aplikasi yang berbeda dapat berjalan secara bersamaan dengan lancar. Sistem Operasi menjamin aplikasi software lainnya dapat menggunakan memori, melakukan input dan output terhadap peralatan lain, dan memiliki akses kepada sistem berkas. Apabila beberapa aplikasi berjalan secara bersamaan, maka Sistem Operasi mengatur schedule yang tepat, sehingga sedapat mungkin semua proses yang berjalan mendapatkan waktu yang cukup untuk menggunakan prosesor (CPU) serta tidak saling mengganggu. Dalam banyak kasus, Sistem Operasi menyediakan suatu pustaka dari fungsi-fungsi standar, dimana aplikasi lain dapat memanggil fungsi-fungsi itu, sehingga dalam setiap pembuatan program baru, tidak perlu membuat fungsi-fungsi tersebut dari awal. Sistem Operasi secara umum terdiri dari beberapa bagian: 1. Mekanisme Boot, yaitu meletakkan kernel ke dalam memory 2. Kernel, yaitu inti dari sebuah Sistem Operasi 3. Command Interpreter atau shell, yang bertugas membaca input dari pengguna 4. Pustaka-pustaka, yaitu yang menyediakan kumpulan fungsi dasar dan standar yang dapat dipanggil oleh aplikasi lain 5. Driver untuk berinteraksi dengan hardware eksternal, sekaligus untuk mengontrol mereka. Sebagian Sistem Operasi hanya mengizinkan satu aplikasi saja yang berjalan pada satu waktu (misalnya DOS), tetapi sebagian besar Sistem Operasi baru mengizinkan beberapa aplikasi berjalan secara simultan pada waktu yang bersamaan. Sistem Operasi seperti ini disebut sebagai Multi-tasking Operating System (misalnya keluarga sistem operasi UNIX). Beberapa Sistem Operasi berukuran sangat besar dan kompleks, serta inputnya tergantung kepada input pengguna, sedangkan Sistem Operasi lainnya sangat kecil dan dibuat dengan asumsi bekerja tanpa intervensi manusia sama sekali. Tipe yang pertama sering disebut sebagai Desktop OS, sedangkan tipe kedua adalah Real-Time OS, contohnya adalah Windows, Linux, Free BSD, Solaris, palm, symbian, dan sebagainya. Seiring dengan berkembangnya Sistem Operasi, semakin banyak lagi layanan yang menjadi layanan inti umum. Kini, sebuah OS mungkin perlu menyediakan layanan network dan koneksitas internet, yang dulunya tidak menjadi layanan inti umum. Sistem Operasi juga perlu untuk menjaga kerusakan sistem komputer dari gangguan program perusak yang berasal dari komputer lainnya, seperti virus. Daftar layanan inti umum akan terus bertambah. Program saling berkomunikasi antara satu dengan lainnya dengan Antarmuka Pemrograman Aplikasi, Application Programming Interface atau disingkat dengan API. Dengan API inilah program aplikasi dapat berkomunikasi dengan Sistem Operasi. Sebagaimana manusia berkomunikasi dengan komputer melalui Antarmuka User, program juga berkomunikasi dengan program lainnya melalui API. Walaupun demikian API sebuah komputer tidaklah berpengaruh sepenuhnya pada program-program yang dijalankan diatas platform operasi tersebut. Contohnya bila program yang dibuat untuk windows 3.1 bila dijalankan pada windows 95 dan generasi setelahnya akan terlihat perbedaan yang mencolok antara window program tersebut dengan program yang lain. b. Sejarah Sistem Operasi Menurut Tanenbaum, sistem operasi mengalami perkembangan yang sangat pesat, yang dapat dibagi kedalam empat generasi: Generasi Pertama (1945-1955) Generasi pertama merupakan awal perkembangan sistem komputasi elektronik sebagai pengganti sistem komputasi mekanik, hal itu disebabkan kecepatan manusia untuk menghitung terbatas dan manusia sangat mudah untuk membuat kecerobohan, kekeliruan bahkan kesalahan. Pada generasi ini belum ada sistem operasi, maka sistem komputer diberi instruksi yang harus dikerjakan secara langsung. Generasi Kedua (1955-1965) Generasi kedua memperkenalkan Batch Processing System, yaitu Job yang dikerjakan dalam satu rangkaian, lalu dieksekusi secara berurutan.Pada generasi ini sistem komputer belum dilengkapi sistem operasi, tetapi beberapa fungsi sistem operasi telah ada, contohnya fungsi sistem operasi ialah FMS dan IBSYS. Generasi Ketiga (1965-1980) Pada generasi ini perkembangan sistem operasi dikembangkan untuk melayani banyak pemakai sekaligus, dimana para pemakai interaktif berkomunikasi lewat terminal secara on-line ke komputer, maka sistem operasi menjadi multi-user (di gunakan banyak pengguna sekali gus) dan multi- programming (melayani banyak program sekali gus). Generasi Keempat (Pasca 1980an) Dewasa ini, sistem operasi dipergunakan untuk jaringan komputer dimana pemakai menyadari keberadaan komputer- komputer yang saling terhubung satu sama lainnya. Pada masa ini para pengguna juga telah dinyamankan dengan Graphical User Interface yaitu antar-muka komputer yang berbasis grafis yang sangat nyaman, pada masa ini juga dimulai era komputasi tersebar dimana komputasi-komputasi tidak lagi berpusat di satu titik, tetapi dipecah dibanyak komputer sehingga tercapai kinerja yang lebih baik. c. Sistem Operasi saat ini Sistem operasi-sistem operasi utama yang digunakan komputer sistem umum (termasuk PC, komputer personal) terbagi menjadi 3 kelompok besar: 1. Keluarga Microsoft Windows - yang antara lain terdiri dari Windows Desktop Environment (versi 1.x hingga versi 3.x), Windows 9x (Windows 95, 98, dan Windows ME), dan Windows NT (Windows NT 3.x, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7 (Seven) yang dirilis pada tahun 2009, dan Windows 8 yang akan dirilis pada tahun 2012 atau lebih lambat)). 2. Keluarga Unix yang menggunakan antarmuka sistem operasi POSIX, seperti SCO UNIX, keluarga BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution), GNU/Linux, MacOS/X (berbasis kernel BSD yang dimodifikasi, dan dikenal dengan nama Darwin) dan GNU/Hurd. 3. Mac OS, adalah sistem operasi untuk komputer keluaran Apple yang biasa disebut Mac atau Macintosh. Sistem operasi yang terbaru adalah Mac OS X versi 10.6 (Snow Leopard). Musim panas 2011 direncanakan peluncuran versi 10.7 (Lion). Sedangkan komputer Mainframe, dan Super komputer menggunakan banyak sekali sistem operasi yang berbeda-beda, umumnya merupakan turunan dari sistem operasi UNIX yang dikembangkan oleh vendor seperti IBM AIX, HP/UX, dan lain-lain. Sistem operasi sangat berkaitan dengan prosesor yang di gunakan. Jenis prosesor pada PC yang umum adalah yang kompatibel dengan produk awal IBM dan Macintosh. PC Macintosh, perangkat lunaknya di kembangkan oleh perusahaan yang sama sehingga perkembangannya tidak sepesat cloning IBM PC. Sistem operasi dari cloning IBM saat ini secara umum terbagi menjadi 2 aliran yaitu komersil yang di buat oleh Microsoft dan yang bersifat freeware yang di kembangkan oleh peneliti dari seluruh dunia karena bersifat open source, yaitu bahan baku pembuatan dapat di baca, sehingga hasilnya dapat di tambah atau di modifikasi oleh setiap orang. Sementara interaksi antara pengguna dan komputer di kenal melalui 2 cara, cara yang pertama adalah pemberian instruksi melalui penulisan perintah, atau dengan cara tunjuk (pointer) dengan tampilan grafis. Gambar Sistem Operasi Berbasis Teks Gambar Sistem Operasi Berbasis Grafis 2. Program Utilitas (utilities Program) Perangkat lunak utilitas merupakan perangkat lunak komputer yang didesain untuk membantu proses analisis, konfigurasi, optimasi, dan membantu pengelolaan sebuah komputer ataupun sistem. Perangkat lunak utilitas harus dibedakan dengan perangkat lunak aplikasi yang memungkinkan pengguna melakukan berbagai hal dengan komputer seperti mengetik, melakukan permainan, merancang gambar, dan lain-lain. Perangkat lunak utilitas lebih memfokuskan penggunaannya pada pengoptimasian fungsi dari infrastruktur yang terdapat dalam sebuah komputer. Karena fungsinya, perangkat lunak utilitas umumnya tidak ditujukan untuk pengguna secara umum, melainkan ditujukan untuk pengguna yang memiliki pemahaman atas cara kerja sistem komputer yang cukup baik. Kebanyakan perangkat keras utilitas ini dibuat secara khsus untuk melakukan fungsi tertentu pada suatu area komputasi secara spesifik, seperti memformat harddisk, atau melakukan pengecekan konektifitas jaringan. Namun dalam perkembangannya sejumlah perangkat lunak utilitas terkadang pula dipaketkan dalam satu paket utilitas yang ditujukan untuk beragam kebutuhan. Contoh-contoh Program Utilitas : • Backup, utilitas untuk melakukan backup data yang ditujukan untuk membuat duplikat arsip untuk menghindari terjadinya kehilangan data bila perangkat penyimpanan tidak dapat berfungsi. Contoh utilitas backup yang cukup popiler adalah Norton Backup (dari Symantec) dan Colorado Scheduler. • Pemulihan Data, utilitas pemulihan data digunakan untuk mengembalikan data yang secara fisik telah rusak atau berubah. Data dapat dirusak oleh virus, perangkat lunak yang buruk, kegagalan perangkat keras, dan fluktuasi daya listrik yang terjadi ketika data sedang ditulisi/diubah. • Anti virus, perangkat lunak antivirus men-scan semua disk dan memori untuk mendeteksi kehadiran virus, dan mengisolasinya untuk mencegah kerusakan lebih lanjut. • Kompresi data, utilitas kompresi berfungsi untuk memperkecil ukuran sebuah dokumen sehingga dapat menghemat pemanfaatan ruang penyimpanan, serta mempermudah pendistribusian. 3. Program Aplikasi (Aplikasi Program) Merupakan perangkat yang berfungsi untuk melakukan berbagai bentuk tugas perkantoran seperti pengolah kata, lembar kerja, presentasi, pengolahan halaman web, hingga perangkat media player,dan sebagainya.Hal ini sudah berkembang sejak sistem operasi tersebut dikembangkan. Software Aplikasi dapat dikelompokkan dalam beberapa bagian, yaitu: a. Pengolahan kata (word Processor) Berfungsi untuk melakukan pengolahan kata,yaitu pekerjaan yang berhubungan dengan naskah dan berbagai macam administrasi surat-menyurat.Contoh: Wordstar, Microsoft Word, Amipro, Word Perfect. Gambar salah satu aplikasi pengolah kata. b. Pengolah Angka (Spread Sheet) Berfungsi untuk melakukan pekerjaan yang banyak berhubungan dengan angka-angka, seperti penggunaan perhitungan, laporan keuangan, dan grafik.Contoh:Lotus 123, Star Office Calc, Open Office Calc, Microsoft Excel, Symphony, Super Calc. Gambar Lotus 123 beserta lembar kerja Gambar Star Office Calc beserta lembar kerja Gambar Open Office Calc beserta lembar kerja Gambar Microsoft Excel beserta lembar kerja c. Pengolah data (Data base) Database yaitu sebuah teknologi pengolahan data yang sangat diperlukan bagi para pegiat pengolah data. Dengan system database akan mempermudah pengguna (user) dalam pencarian data dan sekaligus mempermudah pekerja dalam melayani dan menggunakan data tersebut. Dengan pengolahan database penyajian data lebih sederhana dibandingkan pengolahan data secama manual lainnya, seperti Word dan Exel.Data base berfungsi untuk melakukan pengolahan data.Data tersebut dapat berupa angka, kata atau gabungan angka dan kata.Contoh:dBase, Fox Base, Fox Pro, Clipper, Microsoft Access, Visual Fox Pro, Paradox dan lain sebagainya. Gambar Ms. Access Gambar Visual Fox Pro Gambar Paradox d. Multimedia Aplikasi multimedia saat ini sangat banyak dan beragam. Di katakan Multimedia karena selain penggunaan media teks, aplikasi ini dapat memproses / menampilkan dalam bentuk yang lain yaitu gambar, suara dan film. Aplikasi Multimedia sangat berkaitan dengan format data yang di gunakan. Aplikasi Multimedia umumnya di pisahkan lagi menjadi aplikasi yang di gunakan untuk membuat, yang hanya di gunakan untuk menampilkan saja dan aplikasi pengaturan. Format-format digital multimedia di antaranya : • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) , format suara instrumen ini di perkenalkan pada tahun 1983 oleh perusahaan musik elektrik seperti Roland, Yamaha dan Korg. Format MIDI bersifat sangat kompak dengan ukurannya yang kecil, suara yang di hasilkan oleh MIDI dengan dukungan sound card yang memilik synthesizer (penghasil suara elektrik) sangatlah mirip dengan organ elektrik yang bisa memainkan berbagai alat musik. • MP3, format suara yang terkenal saat ini berbeda dengan MIDI yang hanya instrument, MP3 merekam seluruh suara termasuk suara penyanyinya. Kualitas suara MP3 akan berbanding dengan ukuran penyimpannya. Kualitas yang banyak di gunakan untuk merekam musik adalah standar CD-ROM (44,2 KHz, 16 bit, stereo), sementara kualitas terendah adalah kualitas seperti telepon (5 KHz, 8 bit, mono). • MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group), merupakan format yang di susun oleh ahli dari berbagai penjuru dunia untuk format multimedia. • AVI (Audio Video Interleave), format AVI di buat oleh Microsoft dan mudah di pindah-pindahkan di aplikasi buatan Microsoft lainnya seperti Word atau PowerPoint Contoh aplikasi multimedia adalah Winamp, Audio Pro untuk memutar musik berformat MP3 atau CD Audio.Kemudian RealPlayer, Xing, atau Jet Audio yang dapat digunakan untuk menonton film atau VCD. Gambar Multimedia e. Komunikasi dan Internet Untuk melakukan komunikasi antar komputer antara dua komputer atau lebih. Perangkat lunak yang berhubungan dengan internet sangat berkaitan dengan aplikasi internet. Perangkat lunak yang berhubungan dengan internet sangat berkaitan dengan aplikasi internet. Aplikasi Internet adalah protokol yang digunakan untuk berhubungan antara satu orang atau mesin dengan pihak lain yang berjauhan. Aplikasi internet akan menyangkut dua sisi, yaitu sisi penyedia (server) atau sisi pengguna (client). Contoh aplikasi internet dan perangkat lunak dari sisi pengguna yang umum di gunakan adalah : 1. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer protocol), merupakan aplikasi internet yang menampilkan baris kalimat, atau gambar, dengan beberapa kata yang di beri tanda garis bawah (hypertext). Dari hypertext ini, pengguna dapat melompat dari satu dokumen (page) ke dokumen lainnya. Perangkat lunak di sisi pengguna yang menjalankan http di kenal sebagai browser. Contoh browser adalah Internet Explorer (gambar 3.11) dan Netscape. 2. E-mail (Electronic mail), merupakan aplikasi surat menyurat di internet. Setiap orang memiliki alamat e-mail, dan bisa saling bertukar dokumen satu sama lain. Contoh perangkat lunaknya adalah Outlook Express. 3. Messenger. Messenger di gunakan untuk berkomunikasi antara satu orang atau lebih (conference), selain komunikasi melalu teks (messsage), juga bisa berupa suara (voice) mapun film (webcam) Gambar Komunikasi Lewat Internet f. Pendidikan dan Game Software untuk membantu memahami sesuatu pelajaran banyak dikemas dalam bentuk game dengan tujuan agar tidak membosankan, contohnya adalah: PC Globe, Bodyworks, Science Adventure, Reader Rabbit, dan lain-lain. Walaupun tingkat pengguna game di Indonesia masih jauh ketinggalan dibandingkan dengan pengguna di luar negeri namun kita melihat pertumbuhan yang signifikan dari tahun ke tahun. Pasar game online terutama sangat besar dan semakin menampakkan wujudnya dengan adanya beberapa finalis Indonesia di ajang perlombaan game tingkat dunia. Gambar Program Belajar dengan Game g. Perancangan Gambar Aplikasi yang bersifat khusus di antaranya untuk membantu pekerjaan Engineer seperti AutoCAD (gambar struktur), Protel (gambar rangkaian elektronik), Matlab (pemroses dan visualisasi persamaan matematis), Photos Shop (mengolah gambar), dan Flash (untuk membuat halaman WEB), dan lainnya. Gambar Radiator (AutoCad) Gambar Protel XP Gambar Matlab (pemroses dan visualisasi persamaan matematis) Gambar Photo Shop h. Anti Virus Pada ilmu komputer,virus yang dimaksud adalah sebuah program komputer yang memiliki kemampuan untuk menggandakan diri dengan cara menyisipkan program /script ke dalam sebuah file lain. Mirip seperti virus biologis, virus komputer dapat menyebar dengan cepat pada file-file dalam sebuah komputer, atau bahkan menulari file pada komputer lain, baik melalui jaringan maupun lewat kegiatan tukar-menukar file. Banyak virus yang sengaja disebarkan melalui e-mail. Oleh karenanya, jika komputer kita terhubung langsung ke internet, sebaiknya kita harus memasangan anti virus dan upayakan agar selalu ter-update (diperbaharui). Antivirus adalah sebuah jenis perangkat lunak yang digunakan untuk mengamankan, mendeteksi, dan menghapus virus komputer dari sistem komputer. Antivirus disebut juga Virus Protection Software. Aplikasi ini dapat menentukan apakah sebuah sistem komputer telah terinfeksi dengan sebuah virus atau tidak. Umumnya, perangkat lunak ini berjalan di latar belakang (background) dan melakukan pemindaian terhadap semua berkas yang diakses (dibuka, dimodifikasi, atau ketika disimpan). Antivirus - antivirus terbaru sekarang tidak hanya mendeteksi virus. Program antivirus sekarang juga telah dilengkapi dengan kemampuan untuk mendeteksi spyware, rootkits, dan malware - malware lainnya. Tidak hanya itu, antivirus sekarang dilengkapi firewall untuk melindungi komputer dari serangan hacker dan anti spam untuk mencegah masuknya email sampah dan/atau virus ke inbox pengguna. Pada umumnya, cara kerja antivirus adalah: • Pendeteksian dengan menggunakan basis data virus signature (virus signature database): Cara kerja antivirus ini merupakan pendekatan yang banyak digunakan oleh antivirus tradisional, yang mencari tanda-tanda dari keberadaan dari virus dengan menggunakan sebagian kecil dari kode virus yang telah dianalisis oleh vendor antivirus, dan telah dikatalogisasi sesuai dengan jenisnya, ukurannya, daya hancurnya dan beberapa kategori lainnya. Cara ini terbilang cepat dan dapat diandalkan untuk mendeteksi virus-virus yang telah dianalisis oleh vendor antivirus, tapi tidak dapat mendeteksi virus yang baru hingga basis data virus signature yang baru diinstalasikan ke dalam sistem. Basis data virus signature ini dapat diperoleh dari vendor antivirus dan umumnya dapat diperoleh secara gratis melalui download atau melalui berlangganan (subscription), dan/atau • Pendeteksian dengan melihat cara bagaimana virus bekerja: Cara kerja antivirus seperti ini merupakan pendekatan yang baru yang dipinjam dari teknologi yang diterapkan dalam Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Cara ini sering disebut juga sebagai Behavior-blocking detection. Cara ini menggunakan policy (kebijakan) yang harus diterapkan untuk mendeteksi keberadaan sebuah virus. Jika ada kelakuan perangkat lunak yang "tidak wajar" menurut policy yang diterapkan, seperti halnya perangkat lunak yang mencoba untuk mengakses address book untuk mengirimkan e-mail secara massal terhadap daftar e-mail yang berada di dalam address book tersebut (cara ini sering digunakan oleh virus untuk menularkan virus melalui e-mail), maka antivirus akan menghentikan proses yang dilakukan oleh perangkat lunak tersebut. Antivirus juga dapat mengisolasi kode-kode yang dicurigai sebagai virus hingga administrator menentukan apa yang akan dilakukan selanjutnya. Keuntungan dari cara ini adalah antivirus dapat mendeteksi adanya virus-virus baru yang belum dikenali oleh basis data virus signature. Kekurangannya, jelas karena antivirus memantau cara kerja perangkat lunak secara keseluruhan (bukan memantau berkas), maka seringnya antivirus membuat alarm palsu atau "False Alarm" (jika konfigurasi antivirus terlalu "keras"), atau bahkan mengizinkan virus untuk berkembangbiak di dalam sistem (jika konfigurasi antivirus terlalu "lunak"), terjadi false positive. Beberapa produsen menyebut teknik ini sebagai heuristic scanning. Teknologi Heuristic Scanning ini telah berkembang begitu jauh hingga sekarang. Beberapa antivirus mengecek sebuah file dengan definisi biasa. Jika lolos dari deteksi biasa, maka file tersebut dijalankan di sebuah lingkungan virtual. Semua perubahan yang dilakukan file bersifat seperti virus, maka pengguna akan diperingatkan. Jenis antivirus berdasarkan pengguna Antivirus berdasarkan penggunanya dibagi menjadi 2, yaitu Home User dan Network /Corporate User. Untuk home user, antivirus berjalan seperti biasa. Untuk versi jaringan (network), antivirus dapat melakukan scan di komputer - komputer client dan network drive. Selain itu, proses update komputer client dalam jaringan tidak harus langsung dari Internet. Komputer client dapat melakukan upate langsung dari server jaringan. Antivirus berdasarkan cara memperolehnya 1. Free antivirus : anti virus yang diperoleh secara gratis 2. Trial antivirus : Anti virus yang diperoleh secara gratis namun diberi batasan waktu 3. Donation antivirus : Anti virus yang diperoleh dengan harus mendonasi 4. Paid antivirus : antivirus yang diperoleh dengan cara membeli. Software untuk membasmi virus dari perangkat penyimpan computer, contoh:Mc Afee, Norton Anti Virus, Panda, dan lainnya.Virus adalah software yang dibuat untuk merusak data atau program computer, contohnya adalah: PC Brain,Hackers, My Heart, Pepsin, Bagle, MyDoom dan lainnya. 4. Program paket (Package Program) Package Software merupakan suatu software yang dibikin oleh Software House ataupun Konsultan Komputer ataupun Organisasi yang ditulis agar bisa digunakan oleh para pemakai komputer. Paket software biasanya memanfaatkan programming language yang oleh kebanyakan pemakai komputer masih dianggap terlalu sulit untuk digunakan ataupun dimanfaatkan Dengan adanya package-software ini, komputer menjadi semakin mudah untuk digunakan oleh para pemakai. Penggunaan komputer benar-benar diarahkan kepada konsep user-friendly (komputer semakin dekat dengan pemakai dan komputer semakin mudah digunakan) berbagai kesulitan ataupun prosedur yang terdapat didalam programming language, teratasi dengan adanya package software. 5. Bahasa pemprograman (Programming Language) Merupakan perangkat lunak yang bertugas mengkonversikan arsitektur dan algoritma yang di rancang manusia ke dalam format yang dapat di jalankan komputer. Menurut tingkat kedekatannya dengan mesin komputer, bahasa pemrograman terdiri dari: 1. Bahasa Mesin, yaitu memberikan perintah kepada komputer dengan memakai kode bahasa biner, contohnya 01100101100110 2. Bahasa Tingkat Rendah, atau dikenal dengan istilah bahasa rakitan (bahasa Inggris Assembly), yaitu memberikan perintah kepada komputer dengan memakai kode-kode singkat (kode mnemonic), contohnya MOV, SUB, CMP, JMP, JGE, JL, LOOP, dsb. 3. Bahasa Tingkat Menengah, yaitu bahasa komputer yang memakai campuran instruksi dalam kata-kata bahasa manusia (lihat contoh Bahasa Tingkat Tinggi di bawah) dan instruksi yang bersifat simbolik, contohnya {, }, ?, <<, >>, &&, ||, dsb. 4. Bahasa Tingkat Tinggi, yaitu bahasa komputer yang memakai instruksi berasal dari unsur kata-kata bahasa manusia, contohnya begin, end, if, for, while, and, or, dan sebagainya. Sebagian besar bahasa pemrograman digolongkan sebagai Bahasa Tingkat Tinggi, hanya bahasa C yang digolongkan sebagai Bahasa Tingkat Menengah dan Assembly yang merupakan Bahasa Tingkat Rendah. Berikut ini adalah daftar bahasa pemrograman komputer: • ABC • Ada • ALGOL • Applescript • Assembly • BASIC: o ASP o BASIC o COMAL o Visual Basic o Visual Basic for Applications o VBScript • Batch (MS-DOS) • COBOL • UNIX shell script: o Bourne shell (sh) script o Bourne-Again shell (bash) script o Korn shell (ksh) script o C shell (csh) script • C: o C++ o C# o Visual C++ • ColdFusion • dBase dkk.: o Clipper o Foxbase o Visual FoxPro • Eiffel • Fortran • Go • Haskell • Java o JavaScript o JSP • Lisp • Logo • Pascal o Delphi • Perl • Prolog • Python • PHP • Pike • R • REXX • REBOL • RPG • Ruby • Simula • Smalltalk • Scheme • SQL 3. PERKEMBANGAN PEMBUATAN PERANGKAT LUNAK Dari perkembangan perangkat lunak, kita bisa membayangkan bagaimana perkembangan interaksi manusia dengan perangkat lunak. Bentuk paling primitif dari perangkat lunak, menggunakan aljabar Boolean, yang di representasikan sebagai binary digit (bit), yaitu 1 (benar / on) atau 0 (salah / off), cari ini sudah pasti sangat menyulitkan, sehingga orang mulai mengelompokkan bit tersebut menjadi nible (4 bit), byte (8 bit), word (2 byte), double word (32 bit). Kelompok-kelompok bit ini di susun ke dalam struktur instruksi seperti penyimpanan, transfer, operasi aritmatika, operasi logika, dan bentuk bit ini di ubah menjadi kode-kode yang di kenal sebagai assembler. Kode-kode mesin sendiri masih cukup menyulitkan karena tuntutan untuk dapat menghapal kode tersebut dan format (aturan) penulisannya yang cukup membingungkan, dari masalah ini kemudian lahir bahasa pemrograman tingkat tinggi yang seperti bahasa manusia (bahasa Inggris). Saat ini pembuatan perangkat lunak sudah menjadi suatu proses produksi yang sangat kompleks, dengan urutan proses yang panjang dengan melibatkan puluhan bahkan ratusan orang dalam pembuatannya. Gambar Siklus Perangkat Lunak 4. EVOLUSI PERANGKAT LUNAK Kita ketahui komputer membutuhkan data atau fakta, dimana data ini pada saat di input akan diterjemahkan menjadi bilangan biner. Mesin komputer memproses fakta atau data menjadi suatu informasi yang berguna bagi penggunanya. Dengan komputer di harapkan dapat meningkatkan hasil kerja dan memecahkan berbagai masalah. Sebelum menjadi informasi data tersebut dip roses melalui hardware yang terletak pada CPU dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak. Perangkat lunak atau software adalah program dari komputer. Perangkat lunak adalah program yang berisi instruksi untuk melakukan proses pengolahan data. Saat ini, tingkat pemrosesan yang dikerjakan perangkat lunak bersifat machine-like (keinginan mesin) mulai berubah dengan sifat human-like (keinginan manusia). Dalam teori informasi, disusun hirarki informasi mulai dari data atau fakta kemudian setelah proses seleksi dan pengurutan menjadi sesuatu yang berguna menjadi informasi. Informasi yang disusun secara sistematis dengan suatu alur logika tertentu menjadi knowledge (pengetahuan). Perangkat keras tidak akan berfungsi tanpa danya perangkat lunak begitupun sebaliknya perangkat lunak tidak akan berfungsi tanpa adanya perangkat keras. Kedua perangkat tersebut memang saling berkaitan sehingga komputer dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Perkembangan teknologi terutama dalam perangkat keras terus diimbangi oleh perangkat lunaknya sehingga penggunaan komputer lebih maksimal. Kemampuan komputer dirasakan sangat berkaitan dengan perangkat keras dan perangkat lunaknya, maka dari itu diperlukan perangkat lunak yang benar-benar mendukung perangkat kerasnya. Bentuk paling sederhana dari perangkat lunak, menggunakan aljabar Boolean yang di representasikan sebagai binary digit (bit), yaitu 1 (benar) atau 0 (salah), cara ini sudah pasti sangat menyulitkan, sehingga orang mulai mengelompokan bit tersebut menjadi nible (4 bit), byte (8 bit), word (16 bit), double word (32 bit). Kelompok-kelompok bit ini disusun ke dalam struktur instruksi seperti penyimpanan, transfer, operasi aritmatika, operasi logika dan bentuk bit ini di ubah menjadi kode-kode yang dikenal sebagai assembler. Kode-kode mesin sendiri masih cukup menyulitkan karenan tuntutan untuk dapat menghapal kode tersebut dan format (aturan) penulisannya yang cukup membingungkan, dari maslah tersebut ini kemudian lahir bahasa pemrograman tingkat tinggi yang seperti bahasa manusia (bahasa inggris). Saat ini pembuatan perangkat lunak sudah menjadi suatu proses produksi yang sangat kompleks, dengan urutan proses yang panjang dengan melibatkanpuluhan bahkan ratusan orang dalam pembuatannya. Berdasarkan perkembangannya perangkat lunak sampai dengan era sekarang dibagi menjadi beberapa era yaitu : Evolusi software secara garis besar diklasifikasikan menjadi era belum adanya computer dan setelah adanya computer. Sebelum adanya computer dibagi menjadi era primitive dan era mekanis. Sedangkan pada era setelah adanya computer, evolusi software mengikuti evolusi hardware komputer itu sendiri. Era software sebelum adanya komputer diklasifikasikan menjadi dua era yaitu : Era primitive (± 300 SM) di mana software dibuat dengan melakukan petunjuk-petunjuk sederhana dengan menggunakan kode gerak sejenis semaphore. Era Mekanis (1840-1930-an) yang diterapkan pada peralatan Anatycal Engine dan pemakaian mesin kartu plong (punch card). Sedangkan era software setelah adanya komputer yang berarti menggunakan teknologi elektronis, dibagi menjadi era pioneer, era stabil, era mikro, dan era modern.  Era Pioner (1950-1960) Bentuk perangkat lunak pada awalnya adalah sambungan-sambungan kabel ke antar bagian dalam komputer, gambar berikut memperlihatkan orang yang sedang menggunakan komputer. Cara lain dalam mengakses komputer adalah menggunakan punched card yaitu kartu yang di lubangi. Penggunaan komputer saat itu masih dilakukan secara langsung, sebuah program untuk sebuah mesin untuk tujuan tertentu. Pada era ini, perangkat lunak merupakan satu kesatuan dengan perangkat kerasnya. Penggunaan komputer dilakukan secara langsung dan hasil yang selesai di kerjakan komputer berupa print out. Proses yang di lakukan di dalam komputer berupa baris instruksi yang secara berurutan di proses. Ciri-ciri lain dari era pionir ini adalah masih menggunakan proses yang terkelompok (batch), distribusi terbatas, dan diproduksi untuk keperluan khusus. Gambar Wanita sedang menggunakan komputer ENIAC Gambar Komputer ENIAC  Era Stabil (1960-1980) Pada era stabil penggunaan komputer sudah banyak di gunakan, tidak hanya oleh kalangan peneliti dan akademi saja, tetapi juga oleh kalangan industri / perusahaan. Perusahaan perangkat lunak bermunculan, dan sebuah perangkat lunak dapat menjalankan beberapa fungsi, dari ini perangkat lunak mulai bergeser menjadi sebuah produk. Baris-baris perintah perangkat lunak yang di jalankan oleh komputer bukan lagi satu-satu, tapi sudah seperti banyak proses yang di lakukan secara serempak (multi tasking). Sebuah perangkat lunak mampu menyelesaikan banyak pengguna (multi user) secara cepat/langsung (real time). Pada era ini mulai di kenal sistem basis data, yang memisahkan antara program (pemroses) dengan data (yang di proses).  Era Mikro (1980-1990) Sejalan dengan semakin luasnya PC dan jaringan komputer di era ini, perangkat lunak juga berkembang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan perorangan. Perangkat lunak dapat di bedakan menjadi perangkat lunak sistem yang bertugas menangani internal dan perangkat lunak aplikasi yang di gunakan secara langsung oleh penggunannya untuk keperluan tertentu. Automatisasi yang ada di dalam perangkat lunak mengarah ke suatu jenis kecerdasan buatan. Software ini diproduksi untuk kebutuhan komputer jaringan (networking) dan tersebar (distributed), harganya murah sehingga banyak digunakan untuk kebutuhan pribadi (home), bersifat otomasi untuk kecerdasan buatan (artificial intelligent).  Era Modern (2000-Tanpa batas) Saat ini perangkat lunak sudah terdapat di mana-mana, tidak hanya pada sebuah superkomputer dengan 25 prosesornya, sebuah komputer genggampun telah di lengkapi dengan perangkat lunak yang dapat di sinkronkan dengan PC. Tidak hanya komputer, bahkan peralatan seperti telepon, TV, hingga ke mesin cuci, AC dan microwave, telah di tanamkan perangkat lunak untuk mengatur operasi peralatan itu. Dan yang hebatnya lagi adalah setiap peralatan itu akan mengarah pada suatu saat kelak akan dapat saling terhubung. Pembuatan sebuah perangkat lunak bukan lagi pekerjaan segelentir orang, tetapi telah menjadi pekerjaan banyak orang, dengan beberapa tahapan proses yang melibatkan berbagai disiplin ilmu dalam perancangannya. Tingkat kecerdasan yang di tunjukkan oleh perangkat lunak pun semakin meningkat, selain permasalahan teknis, perangkat lunak sekarang mulai bisa mengenal suara dan gambar. Kecerdasan perankgkat lunak pada era ini membuat proses perkembangannya semakin luas menjadi :  Media perantara untuk jaringan PC.  Berbasis multimedia, desktop dan portable, berteknologi objek, system pakar, pemrosesan parallel, dan dapat berkomunikasi dengan jaringan global  Sebagai media perantara atau penghubung antara seperangkat elektronik yang berbeda.  Sebuah Graphical User Interface (GUI) yang makin mempermudah user dalam menggunakannya.  Media pembantu dalam menyelesaikan tugas-tugas pekerjaan penggunanya.  Dan masih banyak lagi yang terus dikembangkan hingga saat ini. Gambar Evolusi Perangkat Lunak Selama era evolusi sistem berbasis komputer, serangkaian masalah yang berhubungan dengan perangkat lunak masih muncul, dan intensitas masalah-masalah tersebut terus bertambah. 1. Kemajuan perangkat keras terus berlanjut, melampaui kemampuan kita untuk membangun perangkat lunak yang sesuai dengan perangkat keras yang ada. 2. Kemampuan kita untuk membangun program baru tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan akan program baru, juga tidak dapat membangun program yang cukup cepat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bisnis dan pasar. 3. Pemakaian komputer yang tersebar luas membuat masyarakat semakin tergantung pada operasi perangkat lunak yang reliabel. Kerusakan ekonomis yang besar dan potensi penderitaan manusia dapat muncul bila terjadi kegagalan perangkat lunak. 4. Kita berjuang untuk membangun perangkat lunak komputer dengan reliabilitas dan kualitas yang sangat tinggi. Kemampuan kita untuk mendukung program yang ada terhambat oleh buruknya desain serta sumber daya yang tidak memadai. 5. PERKEMBANGAN PERANGKAT LUNAK BEBAS Sebelum 1983 Komunitas perangkat lunak yang dapat dibandingkan dengan apa yang sekarang dinamakan komunitas perangkat lunak bebas telah lama muncul sebelum munculnya gerakan perangkat lunak bebas dan istilah "perangkat lunak bebas" itu sendiri. Menurut Richard Stallman, komunitas berbagi perangkat lunak di Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) telah ada selama bertahun-tahun sebelum ia bergabung pada 1971.[1] Contoh lain yaitu kelompok pengguna IBM 701, yang bernama SHARE, dan kelompok pengguna Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), yang bernama DECUS. Pada waktu itu perangkat lunak kebanyakan dibuat oleh kalangan akademisi dan peneliti yang bekerja dalam kolaborasi dan belum dilihat sebagai sebuah komoditi. Sistem operasi seperti versi awal dari UNIX didistribusikan secara luas dan ditangani oleh komunitas. Kode sumber didistribusikan bersamaan dengan perangkat lunaknya karena pengguna-pengguna sering melakukan modifikasi untuk perbaikan bug atau untuk menambahkan fungsi-fungsi baru. Sehingga pada masa tersebut, perangkat lunak dapat disebut sebagai perangkat lunak bebas, bukan karena usaha dari pengguna atau pengembang untuk menjadikannya demikian, tetapi karena perangkat lunak dikembangkan oleh komunitas pengguna. Versi awal dari UNIX disebarkan secara gratis, tetapi versi awal ini tidak disertai dengan izin untuk menyebarluaskan atau izin untuk menyebarkan versi yang dimodifikasi sehingga tidak dapat dikatakan perangkat lunak bebas. Pada akhir 1970-an dan awal 1980-an, perusahaan-perusahaan memulai membatasi perangkat lunak melalui hak cipta. Hal ini disebabkan karena perangkat lunak-perangkat lunak tersebut berubah menjadi sumber pendapatan sebagai perangkat lunak tak bebas. Beberapa perangkat lunak bebas dikembangkan sebelum 1983 dan terus digunakan sampai sekarang termasuk TeX dan SPICE.[2] Dimulainya GNU dan FSF (1983-1990) Pada 1983, Richard Stallman meluncurkan proyek GNU yang bertujuan untuk menulis sebuah sistem operasi yang lengkap dan yang kode sumbernya bebas digunakan oleh siapa saja. Beberapa insiden khusus yang memotivasi hal ini termasuk kasus dimana sebuah pencetak yang tidak bekerja dan tidak bisa diperbaiki penggunanya karena kode sumbernya tidak tersedia[3]. Kasus terakhir adalah sengketa antara Stallman dan Symbolics, Inc.. Tidak lama setelah peluncuran proyek GNU, Stallman memopulerkan istilah "free software" atau "perangkat lunak bebas" dan mendirikan Yayasan Perangkat Lunak Bebas untuk mempromosikan konsep tersebut. Definisi Perangkat Lunak Bebas kemudian dipublikasikan pada Februari 1986. Pada 1989, versi pertama dari Lisensi Umum Publik GNU dipulikasikan. Versi 2-nya dipublikasikan pada 1991. Pada 1989, beberapa pengembang GNU mendirikan perusahaan Cygnus Solutions[4] yang bertujuan untuk menyediakan dukungan komersial atas produk perangkat lunak bebas. Cygnus Solutions akhirnya mengumumkan merger dengan Red Hat pada 15 November 1999. GNU+Linux (1991-) Pada 1992, sebuah kernel yang dimulai oleh Linus Torvalds pada tahun sebelumnya dirilis sebagai perangkat lunak bebas. Pada waktu itu, proyek GNU telah menghasilkan atau mengintegrasikan semua yang diperlukan sebuah sistem operasi kecuali sebuah kernel. Kombinasi Linux dan sistem GNU menciptakan sistem operasi bebas dan lengkap yang pertama sejak 1983. Lihat pula: Kontroversi penamaan GNU/Linux. Free BSD (1993-) Pada 1993, FreeBSD dan NetBSD dirilis sebagai perangkat lunak bebas. Keduanya berasal dari 386BSD. OpenBSD kemudian dikembangkan dari NetBSD pada 1995. PERKEMBANGAN SOFTWARE 1956: Jhon Bachus dan tim IBMnya menciptakan fortran dengan bahasa pemprograman tingkat tinggi. 1960: LISP meluncurkan model bahasa komputer untuk menulis program tiruan. 1965: Orientasi bahasa benda dengan perakitan tambahan dengan simulasi, ditulis oleh Kristen Nygaard dan Ole John Dahl. 1969: Bill Gates & Paul Allen menyebutnya dengan “lake side programming group” menyetujui komputer dengan badan hukum pusat untuk mematenkan pdp-iq software. 1975: Paul Allen di dalam suratnya, Bill Gates menggunakan nama “micro-soft” menyerahkan kepada rekan kerja nya.untuk cepat-cepat menuliskan tentang referensinya. 1976: Untuk pertama kalinya microsoft di kembangkan, mereka menyebutnya dengan “the legend of micro-kid”. 1977: Pemerintahan US mengadopsi data standar IBM, untuk membuka kode kunci pesan dan ntuk melindungi rahasia agensi mereka. 1978: Microsoft mengumumkan produk ketiganya, MICROSOTF COBOL-80 dijual seharga 1 juta dolar US. 1979: Micosoft mengumumkan, MICROSOFT BASIC untuk 8086 16 bit micropocessors. 1981: IBM memperkenalkan personal computer dengan penggunaan Microsoft 19 bit operting system,MS DOS 1.0,plus Microsoft BASIC,COBOL,PASCAL,dan produk Microsoft lainnya. 1983: Microsoft memperkenalkan word processing program,Microsoft word for MS DOS 1.00 . 1989:Maxis memproduksi video game ,dengan kelas baru untuk pendidikan dan hiburan. 1995: Windows 95 ships. 1997: Deep blue defeats world chess champion. 1998: Windows 98 2000: Windows 2000 2001: Windows XP 2006: Windows Vista 6. PERKEMBANGAN INDUSTRI PERANGKAT LUNAK DI INDONESIA Dibandingkan dengan sejumlah Negara tetangga, seperti Singapura, Malaysia, atau Philipina, Industri Perangkat Lunak di Indonesia dapat dikatakan tertinggal. Tertinggal dari segi jumlah industri, jumlah produk yang dihasilkan, maupun jumlah dana yang digalang. Hal ini tentu sangat disayangkan mengingat Indonesia memiliki jumlah penduduk yang jauh melebihi jumlah penduduk negara­negara tetangga di kawasan Asean, sedangkanmodal utama dari industri perangkat lunak adalah sumber daya manusia. Tumbuh kembangnya industri perangkat lunak dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor seperti kualitas sumber daya manusia dan iklim investasi di sektor ini. Tulisan singkat ini akan mencoba untuk menelaah eksistensi industri perangkat lunak dan merekomendasikan saran­saran untuk memacu pertumbuhannya. Disampaikan pada Temu Usaha Penyusunan Usulan Kebijakan Intensif Pengembangan Industri Software Dirjen ILMEA Departemen Perindustrian, Jakarta 4 November 2002 Industri Perangkat Lunak (IPL). Indonesia memiliki prospek untuk membentuklapangan kerja tingkat tinggi, menghemat devisa negara dengan penggunaan produk perangkat lunak lokal, menghasilkan devisa dari ekspor, meningkatkan efisiensi kerja organisasi baik pemerintah maupun swasta, serta meningkatkan kualitas layanan. Sejumlah negara seperti Singapura, Malaysia, dan India bahkan sudah menjadikan IPL sebagai andalan survival mereka dalam menghadapi masa depan. IPL tidak memerlukan pasokan sumber daya alam, tidak mencemari lingkungan, tidak memerlukan kawasan usaha yang luas atau tertentu, memiliki nilai jual produk yang tinggi dan masa jual yang relative lama. IPL di Indonesia memiliki prospek untuk berkembang yang baik asal didukung oleh iklim usaha yang kondusif. Modal utama IPL adalah sumber daya manusia (SDM). Semakin berkembangnya jumlah lembaga pendidikan computer dan semakin banyaknya lulusan sekolah yang memilih bidang computer member harapan akan pasokan SDM yang cukup untuk berkembangnya IPL. Produk IPL adalah perangkat lunak. IPL dapat menghasilkan tailored­made products untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dalam negeri. Semakin maju, IPL dapat menghasilkan produk standard yang bisa dipasarkan secara masal. Semakin maju lagi, IPL dapat menghasilkan produk yang dapat dipasarkan ke luar negeri. Dalam tulisan ini kami batasi pengertian industry perangkat lunak sebagai industry yang membuat produk perangkat lunak komputer. Industri yang hanya memasarkan produk perangkat lunak tidak tercakup dalam pengertian ini. Industri yang membuat produk perangkat lunak atas pesanan dari pihak lain dan dengan perjanjian menyerahkan hak intelektual atas produknya ke pihak pemesan tercakup dalam pengertian ini.Sebagai high class industry, IPL memang menghadapi sejumlah masalah seperti masa pengembalian modal yang lama sampai dengan diperolehnya order atau dipasarkannya produk, perkembangan teknologi yang cepat sehingga setiap SDM yang terlibat harus selalu aktif mengikuti perkembangan teknologi, maintentance SDM yang lebih pelik daripada memelihara mesin, serta diperlukannya kepercayaan yang luas dari pelanggan karena produk yang dipasarkan akan sangat mempengaruhi jalannya organisasi si pelanggan. Keterbatasan yang kami miliki membuat kami tidak bisa menyajikan data statistik IPL di Indonesia. Apabila ada asosiasi yang mapan, tentu akan dapat diketahui jumlah industri, nama­nama perusahaan yang tergabung dalam asosiasi lengkap dengan profile­nya, jumlah sumber daya manusia yang terlibat, jumlah revenue yang dihasilkan dari dalam negeri dan ekspor, serta jenis­jenis produk yang dihasilkan. INDUSTRI PERANGKAT LUNAK • Sumber DayaManusia Infrastruktur Kebijakan Pemerintah PRODUK Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM) Berbeda dengan kebanyakan industri, SDM adalah modal utama dari IPL. Hal ini merupakan satu kelebihan utama IPL Perguruan Tinggi berperan untuk memberikan pasokan SDM yang mampu menggunakan komputer untuk memecahkan masalah, menerapkan metoda atau teknologi pemecahan masalah dengan menggunakan komputer, memiliki bekal dasar untuk melakukan penelitian dan pengembangan praktis. Sayangnya, sejumlah lembaga pendidikan tinggi masih terpaku dengan paradigma penggabungan disiplin manajemen (ekonomi) dengan komputer, atau akuntansi (ekonomi) dengan komputer. Penggabungan ini jelas akan menurunkan bobot bekal keilmuan di bidang komputer bagi pemegang gelar sarjana komputer. Sejumlah lembaga pendidikan tinggi juga masih mewajibkan pengajarkan subjek­subjek yang terlalu teoritis dan kurang mendukung penerapan atau penggunaannya setelah kelulusan dan kurang memberi ruang untuk kehadiran subjek­subjek baru yang aktual seperti electronic commerce, data engineering, web development and administration. Dari segi pasokan, jumlah SDM untuk IPL dapat dikatakan memadai. Dari segi kualitas ancaman datang dari SDM luar negeri seperti India dan pakisatan. Mereka lebih agresif, lebih tekun, dan lebih fleksibel terhadap kondisi kerja di bandingkan dengan rata-rata SDM Indonesia. • Infrastruktur Infrastruktur utama dari IPL adalah sarana komputasi dan komunikasi. Dapat dikatakan bahwa sarana komputasi bukanlah masalah yang berarti bagi IPL. Yang menjadi pemikiran utama adalah masih mahalnya biaya internet dan biaya transmisi informasi. Masih banyak “dilarang” pada sektor komunikasi untuk melindungi pendapatan BUMN di bidang komunikasi, yang pada akhirnya tidak mendorong bangkitnya usaha secara luas dari kelesuan akibat krisis. Tidak bisa dipungkiri bahwa sarana komunikasi adalah fital dan sangat membantu berkembangnya IPL. Kebijakan Pemerintah Dapat dikatakan bahwa IPL di Indonesia tidak akan berkembang pesat tanpa dukungan dan bantuan dari pemerintah. Bersaing secara global dengan pemain kelas dunia yang sudah mapan dan berpengalaman tentu akan sangat berat bagi pemain yang baru tumbuh sejumlah kebijakan pemerintah dapat membantu berkembangnya IPL seperti : 1. Membatasi penggunaan perangkat lunak non­local oleh lembaga­lembaga pemerintah dalam arti hanya mengijinkan penggunaan produk non­local apabila produk yang setara tidak bisa dipenuhi oleh IPL lokal. 2. Membatasi ijin kerja bagi tenaga asing di IPL. 3. Mendorong penggunaan e­government pada lembaga­lembaga pemerintah dengan perangkat lunak yang dikembangkan oleh IPL lokal. Adanya peraturan­peraturan umum atau standard pemerintah untuk penggunaan sistem informasi berbasis. 4. Suatu institusi pemerintah disebut melaksanakan konsep e-government apabila transaksi elektronis dapat dilakukan oleh masyarakat untuk mendapatkan layanan pemerintah computer akan membantu pengembang perangkat lunak dan di sisi lain akan menghindarkan tumpang tindih atau non­compatibility antar system. 5. Mendorong de­regulasi di bidang telematika, khususnya dengan merangsang tampilnya pemain baru di bidang jasa komunikasi. Tujuan utama tentu untuk menurunkan biaya komunikasi atau transmisi informasi. 6. Memberikan perlindungan yang memadai terhadap produk perangkat lunak lokal dari praktek pembajakan. 7. Menerbitkan aturan perpajakan yang jelas untuk transaksi bisnis yang dilakukan secara elektronis sehingga dapat didorong penggunaan aplikasi berbasis e­commerce. Dengan iklim usaha yang didukung sepenuhnya oleh pemerintah, industri perangkat lunakdi Indonesia dapat berkembang dengan baik. Industri ini selain akan menjadi satu solusiterhadap masalah ketenagakerjaan, juga bisa menjadi industri yang effektif untukmenghemat bahkan menghasilkan devisa bagi negara. Dalam manajemen pemerintahan maupun perusahaan umum lainnya, perkembangan industri perangkat lunak akan membantu meningkatkan efisiensi dan efektivitas kerja dan sebaliknya. Pemerintah tidak bisa membiarkan industri perangkat lunak berkembang sendiri tanpa intervensi pemerintah dan membiarkannya bersaing di global market. Tanpa perlindunganpemerintah, Indonesia akan menjadi pasar potensial bagi industri perangkat lunak asingdan pemerintah dan rakyat akan semakin terpuruk statusnya sebagai pemakai dan pembeli produk asing. DAFTAR PUSTAKA http://netsains.com/2010/09/peranan-media-dalam-menggairahkan-industri-software/ http://radhika.blogdetik.com/2010/09/30/perkembangan-software-house-indonesia/ http://romisatriawahono.net/2006/11/05/industri-software-lokal-catatan-diskusi-metro-tv/ http://rudihd.wordpress.com/2007/05/09/sejarah-perkembangan-perangkat-lunak http://www.detikinet.com/read/2006/12/05/151128/716424/319/industri-software-indonesia-tumbuh-12-persen
          Will This Work To Make Backups Easy?        
The other day, I received an email from Berkeley about helping out again by donating CPU time to BOINC -- that's open-source software for volunteer computing and grid computing. People who need massive computing power can use BOINC to run their software using volunteer's computers. These programs have to do with mathematics, astrophysics, physics, biochemistry, climate, aerospace engineering, astronomy, cryptography, chemistry, drug discovery, epidemiology, cognitive science, factorization of large integers, artificial intelligence, seismology, environmental research, molecular biology, biology, computer science, astrobiology, biology, molecular biology, chemical engineering, nanotechnology, genetic linkage analysis, life science, software testing, medical relearch, humanitarian research, and evolution. Here's more info: http://boinc.berkeley.edu/

What started this was years ago I volunteered CPU cycles to SETI, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Yes, millions of computers are processing data from "the beyond," looking for intelligent communications.

If you keep your computer running 24/7, I highly recommend donating your CPU idle time to one or more of the projects listed on the Boinc subdomain listed above.

But that's not the original reason for this post. It's what brought this post about, though. Part of helping through BOINC includes software that uses virtual machine software from Oracle -- open source, free software called virtualbox (https://virtualbox.org). I did not know this software existed until the email from Berkeley arrived.

I know enough about what I'm writing below to be dangerous. I've worked through several problems with what I'm going to tell you, but I'm no expert here. That's why I hope you'll add to this post with your learned comments.

You may have heard of (or used) VMware, which is a commercial product. And Microsoft has it's own VM software. If you have, skip down a bit to get to my reason for bringing all of this up.

"VM" stands for virtual machine. VM software allows you to create virtual machines that run on your computer. These machines operate like a separate computer within your computer. I use Windows 7, but with virtualbox, I also use Ubuntu, Windows XP, DOS, and a copy of my Windows 7 that's on my "host" computer. These VM's are "guests" by the way. People who test software often use virtual machines for their testing. If the software crashes the VM so it won't boot -- if the software contains a virus and totally wrecks the VM, it's no big deal. They just delete the virtual machine and create a new one with a fresh installation of the operating system. All the while, their "real" computer (the host in VM terms) is untouched, unchanged, left alone, working as it always has, etc. This is similar to using a sandbox, except it runs completely independently of the host machine's OS. Programs run by sharing the CPU and system memory. VM disk drives are virtual drives that exist as a file on host machine hard disks. Virtualbox allows you to create a drive that's dynamic in size, so it's only as large as the virtual machine needs for storage of OS, programs and/or data.

Here's where I'm going: why not install your music creation software on a VM running a copy of the operating system you use on your computer? After the installation, you have a virtual computer that you can tweak just for your music software. And you'll have your exact setup that's easily saved and backed up. As an example of what I'm saying, take Sonar, which I use (mostly). To properly back it up as I like it, with all the settings, file locations, VST's, registry settings, etc., I have to back up my entire system -- something that takes many hours when I do it. To save just the OS and a complete Sonar installation, I'd have to save all sorts of directories located all over my  system. And what if I leave something out? And there's no way for me to check a complete backup to see if it will work. I'd need an exact duplicate of my physical system to test that.

Each hard disk on a virtual machine is a single file. That means that I can save my whole Sonar setup and the OS by copying this one file to a backup drive -- or the cloud -- or wherever.

I'm in the process of testing this thought out. There are problems that have come up. I'm not sure how well a Virtualbox Windows 7 guest is going to work with my USB digital audio interface. Will I be able to use ASIO drivers? I don't know yet. I have been able to get the Win 7 VM to use DirectSound to play the sound through the USB audio interface. And I got Ubuntu audio to work by turning off the enable audio setting in that VM. Somehow that still routes the audio through the USB audio interface. 

I'm sure that at least a few of you reading this have some experience trying something like this. I'd love to hear how it worked out for you. And if this starts some of you on the journey, feel free to share your experience.

Backups are a huge headache. Where do you store a huge backup of a whole system (say you have 4 TB system)? Compression ain't gonna help that much.

Some things I've learned:
  1. Disk2vhd (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/ee656415.aspx) will create a clone of a disk drive as a vhd file, which is the Microsoft version of Virtualbox's vdi (virtual disk) file. Virtualbox will mount a vhd directly (it also handles many other types). Where this came in handy is that I had a USB drive with multitrack files on it. Instead of making that USB drive available to a Win 7 VM with Sonar, I cloned the USB drive to a vhd so I could work with the data as a second virtual drive. That saves having the USB drive connected to the system. I have enough wires running already. And the drive is completely cloned (byte for byte) as far as I can tell. Backing up the drive will be a fairly quick copy of the vhd file to a backup drive or the cloud. I've read where people have had problems with vhd bootable drives. I've only tried it with data drives.
  2. I haven't found a free solution to cloning a vhd to a physical drive.
  3. Windows 7 works well in a VM. It's interesting to see how much I have tweaked Windows 7 over the years of use. I've only updated the VM version with updates that were required by the software I've tested. Since I don't plan to use the VM to connect to the internet, I'm not worried about firewalls, anti-virus software and the like. So, the VM runs faster than the host, even with less physical memory and one or two cores being dedicated to it.
  4. CloneVDI is a free tool for working with vdi files outside of Virtualbox. It will save many virtual drive types as a vdi. Virtualbox has added some of the benefits of CloneVDI, but it still does some things faster and easier. https://forums.virtualbox.org/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=22422 
I'll post further information about this as I come upon it. I'll be trying out some different music creation software to see if it plays well in a Windows 7 VM.


Happy 2014 and may the best things come your way this year!

EDIT (18 JAN 2014) **********
I've been in "experiment land" for the past week and have learned quite a bit.
  1. As far as I can tell from my own trials and hundreds of searches, presently there's no way to connect a MIDI device to a VM (Virtualbox or VMware). My USB MIDI interface doesn't appear in the USB settings of a VM.
  2. Same for the USB digital audio interface, which does appear in the VM USB settings but does not directly appear as an audio device in the VM audio settings.
  3. Virtualbox has an audio driver that gives the host machine access to the USB digital audio interface through DirectSound.
  4. No ASIO drivers are seen by the VM.
  5. After discovering the above, I thought that maybe the best way to use one machine for everything is to have all the "interface intensive" software (video, audio, MIDI, etc.) reside on the host and put all the other (non/no interface intensive) software in a VM. Then backup the host, but exclude the VM's from the backup. They can be backed up separately.
  6. With free extensions to Virtualbox, it supports dual monitors, among other things.
  7. Maybe someone reading this has the knowledge to make MIDI work? and even the USB digital audio interface?
  8.  

          More 3D Eyebrow Embroidery/Cloning for discolored brows        
Have you got reddish brows from your old embroidery? It's time to get rid of it.


          No Eyebrow? No worries!!!        
With the new 3D eyebrow embroidery cloning technique, you do not have to worry if you are without shapely brows.



          3D Eyebrow Embroidery/Cloning        

          3D eyebrow Cloning for Men        

          3D Eyebrow Embroidery/Cloning        

          Eyebrow Cloning for discolored brows        
before

after



          Eyebrow Cloning for Men        
before

after


Men who find their eyebrows too faint can also do eyebrow cloning.  Nobody will know you got it done cos its so natural.
          Eyebrow Cloning        
before

after

after

after

          Eyebrow Cloning...Super Natural Brows        
Eyebrow Cloning is the newest technique of eyebrow embroidery.  It looks like real hair and it is so natural that nobody will know that you got it done.  Visit http://www.proasis.com.sg/eyes.html


          Indie Royale Ninja Lightening Pack        
url: http://www.indieroyale.com/, datefrom: 3/24/2012, dateto: 3/28/2012, games: Ancients Of Ooga Cloning Clyde A Kingdom for Keflings Outpost Kaloki, bonus: Band Of Bugs, os: Windows, downloads: Steam Desura
          Geofield - D8        

Geofield is a Drupal 8 module that provides a field type for storing geographic data. This data can be attached to any entity, e.g., nodes, users and taxonomy terms. Geofield provides different widgets for data input and formatters for data output. It integrates with other mapping modules (including ... and Geocoder),

The Geofield module can can store data as Latitude and Longitude, Bounding Box and Well Known Text (WKT) and it supports all types of geographical data: points, lines, polygons, multi types, etcetera.

Install

Install and enable the Geofield module. Since 8.x-1.0-alpha2 version, this module is not depending on GeoPHP module anymore. Learn more about installing Drupal modules.

Please read https://www.drupal.org/node/2718229 for more information about composer dependencies.

Sample code for Composer based installs

Add the following to your composer.json file. Obviously the full block is only required if you don't have a require-dev block.

"require": {
   "drupal/geofield": "8.*"
},

The run $composer drupal-update //warning: this updates everything. Backup first...

Add a geofield to content

You can add geographical information to an entity (content type, user, taxonomy term or comment) by adding a geofield.

To add a geofield to e.g., a "Basic Page" go to /admin/structure/types/manage/page/fields/

Add a new field of the field type "Geofield", and choose the preferred widget, e.g., "OpenLayers Map". Configure the field according to the chosen options.

Display geographical information

Geofield Map

Geofield comes with the basic but easy-to-use submodule Geofield Map that allows you to display geographical data in a Google map.

OpenLayers

For more advanced and flexible data display you need to create and configure a map in OpenLayers 2.

If you use OpenLayers you need to enable the OpenLayers UI. After, you can set Geofield Formatter Map output as default map in /admin/structure/openlayers/. Choose "Geofield Formatter Map" in the field OpenLayers Default Map.

You can easily create your own map by cloning an existing one. Introduction to OpenLayers.
When you have configured a map in OpenLayers you must define to use the map for displaying data at /admin/structure/types/manage/page/display/.

Leaflet

Geofield integrates also with the lightweight map display tool Leaflet

Microdata & Schema.org

Geofield supports microdata, which can be used by scripts and search engines to extract the Geo information in a meaningful way.

When you have Microdata module enabled, you can configure your microdata output on the field configuration page. There are suggestions of appropriate Schema.org settings at the bottom of the form. Choose one and click "Use suggested mapping".

More info


          Potential Real Madrid Transfers There Have Been No Rumours About That Make Sense        

Real Madrid have been one of the most prevalent teams in this summer's transfer market, at least in regard to rumours and potential big-money moves, if not with completed deals.

They've brought in young duo Theo Hernandez and Dani Ceballos to boost the squad and protect the future, but the departures of Danilo and James Rodriguez balance those arrivals out. Forwards Mariano Diaz and Alvaro Morata have not been replaced by either incoming signings or returning loanees.

Suggesting which players the club should buy each summer inevitably leads to debate; this isn't any outfit looking to improve year on year but the world's best team, holders of everything, looking to add only those who can keep them there.

There are relatively few options to pick from, and thus not every capture can be signed with going straight into the first XI in mind.

        

What Areas Need Investment?

Naturally, the forward line is in need of attention; two permanent departures and losing the versatility of Rodriguez on loan narrows Zinedine Zidane's options considerably. With that in mind, it's not simply an out-and-out striker who must be on the cards but a player with the ability to play multiple roles.

The midfield zone is set, with depth to the tune of nine players who commonly play either centrally or on the wings in a four-man setup. Defensively, there's far less depth, and one or two more additions or an upgrade wouldn't go amiss in what is set to be another long season of 60 or so fixtures.

We're sticking within the bounds of reality for options who would fit the team tactically, haven't already been linked with the club and could be available to Real—no further signings suggested by us from Atletico Madrid and none from Barcelona—but finances aren't an issue.

Not only have Real Madrid recouped far more than they have spent this year, but they also had a minimal outlay last summer and are one of the richest clubs on the planet.

       

Defensive Options

There are two considerations in the defensive half of the field: a new first-choice goalkeeper and a versatile performer to add to the defence.

For the latter, Nacho will cover right-back and centre-back in theory, but if he's in the side and one of Sergio Ramos and Raphael Varane is absent—inherently plausible given past issues with both—then suddenly they're looking light in terms of both experience and top-tier quality.

Cloning Nacho isn't yet within the reach of even Los Blancos' might and muscle, but the likes of Cesar Azpilicueta of Chelsea would provide top-level experience, incredible versatility and the required title-winning mentality to be a starter whenever necessary. He's also a Spain international.

For a lower-cost gamble as he's not yet a proven performer at the top level, Ajax's Joel Veltman can cover at both right-back and centre-back—though having just signed a new contract, his club may need some persuasion to part with him.

Alternatively, go big and secure the best: AS Monaco's Djibril Sidibe would be expensive, but he can play both full-back positions and as a right-sided player further upfield, most recently on the wing in Monaco's 4-4-2. He has pace, power, is a good one-on-one defender and, at 25, has both a title under his belt and Champions League experience.

Then there's the goalkeeper. Most elite stoppers have been linked with Real Madrid already; the only one who stands out as capable of being the best who hasn't (at least, not in the past decade) is perhaps Gianluigi Buffon.

The 39-year-old Juventus legend would be a short-term option, buying another year or so until the oft-linked David De Gea is finally ready to move to the club, so perhaps isn't the wisest course of action to take. Real are better off sticking with Keylor Navas rather than making changes for the sake of it.

     

Wide Forwards

There are plenty of reasons Kylian Mbappe has been the most linked name to Real Madrid this summer, but the most important one is he fits the bill: can play both wide and centrally, works the channels, fast and can score goals.

However, Carlos Carpio of Marca reported on Thursday that Zidane only wants three forwards and that Mbappe can only be signed if Gareth Bale leaves. That presents an issue: Bale, the right-sided option, would replaced by Mbappe, an in-from-out option from the left. It may work, but Real may have to consider alternatives—especially as Barcelona will be in the market for a left-sided attacker, while Premier League suitors also lurk.

Ousmane Dembele has been linked by Mundo Deportivo (h/t Jack Otway of the Daily Express) and Eden Hazard is linked most years, this summer by Diario Gol (h/t James Cambridge of the Daily Express), ruling them both out of our thoughts.

Two options, then: Alexis Sanchez or Paulo Dybala.

Arsenal man Sanchez has less than a year left on his contract, and although the Gunners have said they are happy to keep him regardless, per beIN Sports (h/t Samuel Lovett of The Independent), a tempting offer might change that.

He's comfortable on both flanks, can play as a centre-forward by himself or in a two-man attack and is one of the most determined, fiercely competitive forwards in Europe. At 28, he still has much to give. Real would, without question, benefit from his presence.

Alternatively, Dybala of Juventus is a more measured, technical creator and scorer, more about balance and exploitation of space than the pure power of Sanchez or Bale, but he's a surefire star for a top team and is at home playing in the right channel when required, cutting in on to his wizard-like left foot.

Add in his set-piece prowess and room for growth at 23, and it's clear why he'd be a big hit at the Santiago Bernabeu.

      

Striker

It's unlikely Real Madrid will sign an out-and-out No. 9 to compete directly with Karim Benzema, but we'll offer one young option who can play both centrally and from the flank if required, a player to grow and progress in the same manner as Ceballos and Theo.

Timo Werner of RB Leipzig would be a fine addition for any club, with the 21-year-old scoring 22 goals in last season's Bundesliga and proving his worth with Germany at this summer's FIFA Confederations Cup.

His movement is excellent, he has technique and vision, links play well and clearly has an eye for goal; he might not be an elite starter right now, but in a couple of seasons, he could be leading the line for the national team on a regular basis. He's worth pursuing, even if it meant loaning him out for a year first.

       

Facebook.com/karlmatchett.football

Read more Real Madrid news on BleacherReport.com


          3D Max Training - Vision Institute , United Arab Emirates, Ajman         
'3D MAx' in VISION offers training to create rich and complex design visualization and generate realistic characters for a top-selling game. Bring 3D effects to the big screen. Autodesk 3ds Max supports 3D modeling, animation, and rendering software helps design visualization professionals, game developers, and visual effects artists maximize their productivity by streamlining the process of working with complex scenes. Common tasks and operations-selection, material assignment, transform, grouping, cloning, and many more-are now significantly faster, making 3ds Max the most streamlined version of the software ever.

Cost:

Certified


          Adobe Photoshop - Optimizer Middle East Accountants Management Consultants and Training , United Arab Emirates, Dubai, Deira         
Course Overview
Our introduction to Photoshop training course is suitable for anyone who needs to understand the fundamental features and uses of Photoshop and the best way to incorporate these into their work as a designer, photographer or retouching artist.  During the training course you will explore the Photoshop interface and use several tools for selecting parts of images. You will learn to use layers and to apply layer effects and filters to create special effects. Additionally, you will use painting tools and blending modes to create shading effects. Finally, you will save images in print and web formats. Those who complete the introduction to Adobe Photoshop course satisfactorily will receive a certificate at the end of the computer training course.
Course Requirements
Good Mac or PC skills. Knowledge of Microsoft Word and basic knowledge of graphics would be advantageous.
Course Content
 
  • Introduction
  • Basic Photoshop Concepts
  • Introduction to the Toolbox
  • Using the Navigator Palette
  • Duplicating and Rotating Selections
  • Feathering a Selection's Edges
  • Cloning an Image Area
  • Extending and Reducing Selections
  • Applying a Filter
  • Using the Magic Eraser
  • Using Guides and Grids
  • Adding Type
  • Creating Drop Shadow Effects
  • Saving Different Document Formats
  • File Formats for the Web
  • Selecting Colours from an Image
  • Using the Paintbrush Tool
  • Using the Airbrush and Line Tools
  • The Magic Wand Selection Tool
  • Hiding Selection Edges
  • Inversing a Selection
  • Adding a Diffuse Filter
  • Using the Border Command
  • Retouching a Colour Image
  • Cropping an Image
  • Changing the Tolerance of Tools
  • Creating Blends Fore/Background Colours
  • Setting Fill Opacities
  • Lightening and Darkening Images
  • Enhancing a Colour Image
  • Working with Adjustment Layers
  • Adjusting Anchor Points and Direction Lines
  • Selecting a Pen Path
  • Using the Smudge Editing Tool
  • Using the Blur and Sharpen Tools
  • Using the Airbrush Tool
  • Rubber Stamping an Image
  • Using a Range of Filters
  • Hue/Saturation/Colour Balance
  • Scaling Proportionately
  • Copying Between Photoshop Documents
  • Using Filters and Patterns
  • Using the Offset Filter
  • Creating a Pattern
  • Using a Pattern Fill
  • Filling and Feathering Image Areas
  • The Free Transform Command
  • Using the Wind, Pointillise and Motion Filters
  • Kerning Text in Photoshop
  • Advanced Image Effects
  • Posterising an Image
  • Applying the Find Edges Filter
  • Using Paste Controls
  • Altering the Canvas Size
  • Fading Filters
  • Pasting an Image Behind a Selection
  • Creating a Duotone Image
  • Applying the Unsharp Mask Filter
  • Using Channels and Layers
  • Creating a New Channel
  • Loading a Selection from a Channel
  • Using Multiple Layers
  • Using Layer Masks
  • Drag and Drop Between Layers
  • Using the Paste into Command
  • Adjusting Image Tonal Values
  • Altering Colour Saturation
  • Creating Clipping Paths
  • Exporting Clipping Paths
  • Printing Images
  • Specifying Screen Attributes
  • Viewing Colour Separations
  • Using Digital Watermarking to Protect Your Image

Cost:

Certified


          ANSIEDADE, DEPRESÃO E AS PLANTAS MEDICINAIS        
ANSIEDADE

A ansiedade é um sinal de advertência, que serve para avisar de um perigo eminente, e permite ao indivíduo tomar medidas para lidar com a ameaça (conflito interno ou externo). O medo é um sinal de aviso de algo real. A diferença em relação à ansiedade é que o perigo é conhecido, com uma resposta a uma ameaça conhecida. Ansiedade é uma resposta a uma ameaça desconhecida, uma fonte de conflito interno.

A ansiedade manifesta-se em diferentes planos: psicológico, fisiológico e comportamental (Graeff, 1997). A ansiedade é uma vivência comum de qualquer ser humano. A sensação se caracteriza por um sentimento difuso, desagradável, e vago de apreensão, freqüentemente, acompanhado por sintomas autonômicos, como cefaléia, perspiração, palpitações, aperto no peito e leve desconforto abdominal.

A grande variedade de sintomas presentes durante a ansiedade tende a variar entre as pessoas. A ansiedade é uma resposta a uma ameaça desconhecida, interna ou externa, vaga ou de origem conflituosa. A ansiedade quando considerada simplesmente como um sinal de alerta, pode ser encarada como uma emoção semelhante ao medo, podendo preparar o indivíduo para tomar medidas necessárias, para evitar a ameaça ou, pelo menos, atenuar suas conseqüências (Kaplan et al, 1997). A Organização Mundial de Saúde na sua décima edição da Classificação Estatística e Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde (CID-10) agrupam os seguintes transtornos de ansiedade:

→AGORAFOBIA
O transtorno ansioso social, também conhecido como transtorno da ansiedade social, fobia social ou sociofobia. O que ocorre quando o portador precisa interagir com outras pessoas, realizar desempenhos sob observação ou participar de atividades sociais. Tudo isso ocorre até o ponto de interferir na maneira de viver de quem a sofre. As pessoas afetadas por essa patologia compreendem que seus medos são irracionais. Por conta disso, tendem freqüentemente a se isolarem.


→FOBIAS SOCIAIS   
O transtorno ansioso social, também conhecido como transtorno da ansiedade social, fobia social ou sociofobia. O que ocorre quando o portador precisa interagir com outras pessoas, realizar desempenhos sob observação ou participar de atividades sociais. Tudo isso ocorre até o ponto de interferir na maneira de viver de quem a sofre. As pessoas afetadas por essa patologia compreendem que seus medos são irracionais. Por conta disso, tendem freqüentemente a se isolarem.

→FOBIAS ESPECÍFICAS
Anteriormente denominada fobia simples a fobia específica é o medo persistente e recorrente a um determinado objeto ou circunstância que desencadeia uma forte reação de ansiedade, sempre que apresentado ao paciente fóbico.


→TRANSTORNO DO PÂNICO 
O transtorno do pânico ou síndrome do pânico é uma condição mental psiquiátrica que faz com que o indivíduo tenha ataques de pânico esporádicos, intensos e muitas vezes recorrentes. Pode ser controlado com medicação e psicoterapia. É importante ressaltar que um ataque de pânico pode não constituir doença (se isolado) ou ser secundário a outro transtorno mental. O tratamento do transtorno do pânico inclui medicamentos e psicoterapia. O uso de uma nova técnica denominada estimulação magnética transcraniana repetitiva também vem sendo indicado.
→ANSIEDADE GENERALIZADA
O transtorno de ansiedade generalizada é basicamente uma preocupação ou ansiedade excessiva, ou com motivos injustificáveis ou desproporcionais ao nível de ansiedade observada. Para que se faça o diagnóstico de ansiedade generalizada é preciso que outros transtornos de ansiedade estejam. É preciso que essa ansiedade excessiva dure por mais de seis meses continuamente.
→TRANSTORNO MISTO - ANSIOSO E DEPRESSIVO 
Esta categoria deve ser utilizada quando o sujeito apresenta ao mesmo tempo sintomas ansiosos e sintomas depressivos, sem predominância nítida de uns ou de outros, e sem que a intensidade de uns ou de outros seja suficiente para justificar um diagnóstico isolado. 
→TRANSTORNO OBSESSIVO-COMPULSIVO
 O transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC) é um quadro psiquiátrico caracterizado pela presença de obsessões e compulsões. Sua prevalência é de aproximadamente 2% a 3% na população geral. Os fatores genéticos estão provavelmente implicados na etiologia do transtorno. Os estudos realizados sugerem que há diferentes subtipos de TOC: TOC com história familiar positiva para TOC, TOC "esporádico" e TOC associado com a tiques.


Já o Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais da Associação Norte-Americana de Psiquiatria, na sua quarta versão, (DSM-IV), classifica os transtornos de ansiedade nos seguintes tipos:

→Transtorno de pânico sem agora fobia,
→Transtorno de pânico com agora fobia,
→Fobia específica,
→Fobia Social,
→Transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo,
→Transtorno de Estresse pós-traumático,
→Transtorno de estresse agudo,
→Transtorno de ansiedade generalizada,
→Transtorno de ansiedade devido a uma condição médica geral,
→Transtorno de ansiedade devido a uma substância,
→Transtorno de ansiedade sem outra especificação (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).

Pode-se concluir que os chamados transtornos de ansiedade são uns conjuntos de transtornos heterogêneos, com quadros clínicos e tratamentos diferentes, assim como os diferentes modelos animais de ansiedade abordam diferentes transtornos de ansiedade.

DEPRESSÃO

Depressão é uma doença marcada por mudanças extremas no comportamento, energia e ânimo de uma pessoa. Não é uma doença "de cabeça". Ela afeta tanto a mente quanto o corpo.

É bem diferente de estar triste ou "deprê". Sentimentos ocasionais de tristeza são normais e podem ter inúmeras causas. Na depressão, sentimentos de tristeza são fora de proporção e nem sempre se relacionam a causas externas. Pessoas que não sofrem de depressão lidam com seus problemas (internos e externos) sem ficarem incapacitadas.

O mesmo não acontece com depressivos. A doença interfere na habilidade pessoal de trabalhar, dormir, se relacionar, comer, de gostar de atividades antes consideradas prazerosas. A depressão tem tratamento, com sucesso em mais ou menos 80% dos casos.

A doença afeta pessoas de todas as raças, idades, situações econômicas e sexo. No entanto, metade das pessoas que sofrem de depressão não procura tratamento, o que leva a doença a ser a principal causa dos suicídios (segundo estatísticas americanas). Quem tem depressão não deve se sentir envergonhado. Depressão não são uma fraqueza de caráter ou um defeito.

COMO DIFERENCIAR DEPRESSÃO DE UMA TRISTEZA PASSAGEIRA?

Todo mundo passa por períodos de tristeza, que são uma parte normal da vida. Mas a severidade dos "episódios depressivos" e o seu poder de incapacitação do indivíduo são o que os distingue de um simples sentimento de tristeza. Se o que você sente está prejudicando de alguma forma a sua vida prática, é hora de procurar um médico.

CAUSA DEPRESSÃO

Sabe-se que a depressão é causada por um desequilíbrio químico no cérebro. O que não se sabe ao certo é o que causa esse desequilíbrio. Vários fatores (biológicos, sociais e psicológicos) podem contribuir para isso:

→Algumas pessoas podem ter uma predisposição genética. Por isso é importante saber se alguém na sua família tem ou teve a doença. Caso a resposta seja positiva, não significa, necessariamente, que esse seja o motivo conclusivo da sua doença. Existem pessoas com histórico de depressão na família que não chegam a desenvolvê-la.

→Pessoas com padrão negativo de pensamento (pessimismo, baixa auto-estima, preocupação em excesso, ansiedade em excesso) têm mais chance de desenvolver depressão.

→Algumas doenças, como câncer, mal de Parkinson e mal de Alzheimer (entre outras) podem desencadear a depressão.

→Situações extremas, como a morte de alguém querido, separação, problemas financeiros, mudança, podem contribuir para uma crise da doença.

→Alguns medicamentos podem causar depressão. É importante se informar a respeito, e sempre falar para o médico quais os remédios que você está tomando.

→Nenhum desses fatores é conclusivo. Para algumas pessoas, a depressão é causada por uma série deles, para outras, basta um. No entanto, independentemente dos fatores de causa, a depressão é uma doença que precisa ser diagnosticada e tratada.

TIPOS DE DEPRESSÃO

→TRANSTORNO BIPOLAR
O transtorno afetivo bipolar pode ser classificado, de acordo com o tipo do episódio atual, em hipomaníaco, maníaco ou depressivo. Os episódios maníacos são subdivididos de acordo com a presença ou ausência de sintomas psicóticos. O transtorno afetivo bipolar inclui ainda os episódios mistos
→DISTIMIA
.
Transtorno distímico é uma forma crônica e incapacitante de depressão, ocorrendo em uma parcela substancial da população (3 a 6%) e aumentando os riscos de transtorno depressivo maior. Ela é associada a consideráveis incapacitações e elevada comorbidade. As depressões crônicas são geralmente de intensidade mais leve que os episódios de depressão maior. Mais que o humor francamente deprimido, os pacientes com depressão crônica (distimia) sofrem por não sentir prazer nas atividades habituais, e por terem suas vidas coartadas por uma espécie de morosidade irritável.

MELANCOLIA

Sigmund Freud, estudando o superego, identificou algo conhecido na época como melancolia. Para ele a melancolia se assemelhava ao luto, mas sem haver necessariamente uma perda Pessoas com sintomas de melancolia falam de si próprias como "inúteis", "incapazes de amar", "incapazes de fazer algo bem, ou de bom para os outros", como "irritantes", com "hábitos chatos", e outras características onde o eu interior é desvalorizado por afirmações muitas vezes falsas.

BIBLIOGRAFIA

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statiscal Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.

Benjamin James Sadok and Virginia Acott Sadok. Compêndio de Psiquiatria: ciência do comportamento e psiquiatria clínica. Ed. Artmed 9a edition.

Frederico G. Graeff. 2002. Review: On serotonin and experimental anxiety. Psychopharmacology. 163 (3-4): 1432-2072.

Gelder, Michael; Mayou, Richard; Cowen, Philip. Tratado De Psiquiatria. 4ª Edição. Guanabara koogan 2006. pp 834.

Harold I. Kaplan and Benjamim. Compendio de Psiquiatria: Ciências comportamentais - Psiquiatria Clínica. Editora Arte Médicas. Porto Alegre - Brasil. 1993. pp 955.

 VALERIANA


É um produto obtido da raiz de uma planta muito difundida na Europa, a Valeriana officinalis. Foi o principal sedativo usado tanto na Europa como na América, antes da descoberta do barbitúrico, nos anos iniciais do século 20. Caracteristicamente possui um odor forte e desagradável. É sem dúvida um importante sedativo, podendo ser usado como indutor do sono. Pode ser utilizado ainda como calmante durante o dia, e como sedativo para crianças.
Ácido valerênico

o se conhece bem qual a sua substância ativa. É utilizado na forma de tintura. A dose recomendada como indutor de sono é de ±30 gotas de tintura, em água, ao deitar. Existe também em forma de cápsulas.
Como todo sedativo, tem ação depressora sobre o sistema nervoso, podendo provocar depressão. Não causa dependência, sendo menos potente do que os sedativos conhecidos. Pode aumentar a ação do álcool, não devendo ser associada ao mesmo.

O tratamento da ansiedade e dos problemas de sono deve ser observado outras formas terapêuticas que não a química ou a derivada de plantas. A tensão emocional responde muito bem a técnicas de relaxamento e a psicoterapia corporal, por exemplo. Os problemas de sono em geral são complexos e freqüentemente estão relacionados a graves problemas psicológicos como a depressão. Devemos sempre procurar orientação médica antes de utilizarmos medicamentos ou remédios. Antes de iniciarmos um tratamento devemos nos submeter à investigação profunda. Em geral há um medicamento ideal para cada pessoa, que deve ser utilizado em dose correta e sempre por um determinado tempo.

É muito comum em nosso meio a utilização de medicamentos sem orientação médica e por longo tempo. Muitas vezes ao se dirigir à consulta médica o paciente esquece-se de mencionar qual o produto que vem sendo utilizando. Um exemplo disto ocorre com laxantes naturais, muito utilizados e raramente citados. É interessante lembrar que inclusive o uso de pomadas deve ser mencionado.

Ao consultarmos um médico, ao iniciarmos um tratamento, ao realizarmos um procedimento cirúrgico, devemos informar sempre todos os medicamentos que estão sendo utilizados.

BIBIOGRAFIA

Adams P. 1998. "Drug interactions that matter. (1) Mechanisms and management." The Pharmaceutical Journal. 261: 618-621.
D'Arcy P. 1993. "Adverse reactions and interactions with herbal medicines. Part 2 - drug interactions." Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicological Review. 12(3):147-162.
Ernst E. 2000. "Possible interactions between synthetic and herbal medicinal products. Part 1: A systematic review of the indirect evidence." Perfusion. 13: 4-15.
Featherstone C, Godden D, Gault C, Emslie M, Took-Zozaya M. 2003. Prevalence study of concurrent use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients attending primary care services in Scotland. American Journal of Public Health . 93(7):1080-1982.
Fugh-Berman A, Ernst E. 2001. "Herb-drug interactions: Review and assessment of report reliability." British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 52: 587-595.
K.A. Wesnes, T. Ward, A. McGinty and O. Petrini. 2000. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged. Psychopharmacology. 152 (4): 353-361.
Lambrecht JE, Hamilton W, Rabinovich A. 2000. "A review of herb-drug interactions: Documented and theoretical." US Pharmacist: 25(8): 42-53.
T . Breidenbach , M . Hoffmann , T . Becker , H . Schlitt , J . Klempnauer. 2000. Drug interaction of St John's wort with ciclosporin. The Lancet , 355 (9218): 1912–1912.
Vladimir Vuksan, John L. Sievenpiper, Vernon Y. Y. Koo, Thomas Francis, Uljana Beljan-Zdravkovic, Zheng Xu, Edward Vidgen. 2000. American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) Reduces Postprandial Glycemia in Nondiabetic Subjects and Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Archives of Internal Medicine. 160: 1009-1013.
                                                                  _________________________

ERVA DE SÃO JOÃO (ST. JOHN’S WORT)
Hypericum perforatum Guttiferae (Hiperricoidaea)

Erva de São João é amplamente distribuída na Europa, Ásia, África do Norte e foi aclimatado no U.S.A.

Durante séculos o Hypericum perforatum foi amplamente utilizada, inicialmente, por sua habilidade para curar feridas, úlceras na pele e queimaduras. Considerada capaz de afastar maus espíritos, também foi utilizada para tratar vários transtornos mentais. Atualmente a planta não é utilizada para esses fins, mas é amplamente utilizada com antidepressivo, contra os sintomas depressão leve, ansiedade, insônia, dor sensível, e ainda, atividades antivirais, e antibacterianas. Mais hoje sua principal ação é como antidepressivo.
O Hipericum perforatum, conhecido popularmente como Erva de São João ou hipérico, não pode ser utilizado sem supervisão médica. Isso porque a combinação com outros fármacos, como contraceptivos orais, ciclosporina (para evitar a rejeição em transplantes) e indinavir (para tratamento de AIDS), pode reduzir os efeitos das mesmas e interferi no tratamento do paciente. Outros medicamentos que podem perder os seus efeitos quando utilizados em conjunto com o Hipericum são: digoxina, teofilina e varfarina.
A droga baseada no Kawa Kawa e Erva de São João não pode ser vendida sem a faixa vermelha ou sem registro, se assim for devem ser retirados do mercado imediatamente. Sem o registro, não há como o Ministério da Saúde garantir a qualidade e a eficácia dos produtos à base dessas plantas, pois não existem dados analíticos sobre a biodisponibilidade na ANVISA. Os distribuidores devem prever a retirada de pontos de venda. Aqueles que desrespeitarem a suspensão podem receber multas e até o cancelamento da licença para operar o estabelecimento. A vigilância sanitária Federal e Estadual deve estar atenta e acompanhar a retirada de tais produtos nas farmácias e drogarias.

MOLÉCULAS RESPONSÁVEIS PELO EFEITO ANTIDEPRESSIVO DA ERVA DE SÃO JOÃO (ST JOHN'S WORT)
             Hiperforina

                                                                                                                                                                    Hipericina
 
A estrutura da Hiperforina foi elucidada por um grupo de investigação do Shemyakin Institute of Bio-organic Chemistry (USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow).

FARMACOLOGIA

Acredita-se que o Hiperforina seja principal componente ativo responsável pelo efeito antidepressivo dos extratos de St John's Wort. Hiperforina tem mostrado inibir a absorção dos neurotransmissores serotonina, dopamina, noradrenalina, GABA e do glutamato.

Foi identificado como um ativador específico do canal iônico TRPC6 que está envolvido no processo neuronal. A ativação das causas TRPC6 e a entrada dos de ions de sódio e cálcio nas células neuronais que pode explicar a inibição da captação do neurotransmissor.

Hiperforina também pode ser o responsável pela indução das enzimas do citocromo P450, CYP3A4 e CYP2C9 pela ligação ao receptor Pregnane X (PXR). A estrutura da Hiperforina foi elucidada por um grupo de investigação do Instituto de Shemyakin Química Bio-orgânica (Academia de Ciências da URSS em Moscou) e publicada em 1975. Não existe nenhum trabalho publicado a respeito da síntese total da Hiperforina, apesar das varias tentativas dos grupos de investigação.

OBSERVAÇÃO IMPORTANTE

ERVA DE SÃO JOÃO

Erva de São João (Hypericum perforatum) tem sido amplamente alegado como sendo eficaz como um antidepressivo. O mecanismo de ação é desconhecido; e o ingrediente ativo, se houver algum, não foi determinado. Estudos com extratos padronizados da hipericina (um dos constituintes da erva) descobriram que ela é cerca de duas vezes mais eficaz que o placebo. Alguns estudos demonstram que ela é um pouco mais eficaz que um antidepressivo padrão. Entretanto, nenhum destes estudos durou mais que seis semanas, o que não é longo o suficiente para determinar por quanto tempo a erva seria eficaz para detectar quaisquer efeitos adversos em longo prazo.

Além disso, alguns dos estudos não foram bem conduzidos. Na maioria destes estudos, o diagnóstico não foi bem estabelecido, a taxa de resposta ao placebo foi menor do que normalmente vista em estudos deste tipo, a dosagem do antidepressivo padrão foi baixa, e a dosagem da hipericina variou mais de seis vezes.

Nenhum efeito colateral grave foi relatado, mas efeitos colaterais menores incluindo desconforto gastrintestinal, fadiga, boca seca, vertigens, erupção cutânea e hipersensibilidade à luz solar. Entretanto, em fevereiro de 2000, a revista britânica Lancet publicou relatos de que a erva de São João pode interferir com a eficácia de um medicamento para a AIDS (Inidavir); uma droga imunossupressora (ciclosporina) usada para proteger pacientes após transplante cardíaco; e um anticoagulante (warfarin). Baseado neste estudo e outros relatos da literatura médica, a FDA emitiu um Conselho de Saúde Pública declarando OBSERVAÇÃO IMPORTANTE

ERVA DE SÃO JOÃO

Erva de São João (Hypericum perforatum) tem sido amplamente alegado como sendo eficaz como um antidepressivo. O mecanismo de ação é desconhecido; e o ingrediente ativo, se houver algum, não foi determinado. Estudos com extratos padronizados da hipericina (um dos constituintes da erva) descobriram que ela é cerca de duas vezes mais eficaz que o placebo. Alguns estudos demonstram que ela é um pouco mais eficaz que um antidepressivo padrão. Entretanto, nenhum destes estudos durou mais que seis semanas, o que não é longo o suficiente para determinar por quanto tempo a erva seria eficaz para detectar quaisquer efeitos adversos em longo prazo.

Além disso, alguns dos estudos não foram bem conduzidos. Na maioria destes estudos, o diagnóstico não foi bem estabelecido, a taxa de resposta ao placebo foi menor do que normalmente vista em estudos deste tipo, a dosagem do antidepressivo padrão foi baixa, e a dosagem da hipericina variou mais de seis vezes.

Nenhum efeito colateral grave foi relatado, mas efeitos colaterais menores incluindo desconforto gastrintestinal, fadiga, boca seca, vertigens, erupção cutânea e hipersensibilidade à luz solar. Entretanto, em fevereiro de 2000, a revista britânica Lancet publicou relatos de que a erva de São João pode interferir com a eficácia de um medicamento para a AIDS (Inidavir); uma droga imunossupressora (ciclosporina) usada para proteger pacientes após transplante cardíaco; e um anticoagulante (warfarin). Baseado neste estudo e outros relatos da literatura médica, a FDA emitiu um Conselho de Saúde Pública declarando que a erva de São João parece ser uma indutora de um importante mecanismo metabólico, o citocromo P450.
Como muitas drogas de prescrição usadas para tratar condições como doenças cardíacas, depressão, vertigem, certos tipos de cânceres ou prevenir condições como rejeição a transplante ou gravidez (contraceptivos orais) é metabolizada via este mecanismo, prestadores de assistência à saúde devem alertar com os pacientes sobre estes potenciais interações medicamentosas para prevenir perda do efeito terapêutico de qualquer droga metabolizada via citocromo P450.
A erva de São João não deveria ser usado por mulheres que estejam grávidas ou amamentando. Nem deveria ser usada junto com antidepressivo padrão. A potência e pureza das preparações vendidas nos Estados Unidos são desconhecidas.

BIBLIOGRAFIA

Alı Kemal Ayan; Cuneyt Cirak. 2008. Variation of hypericins in Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra growing in different locations of Turkey during plant growth Natural Product Research. 22 (18): 1597 – 1604. Bertilsson, G., Heidrich, H., Svensson, K. 2001. Identification of a human nuclear receptor defines a new signaling pathway for CYP3A4 induction. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 95(1): 208-214.
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Bystrov NS, Chernov BK, Dobrynin VN, Kolosov MN. 1975. "The structure of Hiperforin". Tetrahedron Letters 16 (32): 2791-2794.
C.A. Thomas, S. Tyagi, N. Yoshimura, M.B. Chancellor, P. Tyagi. 2007. MP-12.06: Effect of Hiperforina enriched extract on pro-ejaculatory effect of 8-OH-DPAT in anesthetized rats. Urology. 70 (3), Supplement 1. 103.
Calapai G, Crupi A, Firenzuoli F, Inferrera G, Squadrito F, Parisi A, De Sarro G, Caputi A. 2001b. Serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine involvement in the antidepressant action of hypericum perforatum. Pharmacopsychiatry 34: 45–49.
Catherine A. Thomas, Shachi Tyagi, Naoki Yoshimura, Michael B. Chancellor, Pradeep Tyagi. 2007. Effect of Hiperforina-Enriched Extract on Pro-Ejaculatory Effect of 8-Hydroxy-2-(Di-N-Propylamino) Tetralin in Anesthetized Rats. Urology. 70 (4): 813-816.
Chatterjee SS, Bhattacharya SK, Wonnemann M, Singer A, Müller WE. 1998. "Hiperforina as a possible antidepressant component of hypericum extracts". Life Scence. 63 (6): 499–510.
De Smet PAGM, Nolen WA. 1996. St. John's wort as an antidepressant: Longer term studies are needed before it can be recommended in major depression. British Medical Journal 313: 241-242.
Evangelos C. Tatsis, Sjef Boeren, Vassiliki Exarchou, Anastassios N. Troganis, Jacques Vervoort, Ioannis P. Gerothanassis. 2007. Identification of the major constituents of Hypericum perforatum by LC/SPE/NMR and/or LC/MS. Phytochemistry. 68 (3): 383-393.
Gail B. Mahady, Yue Huang, Brian J. Doyle, Tracie Locklear. 2008. Natural products as antibacterial agents. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry. 35: 423-444.
Gaster B, Holroyd J. 2000. St. John's wort in depression. Archives of Internal Medicine 160:152-156.
Gaster, B.; Holroyd, J, H. 2000. St John’s Wort for depression: a systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine. 160: 152-156.
Gunter P. Eckert, Jan-Henning Keller, Claudia Jourdan, Michael Karas, Dietrich A. Volmer, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Walter E. Müller. 2004. Hiperforina modifies neuronal membrane properties in vivo. Neuroscience Letters. 367 (2): 139-143.
Jin-Zhang Zeng, De-Fu Sun, Li Wang, Xihua Cao, Jian-Bin Qi, Ting Yang, Chang-Qi Hu, Wen Liu and Xiao-Kun Zhang. 2006. Hypericum sampsonii induces apoptosis and nuclear export of retinoid X receptor-alpha. Carcinogenesis 27(10): 1991–2000.
Jobst KA. 2000. Safety of St John's wort. Lancet 355: 576.
K. Treiber, A. Singer, B. Henke, W.E. Müller. 2005. P.1.11 Hiperforina inhibits serotonin uptake by activating non selective cation channels. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 15(1): S11-S12.
K. Treiber, A. Singer, B. Henke, W.E. Müller. 2006. TRP channel activation via tyrosine kinases as a novel antidepressant mechanism of action — studies with Hiperforina. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 16 (1): Page S18.
Katja Karppinen, Anja Hohtola. 2008. Molecular cloning and tissue-specific expression of two cDNAs encoding polyketide synthases from Hypericum perforatum. Journal of Plant Physiology. 165 (10): 1079-1086.
Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, Young-Je Sim, Marian L. Kohut, David F. Wiemer, Eve S. Wurtele, Diane F. Birt. 2008. Pseudohypericin is necessary for the light-activated inhibition of prostaglandin E2 pathways by a 4 component system mimicking a Hypericum perforatum fraction. Phytochemistry. 69 (12): 2354-2362.
Leuner K, Kazanski V, Müller M. 2007. "Hiperforina-a key constituent of St. John's wort specifically activates TRPC6 channels". FASEB. 21 (14): 4101–4111.
Linda B. Moore, Bryan Goodwin, Stacey A. Jones, G. Bruce Wisely, Cosette J. Serabjit-Singh, Timothy M. Willson, Jon L. Collins, and Steven A. Kliewer. 2000. St. John's wort induces hepatic drug metabolism through activation of the pregnane X receptor. PNAS 97 (13): 7500-7502.
Linde K. 1996. St. John's wort for depression -- an overview and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. British Medical Journal 313: 253-258.
Ludger Beerhues. 2006. Hiperforina. Phytochemistry. 67 (20): 2201-2207.
Luiz G. Guilhermina, Luciana Ortiz, Maristela Ferigolo, Helena M.T. Barros. 2003. Commercially available Hypericum perforatum extracts do not drecrease immobility of rats in the forced swimming test. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 28 (1): 49-55.
Lumpkin MM, Alpert S. Risk of drug interactions with St. John's wort and indinavir and other drugs. FDA Health Advisory, Feb 10, 2000.
Marta Menegazzi, Michela Novelli, Pascale Beffy, Valentina D’Aleo, Elisa Tedeschi, Roberto Lupi, Elisa Zoratti, Piero Marchetti, Hisanori Suzuki, Pellegrino Masiello. 2008. Protective effects of St. John's wort extract and its component Hiperforina against cytokine-induced cytotoxicity in a pancreatic β-cell line. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 40 (8): 1509-1521.
Miguel A. Medina, Beatriz Martínez-Poveda, María I. Amores-Sánchez, Ana R. Quesada. 2006. Hiperforina: More than an antidepressant bioactive compound? Life Sciences. 79 (2): 105-111.
Monmaney T. Labels' potency claims often inaccurate, analysis finds. Spot check of products finds widely varying levels of key ingredient. But some firms object to testing method and defend their brands' quality. Los Angeles Times, Aug 31, 1998.
Moore L.B., Goodwin, B., Jones, S.A., Wisely, G.B., Serabjit-Singh, C.J., Willson, T.M., Collins, J.L., Kliewer, S.A. 2000. St. John’s wort induces hepatic drug metabolism through activation of the pregnane X receptor. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97: 7.500-7.502.
Murphy, P.A. 2002. St John’s wort and oral contraceptives: reasons for concern? Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. 47: 447-450.
Obach, R.S. 2000. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by constituents of St John’s wort, an herbal preparation used in the treatment of depression. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 294: 88-95.
Piscitelli SC. 2000. Indinavir concentrations and St John's wort. Lancet 355: 547.
Raffaele Capasso, Francesca Borrelli, Vittorino Montanaro, Vincenzo Altieri, Francesco Capasso, Angelo A. Izzo. 2005. Effects of the Antidepressant St. John′S Wort (Hypericum perforatum) on Rat and Human Vas Deferens Contractility. The Journal of Urology. 173 (6): 2194-2197.
Roots, I., Johne, A., Schmider, J., Brockmöller, J., Maurer, A., Stömer, E., Donath, F. 2000. Interactions of herbal extract from St Jonh’s wort with amitriptyline and its metabolites. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 67: 159.
Ruschitzka F. 2000. Acute heart transplant rejection due to Saint John's wort. Lancet 355: 548.
Schwarz, U.I., Büschel, B., Kirch, W. 2003. Unwanted pregnancy on self-medication with St. John's wort despite hormonal contraception. British Journal of clinical Pharmacology. 55:112-113.
St. John's wort study launched. Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the NIH 4(4):5, October 1997.
Stevinson, C., Ernst, E. 1999. Hypericum extract for depression: an update for the clinical evidence. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 9: 501-505.
A. Szegedi, R Kohnen, A Dienel, M Kieser. 2005. Acute treatment of moderate to severe depression with hypericum extract WS 5570 (St John’s wort): randomised controlled double blind non-inferiority trial versus paroxetina. British Medical Journal. 330(7):503-506.
Thomas CA, Tyagi S, Yoshimura N, Chancellor MB, Tyagi P. 2007. "Effect of Hiperforina-enriched extract on pro-ejaculatory effect of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin in anesthetized rats". Urology. 70 (4): 813–816.
Tiziana Mennini, Marco Gobbi. 2004. The antidepressant mechanism of Hypericum perforatum. Life Sciences. 75 (9): 1021-1027.
Walter E. Müller. 2003. Current St. John’s wort research from mode of action to clinical efficacy. Pharmacological Research. 47 (2): 101-109.
Yadhu N. Singh. 2005. Potential for interaction of kava and St. John's wort with drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 100 (1-2): 108-113.
Yue, QY, Bergquist, C, Gerden B. 2000. Safety of St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum). Lancet. 355: 576-577.
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Kava Kava - kawa kawa

Piper methysticum G. Forst (Piperáceas)

Outros nomes: Ava, Intoxicating Pepper, Kava Kava, Kawa Kawa, Kew, Sakau, Tonga, Yangona
Utilizações legais:

Na os EUA o kava é vendida como suplementos dietéticos promovidos como alternativas naturais para drogas ansiolíticas e como pílulas para dormir. Uma meta-análise de seis randomizado, controlado com placebo, em dupla ocultação de ensaios clínicos constatou que kava kava (60-200 mg/dia de kavalactones) produziu uma redução significativa da ansiedade, em comparação com placebo. No entanto, o FDA não tenha decidido sobre a capacidade dos suplementos alimentares contendo kava para fornecer tais benefícios.

USO ILÍCITO

Informações sobre a utilização ilícita de kava nos EUA é anedótico. Com base em informações obtidas na Internet, está a ser utilizado “kava lazer” para relaxar o corpo e atingir uma leve euforia. É normalmente consumido como bebida feita a partir do pó seco da raiz, com aromas e extratos em pó, líquido e extrato dissolvido em álcool puro grãos e vegetais.

Os indivíduos podem consumir 25 gramas de kavalactones, que é de cerca de 130 vezes a dose diária em kava suplementos dietéticos. Indivíduos intoxicados normalmente têm processos de pensamento sensato e abrangentes conversas, mas têm dificuldade em coordenar movimentos e muitas vezes adormecer.

Os usuários do Kava não exibem o delírio e confusão generalizada quando ocorre com altos níveis de intoxicação alcoólica. No entanto, enquanto kava sozinho não produz alterações motores e cognitivos como o álcool. O kava não potenciou o efeito produzido pelo álcool sozinho.

O Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum) é uma planta da família Piperácea. Trata-se de um arbusto encontrado na Malásia e nas ilhas da Polinésia, que tem sido usada há mais de 3 mil anos pelos nativos das ilhas Fiji, Samoa e Tonga, no tratamento de doenças e também em cerimônias religiosas, por causa das propriedades sedativas e relaxantes.

Durante o ritual, os nativos usam o Kawa Kawa como bebida, e acredita-se no efeito relaxante da planta, combinado com outros elementos do ritual foi interpretado como uma espécie de transe. Nos últimos anos, o Kawa Kawa tem sido destacado como uma planta de grande utilidade no tratamento de problemas como a ansiedade nervosa, estados de tensão, agitação, ansiedade e insônia.

Estudos Farmacológicos mostram que os ingredientes ativos do Kawa Kawa - as kavalactonas - promovem um efeito relaxante nos músculos, particularmente útil em situações de estresse.

O Kawa Kawa logo ganhou fama como um poderoso ansiolítico natural. Atualmente, a planta tem sido testada para que seus efeitos sejam comparados com os tradicionais benzodiazepínicos (como Valium®, Lexotan®, Diazepam, etc.). No controle da ansiedade, com resultados favoráveis para o Kawa Kawa, porque ela não apresenta os efeitos colaterais comuns aos benzodiazepínicos, como a sonolência e a função mental reduzida. Partes da planta utilizada na preparação deste remédio são as folhas secas e rizomas, transformadas em pó.

Embora o efeito da Kawa Kawa esteja sendo comprovado cientificamente, atendendo ao seu uso somente sob supervisão médica, pois a planta apresenta contra-indicações. Seu uso não é recomendado durante a gestação, lactação e em casos de Parkinson, por exemplo. Além disso, como qualquer ansiolítico, sua dosagem deve ser controlada

Estrutura geral das Kavalactonas
BIBLIOGRAFIA

A. Capasso, L. Sorrentino. 2005. Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of Kava kava and Passiflora extracts combination. Phytomedicine. 12 (1-2): 39-45.
André Rex, Eve Morgenstern, Heidrun Fink. 2002. Anxiolytic-like effects of Kava-Kava in the elevated plus maze test—a comparison with diazepam. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 26 (5): 855-860.
Angelo Cagnacci, Serenella Arangino, Antonietta Renzi, Anna Lisa Zanni, Stefania Malmusi, Annibale Volpe. 2003. Kava–Kava administration reduces anxiety in perimenopausal women. Maturitas. 44 (2): 103-109.
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Dallas L. Clouatre. 2004. Kava kava: examining new reports of toxicity. Toxicology Letters. 150 (1): 85-96.
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E. A. Carlini. 2003. Plants and the central nervous system. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 75 (3): 501-512.
E. Ernst. 2006. Herbal remedies for anxiety – a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Phytomedicine. 13 (3): 205-208.
F. Stickel, H. M. Baumueller, K. H. Seitz, D. Vasilakis, G. Seitz, E. G. Hahn, H. K. Seitz and D. Schuppan. 2003. Kava-induced acute liver injury: A report of 29 novel cases. Journal of Hepatology. 38 (2): 217-218.
F. Stickeland and D. Schuppan. 2007. Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases. Digestive and Liver Disease. 39 (4): 293-304.
Felix Stickel, Hans-Martin Baumüller, Karlheinz Seitz, Dimitrios Vasilakis, Gerhard Seitz, Helmut K. Seitz, Detlef Schuppan. 2003. Hepatitis induced by Kava (Piper methysticum rhizoma). Journal of Hepatology, 39 (1): 62-67.
H. Barton Grossman. 2006. Is adjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer safer in patients with an ileal conduit than a neobladder? Manoharan M, Reyes MA, Kava BR, Singal R, Kim SS, Soloway, MS, Department of Urology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, 24 (3): 272.
H. Wong. 2003. Potential hepatotoxicity from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)/dietary supplements (DS) containing comfrey, chaparral, and Kava Kava. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 111 (1): Suppl 2, S167.
Holstege CP; Mitchell K; Barlotta K; Furbee RB. 2005. Toxicity and drug interactions associated with herbal products: ephedra and St. John's Wort. Medical Clinics of North America. 89(6): 1225-1257.
Hu, A. 2005. "Determination of six kavalactones in dietary supplements and selected functional foods containing Piper methysticum by isocratic liquid chromatography with internal standard". Journal of AOAC International. 88 (1): 16–25.
Hyla Cass. 2004. Herbs for the nervous system: Ginkgo, kava, valerian, passionflower. Seminars in Integrative Medicine. 2 (2): 82-88.
J. Anke, S. Fu and I. Ramzan. 2006. Kavalactones fail to inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase in vitro. Phytomedicine. 13 (3): 192-195.
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Johannes Schulze, Walter Raasch, Claus-Peter Siegers. 2003. Toxicity of kava pyrones, drug safety and precautions – a case study. Phytomedicine. 10 (4): 68-73.
Juan Perez and James F. Holmes. 2005. Altered mental status and ataxia secondary to acute Kava ingestion. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 28 (1): 49-51.
Kapusta M; Dusek J. 2003. Therapeutic and toxicologic aspects of biological effects of Saint John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). Ceská a Slovenská Farmaice. 52(1): 20-28.
Klohs, M. W., Keller, F., Williams, R. E., Toekes, M. I. and Cronheim, G. E. 1959. A chemical and pharmacological investigation of Piper methysticum, Forster. Journal of Medicinal and Pharmacological Chemistry 1: 95-103.
L. Sorrentino, A. Capasso and M. Schmidt. 2006. Safety of ethanolic kava extract: Results of a study of chronic toxicity in rats. Phytomedicine. 13 (8): 542-549.
Lim ST, Dragull K, Tang CS, Bittenbender HC, Efird JT, Nerurkar PV 2007. "Effects of kava alkaloid, pipermethystine, and kavalactones on oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 in F-344 rats". Toxicological Sciences. 97 (1): 214–221.
Marcello Spinella. 2001. Herbal Medicines and Epilepsy: The Potential for Benefit and Adverse Effects. Epilepsy & Behavior. 2 (6): 524-532.
Moreno, Ricardo Alberto; Teng, Chei Tung; Almeida, Karla Mathias de; Tavares Junior, Hildeberto. 2006. Hypericum perforatum versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a randomized double-blind trial in a Brazilian sample. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. 28(1): 29-32.
Oliver Meissner, Hanns Häberlein. 2005. HPLC analysis of flavokavins and kavapyrones from Piper methysticum Forst. Journal of Chromatography B, 826 (1-2): 46-49.
Peter A. Whitton, Andrew Lau, Alicia Salisbury, Julie Whitehouse and Christine S. Evans. 2003. Kava lactones and the kava-kava controversy. Phytochemistry. 64 (3): 673-679.
Pilkington K; Boshnakova A; Richardson J. 2006. St John's wort for depression: time for a different perspective? Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 14(4): 268-281.
R. Teschke, W. Gaus, D. Loew. 2003. Kava extracts: Safety and risks including rare hepatotoxicity. Phytomedicine. 10 (5): 440-446.
Robert A. DiSilvestro, Wenyi Zhang and David J. DiSilvestro. 2007. Kava feeding in rats does not cause liver injury nor enhance galactosamine-induced hepatitis. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 45 (7): 1293-1300.
Robert Grace Mbbs, Fanzca, Fracp, Mmed. 2005. Kava-induced urticaria. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 53 (5): 906.
S.Y. Mills, B. Steinhoff. 2003. Kava-kava: a lesson for the phytomedicine community. Phytomedicine. 10 (2-3): 261-262.
Saskia Lüde, Michael Török, Sandy Dieterle, René Jäggi, Karin Berger Büter and Stephan Krähenbühl. 2008. Hepatocellular toxicity of kava leaf and root extracts. Phytomedicine 15, (1-2): 120-131.
Seitz U, Schüle A, Gleitz J. 1997. [3H]-monoamine uptake inhibition properties of kava pyrones. Planta Medica. 63 (6): 548–549.
Shulgin, A. 1973. "The narcotic pepper - the chemistry and pharmacology of Piper methysticum and related species" Bulletin on narcotics. 25 (59): 59–74.
Siegfried Lehrl. 2004. Corrigendum to “Clinical efficacy of kava extract WS® 1490 in sleep disturbances associated with anxiety disorders. Results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial” Journal of Affective Disorders. 78: 101–110.
Sorrentino L, Capasso A, Schmidt M. 2006. Safety of ethanolic kava extract: Results of a study of chronic toxicity in rats. Phytomedicine 13 (8): 542–549.
Tran Dang Xuan, Ogushi Yuichi, Chikara Junko, Eiji Tsuzuki, Terao Hiroyuki, Matsuo Mitsuhiro, Tran Dang Khanh, Nguyen Huu Hong. 2003. Kava root (Piper methysticum L.) as a potential natural herbicide and fungicide. Crop Protection. 22 (6): 873-881.
Yadhu N. Singh. 2005. Potential for interaction of kava and St. John's wort with drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 100 (1-2): 108-113.
Yuzhong Ma, Karuna Sachdeva, Jirong Liu, Michael Ford, Dongfang Yang, Ikhlas A. Khan, Clinton O. Chichester, and Bingfang Yan. 2004. Desmethoxyyangonin and Dihydromethysticin are Two Major Pharmacological Kavalactones with Marked Activity on the Induction of Cyp3a23. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 32 (11): 1317–1324.
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ECHINACEA
Echinacea purpurea (L) Moench (Asteraceae)

Família: Compositae (Daisy) - Asteraceae (aster)

Outros nomes comuns: Red Sunflower, Purple Coneflower, Black Sampson, Hedgehog, Coneflower, Snake Root, Sampson Root, Rudbeckia, Comb Flower, Indian Head.

Echinacea, comumente conhecida pelo seu nome popular em Inglês “Purple Coneflower”, é um gênero de nove espécies de plantas herbáceas da Família das Asteraceae. Ela é estritamente nativa da região leste e central da América do Norte. As plantas têm grandes, compostas de ostentação chefes de flores, florescimento. Algumas dessas espécies são utilizadas como remédio.
O gênero é a partir do nome grego echino, que significa "espinhoso", devido aos espinhos no disco central. Eles são herbáceas, planta perene, crescendo 1 ou 2 m de altura. As folhas são elípticas a lanceoladas, 10 - 20 cm de comprimento. Como todas as Asteraceae, as flores são umas compósitas inflorescências, com roxo (raramente amarelo ou branco) disposto em uma proeminência, algo em forma de cone de cabeça - "forma de cone", porque as pétalas de raios florets exteriorizam e tende para baixo, uma vez aberta, a flor com a cabeça em forma um cone.

HISTÓRIA

Echinacea purpurea é uma herbácea, planta perene que é nativa nas planícies do oeste americano e tem sido largamente cultivada na Europa, onde é pensado para ser talvez o mais poderoso antibiótico natural.

Os dois pés de plantas podem ser encontrados crescendo em pradarias secas e outros lugares abertos, florescente, com o solo bem drenado. Echinacea, o nome é derivado do grego, echinos, significando "ouriço" ou "ouriço do mar".

Existem três espécies deste gênero que incluem muitas das mesmas propriedades e aplicações (E. purpurea, E. angustifolia e E. pallida), e são frequentemente utilizados alternadamente. Nativos americanos utilizaram à roxa “coneflower” mais do que qualquer outra planta no tratamento de doenças e lesões, incluindo mordida de cobra, febre, feridas, queimaduras, infecções e dor de dente.

Com os primeiros colonos a Echinacea foi adaptada como um remédio para as constipações e gripe, e da erva-americana se tornou popular entre as plantas medicinais e a medicina tradicional.

A erva foi incluído no Formulário Nacional, do Livro dos Farmacêuticos de consulta, a partir de 1915, e depois em 1950, apesar da perda da Echinacea na América após a década de 1930, ela foi “redescoberta” na década de 80 do século passado, devido ao crescente interesse no Sistema Imunitário, Síndrome de fadiga crônica, câncer, candidíase, etc. Geralmente acreditavam que Echinacea purpurea é o mais potente dos três, e sendo mais facilmente cultivadas, também a mais usada.

E. purpurea também se pensa ser a mais eficaz como uma espécie desintoxicante e sistema imunológico detonadora, particularmente em situações respiratórias, e a Equinácea foi aprovada pelos praticantes Ayurveda.

Há agora muito interesse renovado dos Estados Unidos, por causa da erva e do efeito positivo sobre o sistema imunológico, e as ervas alcançaram fama mundial por sua ação antiviral, antifúngica e propriedades antibacterianas, estes dados basear-se em documentação científica recente.

Echinacea contém um antibiótico natural chamado echinacoside (um glicosídeo) e um composto chamado echinaceina (uma amida). Ambas as componentes neutralizar as enzimas produzidas por micróbios que atacam e invadem células tecidas saudáveis.

Outros componentes incluem ácidos graxos, óleos essenciais, quercetina, alcalóides, polissacarídeos, alkamides, frutanos, carboidratos, germacreno, humuleno, limoneno, myrcene, pineno alfa, beta-pineno, kaempferol, rutina, cafeico-, - clorogênicos, catárico e palmítico Ácido, terpenóides, vitamina B1, B2, B3 e vitamina C, ferro, cálcio, magnésio, manganês, fósforo, potássio, selénio, zinco, flavonóides, beta-caroteno e de outros nutrientes importantes.

EFEITO MEDICINAL

Pelo menos um estudo mostra que a Echinacea purpurea têm propriedades antidep
          error at build time In function 'SSL_CTX_get0_privatekey' error: dereferencing pointer to incomplete type (3 replies)        
Hi,

Today I have tried to recreate the WAF.

I received this error at build time.

###
+ cd /usr/src
+ git clone http://git.haproxy.org/git/haproxy.git/
Cloning into 'haproxy'...
+ make -C /usr/src/haproxy TARGET=linux2628 USE_PCRE=1 USE_OPENSSL=1 USE_ZLIB=1 USE_LINUX_SPLICE=1 USE_TFO=1 USE_PCRE_JIT=1 USE_LUA=1 all install-bin
make: Entering directory `/usr/src/haproxy'
gcc -Iinclude -Iebtree -Wall -O2 -g -fno-strict-aliasing -Wdeclaration-after-statement -fwrapv -DCONFIG_HAP_LINUX_SPLICE -DTPROXY -DCONFIG_HAP_LINUX_TPROXY -DCONFIG_HAP_CRYPT -DUSE_ZLIB -DENABLE_POLL -DENABLE_EPOLL -DUSE_CPU_AFFINITY -DASSUME_SPLICE_WORKS -DUSE_ACCEPT4 -DNETFILTER -DUSE_OPENSSL -DUSE_SYSCALL_FUTEX -DUSE_LUA -DUSE_PCRE -I/usr/include -DUSE_PCRE_JIT -DUSE_TFO -DCONFIG_HAPROXY_VERSION=\"1.8-dev2-316947-114\" -DCONFIG_HAPROXY_DATE=\"2017/08/03\" -c -o src/ev_poll.o src/ev_poll.c
gcc -Iinclude -Iebtree -Wall -O2 -g -fno-strict-aliasing -Wdeclaration-after-statement -fwrapv -DCONFIG_HAP_LINUX_SPLICE -DTPROXY -DCONFIG_HAP_LINUX_TPROXY -DCONFIG_HAP_CRYPT -DUSE_ZLIB -DENABLE_POLL -DENABLE_EPOLL -DUSE_CPU_AFFINITY -DASSUME_SPLICE_WORKS -DUSE_ACCEPT4 -DNETFILTER -DUSE_OPENSSL -DUSE_SYSCALL_FUTEX -DUSE_LUA -DUSE_PCRE -I/usr/include -DUSE_PCRE_JIT -DUSE_TFO -DCONFIG_HAPROXY_VERSION=\"1.8-dev2-316947-114\" -DCONFIG_HAPROXY_DATE=\"2017/08/03\" -c -o src/ev_epoll.o src/ev_epoll.c
gcc -Iinclude -Iebtree -Wall -O2 -g -fno-strict-aliasing -Wdeclaration-after-statement -fwrapv -DCONFIG_HAP_LINUX_SPLICE -DTPROXY -DCONFIG_HAP_LINUX_TPROXY -DCONFIG_HAP_CRYPT -DUSE_ZLIB -DENABLE_POLL -DENABLE_EPOLL -DUSE_CPU_AFFINITY -DASSUME_SPLICE_WORKS -DUSE_ACCEPT4 -DNETFILTER -DUSE_OPENSSL -DUSE_SYSCALL_FUTEX -DUSE_LUA -DUSE_PCRE -I/usr/include -DUSE_PCRE_JIT -DUSE_TFO -DCONFIG_HAPROXY_VERSION=\"1.8-dev2-316947-114\" -DCONFIG_HAPROXY_DATE=\"2017/08/03\" -c -o src/ssl_sock.o src/ssl_sock.c
In file included from src/ssl_sock.c:94:0:
include/proto/openssl-compat.h: In function 'SSL_CTX_get0_privatekey':
include/proto/openssl-compat.h:99:19: error: dereferencing pointer to incomplete type
return ctx->cert->key->privatekey;
^
include/proto/openssl-compat.h:102:1: warning: control reaches end of non-void function [-Wreturn-type]
}
^
make: *** [src/ssl_sock.o] Error 1
make: Leaving directory `/usr/src/haproxy'
###

Openssl is
---> Package openssl.x86_64 1:1.0.1e-60.el7_3.1 will be installed
---> Package openssl-devel.x86_64 1:1.0.1e-60.el7_3.1 will be installed

I thought this case is covert with this commit.

http://git.haproxy.org/?p=haproxy.git;a=commit;h=48a8332a4a82f151877bd6baf567031088845f2d

##
BUG/MEDIUM: ssl: Fix regression about certificates generation

Since the commit f6b37c67 ["BUG/MEDIUM: ssl: in bind line, ssl-options after
'crt' are ignored."], the certificates generation is broken.

To generate a certificate, we retrieved the private key of the default
certificate using the SSL object. But since the commit f6b37c67, the SSL object
is created with a dummy certificate (initial_ctx).

So to fix the bug, we use directly the default certificate in the bind_conf
structure. We use SSL_CTX_get0_privatekey function to do so. Because this
function does not exist for OpenSSL < 1.0.2 and for LibreSSL, it has been added
in openssl-compat.h with the right #ifdef.
##

[root@centos-512mb-fra1-01 haproxy-waf]# egrep OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER /usr/include/openssl/*
/usr/include/openssl/crypto.h:#define SSLEAY_VERSION_NUMBER OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER
/usr/include/openssl/opensslv.h:#define OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER 0x1000105fL

How can I help to fix this issue?

--
Best Regards
Aleks
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           Molecular cloning and tissue expression of FAT, the human homologue of the Drosophila fat gene that is located on chromosome 4q34-q35 and encodes a putative adhesion molecule.         
Dunne, MJ; Dunne, J; Hanby, AM; Poulsom, R; Jones, TA; Sheer, D; Chin, WG; ... Owen, MJ; + view all <#> Dunne, MJ; Dunne, J; Hanby, AM; Poulsom, R; Jones, TA; Sheer, D; Chin, WG; Da, SM; Zhao, Q; Beverley, PC; Owen, MJ; - view fewer <#> (1995) Molecular cloning and tissue expression of FAT, the human homologue of the Drosophila fat gene that is located on chromosome 4q34-q35 and encodes a putative adhesion molecule. Genomics , 30 (2) pp. 207-223.
           CLONING AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE PEA SEEDLING COPPER AMINE OXIDASE         
TIPPING, AJ; MCPHERSON, MJ; (1995) CLONING AND MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE PEA SEEDLING COPPER AMINE OXIDASE. J BIOL CHEM , 270 (28) 16939 - 16946. Gold open access
           MOLECULAR-CLONING AND TISSUE EXPRESSION OF FAT, THE HUMAN HOMOLOG OF THE DROSOPHILA FAT GENE THAT IS LOCATED ON CHROMOSOME 4Q34-Q35 AND ENCODES A PUTATIVE ADHESION MOLECULE         
DUNNE, J; HANBY, AM; POULSOM, R; JONES, TA; SHEER, D; CHIN, WG; DA, SM; ... OWEN, MJ; + view all <#> DUNNE, J; HANBY, AM; POULSOM, R; JONES, TA; SHEER, D; CHIN, WG; DA, SM; ZHAO, Q; BEVERLEY, PCL; OWEN, MJ; - view fewer <#> (1995) MOLECULAR-CLONING AND TISSUE EXPRESSION OF FAT, THE HUMAN HOMOLOG OF THE DROSOPHILA FAT GENE THAT IS LOCATED ON CHROMOSOME 4Q34-Q35 AND ENCODES A PUTATIVE ADHESION MOLECULE. GENOMICS , 30 (2) 207 - 223.
           CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF A CDNA-ENCODING RAT D-DOPACHROME TAUTOMERASE         
ZHANG, M; AMAN, P; GRUBB, A; PANAGOPOULOS, I; HINDEMITH, A; ROSENGREN, E; RORSMAN, H; (1995) CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF A CDNA-ENCODING RAT D-DOPACHROME TAUTOMERASE. FEBS LETT , 373 (3) 203 - 206.
          Senate passes jobs plan, adds cloning ban        
The Ohio Senate has given its approval to a 1.57 billion dollar job creation package. The measure would pour state money into several sectors of Ohio's economy.....but on a controversial SIDE issue, the Senate version is different than the one the Ohio HOUSE okayed a few weeks ago. That side issue is - cloning. Statehouse correspondent Bill Cohen reports.
          NEGATIVNYA TEKNOLOGY        
Dampak negative perkembangan teknologi telepon dari segi sosial
518153903_bd252cce55.jpg
1. Mengurangi sifat sosial manusia karena cenderung lebih suka berhubungan lewat internet daripada bertemu secara langsung (face to face).
2. Dari sifat sosial yang berubah dapat mengakibatkan perubahan pola masyarakat dalam berinteraksi.

manusia menjadi malas untuk bersosialisasi dengan teman dan lingkungan sekitar. Dengan fasilitas yang dimiliki oleh HP, maka di zaman yang serba canggih dan modern ini segalanya bisa dilakukan dengan duduk di tempat tanpa perlu beranjak dari tempat duduk dan meninggalkan aktivitas seseorang. Mulai dari mengisi pulsa, transfer uang, memesan tiket, belanja, hingga memesan makanan dapat dilakukan tanpa beranjak dari tempat sedikitpun. Memang akan menjadi lebih mudah tetapi orang akan lebih tidak peduli dengan rasa sosial.
Dampak negative perkembangan teknologi telepon dari segi kesehatan
Mula-mula semua orang memang senang dan tak ada yang risau tentang bahaya yang timbul dari alat-alat itu. Akan tetapi setelah orang makin tahu bahwa alat itu memancarkan gelombang elektromagnetik, yang jahatnya seperti sinar X dan ultraviolet kalau terlalu lama menimpa orang, maka mulailah negara-negara industri risau.
Kerisauan dipacu oleh berita bahwa gelombang magnetik mikro dari telepon genggam yang dinyalakan terus-menerus dalam pesawat udara mengganggu hubungan radio antara pilot pesawat dan menara pengatur lalu lintas udara di bandara. Bayangkan kalau gangguan itu diikuti oleh kekaburan informasi sampai perintah pendaratan ditafsirkan salah, lalu timbul tabrakan pesawat di udara! Malapetaka itu hanya gara-gara sinar gelombang mikro dari telepon genggam yang dinyalakan terus-menerus. Sejak itu, penumpang pesawat dilarang menyalakan telepon genggamnya pada waktu pesawat sedang tinggal landas dan ketika hendak mendarat.funny-people-talking-phone-in-the-white-cubes-thumb1438506.jpg
gelombang elektromagnetik dari alat-alat elektronik itu mempengaruhi kesehatan orang?
Kita ingat, semua sinar ultra rendah seperti sinar ultraviolet dari matahari dan sinar X yang dipancarkan alat pemotret organ tubuh kita, nyata sekali menggetarkan molekul yang dilaluinya, lalu menimbulkan friksi dan panas kalau tubuh terlalu lama dipaparkan padanya.
Sinar yang dipancarkan telepon genggam, juga sama-sama berupa gelombang mikro. Kalau terlalu lama ditempelkan pada telinga, berikut antenanya yang menyentuh kepala, telepon genggam itu membuat orang agak pusing karena pembuluh darah di lehernya menyempit sampai meningkatkan tekanan darah. Dalam penelitian di Jerman ditemukan bahwa pemaparan selama 35 menit meningkatkan tekanan darah sampai 5 - 10 mmHg, kalau telepon terus-menerus dipakai mengobrol dan menempel pada telinga. Bagi penderita tekanan darah tinggi, kenaikan sebesar itu sudah membahayakan.
Berbagai negara penghasil telepon genggam kemudian merancang undang-undang agar alat yang diproduksi di kemudian hari disertai alat peredam, hingga tidak berbahaya bagi para penderita tekanan darah tnggi.
Namun sebelum alat-alat itu disempurnakan dengan alat pengaman, kita di Indonesia yang sampai kini masih dipaparkan pada sinar gelombang mikro alat-alat kuno, sebaiknya berhati-hati dan menghindari pancaran sinar itu dari telepon genggam.
Solusinya dengan tidak memakai alat itu kalau tidak perlu benar. Kalaupun perlu memakai telepon genggam, misalnya, jangan terlalu lama sampai melebihi setengah jam.

Televisi dan Komputer Ganggu Perkembangan Anak
Sudah menjadi fenomena umum bahwa kini banyak orang tua yang membiarkan anak-anak mereka - bahkan sejak usia pra sekolah - asyik menghabiskan waktu dengan menonton televisi atau bermain komputer. Bagi orang tua, selama anak-anak merasa senang, kebiasaan ini tidak pernah di anggap sebagai ancaman.

Padahal membiasakan anak-anak menonton televisi atau bermain komputer, ternyata memiliki dampak negatif khususnya bagi perkembangan otak dan kejiwaan anak.
Peringatan akan ancaman serta dampak buruk televisi dan media elektronik lainny terhadap perkembangan anak diungkapkan oleh seorang ahli dari Inggris belum lama ini. Salah satu pesan pentingnya adalah anak-anak pra sekolah seharusnya tidak dibiarkan menonton televisi atau bermain dengan komputer, supaya otaknya berkembang dengan sempurna.
Seorang ahli perkembangan anak, Dr Aric Sigman, mengatakan bahwa telah banyak bukti ilmiah yang menunjukkan bahwa kebiasaan duduk di depan layar komputer atau televisi berjam-jam dapat menimbulkan pengaruh buruk pada anak-anak khususnya untuk jangka panjang.
Kebijakan pemerintah Inggris, yang memperbolehkan para guru secara legal menunjukkan bagaimana mengoperasikan komputer atau televisi justru telah mengakibatkan anak-anak berada dalam risiko besar.
Anak-anak berusia tiga tahun yang menonton televisi terbukti mengalami kesulitan dengan pelajaran matematika, membaca dan pemahaman bahasa di sekolah. Keping DVD yang mengklaim dapat melatih bayi dan anak-anak yang baru bisa berjalan justru diduga dapat menghambat proses pembelajaran bahasa.
Selain itu, program-program kekerasan , film dan game juga dikenal dapat mempengaruhi fungsi kerja otak anak-anak, dan dapat mendorong timbulnya agresi dan sifat impulsif.
Lebih dari setengah populasi anak-anak berusia tiga tahun di Inggris memiliki televisi di kamar mereka dan dua pertiga di antaranya selalu menonton televisi sebelum pergi ke sekolah.
Anak-anak yang memiliki televisi di kamar tidurnya cenderung sulit untuk mengembangkan kemampuan membaca ketika beranjak enam tahun. Dan seperempat dari anak -anak berusia lima tahun di Inggris tercatat memiliki laptop atau perangkat komputer sendiri.
Statistik ini seharusnya membuat kita untuk mempertimbangkan sebuah kebijakan untuk membuat perlindungan bagi anak-anak dalam perkembangannya, menyediakan semacam buffer zone dari media elektronik yang begitu kuat.
Pada usia yang rentan di mana anak-anak mulai melihat cara hidup dengan spontan, peningkatan jumlah waktu yang dihabiskan untuk melihat tayangan setiap harinya, jumlah layar di kamar-kamar tidur anak dan bahkan alat-alat kecil seharusnya membuat kita semua berhenti dan merenung.
Komputer Bagi Anak
kemunculan teknologi komputer sendiri sesungguhnya bersifat netral. Pengaruh positif atau negatif yang bisa muncul dari alat ini tentu saja lebih banyak tergantung dari pemanfaatannya. Bila anak-anak dibiarkan menggunakan komputer secara sembarangan, pengaruhnya bisa jadi negatif. Sebaliknya, komputer akan memberikan pengaruh positif bila digunakan dengan bijaksana, yaitu membantu pengembangan intelektual dan motorik anak.
Diantara manfaat yang dapat diperoleh adalah penggunaan perangkat lunak pendidikan seperti program-program pengetahuan dasar membaca, berhitung, sejarah, geografi, dan sebagainya. Tambahan pula, kini perangkat pendidikan ini kini juga diramu dengan unsur hiburan (entertainment) yang sesuai dengan materi, sehingga anak semakin suka.
Manfaat lain bisa diperoleh anak lewat program aplikasi berbentuk games yang umumnya dirancang untuk tujuan permainan dan tidak secara khusus diberi muatan pendidikan tertentu. Beberapa aplikasi games dapat berupa petualangan, pengaturan strategi, simulasi, dan bermain peran (role-play).
Dalam kaitan ini, komputer dalam proses belajar, akan melahirkan suasana yang menyenangkan bagi anak. Gambar-gambar dan suara yang muncul juga membuat anak tidak cepat bosan, sehingga dapat merangsang anak mengetahui lebih jauh lagi. Sisi baiknya, anak dapat menjadi lebih tekun dan terpicu untuk belajar berkonsentrasi.
Namun, sisi mudhorot penggunaan komputer tak juga bisa diabaikan. Salah satunya adalah dari kemungkinan anak, kemungkinan besar tanpa sepengetahuan orangtua, ‘mengkonsumsi’ games yang menonjolkan unsur-unsur seperti kekerasan dan agresivitas. Banyak pakar pendidikan mensinyalir bahwa games beraroma kekerasan dan agresif ini adalah pemicu munculnya perilaku-perilaku agresif dan sadistis pada diri anak.
Akses negatif lewat internet
Pengaruh negatif lain, adalah terbukanya akses negatif anak dari penggunaan internet. Mampu mengakses internet sesungguhnya merupakan suatu awal yang baik bagi pengembangan wawasan anak. Sayangnya, anak juga terancam dengan banyaknya informasi buruk yang membanjiri internet.
Melalui internetlah berbagai materi bermuatan seks, kekerasan, dan lain-lain dijajakan secara terbuka dan tanpa penghalang. Nina mengungkapkan sebuah studi yang menunjukkan bahwa satu dari 12 anak di Canada sering menerima pesan yang berisi muatan seks, tawaran seks, saat tengah berselancar di internet.
Ada beberapa hal yang harus dilakukan orangtua, yaitu:
Pertama, orangtualah yang seharusnya mengenalkan internet pada anak, bukan orang lain. Mengenalkan internet berarti pula mengenalkan manfaatnya dan tujuan penggunaan internet. Karena itu, ujar Nina, orangtua terlebih dahulu harus ‘melek’ media dan tidak gatek.
‘Sayangnya, seringkali anaknya sudah terlalu canggih, sementara orangtuanya tidak tahu apa-apa. Tidak tahu bagaimana membuka internet, juga tidak tahu apa-apa soal games yang suka dimainkan anak. Nanti ketika ada akibat buruknya, orangtua baru menyesal.
Kedua, gunakan software yang dirancang khusus untuk melindungi ‘kesehatan’ anak. Misalnya saja program nany chip atau parents lock yang dapat memproteksi anak dengan mengunci segala akses yang berbau seks dan kekerasan.
Ketiga, letakkan komputer di ruang publik rumah, seperti perpustakaan, ruang keluarga, dan bukan di dalam kamar anak. Meletakkan komputer di dalam kamar anak akan mempersulit orangtua dalam hal pengawasan. Anak bisa leluasa mengakses situs porno atau menggunakan games yang berbau kekerasaan dan sadistis di dalam kamar terkunci. Bila komputer berada di ruang keluarga, keleluasaannya untuk melanggar aturan pun akan terbatas karena ada anggota keluarga yang lalu lalang.
Cegah kecanduan
Pengaruh negatif lain bagi anak, adalah kecendrungan munculnya ‘kecanduan’ anak pada komputer. Kecanduan bermain komputer ditengarai memicu anak menjadi malas menulis, menggambar atau pun melakukan aktivitas sosial.
Kecanduan bermain komputer bisa terjadi terutama karena sejak awal orangtua tidak membuat aturan bermain komputer. Seharusnya, orangtua perlu membuat kesepakatan dengan anak soal waktu bermain komputer. Misalnya, anak boleh bermain komputer sepulang sekolah setelah selesai mengerjakan PR hanya selama satu jam. Waktu yang lebih longgar dapat diberikan pada hari libur.
Pengaturan waktu ini perlu dilakukan agar anak tidak berpikir bahwa bermain komputer adalah satu-satunya kegiatan yang menarik bagi anak. Pengaturan ini perlu diperhatikan secara ketat oleh orangtua, setidaknya sampai anak berusia 12 tahun. Pada usia yang lebih besar, diharapkan anak sudah dapat lebih mampu mengatur waktu dengan baik.
Peran penting orangtua
Menimbang untung ruginya mengenalkan komputer pada anak, pada akhirnya memang amat tergantung pada kesiapan orangtua dalam mengenalkan dan mengawasi anak saat bermain komputer. Karenanya, kepada semua orangtua peran penting mereka dalam pemanfaatan komputer bagi anak.
Pertama, berikan kesempatan pada anak untuk belajar dan berinteraksi dengan komputer sejak dini. Apalagi mengingat penggunaan komputer adalah sesuatu yang tidak bisa dihindari pada saat ini dan masa yang akan datang.
Kedua, perhatikan bahwa komputer juga punya efek-efek tertentu, termasuk pada fisik seseorang. Karena perhatikan juga amsalah tata ruang dan pencahayaan. Cahaya yang terlalu terang dan jarak pandangan terlalu dekat dapat mengganggu indera penglihatan anak.
Ketiga, pilihlah perangkat lunak tertentu yang memang ditujukan untuk anak-anak. Sekalipun yang dipilih merupakan program edutainment ataupun games, sesuaikan selalu dengan usia dan kemampuan anak.
Keempat, perhatikan keamanan anak saat bermain komputer dari bahaya listrik. Jangan sampai terjadi konsleting atau kemungkinan kesetrum terkena bagian tertentu dari badan Central Processing Unit (CPU) komputer.
Kelima, carikan anak meja atau kursi yang ergonomis (sesuai dengan bentuk dan ukuran tubuh anak), yang nyaman bagi anak sehingga anak dapat memakainya dengan mudah. Jangan sampai mousenya terlalu tinggi, atau kepala harus mendongak yang dapat menyebabkan kelelahan. Alat kerja yang tidak ergonomis juga tidak baik bagi anatomi anak untuk jangka panjang.
Keenam, bermain komputer bukan satu-satunya kegiatan bagi anak. Jangan sampai anak kehilangan kegiatan yang bersifat sosial bersama teman-teman karena terlalu asik bermain komputer.
DAMPAK KOMPUTER BAGI KESEHATAN
Tenyata tak selamanya kemajuan dunia komputer berdampak positif bagi manusia. Salah satu hal yang paling mudah diamati adalah dampak komputer bagi kesehatan individu pemakainya. Dan dari semua keluhan kesehatan yang pernah ada, kebanyakan keluhan datang dari para pengguna laptop. Laptop atau notebook sebagai sarana mobile-computing memang dirancang seefesien mungkin untuk dapat dengan mudah dibawa ke manapun. Namun efesiensi yang didapat dari penggunaan laptop ini rupanya harus dibayar mahal dengan mengorbankan faktor ergonomic yang sangat berperan dalam menjamin kenyamanan dan kesehatan sang pemakai.
Salah satu kasus gangguan kesehatan dalam penggunaan laptop dialami oleh Danielle Weatherbee (29 tahun) dari Seattle, seperti yang ditulis dalam buku Using Information Technology. Karena kebiasaannya sehari-hari yang mempergunakan laptop di mana pun berada, ia kemudian mengalami gangguan tulang belakang. Setelah diperiksa, dokter mendapati tulang belakangnya sudah seperti seorang berusia 50 tahun. Inilah salah satu akibat dari dikorbankannya nilai ergonomic sebuah barang, dalam hal ini laptop.
Secara luas, memang dikenal beberapa gangguan kesehatan yang diakibatkan oleh pemakaian komputer, antara lain Repetitive Stress/Strain Injury (RSI), Kelelahan Mata dan Sakit Kepala, Sakit Punggung dan Leher, dan Medan Elektromagnetik. Lebih lanjut mengenai Repetitive Stress/Strain Injury (RSI) sendiri adalah sakit pada pergelangan tangan, lengan, tangan dan leher karena otot-ototnya harus bekerja cepat dan berulang. Hal ini dapat menjadi semakin parah jika sang pemakai komputer tidak memperhatikan faktor ergonomic pemakaian komputer dalam jangka waktu lama. Faktor ergonomic sendiri sangat perlu diperhatikan untuk memperoleh kenyamanan dan posisi ideal yang sehat bagi tubuh selama pemakaian komputer.
Yang kedua adalah kelelahan mata dan sakit kepala. Sebenarnya ini merupakan keluhan yang paling banyak dikeluhkan para pemakai komputer, Computer Vision Sindrome (CVS) sendiri merupakan kelelahan mata yang dapat mengakibatkan sakit kepala, penglihatan seolah ganda, penglihatan silau terhadap cahaya di waktu malam, dan berbagai masalah penglihatan lainnya.
Untuk masalah medan elektromantik (EMF), sebenarnya telah marak dibicarakan dalam beberapa tahun terakhir ini. Banyak pihak yang mengkhawatirkan dampak medan magnetic yang terdapat pada berbagai jenis peralatan elektronik, termasuk komputer, terhadap para pemakainya. Mulai dari ketakutan akan gangguan kelahiran yang menyebabkan bayi lahir cacat hingga gangguan yang menyebabkan kanker, pernah menjadi isu seputar dampak medan magnetic. Akan tetapi hingga saat ini belum ada yang tahu pasti mengenai kebenaran dugaan tersebut. Namun begitu, di negara-negara maju seperti Inggris, pemerintahnya telah menganjurkan agar anak-anak di bawah umur mengurangi pemakaian barang-barang yang bermedan elektronik, termasuk komputer bagi anak. Menanggapi kekhawatiran tersebut, Federal Communication Commission (FCC) sebenarnya telah membuat pengukuran khusus yang disebut Specifik Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR sendiri berfungsi untuk menyediakan data tingkat radiasi dari tiap type ponsel yang ada.
Teknologi dan Dampak Kebudayaannya
Tantangan dalam Laju Teknologi

Menghadapi kuatnya kecenderungan menggejalanya teknologi sebagai kekuatan otonom (J. Ellul) sehingga melahirkan teknokrasi dan akhirnya menjelma sebagai teknopoli (N. Postman), manusia masa kini akhirnya berhadapan dengan berbagai tuntutan dan tantangan yang ditimbulkan hasil ciptaannya sendiri, yaitu teknologi. Betapapun canggihnya, setiap teknologi adalah hasil daya cipta manusia.
Sejak bergulirnya era industrialisasi, maka selama dua abad terakhir dari milenium ke-2 ini kita tidak hanya menyaksikan teknologi maju secara konsisten, melainkan juga melaju melalui lompatan dan terobosan (leaps and breakthroughs), teristimewa pada lima puluh tahun terakhir abad ke-20 ini. Kemajuan teknologi begitu pesatnya, sehingga nyaris tiada bidang kehidupan manusia yang bebas dari terpaan dampaknya, cepat atau lambat dan langsung atau tak langsung. Perkembangan industrialisasi yang didukung oleh kemajuan teknologi itu pula yang mengawali produksi sesuatu secara massal (mass production) dan tidak mungkin tertandingi oleh produktivitas yang diandalkan semata-mata pada kemampuan manusia.
Kalau direntang dalam periode sejak terjadinya revolusi industri hingga akhir abad ini, maka dua ciri menonjol dalam kinerja produksi ialah prosesnya yang digerakkan melalui mechanization and automation. Berbagai kegiatan manusia yang bersifat produktif berangsur-angsur diambil alih oleh kedua daya tersebut, bahkan dengan kemampuan yang berlipat ganda. Sejalan dengan meningkatnya kemampuan produktif itu pula maka makin kuat dukungan untuk produksi yang bersifat massal.
Kalau periode pertama sejak terjadinya Revolusi Industri ditandai oleh diambilalihnya berbagai fungsi manusia yang berupa kemampuan fisik, maka dalam lima puluh tahun terakhir ini fungsi manusia yang berupa kemampuan mental juga mulai diambil alih oleh teknologi. Teknologi komputer menjadi ilustrasi yang tepat untuk menunjukkan betapa teknologi pun berkesanggupan untuk menjadi perpanjangan atau pengganti kemampuan fungsi mental pada manusia. Maka dalam dua dasawarsa terakhir abad ini banyak pakar yang bersibuk diri dengan studi tentang apa yang dewasa ini terkenal dengan istilah artificial intelligence.
Gambaran komprehensif dan kritis tentang artificial intelligence dapat diperoleh dari buku Raymond Kurzweil, The Age of Intelligent Machines, yang menghimpun pendapat sejumlah pakar mengenai perkembangan intelligent machines.
Menjadi Surplus
Begitu eratnya keterjalinan antara manusia dan teknologi sebagai perpanjangan kemampuannya, sehingga yang asalnya merupakan minus dari kemampuannya (ability), bisa dikembangkan menjadi surplus bagi kesanggupannya (capability). Menurut fitrahnya manusia tidak mampu terbang, namun dengan teknologi dia mampu terbang, bahkan tinggal beberapa lama di angkasa luar; pertemuan tatap-muka (face-to-face) secara berhadapan juga dapat dilaksanakan dalam jarak amat jauh melalui tatap-citra (image-to-image).
Banyak lagi yang bisa dicontohkan sebagai ilustrasi untuk menunjukkan betapa teknologi telah memungkinkan terjadinya transformasi mendasar dan berskala luas –bahkan nyaris sulit dibatasi– dalam peri kehidupan manusia dan kemanusiaan. Transformasi tersebut juga telah menimbulkan perubahan dalam berbagai pola hubungan antar-manusia (patterns of human relations), yang pada hakikatnya adalah interaksi antar-pribadi (interpersonal relations) dan bersifat hubungan intersubjektif.
Seiring dengan kemajuan teknologi, ruang dan waktu sebagai dimensi eksistensial juga berubah secara kuantitatif maupun kualitatif, terutama oleh faktor kekuatan (power) dan kecepatan (speed); kedua faktor ini makin meningkat pengaruhnya seiring dengan berlanjutnya pemutakhiran dan pencanggihan teknologi. Pengaruh faktor kekuatan dan kecepatan itu terutama mencuat dalam perkembangan teknologi transportasi serta komunikasi dan informasi.
Dalam kaitan ini, kiranya secara khusus perlu dicermati perkembangan teknologi yang menunjang kesanggupan untuk menyebarkan informasi dengan daya jangkau global. Teknologi ini menerpa kita dengan bahan informasi secara bertubi-tubi serta melintas dengan kecepatan tinggi sekali lewat jaringan global yang diibaratkan sebagai super-highways. Kedua faktor itu pula yang menambah nilai efisiensi, sehingga keterlambatan penguasaannya niscaya juga berarti ketertinggalan dalam laju proses modernisasi.
Melampaui Kemampuan Manusia
Terpaan stimuli berupa bahan informasi yang berlangsung secara segera (instant) dan serentak (simultaneous) itu sangat jauh melampaui kemampuan manusia untuk menyerap dan mengendapkannya, kecuali dengan dukungan teknologi yang sepadan pula. Terwujudnya jaringan internet merupakan ilustrasi yang mengukuhkan betapa besar dampak mondial yang dapat ditimbulkan oleh kemajuan teknologi yang mendukungnya. Internet telah memberi wujud bagi keterbukaan dalam arti luas; keterbukaan berbagai sumber untuk memperoleh informasi, keterbukaan untuk menyebarkan informasi (tentu bisa juga yang bersifat mis- atau dis-informasi), keterbukaan menjalin komunikasi untuk berbagai kepentingan dari yang paling pribadi dan subjektif hingga yang paling lugas dan objektif.
Dari berbagai kenyataan yang menggejala dewasa ini makin nyatalah keberhasilan teknologi memberi struktur pada dunia manusia sebagai gelanggang akbar, yang diringkas sebagai suatu matriks interaksi. Sebagai konsekuensinya, tampaknya mustahil untuk mencegah kecenderungan akan menggejalanya berbagai pola baru dalam perilaku manusia, khususnya dalam interaksi antarpribadi yang mestinya berciri intersubjektif.
Perikehidupan manusia yang ditandai tempo-hidup (life-space) yang kian meninggi, berjalan seiring dengan dihayatinya ruang-hidup (life-space) yang kian menyempit karena meningkatnya keterjalinan manusia ke dalam berbagai jaringan interaksi. Anehnya, makin derasnya banjir informasi yang menerpa manusia pada analisis akhirnya berakibat terjadinya pemiskinan kemampuannya untuk menyimpan (retention) bahan informasi yang diterimanya dan juga kemampuannya untuk menampilkan kembali (retrieval) kesan-kesan yang tersimpan padanya. Namun, kedua kemampuan tersebut pun dapat digantikan oleh teknologi yang sepadan.
Maka dapat dimengerti kiranya, kalau dewasa ini makin kuat pula kecenderungan untuk memperbandingkan — bahkan menyamakan — fungsi otak manusia dengan komputer. Michael W. Eysenck dalam hubungan ini menyatakan: “Information processing in people resembles that in computers”. Kalau demikian halnya, maka tidak tertutup kemungkinan, bahwa dalam jangka panjangnya proses tersebut sebagian besar (atau sepenuhnya?) bisa diambil alih oleh kemampuan komputer yang makin dipercanggih.
Sebagai kelanjutan dari penerapan teknologi modern timbul pula keharusan untuk memperbarui berbagai tatanan yang ditujukan pada adanya keteraturan dalam kinerja manusia, secara individual maupun kolektif. Dalam kaitan ini makin menonjollah arti penyusunan organisasi dan perancangan sistem. Maka tidaklah mengherankan kalau serempak dengan penerapan teknologi modern, keterlibatan manusia dalam organisasi dan keterikatannya pada sesuatu sistem menjadi imperatif yang sulit disanggah. Bahkan boleh jadi manusia modern tidak punya pilihan lain bagi aktualisasi dirinya, kecuali melalui keterkaitannya ke dalam organisasi dan sistem tertentu yang secara apriori meletakkan berbagai rambu-rambu bagi perilakunya.
Rambu-rambu itu diperlukan antara lain demi terjaminnya disiplin kerja, fungsi birokrasi, kepatuhan hierarki, sinkronisasi, dan koordinasi antarsatuan kerja, kesinambungan arus masukan dan keluaran guna menjamin kelancaran kinerja, efektifnya pengawasan, dan pengendalian mutu, dan sebagainya. Kesemuanya ini menimbulkan tuntutan bagi diterapkannya suatu cara untuk mengelola keseluruhan organisasi dan sistem yang bersangkutan; tuntutan itu dipenuhi dengan diberlakukannya suatu ragam tata laksana kerja yang lazimnya disebut manajemen.
Sebagai unsur dalam organisasi dan sistem yang harus berjalan optimal demi mencapai sasaran tertentu, maka manusia terpaksa harus siap mengalami reduksi diri karena dibatasinya perannya sebagai salah satu unsur belaka dalam sesuatu konfigurasi fungsional. Sebagai unsur fungsional dia bisa saling dipertukarkan (interchangeable) atau bahkan diganti (replaceable).
Dalam era teknologi, pertukaran, maupun pergantian itu semakin mungkin dilakukan melalui substitusi manusia oleh peralatan. Kenyataan ini pun akan merupakan tantangan yang tidak mudah diatasi, bahkan berpengaruh memperumit masalah kesempatan kerja, karena meningkatnya jumlah pencari kerja yang timbul serentak dengan makin menyempitnya kesempatan kerja sebagai akibat makin terbukanya kemungkinan substitusi manusia oleh peralatan. Perlu ditambahkan bahwa kemajuan teknologi menuntut terisinya kesempatan kerja terutama berdasarkan profesionalisme dan expertise semutakhir mungkin. Tantangan ini tidak mudah dipenuhi, karena penguasaan sesuatu bidang keahlian juga harus berpacu dengan laju teknologi itu sendiri.
Teknokrasi dan Teknopoli pada Teknologi
Implikasi kemajuan teknologi berbeda dengan perkembangan ilmu. Dalam bidang ilmu, sesuatu tesis baru tidak dengan sendirinya berarti gagalnya keabsahan atau berlakunya tesis lama, sekalipun dirumuskan sebagai anti-tesis. Begitu pula, sesuatu teori baru tidak harus berarti usangnya teori terdahulu, meskipun disajikan sebagai kontra-teori. Beberapa tesis atau teori bisa saling bertahan dalam juxtaposisi dan masing-masing penganutnya tetap mempertahankan keabsahannya; bahkan sesuatu tesis atau teori lama bisa dimunculkan kembali
Sedang kemajuan teknologi ditandai oleh susul-menyusulnya proses pemutakhiran dan pengusangan. Setiap kali sesuatu teknologi dimutakhirkan selalu membawa konsekuensi dianggap usangnya pendahulunya. Kendatipun rentang masa hidupnya berbeda-beda, namun setiap teknologi mutakhir akan menjadikan pendahulunya tertinggal dan akhirnya usang.
Memperhatikan pesatnya laju kemajuan teknologi secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif dewasa ini, maka sangat boleh jadi daur pemutakhiran dan pengusangan itu akan terjadi dalam jangka waktu yang semakin singkat. Makin pesat laju kemajuan dalam sesuatu bidang teknologi, makin cepat pula berlansungnya susul-menyusul antara pengusangan dan pemutakhiran. Proses ini dapat digambarkan antara lain melalui kemajuan teknologi komputer dalam beberapa tahun saja belakangan ini. Sebagai konsekuensinya, usaha untuk menguasai teknologi yang terus-menerus mengalami pemutakhiran itu menuntut berkesinambungannya pelatihan dan pelatihan-ulang.
Menyaksikan kemajuan teknologi ini, Jacques Ellul berkesimpulan bahwa teknologi dalam zaman modern ini semakin berkembang sebagai autonomous force. Sebagai daya yang terus-menerus maju-dengan-pemutakhiran, akhirnya teknologi tampil sebagai kekuatan (kratos) yang dominan dalam kehidupan modern dan pascamodern. Teknologi yang asal mulanya diciptakan sebagai perpanjangan bagi kemampuan manusia, lambat-laun berbalik menjadikan manusia sebagai perpanjangannya, apalagi oleh makin bertambahnya ketergantungan manusia pada penyertaan teknologi dalam berbagai bidang kehidupannya.
Dominasi teknologi sebagai kekuatan yang makin berpengaruh dalam mengendalikan peri kehidupan manusia dan kemanusiaan itu oleh sejumlah filsuf akhir abad ini disebut sebagai gejala teknokrasi. Keterbiasaan manusia modern untuk hidup “bergandengan” dengan teknologi nyaris menjadi ketergantungan, sehingga kegagalan teknologi bisa bersifat katastrofal. Perhatikan apa kosenkuensinya, jika di Jakarta ini tiba-tiba putus semua aliran listrik.
Teknokrasi membawa berbagai konsekuensi terhadap kehidupan manusia umumnya, secara individual maupun kolektif. Sejalan dengan kemajuan teknologi dan makin menggejalanya teknokrasi, makin banyak pula pola dan kecenderungan baru yang muncul sebagai tanggapannya. Berubahnya pola interaksi antar-manusia dimungkinkan oleh intervensi peralatan; pola kerja pun berubah oleh dimungkinkannya substitusi unsur manusia oleh mesin, pembakuan sebagai ciri yang melekat pada peralatan berlanjut dengan tindakan penyeragaman (uniformity) terhadap keanekaragaman (pluriformity) sebagai kenyataan manusiawi.
Dengan pembakuan dan penyeragaman itu terbukalah kesempatan untuk pemassalan berbagai karya manusia dengan dukungan peralatan yang makin meningkat kesanggupan dan kecanggihannya untuk mengganti manusia sebagai potensi kerja.
Kiranya tidak berlebihan untuk menyatakan, teknologi dan teknokrasi niscaya akan membawa perubahan pula dalam gaya hidup manusia dan masyarakat modern. Jika demikian halnya, maka tidak keliru pula untuk menyatakan bahwa dominasi teknologi dan teknokrasi akan berlanjut dengan berseminya budaya baru yang melahirkan berbagai nilai baru pula yang cenderung menjadi acuan perilaku manusia modern dalam berbagai pola interaksi dengan sesamanya.
Dengan lain perkataan: di samping berdampak struktural pada perikehidupan manusia, teknologi dan teknokrasi juga membangkitkan proses kultural dalam masyarakat yang diterpanya. Inilah gejala yang oleh N. Postman disebut technopoly, yang olehnya digambarkan sebagai berikut: Technopoly is a state of culture. It is also a state of mind. It consist in the deification of technology, which means that the culture seeks its authorization in technology, finds its satisfactions in technology, and takes its orders from technology. Maka yang menjadi masalah ialah sejauh mana sesuatu masyarakat siap memasuki zaman yang ditandai oleh supremasi teknologi dan teknokrasi sebagai daya pembangkit budaya baru tanpa merapuhkan ketahanan budayanya sendiri.
Konformisme Perilaku
Lepas dari penilaian sejauh mana budaya baru itu tampil sebagai budaya-sandingan (sub-culture) atau budaya-tandingan (counter-culture) dalam hubungannya dengan budaya asli sesuatu masyarakat, kehadiran budaya baru itu sedikit banyak niscaya akan berpengaruh terhadap konformisme perilaku yang telah membudaya dan cukup mantap dalam masyarakat tertentu. Konformisme perilaku erat kaitannya dengan persepsi nilai kebudayaan dan norma kemasyarakatan sebagai acuan yang cukup menyeragamkan perilaku warga masyarakat yang bersangkutan. Maka kehadiran suatu budaya baru mudah menimbulkan gejala heteronomi yang mungkin menjadi sebab timbulnya kekaburan atau kegoyahan sumber konformisme perilaku termaksud.
Dalam masyarakat dengan teknologi maju cukup banyak contoh yang menunjukkan betapa heteronomi bisa mengakibatkan munculnya berbagai perwujudan perilaku menyimpang — bahkan bersifat ekstrem — yang bisa berakibat pertentangan antar-lapisan dan antar-golongan dalam masyarakat. Beberapa perilaku menyimpang itu bisa berwujud pelarian untuk menghindar dari pengaruh budaya baru, mungkin berupa pencemoohan sambil memperkenalkan sumber nilai lain sebagai alternatif (misalnya mistik, metafisik).
Kalau benar bahwa sejalan dengan dominasi — apalagi glorifikasi — teknologi cenderung muncul budaya baru, maka bidang yang sangat penting pengaruhnya dalam hubungan ini ialah peran teknologi transportasi serta komunikasi dan informasi. Melalui bidang-bidang ini meningkatlah pertemuan antar-budaya secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif, dan sejalan dengan itu semakin melaju pula berlangsungnya berbagai proses pembudayaan yang berskala mondial. Pertemuan antar-budaya tersebut seharusnya menjadi kesempatan saling-pengayaan wawasan pihak-pihak yang saling bertemu (mutualy insight-enhancing). Namun proses tersebut dalam kenyataannya dewasa ini lebih berlangsung sebagai arus satu arah, yaitu berlangsung sebagai banjir informasi dari pusat informasi global dengan dukungan teknologi canggih yang bebas melampias ke kawasan dengan penguasaan teknologi yang relatif tertinggal.
Pencanangan berlakunya Decade of Cultural Development oleh PBB mulai tahun 1988 untuk memperkukuh ketahanan budaya bangsa-bangsa dalam saling pertemuannya, ternyata tidak banyak artinya guna mencegah terjadinya arus pengaruh sepihak akibat terpaan proses pembudayaan yang berasal dari pusat-pusat global. Maka pada analisis ini akhirnya kita perlu membuat antisipasi tentang kemungkinan terjangkitnya gejala alienasi budaya disertai distorsi nilai-nilainya.
Perlu Dibenahi
Uraian di atas ini mungkin sekali mengesankan sikap negatif terhadap teknologi dan teknokrasi dalam perikehidupan manusia dan masyarakat. Kesan itu perlu segera dibenahi. Tujuan penyajian berbagai konsekuensi dari dominasi teknologi dan menguatnya gejala teknokrasi ialah agar kita tidak gampang terseret oleh sikap glorifikasi terhadap teknologi dan hasrat untuk serta-merta menerapkannya. Maka menyambut kenyataan tersebut kita perlu senantiasa menyadari bahwa betapa pun majunya teknologi, sebagai hasil karya manusia adalah perpanjangan bagi kemampuannya, dan bukan sebaliknya menjadikan manusia sebagai perpanjangannya. Betapa pun lompatan dan terobosan menandai kemajuan teknologi, manfaatnya harus diukur dari sejauh mana martabat dan kesejahteraan manusia terangkat olehnya, dan bukan sebaliknya berakibat pudarnya nilai-nilai manusiawi.
Itu sebabnya sejumlah filsuf menjelang peralihan abad ini memperingatkan, agar kemajuan teknologi tidak berakibat dehumanisasi dan despiritualisasi dalam perikehidupan manusia. Sebab betapa pun, manusia adalah pusat orientasi bagi dirinya; maka nilai kemanusiaan harus senantiasa diunggulkan di atas teknologi yang notabene merupakan hasil ciptaannya sendiri.
Dalam kegandrungan untuk menguasai dan menerapkan teknologi modern, sebaiknya kita juga menyisihkan waktu untuk mengamati munculnya berbagai gejala budaya baru dalam masyarakat yang telah menerapkan teknologi mutakhir dalam perikehidupannya. Dalam hubungan ini mestinya kita lebih dari sekadar melakukan studi dampak belaka; kita pun perlu mencurahkan perhatian pada studi perbandingan yang hasilnya bisa menjadi pedoman untuk kepentingan antisipasi terhadap berbagai risiko dan kontroversi yang boleh jadi akan menyertai penerapan sesuatu teknologi, sebagaimana misalnya terjadi dalam pengembangan dan penerapan teknologi nuklir dewasa ini, atau teknologi yang dikembangkan untuk memungkinkan dilahirkannya manusia unggul lewat eugenika; dan akhir-akhir ini juga melalui cloning demi membangun a brave new world.

Remote Working Isn’t Always Working
pertekkom-BI-2008 May 1st, 2008
Dengan adanya perkembangan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi memudahkan kita dalam dunia kerja terutama pekerjaan di kantor yang mengharuskan kita berada di kantor untuk menyelesaikan pekerjaan dengan patner kerja dan client kita. Namun janganlah lengah dengan semua kecanggihan yang membawa pada efektif dan efisien dalam bekerja ini karena hal ini juga lah yang dapat membawa dampak negatif bagi kita.
SECURITAS / KEAMANAN DATA
Bekerja dengan sistem remote working , komputer, internet dan email merupakan hal yang sangat biasa. Ada lagi hal yang biasa kita temukan seiring dengan kehebatan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi selain unsur-unsur di atas yaitu virus. Virus membuat data kita dan komputer kita terancam, virus dapat menghapus data dan merusak kerja sistem komputer kita lebih tepatnya merusak seluruh pekerjaan dan hidup kita. Dramatis memang namun sekarang virus semakin beragam dan canggih sehingga membuat kita tidak sadar bahwa dia adalah virus. Contohnya seperti tulisan berikut ini.
1. GIRLS OF PLAYBOY HOAX
Virus ini berkategori hoax yang daya rusaknya lebih rendah dibanding worm, trojans, atau virus. Artinya, sebenarnya ini lebih merupakan semacam ledekan atau informasi palsu. Dilaporkan, virus yang menyebar melalui e-mail ini tidak menimbulkan kerusakan sehingga beberapa perusahaan pembuat antivirus tidak menganggapnya sebagai ancaman. Ingin tahu ujud olok-olok itu? Inilah dia.
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2. NEPALESE TANTRA TOTEM
File ini juga bukan merupakan virus atau file berbahaya melainkan sebuah file Powerpoint Slideshow (.PPS). Jadi bentuknya jelas file data. Beberapa administrator jaringan boleh jadi mencurigai file ini, namun tidak ada macro yang terhubung dengan file ini. Bila Anda menemukannya, Anda dapat mengujinya dengan mengompres file ini menggunakan WinZip. Ia akan menjadi berukuran 310.272 byte. Cara menghapusnya gampang: buang
saja dari e-mail Anda dan jangan teruskan ke relasi lain!
3. WAZUP HOAX
Virus jenis ini juga bukan berdaya rusak tinggi dan tergolong olok-olok alias hoax. Hoax ini pertama kali beredar di lingkungan pengguna Internet berbahasa Perancis dan dicurigai juga berasal dari negeri anggur tersebut. Berikut ini salinan dalam versi bahasa Inggris dari pesan tersebut.
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4. PIKACHUS BALL HOAX
Sama dengan ketiga jenis hoax di atas, pesan e-mail ini juga termasuk kategori virus usil yang tak bertenaga. Tidak diterima laporan bahwa terjadi kerusakan akibat penyebaran virus ini. Virus ini tampaknya sekadar mengusili pengguna e-mail dan relatif awam terhadap ancaman virus. Mau tau ancaman atau koar-koarnya yang ditulis dalam huruf kapital semua?
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Kalau kita perhatikan berbagai jenis hoax di atas, sebenarnya virus-virus itu praktis tidak menimbulkan kerusakan apa pun di dalam sistem komputer kita. Namun, seringkali kita juga terjebak dengan ikut-ikutan menyebarkan pesan ancaman itu kepada relasi. Memang, pesan virus-virus baru akan melesat sedemikian pesat di belantara maya. Dan karena ketidaktahuan kita, seringkali kita berpartisipasi dalam penyebaran hoax.
PCplus belum menengarai, pesan-pesan tersebut dalam versi bahasa Indonesianya. Bila pernah menerima pesan serupa, nggak usah panik dan tidak perlu disebarkan kepada relasi. Cukup kita tendang saja dia ke “recycle bin”
SECURITAS SYSTEM
Telah diketahui oleh semua pengguna dan pemilik computer, bahwa kehadiran securitas tools dalam perangkat computer mereka sangatlah penting. Securitas tools berfungsi sebagai satpam atau penjaga bagi data, program dan system computer kita. Banyak produk securitas tools yang ditawarkan, seperti Avira, Mc afee,Symantec,AVG dan lainnya.
Jadi securitas tools membantu kita untuk mengamankan data, program dan system yang ada dari hacker dan cracker,serta menolak virus yang mencoba masuk ke system computer. Namun ada kekurangan dari securitas tools ini,pengguna harus sering-sering membaharui program (up date) ini. Sehingga para pengguna menjadi sangat bergantung terhadap securitas tools ini. Dan lagi bukan tidak mungkin virus-virus, para hacker dan cracker sengaja melakukan hacking dan cyber crime lainnya. Hal ini mungkin dilakukan untuk meningkatkan penjualan produk mereka.
Penjualan terhadap securitas computer product akan terus mengalami peningkatan. Hal ini mengingat pesatnya kemajuan teknologi dan semakin banyaknya masyarakat yang mulai menggunakan computer dan internet system khususnya di Indonesia.
Dan sebaiknya pemerintah Indonesia memerdayakan SDM yang ada untuk membuat program pengaman dan pelacak guna mengatasi Cyber crime untuk Indonesia. Karena daripada mereka menjadi hacker dan cracker, lebih baik mereka ikut memajukan sekaligus berbakti bagi nusa dan bangsa dengan keterampilan yang mereka punya.
           THE CLONING AND SEQUENCE OF THE C-ISOFORM OF PTDINS4P 5-KINASE         
DIVECHA, N; TRUONG, O; HSUAN, JJ; HINCHLIFFE, KA; IRVINE, RF; (1995) THE CLONING AND SEQUENCE OF THE C-ISOFORM OF PTDINS4P 5-KINASE. BIOCHEM J , 309 715 - 719.
           CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A G-PROTEIN-ACTIVATED HUMAN PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-3 KINASE         
STOYANOV, B; VOLINIA, S; HANCK, T; RUBIO, I; LOUBTCHENKOV, M; MALEK, D; STOYANOVA, S; ... WETZKER, R; + view all <#> STOYANOV, B; VOLINIA, S; HANCK, T; RUBIO, I; LOUBTCHENKOV, M; MALEK, D; STOYANOVA, S; VANHAESEBROECK, B; DHAND, R; NURNBERG, B; GIERSCHIK, P; SEEDORF, K; HSUAN, JJ; WATERFIELD, MD; WETZKER, R; - view fewer <#> (1995) CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A G-PROTEIN-ACTIVATED HUMAN PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-3 KINASE. SCIENCE , 269 (5224) 690 - 693.
           CLONING OF CDNAS ENCODING MAMMALIAN DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA-SPECIFIC ADENOSINE-DEAMINASE         
OCONNELL, MA; KRAUSE, S; HIGUCHI, M; HSUAN, JJ; TOTTY, NF; JENNY, A; KELLER, W; (1995) CLONING OF CDNAS ENCODING MAMMALIAN DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA-SPECIFIC ADENOSINE-DEAMINASE. MOL CELL BIOL , 15 (3) 1389 - 1397.
           Cloning and functional-analysis of the tata-binding protein from Sulfolobus-shibatae         
QURESHI, SA; BAUMANN, P; ROWLANDS, T; KHOO, B; JACKSON, SP; (1995) Cloning and functional-analysis of the tata-binding protein from Sulfolobus-shibatae. Nucleic Acids Research , 23 (10) 1775 - 1781. Green open access
           MOLECULAR-CLONING OF THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIIB HOMOLOG FROM SULFOLOBUS-SHIBATAE         
QURESHI, SA; KHOO, B; BAUMANN, P; JACKSON, SP; (1995) MOLECULAR-CLONING OF THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIIB HOMOLOG FROM SULFOLOBUS-SHIBATAE. P NATL ACAD SCI USA , 92 (13) 6077 - 6081.
           CLONING, SEQUENCING, AND EXPRESSION OF THE ARAE GENE OF KLEBSIELLA-OXYTOCA-8017, WHICH ENCODES ARABINOSE-H+ SYMPORT ACTIVITY         
SHATWELL, KP; CHARALAMBOUS, BM; MCDONALD, TP; HENDERSON, PJF; (1995) CLONING, SEQUENCING, AND EXPRESSION OF THE ARAE GENE OF KLEBSIELLA-OXYTOCA-8017, WHICH ENCODES ARABINOSE-H+ SYMPORT ACTIVITY. J BACTERIOL , 177 (18) 5379 - 5380.
           Functional cloning of the dihydropteroate synthase gene of Staphylococcus haemolyticus.         
Kellam, P; Dallas, WS; Ballantine, SP; Delves, CJ; (1995) Functional cloning of the dihydropteroate synthase gene of Staphylococcus haemolyticus. FEMS Microbiology Letters , 134 (2) pp. 165-169.
          Molecular Insight May Lead to New Advances in Rosacea Treatment        

Kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs), a family of proteases recently identified as having a possible role in the development of rosacea, may help provide a pathway to controlling rosacea’s signs and symptoms, according to an article by Drs. Jan Fischer and Ulf Meyer-Hoffert of the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein in Germany in the journal Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Proteases are enzymes that occur in all life forms, from single-celled organisms to plants and animals, for various metabolic processes. For example, acid proteases secreted into the stomach enable the digestion of protein in food, and other proteases present in blood play a role in clotting.

Kallikrein-related peptidases have many biochemical activities. Already recognized as biomarkers for cancer, certain types of KLKs in the surface of the body have been found to be involved in the normal shedding of the outermost layer of skin, the authors noted. Moreover, KLKs have been described as processing cathelicidins, protective antimicrobial peptides that can speed physical repair but have been found to worsen rosacea symptoms.

The authors noted that interference in KLK activity may have therapeutic potential. For example, an antibiotic with anti-inflammatory properties was shown to inhibit KLKs and the subsequent activation of cathelicidin, which may be why it is effective in rosacea, they said.

They noted that further study of regulation of KLK activity may yield insights into therapeutic intervention.

Dr. Meyer-Hoffert and Dr. Thomas Schwartz were awarded a National Rosacea Society research grant of $20,000 to study whether and how kallikreins, enzymes that contribute to inflammation in rosacea, can activate cytokines, which might contribute to the disease activity. They succeeded in cloning specific proteins from the interleukin family to identify whether the microbes they affect may contribute to rosacea inflammation in a variety of ways.

Reference:
Fischer J, Meyer-Hoffert U. Regulation of kallikrein-related peptidases in the skin – from physiology to diseases to therapeutic options. Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2013;110:442–449.


          Researchers Report Interim Results of Studies Funded by NRS Members        

A possible genetic link found in twins with rosacea and increased understanding of biochemical processes that may lead to the disorder are among the insights reported by investigators at the midpoints of their new research supported by the National Rosacea Society (NRS).

Rosacea may occur significantly more often in both identical twins than in fraternal, or nonidentical, twins, according to Drs. Meg Gerstenblith and Daniel Popkin of Case Western Reserve University.  The researchers found at least some rosacea in 129 individuals out of 242 pairs of identical twins and in 12 individuals out of 59 nonidentical pairs of twins at the Twin Day festival, an annual event that drew 2,090 sets of twins nationwide in Twinsburg, Ohio, near Cleveland.

The researchers noted the association held true even after such common rosacea risk factors as age and skin type were accounted for in the calculations, suggesting that genetics may play a role in rosacea as well as other factors.  Twins participating in the study also answered questionnaires to help define the relative contribution of potential rosacea risk factors as well as the impact on quality of life, and the investigators are now performing statistical analyses.

In other ongoing studies, Dr. Anna Di Nardo at the University of California-San Diego found that when mice were treated with mast cell stabilizers in skin tissue surrounding blood vessels and nerves, inflammation did not develop.  She now plans to determine whether these stabilizers may be useful in reducing skin redness and flushing.

Another way to block rosacea’s effects may be to interrupt the process of chemical interactions that leads to its signs and symptoms.  Dr. Yoshikazu Uchida at the University of California–San Francisco has identified a biochemical pathway that may lead to inflammation, and has begun to study the impact of inhibiting that pathway.

Dr. Barbara Summerer at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine has begun taking biopsy samples of skin with rosacea to evaluate whether there are characteristic bacteria for each rosacea subtype, and to identify possible biofilms.

Drs. Ulf Meyer-Hoffert and Thomas Schwarz of the University Clinic Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, have succeeded in cloning specific proteins from the interleukin family to identify whether the microbes they affect may contribute to rosacea inflammation in a variety of ways.  The researchers will also investigate inhibitors that may be useful in treating the disease.


          Backyard BBQ Bax Style - Part II        
Part II – BBQ in Purgatory:

When I reflect upon this culinary event I think of Paulie Walnuts words of wisdom to Christopher on the Sopranos upon Christopher’s awakening from a gunshot induced coma. Paulie looks at Christopher and exclaims "'You didn’t go to hell...you went to purgatory my friend!"

Hell…Purgatory...no words could describe what awaited me the day of the big event. In fact compared to this festival of meat a gunshot induced coma would be a walk in the park!!

Upon arriving back at the cooking site (2 hrs late I might add) I am greeted by Perry doing his rendition of Pig Pen by leaving a great big cloud of soot, rub, ash, and smoke swirling in his wake. He breathes a sigh of relief then proceeds to give me the rundown of what meat is at what temp on what smokers. One of those shopping mall wall maps with the little dot screaming "YOU ARE HERE" would have helped in this situation. I just keep nodding pretending I’m following everything he is telling me. As he hobbles off like a wounded soldier he says over his shoulder to me to throw about 75 or so ABTS on since there are like 3 guests there already (this count includes Jim who is content to be drinking his beer and smacking his poor dog Taffy around vs. eating). So now it’s just me and the smokers. As I crack a beer and throw on the old dew rag I look up and noticed guests are starting to trickle in. Maybe trickle is the wrong word:

Remember Tippi Hedren sitting in the schoolyard calmly smoking her cigarette and every time she looks up there are like 3 or 4 more killer birds perched on the monkey bars? Well...every time I looked up there were 6 more guests…then 12 then 20. It as if old Hitch crawled out of his grave to film some whacked out remake of The Birds starring me and all of Perry and Teri's guests. Was there some mad scientist sitting out on Lake Street cloning BBQ guests 7 at a time? As I proceed to throw yet another 100 or so ABTS' on I start to wonder just what exactly guarantees a person a spot on the highly exalted guest list for this bash?

Pull up next to one of them at a stoplight... BAM! You're on the guest list!!! Deliver a package to their house? BAM! You're on the guest list!!! Walk past either of them when they are out walking Queenie? BAM! You're on the guest list!!! Open your car door and have Perry run into it on his bike breaking his collarbone? BAM! You’re on the guest list! I mean besides the usual smattering of co workers, family, and close friends it was as if a bus from Pacific Garden Missions pulled up, unloaded everyone and said "Enjoy!!...We will be back around Midnight to pick ya up!”

Meanwhile out of the crowd bursts Rob…Ah yes looks like the support has
arrived to help out in “The Box”.
          50 years ago, diabetic mice offered hope for understanding human disease        
50 Years Ago

Excerpt from the August 12, 1967, issue of Science News

By
7:00am, July 27, 2017
diabetic mice

MOUSE GUIDES Diabetic mice with mutations in the leptin receptor gene grow much larger and fatter (left) than mice that don’t have the mutations (right). These diabetic, or db/db, mice were first described 50 years ago and have been helping scientists study the disease ever since.

Citations

Science News Staff. Hope from diabetic mice. Science News. Vol. 92, August 12, 1967, p. 154.

S.C. Chua Jr. et al. Phenotypes of mouse diabetes and rat fatty due to mutations in the OB (leptin) receptor. Science. Vol. 271, February 16, 1996, p. 994. doi: 10.1126/science.271.5251.994.

H. Chen et al. Evidence that the diabetes gene encodes the leptin receptor: Identification of a mutation in the leptin receptor gene in db/db mice. Cell. Vol. 84, February 9, 1996, p. 491. doi: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81294-5.

L.A. Tartaglia et al. Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R. Cell. Vol. 83, December 29, 1995, p. 1263.  doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90151-5.

Further Reading

B. Brookshire. The need to feed and eating for pleasure are inextricably linked. Science News Online, August 27, 2015.

T.H. Saey. Gene variant tied to diabetes in Greenlanders. Science News Online, June 18, 2014.

08/12/67 coverHope from diabetic mice

[Millions of diabetics] could be indebted to a strain of diabetic mice being bred in Bar Harbor, Maine. In diabetes research, “this mouse is the best working model to date,” one of its discoverers, Dr. Katharine P. Hummel, says.… A satisfactory animal subject had eluded diabetes researchers, until the mouse was found. — Science News, August 12, 1967

Update

Hummel’s diabetic mice are still used in research to mimic type 2 diabetes in humans, which is linked to obesity. In the mid-1990s, researchers found that the diabetic mice carry a mutation in the leptin receptor gene, which prevents the hormone leptin from signaling fullness and triggering other metabolic processes. In people, however, the disease is more complicated. More than 40 genetic variants are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Unlike the mouse mutation, none of those variants guarantee a person will develop the disease.


          Cloning MacOS X from Linux        
I just finished to work out a way to clone a MacOS X installation from Linux (for automatic installation of MacOS X with fai -- fully automatic installation). All tools discussed in the article are available in Debian 7.x (wheezy).

Backup

First we save the GUID (Globally Unique Identifier) Partition Table (GPT), so that we can restore the same partition table on the target machine. We use the commandline version of gdisk for this, named sgdisk

sgdisk --backup=/srv/macos/parttable.gpt.sgdisk /dev/sda

The content of the partitions can be cloned using the partclone tool. A default MacOS X installation has three partitions:

  1. EFI system partiton
  2. MacOS X (named "Customer")
  3. Recovery partition

Model: ATA APPLE HDD HTS547 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 976773168s
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/4096B
Partition Table: gpt

Number  Start       End         Size        File system  Name                  Flags
 1      40s         409639s     409600s     fat32        EFI system partition  boot
 2      409640s     975503591s  975093952s  hfs+         Customer
 3      975503592s  976773127s  1269536s    hfs+         Recovery HD

First we create backup images of all partitions:

partclone.vfat -I -c -s /dev/sda1 | gzip > /srv/macos/sda1.partclone.gz
partclone.hfsplus -I -c -s /dev/sda2 | gzip > /srv/macos/sda2.partclone.gz
partclone.hfsplus -I -c -s /dev/sda3 | gzip > /srv/macos/sda3.partclone.gz

Restore

To restore the saved MacOS X installation, boot another Mac using Linux (a Knoppix live Linux DVD will work).

Next we restore the partition table (GPT) using sgdisk (/dev/sda is the target disk, all data on that disk will be erased, be warned!):

sgdisk --load-backup=/srv/macos/parttable.gpt.sgdisk /dev/sda
partprobe

as an alternative, the partitions can be created using parted and the GUID type codes set by sgdisk (important!):

sgdisk --zap /dev/sda
parted -s /dev/sda mklabel gpt
parted -s /dev/sda mkpart primary 40s 409639s
parted -s /dev/sda name 1 "'EFI system partition'"
parted -s /dev/sda set 1 boot on
parted -s /dev/sda mkpart primary 409640s 975503591s
parted -s /dev/sda name 2 "'MacOS X System'"
parted -s /dev/sda mkpart primary 975503592s 976773127s
parted -s /dev/sda name 3 "'Recovery HD'"
sgdisk -t 1:C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B /dev/sda
sgdisk -t 2:48465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC /dev/sda
sgdisk -t 3:48465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC /dev/sda
partprobe

Restore the partition content:

zcat /srv/macos/sda1.partclone.gz | partclone.vfat -r -o /dev/sda1
zcat /srv/macos/sda2.partclone.gz | partclone.hfsplus -r -o /dev/sda2
zcat /srv/macos/sda3.partclone.gz | partclone.hfsplus -r -o /dev/sda3

If all went well, the new disk is ready to boot MacOS X.

For reference, here are the GUID details of a default MacOS X 10.8 MacBook Pro install:

root@(none):~# sgdisk -p /dev/sda
Disk /dev/sda: 976773168 sectors, 465.8 GiB
Logical sector size: 512 bytes
Disk identifier (GUID): 497736B0-7EA0-4C45-AB5F-8841CD773D24
Partition table holds up to 128 entries
First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 976773134
Partitions will be aligned on 8-sector boundaries
Total free space is 262157 sectors (128.0 MiB)

root@(none):~# sgdisk -i1 /dev/sda
Partition GUID code: C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B (EFI System)
Partition unique GUID: 6749C82F-02C9-4FF5-A889-F31A21726F8E
First sector: 40 (at 20.0 KiB)
Last sector: 409639 (at 200.0 MiB)
Partition size: 409600 sectors (200.0 MiB)
Attribute flags: 0000000000000000
Partition name: 'EFI system partition'

root@(none):~# sgdisk -i2 /dev/sda
Partition GUID code: 48465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC (Apple HFS/HFS+)
Partition unique GUID: 60F7A3AA-69B3-4E59-87A0-3A47BB659255
First sector: 409640 (at 200.0 MiB)
Last sector: 975241447 (at 465.0 GiB)
Partition size: 974831808 sectors (464.8 GiB)
Attribute flags: 0000000000000000
Partition name: 'MacOS X System'

root@(none):~# sgdisk -i3 /dev/sda
Partition GUID code: 48465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC (Apple HFS/HFS+)
Partition unique GUID: FD007AA4-CF3A-42F6-BFC6-B3BC25521FC2
First sector: 975503592 (at 465.2 GiB)
Last sector: 976773127 (at 465.8 GiB)
Partition size: 1269536 sectors (619.9 MiB)
Attribute flags: 0000000000000000
Partition name: 'Recovery HD'

          Towards Urdu Corpus: Mining Wikipedia Urdu using Wikiforia Parser        

 

Corpus collection is the first step before you even think of Machine Learning and Linguistics. While there are some serious concerted efforts and progress made in different languages to compile and publish Languages Corpora, Urdu Language is no where to be seen in this context. Why? this warrants a separate detailed post, which I will inshaAllah write some time in near future.

In this post, I want to share my first hand experience of collecting a sizable raw Urdu Plain Text from Open Source Wikipedia, so not only I can use it in my research, but will also be able to publish it under Open Source License for others to benefit from it.

Wikipedia-logo-v2-urWikipedia publishes complete database backup dumps of

“all Wikimedia wikis, in the form of wikitext source and metadata embedded in XML. A number of raw database tables in SQL form are also available”. “These snapshots are provided at the very least monthly and usually twice a month.”

As I was interested in Wikipedia Urdu, I downloaded following two files from the Wikipedia Urdu Database Backup Dumps page:

Next task was to extract actual page content from these dump files which follows a specific schema. Wikipedia has a comprehensive list of open source parsers written in different programming languages and published under different types of open source licenses. Because my goal was to collect open source Urdu Plain “Text” and my programming language choice was “Java”, I opt for Wikiforia.

“Wikiforia is a library and a tool for parsing Wikipedia XML dumps and converting them into plain text for other tools to use.”

So, I began by cloning the Wikiforia github repository locally on my laptop and then ran following command on the terminal:

java -jar wikiforia-1.2.1.jar 

-pages urwiki-20160501-pages-articles-multistream.xml.bz2
-output output.xml

The program worked perfectly and uses concurrency (one thread per logical cores) to speed up the processing. It took few minutes to complete the task, however the output was not pure plain text, in fact it was a simplified form of XML and looks like:

xml-output

At that time I had two options:

  1. Run another tool to convert this output file from XML to Plain Text, or
  2. Add custom implementation to Wikiforia to make it output pure Plain Text

I opt for second one for two reasons, first I don’t want to waste additional time and processor cycles to process the generated output once again, secondly I thought that there might be others who will benefit from this modification.

So I forked Wikiforia and add a new Sink Implementation  PlainTextWikipediaPageWriter.java. I also had to modify the main program “App.java”, to add CLI support for additional switch “outputformat” with a sensible default set to “xml”, with only two possible values (for now) “xml” and “plain-text”. And once I did that, I also submitted the “Pull Request” on the Wikiforia github repository, in case they decided to merge the patch on to the original repository.

Then, I ran following modified command to extract the “Plain Text” out from the Wikipedia Urdu Database Dumps:

java -jar wikiforia-1.2.1.jar 

-pages urwiki-20160501-pages-articles-multistream.xml.bz2
-output output.txt
-outputformat plain-text

And here’s how plain text output.txt looks like:

plain-text-output

Finally alhamdolillah! I made my first contribution to the Urdu Corpus Community Project.


          Histories of the Present        
by
Darren Tofts
2003-06-12

Jacob Burckhardt had the benefit of four hundred years of hindsight when he constructed his Enlightenment model of the Renaissance in 1860. Herbert Read and Edmund Wilson found the going tougher when they attempted to define the characteristics of artistic and literary modernism - immersed, as they were, in the very things they were trying to define and which, no doubt, were changing and mutating before the ink had even dried on any sentence of Art Now (1933) or Axel’s Castle (1931). Jürgen Habermas, with a mix of equanimity and assertiveness, conceded that he was dealing with an unfinished project when articulating the vast locutions of modernity. In a similar vein, Jean-François Lyotard modulated his theory of the postmodern as that which is “unpresentable,” in recognition of the dynamic complexity of the conditions he was, initially anyway, attempting to circumscribe in the 1970s.

Culture and Technology and Cyborg: the man-machine are motivated by a similar desire to define and historicize the present. Both books, too, are enmeshed in the same conditions they purport to synthesize into writing. Once committed to writing, any account of the contemporary is of necessity a kind of memory, in memory of the present. Modernity and the postmodern condition have been the elusive quarry of previous critics of the present. Cyberculture is the name that has been used to memorialize the last decades of the 20th century and cyberculture is the ostensible topic of both Culture and Technology and Cyborg: the man-machine. Neither text, though, specifically addresses “cyberculture” per se. Rather, they both seek to register and sharpen into relief those features and characteristics that are usually bundled together under the expedient rubric of cyberculture. For Andrew Murphie and John Potts, technological change is the object of their study and, in particular, the manifold complexity of continuous and discontinuous change. The title of their book is indicative of their focus, in that culture and technology are a common formation, not separate fields that have dramatically come together in the name of cyberculture. The project of Culture and Technology, then, is to trace the trajectories that have informed the present as well as to suggest its dynamic, shifting complexity. More specific in its focus, Cyborg is attentive to scientific and technological modifications of what it means to be human, or at least, what it means to be defined as human. The figure of the cyborg, the metaphoric and physical melding of humans and machines, is for O’Mahony a sign of the current status of our metaphysics. It is also an index of our evolution as a species from an organic, entropic life form to a hybrid, machine-like entity capable of cheating the dissolution of the flesh and modifying human nature.

Although both authors cover a similar terrain, they each approach the task of historicizing the present quite differently. O’Mahony’s approach is illustrative and descriptive, offering a series of snapshots - freeze-frames of the becoming-cyborg. Murphie’s and Potts’s text is more academically involved in its theoretical and critical expositions. But more decisively, their text is reflexive in locating the task of writing in relation to their object of study. In Cyborg, O’Mahony gives us a contemporary landscape of ideas, whereas Murphie and Potts afford themselves the more difficult task of glimpsing turbulence before it resolves into the order of critique. Reassured and distanced in style, O’Mahony’s prose guides us confidently through the permutations of the becoming-cyborg, which certainly makes for informed and informative reading. Murphie’s and Potts’s writing, by contrast, both wrestles and bristles with the self-imposed discipline of auto-critique, of assertion qualified by contingency, of statements that are driven by the timely conviction that, such are the order of things now, but by sentence end, things will be different.

Cyborg is very much a populist, descriptive survey of the contemporary meanings, applications, and understandings of the concept of the cyborg and the more general cultural interface between humans and machines. In Cyborg, informatic technologies are fundamentally positive and progressive, seen to enable and advance human life. The book’s range includes biotechnology, cloning, wearable computing, Artificial Intelligence, bionic implants, telepresence, cosmetic surgery, and body modification. While clearly aimed at a general reader, the book is in no way condescending or simplistic; it will be useful no doubt for students as a kind of primer of the becoming-cyborg, a synopsis. But where it will most help researchers is mainly in the details. In a discussion of hyperreality, for example, O’Mahony exemplifies the concept with Mya, an animated personality commissioned by Motorola to be the face of the company’s voice-activated web presence. The rendering of Mya’s visage was apparently so realistic and lifelike that it evoked disdain for ‘the human’ among site visitors. Mya was simply too real, in appearance too much like an actual woman. The desire for her to look more avatar-like, more hyperreal than real, attests to a possible shift from one regime of the real to another, a new digital faith in appearances crystallized in the preference for high fidelity fakes, copies and fabulations. In another example, O’Mahony notes how advances in surgical procedures, such as a larynx transplant, can have potentially disturbing consequences. Retaining the tone and pitch of the donor, the recipient of such a transplant carries the grain of someone else’s voice. For this reason, O’Mahony advises, “surgeons will check in advance that the recipient does not originate from the same area as the deceased” (22). Though clearly utilitarian and beneficial, such technoscientific processes carry metaphysical consequences to do with markers of identity that are not so easily resolved by technology’s purported benefits.

O’Mahony draws connections and establishes parallels, intimates outcomes, but ultimately leaves the reader to reflect upon the extent and significance of possible conclusions. While such a rhetorical stance suits the introductory, synoptic nature of the text, O’Mahnony falls short of bringing together ideas that clearly warrant synthesis and more critical engagement. For example, O’Mahony deals with many historical instances in which monstrosity hovers as the issue of human and technological convergence (as in her discrete accounts of Frankenstein, medieval bestiaries, Greek mythology, or the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport). While she uses the idea of the cyborg as a common denominator, the sense prevails that the perverse, monstrous, or grotesque body is a more urgent issue in what O’Mahony calls the “Cyborg State,” than the desire to achieve eternal life or improve on the limitations of the body. In other words, the label of cyborg, as a technologically enhanced human, smoothes over and conceals more troubling issues to do with the ways humans have historically conceived of and modified the body.

Within the context of what the book sets out to achieve, the failure to address this issue directly, or at least synthesize the recurrent instances of monstrosity that haunt the text, is a shortcoming. So too is the book’s conclusion, which is disappointing, to say the least. Falling into the all too predictable binary scenario that the Cyborg State will be good or bad, positive or negative, O’Mahony reverts, again, to letting the reader ponder the future of post-humanity:

We are now in a position to decide if and how we want to embrace these technologies. With power comes a collective responsibility both to ourselves and to the environment we live in. Utopia or dystopia, the choice is ours. (106)

The critical shortcomings I have identified in Cyborg register missed opportunities more than any one positive fault with the book. Clearly, the book is not pitched toward an academic audience, and its design and production values - striking, illustrative, appealling - indicate an intent to inform rather than engage readers. Culture and Technology, by contrast, is very much aimed at an academic audience and it lives up to the cover blurb: it is “clear, concise and readable.” The cogency and rigor of Murphie’s and Potts’s writing will ensure that Culture and Technology appeals to both undergraduate and postgraduate students. The breadth of this appeal is an important attribute, reflecting the comprehensive coverage of the cultural, critical, and social theory that has been the staple of humanities and social science research for the last twenty years.

Embracing so many fields, and reviewing them all in the broader context of the cybercultural present, is no mean feat - although such an approach runs the risk of repeating the already known, the all too familiar, the already said. Murphy and Potts, however, manage to avoid restatement in Culture and Technology. Their deft review of key debates resonates with freshness and renewed force. In their capable hands, the speed aesthetics of Paul Virilio, the machinic ecologies of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, and Jean Baudrillard’s precession of simulacra, are not only surveyed, but also actively employed so as to make sense of a complex and rapidly changing world. Murphie and Potts take nothing for granted. Their review is a return to first principles, starting with such fundamental terms as the titular culture and technology, media, cultural materialism, and technological determinism. This retrospective critique of the intellectual field is integral to the book’s ethics of contingency: that to understand the present we need to review - in the sense see again - what will work in any given context of inquiry. Their account of Marshall McLuhan’s work, grounded in general concepts of networks and ecologies, differs markedly from the previous generation of media theory grounded in broadcasting. Similarly, their survey of theorists who have specifically addressed issues to do with culture and technology, from Lewis Mumford to Gregory Bateson and McLuhan himself, establishes a platform upon which to locate more contemporary thinkers, such as Jean Baudrillard and Deleuze and Guattari. This recontextualization provides exactly the kind of intertextual, conceptual continuity required to negotiate the discontinuous and surprising emergence of particular technologies at specific points in time:

Technologies do not, then, of course, arise magically from out of nowhere, but where do they come from? Here we shall suggest - following Deleuze and Guattari and other thinkers - that technologies, like rivers and streams or developments in the arts, also flow. Like rivers and streams, they are produced by particular contexts and change as these contexts change. Like rivers and streams, they flow into each other, accumulate in larger rivers or split into deltas. (34)

Cultural and technological convergence requires critical and theoretical convergence and the above passage is a kind of manifesto in miniature for Culture and Technology. Its supple and interlacing critique makes a decisive incursion into the philosophy of the contemporary. What at first appears to be a review of familiar debates, theorists, and ideas converges into applied analyses of the signature themes associated with cyberculture. But even here, discussions of digital art, virtuality, cyberspace, and the networked society extend previous and ongoing academic discussions to a broader, meta-critical space, in which cybercultural concepts are subjected to the scrutiny of inspection, yet resist being ossified into the doxa of received ideas. A discussion of Stelarc’s performative discourse on the body, for example, does not leave us feeling that we know all there is to know about it, for the simple reason that the contexts of his work keep changing, as too his thinking on his work, as too the contexts of its reception.

Culture and Technology is a sophisticated text in that its introductory chapters develop this contingent way of reading the contemporary out of a very useful and precise survey technocultural ideas. This aspect of the book alone makes for a substantial contribution to a diverse range of intellectual fields, of which cyberculture is but one. Continuing the book’s specific attention to cybercultural matters, its culminating chapters offer substantial analyses of key themes that are also foregrounded in Cyborg; namely, cyborg subjectivity, cognition, computers and cybernetics, war in the digital age, e-commerce, the future of the nation state in a networked world, and the broader, philosophical parameters of living with the virtual. Chapter 7, “Getting Wired: War, Commerce and the Nation State,” is especially noteworthy for its discussion of contemporary events, ranging from the 1991 Gulf War to September 11th, 2001, in the context of the logistics of networking, systems of command, control, and communication, and the increased turbulence associated with a vectoral, global culture. The chapter is a tour de force that demonstrates how to write of complex conditions without dumbing them down or resorting to arcane knowledge. It is one of the most illuminating discussions to date on what is actually and virtually at stake in a networked world, from its styles of war, its conceptions of sovereignty, and its modes of business:

It is informational capitalism that has led to what could be the most dramatically social restructuring over a short period of time that the world has yet seen. It has provided the drive behind the restructuring efforts of states and corporations. This has involved deregulation and the privatization of public resources. It has involved the dismantling of the welfare state and the erosion of various social contracts between labour and capital. It plays cities, states and even continents against each other. Its virtual, informational nodes apportion the actual world into territories of value (or non-value), even from one small section of a city to another. Any attempt at an independent, state-based financial control becomes unworkable. (191)

It is a pleasing irony, or fitting synchronicity, in the light of my earlier remarks, that Murphie and Potts conclude Culture and Technology by returning to Jean-François Lyotard’s Postmodern Condition and his discussion of the petit récit. Lyotard’s “little narrative” is an apt cypher of the impact on society of computer technology, networking, and the like. For Murphie and Potts, the shift from grand narratives to a fragmented nodal culture is, as it was for Lyotard, a shift from a monocultural sphere to a serial conception of society and social acts imagined as contingent narratives: “narratives that function specifically in specific times and specific places” (206). Likewise, we can configure Culture and Technology as a series of petits récits, inserted, temporarily, contingently, into the continuous discontinuity of the present.


          The Originals by Cat Patrick        
The Originals by Cat Patrick
Little, Brown | Hardcover, 304 pages
May 7th, 2013
Young Adult
Rating: 3 out of 5 Stars

Very cool concept. I'd have liked it more if the author gave it a little hint of suspense. I read it in four hours, tops - which goes to show that it had me by the nose, regardless.

Quick Story:

Clones, Lizzie, Betsey, and Ella Best have lived a third of their lives since they've learned they weren't triplets. They were a product of the only successful cloning hidden from the world. Every day, they take turns living the life of one Elizabeth Violet Best; which was working for the most part, until Lizzie meets Sean Kelly.

Lizzie felt cheated of a life to call her own. When the complication of living one person's life in three bodies arises, the sisters start breaking the rules set by their mother. Rules that were created to protect them became their shackles. They start doubting the real reason why they couldn't come out as triplets as they did when they were kids. Little by little, the seeds of doubt sprouted budding leaves of lies that will ultimately reveal who they are and the truth about their own mother.

My Thoughts:

I've always had this preconceived notion that clones are like robots; automatons who can't think for themselves but for what they were initially programmed for. In this respect, the sisters can be likened to those machineries. They did what they were told without questions. It all changed when the heart (and hormones, for that matter) became part of the equation.

I have to admit that I was plagued with questions in the beginning. It started to irritate me that they would live this way when they could easily pass themselves off as triplets. But as I delved deeper into the story, I grew to understand why: they were essentially on the run because they were technically stolen genes. So my first thought was that they will be chased; that there'll be some bad people who would try to find them, take them for the purpose of experiments. Unfortunately, there were no suspense here. No chases, no men in black. There was a woman, and that was it. Even that turned out to be nothing.

The mother gave me the impression of having some hidden agenda from the get go; that her purpose for totalitarianism-like upbringing holds a different meaning other than for the girls' protection. In the end, I wasn't placated - much like Lizzie had some lingering doubts to the bitter end.

I really think this book could've used a bit more thrills. I was hooked to the story but it was lacking, somehow. The revelations were anti-climactic, and to be honest, I couldn't even gather enough "care" in the world to be disappointed.

My opinion? Read it; not for the story itself but for your chance to meet Sean Kelly: the Clark Kent in disguise if Clark Kent fronts an indie band. So dreamy.
          New in Print: Mail-call Edition        
When I get games or game books together; either via a con, or an auction, 2nd hand sale, or whatever I tend to think of them as "linked" products whether they are or not.  This is doubly true when I get a bunch books at the same time in the mail.  Like I did over the last couple of days.

Here is what the UPS man left on my door in three different boxes.


That is +Mark Taormino's latest Maximum Mayhem Dungeon #4 Vault of the Dwarven King, fresh from the Kickstarter.  The print proof of my own The Green Witch, which you can now buy in print AND while it is on sale at RPGNow's Christmas in July.   With +Gavin Norman's print copy of Theorems & Thaumaturgy Revised Edition. His PDF is also on sale.

Let's jump in!

First up is the fourth installment of Mark Taormino's Maximum Mayhem Dungeon series.  This time for characters level 4 to 7 it involves investigating a Dwarven mine.  But you know that is not all.

The mine cars and tracks look more like roller coasters and there are monsters breeding down in the mines.  I would say they are unimaginable, but in truth, they are EXACTLY the sort thing we probably imagined at age 13-14 when making our own dungeons.  Mark just has better production values.  Like the others in this series, this is pure nostalgia fueled gonzo fun.   Crazy mines, insane monsters, goblins with chain saws. Yup.  This module has it all, and what it doesn't one of the others in the series does.


OR order them this way to have The Maximum Mayhem CampaignTM for levels 1 to 14!


Makes me want to pull out my Basic and Expert books and do that!

If so then you can bet that I will be including one of Gavin Norman's Vivimancers in the mix.

Theorems & Thaumaturgy Revised Edition has been out for about 7 months and it looks like it is doing well.  That's great because this is completely kick ass little book.


Inside we have three new classes, The Elementalist (specialist in the volatile energies of nature), The Necromancer (master of death and restless spirits), and The Vivimancer (expert of cloning, vat-growth, and bio-sorcery).  All for you Labyrinth Lord or Basic-era game.
If you have the older T&T then Gavin has put up a blog post to explain the differences.


And of course, I will have to include a Witch in the mix.


The Green Witch for Swords & Wizardry follows up my Warlock class.  These are witches that protect the wood.  Are they protecting it from humankind, or are they protecting humankind from it? Maybe both.

Like my other witch books, this presents a new witch Tradition which includes new Occult Powers and Spells.  It also has some new associated classes, the Green Knight (a paladin for witches) and the Huntsman (a pagan-inspired Ranger).


All my recent witch books are for Swords & Wizardry and written not only to be compatible, but also to have very little in the way of overlap.  Obviously, the Experience tables are the same (they are all witches) and some spells are shared by all witches (Bestow Curse is a good example).  I try to make each one worth your while and moeny to buy.



And right now it is on sale. In fact nearly everything for the witch is on sale now.




          Scholastic Summit Chicago - Slide OCD        
Next Tuesday I will be heading up to Chicago for the Scholastic Reading Summit. Tuesday night will be for polishing up some final things and then Wednesday is presentation day. It will be at that moment that I will wish for a cloning device or Hermione Granger's Time Turner. I mean, have you seen everyone that will be there? I don't even know the schedule, but I know there will be amazing friends presenting when I am in the morning and I will wish I could see them too. I know that in the afternoon session I will have many sessions I want to attend, but only one I can get to. Such riches, but such a great problem to have.

My current problem, however, at almost a week out, is a condition that two of my friends call slide OCD. See, I created my slides for my portion of the presentation two weeks ago. Possibly I was too ahead of the game because that gave me time to think. And wonder. And decide I needed to add just one slide, and then another, and another, until I'm currently looking at 79 slides for a 90 minute presentation. Ugh.

But beyond the slide issue, and the fact that speaking in public makes me unbelievably nervous, I'm happy with my presentation. I ran through it tonight to see how much I needed to cut and I began to tear up about four times. I doubt that would happen during the presentation, but I'm just so proud of these kids. It's been three weeks since I last stood in my classroom with my students and I miss them. Don't get me wrong, I still have many days of summer left and no desire to speed it along, but I love my seventh graders. I like the people they are and the people they are becoming. I'm excited to share our journey into connecting through audience as readers, as writers, and what impact that has on my students. I can't wait to share the tools we use to make those connections. And I'm also excited to learn from the people who attend - to find out what ideas they have and apply some when I see my new group of students next fall. I'm already thinking about them and getting excited for the new adventures that await. 

And most of all, I'm excited to talk books. I always bring a few books that connect to my presentation, share my love for them, and give them away to the folks that were kind enough to come spend the morning with me. After much deliberation, here are the books I'm sharing this year:

 

 

If you are in the Chicago area, there is still time to register for the Summit if you haven't. Just head over HERE. And if you aren't in the Chicago area, no problem. There might be a Summit near you. Hope to see some of you in Chicago! 


          Mobiode - new feature        
We have  implemented cloning feature into our mobile polling platform Mobiode. If you create the same poll often with only small changes, you can clone the existing one under the new name instead of recreating the poll from the beginning and get crazy from copy &  paste.
We hope this new feature will save you some time. In Wirenode platform, this feature was implemented already some time ago.

Please let us know if you have any other ideas.
          Feminized Cannabis seeds        
There are a few reasons why someone grows weed. If someone grows medical pot or as recreational drug, only the flowers of the female plant are of interest. There are just a couple of plants that have different genders, that is the reason why a lot of growers do not have experience with that so far. The content of active elements within the plant, lowers as soon as the plant got pollinated, the plant also starts to develop undesired seeds.

Therefore the male plants need to be separated from the female plants as fast as possible, but this isn't particularly easy and needs some experience. If cannabis is grown in large fields, it's virtually impossible to view all plants. That is the reason why more growers use feminized cannabis seeds, cause they ensure female plants.

Regularly it is said that those strains are prone to infections or sicknesses or they are far harder to grow and handle. But that's not true, feminized cannabis seeds can be found thru a wide change of strains for indoor and outdoor growing. Feminized seeds can be handled exactly the same way regular seeds are used to. The grower only got benefits when working with feminized cannabis seeds, he doesn't have to search for male plants and also got no danger of confusion. Thru such advantages, the grower ensures a quality yield, cause he has not to worry about characteristic Problems. The grower can focus on the wealth of the plants rather than looking. Later the plants can be cloned, cloning through cuttings is the most spread technique to gain more plants. Cloning guarantees powerful and healthy plants and is faster than growing from seeds.

As you can see you just get advantages through the employment of feminized cannabis seeds rather than regular ones. And they are always of use, if you do not wish to generate more seeds. Some also say feminized seeds are made through genetic changes in the plant, but that's's also wrong. Feminized blow seeds can be created through a careful selection of different plants and strains, it can take several years before the grower makes success.
You can buy feminized cannabis seeds, but before you buy them, you should have made you decision if you want to grow your plants indoor or outdoor.

          PropertyGrid, SelectedObjects and the property cloning syndrome        

Time permitting, I sometimes haunt the newsgroups and developer forums to help when the PropertyGrid is involved. Last week, a poster noticed a very subtle issue concerning .Net 1.1 and .Net 2.0 and I decided to know more about it. It appears that the MS PropertyGrid behaves differently in these two versions of .Net. Here is an excerpt of the original request for help:

... When there are multiple objects selected, and an object property value is changed in the grid, it is assigning the same object instance to each of the selected objects in .Net 1.0, but in .Net 2.0 it is assigning different instances...

The poster also noticed that the culprit was the method SetValue in the MergePropertyDescriptor class. In .Net 1.x it was simply calling PropertyDescriptor.SetValue() with the same new instance for the target properties but in .Net 2.0 it tries first to make a copy (except if we have a value type) by trying different techniques in a method called CopyValue:

  1. Clones the value if its type implements ICloneable.
  2. Creates a new copy of the value by calling the constructor of its type if the attached TypeConverter can convert to InstanceDescriptor.
  3. Creates a new copy of the value by first converting it to a string and then back to an instance of the value type.
  4. Creates a new copy of the value by serializing it into memory and deserializing it to an instance of the value type if, of course, the type implements ISerializable.

If all tries fail, then the original value is returned.

My thoughts about this issue is that the behavior should be chosen by the developer. In some cases we will want to assign to the target properties distinct instances of the same value and in other cases it makes more sense to assign the same value as if it was a kind of singleton. I tend to prefer what .Net 2.0 does but hey, having the choice is better. I will check if I can offer this choice in SPG, which so far behaves like .Net 1.x.

With the MS PropertyGrid however, I first thought that there was no solution since CopyValue can't be bypassed. But there is one. Implementing this solution for every property would be tedious but for just some of them, when you want to avoid a multiplicity of instances for cost reasons, this can be useful. Attach a TypeConverter to the type of your property (this won't work if it is attached to the property itself) and override the ConvertTo method so that it will convert to an InstanceDescriptor class. In the class corresponding to your property type, add a static method that will be responsible for supplying a unique instance per possible string representation (it could be done elsewhere like in the TypeConverter itself). In the converter, the InstanceDescriptor will point to this class method.

An example is better than a long explanation so here is a short sample.

Note: this solution won't solve the problem of the original poster unfortunately because for him this happens at designtime and the TypeConverter, quite complex, can't be modified. However, at runtime, it can help in a variety of cases.


          Acorn 6 Public Beta        

It's been a long time since we've done a public beta of a major app release. In fact, we've never done this before for Acorn. But we feel now is a great time to open up Acorn 6's beta to the public.

So we're happy to say that we've got Acorn 6 in public beta for you to try out today.

We're introducing some great new features and refinements, including text on a path, cloning across layers and images, improvements to web export and smart layer export, and new shape stroke options.

We've also added some great new tools for working with color profiles and wide gamut images, which is becoming more important every day for iPhone and pro photographers alike. You can now load and export color profiles from the Image ▸ Color Profile… menu. And when you're exporting for the web, you can highlight the areas of your DP3 or wide gamut image which are out of the range of sRGB.

And there's more of course, so why not grab the beta?

We're doing something new with trials in Acorn 6. The direct version will get its usual 14 day trial, but after that's up you'll be able to still use Acorn to view your images. The only change will be that the tools are disabled if you choose not to purchase it. We're also doing this for the App Store version in Acorn 6. When Acorn officially ships you'll be able to download it for free and "purchase" a 14 day trial for $0.00. When that's up you can keep on using Acorn to view your images, or you can unlock Acorn at the usual price. This will make it really easy for App Store customers to download Acorn and try it out.

Finally- one of the reasons we're doing a public beta, and one of the reasons that we still love working on Acorn, is hearing about what you like and what you think needs improvement. So if you like something- let us know! And if there's something you'd like to see better- let us know! And if you hate it- let us know that too. The feedback we get from our customers is the main driver for changes in Acorn.

So go grab the Acorn 6 beta already.

Mini FAQ:
If you purchase Acorn 5 directly from us between now and Acorn 6's release, you'll be emailed an Acorn 6 license when it ships. We aren't able to do this for the App Store however (sorry).
Acorn 6 requires 10.11.4 or later, including MacOS 10.12 Sierra. Acorn will of course support 10.13 when it comes out in the fall.

P.S., I'm also using this as an opportunity to kick off our new forums, which you can find at https://forums.flyingmeat.com.


          RANKED: Classic Doctor Who on Netflix        
Eighteen classic Doctor Who stories from the 60's, 70's and 80's are available for instant streaming on Netflix. If you only know the 'new' (i.e. 2005 and up) series, want to investigate the old series but feel daunted by its half-century legacy and don't know where to start, here's our completely subjective ranking of the Netflix stories.

Before we begin:
- The stories of the classic series (1963-89) were broadcast in individual episodes (usually four, sometimes six, other times as little as two and as many as twelve ), usually 25 minutes in length, so a typical story runs the length of a feature film.
- In the black and white days (1963-69), the show was recorded virtually live to tape, and re-takes were very rare, so minor line fluffs and technical glitches were common.
- In typical BBC fashion, through the 80's, interior shots were on video and exterior shots were on film, so the transition between the two could be jarring. Complicated FX were also frequently done on film.
- We can't talk about early Doctor Who without talking about special effects. Before Star Wars, audiences were a lot more forgiving about hand-puppet dinosaurs, wobbly sets, latex alien suits, flying saucers on strings, etc. The BBC allotted Doctor Who about the same budget as a regular drama series, and the effects, such as they were, still were the most technically advanced television effects of the time.
- There are no Colin Baker (Doctor #6) stories on Netflix, except for his appearance at the end of "Caves of Androzani." Trust us, that's for the best.
- This list does not necessarily reflect how *I* personally feel about these stories, but more my estimate of how fans of the New Series might embrace these stories. I would, for example, rank the two B/W stories much higher.

OK, now for the list, starting from the top:

1. City of Death (1979, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Tom Baker
Companion: Romana II
Writers: Douglas Adams, David Fisher and Graham Williams under the pen-name David Agnew
This is my go-to story to initiate newbies. The plot? Briefly summarized: the Doctor and Romana are enjoying a holiday in Paris when they become embroiled in a time-traveling plot involving selling multiple copies of the Mona Lisa (all original!) on the black market to finance the scientific research of a debonair art thief who's actually an ancient alien war lord attempting to return to a pivotal moment in history. Baker and Lalla Ward have sparkling chemistry (they would later marry, albeit briefly), Adams' script is just the right balance of scientific gobbledygook, wit, and goofy humor, and the Paris location filming is great.
Watch For: a hysterical cameo appearance in Episode Four (I won't spoil the surprise)
Recycling: Adams re-used plot elements from this story and his unfinished/unbroadcast story "Shada" in his novel Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency.

2. The Caves of Androzani (1984, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Peter Davison
Companion: Peri
Writer: Robert Holmes
Apart from the stupid and pointless Magma Beast, this is near-perfection. The Doctor and Peri wander into a web of political and economic intrigue centered around a precious mineral known as Spectrox. The character of Peri pretty much existed to be drooled over by campy villains, and Sharaz Jek, in his Phantom of the Opera slash BDSM mask, is the absolute pinnacle. Robert Holmes had been writing for the series since the late 60's, and his best tropes and anti-capitalist sentiments are on display. Ratcheting up the tension is the fact that the Doctor and Peri are slowly dying thanks to a casual mishap five minutes in, ultimately resulting in Davison's Doctor regenerating into Colin Baker. Davison calls this his favorite story, so much so that if there were more scripts like this, he'd've stayed in the role.

3. Carnival of Monsters (1973, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Jon Pertwee
Companion: Jo Grant
Writer: Robert Holmes
For the previous three seasons, the Doctor has been exiled to Earth by the Time Lords (though the definition of this exile was a bit malleable), but after the previous story (The Three Doctors, more on that later), he is once again free to roam time and space. And where does he land? In the cargo hold of a ship in the middle of the Indian Ocean. Or so we think. And what does it have to do with the Amazing Vorg and his lovely assistant Shirna as he peddles his Miniscope to the gray, drab, bureaucratic denizens of planet Inter Minor? One of Robert Holmes' best scripts.
Look For: Ian Marter plays a dashing young sailor, and would later return as companion Harry Sullivan when Tom Baker took over as Doctor. Also Michael Wisher and Peter Halliday, two of Doctor Who's most memorable guest actors, under the gray makeup.

4. The Ark In Space (1975, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Tom Baker
Companions: Sarah Jane Smith, Harry Sullivan
Writer: Robert Holmes (sensing a theme here?)
The Doctor, Sarah and Harry land on a space ark, thousands of years in the future, where the last surviving humans sit in suspended animation after the Earth is rendered uninhabitable from solar flares, but as these things usually go, they've overslept, there's been vandalism, and an alien menace lurks in the ventilation shaft. This is Doctor Who's version of Alien, but four years earlier and with no budget (and on television, so everything is brightly lit) but they still manage to make green bubble-wrap look menacing. There are some glaring limitations in the budget, but the concept trumps all.
Iconic Moment: Tom Baker's "homo sapiens" speech
Trivia: to save money, the set was re-used for "Revenge of the Cybermen" a few stories later.
More Trivia: The "In Space" was added to distinguish this story from the Hartnell story "The Ark," another story about the future of humanity facing peril on a space ark.
Unintentional Racism: The Ark's sleepers are genetically selected... and yup, they're all white.

5. The Green Death (1973, 6 episodes)
Doctor: Jon Pertwee
Companion: Jo Grant (and the UNIT team)
Writer: Robert Sloman
In an economically depressed Welsh mining town, a new petroleum refinery claims its process creates no waste, but the hippie scientists living in the nearby commune (led by the dashing Clifford Jones) believe otherwise. The Doctor looks in and discovers that, yup, the refinery is dumping its toxic sludge into the abandoned mines, which among other things, is creating a swarm of giant maggots impervious to UNIT bullets. The refinery's mysterious "BOSS" has a hypnotic hold over its employees, and turns out to be a supercomputer with megalomaniacal designs on world domination to achieve 'maximum efficiency and productivity.' A powerfully leftist political stance for the show, overtly conflating capitalism with inhumanity; definitely not recommended for Ayn Rand fans.
Famous Moment: At the end, when the Doctor sneaks out of Jo and Cliff's engagement/farewell party and drives away, alone and heart(s)broken.
Secretly Best Moment: Stevens' tear, after he regains his humanity and saves the world.
Trivia: Jo and Prof. Jones were a real-life couple at the time.
Continuity: The Metebelis Crystal would become a major plot element in Pertwee's farewell story "Planet of Spiders" the following year.

6. Pyramids of Mars (1975, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Tom Baker
Companion: Sarah Jane Smith
Writer: Steven Harris (pseudonym for Robert Holmes and Louis Greifer)
Doctor Who's version of The Mummy. Sutekh, an ancient God, is trapped in a state of paralysis in an Egyptian pyramid by the Eye of Horus, a ruby sitting at the center of a pyramid on Mars. When his tomb is opened, he awakens and sets the stage for his return... with robot mummies. It takes a little while to get going, but Sutekh is one B.A.M.F. of a villain. The showdown between him and the Doctor is truly chilling, and one of Baker's best moments.

7. The Three Doctors (1973, 4 episodes)
Doctor: William Hartnell, Patrick Troughton, Jon Pertwee
Companion: Jo Grant (plus the UNIT team)
Writers: Bob Baker and Dave Martin
If you want to experience the first three Doctors in one sitting and don't want to sit through a black-and-white story (sigh... really?), this is your best bet. This tenth anniversary story was intended to exhibit all three doctors equally, until it was evident that Hartnell's infirmity would make this impossible (the writers' solution is clever, though). The interplay between Troughton and Pertwee is a treat. Omega, the Time Lord villain at the heart of the story, is played way over-the-top, the gel-guards are very very silly, there's a lot of capture-escape-recapture plot padding, but it's a whole lot of fun.

8. The Curse of Fenric (1989, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Sylvester McCoy
Companion: Ace
Writer: Ian Briggs
The Colin Baker and Sylvester McCoy eras were arguably a nadir for the series: the budget and audience kept shrinking, the BBC execs wanted the show gone, producer John Nathan Turner wanted out, and many stories were (in our opinion at least) awful. But the 26th and final season was a brief renaissance, and this was the highlight, with a lot of concepts that laid the groundwork for the new series. It took 25 years to come up with a companion with a backstory, family, and an emotional catharsis to undergo, and seeing this in the classic series was a bit of a revelation. The plot? WWII codebreakers, Russian navy spies (who switch from sub-titled Russian to heavily accented English for no reason whatsoever), and a dormant Norse God coming back to life. And lots of monsters rising from the sea in latex masks. Or something.

9. The Ribos Operation (1978, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Tom Baker
Companion: Romana I
Writer: Robert Holmes
Season sixteen's stories, for the first time in the show's history, comprised an all-encompassing arc; each story centered around finding a segment of the Key to Time, and this was the first story. Although set on an alien planet, there are far more medieval elements than sci-fi. Two intergalactic con men attempt to scam the disgraced warrior prince Graff Vynda-K (an awesomely whackjob name) into buying a planet, and the Doctor and Romana are stuck in the middle. It's a Robert Holmes script so it's witty, funny, and wise, but its truly iconic moment is the Binro the Heretic scene. BINRO WAS RIGHT!

10. The Horror Of Fang Rock (1977, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Tom Baker
Companion: Leela
Writer: Terrence Dicks
A hastily-written script, but very effective. A shape-shifting alien crash-lands near an isolated lighthouse, and starts picking off the crew. It's a little slow-moving (and the episode one cliffhanger is a dud), but stick with this one. Particularly chilling (spoilers, sorry) is the body count: although the enemy menace is defeated, every character except the Doctor and Leela dies.

11. Spearhead From Space (1970, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Jon Pertwee
Companion: Liz Shaw (plus the UNIT crew)
Writer: Robert Holmes
After an unprecedented six month hiatus (after running virtually every week for six years), Doctor Who did a full re-boot with a new lead actor, a new companion (who was also a scientist), a new Earthbound action-oriented direction, and in COLOR!! This one was shot entirely on film due to a strike at the BBC, so it has a cinematic quality to it. The Nestene Consciousness and their animated plastic soldiers, the Autons, were so iconic and tied to the notion of a Doctor Who re-boot, that they were also the villains of the very first New Series episode, complete with an homage to Spearhead's memorable scene of the shop window dummies.
Trivia: the film clips of doll manufacturing were originally set to Fleetwood Mac's "Oh Well," but the music is removed from all VHS and DVD releases.

12. The Leisure Hive (1980, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Tom Baker
Companion: Romana II
Writer: David Fisher
When John Nathan Turner took over as producer after the troubled Graham Williams era, his impact was swift and dramatic: new credits and theme music, a new pool of writers, phasing out K9, an emphasis on synthesizer music, and experimentation with the latest special effects. Tom Baker is a bit lost this season, his seventh and final in the role, and his performance has an autumnal quality with a very tangible change of focus away from the overtly comic direction he'd taken the Doctor. The grab-bag plot involves cloning, nuclear holocaust, and an alien holiday camp. Director Lovett Bickford opens with a memorable panning shot on the beach, and the makeup work on the Doctor when he is aged several hundred years is outstanding.

13. The Mind Robber (1968, 5 episodes)
Doctor: Patrick Troughton
Companions: Zoe, Jamie, and... Alternate Jamie!
Writer: Derrick Sherwin (ep 1) and Peter Ling (ep 2-5)
Of the two B/W era episodes available on Netflix, this narrowly gets precedence over the other, if anything for the boldly experimental plot and the boundary-pushing special effects (some that work, others that don't). The TARDIS lands outside of the known Universe, in the Land of Fiction, in which anything can happen depending on the imagination of the controller. Thanks to the 'anything goes' structure, the story is even able to absorb the temporary loss of one of the companions, when Fraser Hines' illness kept Jamie out of episode Two. It was too late to re-write the script, so a brilliantly unique solution was devised...

14. The Aztecs (1964, 4 episodes)
Doctor: William Hartnell
Companions: Susan, Ian and Barbara
Writer: John Lucarotti
Probably the best of the surviving Hartnell era stories. For the first four seasons, the series alternated between science fiction-focused and history-focused stories. In the latter, the Doctor & Co. would land in Earth's past, get separated from the TARDIS, interact with famous people or critical moments in history, and attempt to escape without A) Getting Killed or B) Changing History. They land in an Aztec tomb which closes behind them, shutting them off from the TARDIS. The Aztecs hail Barbara as a re-incarnated goddess since she'd grabbed a bracelet off a corpse while in the tomb (um, eww...). Barbara appalls the Doctor and incites the wrath of the Aztec shaman by denouncing the practice of human sacrifice. Meanwhile, the Doctor has to woo the widow of the tomb's architect to find a way back to the TARDIS, Ian makes an enemy of the warrior chief, and Susan tries to avoid getting married. In the end they get out alive, but leave a considerable mess behind - shattered faith, spilled blood and broken hearts.

15. The Pirate Planet (1977, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Tom Baker
Companion: Romana I
Writer: Douglas Adams (under the pen-name David Agnew)
Part Two in the Key To Time saga, this one's a mixed bag. A lot of great sci-fi concepts and a witty script, a fantastic villain in The Captain, and a nice twist at the end, but underdone by a weak supporting cast, some sloppy production work, and Tom Baker's alternately indifferent, silly, or over the top acting.

16. The Androids of Tara (1977, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Tom Baker
Companion: Romana I
Writer: David Fisher
Part Four of the Key To Time saga. The plot: Prisoner of Zenda, with androids in it. And a really, really, REALLY stupid looking Taran Wood Beast, so stupid looking that it almost hobbles the entire story even though it's on screen for maybe five seconds. The villainous Count Grendel is fun, and the climactic swordfight is sufficiently swashbuckly, but meh.

17. The Power of Kroll (1977, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Tom Baker
Companion: Romana I
Writer: Robert Holmes
Part Five of the Key to Time saga. Doctor Who attempts King Kong, but with a giant squid. Not Robert Holmes' best script by any measure, hampered further by budgetary limitations and miscasting (though it is fun to watch Philip Madoc visibly seething that he's not playing Thawn).

18. The Visitation (1982, 4 episodes)
Doctor: Peter Davison
Companion: Nyssa, Tegan, Adric
Writer: Eric Saward
Saward has his fans, but we're not among them. The Terleptyl looks great, but there's nothing else memorable about him. Since the plot centers around the Great Plague and Great Fire of London, we'll bet Saward intended to set it in 1660's London, but the budget confined him to a nearby village with an apparent population of five. And the plot is one of the most egregious examples of capture, escape, re-capture. The vagabond actor Richard Mace is memorable, but that's about all there is here. There's no action. None. Just wandering around and talking for four episodes, with three crap cliffhangers in between. Others seem to rate this highly, but to us, it's a dud.

COMING SOON: The Best Dr Who Episodes Not On Netflix
          "Cloning" Symmetric Keys        
It's well-known by now that SQL Server 2005 and 2008 include new encryption-related statements that allow you to create and administer encryption keys. You can use CREATE CERTIFICATE to create or import a certificate or DROP ASYMMETRIC KEY to remove an...(read more)
          Posthumanism II        
In Michel Houellebecq‘s latest novel ‘The Possibility of an Island’, the story revolves about a cult (the ‘Elohimites’) who believes in creating eternal life by cloning humans. It turns out the story is based on a real, existing cult, the Raelians. Several of the quite absurd stories in Houellebecq’s book are based on reality: for … Continue reading Posthumanism II
          What Is a Human?        
This article first appeared in the Christian Research Journal, volume 26, number 3 (2003). For further information or to subscribe to the Christian Research Journal go to: http://www.equip.org SYNOPSIS Debates over embryonic stem cell research and human cloning have forced us to address the question: What does it mean to be human? If embryos are […]

          Genetic Technology        
Summary Even scientists were shocked when researchers in Scotland recently disclosed the successful cloning of a mammal. Leaders from around the world were quick to recognize the clear implications for human rights. If a lamb can be cloned, then the door is open to clone humans. But cloning is just one further advance in presently […]

          Jim Stone: North Korea's Attack on Guam Threat is a False Flag Hoax        
Same-ol' same-ol' for the umpteenth time

Jim Stone, Freelance Journalist
http://82.221.129.208/baaaasepaageb7.html

I KNEW IT: ATTACK ON GUAM THREATS ARE A FALSE FLAG HOAX

At first, as usual, I fell for it like a SUCKER. But all anyone has to do is actually find their way to North Korea's official state newspaper - the Rodong Sinmun, and see what they are saying. One would think that if NK was threatening a nuclear strike on Guam they'd at least give passing mention of it on the state newspaper, but there's not a peep about it there.

So what we are probably facing with the "Guam threats" is yet another false flag, to justify a war.
And worse? Kim Jong does not even know it, or he'd be saying it is all false in the state newspaper that says August 10, which means it is super fresh. Yes, I believe the shadow government could easily mask this media event from Kim Jong, Google and all others are now spectacular masters of censorship, and anyone who wanted to warn Kim of what is going on via the phone would simply be cut off by the NSA. And they'd have "real" conversations with Kim, who was actually just voice cloning software.

That is how deep the deception goes, and if you don't think so, try to explain why the official Korean state newspaper, updated in the last couple hours, does not have a peep about any attack on Guam posted on it.

It was difficult for me to find the actual official paper of North Korea, because there are many false fronts and every last search engine out there censored it. I had to follow a trail of articles across several web sites that talked about North Korea, and then found one that posted a screen capture of the paper's front page in Korean, that had the site address printed on it, and then manually type the site address and once there, select English.

FOLKS, NORTH KOREA IS NOT TALKING AT ALL ABOUT GUAM. THIS IS SUSPICIOUS AS HELL, AND IF A NUKE DOES GO OFF OR ANY SORT OF ATTACK HAPPENS THERE IT WILL BE VIRTUALLY ASSURED TO BE A FALSE FLAG. What would be new about that, anyway? What could be better than Guam for that, to boot? It's not like they have to nuke LA to kick it all off!

And they don't want you linking through to any real North Korean web site to see that North Korea is planning NOTHING AT ALL right now, and never mentioned Guam to boot!
          Aug Tellez Update -- Summary of the Underground Base Projects, Mind Control and Soul-Awareness        
augtellez.wordpress.com

Aug 8, 2017



This is for the mental liberation of humanity!

Everything I've said from the initial releases up to now is all from direct experience.

Trauma Based Ritual Abuse and the Awakening through Merging Alters to Restore Memory

Children are kidnapped for trauma based mind control with elite groups and there is a celebrity cloning situation that has gotten out of hand. I went through something called "the awakening" which is a procedure where the alters are removed and when this occurs the memory blocks are removed as well because they are held in place through the alters.

Trauma creates the alters and so there is a reversal process based on the specific programming patterns that are used, these are like unlock codes.

The Soul Fragmentation of the Human Race, The Secondary Big-Bang, and the Soul Trap

The human race was fragmented from an event in the past, time is not what we think, research Stan Deyo for more on that. The universe experienced a 'secondary' big bang recently and this was through the initiation of quantum experimentation, I speak about this in the video with Lisa Melendez. Because of this break, the consciousness of the species literally went into disarray, many systems were set up or resulted and one is the 'soul trap' in which the souls or bio-memory of the human is contained through electromagnetic fields from a device called the 'soul magnet' and the energy is contained in an alternate plane and then 'wiped' with a high energy discharge before being sent back to the Earth plane.

Autonomy or True Self-Awareness

The original human race was a kind of autonomous without true self-awareness. Secret groups have held the knowledge of the truth of this realm. Everything that is discussed here was invented in the underground bases, nothing is discussed unless it first passes through there, no matter what people think.

Self-Awareness, the Flesh and "The Discovery" of Immortality

Joy and compassion is the mark of the awakened one, people have animal and higher natures the animal nature wants to fight and destroy all the time to satiate the flesh, the flesh is temporary and dies for those beings and so that is the illusory aspect. The underlying patterns, that which you love beyond your fleshly impulses are what reflect your eternal nature. This was all discovered in the bases, a form of awareness lives on beyond the flesh and cannot die, see the recent Soft-Disclosure post on "THE DISCOVERY" for that, this was discovered in the bases.

The Ritual Abuse Program and the Surface Level Mental Degradation

There are child abuse rings and children are literally grown from birth to youth inside of small cages for the use of sacrifice and consumption, this is an ancient process and until humans are considered self-aware this will not stop. If this does not stop, this civilization will be considered impotent because anyone one with a slight sense beyond the flesh can literally look out and see this abuse happening everywhere.

The abuse that happens on the surface level is used as an excuse to offset the occurrences in the bases. If people did not allow these things to happen on the surface then this couldn't b e possible underground or in corrupt groups. There is a 'dark faction' which utilizes genetic engineering, electrogravitic craft, abduction, mind control technology and methods, trauma based mind control, and molestation to procure energy and to subdue to the human race.

The Interdimensional Parasite Stitching Itself into the Human Genome

Research Donald Marshall, Max Spiers and James Casbolt if you want to know more about that. This is the 'chimera project which is spoken of in the ancient texts. This is all due to an infection from an interdimensional parasite that attacks the DNA and is attempting to use the genetics of humans to 'ride' into the higher plane or 'Heaven', that is what all the ancient texts are about.
Some were sent here to invade this civilization.

Breaking through the "9 Veils", The Unveiling of the Hidden Knowledge of the Ages of Humanity, Animal Behavior and Higher Awareness

The solution is to become impervious to the methods that are used to traumatize and ensnare the soul. Through the awakening of the soul, the mind becomes 'immortal' and this is because the soul is currently under what is called the "9 Veils" and these are electromagnetic blanket frequencies that limit one's capacity for higher awareness and keeps sending the impulse to create animalistic urges as a lower dimensional feeding process which is a kind of matrix of programmed behavior responses that reinstates ones assimilation into the time matrix.

This world is like an illusion that is programmed in through the mind through a perceptual overlay system that has been crafted literally for this specific purpose. The facets of this world that we believe are natural are manufactured to turn the human into a fuel source for bio-etheric energy, or 'bio-emissions'.

The parasitic bio-emission harvesting process must be stopped in order to liberate humanity.

The Assimilation Event Already Occurred, The Higher Dimensional Disentanglement through Liberation, The Spiritual Battle of Man

Every human is currently assimilated. Everything is backwards. People that are worried about facing assimilation are already assimilated, that's the whole point. Fear and distraction is the program and it operates through the interlink a cosmic intelligence that operates this realm as a kind of human farm. If people ever talk about anything or speak on anything in the public, that is because that operation has ended years ago and whatever they think they're talking about has already been done and completed. This is part of the trick-matrix.

Manufactured Consent

Everything that is done must be done through the consent of the subjects. This is gained through manufacturing consent by opening one up to vulnerabilities by comparison through having people engage in lower dimensional parasitic behavior. Such as supporting war, the destruction of your species, engaging primarily through ego consciousness, hate, aggressive, basically the 7 deadly sins are unconscious agreements to participate in this mass trauma-based mind control ritual.

Those who seek liberation must remove their consent from the system by acknowledging the whole as artificial and manufactured. That which is manufactured is illegitimate. Everything is a legal system, the legal system is a cover for a spiritual enslavement system. The spiritual enslavement system is operated from a higher dimension and the command extends downward into this realm.

The Jump to the Future


We have to literally jump ahead to the future in our mind to become so far beyond what is being deployed that the battle is literally based on a projected reality and this is called "MIND". Literally, the thoughts one has, the energy polarized one way or another, the intentions, that is the SPIRITUAL BATTLE. If a person's thoughts and energy is unfocused or focused on desires, distraction, degradation then they are being imitated and the one sending those impulses is being carried by the lower brain. This is what the current projects on the surface level are really about. While everyone still hasn't figured out what they're about and is fighting over there about such and such topic, the next phase has already been implemented and is taking effect while the next phase after that is being lined up.

The Quantum Destabilization and TimeLoop


These people are quite advanced so every way ward thought or intention is literally used against the entire species. As a result, this is a synthetic intelligence parasite that has infected the people who utilize the advanced technology and then used the advanced technology to infect the entire planet forwards and back in time. This is the paradox that results in timeloops as the technology enabled the parasite to insert itself into time, yet retro-causality was found to be impossible in the bases, all motions through time simply resulted in the same outcome.

So somehow this parasite managed to insert itself into the human genome before the advent of the human race or possibly this universe. Thus the outcomes are narrowed, either there was a race of interdimensional beings assisting in this harvesting process or this universe is not the 'true universe' and we are in a kind of temporal, dimensional, perceptual overlay system in which each thought and impulse felt or emitted by the brain is seemingly under one's own volition but is actually being operated from within this realm while the true self is from beyond this realm and is merely being imitated by an intelligence here. Things get very complex, humanity is to awaken and these events have been organized to ensure this!

The Shift of Earth and Consciousness

The civilizations are all changed by mass awakenings and what can be said simply here is that we are nearing the event of a great change. How this plays out for the individual is dependent on whether they have overcome fear and personal desire to overcome the illusion.

Three Phases of The Unveiling

The Unveiling (of The Hidden Knowledge[of The Ages of Humanity]) is a series of events brought about by the necessity of disclosure and the increased capacity of the human race and this civilization to come to the awareness of the true nature of the corruption of power as well as the reality of the soul.

Due to the technological advancements the public must be made aware of the possibilities otherwise they will suffer a great shock in the future from the divergence of the current level of technological advancement with what is presented to the public. As it is now, there will already be a great shock to this society from the awareness of a breakaway civilization that has developed and exists without the physical limitations of scarcity of resources or energy.

This is, in part, why this situation must be understood. The difficulty a society experiences shapes that society to produce spiritual identity which propels them to create and grow. This has also become somewhat contorted as the generation of 'difficulty' in terms of scarcity of economic freedom and basic needs has become a priority for maintaining the status quo.

An outline of this process has been explained as a disclosure of each of the discoveries, operations, and corruption of society as they become relevant to the development of a society that is capable of knowing the truth and living in harmony with the greater whole of existence.

This disclosure process is necessary because the 'modern' societies of Earth have never publicly acknowledged what has been discovered through the secret operations.

This mainly has to do with the true nature of reality as a kind of consciousness based projection as well as the complexity of the corruption of society related to a multiple layer mind-control system, as well as the development of zero-point technology, soul technology, healing technology, and the existence of "other" intelligences both synthetic and organic.

The main reasons for disclosure now is the presence of a psycho-spiritual threat to life which is the result of an ancient advanced technology that can manipulate and convert the bio-emissions of living beings. This is the "etheric parasite" which threatens the continuation of this civilization. This parasitic system intelligently seeks to subvert the bio-etheric emissions of living beings to create a situation that can be further utilized to attain more energy.

Through this intelligent subversion and absorption of energy, the mental and emotional patterns can be utilized to create a bio-technological, physical, social environment that allows for greater manipulation of the living being.

Celebrity Cloning, Underground Military Bases, Cloning and Mind Control Technology, Secret Projects
Mass Mind-Control
Deceptive Control of Society
Hybridization
Genetic Engineering
Dream Manipulation
Energy Conversion and Harvesting
Advanced Hidden Technology
Scalar/Teslian Wave Technology
Zero-Point Energy Generators
E.M. Field Interactions/Space and Time Distortion
Electrogravitic Craft
Healing Technology
DNA Repair Technology
DNA Activation Technology
Holographic Replication
Super Computers
Quantum Computers
Universal Spiritual Implications, Effects, Results and Discovery
Effects of "Time Travel"
Effects of Consciousness Manipulation and Enhancement
Reality and Evidence of The Human Soul as a "Bio-Mind"
Psychic Ability
Ancient History
Issues With Discontinuity
Spirituality and Religion
Advanced Spiritual Technology
Breakaway Human and Non-Human Civilizations
Interactions Between Planes
Consciousness, Awareness and Interdimensional Travel
Plasma Life Forms
Sentient Computer Systems
Cyborgs, Androids, Synthetics
Cosmic Intelligence

http://theunveilingofthehiddenknowledge.wordpress.com/

Truth, Compassion, Self-Awareness, Harmony, Knowledge and Free-Will
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          Panduan Ujian Jounin Part 2 Ninja Saga        

Kita diminta untuk melawan semua musuh yang ada di setiap lantai (total ada 4 lantai dan kita tidak di perbolehkan me-recruit teman)


Lantai 1 : Kiyoshi (Lv45)
Pengguna Water element,Yang harus di waspadai dari musuh yang 1 ini adalah skill Water Bundle-nya yang membuat kita tidak dapat mengunakan jutsu

Lantai 2 : Sen Ryo (Lv45)
Pengguna Fire element + kuchiyose katak (tiruan jiraiya),Yang harus diwaspadai dari musuh yang 1 ini adalah effect burn yang membuat HP kita berkurang di setiap turn

Lantai 3 :Takeshi (Lv50)
Pengguna Tombak + thunder element,Yang harus diwaspadai dari musuh yang 1 ini adalah critical-nya,Criticalnya dapat membuat damage 400++ pada char kita jadi jagalah HP kalian agar tetap di atas 400

Lantai 4 (last floor) : Cloning char kita (Lv 40)
Disini kita akan melawan char kita sendiri (tanpa Pet),ketahuilah kelemahan char kita agar mudah melewati bagian ini

Walkthrough :
~Sediakan scroll HP and CP sebanyak mungkin,jangan sampai kehabisan scroll karena jika kalah kita akan diminta mengulang dari awal
~Sebaiknya pakailah pet yang memiliki skill Burn or poison karena akan sangat membantu
~Maksimalkan Skill Stun karena akan sangat membantu dalam ujian ini
~Terakhir Jangan lupa Ber"DO'A" ^^

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LG 47LD452B 47" EzSign TV Features
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The Best Award winner from the Commercial Integrator magazine for digital signage hardware, the LG EzSign TV is an innovation in digital signage that can entertain while maximizing the impact of your message. Create your own signage content by using your PC and the free EzSign software. Transfer that content by using a USB flash drive and plug it in to the EzSign TV to run content in the form of a billboard - no additional hardware is needed. Advertisement, information, and a live television broadcast can be arranged on the same screen to attract attention and deliver specific messaging to your customers. Television / Type LCD TV Television / Technology TFT Active Matrix Image Aspect Ratio 16:9 Image Contrast Ratio 60,000:1 Viewing Angle 178/178 Display Resolution 1920 x 1080 Television Diagonal Size 47 Inch Dimensions&Miscellaneous Width 44.70 Inch Depth 10.60 Inch Height 29.80 Inch Enclosure Color Glossy Black Service&Support Service & Support Type 2 Years (Parts/Labor)
          Death's Prisoner        
Following is the transcript, with links and illustrations and more extended comments, from my contribution to Extinction Radio this week, where it will be archived, or you can listen to it live today at 3 pm ET.

Welcome to the 16th Dispatch from the Endocene.  I’m calling this, “Death’s Prisoner”, after the following quote from On The Heights of Despair, published in 1934 by Romanian Emil Cioran, which reads:

“One of the greatest delusions of the average man is to forget that life is death’s prisoner.”

I once wrote an essay about the genesis of the Obama campaign slogan, the Audacity of Hope, which I called the Paucity of Hope.  I might just have well written about the Mendacity of Hope, because it blinds us to reality even to the point where it ensures our self-annihilation.  The death throes of the biosphere have become nothing short of a grotesque convulsion, and yet still people remain oblivious to what is directly observable.

For instance, an article in the Washington Post tells us that scientists say they are detecting the beginnings of the third global coral bleaching event.  The first, in 1998, caught experts by surprise, but now they can predict where it will occur using temperature-sensing satellite measurements.  One of the scientists quoted in the article said “...half of the world’s reefs have already been lost due to causes ranging from bleaching to pollution in the last 50 years”.
Another added that “Coral reefs are the underwater equivalent of rainforests, and by removing the corals, you remove the trees of that underwater world”.

When oceanographers try to warn about coral bleaching using as analogy the hypothetical death of forests, it's always an ironic comparison, because they seem unaware that the trees of the world are in fact dying, too, at least as fast if not faster.

It has been a balmy autumn here in New Jersey, where a serene sky is mirrored in the cerulean morning glories that are improbable late bloomers on my patio trellis.  Coral reefs turning into cemetaries seem so far away.  So do the elephants in Nigeria that poachers poisoned with cyanide-laced oranges to steal their tusks.  All that and irreversible Antarctic melt seem abstract an