'..If you can’t see this next crisis coming, you’re not paying the right kind of attention .. Financial politicians..' (no replies)        
'..If you can’t see this next crisis coming, you’re not paying the right kind of attention..'

'This Fed has already engineered the next crisis, just as Greenspan kept rates too low for too long, ignored his regulatory responsibility, and engineered the housing bubble and subprime crisis. If you can’t see this next crisis coming, you’re not paying the right kind of attention. The Trump Fed is going to have to deal with that crisis, but we still have many questions as to what a Trump Fed will actually look like or do.'

John Mauldin (Source, Jun 25, 2017)


'..Their empathy circuits get turned off.'

'Powerful people everywhere routinely make decisions that hurt others. We see it in central bankers, politicians, corporate CEOs, religious groups, universities – any large organization. The old saying is right: Power really does corrupt. And corruption is a barrier to sustainable economic growth. This is more than a political problem; it has a serious economic impact.

Recent psychological research suggests that powerful people behave remarkably like traumatic brain injury victims. Controlled experiments show that, given power over others, people often become impulsive and less sensitive to risk. Most important, test subjects often lose empathy, that is, the ability to understand and share the feelings of others.

..

Powerful people also lose a capacity called “mirroring.” When we observe other people doing something, our brains react as if we were doing the same thing. It’s why, when you watch a sporting event, you may unconsciously mimic a golf swing or the referee’s hand signals. Some portion of your brain thinks you are really there. But when researchers prime test subjects with powerful feelings, their mirroring capacity decreases.

You can see why this is a problem. The Protected-class members of the Federal Open Market Committee must feel quite powerful when they gather in that fancy room to make policy decisions. It’s no wonder they forget how their decisions will affect regular working-class people: Their empathy circuits get turned off.'

- Patrick Watson, The Wedge Goes Deeper, June 30, 2017


'..I now feel that it's highly likely we will face a major financial crisis, if not later this year, then by the end of 2018 at the latest..'

'Re-entering the news flow was a jolt, and not in a good way. Looking with fresh eyes at the economic numbers and central bankers’ statements convinced me that we will soon be in deep trouble. I now feel that it's highly likely we will face a major financial crisis, if not later this year, then by the end of 2018 at the latest. Just a few months ago, I thought we could avoid a crisis and muddle through. Now I think we’re past that point. The key decision-makers have (1) done nothing, (2) done the wrong thing, or (3) done the right thing too late.

Having realized this, I’m adjusting my research efforts. I believe a major crisis is coming. The questions now are, how severe will it be, and how will we get through it? With the election of President Trump and a Republican Congress, your naïve analyst was hopeful that we would get significant tax reform, in addition to reform of a healthcare system that is simply devastating to so many people and small businesses. I thought maybe we’d see this administration cutting through some bureaucratic red tape quickly. With such reforms in mind I was hopeful we could avoid a recession even if a crisis developed in China or Europe.

..

One news item I didn’t miss on St. Thomas – and rather wish I had – was Janet Yellen’s reassurance regarding the likelihood of another financial crisis. Here is the full quote.

Would I say there will never, ever be another financial crisis? You know probably that would be going too far, but I do think we’re much safer, and I hope that it will not be in our lifetimes and I don’t believe it will be. [emphasis added]

I disagree with almost every word in those two sentences, but my belief is less important than Chair Yellen’s. If she really believes this, then she is oblivious to major instabilities that still riddle the financial system. That’s not good.

..

Financial politicians (which is what central bankers really are) have a long history of saying the wrong things at the wrong time. Far worse, they simply fail to tell the truth. Former Eurogroup leader Jean-Claude Juncker admitted as much: “When it becomes serious, you have to lie,” he said in the throes of Europe’s 2011 debt crisis.'

- John Mauldin, Prepare for Turbulence, July 9, 2017


'..Market distortions – including valuations, deeply embedded complacency, and Trillions of perceived safe securities – have become only further detached from reality. And the longer all this unstable finance flows freely into the real economy, the deeper the structural maladjustment.'

'This week marks the five-year anniversary of Draghi’s “whatever it takes.” I remember the summer of 2012 as if it were yesterday. From the Bubble analysis perspective, it was a Critical Juncture – for financial markets and risk perceptions, for policy and for the global economy. Italian 10-year yields hit 6.60% on July 24, 2012. On that same day, Spain saw yields surge to 7.62%. Italian banks were in freefall, while European bank stocks (STOXX600) were rapidly approaching 2009 lows. Having risen above 55 in 2011, Deutsche Bank traded at 23.23 on July 25, 2012.

It was my view at the time that the “European” crisis posed a clear and immediate threat to the global financial system. A crisis of confidence in Italian debt (and Spanish and “periphery” debt) risked a crisis of confidence in European banks – and a loss of confidence in European finance risked dismantling the euro monetary regime.

Derivatives markets were in the crosshairs back in 2012. A crisis of confidence in European debt and the euro would surely have tested the derivatives marketplace to the limits. Moreover, with the big European banks having evolved into dominant players in derivatives trading (taking share from U.S. counterparts after the mortgage crisis), counter-party issues were at the brink of becoming a serious global market problem. It’s as well worth mentioning that European banks were major providers of finance for emerging markets.

From the global government finance Bubble perspective, Draghi’s “whatever it takes” was a seminal development. The Bernanke Fed employed QE measures during the 2008 financial crisis to accommodate deleveraging and stabilize dislocated markets. Mario Draghi leapfrogged (helicopter) Bernanke, turning to open-ended QE and other extreme measures to preserve euro monetary integration. No longer would QE be viewed as a temporary crisis management tool. And just completely disregard traditional monetary axiom that central banks should operate as lender of last resort in the event of temporary illiquidity – but must avoid propping up the insolvent. “Whatever it takes” advocates covert bailouts for whomever and whatever a small group of central bankers chooses – illiquid, insolvent, irredeemable or otherwise. Now five years after the first utterance of “whatever it takes,” the Draghi ECB is still pumping out enormous amounts of “money” on a monthly basis (buying sovereigns and corporates) with rates near zero.

..

Thinking back five years, U.S. markets at the time were incredibly complacent. The risk of crisis in Europe was downplayed: Policymakers had it all under control. Sometime later, the Financial Times - in a fascinating behind-the-scenes exposé - confirmed the gravity of the situation and how frazzled European leaders were at the brink of losing control. Yet central bankers, once again, saved the day – further solidifying their superhero status.

I’m convinced five years of “whatever it takes” took the global government finance Bubble deeper into perilous uncharted territory. Certainly, markets are more complacent than ever, believing central bankers are fully committed to prolonging indefinitely the securities bull market. Meanwhile, leverage, speculative excess and trend-following flows have had an additional five years to accumulate. Market distortions – including valuations, deeply embedded complacency, and Trillions of perceived safe securities – have become only further detached from reality. And the longer all this unstable finance flows freely into the real economy, the deeper the structural maladjustment.'

- Doug Noland, Five Years of Whatever It Takes, July 29, 2017


'..This whole episode is likely to end so badly that future children will learn about it in school and shake their heads in wonder at the rank stupidity of it all, just like many of us did when we learned about the Dutch Tulip mania.'

'While I've written about numerous valuation measures over time, the most reliable ones share a common feature: they focus on identifying "sufficient statistics" for the very, very long-term stream of cash flows that stocks can be expected to deliver into the hands of investors over time. On that front, revenues are typically more robust "sufficient statistics" than current or year-ahead earnings. See Exhaustion Gaps and the Fear of Missing Out for a table showing the relative reliability of a variety of measures. In April 2007, I estimated that an appropriate valuation for the S&P 500 stood about 850, roughly -40% lower than prevailing levels. By the October peak, the prospective market loss to normal valuation had increased to about -46%. As it happened, the subsequent collapse of the housing bubble took the S&P 500 about -55% lower. In late-October 2008, as the market plunge crossed below historically reliable valuation norms, I observed that the S&P 500 had become undervalued on our measures.

Again attempting to “stimulate” the economy from the recession that followed, the Federal Reserve cut short-term interest rates to zero in recent years, provoking yet another episode of yield-seeking speculation, where yield-starved investors created demand for virtually every class of securities, in the hope of achieving returns in excess of zero. Meanwhile, Wall Street, suffering from what J.K. Galbraith once called the “extreme brevity of the financial memory,” convinced itself yet again that the whole episode was built on something more solid than quotes on a screen and blotches of ink on paper..

..

..greater real economic activity was never the likely outcome of all this quantitative easing (indeed, one can show that the path of the economy since the crisis has not been materially different than what one could have projected using wholly non-monetary variables). Rather, Ben Bernanke, in his self-appointed role as Mad Hatter, was convinced that offensively hypervalued financial markets - that encourage the speculative misallocation of capital, imply dismal expected future returns, and create temporary paper profits that ultimately collapse - somehow represent a greater and more desirable form of “wealth” compared with reasonably-valued financial markets that offer attractive expected returns and help to soundly allocate capital. Believing that wealth is embodied by the price of a security rather than its future stream of cash flows, QE has created a world of hypervaluation, zero prospective future returns, and massive downside risks across nearly every conventional asset class.

And so, the Fed created such an enormous pool of zero interest bank reserves that investors would feel pressure to chase stocks, junk debt, anything to get rid of these yield-free hot potatoes. That didn’t stimulate more real, productive investment; it just created more investors who were frustrated with zero returns, because someone had to hold that base money, and in aggregate, all of them had to hold over $4 trillion of the stuff at every moment in time.

When you look objectively at what the Fed actually did, should be obvious how its actions encouraged this bubble. Every time someone would get rid of zero-interest base money by buying a riskier security, the seller would get the base money, and the cycle would continue until every asset was priced to deliver future returns near zero. We’re now at the point where junk yields are among the lowest in history, stock market valuations are so extreme that we estimate zero or negative S&P 500 average annual nominal total returns over the coming 10-12 year horizon, and our estimate of 12-year prospective total returns on a conventional mix of 60% stocks, 30% Treasury bonds, and 10% Treasury bills has never been lower (about 1% annually here). This whole episode is likely to end so badly that future children will learn about it in school and shake their heads in wonder at the rank stupidity of it all, just like many of us did when we learned about the Dutch Tulip mania.

Examine all risk exposures, consider your investment horizon and risk-tolerance carefully, commit to the flexibility toward greater market exposure at points where a material retreat in valuations is joined by early improvement in market action (even if the news happens to be very negative at that point), fasten your protective gear, and expect a little bit of whiplash. Remember that the “catalysts” often become evident after prices move, not before. The completion of this market cycle may or may not be immediate, but with the median stock at easily the most extreme price/revenue ratio in history, and a run-of-the-mill outcome now being market loss on the order of -60%, the contrast between recent stability and likely future volatility could hardly be more striking.'

- John P. Hussman, Ph.D., Hot Potatoes and Dutch Tulips, July 31, 2017


Context

(2017) - '..a deeply systemic debt crisis akin to the aftermath of 1929 .. the stage has now been set..'

(Banking Reform - Monetary Reform) - '..debt is our biggest security threat..'

'..the Next 30 Years: “Everything is Deflationary”..'

          'The WMO says that the "extreme and unusual" climate and weather trends have continued into 2017..' (no replies)        
'The WMO says that the "extreme and unusual" climate and weather trends have continued into 2017. At least three times this winter, the Arctic experienced the equivalent of a heatwave, as powerful Atlantic storms drove warm, moist air into the region.

Changes in the Arctic and the melting of sea-ice are also leading to a shift in atmospheric circulation patterns impacting other parts of the world. This is causing unusual heat in some areas - In the US, over 11,000 warm temperature records were broken in early 2017.

"Even without a strong El Niño in 2017, we are seeing other remarkable changes across the planet that are challenging the limits of our understanding of the climate system. We are now in truly uncharted territory," said David Carlson, World Climate Research Programme Director at the WMO.

In the face of all this information, climate researchers around the world are irked by the attitude of the Trump government in Washington.'

- Matt McGrath, 'Extreme and unusual' climate trends continue after record 2016, March 21, 2017


Context

Update (February 11, 2017) - '..ethical standards..' ('.. Dr. Bates appeared to distance himself from some of what he wrote in the blog post..')

'..Earth is warming more rapidly than previously thought was correct..'

          weekly Diigo Post (weekly)        

Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.


                  
SERANGAN DDoS, CYBERMOSLEM.NET MAMPU BERTAHAN
REP
Muhibbuddin Al Insaniyah
| 14 Agustus 2010 | 11:48
71
4
Nihil.

Sejak dirilis pada tanggal 1 Agusus 2010,Cybermoslem.net sudah dibanjiri dengan register-register baru yang semakin hari semakin melimpah. Dari banyaknya pengguna baru yang berbondong-bondong masuk, ternyata disinyalir oleh admin cybermoslem sendiri, ada sebuah “serangan rudal” dari “pesawat tak berawak” yang dikendalikan dari luar negeri, yang sengaja atau tidak memang hendak membuat rusuh suasana aksesing terhadap cybermoslem.

“…akhirnya CMnet lumpuh selama hampir semalaman (jum’at, 13 Agustus 2010). Setelah seharian di serang secara bertubi dengan sistem serangan ddos yang membuat jaringan kami menjadi sangat sibuk”, demikian menurut admin cybermoslem dalam blognya.

Serangan DoS (Denial of Service) adalah jenis serangan terhadap sebuah komputer atau server di dalam suatu jaringan internet dengan cara menghabiskan sumber (resource) yang dimiliki oleh komputer tersebut sampai komputer tersebut tidak dapat menjalankan fungsinya dengan benar sehingga secara tidak langsung mencegah pengguna lain untuk memperoleh akses layanan dari komputer yang diserang tersebut. Serangan DoS ini berlangsung satu lawan satu, satu penyerang melawan satu akun pengguna yang valid dan aktif, dengan penyerangnya menggunakan peralatan komputer yang canggih, serta dukungan host yang handal, sehingga target sasaran bisa kacau aksesingnya. Serangan DDoS ( Distribution DoS) merupakan serangan DoS yang “diselenggarakan” secara “rombongan” dan konspiratif menggunakan banyak komputer handal dan kuat, menyerang server sasaran, sehingga server “dipaksa” untuk tidak dapat memberikan pelayanan akses bagi pengguna.

Kondisi awal downtime sebenarnya sudah penulis rasakan dan terdeteksi oleh penulis pada sekitar lebih kurang jam 16.00 WIB, hari Jumat tanggal 13 Agutus 2010 kemarin, dan penulis seketika itu langsung memberikan sinyal “hati’hati” ke pihak admin bahwa ada “kemungkinan” upaya penyerangan oleh hacker ke server cybermoslem. Jawaban admin sangat sederhana, “Allah yang akan menolongnya“.

Situasi server lumpuh total terjadi semalaman dari mulai lebih kurang jam 19.30 WIB. Setelah sholat tarawih, penulis menutup akun di cybermoslem beberapa jam kemudian. Sebenarnya, pada Jum’at, 13 Agustus 2010, dari pagi sampai sore, akses ke cybermoslem.net masih stabil. Tetapi mulai malam sekitar jam 19.30 WIB lebih, pada saat pengguna dan saat sebagian besar member CMnet sedang sholat Tarawih. dan akses ke cybermoslem.net mulai ada kendala dan beberapa waktu kemudian lumpuh total.

Cybermoslem masih mampu tegak bertahan, tidak terjadi kehancuran dan kematian total, sehingga pada tanggal 14 Agustus 2010 sudah bisa normal kembali. Diperkirakan serangan akan berulang-ulang, tetapi Insya Allah, serangan DDoS dan serangan bentuk lainnya teramat berat dan kecil kemungkinan membunuh cybermoslem.

Memperhatikan berita di atas, penulis teringat serangan terhadap www.millatfacebook.com (jejaring sosial di Pakistan), yang sampai sekarang akhirnya web tersebut mengalami kelumpuhan dan tidak dapat diakses. Gambar di bawah ini adalah kondisi “bangkai” terakhir pada Sabtu, 14 Agutus 2010.

Kondisi "Bangkai" terakhir MillatFacebook.com. Adminnya masih berusaha hidup kembali.

Millatfacebook.com diciptakan oleh pemuda Pakistan, pada akhir Mei 2010 yang lalu, khusus untuk memberi alternatif bagi jejaring sosial mania di Pakistan dan penduduk dunia lainnya, setelah terjadinya “gempa bumi Facebook” yang menggemparkan dunia dengan munculnya halaman propaganda “Everybody Draw Mohammed Day”.

Terlepas dari alasan apapun pendiriannya, seharusnya netter tidak menganggap bahwa hadirnya jejaring baru sebagai ancaman sehingga melakukan serangan-serangan terhadap server ataupun apapun yang berafiliasi ke jejaring tersebut. Melihat gambar millatfcebook di atas, sepertinya admin millatfacebook asalnya menggunakan server di wilayah Amerika Serikat. Letak server inilah yang akan memberikan kemudahan lalu lintas bagi penyerang.

Perbedaan dengan millatfacebook, cybermoslem memiliki server yang berada di Indonesia. Sehingga serangan-serangan apapun bisa diketahui sejak dini, kemudian menyiapkan pertahanan dan benteng yang handal dan kuat, agar serangan semacam DDoS tidak terulang kembali. Serangan apapun terhadap jejaring, bentengpertama dalam pertahanan di garda server. Jika servernya kuat dan handal, insya Allah semuanya lancar-lancar.

Serangan susulan bisa saja dan akan terjadi, tetapi dengan server berada di Indonesia, serangan tersebut tidak akan sampai melumpuhkan cybermoslem, sehingga bernasib sama seperti millatfacebook.com.

Penulis tidak akan membuat andaian siapa yang menyerang. Tetapi yang jelas, adalah pihak yang dirugikan atau yang akan dirugikan. Siapa pihak yang dirugikan dengan adanya cybermoslem, penulis memberikan “gambaran kemungkinan” ciri-cirinya, sebagai berikut :

  1. Web jejaring sosial yang memegang mainstream di Indonesia, dengan jumlah pengguna sekarang inimencapai sekitar 500 juta di seluruh dunia. Jejaring ini merasa sudah memiliki Indonesia, sudah mendakwa menjadi penyantun melalui kerjasama dengan beberapa penyedia layanan telekomunikasi yaitu dengan penyediaan “akses gratis” bagi pelanggannya.
  2. Adanya serangan dari pihak yang tidak suka ada nama jejaring berlabel “Islam” atau “Moslem”menjadi populer, apalagi memiliki potensi mengalahkan mainstream yang sudah ada. Adanya cybermoslem, besar atau kecil akan mulai membersihkan label umat Islam yang sekarang ini seakan menjadi sarang teroris. Cybermoslem menjelaskan kepada dunia bahwa umat Islam juga sebenarnya mampu dan bisa menjadi pelopor bagipersahabatan dan dengan gaya hidup Teknologi Informasi, berbaur bersama semua orang dari berbagai negara, ras dan agama, dengan menjunjung nilai perdamaian dan kemanusiaan. Dengah kata lain, serangan terhadap cybermoslem ini, adalah serangan terhadap nilai kemanusiaan dalam diri cybermoslem, yang jelas-jelas bermaksud damai dan santun serta beradab membuka silaturrohim dan persahabatan bersama berbagai jenis umat manusia di bumi ini.

Penulis tidak menyebut bahwa penyerang adalah “musuh Islam” walaupun semua jejaring yang diserang adalah didirikan dan terutama untuk umat Islam. Mereka lebih cenderung sebagai uji coba ketahanan dan reaksi atas hadirnya cybermoslem yang menggemuruh.

Bagi kita orang Indonesia, kita wajib berbangga dengan kerja saudara kita Dola Indra Putra Agam, yng sudah sedemikian hebat membuat jejaring sosial sendiri, untuk dipersembahkan bagi bumi pertiwi Indonesia dan umat Islam dunia. Jejaring yang berkode Joomla ini bebas dipergunakan oleh siapapun.

Mempertimbangkan akan adanya serangan-serangan berikutnya, harapan penulis, melalui tulisan ini, nantinya ada tokoh nasional Indonesia, baik dari kalangan pemerintahan, maupun Non Government Organisation (NGO) bisa segera memberikan dukungan moral dan material bagi kelangsungan cybermoslem, jejaring kebanggaan Indonesia, sehingga cybermoslem bisa menjadi number one di Indonesia, mengalahkan jejaring produk import luar negeri.

sumber :

http://sn.cybermoslem.net/blogs/viewstory/163

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serangan_DoS


          U.S. Housing Market: Past, Present & Future         
  Instead of writing an article with a lot charts, I thought I would post my Facebook live instead. Sometimes hearing a […]
          Blog Post: Moves the RTS Genre Into Uncharted Territory, but Does it Hit the Mark?        

I've got nothing against non-traditional monetary models in games. BattleForge's odd setup, where players buy card packs through the online store to supplement their significant starting pool, and complete real-time strategy missions with created decks, is an intriguing framework. The online backend is solid, with a browser that lets players quickly find teammates or opponents for the mission they're interested in. It's too bad that the actual gameplay is so shoddy I wouldn't play it if the entire thing were free.

The basic combat is very traditional RTS battle, granting victory to the player who best uses counter units and properly employs his troops' activated abilities. Many of the little details that go into RTS design are poorly done, though. The massive pool of creatures and spells you may encounter makes it difficult to keep abreast of strengths and weaknesses. The extremely fast pace makes it easy to be overwhelmed – especially if, as in many scenarios, you have multiple fronts to deal with. [Excerpt]

There isn't much of an economic game, either. Controlling nodes gives a trickle of power to your pool, and any dead units slowly return their power cost to your bank as well. Strategic orbs can be captured to allow access to the higher tiers of spells in your deck. Most maps are designed in such a way that each player has access to a preset amount of these, meaning the units you summon are virtually the only determinant of success.

BattleForge is a combination of strange mechanics and bad design. Units are diverse, and yet none of them are terribly interesting. Missions have a ton of variety on the surface, but in practice they're variations on the same few objectives. Combat is vanilla RTS, but too messy to allow for much tactical or strategic creativity. New revenue models are a good way to try to find success in a tough PC gaming market, but even the cleverest is nowhere near as important as good gameplay.


          5 Gründe, eine Ideenliste zu führen        

Die meisten von uns haben keine Probleme, neue Ideen zu finden.

Aber die meisten von uns haben Mühe, diese neuen Ideen dann tatsächlich einmal in die Wirklichkeit umzusetzen.

Das hat mehrere Gründe. Richtig blöd ist aber, wenn wir zwar eine geniale Idee haben, sie danach mit der Zeit vergessen.

Damit dir das nicht passiert, gibt es die Ideenliste.

Ursprünglich habe ich diese Idee (sic!) bei „Getting Things Done“ (GTD) kennengelernt.

David Allen empfiehlt ja den Kontext „Irgendwann/Vielleicht“ (Someday/Maybe). Hier gehören alle Ideen hin.

Jede Woche (wichtig!) schaut man auf diese Liste und prüft, ob man nicht etwas davon umsetzen möchte.

Das ist aber nur die eine Funktion der Ideenliste: Dafür sorgen, dass wir keine Idee vergessen.

Es gibt noch weitere Vorteile, weshalb sich eine Ideenliste lohnt. Hier sind fünf davon.

Die Shownotes findest du unter https://ivanblatter.com/ideenliste/


          Vergiss Selbstdisziplin - Wie gelingen Veränderungen wirklich?        

Zeitmanagement ist Veränderung - und die kann durchaus leicht sein.

Ein anderes Gebiet, in dem es auch um Veränderung geht, ist Fitness, Bewegung und Ernährung. Was liegt also näher, als mal einen echten Experten rund um Veränderung zu befragen?

Genau das habe ich getan und meinen Freund Mark Maslow von marathonfitness.de zu einem Interview eingeladen.

Die Shownotes findest du unter https://ivanblatter.com/veraenderungen/


          So bremst dich die Angst, etwas zu verpassen, aus        

Die meisten Probleme im Zeitmanagement brocken wir uns selbst ein.

Wenn wir schlecht organisiert sind, sollten wir nicht mit dem Finger auf den Chef, die Kunden, die Kollegen oder die Wirtschaft zeigen.

Vergiss nicht: Wenn wir mit dem Finger auf jemanden zeigen, zeigen ziemlich viele unserer anderen Finger auf uns selbst.

Das Gute daran: Wir können hier und jetzt die Entscheidung treffen, unser Zeitmanagement zu verbessern. Die Fäden für eine höhere Produktivität und eine bessere Arbeitsorganisation liegen in unserer Hand!

Die Shownotes findest du unter https://ivanblatter.com/angst-etwas-zu-verpassen/


          #130 Aufschieberitis: Das kannst du wirklich gegen den inneren Schweinehund tun.        

Hast du heute schon was aufgeschoben? Ganz ehrlich: ich habe schon einiges aufgeschoben:

  • Ich blieb noch ein paar Minuten im schönen, warmen Bett.
  • Danach habe ich in ein paar Facebook-Gruppen gelesen, anstatt mich parat zu machen und zum Sport zu gehen.
  • Bevor ich diese Zeilen schrieb, habe ich zuerst mal gemütlich Kaffee getrunken.

Aufschieberitis (oder Prokrastination) ist ein ganz normales Verhalten für uns Menschen. Jeder schiebt mal auf - meistens sogar täglich.

Richtig problematisch wird es aber dann, wenn wir ständig oder regelmäßig aufschieben und so unsere Aufgaben nicht oder erst auf den letzten Drücker erledigen. Also weder zeitnah noch stressfrei.

Meine heutige Aufschieberitis war kein Problem. Vielleicht war es eher Trödeln, doch ich war pünktlich beim Sport und mit diesem Text hier bin ich auch voll auf Kurs.

Was hinter der Aufschieberitis wirklich steht, weshalb der Begriff des "inneren Schweinehund" problematisch ist und wie du ihn ins Boot holst, erfährst du hier.

Die Shownotes findest du unter https://ivanblatter.com/aufschieberitis/


          PROSES MEMBELI RUMAH DARI DEVELOPER YANG WAJIB DIKETAHUI        

PROSES MEMBELI RUMAH DARI DEVELOPER YANG WAJIB DIKETAHUI


 Ilustrasi Membeli Rumah dari Developer.  Sumber : ini

CALON PEMBELI WAJIB TAHU PROSES MEMBELI RUMAH DARI DEVELOPER  

Membeli rumah dari developer / pengembang merupakan salah satu cara yang banyak digunakan orang untuk memiliki rumah.  Cara ini banyak ditempuh, terutama oleh emreka yang tinggal di kawasan perkotaan,  sebab harga tanah di perkotaan sudah sangat tinggi, sehingga menjadi tidak mudah jika membangun rumah sendiri.

Membeli rumah melalui developer akan memberikan banyak kemudahan, diantaranya :

  • Kawasan yang sudah jadi, artinya developer menyediakan lokasi perumahan yang tertata dan dilengkapi fasilitas umum serta khusus.
  • Tidak perlu repot mengurusi proses pembangunan rumah, dari membuat desain, menyusun RAB, hingga mengawasi pembangunan rumah.
  • Tersedianya fasilitas kerjasama KPR (Kredit Pemilikan Rumah) dengan bank.


Namun calon pembeli rumah wajib tahu mengenai Tahapan Proses Membeli Rumah dari Developer.  

Beli Rumah Kok Cuma Dikasih Gambar !!

Pernah mendengar istilah “beli rumah dari developer itu beli gambar” ?  Istilah itu maksudnya adalah: saat kita membeli rumah di developer, rumahnya secara fisik belum ada.  Kita hanya tahu seperti apa rumah dan perumahan itu nantinya kalau sudah jadi, melalui gambar dan maket yang dibuat oleh developer.  Kenapa begitu ?  Sebab developer membutuhkan dana kucuran dari KPR untuk membangun rumah yang kita pesan.


Dan berikut ini proses yang lazim dilalui jika kita membeli rumah dari developer.

9 TAHAPAN PROSES MEMBELI RUMAH DARI DEVELOPER

Secara umum, proses pembelian rumah dari developer menggunakan skema KPR atergambar dari flowchart berikut ini:

 Flowchart Proses Membeli Rumah dari Developer

PENJELASAN SINGKAT MENGENAI PROSES MEMBELI RUMAH DARI DEVELOPER

Penjelasan singkat mengenai flowchart di atas adalah sebagai berikut :
Tahapan 1Memilih Rumah dari Developer Terpercaya

Tahapan 2 Membayar Booking Fee untuk memesan rumah.

Tahapan 3 Mengajukan KPR dan mendapatkan persetujuan kredit dari bank. Tanpa KPR (Kredit Pemilikan Rumah), rumah tidak bisa mulai dibangun oleh developer. Jika pembelian dilakukan secara tunai, proses ini tidak diperlukan.

Tahapan 4 Menandatangani Perjanjian Jual Beli (PPJB) dengan developer. PPJB ini penting untuk dibaca karena didalamnya termuat klausul mengenai janji developer soal kapan rumah jadi, proses balik nama sertifikat dan lain- lain. Sampai disini status rumah masih PPJB.

Tahapan 5 Rumah selesai. Biasanya setelah 6 bulan s/d 1 tahun, tapi ada juga yang lebih dari 1 tahun, misalnya jika perumahan yang dikerjakan skala besar, dan unit yang dibangun banyak.  Setelah proses pembangunan rumah rampung, rumah siap ditempati.

Tahapan 6 Proses pemecahan sertifikat HGB developer yang dilakukan setelah rumah jadi. Pemecahan harus dilakukan terlebih dahulu supaya sertifikat bisa dibalik nama ke pembeli

Tahapan 7 Dilakukan Akta Jual Beli (AJB) dengan notaris.

Tahapan 8 Balik nama sertifikat HGB developer ke pembeli.

Tahapan 9 Meningkatkan  status menjadi Sertfikat Hak Milik (SHM)


Demikian artikel PROSES MEMBELI RUMAH DARI DEVELOPER YANG WAJIB DIKETAHUI, semoga artikel singkat ini membantu Anda.

Ingin mendapatkan informasi lebih jelas ?
Langsun hubungi Citra Property Land


          5 mitos estéticos (falsos o verdaderos) que deberías conocer        
Aclaración de 5 mitos estéticos | Elena del Mar
Los tratamientos estéticos son una de las opciones más acertadas al momento de rejuvenecer y lucir radiante. Sin embargo existen diferentes mitos y realidades que giran entorno a estas posibilidades. Elena del Mar despeja dudas y te invita a visitar uno de sus centros de estética en Chicó para que vivas experiencias y disfrutes de todas las promociones que tenemos preparadas para ti.

¿Mitos estéticos? Conócelos y… no comas entero


Las verdades universales son inexistentes debido a que los absolutos que definen la realidad en algún momento no arrojan los resultados esperados. En el caso específico de los tratamientos estéticos puede que en algunas personas lo esperado empiece a notarse a la segunda o tercera sesión. No obstante, en otros casos puede tardar un poco más. No mencionamos que desde la primera sesión porque en esa oportunidad puede suceder algo en tu cuerpo pero no se logrará lo que esperas ver.

A continuación lo que debe ser desmentido o ratificado de los tratamientos estéticos:

#1. Disminución de medidas en la primera sesión de masajes


FALSO. Una sola sesión de masajes reductores como uno de los tratamientos post parto no disminuye tus medidas, lo que puede suceder es que tu estado de ánimo cambie y te sientas más segura, ligera y conforme con tu imagen. Fortaleciendo tu autoestima y amor por quien eres.

#2. La celulitis no se elimina


VERDADERO. La celulitis es una enfermedad crónica que proviene de factores como la mala circulación, problemas hormonales, enfermedades de la piel, malos hábitos alimenticios y sedentarismo. Se presenta en varios grados o etapas además de ser progresiva. Sin embargo se puede detener y revertir el proceso por medio de tratamientos especializados. En este caso, Elena del Mar te ofrece la promoción “Adiós Celulitis”, haz tu reservación y pago online desde aquí y disfruta de un centro de estética en Hacienda Santa Bárbara con buena ubicación y facilidades de llegada para cumplir con tu “cita especial”. 

#3. Bañarse con agua caliente aumenta la celulitis


VERDADERO. Las duchas muy calientes o los baños de inmersión generan en tu cuerpo acumulación de líquidos en las diferentes zonas donde tienes celulitis. Por tanto, no permite la eliminación de toxinas. ¿La recomendación? Ducharte con agua templada o, preferiblemente, fría.

#4. El botox inflama el rostro


FALSO. El botox no provoca inflamaciones en labios o partes de la cara pues no es un material de relleno. Es una toxina que permite la relajación de los músculos faciales y disminuye las líneas de expresión naturales.

#5. Todos los rellenos faciales son notables


FALSO. Los rellenos faciales que suelen utilizar los pacientes no se ven exagerados ni modifican las expresiones del rostro. Ahora, no existe en el mercado un relleno que dure para siempre, por tanto, este tipo de procedimientos te aportan una duración de 1 año a año y medio dependiendo factores de marca.

5 de los muchos mitos que existen te los damos a conocer hoy para que despejes dudas y tomes decisiones estéticas si por alguna razón estás pensando en acudir a especialistas en el sector. Elena del Mar es uno de los centros de estética que ofrece además de spa en Bogotá norte y otras zonas de la ciudad, actividades deportivas en excelentes sedes de gimnasio, con el gran objetivo e iniciativa de promover un estilo de vida orientado al bienestar y armonía.

Contáctanos, reserva tu cita y disfruta de grandiosas promociones estéticas.

Artículo tomado de Elena del Mar.
          Album Review: Courtney Barnett – Sometimes I Sit and Think, and Sometimes I Just Sit        

Do yourself and the world of music a favor; buy I Sit and Think, and Sometimes I Just Sit and help push Courtney Barnett up the music charts. 5 out of 5!

The post Album Review: Courtney Barnett – Sometimes I Sit and Think, and Sometimes I Just Sit appeared first on Bearded Gentlemen Music.


          The Monthly Chart        

Since June of last year, we've been following the monthly chart of Comex gold, hoping for a trend change. Using this chart, we've clearly achieved a breakout as of last month. Others however prefer to draw the line differently so we thought that today we'd present you with some other, possible options.

read more


          The Startup Founder Effect: The Genetics of Success        
By:  Andrew Johnson, Ph.D. The ‘Founder Effect’ was discovered by Ernst Mayr in 1942 (Wikipedia) as part of his seminal work on population genetics.  It basically states that many of the traits that you might see in a given sub-population of individuals can be attributed to the genetics of the first individuals that inhabited the […]
          Are we there yet? The Secret to Keeping your Company on Track        
By: Andrew Johnson, Ph.D. Every summer as a kid, my family would pile in the car and drive to beautiful Lake Champlain, Vermont for a week of fun and relaxation.  The car ride itself felt like a quick detour to the 9th circle of a place a little less nice than Lake Champlain.  This was […]
          The Company You Keep: Three Steps to Finding the Breakthrough Team        
By:  Andrew Johnson, Ph.D. and Sarah Cardozo Duncan You can find new articles for entrepreneurs almost every day advising how to best make a success out of their brilliant ideas.  One of the key pieces of advice is to make sure that you hire the very best team you can to make this all work.  […]
          Vinyl Black and White Wooden Ruler Growth Chart by KimsSister        

Sold

For the contemporary home, a digital reproduction of an old black and white wooden ruler (found at the Brimfield Fair in Massachusetts), made into a full-size growth chart, printed on vinyl and backed with cotton muslin. A simple and permanent way to keep track of your family's growth that can be hung in any room (not just the kids' rooms) and moves with you!

I recommend using a brown ultrafine Sharpie-type felt pen to mark heights on the chart as it gives the illusion of having been carved into the wood (but black works just as well). If you are buying this for older children, your doctor should have records of the children's heights from year one!

Please note the colour in the photos does not show true on the screen -- the colour is more of an off-white with hints of greys and a green-beige as seen in the last photo.

Printed on vinyl and backed with cotton muslin.

Comes ready to hang. 78" high by 7 1/2" wide.

Rolled into a cylinder for easy shipping. Please allow at least 2-3 weeks from date of mailing (about 10-15 working days). For rush orders, or for orders outside North America, please convo me for prices.

Printed and made in Canada in a smoke-free home.


          Avenge Trading Software ***Update***        

Thanks for reading today’s update of Avenge Trading Software and Avenge Trading Room On July 18, 2015 I wrote a pretty tough review of Avenge Trading Software and Avenge Trading Room. My main gripe was that I could not authenticate the trading inside of the trading room. There was no DOM present on the screen, no trading from the charts, or account statements to verify results. And since the trading product is quite expensive, I conducted a particularly aggressive review. My hope was that I could motivate the company into revealing some sort of real time tracking mechanism, my favorite

The post Avenge Trading Software ***Update*** appeared first on Trading Schools.Org.


          Reporting - Pie Chart Issue        
I'm having a problem creating a pie chart, where I am passing in values and the numbers are showing up, but the actual pie chart isn't graphically displaying them as different sizes.
          DropDownList Inside the Custom EditTemplate        
Hello Edwin,

You can review the Grid popup editing example implementation with Entity Framework and LocalDB in the Kendo UI for ASP.NET MVC Sample Application. You can find more detailed information about how to setup and run the application locally from the link below:


The source for the sample application can be found in the installation directory of Progress Telerik UI for ASP.NET MVC by navigating to \wrappers\aspnetmvc\Examples\VS2015\Kendo.Mvc.Examples.sln.

Regards,
Dimitar
Progress Telerik
Try our brand new, jQuery-free Angular 2 components built from ground-up which deliver the business app essential building blocks - a grid component, data visualization (charts) and form elements.

          Extended Diagram Shape        

Hi,

I want to use WinForms RadDigram as platform for a gui Editor.
is it possible to add a "normal" control object like button or even an RadChart as RadDiagramShape ?

 

BTW: ist WinForms a right choys for future prooft Projects

 

Besdt Regards
Paul


          Better F# data science with FsLab and Ionide        

At NDC Oslo 2016, I did a talk about some of the recent new F# projects that are making data science with F# even nicer than it used to be. The talk covered a wider range of topics, but one of the nice new thing I showed was the improved F# Interactive in the Ionide plugin for Atom and the integration with FsLab libraries that it provides.

In particular, with the latest version of Ionide for Atom and the latest version of FsLab package, you can run code in F# Interactive and you'll see resulting time series, data frames, matrices, vectors and charts as nicely pretty printed HTML objects, right in the editor. The following shows some of the features (click on it for a bigger version):

In this post, I'll write about how the new Ionide and FsLab integration works, how you can use it with your own libraries and also about some of the future plans. You can also learn more by getting the FsLab package, or watching the NDC talk..


          The Gamma: Simple code behind interactive articles        

There are huge amounts of data around us that we could use to better understand the world. Every company collects large amounts of data about their sales or customers. Governments and international organizations increasingly release interesting data sets to the public through various open government data initiatives (data.gov or data.gov.uk). But raw data does not tell you much.

An interesting recent development is data journalism. Data journalists tell stories using data. A data driven article is based on an interesting observation from the data, it includes (interactive) visualizations that illustrate the point and it often allows the reader to get the raw data.

Adding a chart produced in, say, Excel to an article is easy, but building good interactive visualization is much harder. Ideally, the data driven article should not be just text with static pictures, but a program that links the original data source to the visualization. This lets readers explore how the data is used, update the content when new data is available and change parameters of the visualization if they need to understand different aspect of the topic.

This is in short what I'm trying to build with The Gamma project. If you're interested in building better reports or data driven articles, continue reading!

I did a talk about The Gamma project at the fantastic Future Programming workshop at the StrangeLoop conference last week (thanks for inviting me!) and there is a recording of my 40 minute talk on YouTube, so if you prefer to watch videos, check it out!

Are you a data journalist or data analyst? We're looking for early partners! I joined the EF programme to work on this and if the project sounds like something you'd like to see happen, please get in touch or share your contact details on The Gamma page!


          Families of jailed Turkish journalists shaken but determined        

Istanbul: Their imprisonment has torn families apart while the newspaper they work for is left without some of its brightest stars.

But the relatives and colleagues of jailed journalists from the Turkish opposition daily Cumhuriyet vow to continue to fight for their freedom and ideals.

"For nine months we have been living a nightmare, to be honest," said Nazire Gursel, wife of veteran commentator Kadri Gursel who has been in jail since October.

The hardest part, she said, was replying to questions from their 10-year-old son, Erdem.

"People tell my child, `Your father is a hero, he has done a lot for Turkey`," Nazire Gursel recounted.

"So, on the one hand he is proud, but on the other hand, he asks, `But why is my father in prison if he is a hero? Who is his enemy?`"

Since Monday, 17 journalists, executives and other staff of Cumhuriyet, a daily fiercely critical of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, have been on trial accused of supporting "terrorist" organisations.

Secular Cumhuriyet ("Republic") daily, one of Turkey`s oldest newspapers, has built a strong reputation for publishing scoops embarrassing for those in power.

The newspaper rejects the "absurd" accusations and claims the trial is aimed at damaging one of the country`s last independent media outlets.

The experience has united journalists` relatives and their free colleagues who come to court together, and who sometimes go in groups to Silivri prison on the outskirts of Istanbul with a minibus chartered by the newspaper.

Nazire Gursel goes to Silivri every Friday. "I had never been to Silivri before my husband`s incarceration. When I arrived there for the first time, I told myself `it looks like a Nazi camp`, she told AFP.

"It is a really scary place."The trial gave family members the chance to see their loved ones outside of prison, where visits are confined to an hour and take place behind bulletproof glass.

"We at least have the chance to see or hear them without a window between us, to hear their voice directly without using a telephone," said Yonca Sik, the wife of Ahmet Sik, one of Turkey`s most famous investigative journalists who is also jailed.

According to her, conditions in prison have hardened since her husband`s last incarceration- in 2011, he was imprisoned after writing notably one of the few full-scale investigations into the group of Fethullah Gulen.

Gulen is a US-based cleric who Ankara accuses of ordering last year`s failed coup against President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

"They are in isolation, that is especially the hardest," she told AFP in front of the Istanbul courthouse where the staff is on trial. Among them, 11 are in pre-trial detention.

"They take them away from the people they love, their work and it`s clearly an injustice, persecution," one of Cumhuriyet`s lawyers Efkan Bolac said.

"It`s torture for the accused."Beyond the impact on families, the incarcerations have hurt Cumhuriyet: the paper`s chairman, Akin Atalay, and its editor-in-chief Murat Sabuncu are currently in prison.

"For nine months, Cumhuriyet has faced troubles. Nearly all of its senior executives have been imprisoned as well as many writers," the daily`s Ankara bureau chief Erdem Gul said.

Gul himself was sentenced last year for five years for "revealing state secrets" after a front page story claiming to show the government sending arms to rebels in Syria in May 2015. He is appealing the sentence.

"We are paying a heavy price but we continue to publish the newspaper," Gul said, adding: "Cumhuriyet has not changed its editorial line."

Nazire Gursel says she does not regret the work that her husband did which caused him to be behind bars. "I`m immensely proud of him."

The judge is likely to decide on Friday whether or not to release the accused for the rest of the trial.

"Turkey is no longer a state of law, but there are still people who are fighting for democracy, for justice," said Yonca Sik, pointing to the demonstrators gathered in front of the court. 

"And that, of course, gives me hope."

Section: 
Yes
News Source: 
Facebook Instant Article: 
No

          Création de logo        

Kezaco Studio, graphiste webdesigner freelance à Lyon

Charte graphique et création de logo

Une nouvelle création de logo et sa charte graphique opérationnelle

L'article Création de logo apparait en premier sur Kezaco Studio.


          No Peanuts for Your Peanut        

Youngsters are developing peanut allergies earlier because of exposures in babyhood

Food for Thought

Peanuts are a protein-rich snack food packing plenty of vitamins and trace nutrients. However, these legumes can elicit potentially life-threatening immune reactions within the one in 100 American adults who are allergic to them. Rates of peanut allergy are even higher among children. And the really disturbing news: A new study finds that the age at which this common food allergy first shows up is falling.

Today, peanut allergy typically emerges in early toddlerhood, a team of Duke University researchers reports in the December Pediatrics. "That's almost a year earlier than what we knew, scientifically, a decade ago, "explains A. Wesley Burks, a pediatric allergist who coauthored the new study.

Although children outgrow many allergies, peanut allergy is not typically one of them. Among people who develop immune reactions to this food, 80 percent retain their allergy for life.

The new study began, Burks says, after Duke immunologists noticed that they were encountering younger patients with peanut allergy. To investigate, the researchers pulled entry records and medical charts for all 140 young patients who had come in with the allergy since 1988. Poring over the records confirmed a fall in age at first diagnosis throughout this period—one that proved more dramatic than expected, Burks told Science News Online.

Nationally, the rate of food allergy appears to be increasing, according to a 2006 report of a National Institutes of Health expert panel. The most striking increase, it noted, has been for peanut allergy, which is also the most common food sensitivity. Because some allergies can be avoided by delaying a child's initial introduction to certain foods, in 2000 the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that parents "consider" keeping peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish out of the diet of kids under age 3.

Burks acknowledges that most parents aren't aware of this recommendation. On the other hand, most peanut allergy shows up in children that had already exhibited allergic reactions to other foods—typically eggs or milk. Many affected children also had skin sensitivities as infants, such as eczema or atopic dermatitis, and a parent or sibling with allergies, although not necessarily to food.

Against that background, you would think parents of the most vulnerable kids would be especially careful about introducing peanuts into the diet. And they might well have been. Indeed, Burks suspects that most initial introductions to peanuts in his young patients were inadvertent. Either a child encountered items that contained unlabeled traces of peanuts—perhaps a jelly bean, certain flavorings used in medicines, or any of several baby lotions (see Unexpected Sources of Peanut Allergy). Or perhaps the kids encountered peanut allergen in the air when others were eating, handling, or cooking foods that contained the legume.

But for now, Burks' team has no firm leads on why peanut allergies are showing up earlier. The Duke group and others will be probing that in the next few years.

Homing in on the problem

Children with peanut allergy in the new study showed the expected history of vulnerability. For instance, four in five had parents or a sib with some form of allergy. Four in five children also had personally experienced atopic dermatitis, two in every three suffered from asthma, and more than half had allergies that triggered runny noses. Moreover, blood tests from two-thirds of the youngsters turned up antibodies highlighting sensitivity to other foods, typically eggs or tree-nuts.

Half of the young patients were born between 1988 and 1999, the rest between 2000 and 2005. The average age of their peanut allergy's onset was significantly different between the two groups—roughly 29 months old for the pre-2000 birth group, versus 15 months for children born since 2000. Within the first group, half of the children developed peanut allergy by 21 months of age; for children born since 2000, half developed their allergy by the time they were 14 months old.

In hopes of teasing out factors that contributed to the trend of earlier allergies, Burks' group is participating in a Food Allergy Research Consortium that has been given $17 million to study food allergies—especially to peanuts. One facet of the 5-year program, which is sponsored by NIAID, is investigating the use of shots to desensitize people with peanut allergy. In addition, some 400 infants with milk and egg allergies will be studied for signs of immunological differences that distinguish those who outgrow their allergies from those who retain them lifelong.

Currently, some 30,000 people a year are hospitalized for food allergy in the United States, and 200 die during an allergic episode. One concern, Burks notes, is that children who develop peanut allergy earlier than in the past might face a lower-than-usual chance of outgrowing their life-threatening affliction—one that requires constant vigilance.

Such an allergy can even crimp one's social life. Consider the poor teenage girl whose lips swelled up after being kissed by her boyfriend (see A Rash of Kisses). Hours earlier, the boy had eaten peanuts, to which the girl was allergic.


If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

Citations

American Academy of Pediatrics

141 Northwest Point Boulevard

Elk Grove Village, IL 60007

Web site: [Go to]

A. Wesley Burks

Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

Duke University Medical Center

DUMC 2644

Durham, NC 27710

National Institutes of Health

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Office of Communications and Government Relations

6610 Rockledge Drive, MSC 6612

Bethesda, MD 20892-6612

Web site: [Go to]
Further Reading

Helmuth, L. 1999. Allergy vaccine may take fear out of nuts. Science News 155(April 3):213. Available at [Go to].

Long, A. 2002. The nuts and bolts of peanut allergy. New England Journal of Medicine 346(April 25):1320-1322. Extract available at [Go to].

Raloff, J. 2003. Unexpected sources of peanut allergy. Science News Online (March 15). Available at [Go to].

______. 2002. A rash of kisses. Science News 162(July 20):40. Available at [Go to].

______. 1998. The mango that thought it was poison ivy. Science News Online (Aug. 8). Available at [Go to].

______. 1997. A whiff, a sniff—then asthma. Science News Online (Feb. 1). Available at [Go to].

______. 1996. Peanut allergy found common and increasing. Science News 150(Sept. 7):150. Available at [Go to].

_____. 1996. Family allergies? Keep nuts away from kids. Science News 149(May 4):279. Available at [Go to].

Seppa, N. 2003. Tough nut is cracked: Antibody treatment stifles peanut reactions. Science News 163(March 15):163. Available at [Go to].

          Tag! You're It        

Biologists catch and tag big sawfish in Florida waters

Food for Thought

Once a common top predator throughout coastal seas around the globe, sawfish have become remarkably rare. Indeed, today most populations are threatened with extinction. So spotting even one of these animals is reason to rejoice, notes Beau Yeiser of Mote Marine Laboratory in southern Florida. And this week, "we are nothing but giddy," he reports.

He and colleague Tonya Wiley just returned from a 2-day sawfish-scouting expedition during which they tagged a 7-foot male on Oct. 16. At that size, the strapping youth may be 5 to 7 years old, Yeiser says. He cautions, however, that estimating age is challenging "as we try and piece together the life history of this species. We don't even know its size at maturity yet."

These animals—essentially flattened sharks with wings—are members of the ray family. Only one species of this fish remains in U.S. waters, mostly off of Florida. Over the first half of the 20th century, this smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) was fished to the brink of extinction—largely by accident.

Although many cultures eat sawfish—the animals' fins are especially prized in Asia as the featured ingredient in a pricey soup—most of the animals in U.S. waters were landed and destroyed as bycatch, that is, nuisance species hauled in by commercial fishing fleets. The dire status of sawfish globally won these animals protection, last month, under a treaty banning international trade in endangered species (see Hammered Saws).

So far this year, Yeiser and Wiley have caught just 14 sawfish, most of them less than 4 feet long. Those would still be little kids, considering that these fish are almost a yard long at birth. Then again, the pair had expected only small ones because they've mainly been cruising coastal shallows this year in hopes of running into newborns and youngsters.

The scientists attach a numbered identification tag to the dorsal fin of every sawfish they catch—and then release the animal.

But last week's catch was so big that it qualified for a second identifier: a pop-up archival tag, or PAT. These recording devices are so heavy that they're reserved for large sawfish—at least 7-footers. To date, only some dozen of these animals have received PATs. Costing at least $4,000 each, these data-storage systems collect information every minute, for months, on the depth at which its host is swimming, the water temperature, and light levels. The latter information gets plugged into a computer program that roughly gauges the animal's geographic coordinates at any moment.

Researchers program a PAT to pop off the fish on a particular date. Once it floats to the surface, it sends its stored information in spurts, twice a day, to a satellite. That orbiting relay station then shoots those data back to Earth and the scientists' email addresses.

Last week's sawfish encounter took place in a southern Florida national wildlife refuge, in very shallow water. Investigated as a possible nursery, Yeiser says "I was expecting any sawfish that I might catch to be perhaps 4 to 5 feet in length." Instead, he found a much older juvenile. "But that's the beauty of this [sawfish] project; you never know what you are going to get when you're scouting a species that has not been studied much!"

Yeiser named the youth that he tagged last week Raloff. Hmmm—I like the sound of that. Its tag is programmed to pop off on March 15. Stay tuned for an update on my namesake's travels.

If all goes well, that is.

A 7- and an 11-foot sawfish each received PATs in May. Although the satellite tags had been programmed to pop off 3 months later, they actually surfaced within just a couple weeks, Yeiser says—and were never recovered.

So, each time biologists deploy the pricey devices, he says, "we just cross our fingers that they won't pop up early—or get lost in the middle of the Gulf."

Don't try this yourself

The sawfish is an endangered species, so federal law forbids its capture—except by researchers who have been granted a waiver. And even they need to release an animal after measuring and tagging it.

It's against the law to even harass the animals. Still, anglers may inadvertently snag one of the toothy marvels. When that happens, this species "should be released by keeping the fish in the water and cutting the line as close to the hook as possible," according to guidelines issued late last year by the National Marine Fisheries Service in St. Petersburg, Fla. "If it can be done safely, untangle the line if it is wrapped around the saw. Do not handle the animal or attempt to remove any hooks on the saw, except for with a long-handled dehooker," NOAA says.

Biologists request that any anglers who sight a sawfish report their encounter to the Mote lab. Its scientists are maintaining a database to help them identify important habitat for these endangered animals.

As interesting as these piscine oddities are, biologists would prefer that the public give the fish a wide berth. The primary reason: Approaching the animals can stress them, chase them from what should be waters safe from predators, or even interfere with their reproduction.

But there's another reason to steer clear, according to Captain Harvey Lee Hamilton, who charters a fishing boat out of Pineland, Fla. "I've caught plenty of sawfish in my life, and I'll tell you: They're dangerous. I'm still scared to death of them." Their saws—which he terms blades—are edged with dozens of razor-sharp "teeth." The muscular animals slash those saws from side to side to kill prey or defend themselves.

Says Hamilton: "Those fish get big, with blades that can go to at least 5 foot." And they slash those blades "so fast," he says, "that they could slice your feet off." Indeed, he told Science News Online: "I'd rather fight a shark than a sawfish."


If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

Citations

Beau Yeiser and Tonya R. Wiley

Center for Shark Research

Mote Marine Laboratory

1600 Ken Thompson Parkway

Sarasota, FL 34236

Smalltooth Sawfish Coordinator

National Marine Fisheries Service

Southeast Regional Office, Protected Resources Division

263 13th Avenue South

St. Petersburg, FL 33071
Further Reading

2006. Mote scientists to help eBay identify species in new sawfish ban. Mote Marine Laboratory news release. Jan. 25. Available at [Go to].

Mote Marine Laboratory. How you can help save the U.S. smalltooth sawfish. Available at [Go to].

Raloff. J. 2007. Hammered saws. Science News 172(Aug. 11):90-92. Available at [Go to].

______. 2002. Clipping the fin trade. Science News 162(Oct. 12):232-234. Available at [Go to].

Sawfish in Peril: Sawfish Education Program. Available at [Go to].

          Fattening Carbs—Some Promote Obesity and Worse        

Food for Thought

Nutritionists call them carbohydrates. To most of us, they're simply sugars and starches. And although the fructose in soft drinks and the refined flour in white bread taste quite different, "nutritionally and metabolically they're the same as table sugar," explains endocrinologist David S. Ludwig. That's because the body digests all carbohydrate-rich foods into glucose, or blood sugar.

However, all carbs don't break down at the same rate. The body digests those in many whole-grain products quite slowly. Others become converted to glucose almost immediately.

Rapidly digested carbs aren't healthy for people with diabetes and others watching their blood sugar. A new study by Ludwig and his colleagues at Children's Hospital Boston suggests that such carbs are also problematic for people looking to shed body fat. Indeed, the findings indicate that consumption of the wrong carbs can spur the development of body fat, even with no gain in weight.

In the study, mice that chowed down on a type of rapidly digestible starch didn't gain any more weight than did animals eating a starch that digests slowly. But the first group did accumulate lots of excess fat. The data indicate that something about rapidly digesting carbs signaled the body to convert more of a meal's energy into body fat, into fatty lipids that circulate in blood, and into deposits of fat throughout the liver.

Ludwig considers the observed effect on the animals' livers the most troubling one. Fatty-liver disease has traditionally been regarded as the first stage of damage from alcoholism that can progress to hepatitis, cirrhosis, and death. But researchers in recent years have discerned the beginnings of an epidemic of fatty-liver disease unrelated to alcoholism but correlated strongly with being overweight. Recent data suggest that as much as one-third of children and even a higher proportion of adults have the condition. Ludwig told Science News Online that he suspects that "up to half of the [U.S.] population" now has fatty-liver disease.

The question has been what's fueling this epidemic. Because the disease so often accompanies obesity, many researchers have suspected that high-fat diets and junk foods are responsible. Ludwig's group had another idea.

In recent years, the mushrooming incidence of obesity in the United States has led to a push to get people to lower their intakes of fat. However, reducing fat consumption almost always translates into increasing the intake of carbs (see Counting Carbs). Moreover, the carbs most people reach for first are the refined—easy to digest—types found in white flour, white rice, pasta, and potatoes.

Ludwig's team decided to see whether a diet rich in a similar carb promotes fat buildup. They used a proportion of carbs that people on a low-fat diet might eat and compared its effects with that of a diet equal in all respects except that its carbs were mainly a slowly digested starch.

In the September Obesity, the researchers show that animals eating rapidly digested carbs accumulated more fat throughout their bodies—including their livers—than did animals eating primarily the slow-to-digest starch.

Says Ludwig, "This is the first study in which a single dietary factor—varied within normal ranges—affected whether the liver remained normal or accumulated seriously elevated levels of fat."

Recipe for pudge

In the new study, Ludwig's team fed 18 recently weaned mice food pellets containing 13 percent fat, 19 percent protein, and 68 percent carbohydrates from corn starch. Half the animals got pellets containing the starch called amylopectin, which is made up of a string of glucose molecules that the gut easily degrades into sugar. The remaining mice ate pellets containing some amylopectin but mostly the starch called amylose. That type of corn starch resists breakdown in the gut.

All the animals ate and drank as much as they wanted for 25 weeks. Throughout the study, the researchers charted weight gain, body fat, fecal excretion of starch, and blood concentrations of glucose and insulin. At the end, the researchers killed the animals and measured their livers' fat contents.

Weight gain didn't differ between the two groups of animals, suggesting that the mice found the diets comparably palatable. However, the animals' bodies responded differently to the two food-pellet recipes. Mice dining on amylopectin-enriched chow became twice as fat as those eating the slower-digested amylose recipe. Mice eating this starch grew a little longer in body, so they looked leaner that the "roly-poly" mice eating easily digested starch, Ludwig says. The latter mice "felt squishy," whereas the slow-digested-starch eaters felt firm, he adds.

Although blood sugar concentrations didn't differ between the two groups, mice on the amylopectin-rich food developed higher insulin values after a meal. The body uses the hormone to shepherd energy into its cells. Higher blood insulin after a meal, Ludwig explains, indicates that an animal needs more insulin to fully use the food it's eaten. Needing more of the hormone can be a first sign of insulin resistance and impending diabetes.

Ludwig notes, "Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone, meaning it promotes the storage of fat. In fact, that's arguably one of [the hormone's] main roles." One of the first places newly made insulin ends up is in the liver, where it can trigger the localized creation and stockpiling of fat.

Although the rodents' livers weighed the same whether they ate fast- or slow-digested starch, fat made up 12 percent of the liver in mice fed the amylopectin-rich diet. That's double the fat content of livers in animals that had eaten the slow-digested starch. For perspective, Ludwig notes, people whose livers contain 10 percent fat are considered to be suffering from "advanced" nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease.

What about people?

This isn't the first study to indicate that foods that rapidly break down to glucose in the body—characterized as having a "high glycemic index" (see The New GI Tracts)—can fuel nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. For instance, last year Silvia Valtueña of the University of Parma in Italy and her colleagues reported findings from a study of 247 apparently healthy men and women. The volunteers' diets were evaluated and given a glycemic-index (GI) rating.

Low GI foods included corn, dairy products, and fruit. High GI fare included bread, pizza, and baked snacks. The volunteers were grouped into four categories based on the ascending GI rankings of their diets.

Participants with the highest-GI diets were twice as likely to have undiagnosed fatty-liver disease as were other study participants. People in the highest group were also far likelier to be insulin resistant, the researcher reported in the July 2006 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

In an editorial accompanying the Valtueña report, David J.A. Jenkins and his colleagues at the University of Toronto argued that the "implication of this study is that a low-GI diet, or selection of lower-GI rather than higher-GI foods, may benefit persons with nonalcoholic fatty liver." Indeed, the commenters suggested, it might be possible for doctors to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver by lowering the glycemic index of an individuals' diets.

That's what Ludwig's group is now investigating: "We hope to enroll 46 kids to a diet for 6 months," he says. The 8- to 17-year-olds and their parents will receive dietary counseling. Half of the recruits will be assigned to a low-fat diet. The rest will receive counseling to lower the glycemic index of their diets. The general guidelines for a low-GI diet call for substituting whole-grain foods for ones made from highly processed cereal fibers and reducing refined sugars in favor of sweet fruits.

"Conceptually," Ludwig says, "fatty liver should be reversible—we've seen it anecdotally in practice many times, such as when someone loses weight or changes the quality of their diet."


If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

Citations

David J.A. Jenkins

Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center

St. Michael's Hospital

61 Queen Street, East

Toronto, ON M5C 3E2

Canada


David S. Ludwig

Children's Hospital Boston

Department of Medicine

333 Longwood Avenue

Boston, MA 02115


Silvia Valtueña

Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

University of Parma

43100 Parma

Italy
Further Reading

Pawlak, D.B., et al. 2001. High glycemic index starch promotes hypersecretion of insulin and higher body fat in rats without affecting insulin sensitivity. Journal of Nutrition 131(January):99-104. Available at [Go to].

Raloff, J. 2007. Super-size mice—Fast food hurts rodents. Science News Online (June 9). Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. Counting carbs. Science News 166(July 17):40-42. Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. Coming soon—Spud lite. Science News Online (June 19). Available at [Go to].

______. 2000. The new GI tracts. Science News 157(April 8):236-238. Available at [Go to].

Sloth, I., et al. 2004. No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-wk ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80(Aug. 1):337-347. Available at [Go to].

          New site up and running!        
Thanks for stopping in! Here you will find lots of information about and pictures of my Buell motorcycle. I recently updated the transmission and turbo pages including more pictures and added a Dyno Charts page. I will be adding content … Continue reading
          Kommentar zu Docs & Demo von Thomas        
Thanks! I think it was a template problem. After changing the template everything is working fine and I´ve found a way to include google API-Key. Is there any chance to change the numbers at the elevation chart? I`d like to have only whole numbers without decimals places.
          The Financial Crisis: Who is to Blame? [Audio]        
Speaker(s): Howard Daves, Robert Peston | There is still no consensus on who or what caused the financial crisis which engulfed the world, beginning in the summer of 2007. A huge number of suspects have been identified, from greedy investment bankers, through feckless borrowers, dilatory regulators and myopic central bankers to violent video games and high levels of testosterone among the denizens of trading floors. There is not even agreement on whether the crisis shows a need for more government intervention in markets, or less: some maintain that government encouragement of home ownership lay at the heart of the problem in the US, in particular. In this public event to mark the launch of his new book 'The Financial Crisis: Who is to Blame?' Howard Davies charts a course through these arguments, and the evidence advanced for each of them.
          De realismo y estilo        
Cuando enciendo mi consola y me pongo jugar busco divertirme. Me da igual de qué manera, simplemente diversión. En ocasiones juegos arcade, otras opciones más realistas. El realismo, un tema de moda desde la revolución del movimiento iniciada por Wii. Primero el wiimote, después Wii Motionplus y ahora Arc y Natal, a cada aparato que se nombra el grado de perfección en la detección es mayor, por tanto más fiel y realista. ¿ Queremos realismo ? Sí, pero hasta cierto punto. Grand Slam Tennis entendía bastante bien que no debía formar al nuevo Federer, sino sólo ofrecer diversión con un plus de realismo asumible. Los dos primeros días sólo ganarás un par de partidos, pero aun con cierto grado de dificultad , pues hay que cuidar mucho tus movimientos, rápidamente podrás comenzar a vapulear a tus contrincantes. Tenemos claro pues, que en tema de control el realismo 100% fiel o es cosa de sectores minoritarios muy entregados ( sino los Flight Simulator o los simuladores de carreras de Turn 10 coparían las listas de ventas ) o se debe acotar para que llegue a ser divertido. Pero en tema de gráficos parece que no hay discusión: más es mejor. ¿ En Wii también ?


Jason Vanderberghe cree que no

No le encuentro la gracia en intentar conseguir el realismo en Wii. ¿ Por qué competir con 360 ? […] Los jugones verán las carencias, no tu trabajo.

El carismático encargado de Red Steel 2 apuesta más por crear un toque artístico distintivo, como los gráficos cell-shading, que por gráficos realistas, poniendo como ejemplos juegos que han triunfado ( Borderlands ) y otros que han fracasado ( The Conduit ). Gearbox dio en el clavo con el cambio a gráficos cartoon, pero High Voltage desde luego no fracasó en su decisión de optar por exprimir parte del potencial gráfico de Wii. Ni tampoco lo han hecho juegos referente como Super Mario Galaxy, Metroid Prime 3: Corruption, Resident Evil: The Darkside Chronicles o el futuro Metroid: Other M. Al juego del agente Ford le faltaba precisamente eso que comenta Vanderberghe: estilo. Si en los inicios de Wii todo aquél que la defendía empleaba como lema el 'la potencia sin control no sirve de nada' ahora podríamos decir que ' la potencia sin estilo no sirve de nada '. Killzone 2 es un auténtico logro técnico, pero pocos se han acordado de él en la centena de premios anuales de videojuegos. Juegos como Uncharted 2 se han llevado ése honor, ¿ por qué ? Simple, además de potencia tenían estilo; son caras bonitas y además diferentes, claramente distintivas. Incluso Gears of War y su paleta de colores especializada en todo tipo de grises tenía estilo ( copiado hasta la náusea y de ahí los chascarrillos de 'otro shooter gris' ). En ocasiones, sin potencia pero con estilo se puede destacar: Travis Touchdown y su meta por ser el mejor asesino ( de paso echar una canita al aire con una Paris Hilton afrancesada ) es un vivo ejemplo de juego que un estilo propio puede compensar carencias gráficas.

Las comparaciones son odiosas, y ( muy ) poca gente será capaz de pensar que un juego con buenos gráficos en Wii no deja de ser algo menor. Pero aunque yo me fijara en las texturas pixeladas en planos cercanos de Darkside Chronicles, he llegado a abrir la boca de par en par con el enorme trabajo de Cavia y Capcom. Vanderbergue no da en el centro pero sí toca la diana: que tu juego tenga estilo propio es siempre necesario para no ser uno más, pero que Wii no tenga corazón de 360 no da pie a no intentar hacer gráficos realistas. De ser cierto lo que dice Vanderbergue, las portátiles a día de hoy serían de 8 bits y monocromas.

          OS 150 ANOS DE UMA PAIXÃO MUNDIAL        
O livro original contendo as primeiras regras oficiais do futebol




Há 150 anos, mais exatamente no dia 26/10/1863, era dado - literalmente - o pontapé inicial para uma paixão que viria atrair multidões planeta a fora. Foi num pub em Londres, no Freemasons Arms Tavern, localizado em Great Queen Street, que 11 representantes de clubes amadores da capital inglesa se reuniram para redigir as regras oficiais do futebol e fundar a FA - a Football Association. Depois de um século e meio de vida pouquíssimas mudanças ocorreram nas regras e até hoje elas regem a nossa maior paixão esportiva.


Estiveram presentes à histórica reunião no bar londrino pessoas ligadas aos seguintes times: Barnes, Civil Service, Crusaders, Crystal Palace, Forest of Leytonstone (que posteriormente seria rebatizado como Wanderers), N.N. Club, Blackheath, Kensington School, Perceval House, Surbiton e Blackheath Proprietary School. O Charterhouse foi convidado para participar, mas seu representante declinou do chamado. A maioria desses clubes não existe mais ou apenas atua no rugby.

Vale salientar que o futebol já era praticado de forma amadora antes de 1863 em solo britânico, mas ainda sem uma regra oficial. O primeiro esboço de norma surgiu em 1848 nos pátios da Universidade de Cambridge. Outro surgiu em Nottingham em 1850. E ambos foram os alicerces para essa regra final criada pelos ingleses.

Na primeira foto, a edição original do livro de regras escrito naquela noite de 26 de outubro de 1863 escrito por Ebenezer Cobb Morley, que viria a ser o segundo presidente da FA 8 anos depois de sua criação.

A primeira partida da história sob as regras oficiais foi entre Barnes e Richmond, que não estava presente na reunião de fundação da FA. O placar foi de zero a zero no estádio de Mortlake em 19 de dezembro do mesmo ano.


Futebol no século XIX na Inglaterra



Desde então o futebol ganhou adeptos e admiradores até se tornar esse colosso que é hoje em dia. Além de um esporte apaixonante, virou um ótimo negócio que gera lucros cada vez mais exorbitantes. Mas a aprovação das regras, apenas, não era o bastante. Havia a necessidade de se distribuir cartilhas informativas nos clubes, nas escolas, nas livrarias e bancas de jornal, através de livros de regras. E essas regras foram sendo levemente modificadas, e novos manuais passaram a ocupar o lugar das primitivas instruções.

Em 1868 instituiu-se a figura do juiz. Em 1878, um ano depois de se adotar o travessão de madeira (do mesmo comprimento das portas dos salões da universidade de Cambridge), surgiu o apito, já que até então era na força do grito que o juiz anunciava suas decisões em campo. Em 1882, Inglaterra, Escócia, Pais de Gales e Irlanda fundaram a International Board, que até hoje regula as leis do jogo no mundo inteiro, já como órgão assessor da FIFA. 

Houve uma revisão total das regras em 1891, quando apareceram as redes nas balizas, para que não houvesse dúvidas quando da marcação do gol, e foi oficializado o pênalti - a falta dentro da grande área. Em 1896, cresce a autoridade do árbitro, que deixa de ser um simples tira-teima, e passa a se guiar pelo que mandam as regras.

Nos últimos anos do século fixam-se o numero de jogadores em onze, as dimensões do campo, o tamanho da bola e a duração da partida. Os limites das áreas datam de 1901, as leis do impedimento começaram a partir de 1907, definindo-se de vez em 1924. Uma nova revisão foi feita em todo o texto em 1938. A popularização se fez rápida e regularmente, com o apoio dos jornais, cartazes exibidos nas ruas, folhetos distribuídos em comércios, bares e teatros. Uma vez uniformizado, codificado e organizado, o futebol não tardaria a se transformar no mais popular e universal de todos os esportes. 

E hoje o futebol é o que é há 150 anos: uma paixão mundial!



Foto: Adrian Roebuck
Imagem: Newberry Library - Chicago 

          Luke Van Hook Paintings Now at Brand Library Galleries "Circle in the Square" Yesung Kim, Barbara Kolo, Susan Sironi, Cheryl Walker thru Sept 5th 2008        
The Entrance to the Brand Library Art Galleries in Glendale, California hosts a prominent postcard of the show "Circle in the Square" now exhibiting through September 5th, 2008


PHOTO-JOURNAL BY GINGER VAN HOOK


Photo above: 
Cathy Billings, Art Librarian and Gallery Manager of the 
Brand Library Art Galleries and Co-Curator of 
"Circle in the Square" selected Luke Van Hook 
as one of the artists to show his circle paintings 
which explore Giotto's fabled "perfect circle.
Photo below: 
Alyssa Resnick, Senior Library Supervisor, Gallery Director 
and Co-curator pictured with Luke Van Hook.
Both ladies made studio visits all over Los Angeles and surrounding communities in search of the "perfect circle" of artists to represent the illusive qualities of the circle.
It takes over a year to prepare for a large show at the Brand Library Art Galleries and no one will have a better story to tell you about the waiting process than Galleries Manager and Curator, Cathy Billings or Alyssa Resnick, Senior Library Supervisor and Gallery Director. These ladies traveled to Inglewood, California for a studio visit to see Luke Van Hook's circle paintings some time in the early summer of 2007. They told Luke that they were preparing to curate a show of artists working on the motif of the 'circle'.  They had already reviewed a number of artists and found making the final decision difficult, first because there were a number of artists who worked with this subject and secondly, the talent was very competitive. The subject of the circle and how each artist approaches this topic is worth dedicated study in and of itself.  These lovely ladies, Cathy and Alyssa, with a keen eye for artistic talent, selected a total of five talented artists to show together this summer.   
Here you will find photos of how each artist expressed their obsession with the circular form.  I'll begin my blog entry with a brief history of what I believe may have led Luke Van Hook to painting the circle and continue with the photos and biographical information of the additional four artists each selected for working with the motif of circles, independently of each other, with their own unique and individual interpretations of the circle: Yesung Kim, Barbara Kolo, Susan Sironi, and Cheryl Walker.
Luke Van Hook began his present study of the circle in 2005. He first discovered the legend of Giotto's "Perfect Circle" in a class about ancient history; but the idea didn't sink in at first. He needed time to reason with his quest. While Luke approached the specific task of painting the circle with thin paintbrushes and applying layer upon layer of color to a raw naked canvas, I set about trying to understand what the hell prompted my husband to go circle crazy in the first place.  I started researching what the circle meant and I found a lot of literature in the realm of magic, rituals, mathematics, secret societies and romance. But my first impression was that the circle was a way to get back to the beginning of things.  Then I delved deeper.  Was Luke trying to say that he was going in circles?  Were we at this artistic point in our lives as a result of a past life?  Was our circular existence referencing our cycle of birth, death and rebirth?  Or was the answer more basic than that, like "the earth is round and it's an orbital thing.' There were other issues on the table I was urged to deal with also.  Were these circle paintings partly influenced by the school we had attended?  Once we leave school we are expected to make works of art that have fresh meaning and to blow out the cobwebs of old thinking.  While at Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles, Luke Van Hook studied all the required areas to excel in his chosen profession as a fine arts painter including the figure, landscapes and abstracts. But the abstract visual image is what finally drew Luke back in.  Could it be the understated obvious fact that the big 'O' (which formed a circle on every memo, syllabus and brochure in the name of Otis College) was influencing him subconsciously?  
Luke's earlier work involved intricately small hatch marks that evolved into large abstract images full of vibrant colors.  This work was very reminiscent of Jasper Johns.  So where did this circle idea really emanate from?  Did his hatch marks get married or what?  Observers of Luke Van Hook's work have stated that it raises the question, 'Is it a painting or a drawing?  Is it text or writing?'  Luke will often begin a row of circles that reads from left to right just as western literature is expressed.  But sometimes he changes his mind, and the direction of his technique, and he starts to paint his rows from right to left. At other times, he completes a horizontal column of circles which refers more to ancient Asian forms of writing going from the top, down.
During his graduating year at Otis College in 2004, Luke went on a mission to explore machine technology as it pertained to replacing humans.  He painted large canvases with a number of faces and shapes that represented cyborgs expressing the fear, uncertainty and ambivalence that humans have toward our technological future.  But once out of school, a full year later, in 2005 Luke seem to have turned a corner.  He seemed to have replaced his fear of technology with a competitive defiance that defied all reason.  Luke started working with his father-in-law, in his machine shop, where he started to observe how everything around him involved the circle in one way or another.  He watched the machines (Fadal CNC's- numerical control production machines) in action. The tool would spin in circles, plunging in and out of aluminum, stainless steel and plastic materials. The space left behind was almost always a perfect circle.  Perhaps, this was Luke's starting point. It was the first time he'd really seen a machine make simple circles and Luke probably said something to himself like 'I can do this! Just watch me!' then promptly, decided to take on his destiny. To compete with a machine, may have been the early impulse that drew Luke to paint the circle, but the legend of Giotto's 'perfect circle' was what has kept Luke going full steam ahead into production of abstract works of art.  The initial pieces he created were prototypes. These were the experiments he and his father-in-law Luis Ingels, worked on before moving into the hand made pieces. As his first experiment, Luke inserted a paint brush into the collet of the machine and programmed the coordinates to match the canvas. He overshot his calculations and the brush came crashing down upon the canvas; the collet smashed the brush right through the canvas and even broke the frame. Perhaps, Luke might have thought as he and my father, Luis, looked at each other, 'it was time to go back to the drawing board'. Undaunted by initial failure, Luke did complete an entire series of machine made circles before he went on to the main event, the competition of drawing the circles, one by one, by hand.  
Each piece of artwork created since his first attempts, is meticulously reinvented into creative visual landscapes layering circles upon circles of color schemes in gradations of complementary hues.  The colors reveal very subtle changes.  The circles pull the eye in.  The images seem to have a life of their own, a vibrant quality of pushing the viewer to look for patterns while pulling the eyes into fishers, crevices, or 'wormholes' as one collector observed. I have witnessed the intimate evolution of Luke's circles only because I have the honor and privilege of being Luke's wife.  The fact that I am discussing my husband's art work is of significance only in the sense that it is somewhat rare, although not unheard of, for the artist's loved one to interject a provocative discussion of the artwork publicly in a blog; however, this is a sign of the times we live in today and I feel blessed as a writer to have this open forum to share with you the joys and struggles inherent in Luke's artistic process.
The way I see it, Luke has taken on  the impossible task of creating the perfect circle, where no perfect circle has ever existed before, despite Giotto's legend.  All mathematical equations to date reveal that there is no perfect circle. It is a myth. So why Luke has persisted in this impossible feat only reminds me of the story of Don Quixote. Here is where I see Luke chasing his windmills. This is where in my imagination, I view the circles on the canvas as Luke's quest for the impossible dream and his circles are his windmills.  His paintbrush is his sword.  Thus Luke 
Van Hook's paintings, for me, exhibit all the romantic qualities innate in a love story.  Seeking to please his beloved Lucia, these references emerging from raw canvas could be read practically like text.  Some art collectors saw the circles as Braille text or some secret code or language.  The secret, I think, lies in Luke's love of sports!  Sometimes I interpret this circle code to reflect images of the sports activities I see Luke enjoy daily;  I make visual connections to the circles on the wheels of his bicycles which hang in his studio or his skate boards that decorate the rafters of the painting bays or even the wheels that drive his car which sits resting on almost perfect circles on the driveway.
For a while, I was convinced that Luke's enthusiasm for cycling was directly influencing the subjects of his paintings because one day, I was staring at one of his earlier images, (which is hung lovingly on the wall of the dining room right over the microwave oven); I saw it hanging next to a photograph of Luke participating in the 'Death Race 1999', a bicycle ride that cycle enthusiasts pursue along the most dangerous mountainous roads known as the California Alps in Northern California at the edge of the Northern Nevada border where Markleeville meets the Carson Valley.   The image Luke had painted in 1998, while recovering, ironically, from a broken ankle suffered in a bicycle race in Minden; was the image of three bicycles in a dead heat on the gray pavement with the yellow dividing line providing a ground for what appears as three large helmets (representative of the riders) in red, green and yellow.  The eventual emergence of Luke's hatch marks from work created in 2000, can be seen on the helmets and if you are really looking for this, (with your microscope) you may even find, the very beginnings of the influences which have eventually led to this mad case of circle paintings!  The circle imagery you might be searching for could have started at the base of the bicycle's anatomy with the wheels spinning along the highway to Kingsbury Grade, somewhere near Genoa, along the bottom of the hill leading to Lake Tahoe.  I comfort myself as painter's wife, that even Picasso had his periods, as did Rembrandt, Vincent Van Gogh, Monet and Gauguin and so long as Luke Van Hook doesn't try to cut off his ear we are doing just fine with these circles.


But don't take my word for it. Luke Van Hook's circle paintings are something you should see for yourself.  The subtlety of the work is difficult to capture on film, although I tried my best to create a video after struggling with photographing the stills for three years.  But even the video work fails to reveal the whole story.  You've got to stand in front of one of these pieces to involve yourself in the novella of Luke's life.  Although I can decode a small portion of what I see through his work, the rest of the circles on the canvas are still a vague mystery to me as well.  Every relationship has its secrets.  Thus Luke and I, as artists, are no different.  Even when we know each other, there are elements of surprise and adventure that we have yet to tell each other.  The mystery in his canvases is what really thrills me to see Luke's work on display under gallery lighting! (Sales don't hurt my enthusiasm either!)





When I think of Luke Van Hook's circle paintings, today, in 2008, I often think of Luke riding a skateboard doing 'ollies' and then trying for a loop-de-loop in mid-air.  This is because in January of 2008, Luke begged for a skateboard for his birthday and little did I know what would happen when I wrapped it up for him!  He has returned to the love of his youth.  Luke Van Hook has come full circle to his beginnings to land on his home base. The skateboard has also flown in mid-air, in harmony with gravity, and both land as one in a perfect execution of a move I would never dare try to do myself.  I see each circle on the canvas as Luke's attempt to catapult his work into the mainstream of the art-world with each rotation of the paintbrush on the surface of the canvas.  This is where I see Luke Van Hook in mid catapult, surfing on the air, light in transition, from youth to inspired maturity; from student to master, with paintbrush in hand landing and continuing to roll on four wheels with a great big shit-eating grin on his face. ('four' being the lucky number of his numerology charts). I see the ordered struggle, the innate joy in the success of one loop-de-loop after another. And once in a while, I also see the crash landing and the bloody injuries.  What is more important is that Luke gets up and does it again each and every time.  Luke has to begin again with each new circle, every circle becoming a part of a larger layer of community, thus his canvases vibrate with activity, mystery, romance and adventure.  I find my own meanings in each image  as it develops day by day and I am privileged to stand beside him, admire and witness the struggle of our Don Quixote in the new millennium, first hand.
There is still time to see these painting up close and personal. The Brand Library Art Galleries is part of the Glendale Public Library, located at 1601 West Mountain Street in the City of Glendale, 91201  Telephone:  818-548-2051/ fax 818-548-2713 ;  visit the Brand Library Art Galleries online at   www.brandlibrary.org    to  check for Library hours.
Cookie Gallegos, Ana Porras and Martha Ingels attend the opening of "Circle in the Square" to support Luke Van Hook. Brand Art Library Galleries, Glendale, California August 2, 2008 Photo by Ginger Van Hook
(From left to right) Margo Payne, Lynn Nantana-Green and Angela Williams attend the exhibition "Circle in the Square" in support of Luke Van Hook.
Lynn Lantana-Green came to support Artist, Luke Van Hook at the opening reception of "Circle in the Square" an art exhibition held at the Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California, August 2, 2008.  Photos by Ginger Van Hook
Kevin Powell came to support Luke Van Hook and enjoy the paintings at the Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale California, August 2, 2008. Photo by Ginger Van Hook

Artist Luke Van Hook brought home-made pies to his reception of the exhibition "Circle in the Square". In addition to painting, Luke Van Hook has a reputation for making awesome pies from scratch. Photographed milling around the Double Fudge Pican Pie and the Sweet Berry Pie were the grandchildren of Hector Sticker. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California August 2, 2008. Photo by Ginger Van Hook
(From left to right) Claudio Sticker, Hector Sticker, Peter Bolten, Martha Ingels, Luke Van Hook and Luis Ingels attend the reception of  "Circle in the Square". Luke Van Hook and Luis Ingels worked together to create circles on canvas with the use of robotic CNC machines. After creating a little over a dozen machine-made paintings, Luke went on to compete with the machine and do the circles on his own by hand, one by one. Each circle is represented as being one breath and Luke Van Hook states that these are the marks he is leaving behind which define his existence during this lifetime as he continues to pursue the legend of "Giotto's Perfect Circle". Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California, August 2, 2008. Photo by Ginger Van Hook

From left to right, Ohannes Berberian, his daughter Melanie, Luke Van Hook and Rouzanna Berberian attend the opening reception of "Circle in the Square" at the Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008.  Ohannes Berberian owns DigiTECH Camera Repair in Monrovia, California (www.digitechcamerarepair.com). Luke Van Hook and Rouzanna Berberian are both fine art painters and members of the Monrovia Association of Fine Arts (M.A.F.A.). Rouzanna Berberian is a teacher in the after-school arts programs supported by M.A.F.A.  which promotes the goal of enhancing the lives of those within the community through interaction with the arts and to increase the opportunities of children through art education. Photo by Ginger Van Hook

From left to right, Kathleen Zgonc, photographer Frank Zgonc and artist Luke Van Hook attend the opening reception of 'Circle in the Square' at the Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008. Frank Zgonc is a an executive member of the Monrovia Association of Fine Arts in Monrovia, California. Frank Zgonc is the vice-president and official curator of Monrovia's yearly October Art Festival. This year the October Festival will be held on Saturday and Sunday October 11th and 12th, 2008 at the Monrovia Community Center located at 119 W. Palm Avenue in Monrovia. Free and open to the public, this art event will feature work by photographer Frank Zgonc; (Scheduled from 10 am to 6pm both days).  There will also be an Opening Night Celebration Saturday, October 11th from 7-9:30 pm where the special Renaissance Award will be presented to a worthy individual who has made significant contributions to the arts. 
Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Mr. and Mrs. Luke and Ginger Van Hook attend the opening reception of 'Circle in the Square' at the Brand Libraries Art Galleries, August 2, 2008 in Glendale, California.  Luke Van Hook an artist working from Inglewood, California earned a BFA  at Otis College of ARt and Design.  For several years, Van Hook has been exploring in his work, Giotto's fabled "perfect circle".  Over time the single-minded focus on the perfection of the circle has been subsumed by the artist's interest in the aesthetic and expressive qualities of the circle. New works depict ritualistically repeated circular brushstrokes on canvas, hemp, and other materials. Van Hook states that he began " as a challenge to myself to see if a perfect circle was possible; these circles have now morphed into a challenge to myself to see if a perfect circle is  possible. These circles have now morphed into a study in patience. The sense of time and the marking of time is inherent in the meticulous application of paint. The viewer can appreciate these temporal qualities but is also compelled to bring their own  interpretation to the work. Are these circles pure abstraction? Combined do they conceal deliberate shapes and forms? or are they perhaps a secret code or language? Van Hook has exhibited at TAG Gallery, Focus One Gallery, and the Bolsky Gallery in  Westchester. Luke Van Hook's painting may also be viewed on his website: www.lukevanhook.com
Photo courtesy of Peter Bolten


Kevin Powell comes to support Luke Van Hook for his opening reception. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California, August 2, 2008.  Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Jason Porras attends the opening reception to support Luke Van Hook in his endeavors to pursue Giotto's legend of the 'Perfect Circle'. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California August 2, 2008. Photo By Ginger Van Hook.


Zoe Hengst, Ginger Van Hook and Martha Ingels attend the opening of "Circle in the Square" to support Luke Van Hook. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California August 2, 2008. Photo courtesy of Peter Bolten.
Zoe and Jopie Hengst walk through the center of the exhibition "Circle in the Square" to support Luke Van Hook at the opening night, August 2, 2008. Paintings by Susan Sironi in the background. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California. Photo by Ginger Van Hook.

Cookie Gallegos, Ginger Van Hook and Luke Van Hook pose for photographs in front of Luke Van Hook's painting at the Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008 Glendale, California. Photo courtesy of Peter Bolten.

Cookie Gallegos and Ana Porras watch the dance performance choreographed by Cheryl Walker, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008, Glendale, California.
Paintings by Yesung Kim, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008, Glendale, California. Photo by Ginger Van Hook.
Paintings by Yesung Kim, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008, Glendale, California.
Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Yesung Kim poses for a photograph in front of her paintings at the Brand Library Art Galleries, August 02, 2008, Glendale, California. Yesung Kim from Upland, California, was born in Seoul, South Korea and holds MFA degrees from Chung-Ang University and Claremont Graduate University. Kim's mixed media pieces are seductively simple. Ordinary brown packing string is deftly applied to a painted canvas creating organic shapes that shimmer and reflect light. At times these shapes appear to be on the brink of an amoeba-like division as they spread and expand, dropping off the edge of one canvas and continuing on to another. Kim  cites the natural world and light and color as the underlying themes that both inspire and permeate her work.  Following solo shows at the Seoul Museum of Art and the Seoul Arts Center, Kim's work was most recently exhibited at the San Bernardino County Museum's Multi Media Mini Show. More information about Kim's work can be found on her website: www.yesungkim.com
Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Painting by Susan Sironi, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008 Glendale, California.
Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Glass curtain by Susan Sironi, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008,Glendale, California. Photo by Ginger Van Hook.
Cheryl Walker designed a curtain of vinyl layers of color called 'Waterfall IV' that became the backdrop for a beautiful dance performance using the 'circle in the square' theme exhibited at the Brand Library Art Galleries in Glendale California, August 2, 2008. Cheryl Walker holds in her hand some of the vinyl circles that were placed upon the windows at the exhibition hall. Her vinyl circles upon the windows created an illusion of  the stained glass effects. The dance piece entertained a large audience on opening night as artists, collectors, art appreciators and family and friends celebrated the mythologies, geometries, magical and mystical qualities of the circle.   Dance Performers Liz  Curtis, and Martha Carrascosa performed a dance which included participation from members of the audience.  
Members of the audience interacted with the dancers Martha Carrascosa and Liz Curtis at the Brand Library Art Galleries participated in creating a colorful cascade of window art on August 2, 2008 in Glendale, California.
Audience watches dancers Liz Curtis and Martha Carrascosa from Glendale Community College as they perform a choreographed piece by Cheryl Walker, artist. "Circle in the Square", Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale California, August 2, 2008.  Photo By Ginger Van Hook
Dancers Liz Curtis and Martha Carrascosa performing dance choreographed by artist Cheryl Walker, (within the green curtain), Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California. 
Photo by Ginger Van Hook.
Cheryl Walker engaged in performance art intersecting with window art using the artistic theme of 'Circle in the Square'. Brand Library Art Gallery, Glendale, CAlifornia August 2, 2008. Photo by Ginger Van Hook.

Cheryl Walker smiles happily on opening night, Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale California. August 2, 2008. Cheryl Walker, a Los Angeles artist, earned her BA in art in her home state of Minnesota, and her MFA from California State University, Long Beach. In this exhibition Walker created two large site-specific installations of vinyl, oil pastel and natural and artificial light.  Walker explains that the driving force behind her work is "human interaction and improvisation in response to a natural phenomenon or situation." Trained as painter, Walker's installations have some of the qualities of painting; when viewed head-on the suspended layers of vinyl can appear to be two-dimensional because of their transparency and the cut shapes and forms applied to the vinyl are reminiscent of brushstrokes--but removed from the wall these works are thrust into what she calls an "interactive field of play." The fluidity of the material she works with and her interest in collaboration between the artist and the viewer have inspired Walker to create works that can be transformed into performance pieces by dance, music and in-situ art-making. In this exhibition, a dance performance captivates the audience on opening night at the Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California. August 2, 2008.  Photos By Ginger Van Hook




Barbara Kolo, Artist from "Circle in the Square" poses for a photograph in front of her painting with her husband Mr. Kolo. Barbara Kolo, a Santa Monica Artist, earned her BFA from the School of Visual Arts in New York City. Kolo Participated in a successful two-person show at the Brand Library Art Galleries in 1999. The Brand Library Art Galleries are pleased to present (nearly ten years later) a new body of work by Barbara Kolo that connects to that which was here before. In those works and these, her focus is on representing organic materials. The current large scale acrylic on canvas works are saturated with color; the stippled application of paint creates organic shapes and patterns representative of the natural world.  The subject matter is open to each viewers interpretation, where one may see a birch forest at dusk, others may see the  bold aesthetic of pure color and abstraction. Kolo has had recent solo shows at Topanga Canyon Gallery and the Off Rose Gallery in Venice, California. More information about Kolo's work can be found on her website: www.barbarakolo.com Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale California. Photo by Ginger Van Hook






Barbara Kolo poses for a photograph during opening night celebrations for the exhibition, "Circle in the Square" at the Brand Library Art Galleries, Augusts 2, 2008. Glendale, California.


Susan Sironi,  an artist living in Altadena, California posed for her photograph in front of her paintings at  the Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California. August 2, 2008.  Susan Sironi earned her BFA at California Sate University, Long Beach. This exhibition will showcase Sironi's recent paintings as well as her Glass Curtain installation which is comprised of conjoined antique optometric lenses. Her paintings are about texture, color and process. Small dabs of oil paint are painstakingly applied to aluminum, building up an intricate, thorny surface. Highly textured and multihued when viewed up close, this surface belies the color play minimalist color-field appearance of the work at a distance . In the artist's own words "texture and color play equal roles in these works. They ... set up contradictions within each piece. Painitings  that seem to invite touch and intimacy are also reserved and automomous. Time and process are weighed against a static and minimal structure. Sironi's work was most recently seen in the Brea Art Gallery's Made in California exhibition, at the Chouinard School of Art Gallery, and the Orange County Center for Contemporary Art.  More information about Sironi's work can be found on her website: web.mac.com/susansironi/susan/sironi/Welcome.html.
Photo by Ginger Van Hook.  

Yesung Kim, Brand Library Art Gallery, Glendale, California, August 2, 2008.



The Entrance to the Brand Library Art Galleries in Glendale, California hosts a prominent postcard of the show "Circle in the Square" now exhibiting through September 5th, 2008

                   Luke Van Hook paintings are now showing at the Brand Library Art Galleries in
          Puppies, Cupcakes and Sock Monkeys        
I'm slowly getting back to stitching now that Rose is learning independence. She still has some clingy days, but most of the time she'll let me do my own thing while she naps elsewhere in the house.

Last month I started working on the Vanilla Cupcake kit from Mill Hill's Buttons & Beads Spring Series. While I'm not too fond of working with perforated paper, I've found that works well for a travel project because I don't require as much light to see what I'm doing. Here it is so far after about fourteen hours of stitching:


I'm also starting a birth announcement for my cousin's baby, who was born this past December. I've actually started this project twice before, but each time changed my mind about the piece and switched to a different design. This time, I'm positive that this is 'the one'. Upon finding out that my cousin LOVES sock monkeys, I've chosen this kit from Janlynn to do for his baby girl, Sophia:
"Baby Monkey Birth Announcement"
Designed by Linda Gillum for Kooler Design Studio

The kit came in the mail today (thanks 123 Stitch!) and I hope to start on it tomorrow. I plan to do the project as charted, except I'll be switching out the kitted 14-count aida with 32-count opalescent lugana. I love my sparkly fabrics!


          Babies and Broken Needles        
 

I've decided to make Mirabilia's "Crescent Dreams" into a birth announcement for my boyfriend's cousin, who will be having a baby boy later this year.  With the exception of the hat (which I changed from yellow to blue), I'm stitching it as charted on Enchanted Fabric's "Raindrop Mystique" 32ct opalescent Lugana. This photo was taken after about ten hours of stitching.

About six hours into the project the eye of my gold-plated DMC tapestry needle snapped off. I threw it away and replaced it with one of the more expensive gold John James tapestry needles I bought last summer. Less than an hour later the eye of that needle snapped in half. Today, sometime between hours eight and nine, I broke my second gold John James needle. I'm now on the third and final needle of the pack, which is already beginning to bend at the eye. Given the price, I'm quite disappointed. The less expensive and readily available DMC needles are much more durable.
          Rajdhani Express (from Rajdhani Express)        
------------
Note 1: I am posting this from Rajdhani Express.

Note 2: I realised that since I have come to Bangalore, I have not done any train journey at all! Specifically Rajdhani Express, it's been almost 8 years since I boarded one. It is the one thing that the Indian Railways gets right after-all (apart from Palace on Wheels, I suppose). I used to absolutely love the experience as a kid. They used to serve soup-sticks with soup. Soup-sticks! On a train! Must have that experience again. I am on an epic 34-hour journey from Delhi to Bangalore. On Rajdhani Express.
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I reached the Hazrat Nizamuddin station in Delhi well in advance. I went to my platform, my train was waiting for me. How sweet! I checked the passenger chart pasted beside the entrance of my coach 'B8', not to confirm my name on the chart, but for a more customary glance to scout for 'F22' to 'F26' "fellow" passengers. This is the reason I had booked a 3rd AC ticket as against a 2nd AC ticket. You have 5 fellow passengers in 2nd AC, but 7 fellow passengers in 3rd AC. I was merely hoping to tilt 'Law of averages' in my favour. If it worked, imagine a cute girl sitting next to you with nowhere to go and no-one to talk to but you for 34 hours. Thirty, four, hours! I could have then let my charm do the rest.

As luck would have it, most of my co-passengers are > 'M45'. Worse, there is a family travelling with an ever-curious 8-year old kid travelling ALL the way to Bangalore with me. The annoying kid began asking his dad weird questions, which apparently pissed off his dad, even. The kid wanted to know a real-time answer to "Papa, train ki speed kitni hai abhi?", asked every two minutes. The geek in me made me tell the dad that there was an android app which he could install on his phone which tells the exact speed using GPS. Indirectly, my way of telling the kid to STFU. Thank goodness for the invention of GPS. One annoying kid shut up. And as if fate hadn't already had all the fun with me, there were two cute girls, my age, sitting bang in the next compartment. I smiled at them, they ignored me, life moved on. I realised that my coach was a bait rather than a 'B8', and I had fallen into its trap.


The clock struck 8:50 PM, and the train moved. Woah! ON TIME?! Like I said, the one thing Indian Railways gets right.

As soon as the train started, the staff jumped to action, and oh boy, first up, soup with soup-sticks! Paisa wasool already! While sipping my soup, I realised that a train journey is so much more comfortable than air travel. You have ample space to sleep, eat, stretch, relax. Plus, for people who smoke, there are two excellent smoking lounges (read: toilets) on both sides of the coach! If only the staff who served food looked like their Indian air-travel counterpart:




So, after a proper three-course dinner, I took out my laptop, and aptly for the moment, decided to watch a romantic comedy - 'The Princess Bride'. Nothing much about the movie, except that I found parts of the movie mildly annoying. It did though answer something for me which I have been thinking about since I started watching 'Sherlock'. Remember the pilot episode? In which the cabbie has pills in two containers in front of him, one of them poisoned and the other not, and our hero has to deduce which one is poisonous and has to make his pick. Well, the case gets solved, cabbie is killed (apologies for the spoiler), but we never find out which was the correct choice. The exact same game is played in 'The Princess Bride', with a solution that is both plausible and mind-boggling, even in the context of 'Sherlock', which made the movie worthwhile.


Another equally awesome discovery I made on this trip was Alpenliebe Mangofillz, which they served with the evening snacks. Oh. My. God. I haven't had a candy so full of joy in a LONG time. Smooth, delicious, filled with raw mango awesomeness! I am going to buy me a jar as soon as I reach Bangalore!


About 12 hours of my journey to go, which includes a movie or two, and another awesome dinner, until Bangalore...



Rajdhani Express (from Rajdhani Express)...

          Homework for Hogwarts        
It's my Birth Chart for astrology and I wanted it where I could find it later. It pretty much nailed me right on, there are a few things that are not me but what do you expect? Perfection? Not going to happen! LOL

You don't have to read it, it's just here....

The Sun represents vitality, a sense of individuality and outward-shining creative energy.

Sun in Aquarius

One of the standout characteristics of those born under the Sun Sign of Aquarius is th...
          Fish The Top End        
Fish The Top End specialise in Darwin Barra Fishing Tours and Darwin Fishing Charters. We are arguable the premier Top End booking agent, operating since 2005 we have built strong relationships with guides and tour operators and are ideally placed to help you get the most out of your fishing experience. The N.T. and Darwin are known around …
          Vision Sport Fishing        
Vision Sportfishing is a Darwin based charter operation specialising in sight fishing for Barramundi and other tropical inshore/freshwater sportfish. We cater to any desires or requirements of our clients, from single day charters to 14 day fishing experiences. These charters are conducted all over the beautiful and remote Northern Territory. Accredited Coxswain Licensed to operate …
          River & Reef Fishing Charters        
River and Reef Fishing charters is a owner operated business specialising in Top End Barra Fishing Tours. During the early part of the season, the Run Off (Mar-May) RnR concentrate their efforts to the Kakadu region, predominantly chasing Barra in the Sth Alligator River and Jew Fish on the Reef. During the Dry Season Months …
          Jambi University and the Head Department of Agriculture Jambi Province Signed Agreement        
The rector of Jambi University, Prof. Johni Najwan, S.H., Ph.D and the Head Department of Agriculture Jambi Province, Ir. Amrin Aziz, M.Si had signed an agreement in the enhancement of crop and horticultural production. The committee of cooperation would be run for one year as stipulated in the Charta of Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The signing of the document was witnessed directly by the governor of Jambi Province, H. Zumi Zola Zulkifli, S.TP, M.A. and this was done at Novita Hotel Ballroom, Thursday (17/3). The rector stated that the cooperation needs to be continued in effort to support the government’s program which is connected to the self-supporting of crops production and in preparing human resources. The Head Department of Agriculture said: this kind of cooperation is a means of finding ways to improve agricultural production. “This cooperation is very important in preparing design of lands for farming”, he argued. (Valiant)
          Comment on The Crypto stock that’s better than GBTC by oilerua        
i guess the gap fill is a nice sweetener at this point of the chart
          Charter commission head: More questions could have been asked        
none
          Comment on The Future of Good Food Starts with Good Ideas: Help Support BK Farmyards’ Youth Farm by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!        
<strong>...Check MP3's out</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (from Sarajevo) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. After moving to the US, AXA was renamed to INGRAY. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassado…
          Comment on The Brooklyn Grange Farm: Open for Summer & Looking for More Restaurants and CSA Buyers by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!        
<strong>...[Trackback]</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (from Sarajevo) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. After moving to the US, AXA was renamed to INGRAY. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassado…
          Comment on Robicelli’s Cupcakes: Making Every Dessert Known to Man in Cupcake Form by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!        
<strong>...[Trackback]</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (from Sarajevo) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. After moving to the US, AXA was renamed to INGRAY. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassado…
          Comment on A Farm Grows in Brooklyn…on a Rooftop! by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!        
<strong>...Learn More</strong> [...]Bosnian rock band AXA (later renamed to INGRAY, after moving to the US) was on top charts in the late �90�s and early 00�s. The band released several records and got a lot of national attention after winning Hard Rock�s �Ambassadors of Rock� conte…
          Book Review From The Stacks – Visionary Cities        
Our cities are in crisis and their futures depend on architects and urbanists who are willing to look beyond today’s realities to chart the direction for our increasingly urban world. – Visionary Cities Author: The Why Factor (NAi Publishers, 2009) Visionary Cities is the first publication by The Why Factor a research group recently created […]
          FreedomWorks’ Bill of the Month for August 2017: Lessening Regulatory Costs and Establishing a Federal Regulatory Budget Act, H.R.2623        

FreedomWorks is happy to announce that our Bill of the Month for August 2017 is H.R. 2623, the Lessening Regulatory Costs and Establishing a Federal Regulatory Budget Act, sponsored by Rep. Mark Meadows (R-N.C.), chairman of the House Freedom Caucus.

The federal government has played a significant role in the deterioration of our economy by applying burdensome and unnecessary regulations on the American people for decades. Rep. Meadows’ legislation is very simple and would hold our federal government to a new standard in which any new regulatory cost would be balanced by the elimination of an existing regulatory cost. It would also require federal agencies to repeal two regulations for any new regulation proposed.

According to a recent study from 1980 to 2012 the economic growth rate has cumulatively decreased each year by 0.8 percent caused by burdensome regulations. These regulations stifle innovation by forcing businesses to invest in regulatory compliance when they could be investing in products and the American people. The study shows that a loss of $4 trillion, one-fourth of the economy in 2012 is the result of GDP loss associated with regulatory accumulation over the years.

It is crucial that the American people have the freedom of choice within the marketplace and that economic growth is no longer held back by unelected officials creating new regulations in Washington, D.C. This bill would hold agencies accountable by requiring them to submit annual regulatory plans to the OMB. These reports would include new regulation proposals and require the calculation of the economic effects the regulations would have on jobs in the industry.

It is time for the federal government to strengthen congressional and executive oversight of bureaucrats and make way for a pro-growth agenda. This bill has been referred to the Subcommittee on Regulatory Reform, Commercial and Antitrust Law. Don’t forget to ask your representative to support this legislation today.


          Lyric Opera Announces its 2017-18 Resident Artists        

General Director and CEO Deborah Sandler has announced the selection of the artists for the Resident Artists Program for the 2017-2018 season. They include: soprano Marlen Nahhas, mezzo-soprano Lauren Auge, tenor Martin Luther Clark, baritone Tim Murray and coach/accompanist James Maverick. Led by Vinson Cole, UMKC Conservatory of Music and Dance faculty member and one of the leading artists of his generation, they will perform in various roles throughout the 2017-2018 season on the mainstage at the Kauffman Center for the Performing Arts as well as at community outreach and education events. The artists were selected after a rigorous national audition of more than 350 singers.

During their Residency, in addition to appearing in mainstage roles, the Resident Artists will work with visiting guest artists, conductors and directors, participate in master classes, receive career coaching, study leading roles, make musical appearances in the community, and appear in their own intimate musical performances as a part of Lyric Opera of Kansas City's Explorations Series, which will focus on intimate gems of the vocal music repertoire. The Resident Artists have completed their post-graduate education and have some professional experience. The Resident Artists will have a full time 8-month contract for one to two years.

Meet the Resident Artists

Sun., Sept. 24, 2p

Michael and Ginger Frost Production Arts Building

Lyric Opera audiences will have an opportunity to meet the Resident Artists on Sunday, September 24 at 2p at the Michael and Ginger Frost Production Arts Building for an informal afternoon 'salon'. Through conversation and musical selections including arias, art songs and show tunes, audiences are invited to sneak a first peek at the quartet and pianist who will grace the main stage and our Explorations Series presentations throughout the season. The event is FREE. Seating is limited and RSVPs are required. For ticket information, visit kcopera.org or contact Lyric Opera Ticketing & Patron Services at (816) 471-7344.

"We launched the Resident Artists Program last year and it has been an unqualified success," stated Sandler. "We join the international opera community in the training of talented, emerging professional young artists. This professional development program involves performance experience and the ability to work with our field's leading conductors, directors and principal artists. Our audiences have embraced our young artists and have been touched by them in a surprising number of ways. I look forward to another season of productive and engaged experiences."

The program was made possible by a generous donation from the Estate of Richard Hill, Charter Sponsor of the Resident Artist Program.

About the Resident Artists

Lebanese-Mexican soprano Marlen Nahhas has been an apprentice artist at Central City Opera for the last two summers where she was awarded the coveted young artist scholarship. The year prior, she was a festival artist at Utah Festival Opera where she won first place in the Michael Ballam International Opera Competition. Ms. Nahhas has been a two-time regional finalist in the Midwest region of the Metropolitan Opera National Council auditions. She received her Bachelor of Music in vocal performance and musical theatre at Oklahoma City University and her Masters and Performance diploma from Indiana University under the tutelage of Carol Vaness. Recent roles include the title role in Tosca, Cio-Cio San in Madama Butterfly, Rosalinda in Die Fledermaus, Fiordiligi in Cosi fan tutte and Mimi in La bohème.

As a Resident Artist for the 2017- 2018 season, Ms. Nahhas will perform the roles of The Page in Rigoletto and Berta in The Barber of Seville.

Lauren Auge, mezzo-soprano, is described as "offering something transformative to the audience" in her work on the stage. Most recently, Ms. Auge was seen as Jennie in Kurt Weill's Down in the Valley and Dorabella in Cosí fan tutte. Making her mark on the competition scene, Ms. Auge was a semi-finalist in the 2015 Bel Canto Foundation competition, the 2014 winner of Sinfonietta Bel Canto Voice Competition, a finalist in the Harold Haugh Light Opera Competition and a first place winner in the 2013 Pantazelos Performing Artists Foundation Vocal Competition. Recently Ms. Auge was also a Danis Wilson Apprentice Artist at the Sugar Creek Symphony and Song Festival. Previous operatic roles have included Marcellina in Le nozze di Figaro, Zita in Gianni Schicchi, The Duchess in Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operetta The Gondoliers, Thelma in Cold Sassy Tree and The Wife in Darius Milhaud's dark opera Le pauvre matelot.

As a Resident Artist for the 2017- 2018 season, Ms. Auge will perform the role of Countess Ceprano in Rigoletto.

Tenor Martin Luther Clark is an alumnus at the University of North Texas holding a Graduate Artist Certificate and Bachelor of Music degree, both in Vocal Performance. While at UNT, Mr. Clark studied voice with Dr. Stephen F. Austin and Professor William Joyner. He recently made his Charlottesville Opera debut as a Young Artist singing the role of Borsa (Rigoletto) and covering Curly (Oklahoma!). In May of 2017, he covered the role of Arjuna (Arjuna's Dilemma) with the Dallas Opera. For the 2016 season, Mr. Clark performed roles including Tonio (La fille du regiment) with Opera North, Bastien (Bastien and Bastienne) with the Dallas Opera Outreach, Mozart (Mozart and Salieri) with Opera in Concert, and several others. Also in 2016, he was selected as a semi-finalist in the Dallas Opera Guild Vocal Competition where he was the youngest competitor by two years. Throughout his college career at UNT, he performed numerous roles including Don Ottavio (Don Giovanni), Count Almaviva (IL Barbiere di Siviglia), Camille (The Merry Widow), and Frederic (The Pirates of Penzance) to name a few. Making his debut at Wolf Trap Opera, he sang the role of Le Fils (Les mamelles de Tirésias) as a Studio Artist.

As a Resident Artist for the 2017- 2018 season, Mr. Clark will perform the roles of The Peasant in Eugene Onegin and Borsa in Rigoletto.

Lauded for his "...consistent, attractive baritone" (Opera News) and "...?rm, ?exible baritone" (The New York Times), Wisconsin-born baritone Tim Murray makes his Lyric Opera of Kansas City debut this season as a member of the 2017-2018 Resident Artist Program. Mr. Murray's 2016-2017 season included a return to the Oratorio Society of New York to cover the baritone soloist in Britten's War Requiem, a short-notice Silvio in I pagliacci with Cedar Rapids Opera, Dandini in La Cenerentola with ARE Opera, NYC, and Moralès in Carmen and Ananias in Britten's The Burning Fiery Furnace with Central City Opera as a member of the Apprentice Artist program. Previous credits include the baritone soloist in both Berlioz's Lélio with the New Jersey Symphony Orchestra and Mahler's 8th Symphony with the Oratorio Society of New York. While a student at Manhattan School of Music, Mr. Murray recorded the role of Le Vicomte de Valmont in Susa's The Dangerous Liaisons with Albany Records.

As a Resident Artist for the 2017- 2018 season, Mr. Murray will perform the roles of Zaretsky/Captain in Eugene Onegin, Guy Cotter in Everest, Marullo in Rigoletto and The Officer in The Barber of Seville.

Coach and accompanist James Maverick is from Bloomington, Indiana. Most recently, he was Apprentice Coach at San Francisco Opera's Merola Opera Program and the Coach Accompanist for Indiana University Opera Theater where he worked on productions of La fillé du régiment and Peter Grimes. Mr. Maverick is a graduate of Indiana University.

About Vinson Cole

American tenor Vinson Cole is internationally recognized as one of the leading artists of his generation. His career has taken him to all the major opera houses across the globe including the Metropolitan Opera, Opera National de Paris Bastille, Teatro alla Scala Milan, Theatre Royale de la Monnaie, Brussels, Berlin State Opera and the Deutsche Oper Berlin, Munich State Opera, San Francisco Opera, Hamburg State Opera, Opera Australia, the Royal Opera House Covent Garden, Seattle Opera and many more. Equally celebrated for his concert appearances, Mr. Cole has been a frequent guest of the most prestigious orchestras throughout the world and has collaborated with the greatest conductors of this era including Christoph Eschenbach, Claudio Abbado, Carlo Maria Giulini, James Levine, Lorin Maazel, James Conlon, Kurt Masur, Zubin Mehta, Riccardo Muti, Seiji Ozawa, Gerard Schwarz as well as Sir Georg Solti and Giuseppe Sinopoli. Mr. Cole had an especially close working relationship with the late Herbert von Karajan, who brought the artist to the Salzburg Festival to sing the Italian Tenor in Der Rosenkavalier - the first of many performances there together. Their collaboration went on to include works such as Verdi's Requiem, Beethoven's Missa Solemnis. Mozart's Requiem and Bruckner's Te Deum. Many of these were issued on recordings on Deutsche Grammaphon. He was the performer on the soundtrack for the film Immortal Beloved.

As a teacher, he has taught at the University of Washington School of Music, the New England Conservatory of Music, the Cleveland Institute of Music, the Aspen Music Festival and School, Glimmerglass Opera, and the Santa Fe Opera. He has conducted master classes for San Francisco Opera's Merola Program and the Canadian Opera Company. Currently, Cole is a faculty member at the Conservatory of Music and Dance at the University of Missouri, Kansas City.

Mr. Cole, born in Kansas City, studied at the University of Missouri, Kansas City before attending the Philadelphia Musical Academy and the Curtis Institute of Music. In 1977, he won the Metropolitan Opera Auditions, the WGN Competition, and was awarded both the Rockefeller Foundation and the National Opera Institute grants. His career took off from there as he went on to perform principal roles with the Metropolitan Opera, San Francisco Opera, Opèra National de Paris, Paris Opera-Bastille, Teatro alla Scala, and many more. Mr. Cole became well known for his interpretation of French repertoire after singing in the Manon centennial performances with Paris's Opera Comique in 1984. Since then, he has performed singular interpretations in such roles for Lakmè, Carmen, Don Carlos, and Faust. He has been honored with numerous awards including special invitations to perform with the Harriman-Jewell Series recitals and received an honorary doctorate from William Jewell College. He also received the Alumni Award from the Conservatory at UMKC, plus the Seattle Mayor's Arts Award for outstanding individual achievement and commitment to the arts.

2017-2018 Season at a Glance:

* Lyric Opera debut

NEW PRODUCTION

Eugene Onegin

Pyotr Tchaikovsky, 1897

Sung in Russian with English subtitles

Saturday, September 30, 2017 7:30 p.m.

Wednesday, October 4, 2017 7:30 p.m.

Friday, October 6, 2017 7:30 p.m.

Sunday, October 8, 2017 2:00 p.m.

Director: Tomer Zvulun

Conductor: Ari Pelto*

Scenery Designer: Erhard Rom

Lighting Designer: Robert Wierzel

Onegin: Morgan Smith *

Tatyana: Joyce El-Khoury

Olga: Megan Marino

Lensky: JoNathan Johnson

Gremin: Paul Whelan *

Filipievna: Jane Bunnell

Monsieur Triquet: Steven Cole

Zaretsky/Captain: Tim Murray*

KANSAS CITY PREMIERE

Everest

Composer: Joby Talbot, 2015

Librettist: Gene Scheer

Sung in English with English subtitles

Saturday, November 11, 2017 7:30 p.m.

Wednesday, November 15, 2017 7:30 p.m.

Friday, November 17, 2017 7:30 p.m.

Sunday, November 19, 2017 2:00 p.m.

Director: Leonard Foglia *

Conductor: Nicole Paiement *

Beck Weathers: Michael Mayes *

Jan Arnold: Sarah Larsen *

Rob Hall: Andrew Bidlack *

Doug Hansen: Craig Verm *

Mike Groom: Mark McCrory

Guy Cotter: Tim Murray

Rigoletto

Giuseppe Verdi, 1851

Sung in Italian with English subtitles

Saturday, March 3, 2018 7:30 p.m.

Wednesday, March 7, 2018 7:30 p.m.

Friday, March 9, 2018 7:30 p.m.

Sunday, March 11, 2018 2:00 p.m.

Director: David Gately

Conductor: David Charles Abell

Rigoletto: Leo An *

Gilda: Nicole Haslett *

Count Monterone: Andrew Gangestad

Duke: Scott Quinn

Maddalena: Zanda Šv?de

Sparafucile: Peixin Chen *

Marullo: Tim Murray

Giovanna: Alice Chung

Countess Ceprano: Lauren Auge*

Page: Marlen Nahhas*

Usher: Armando Contreras

REIMAGINED PRODUCTION

The Barber of Seville

Gioachino Rossini, 1816

Sung in Italian with English subtitles

Saturday, April 28, 2018 7:30 p.m.

Wednesday, May 2, 2018 7:30 p.m.

Friday, May 4, 2018 7:30 p.m.

Sunday, May 6, 2018 2:00 p.m.

Director: Michael Shell *

Conductor: Leonardo Vordoni

Lighting Designer: Kendall Smith

Almaviva: Jack Swanson *

Rosina: Cassandra Zoe Velasco *

Figaro: Jarett Ott *

Don Basilio: Brian Banion

Don Bartolo: Matthew Burns *

Berta: Marlen Nahhas

Fiorello: Armando Contreras

Officer: Tim Murray

About Lyric Opera of Kansas City

Lyric Opera of Kansas City was founded in 1958; it is one of the nation's premier regional opera companies and brings high quality live operatic performances to the people of the Kansas City area and a five-state region. Repertoire choices encompass original language performances of standard repertory as well as contemporary and American operas. The Company mounts productions that enrich the community it serves, as well as reflect the highest artistic standards of the profession. Lyric Opera offers innovative and award-winning programs designed to further music and arts education both in schools and in the community, and serves more than 18,000 students and educators each year.


          Regional Roundup: Top New Features This Week Around Our BroadwayWorld 7/21 - NEWSIES, MAMMA MIA, and More!        

BroadwayWorld presents a comprehensive weekly roundup of regional stories around our Broadway World, which include videos, editor spotlights, regional reviews and more. This week, we feature Newsies, Mamma Mia!, The Book of Mormon, and more!

Check out our top features from around the BroadwayWorld below!


St. Louis: Check out video highlights from The Muny's production of ALL SHOOK UP! Set to the chart-topping hits of the King of Rock 'n' Roll, himself, Elvis Presley, and based on Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, All Shook Up follows the story of Natalie, a tomboy mechanic with a longing heart, and Chad, a mysterious, hip-swiveling roustabout who is new to town and ready to shake things up. Set in the 1950s, and filled with secret crushes, hysterical shenanigans and matters of the heart, this is one Muny production that promises to have the entire family dancing in their 'Blue Suede Shoes.'


Washington DC: Contributor Bejamin Tomchik reviews MAMMA MIA! He writes "The credit lays first, and most obviously, with Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus, the Bs in ABBA. Their music and lyrics are as catchy as when they first debuted in the seventies and eighties. It is hard to find someone leaving Wolf Trap not humming their favorite song. Second is book writer Catherine Johnson for creating an original story that is playful, and naturally incorporates ABBA's songs making them feel like natural extensions of the characters and/or scenes. Director Phyllida Lloyd and choreographer Anthony Van Laast give the production a youthful energy that is a great compliment to ABBA's music. Van Laast's athletic and energetic choreography conveys the urgency of finding Sophie's father with the excitement of her wedding."


Philippines: Contributor Robert Encila reviews NEWSIES! He writes "Guevara himself has extracted a rambunctious performance from a gifted and intrepid ensemble, harnessing a collective power that defied the heavy rains that threatened to steal the glory on Saturday night [July 15] at Bonifacio High Street Amphitheatre. Fortunately, nature yielded to the man-made tempest, a savage storm forged by inspired singing, dynamic choreography, and a sizzling live band."


South Carolina: Contributor Neil Shurley reviews HAIR at the Lyric! He writes "The journey begins even before curtain time, as actors - already in character - mill around the open theatre space, creating a welcoming atmosphere as they interact with audience members and each other. The set, designed by Henry Wilkinson, consists of some low platforms, covered in blankets and pillows, with a few swaths of draped fabric in places. And as the music begins, the actors converge and undergo a small ritual in which they take a drug and the lights and music swirl more and maybe the whole evening is just going to be one long drug trip for all of us and then the "Age of Aquarius" dawns and draws us into its spell."


San Francisco: Contributor Robert Sokol reviews THE BOOK OF MORMON. He writes "A return visit does not lessen the joy of frog-on-face jokes and there's anticipatory joy in getting another dose of Elder McKinley's first-rate, tapping advice "Turn It Off," or succumbing to another "Spooky Mormon Hell Dream." The other thing you get is an opportunity to really absorb the musical riffs on other hit shows with whom Mormon has rightfully taken its place. Try to not hear the essence of "The Wizard and I," "Hakuna Matata," or "Somewhere That's Green" hinted in "You and Me (But Mostly Me), " "Hasa Diga Eebowai," and "Sal Tlay Ka Siti."


Los Angeles: Contributor Michael Quintos reviews MARY POPPINS at Musical Theatre West. He writes "It also helps that the cast is superb. Katharine McDonough---who was incredible as Eliza Doolittle in MTW's MY FAIR LADY---returns with her Brit accent and self-assured wit and confidence to play the titular nanny, who has magically arrived at Number 17 Cherry Tree Lane to assist in the care of two "adorable" children whose family life seems to be in flux. In McDonough's hands, Mary is appropriately playful yet sincere, sassy yet capable of forethought, empathy and care (McDonough is so charming that the audience didn't even bat an eye when she pantomimed having her infamous measuring tape which went inexplicably missing on Opening Night). Her every appearance as Mary is a delight and her singing voice is, indeed, practically perfect for the role."


Pittsburgh: Contributor Dylan Shaffer reviews NEWSIES at the Pittsburgh CLO. He writes "Pencil turns, pirouettes, and barrel rolls abound in this show, as large dance numbers follow one another throughout both the first and second acts. Audiences love when a stage full of actors are able to kick, jump, and step in unison, and for the most part, the cast of Disney's Newsies does this. Their synchrony is evident in the tap number "King of New York." There is no question that these boys are talented, but being a beat ahead or behind will never bode well in a group number, and the audience will notice unforgivingly."


Kansas City: Contributor Sara Brown reviews BACK TO THE 80s at Theatre in the Park. She writes "My favorite part of the show was the girls' costumes. The 80's had such defined fashion, and these girls didn't disappoint with sparkly frocks, fringe boots, and plaid skirts. Their song "Girls Just Want to have Fun," sung by Murphy, Maggie Hutchinson, Anna Hastings, and Colette Worthington, was my second favorite song in the show with their iconic dance moves."


Cleveland: Contributor Roy Berko reviews THE SOUND OF MUSIC at Playhouse Square. He writes "The little girl sitting behind me was on the edge of her seat throughout the show and, at the end, sleepily said to her mother, "I loved it!"Yes, the touring production of "The Sound of Music," is a very pleasant experience. "So long, Farewell," How long will it be before I have to "Climb Every Mountain" again? Guess as long as I'm a reviewer, "There is No Way to Stop It."


Toronto: Contributor Taylor Long reviews SHAKESPEARE IN THE PARK. He writes "Shakespeare in High Park is the perfect summer theatrical experience. Bring a blanket, pack some bug spray - hey, even pack a picnic. I was jealous at some of the picnic spreads people had prepared. Escape the bustling city and experience two of the greatest plays ever written - performed by some exceptional talent."


Regional Editor Spotlight:

Dylan Shaffer
Pittsburgh Contributing Editor

Dylan is a modern writer, producer and theatregoer in the Pittsburgh region. In the theatrical realm, he has worked in production, marketing, box office and front of house, in addition to acting, directing and stage-managing. When he is not involved with shows, either in the Cultural District downtown or in the small-town theatres speckling western PA, Dylan keeps busy on the golf course, in the community and at new and exciting restaurants.


Join Team BroadwayWorld! Interested in joining our team, but not exactly sure what we do? All of your questions are answered, along with every open position from guest and student bloggers, Regional Editors, and more! Find out where we have open positions available here!


          Peter Frampton and Steve Miller Band play all the hits and the blues that inspired them at Pacific Amphitheatre        
For five years in the mid-1970s the Steve Miller Band and Peter Frampton ruled the rock album charts, with hit records such as “The Joker” and “Fly Like An Eagle” for Miller, and “Frampton Comes Alive” for, well, Frampton. So the pairing of the two, who’ve known each other for 50 years since meeting at […]
          Back in the Swing        
We are now five weeks into the fall semester of college, and six weeks into teaching computers at the elementary school.

I'm kind of tired.

But in a good way!

Work is fun. Today I taught 3rd graders the entire left hand homerow for typing, showed 4th graders how to make a pie chart with M&M's (that they got to EAT after, whee!) and 7/8th graders how to do the basics of html. The only problem is I don't have as much time as I would like to spend on my lesson plans as I would like, because . . .

Yeah, school. It's kind of homework-y. The last two or three weeks each Sunday has been like 7 hours of homework. In a ROW. That is a lot of homework. Plus, ya'know, trying to actually spend time with my boyfriend (who is still wonderful) and my family (who are also busy) and Nick's family (Hi Clair!) and I am just BUSY.

(Notice I am up at nearly 1am on a school night just so I could have some goof off time. Normal hours rebellion, ahoy! Also, zzzzzz.)

Um. What else. Taekwondo is good! Mostly. And I did a cardio class! And got really sweaty. Um, I need to clean my fish tank. I need to clean my apartment. The list of things I need to do is kind of long, so let's just skip that and I'll say I'm totally going shopping tomorrow morning, because Kohl's gave me a $10 off coupon and I need work clothes! Yay, shopping!

I'm off for bed.

Ciao!
          My Colourful Ancestry        

These two images were created using Family Historian for the recent genealogy craze this Easter



This is the one for my husband



This is mine


I may add a chart to include all the main events birth, marriage and death at a later date but for the time being these show the birth counties in England.


          Saturday service - Let me explain        

A couple of times this last week I have had customers question the quoted price for service for their Saturday event. One was a childs birthday party a three hour drive one way from us, and the other a charity event/fund raiser. Both events were Saturday events. Both events were slated for our number one prime time Sat afternoon early evening time slots. We never offer discounts on Saturdays,s and here I am going to explain why.

 A Saturday is the day we know we are going to work. Its not uncommon for us to only have one or two events going on through the weekdays, but Saturdays always end up booked. We are reserved at least 44 out of 52 Saturdays each year laying off most of January and February due to the weather spare New Years Eve and Valentines Day.

Our booking procedure involves using a mileage chart and internet mapping program to calculate distance and travel time. It's not all about the extra fuel to get there even though that is a factor its not near as much of an issue as the travel time involved.

So here is the reality of it: On any given Saturday there are really no more than two total five hour slots available in a day. One five hour slot consists of up to one hour of travel, two hours of service, an hour to unload and reload, and an hour back. Now if it takes double the time to get there it changes the whole dynamics of the day. Lets use an example of two hours there, an hour to unload and reload, two hours of service and two hours back. That just turned the event into a seven hour job and it starts becoming real dicey that we can fit in another event that day. So you may find yourself paying a portion of a second slot, or even all of it depending on how far away you are. Your distance literally dictates whether or not we can book another service on that Saturday.

Saturdays are so important to us because they are literally our "pay day" Saturday is the day we know the horses will for sure be working and paying for their upkeep. You see unlike other businesses we have eight two thousand pound employee's that are on the clock 24/7 - 365 days a year. Ok maybe not the "clock" but the feed bill for sure. The round bale you see Clyde our Clydesdale happily enjoying in the picture here costs between $50-$85 for the fertilized, pure bermuda, race horse quality stuff our horses eat, and we go through a couple hundred of them a year. That does not even consider the $800 a month bill for their grain. Besides that there is ongoing farrier work and vet services for routine things like vaccines and dental work.

 We here at "The Princess's Carriage" always put our horses first. They are our number one priority. Their care means more to us than anything else, and those Saturday's are the day that ensures we have the finances to provide them everything they need. While we are happy to offer weekday discounts we just can not compromise on those Saturdays. Dear customer I do hope you understand.
          October: Leaf Season and Pumpkin Fest        


Last week we jumped to Thanksgiving, but we need to back up a bit and enjoy what Maine is offering right now.

Leaf season is underway! In New Harbor the leaves are beginning to change and peak season will be the first three weeks in October.

http://www.yankeefoliage.com/peak-foliage-forecast-map/

Come visit The Bradley Inn for a few days, cruise around taking in Autumn's display of vibrant colors. Make use of the Midcoasts' abundant hiking trails to hear the crunch of leaves beneath your feet and feel the clean fresh Maine air in your lungs.

http://www.visit-maine.com/walking-and-hiking/midcoast

Pumpkinfest in Damariscotta is from October 5th - 14th this year with non-stop pumpkin entertainment, a parade, giant pumpkin growing contest, Zombie Run, Pumpkin Catapult, Pumpkin Express Train Rides and more culminating with the Pumpkin Regatta Race with courageous folks who carve out giant pumpkins and race down them Damariscotta Tidal River. For real!!


http://damariscottapumpkinfest.com/PEvents.html

Whatever your daytime adventures are, save room for an amazing meal.

Our dining room is open every evening except Tuesdays and for a more casual dining experience try our Tavern / Chart Room. Our dinner and pub menus are available anywhere you dine with us. Our wine is designed to meet any taste and our knowledgeable staff can assist in pairing your food and wine.

After dinner retire to your comfortable room and drift away with thoughts of a hot delicious breakfast waiting for you in the morning.



We think fall is the perfect time to unwind from the excitement of summer, relax and just enjoy the moment. We think you'll find The Bradley Inn the perfect place to do just that!

Make your reservations now... www.bradleyinn.com
          New Packages!!        
We are quite excited to extend some new really neat packages. These are great for families vacationing together, couples, friends vacationing, company outings or team building.  
 
The first is the Lobster Bake - get out on a lobster boat hauling in traps! If you're not up for the high seas stay at the inn and partake in a Yoga class, a massage, or just relax. Then it's off to harvest oysters. Wait 'til the folks back home here about this! Once back at the inn you can help as much or as little with the lobster bake itself. A good time is guaranteed to be had by all and you'll go home with some stories of real Maine adventure!
 
The second package is the Maine Wine & Cheese Tour. Visit a local winery where you will be treated to a lovely lunch, then get a backstage peek at making cheese from an artisan. Return to the inn for an exquisite dinner of perfectly paired wine, cheese and local fare. A foodie's dream getaway!
 
Okay, so based on the number of exclamation points you can see we are really pumped about these packages. Give us a call to reserve yours today!
 
 

LobsterLobster Bake!

Available: minimum 6 people, maximum 20
Package price: $795 (double occupancy)
Package includes: Two night’s New Harbor B&B lodging, dinner the first evening in the inn's Pemaquid Point restaurant, full country breakfast each morning. Your first morning waking at the Inn you will have the choice of heading out on a lobster boat to haul traps or enjoying Yoga in the beautiful gardens.
The next stop is to learn about and harvest oysters! You can also choose to enjoy a massage and sauna at the Inn's Rose Hip Spa. A picnic lunch will be waiting for you to enjoy on the grounds or at the beach.
That evening you can be hands-on during the lobster bake. Learn to steam lobsters, shuck oysters and layout a traditional and delicious New England Lobster Bake!

Wine and Cheese at the Bradley Inn    Maine Wine & Cheese Tour

Available: June 30 - Thanksgiving
Package price: $745 (double occupancy)
Package includes:
Two night’s New Harbor B&B lodging, full country breakfast each morning. Upon arrival you will be greeted with a wine and cheese reception in the Chart Room at the Inn. The next day you will be given a detailed tour including a list of scavenger hunt items to pickup at each location and bring home as souvenirs of your trip!
Enjoy lunch at the Cellar Door and tour the winery and vineyard. Then you are off to visit a Maine Cheese Artisan to get a behind the scenes look at the fine art of crafting cheese. Return for a multi-course gourmet dinner in the inn's Pemaquid Point restaurant, with wine pairings carefully selected by our Chef. End your visit the next day with brunch at our sister restaurant, The Contented Sole.

 


          Hidden Treasure         


I have been working at the Bradley Inn and Restaurant for a month now. I prepare breakfast for the Inn guests and the desserts for the Inn Restaurant and the sister restaurant The Contented Sole. I haven't eaten at the Inn since 2010 but remembered it being a wonderful meal, the best to date we've had since living in Maine. Having seen the kitchen, the locally sourced foods and care that goes into the menu planning along with the talent saying I was excited to have dinner last night would be a terrible understatement.
 
Making a menu selection for me is a struggle and I usually change my mind three times once the waiter or waitress actually asks for my order. Because I had know the owners would be out of town for the evening and Bitza was Chef I asked his advice on what to order. He suggested that I 'let him surprise me.' Surprise does not describe the meal we experienced for our anniversary. Allow me to walk you through the evening.


The Inn has a dining room, blue patterned carpeting, white tablecloths, formal yet inviting. In a room off the living room is the warmly lit Tavern with a large granite bar, several tables, deep dark wood everywhere, model ships, a ship's wheel and a well-stocked bar. adjacent to the Tavern with two past through is The Chart Room. More warm wood tones, an ebony piano, nautical charts and tables. A few tables in both the Tavern and Chart Room have very masculine camel colored leather wing back chairs fit for a Sea Captain.
We arrived a bit early for dinner and enjoyed a drink at the bar, marveling at the surroundings and the backyard rhododendron  in full bloom. Suzie made our drinks and entertained us with conversation. We made our way to the corner of the Chart Room and selected a table in he corner by the windows. Our waitress Peke, who also works the Front Desk of the Inn during the day, was dressed in white button up shirt, black slacks and a long white wait staff apron. She let us know that Bitza was preparing our meals and recommended the Pinot Noir (my fave!).
The first plate to materialize at our table was an amuse bouche, that is bite sized food meant to amuse the mouth and prepare the palate. A sampling of mortadella, smoked almonds, briny olives, garlic scallions, radishes, Parmesan, crab cakes and house cured duck breast. Bitza was going to pull out all the stops. I will take this opportunity to apologize for any errors in identifying the food, I was having a hard time not passing out from foodgasm delight.

The next items to arrive were Pemaquid Oysters with a prosecco Mignonette, a sauce of shallots, vinegar and pepper and flat bread with mortadella, mozzarella and garlic scallions. The pairing of the mignonette with the oysters transforms what is on it's own a beautiful metallic, plump taste of the sea into something that makes you close your eyes, hum and rock gently back and forth. The flat bread was crisp and airy at the same time with fatty mortadella giving it richness and depth of flavor.
At this point we were in awe at the level of detail and execution and could not wait for our entrees. We didn't realize more courses were coming. Next to arrive were Damariscotta River clams casino, grilled with apple wood smoked bacon, oregano and sweet pequillo peppers. These little gems are smaller but meatier than the oysters and stand up to the pieces of sweet smoky bacon. I became somewhat worried with the amount of food we were having and whether or not I was up for the challenge - I was thankful I chose Lycra spandex for my evening wear. Our silverware was replaced several times during the meal and our crumbs swept away, never a detail missed.

Peke and Mara arrived with two more plates, this time New Harbor lobster fettuccini with house made tender fresh pasta, fire roasted tomatoes and a tarragon cream. This was served in individual tureens, porcelain white bowls on their own lovely stands. The anise flavor of the tarragon in the cream was perfection.

Just when I started considering if I would be stricken with gout on the ride home Bitza arrived in Chef coat with one more plate, our entrée. A locally sourced skirt steak with rosemary crisp fries and a chile glazed duck breast over risotto. The beef was tender and buttery, the duck done perfectly with crispy glistening skin.

Somehow we mustered the courage to order dessert, I had to see how they came out and honestly hadn't tried the lemon pudding myself despite having made it several times. My husband ordered the Espresso Crème Brulee and set about rolling his eyes back into his head. I had the lemon pudding served in a tea cup with Maine blueberries and a sugared pansy. We were treated last with the check and a mignardise or small sweet, two of the caramels dipped in dark chocolate with sea salt that I had made.

The food was incredible, the service - top notch. We talked about how wonderful the restaurant is and how it seems to be a closely guarded secret. I will do my part to get the message out to others. It truly is a treat and while you can sit and have a white tablecloth experience you can also sit in the Tavern and order small plates of any of the above for the pleasure of the food in a more casual 'off with the cloth' atmosphere.

Please go, you won't be disappointed.

          Making Sense of MACRA        

In January 2015, the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) established new goals for Medicare to improve value while controlling costs. The Medicare Access & CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) will help achieve these goals:

  • Goal 1: by the end of 2016, 30% of Medicare payments are tied to quality or value via alternative payment models (APMs), and 50% by the end of 2018.
  • Goal 2: by the end of 2016, 85% of Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) payments are tied to quality or value, and 90% by the end of 2018.

Why must we change Medicare reimbursement? As shown in Chart 1, based on DHHS reports, Medicare costs rose sharply from its enactment in the mid-1960s to today, both as a percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and as a percent of all national health expenditures (NHE). Currently, Medicare is estimated to account for roughly 4% of the GDP, and for over one in five health care dollars. There is also a need to improve the quality of health care services and delivery. Changing Medicare reimbursement is a way to better manage costs while enhancing care quality.

As discussed in the series of posts on bundled payments, traditional medical billing and payment is volume-based. In other words, the more hip replacements that surgeons perform, the more they can bill for. If the hip replacement procedures are more costly than necessary, the surgeons still get reimbursed. If the patient suffers complications following hip replacement surgery, the added days in the hospital and hospital readmissions are reimbursed. Providers are rewarded for doing more, but not for doing better.

Increasingly, Medicare and other payers are moving to value-based reimbursement systems that reward providers for improving the quality of care while controlling costs. MACRA changes the incentives for patient care to encourage providers, largely physicians, to become part of this value-based movement. MACRA also ends the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) formula used since 1997 for Medicare reimbursement to healthcare providers.

MIPS and APMs

MACRA establishes the Quality Payment Program (QPP) with two paths that move providers to value-based reimbursement:

  • The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS)
  • Advanced Alternative Payment Models (APMs).

Healthcare practitioners eligible for Medicare Part B reimbursement will participate in MIPS. For the first two years of MACRA, MIPS eligible clinicians include physicians, dentists, physician assistants and advance practice nurses such as nurse practitioners and certified registered nurse anesthetists. In following years, eligibility may be expanded to other practitioners such as physical or occupational therapists, nurse midwives, clinical social workers and audiologists. Hospitals and other facilities, clinicians with low patient volume or in their first year of Medicare Part B participation, and some clinicians in APMs are excluded from MIPS.

Under MIPs, the eligible clinician’s Medicare Part B reimbursement is adjusted based on a Composite Performance Score (CPS) that encompasses the categories of quality, resource use, clinical practice improvement activities and advancing care information. The scoring system is complex, and may also be adjusted for factors such as practices located in rural areas. The amount of the adjustment to Part B reimbursement may be positive or negative, beginning at ± 4% in 2019 and increasing to ± 9% by 2022. The adjustments are designed to be more reasonable and predictable than the earlier SGR annual adjustments. Exceptional performers may receive additional reimbursement in the adjustment. These payment adjustments and bonuses begin in 2019.

APMs include new financing initiatives that increase incentives for high value care, including bundled payment models and Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). Bundled payment models and ACOs compel providers across a health care episode to work together to deliver high quality care while controlling costs. Physicians, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, home health agencies and other healthcare providers share accountability for their budget as well as their patients, and are rewarded for high-value performance. QPP providers may not need to participate in MIPS if they are part of an advanced APM.

Nurses in many healthcare settings will see changes to improve coordination and services as a response to MACRA and other value-based reimbursement strategies. My book helps nurses understand fundamental concepts of health care economics and financing, including innovations that tie quality to payment. It is essential that nurses, at the front lines of health care delivery, learn about healthcare finance and its impact on their work and their institutions.

Susan J. Penner, RN, MN, MPA, DrPH, CNL . Author, Economics and Financial Management for Nurses and Nurse Leaders, 3rd  Edition, 2016, and adjunct faculty at the University of San Francisco School of Nursing and Health Professions.


          May 2014 Acquisitions        


Things have settled down at the Library, after returning to its usual space and shelves. Many new members joined the Library during the Portland Biennial; here are some of the resulting new acquisitions!


Included in this new batch of books:
Volumes I & II of Robert Graves' The Greek Myths (Jorge Luis Borges Personal Library)
Paolo Zellini's A Brief History of Infinity (Italo Calvino Personal Library)


Above is a spread from The Double Helix by James Watson, showing "Linus Pauling with his atomic models." The front cover elaborates on the title: Being a personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA, a major scientific advance which led to the award of a Nobel Prize. Watson's book is in the Anne Spencer Personal Library, as is Allen Smith's Life in a Putty Factory.


Space, Time, and New Mathematics, edited by Robert Marks, is a compilation of "writings by Einstein, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Gamow, Wiener, Poincaré, and others." This book, in the Robert Smithson Personal Library, is a great companion to related books by Gamow, Wiener, and more in his collection. The above cartoon likens Einstein to a magician.

Also new to the Smithson Library:
Lost Continents: The Atlantis Theme in History, Science, and Literature by L. Sprague de Camp, and
Language and Myth by Ernst Cassirer


This beautiful frontispiece and title page is from Robert Mudie's The Earth, from Maria Mitchell's Personal Library. The printing is really extraordinary, with debossed birds on very thick paper; about the printing is stated: Baxter's Oil Colour Printing - 3, Charter-house Square.


The Zodiac: A Life Epitome, by Walter H. Sampson, not only has a compelling ct ligature throughout the text, but a lovely frontispiece and fold-out at the end of the book. It is from the Robert Smithson Personal Library, along with the related Meditations on the Signs of the Zodiac by John Jocelyn.



Lastly, is this remarkable book, Within the Circle: Portrait of the Arctic, by Evelyn Stefansson (Robert Smithson Personal Library), with fantastic photographs of land, flora and fauna.


For any questions about the Library, Collections or books, please contact the Librarian at personallibraries{at}gmail{dot}com. 
          Jonathan Meades on album covers and cooking        

If you enjoyed film of Jonathan Meades at Marsh Court that I posted recently, here are two more contributions by the great mean that may be to your taste.

He has reviewed a book on album covers for the Literary Review:
Three hundred pages of photographs of egomaniacal longhairs trying their utmost to look insolently delinquent (as only the alumni of Harrow, Charterhouse, Haberdashers’ Aske’s, Oundle, the Perse and numerous other public schools can). An introductory essay weighed down by cliché. A commemoration of the last century’s over-denimed, over-flared sartorial nadir. A vanity project that exhumes ephemera – mere record sleeves! – and binds them boastfully in hard covers. That’s one way of looking at this book. 
Another is to consider this doggedly thorough doorstop as a comprehensive celebration of a gloriously impure mix of photographic surrealism, graphic ostentation, inventive mise en scène, darkroom experimentation (Photoshop was far in the future), palaeo cut and paste (using cowgum, of course), hoary jokes, bricolage, inspired ad hocism and, above all, sheer cleverness.
And in June he spoke to John Mitchinson of Unbound Books at the London Review Bookshop about his career and in particular his new book.

You can listen to the evening as a podcast and it is well worth doing so as Meades was in good form.
          Di: Bilanci Gruppi Editoriali Italiani in 15 Chart - DataMediaHub        
[…]  2. Tutto Quello che Avreste Voluto Sapere su RCS […]
          Rechtsextreme verfolgen Seenotretter        
Die „C-Star“ ist ein Schiff, das die Identitäre Bewegung für eine Anti-Flüchtlingsaktion gechartert hat. Nun sind die Rechtsextremen offenbar in geringem Abstand hinter dem Rettungsschiff „Aquarius“ hergefahren.
          Zwischenstopp Hafenkante        
Die Identitäre Bewegung will Flüchtlinge im Mittelmeer stoppen. Doch die ultrarechte PR-Show stößt auf Hindernisse - ein gechartertes Schiff hängt in Nordzypern fest. Ist die Reise schon zu Ende?
          Electronic Medical Records software programs        
When your office needs electronic medical records software, then look no further than Medical Charting. Our EMR software will improve the efficiency of your office, and improving satisfaction among your clinic visitors.
          Nov 2012 Daring Cooks' Challenge Brining & Roasting        

Hello this Audax from Audax Artifex and I'm honoured to be your host this month. I have decided to concentrate on a couple of important cooking techniques that every good cook should have up his or her sleeve. The first technique is brining – which uses a brine (at its simplest, a combination of salt and water usually with some sugar) to infuse flavour and moisture into poultry, red- & white-meat, fish, seafood and most types of nuts and seeds. Brining guarantees moist succulent roast chickens and turkeys, fried steaks, steamed trout, BBQed prawns (shrimps), grilled seafood and toasted nuts and seeds. Brining is simple and only needs a few simple ingredients and really adds an extra dimension to your cooking. I will be providing a couple of different recipes and guidelines on how to brine which can be used with a whole array of meats, poultry, seafood, nuts and seeds.

Then for the second technique (once you have brined your chosen cut of meat) I want you to roast (or BBQ) it. Again I will be giving you guidelines and rules on how to roast your cut of meat. The roasting guidelines can be used for meat, vegetables, nuts and seeds. For our non-meat eating cooks I want you to use the roasting guidelines to roast a selection of vegetables and/or nuts or seeds to perfection.
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HOW IT WORKS (from http://www.cooksillustrated.com/images/document/howto/ND01_ISBriningbasics.pdf)

Soaking in brine improves the taste and the moistness of all fowl (chicken, turkey, goose, duck and guinea fowl), also it works on lean red- and lean white-meats, fish, most seafood and most nuts and seeds. It is simple, cheap and effective and will ensure that your Christmas roast will be the tastiest you have ever made. All you do is brine your cut of meat and then proceed as normal, you will find that the roast is juicy and the skin has a lovely colour. The recipe for all-purpose brine is simple - for each cup (240 ml) of water use 1 tablespoon (18 gm) of table salt this makes a 8% brine solution which can be used for most foods. (This is equivalent to 1 cup of table salt for each gallon (4 litres) of water.)

Brining works in accordance with two principles, called diffusion and osmosis, these two principles like to keep things in equilibrium (or in stable balance). When brining a fowl for example, there is a greater concentration of salt and sugar outside of the fowl (in the brine) than inside the fowl (in the cells that make up its flesh). The law of diffusion states that the salt and sugar will naturally flow from the area of greater concentration (the brine) to lesser concentration (the cells). There is also a greater concentration of water, so to speak, outside of the fowl than inside. Here, too, the water will naturally flow from the area of greater concentration (the brine) to lesser concentration (the cells). When water moves in this fashion, the process is called osmosis. Once inside the cells, the salt and, to a lesser extent, the sugar causes the cell proteins to unravel, or denature. As the individual proteins unravel, they become more likely to interact with one another. This interaction results in the formation of a sticky matrix that captures and holds moisture. Once exposed to heat, the matrix gels and forms a barrier that keeps much of the water from leaking out as the meat cooks. Thus you have a roast that is both better seasoned and much more moist than when you started.

HANGING IT OUT TO DRY

Brining does have one negative effect on poultry: Adding moisture to the skin as well as the flesh which can prevent the skin from crisping when cooked. This can be overcome by air-drying, a technique used in many Chinese recipes for roast duck and chicken. Letting brined chicken and turkey dry uncovered in the refrigerator allows surface moisture to evaporate, making the skin visibly more dry and taut and therefore promoting crispness when cooked. Although this step is optional, if crisp skin is a goal, it’s worth the extra time. For best results, air-dry whole brined birds overnight. Brined chicken parts can be air-dried for several hours. Transfer the brined bird to a heavy-duty cooling rack set over a rimmed baking sheet, pat the bird dry with paper towels, and refrigerate. The rack lifts the bird off the baking sheet, allowing air to circulate freely under the bird. If you are not air-drying your fowl it is best to pat dry the skin with paper towels before roasting in a hot oven.

Surprisingly, brining has one large positive effect on fish fillets, a quick brine (only 10 mins) greatly improves the appearance of cooked fillets, because the brine reduces the unsightly white layer of albumin that coagulates on the surface during cooking, I highly recommend brining fish fillets when presentation is paramount. 

ITEMS THAT BENEFIT FROM BRINING
Lean cuts of meat with mild flavour tend to benefit most from flavour brining also most nuts and seeds can be brined with good affect. These include:

Chicken: whole, butterflied, or pieces
Cornish Hens: whole or butterflied
Turkey: whole, butterflied, or pieces
Pork: chops, loin, tenderloin, fresh ham
Seafood: salmon, trout, shrimp
Beef: use lean pieces of beef
Nuts and Seeds: Most nuts and seeds are suitable i.e. pumpkin, peanuts, sesame, almonds etc.  

Fatty meats such as duck, beef, and lamb do not benefit as much from brining (but still can be brined)—they're naturally moist and flavourful. They also tend to be cooked to lower internal temperatures and thus don't lose as much of their natural moisture.

WHICH SALT TO USE
Kosher salt (called rock salt outside North America) and table salt are the most common salts used in brining.

Sea salt can be used for flavour brining, but it tends to be quite expensive. If you have a cheap supply available, go for it; otherwise, stick to kosher salt or table salt.
Some people say that kosher salt tastes "cleaner" than table salt because it does not contain the anti-caking agents added to table salt. Some people prefer non-iodized table salt over iodized table salt, believing that potassium iodide creates an off-taste. However, these flavour differences melt away when salt is diluted in large quantities of water in a brine. In an article about salt in the September/October 2002 issue of Cook's Illustrated magazine, taste testers felt that "all nine salts tasted pretty much the same" when dissolved in spring water and chicken stock, whether it was 36¢/pound iodized table salt, 66¢/pound kosher salt, or $36/pound Fleur de Sel de Camargue sea salt from France.

SALT EQUIVALENT MEASURES
Table salt and kosher salt do not have the same saltiness in a flavour brine when measured by volume—but they do when measured by weight.

Table salt weighs about 10 ounces (285 grams) per cup, while kosher salt weighs 5-8 ounces (140-225 grams) per cup, depending on the brand. If using kosher salt in a brine, you must use more than a cup to achieve the same salt flavour you would get from a cup of table salt.

The chart below shows equivalent amounts of table salt and the two most popular brands of kosher salt.

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Morton Kosher Salt weighs about 7.7 ounces (220 grams) per cup, making it three-fourths as strong as table salt. Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt weighs about 5 ounces (140 grams) per cup, making it half as strong as table salt.
What if you're using something other than Morton Kosher or Diamond Crystal Kosher salt? Regardless of the type of salt—sea salt, pickling salt, and any other brand of kosher salt—just measure 10 ounces (285 grams) of it on a kitchen scale and you will have the equivalent of 1 cup of table salt.

HOW LONG TO BRINE
The length of time meat soaks in a flavour brine depends on the type of meat and its size, as well as the amount of salt used in the brine—the saltier the brine mixture, the shorter the soaking time. Here are common brining times found in recipes:

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It is possible to end up with meat that's too salty for your taste, so you may want to brine on the low end of the time range to see how it turns out. You can always brine longer next time, but there's no way to salvage a piece of meat that's been brined too long.

ROASTING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR POULTRY 
When we roast brined cuts of meat (or whole birds) the procedure firstly is to brown the skin in a hot oven then to lower the temperature so we reduce the moisture loss in the roasted food. It is important to rest (loosely covered in foil) your roast so that the moisture can redistribute itself in the meat, it greatly adds to the final tenderness of the cooked product.

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For other roasting times for red meat, fish, seafood, nuts and seeds see the additional information at the end of the challenge write-up.

Recipe Source:  The brine and roast chicken used are traditional recipes used in my family for many generations. The roast vegetable recipe is from my own family cookbook.   

Blog-checking lines:  Audax of Audax Artifax was our November 2012 Daring Cooks’ host.  Audax has brought us into the world of brining and roasting, where we brined meat and vegetables and roasted them afterwards for a delicious meal!

Posting Date:  November 14th, 2012

Download the printable .pdf file HERE


Note:  Important Information – brining must be done in the refrigerator the salt water will not stop the growth of germs and bacteria. Also brine cannot be reused always discard it after first use.  Make sure that the brine goes into the cavity of large chickens and turkeys when brining.  

Mandatory Items: If you eat meat you must brine a meat (or seafood) cut and then roast (or BBQ) it. For non-meat eaters please brine some nuts or seeds then roast them or just roast a load of vegetables. I have included an extensive listing of poultry, seafood, nut etc. recipes in the additional information section at the end of the challenge feel free to use any of these recipes. Of course you can use your own favourite recipe if you wish.

Variations allowed:  Any meat/seafood (or nuts/seeds) can be used for brining. And any vegetable can be used by non-meat eaters. 

Preparation time:  Generally brining takes from ½ hour to 2 days. Roasting can take up to 2 hours for most pieces of meat, for large poultry 6-7 hours.

Equipment required:
non-reactive container for the brine
roasting pans or trays

Challenge Recipes
I have included one all-purpose brine recipe, a roast chicken recipe and a roast vegetable recipe.

Recipe One – All-Purpose Brine:


Makes 4 cups of brine enough for about one pound (½ kg) of meat

This is the brine to use for most cuts of meat and poultry that will be roasted.

Ingredients
4 cups (1 litre) of cold water (see note 1)
¼ cup (70 gm) table salt or  ½ cup (70 gm) Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt
optional 2 tablespoons (30 ml) (30 gm/1 oz) sugar (see note 2)
optional 3-4 peppercorns, a few springs of herbs, a garlic clove or two, a knob of ginger etc. (see note 3)

Instructions
1. Heat 1 cup of water to boiling point add the salt and stir until all the salt has totally dissolved.
2. Place in a non-reactive container (glass, plastic, stainless steel, zip-lock bags etc). Add the remaining water and stir. Make sure that all the salt has dissolved. Wait until the brine has reached room temperature.
3. Add your cut of meat make sure that the meat is completely submerged (that is totally covered in the salty water) if need be you can weigh down the cut of meat with a clean plate (etc). If using plastic bags make sure that the meat is totally covered in brine and make sure that is bag is locked securely.
4. Cover the container with plastic wrap to prevent odours contaminating the flavour brine or the brine leaking.
5. Place the container into the refrigerator for the soaking time suggested by the guidelines above.
6. If desired you can air-dry your poultry (usually over night) in the refrigerator if you wish to have crispy skin on your bird. It is best to pat dry your brined item (inside and out) with paper towels before cooking.
7. Cook the brined item as directed by the roasting guidelines above.

Notes
1. You can replace all or some of the water with a combination of wine, cider, beer, tea, coffee, fruit juice, most sauces (tomato, soya, BBQ, chilli etc), chicken stock, beef stock or fish stock. Be careful with acidic liquids like wine, cider, fruit juices which can turn your meat to mush if brined too long.
2. A little sugar can help overcome the saltiness of the brine and helps to give a nice sheen to your piece of meat when roasted. You can use up to ¼ cup of sugar (use the lesser amount (2 tablespoons) for high temperature roasting since the brine can burn at high heats if you use too much sugar). You can use brown sugar or honey or other sweeteners if you wish.
3. Any combination of spices and herbs can be used to flavour the brine. Garlic powder, onion powder and ginger powder are excellent to use for brining.

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Recipe Two – Roast Brined Chicken
Serves four to six people

Ingredients:
1 whole chicken (organic is best) about 2 kg (4 ½ pounds)
Enough brine (see recipe above) to cover the chicken in a large non-reactive container

Directions:

1. Brine the whole chicken in the flavoured brine in the refrigerator overnight about 6 hours can be overnight. (Make sure that every part of the chicken is covered in the brine you can weigh the bird down with a clean plate so it is completely submerged.
2. Discard the brine and dry the skin and inside of the bird with paper towels.
3. If you desire crispy skin then leave the bird on a rack for several hours or overnight in the refrigerator so the skin can dry.
4. Preheat oven to moderately hot 220°C/425°F/gas 7.
5. Roast for 15 minutes.
6. Reduce oven to moderate 180°C/350°F/gas 4 and roast for a further 12-15 minutes per 450 grams/pound, You can check for done-ness the internal temperature should be 165°F/84°C, or the juices should run clear when you pierce the bird between the leg and thigh.  
7. Rest for approximately 30 minutes covered loosely in foil.

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Recipe Three – Roast Vegetables
Serves six people

For best results use the largest shallow heavy-weight roasting pan you have and make sure that the vegetable are well spaced out in the pan and only form one layer, use two trays if necessary. A very hot oven 475°F/240°C/gas mark 9 is the key to roasting vegetables. Only toss the vegetables once or twice during cooking. For lighter-weight vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli or cut corn add it to the pan 15 minutes later, so it doesn't get too brown. Greens like kale and mustard greens are done in only 15 minutes. Root vegetables should be cut into cubes of about one-inch (2½ cm). You can add a small amount of apricot fruit spread or honey in the last 10 minutes to enhance the caramelising process. Fresh basil, rosemary and thyme are best when used fresh. Curry, paprika and turmeric are also great. Grated ginger or crushed garlic can also be added.  

Ingredients:
1 small butternut squash (pumpkin), cubed
2 red bell peppers (capsicums), seeded and sliced
1 orange sweet potato, peeled and cubed OR 3 medium carrots, peeled and sliced lengthways
3 Yukon Gold (or any baking) potatoes, cubed
1 red onion, quartered
optional 1 fat clove of garlic, crushed
1 tablespoon chopped fresh thyme
2 tablespoons chopped fresh rosemary
2 tablespoon olive oil
1 tablespoon balsamic vinegar or 1 tablespoon lemon juice
Salt and pepper to taste

Directions:
1. Preheat oven to very hot 475°F/240°C/gas mark 9.
2. In a large bowl, combine the squash, red bell peppers, sweet potato, red onion and Yukon Gold potatoes and the optional garlic if using.
3. In a small bowl, stir together thyme, rosemary, olive oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper. Toss with vegetables until they are coated. Spread evenly on a large roasting pan.
4. Roast for 35 to 40 minutes in the preheated oven, stirring one or twice, or until vegetables are cooked through and browned. If using a smaller tray the vegetables will take about 50-60 minutes.

Roast Vegetables
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Brined and BBQed “seven-bone” steak (notice the shape of the bone in the steak)
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Brined and BBQed “wagyu” steak
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Brined and Roasted Peppered Ribeye Roast
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Additional Information:  Include links to videos or information that can be of assistance to members.
Kosher salt versus table salt http://bbq.about.com/od/spicesseasonings/a/aa102007a.htm
Everything you wanted to know about brining http://www.amazingribs.com/recipes/rubs_pastes_marinades_and_brines/zen_of_brines.html
Brining Nuts and Seeds http://www.jwright44.com/recipes/BrinedNuts.htm
How to brine pumpkin seeds http://www.ehow.com/how_8144233_brine-pumpkin-seeds.html
How a quick brine improves the appearance of fish fillets http://www.cooksillustrated.com/howto/detail.asp?docid=36992
Dry brining thick steaks (a great article) http://steamykitchen.com/163-how-to-turn-cheap-choice-steaks-into-gucci-prime-steaks.html
Brining turkey a primer http://bbq.about.com/od/turkey/ss/aa110808a.htm
Roast chicken ten ways http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/chickenturkeymore/tp/roastchixtenways.htm
Cooking a turkey (many articles) http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/chickenturkeymore/tp/Cooking-A-Turkey.htm
To roast a turkey http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/chickenturkeymore/r/Roast-Turkey-Recipe.htm
Roasting guidelines for red meat roasts http://www.donaldrussell.com/game-technique?ms=tab5 Jamie Oliver's Roast Potato, parsnips and carrot recipe http://www.jamieoliver.com/recipes/vegetarian-recipes/roast-potatoes-parsnips-carrots 
Jamie Oliver's Perfect Roast Potato recipe http://www.jamieoliver.com/recipes/vegetarian-recipes/perfect-roast-potatoes
Delia Smith's Roast Potato recipe http://www.deliaonline.com/how-to-cook/fruit-and-vegetables/how-to-roast-potatoes.html
How to brine fish http://www.ehow.com/how_5963061_brine-fish-before-cooking.html
Vegetable Roasting Guide http://www.eatingwell.com/healthy_cooking/healthy_cooking_101/shopping_cooking_guides/vegetable_roasting_guide
How to cook a steak to perfection http://howto.yellow.co.nz/food-drink/cooking-and-baking/how-to-cook-steak/
How to cook a steak (using American cuts of meat) http://www.marksdailyapple.com/how-to-cook-the-perfect-steak/

Disclaimer:
The Daring Kitchen and its members in no way suggest we are medical professionals and therefore are NOT responsible for any error in reporting of “alternate baking/cooking”.  If you have issues with digesting gluten, then it is YOUR responsibility to research the ingredient before using it.  If you have allergies, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are lactose intolerant, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are vegetarian or vegan, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. The responsibility is YOURS regardless of what health issue you’re dealing with. Please consult your physician with any questions before using an ingredient you are not familiar with.  Thank you! :)
          Noche.        

“La noche me rodea entre sus brazos, el frio me cobija bajo su maldad que carcome mis huesos y mi piel, tiemblo y lloro  pero nadie me escucha.”

Mi recamara está vacía y el silencio de nada acompaña el palpitar de mi corazón, he dormido por mas de 10 horas, este día a sido tranquilo ya que no he despertado a cada momento como todas las noches, me he mantenido despierta por las ultimas 4 noches en espera de escucharte y me siento cansada los ojos me arden y necesitaba dormir, y este día deje pasar la luz del sol.

Hay algo que siempre hago, la puerta de mi recamara siempre esta abierta, y eso me permite saber si la noche es cálida o es fría, si el día es ruidoso o tranquilo, puedo escuchar las voces y cada ruido que provenga de afuera.

Duermo tranquilamente, mis horas de sueño han sido corridas sin ningún sobre salto, son las 9:30 de la noche y todo parece estar bien nada me ha despertado…hasta ahora.

De pronto, despierto demasiado alterada, el corazón me palmita hasta el punto es que siento que se me sale del pecho, miro a mi lados, miro la puerta esa puerta que permanece abierta por si vuelves alguna noche. Y desperté al escuchar tu voz , así como muchas noches creí al escucharla a mi oído, sentí tu aliento, respire tu esencia y sentir el rosar de tus labios suaves cerca de mi oído. No pude volver a dormir, me levante encendí la luz, ya son las 10 de la noche y la noche se enfría cada vez más, pareciera que de verdad estas aquí el lugar de lado de tu cama esta tibio, y mi cuerpo está impregnado de tu aroma.

Me siento en la esquina de la recamara, sí, en esa esquina que me permite ver hacia afuera, desde ahí puedo ver la oscuridad del cielo y el vacio del camino que quizá te pueda traer de regreso y me permita volver a escuchar el sonido de tus pasos al subir las escaleras.

Lloro y tiemblo de frio, mi recamara ha perdido tu aroma al igual que mi cuerpo, mi cama ha perdido tu tibieza y la noche se enfría cada vez más, miro al reloj ya son las 3 de la mañana, mis lagrimas se han detenido y el palpitar de mi pecho se ha ido, inconscientemente me dirijo a la puerta, la cierro y regreso a mi cama.

Así volví a dormir para no despertar de nuevo, buenas noches amor gracias por visitarme de donde quiera que estés, que tengas un profundo sueño.,

P.D: Mi corazón tiene frio de ti,y no necesito verte para saberlo.

love

Las rosas rojas me han marcado la vida, así como tus besos y tus caricias.

Nota del editor: Desde que empecé a escribir, me he dado cuenta que es una buena terapia para desgastar las emociones.


          Could it happen?        
As anyone who has been following this blog knows, it has been a bit dead in the water for some time now. So it's time for an update. Jerry the "Car Doctor", in a flurry of inspiration has made some serious ground on the car and hopefully it will be running in the next few days! I will keep you posted. He called me over the weekend and said, "Let's get the batteries and finish this." So the batteries arrived today and he loaded them in.
(I know the blog started out with easy instructions for the beginner and I apologize that I haven't had the time or talent to complete the job myself, but below are a few updated pictures).


This is the front with the charger folded up. Jerry plans to run the wire to the front behind a flip-up license plate to attach the charger.


This shows the charger folded down. The charger is very different than the one found in the EA instructions and was easier to install (according to Jerry)




And this is the rear loaded up with batteries. The suspension seems good. It's a little tight in the back with the replacement coils from EA. I can't wait to see how it runs. This blog now reminds me of an old comic strip someone had hanging up at their desk when I worked as a computer programmer. It showed a complicated flow-chart all leading to a step that said "A miracle happens" before getting to the finished program.
          When you're out there, you're family        
I've said it before. I'll say it again. I'm not an athlete.
I slouch so much, I wonder if my future job will be ringing church bells.
I can't dribble down a basketball court and run at the same time. My shot is a heave, even at the free throw line.
I can run down a football field, as long as I hold the ball out in front of me, meaning a mosquito could cause me to fumble. I can catch, too, as long as it's a pitch. I can defend, as long as there's no such thing as pass interference, as grabbing the shirt and hanging on for dear life is my only move.
I dance worse than the members of Genesis. I've never tried hockey because I can't skate. I've never swung a golf club, and it's my goal in life to never do so. I was always picked last in kickball. I "roped" too much in tetherball. I was good in volleyball until I got out of high school and I learned the nets were higher than my forehead. Bummer. Because, you guessed it, I can't jump.
Sure, I can climb mountains, pretty well, in fact, even if I've tried to perform open heart surgery on myself many times while learning how to self arrest on snow. But if you want to know the truth, mountain climbing, even at my somewhat advanced level, is full of guys like me, introverted, introspective, semi-geeky types who love mountaineering simply because it gives us a chance to get our grrr on. When I climbed Mount Rainier with the guiding group RMI many years ago, our group of 24 had, I believe, 21 engineers. Seriously. When I said I was a writer, everyone looked up and stared at me, like I was the guy with bottle-coke glasses stepping into a biker bar. In this case, I suppose, it was the opposite.
Somehow, despite all this, I love sports. I love the NFL, sorta love baseball, kinda love hockey and the NBA and dearly love my Kansas Jayhawks and college basketball. When Kansas destroyed Baylor Monday night, I felt a buzz, as if I was drunk off a good lager. Some of my best memories are playing in the basketball band and going to the Final Four with the team and leaving Allen Field House with my ears ringing not from the trumpets but from the crowd.
Yet because I can't do the things they can, the athletes look like a circus act. The circus, if it's not one of those stupid ones that make animals do tricks, is designed to entertain you with acts that seem impossible. And it's not much different when I watch, say, Thomas Robinson grab a basketball with one hand on an alley-oop and flush it through the cord. Go ahead and watch it. I'll wait.
You back? Wow, right? Only there's NO WAY I could do that. I probably couldn't catch an alley pop with one hand with my feet planted firmly on the ground.
I know what you're saying. Not many can do that, Dan. True. But many of you have played sports. So you know what they're feeling. You may not dunk like Robinson, but you know the smell of the court, the sweat off your eyes, the sticky blisters on your feet. How a ball sounds on the hardwood.
Your spikes have stabbed at the grass. You've crushed a ball down the left field line. You've scored a goal in soccer.
I had no idea what it was like to watch athletes and relate to them in any way.
Until I watched the Olympic Marathon Trials Saturday.
Now look, don't get me wrong. Anyone who ran the marathon in Houston Saturday was an athlete, and a serious one at that. Their VO2 maxes are off the charts, their resting heart rates are probably in the 40s, if not lower, and their bodies, as far as I could tell, were so lean, fat was an anti-matter. They were built to survive a zombie takeover.
These guys, and gals, were basically sprinting for 26 miles.
I can't relate to that.
And yet, I knew what they were feeling.
I'm a runner too.
I could see Deena Kastor, one of my heroes, straining at mile 8, and I knew the pace would be too much for her proud, 38-year-old body. Sure enough, she fell off the pace almost right away. I think she finished seventh or eighth. It reminded me of a half marathon in Moab, when my partners were blazing into a strong headwind, and I tried to hold on to their pace for as long as I could, but I knew I'd have to let them go.
I could see Abdi Abdirahman pumping his arms and waving to the crowd, and my wife asked me why he was raising the roof. "He's not," I said. "He's trying to draw some energy from them."
That told me he was struggling a bit, and sure enough, at mile 21, his legs stiffened, his arms pumped like a machine about to break, and his feet seemed to flop forward. That reminded me of my last mile in Vegas, when a crash could wreck my beautiful PR and all I needed to do was just hold on and run. All Abdirahman needed to do was hold the brutal pace of 5-minute miles, faster than I've ever run a mile, like, ever. EVER. And he would make the Olympics.
I'd been there many times. My goal was not the Olympics, or even to win the race. But many times I've been there, just trying to hold on until the end, dreaming about nothing but not feeling that pain any longer.
I love running for many reasons, and I've talked about them plenty in earlier posts. I think one of the best reasons for me is I now know what athletes are feeling during a big event. It adds to the enjoyment of it. I know what it means to run a 2:09 marathon, the times the top three had to run to qualify for the games, even if I'll never run that fast (my last marathon, which I was very proud of, was a 3:43).
Heck, I KNOW an elite runner. She's ran with us many times. She ran in the trials Saturday. She's Wendy Thomas. She finished 12th at 2:34, and four years ago, she would have finished seventh. It's pretty incredible. There's no ceiling for her, either, and some are saying she has a shot at the Olympics in four years. Yowza. I followed up on her performance in my column Tuesday.
Yep. I feel what elite athletes are feeling now.
And now I run with a bunch of athletes. I'm in a group. We all met Wednesday for drinks to celebrate the performance of Wendy and others I run with regularly who ran Sunday and qualified for the Boston Marathon.
I left feeling like I was part of a family.
A family of athletes.
It makes me think that maybe, just maybe, I'm one myself now.

          OCC FinTech Charter in Trump Administration Cards        

          Know How To Fish For Tench        
&#84&#105&#110&#99&#97 &#84&#105&#110&#99&#97 or &#84&#101&#110&#99&#104 as it is more commonly known is by far one of my favorite species of &#102&#105&#115&#104. &#84&#104&#101&#121 are &#104&#97&#114&#100 &#102&#105&#103&#104&#116&#105&#110&#103 and &#112&#111&#117&#110&#100 for &#112&#111&#117&#110&#100 the &#115&#116&#114&#111&#110&#103&#101&#115&#116 of still &#119&#97&#116&#101&#114 &#102&#105&#115&#104 and surpassed only by the illusive Barbel where &#116&#104&#101&#121 can be found on rivers. As &#84&#101&#110&#99&#104 feed off the &#103&#114&#117&#98&#115 on […]
          Crappie Fishing Basics: Details Here, Simple Steps To Crappies Catching Success!        
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          How to Protect Your Pontoon Boat Items        
&#72&#97&#118&#101 you &#101&#118&#101&#114 had to dive in a lake &#97&#102&#116&#101&#114 a &#102&#105&#115&#104&#105&#110&#103 pole &#116&#104&#97&#116 one of &#121&#111&#117&#114 &#107&#105&#100&#115 dropped overboard? If so, you &#107&#110&#111&#119 what a &#109&#111&#110&#101&#121 and &#116&#105&#109&#101 saver a &#112&#111&#110&#116&#111&#111&#110 &#98&#111&#97&#116 &#102&#105&#115&#104&#105&#110&#103 rod &#104&#111&#108&#100&#101&#114 &#99&#111&#117&#108&#100 &#104&#97&#118&#101 &#98&#101&#101&#110&#46 Too bad you &#100&#105&#100&#110&#39&#116 &#107&#110&#111&#119 about &#116&#104&#105&#115 &#99&#111&#111&#108 &#103&#97&#100&#103&#101&#116 &#98&#97&#99&#107 then. Trouble is, now &#116&#104&#97&#116 you […]
          Information on Lake District Accommodation        
The &#87&#105&#110&#100&#101&#114&#109&#101&#114&#101 &#76&#97&#107&#101 is a &#104&#117&#103&#101 &#108&#97&#107&#101 and is &#109&#111&#114&#101 &#116&#104&#97&#110 10.5 &#109&#105&#108&#101s &#108&#111&#110&#103&#46 It varies in its width, which lies out &#102&#114&#111&#109 a quarter of a &#109&#105&#108&#101 to &#109&#111&#114&#101 &#116&#104&#97&#110 one &#109&#105&#108&#101. The &#108&#97&#107&#101 gives in an &#101&#110&#99&#104&#97&#110&#116&#105&#110&#103 view of the whole region. It has Waterhead in its northern &#115&#105&#100&#101&#44 which is one &#109&#105&#108&#101 […]
          Best lakefront resort for holiday accommodation        
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          New monkey species in Congo        
Wonderful news from my friends John and Terese Hart, who've been working on the scientific literature behind this announcement for at least two years, with their own funding. As John points out in this Guardian article, this announcement will also hopefully draw attention to the precarity of all small range creatures in DRC, from the White Rhino (now extinct in the wild) to the Okapi.

The bushmeat trade is widespread and the Congolese state lacks the means and will to combat poaching, whose growing militarization and network of international buyers were recently described in the New York Times (for which the Harts served as key sources).

In the area where the Lesula was identified, the Harts are working with local authorities and villagers to demarcate a protected area, with negotiated access rights for specific uses. This work is hands-on, intensive and very political. Popular support is essential to its success. This work is also privately funded -- and your support is needed.

I wrote a profile of the Harts and their work a couple years ago, back when the Lesula was still a zoological unknown. Their lifelong commitment to conservation in Congo, home of the last uncharted forests in Africa, is unmatched. In our cynical era we're expected to forego idols and heroes, but the Harts are doing incredibly important work in a country where conservation efforts and wildlife are constantly under attack.

Please visit their website to learn more and consider donating. 

          Les Laboratoires Expanscience poursuivent leur engagement dans le développement durable        
Les Laboratoires Expanscience, qui œuvrent dans les domaines de la santé et du mieux-être, ont, dès 2006, initié une démarche volontaire de développement durable, impliquant chaque grande direction de l'entreprise. Une organisation dédiée et un plan d'action structuré ont été mis en place.
Concrètement cela signifie que l'entreprise intègre à sa stratégie économique des enjeux sociaux et environnementaux mobilisant tous les partenaires internes.

En pratique, les actions de développement durable s'organisent autour de 6 axes stratégiques qui irriguent toutes les activités de l'entreprise.

Le plan d'action fait l'objet d'un pilotage tant par le comité de direction que par des comités opérationnels et s'inscrit dans une démarche d'amélioration continue. Des résultats sont déjà visibles. Voici quelques exemples par axe :

Axe ingrédients cosmétiques
- Remplacement pour Mustela des substances questionnées tout en respectant les standards de qualité, d'efficacité et de sécurité de la marque, en 2009.
- Mise en place de recommandations pour garantir le respect de la biodiversité et la proscription du biopiratage dans les filières de sourcing de l'entreprise.
Un cadre de fonctionnement avec les fournisseurs a été défini avec une première mise en place pour la Maca au Pérou. Ce cadre doit être appliqué à l'ensemble des filières.

Axe produits
- Réalisation d'un gain de 11 tonnes de papier / carton grâce à la suppression des notices et des étuis de certains produits Mustela en 2009. Un travail sur les emballages (gamme Mustela, Fixical ) a aussi permis d'économiser 4,8 tonnes de plastique. A ce titre un guide « de bonnes pratiques Développement Packaging Responsable » a été rédigé pour les collaborateurs travaillant sur le sujet.
- Recyclabilité de 89,5 % des flacons de l'activité Dermo-Cosmétique (soit 98% des volumes produits).
- Signature de la charte de communication responsable de l'Union des Annonceurs (UDA), fin 2009, qui engage l'entreprise à inscrire sa communication dans une perspective éthique, par un discours responsable des campagnes, le choix des supports les moins nocifs pour l'environnement ou l'utilisation loyale des données clients.

Axe prestataires et fournisseurs
- Formalisation de la politique d'achats responsables d'Expanscience avec intégration de critères relatifs au développement durable dans les appels d'offre. Pour exemple, l'existence d'une certification externe en matière de développement durable et/ou de la conduite d'actions environnementales et sociales participe désormais à l'évaluation des fournisseurs et prestataires potentiels.

Axe pratiques environnementales
- Réalisation d'un Bilan Carbone® en 2009. Il permet de dégager neuf plans d'actions prioritaires à court et moyen termes concernant différents domaines tels que le transport des personnes et des marchandises, les emballages, le sourcing… afin de diminuer les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) de l'entreprise. Un responsable et un groupe projet sont dédiés à chaque action.
-Réduction de l'impact environnemental de la flotte automobile de location longue durée (émissions : 135,9 g CO2/km en 2009 versus 143g CO2/km en 2007).
- Mise en place d'un système de Management Environnemental : certification ISO 14001 du site de production d'Epernon en cours.

Axe éthique et management
- Intégration de produits investissements socialement responsables (ISR) dans la trésorerie depuis 2008. Fin 2009, la part des fonds éthiques atteint 50 % pour le Fonds Commun de Placement d'Entreprise et 10 % pour la trésorerie placée.

Axe parties prenantes
- Constitution d'un panel d'une quinzaine de parties prenantes (ONG, médecins, pharmaciens,…) qui se réunit a minima deux fois par an pour échanger sur des sujets relatifs à la stratégie de développement durable des Laboratoires Expanscience et aux enjeux associés.
- Départ en congé solidaire de 2 salariés depuis 2008, via le partenariat avec l'ONG Planète Urgence. La participation financière d'Expanscience a notamment contribué en 2009 à l'édition de livres éducatifs sur le développement durable de la série « Mémoires de la planète », à destination des jeunes lecteurs francophones des pays du nord.
- Actions autour du développement durable (visites thématiques du site de production d'Epernon, exposition sur la biodiversité) menées entre Expanscience et le collège Michel-Chasles d'Epernon (membre du réseau des écoles associées Unesco).
- Sponsoring du périple intitulé « Des Hommes pour la préservation de la biodiversité, parcours entre faune et flore, terres et mers », à travers plus de 20 pays, de l'association Actions Biodiversité. L'objectif de cette association est de sensibiliser, comprendre et partager sur les problématiques de biodiversité.

Pour en savoir plus sur la démarche développement durable des Laboratoires Expanscience :
Découvrez ou redécouvrez www.developpementdurable-expanscience.com, le site de la démarche développement durable des Laboratoires Expanscience.

Pour en savoir plus sur les Laboratoires Expanscience :
Depuis leur création en 1950, les Laboratoires Expanscience mettent à la disposition des patients et des consommateurs des produits innovants sur les marchés de la santé et du mieux-être et développent des savoir-faire touchant à la Dermo-Cosmétique, à la Rhumatologie, au Dentaire, à la Dermatologie, à la Nutraceutique et aux Actifs Cosmétiques.
Grâce à l'engagement de leurs 964 collaborateurs et à une présence forte à l'international, via 8 filiales et 59 pays distributeurs, les Laboratoires Expanscience ont réalisé en 2009 un CA de 233 millions d'euros. Les Laboratoires Expanscience bénéficient enfin d'atouts solides en Recherche et Développement grâce à leur Centre R et D.
www.expanscience.com

--
Contact Presse:
SHIBO INTERACTIVE
Kelly MEGUIRA
09 53 53 30 80
http://www.developpementdurable-expanscience.com/
Profil du diffuseur : http://www.categorynet.com/reseaucategorynet/profile?userid=53973


--

Communiqué envoyé le 06.05.2010 12:00:42 via le site Categorynet.com dans la rubrique Environnement

Diffuser votre communiqué de presse : http://www.diffuseruncommuniquedepresse.com/

          Vacation        
Awesome. Today is the first day of a (hopefully work doesn't call and need me!) 10 day vacation. Again, awesome! This is a much needed vacation, even if I spend it all at home and rest. Not wasted time if you ask me.
We started the day in bed and just laid around until 10:00. I love my weekend morning coffee in bed, even more so when it's on a weekday!
Tonight is the first night of Passover, and we're off to my Moms, I'm not sure what's on the menu, but I know we're bringing chicken and I asked for tongue. Tongue is so holiday-ee, and I love it!
I'm bringing along my knitting to finish up, only have half a sleeve to do and then it's good to wear. I'm really happy with the way it turned out. Pictures hopefully this weekend!
I also hope to get another block or two for my Swoon blanket finished this week. 3 done 6 to go. Yikes.

 A bit wrinkled. Can you spot the bear?

 When I read the pattern, and it said "finished block size 24" ", I figured it would be big. ish. I go by the metric system, and even when I'm told a certain measurement in cm, I'm totally lost. I am not a length person at all. To me, everything is pretty close, or pretty small. 5 minutes away. 20km? That doesn't sound like a lot. (Or does it?!)
Anyways, apparently, 24" is BIG. As in VERY BIG. This sucker is going to cover our whole bed with room for Y to yank more of the blanket onto his side. 



Y took these pictures Saturday, and it was way to windy out to do anything, so into the house we went. the finished quilt will have way better pictures.
I'm not sure which of these three blocks are my favorite so far. Y says that each block I make is prettier than the last. He's so encouraging.
I fall in love with this fabric each time I cut into it. it's just the perfect collection. I'm glad I over bought, but might not be able to bring myself to using the leftover fat quarters!



I'm a bit afraid that the first two blocks are too pale, so I mixed it up with a darker fabric for the third. Those foxes are by far, my all time favorite fabric.
The next block will be the foxes fabric in yellow, hope that one won't be too bright. But if I believe what Y says, I have nothing to worry about.

Have you seen Essie's new Spring nailpolish? Totally into the Madison Hue Ave!




Dogs in slow motion

Not 100% sure why, but I want this


Hope everyone has a lovely week! ♥ 


          Volunteering: Stranding Department!        
STRANDING DEPARTMENT INTERNSHIP ANNOUNCEMENT

The Stranding Department of The Marine Mammal Center is seeking applicants for internships working with stranded pinnipeds, cetaceans and sea otters. These positions are unpaid.

Internship Opportunities are available at the following locations.
- San Luis Obispo Operations in Morro Bay
- Monterey Bay Operations in Moss Landing
- Main Hospital in Sausalito

Program Description:

The Stranding Department Internship is an exciting opportunity for individuals who are interested in increasing their experience and knowledge of marine mammal behavior and the Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Interns will be responsible for answering the animal hotline and rotating the after hours on-call. Interns will coordinate rescue and triage response throughout the Center's 600-mile rescue range. Interns will have the opportunity to participate in marine mammal rescues and releases. In addition, interns will be required to assist with animal care duties (feed preparations, medical charting, and pen cleaning) for all on-site pinnipeds. Other duties may include: participation in training classes, data entry and tracking, maintaining rescue equipment and assorted miscellaneous tasks.

Intern Responsibilities & Qualifications:

The internship is open to all applicants 21 years of age or older, with an avid interest in marine biology, zoology, general biology, policy or a related field. If the intern intends to receive university credit for their internship, they are responsible for making all arrangements with their educational institution. Interns must be able to work for a minimum of 3 months, 5 days a week, at least 40 hours per week. Work schedule must be flexible and may include weekends and holidays. This is an unpaid position and all interns are responsible for obtaining housing and transportation. Applicants should demonstrate excellent communication skills and have practical computer knowledge with programs such as Word, Access, and Excel. This internship position involves a fair amount of physical activity, such as: lifting, restraining and moving animals.


Interested applicants are encouraged to submit a r?sum? that includes the names of three references, and a cover letter detailing interests, experience, housing accommodations, and availability. Please forward all application materials to the following address:


The Marine Mammal Center
Marin Headlands
2000 Bunker Road
Sausalito, California 94965
Attn: Erin Brodie

Or via email to: BrodieE@TMMC.org

There is some flexibility on the start date of each position, with the earliest start date of February 1 and the last available internship beginning June 14.

Internship Period

Spring

Internship Period: February 8, 2010
Application Deadline: February 12, 2010[justify]
Notification of acceptance: February 19, 2010[/justify]
Approximate Internship Time: April - June 2010

Summer

Internship Period: February 8, 2010
Application Deadline: February 19, 2010
Notification of acceptance: February 26, 2010
Approximate Internship Time: June - August 2010

Fall

Internship Period: June 7, 2010
Application Deadline: June 11, 2010
Notification of acceptance: June 14, 2010
Approximate Internship Time: August - Sept. 2010

Winter

Internship Period: July 19, 2010
Application Deadline: July 23, 2010
Notification of acceptance: July 26, 2010
Approximate Internship Time: Oct - December 2010


Celebrating its 35th year in 2010, The Marine Mammal Center is a non-profit hospital dedicated to the rescue and release of sick, injured or orphaned marine mammals, and to research about their health and diseases. Volunteers and staff have treated more than 15,700 California sea lions, elephant seals, porpoises, and other marine life. The Center uniquely combines its rehabilitation program with scientific discovery and education programs to advance the understanding of marine mammal health, ocean health and conservation. For more information, please visit our website at www.marinemammalcenter.org

          Nashville Musician/Songwriter Jam        
Tuesday / August 8, 2017 / 6:00 p.m.
Nashville Musicians Union - 11 Music Circle North
Nashville
TN
United States
37203
Nashville, Tennessee

The Nashville Musician's Union presents the Musician/Songwriter Jam, a recurring event for which you need not be a union member to participate. Songwriters are encouraged to send John Mattick B.M. '80 an MP3 or link to their song, as well as a chart of their song as a PDF or JPEG to jmattick@comcast.net.

Mattick will organize the songs and share them in advance with the musicians, who also participate. It is a great opportunity to network with other musicians and songwriters, and get experience reading charts and working in a recording-session environment without stress. All musicians and songwriters are encouraged to participate.


          Re: what is your favorite platform game        

Ratchet and Clank,  Fifa 14 Ultimate Team Coins    Banjo Kazooie, Super Mario  Aion Kinah 64, Uncharted...


          kostenlose Software für die Chartanalyse        
Wäre es nicht schön, wenn wir eine Glaskugel hätten und die Aktienkurse von morgen vorhersagen könnten. Leider gibt es solche Glaskugeln nicht. Aber viele Anleger glauben an die Vorhersagekraft der  technischen Chartanalyse. Mit der technisches Chartanalyse ist ein Instrumentarium gemeint, dass die Kursentwicklung einer Aktie in einem Chart darstellt. Die technische Analyse fragt nicht, warum

Read More...


          Ãœberraschendes Urteil des BGH: Gute Aussichten für Anleger bei geschlossenen Schiffsbeteiligungen        
Die geschlossenen Schiffsfonds stehen ja schon lange in der Kritik. Viele Schiffsbeteiligung wurden  - durch übertriebenen Charterraten und damit lukrative Gewinne –  an den unwissenden Anleger verkauft. Leider konnten die Charterraten bei vielen Schiffen nicht erreicht werden und die lukrativen Gewinne blieben aus. Die Schiffe gingen in die Insolvenz. Aber was jetzt noch schimmer ist,

Read More...


          So funktionieren festverzinsliche Wertpapiere        
Du willst Dein Geld sicher anlegen und möchtest nicht ständig den Aktienchart beobachten um festzustellen, dass du schon wieder Geld an der Börse verloren hast. Du möchtest ruhig schlafen und suchst nach sicheren Alternativen für die Geldanlage. Neben dem Sparbuch können festverzinsliche Wertpapiere eine Alternative darstellen. Festverzinslichen Wertpapieren werden von Unternehmen oder Staaten (Emittenten) –

Read More...


          Preseden Historis dan Doktrin Strategi Desain Rasionalisme untuk Konservasi        
Bagaimana bertindak, memahami, dan memaknai tentang berbagai macam benda cagar budaya yang pelik telah tertuang dalam beragam dokumen asing maupun lokal, seperti Burra Charter (1979 dan terus diperbaiki), Nara Document on Authenticity (1994), juga Undang-Undang RI No 11 tahun 2010. Namun bagi sebagian masyarakat primordial Nusantara, mereka memahaminya dalam bentuk yang lebih lugas, (1) bentuk […]
          The Carbon (dioxide) Tax: a religious perspective        
Peter Finlayson

With the die now cast for the imposition of an onerous carbon tax on the Australian economy it is timely to consider how this senseless position was reached and forecast what lies ahead for an Australian society of 22 million souls.

While the more courageous scientific and economic lobbies are protesting the rationale for the tax, there should be no doubt now that it is being forced upon this nation for political reasons simply to safeguard the majority Greens-Labor-regional independents' alliance in the federal parliament.

For the present the Greens effectively control federal policy, especially on issues that really matter, with the carbon tax but the tip of an iceberg. Consequently, those complicit in their election have much to answer for.

That the alarmist measures are unnecessary and result from a systematic Green's-driven campaign is evident from the fact that science has yet not found a clear link between man-made CO2 and climate change. There has been no increase in global temperatures, as predicted by IPCC computer modelling, since 1998, nor has there been any decline in the arctic polar bear population, nor any abnormal rise in ocean levels, nor damage to the Great Barrier Reef, etc.

Furthermore, far from being a pollutant, CO2 is necessary for plant life with a scientifically-proven positive correlation between atmospheric CO2 concentration and plant growth. Indeed, the planet supported an abundant plant life during the Carboniferous era with CO2 concentrations more than five times today's levels of less than 400ppm.

That the tax is futile in terms of any global impact on emissions is self-evident from the fact that Australia's contribution to global emissions is negligible at under 2% and Australia has failed to influence the big emitters to follow suit.

In compensating households for the increase in their utilities' costs the government provides no incentive for domestic energy users to change their behaviour; in addition, some economists are predicting that the government will not be able to meet its compensation promises.

That the tax will have a serious negative impact at all levels of the economy is becoming clearer daily. At domestic level, the cost of living will increase due to the direct and indirect impact of the tax on processed consumer goods and utilities. Despite denials by the pro-tax lobby and policy-makers the impact on industry and commerce will be variably significant depending on their energy consumption.

Heavy industry and mining will likely be at a comparative disadvantage to their overseas competitors and forced to go offshore where emissions will continue, or shut down with consequent unemployment issues.

The seriousness of many social impacts is only slowly beginning to unfold as these are not immediately apparent and the wider community has not yet realised the serious longer term implications of the relentless Greens'-driven 'reforms'.

Moreover, the UN's 'Green'-motivated international agencies such as the UN Women's and radical feminist groups, with their anti-life (abortion, euthanasia, same-sex marriage and the like) policies are already disrupting traditional family life.

Greens' assault

With their electoral power now assured, and in accord with their Global Charter, the Greens will intensify their assault, firstly on Australian society, to ultimately create a biocentric world in which nature (landscape, plants, animals, insects) is superior to humanity and becomes the focus of humanity's development.

This means that resources and activity now used for the benefit of human society will be transferred to enhancing nature, including reversing the scientific advances that have fed, clothed and kept healthy an increasing, longer-living population.

The carbon tax is but a legal ploy for forcing our (mineral and energy) resources to remain untouched. It joins the long-time successful challenge by the Greens and other groups who demanded that water flow out to sea where its (edible) creatures could enjoy an unmolested existence!

Without coal, society will depend for its energy on renewable sources, which scientists have warned will be very expensive and cannot match fossil energy, thus enforcing a reduction in living standards. Energy-dependent industry will be forced to downsize with inevitable flow-on effects on economic development.

At the same time measures to lower national (and global) population will emerge to reduce the human 'polluters' to a level that will accommodate society within the limited resource and economic base permitted by a nature-oriented world. The Green's sustainable human population estimate for Australia is seven million.

The dilemma for many environmentally conscious Australians is that the anti-humanity focus of the Greens' policies is completely at odds with the Judaeo-Christian principles governing a balanced relationship between humanity and nature. Successive popes have stressed that nature is at the service of humanity which may use and develop its natural resources, always mindful of the obligation to safeguard nature for the benefit of future generations, while emphasising that nature must not be glorified.

The blame for the political rise of the Greens-dominated environmental lobby can include a sympathetic media, influenced by the clever Greens'-driven propaganda campaign that began fifty years ago, along with the failure of orthodox science to be more outspoken, especially those employed in the public sector.

In addition, according to anecdotal information, the religious education system, in encouraging an environmental consciousness, has failed to get the correct balance between a (Christian) humanity-centred and a (atheistic) biocentric focus, in accord with Christian principles. Sadly, a number of influential clergy and religious have also lost sight of a human development imperative within a theology of the environment.

Peter Finlayson is an active Catholic in the Ballarat Diocese and an agricultural scientist who has worked in many developing countries.


          Mayoral Control, Reform, Uncertain as State Legislative Session Draws to a Close         
The New York State legislative session is drawing to a close, and Democrats and Republicans are digging in on the remaining issues of 2017 including a measure to extend the New York City Mayor’s control of the public schools, which has now been linked to a number of diverse issues effecting people in the rest of the state. Games of chicken are common at the Capitol whenever a deadline like the budget or the end of session draws near. This time, it was the State Senate’s turn to go first. Republicans, who control the chamber, offered three bills extending New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio’s control of the public schools, for one, two or five years. The measures are linked to passage of an education tax credit that would benefit charter schools. Charter schools have long been championed by Republicans but are viewed with suspicion by some Democrats. The three take it or leave it measures were angrily rejected by the Assembly Speaker Carl Heastie, who was asked about them by reporters.
          A Christian Response to Earth Day        
Since today is Earth Day 2008, I felt compelled to post to post a response from a Christian worldview. After all, the original purpose of this blog was to respond to a post-Christian world with a uniquely Christian viewpoint. And it seems that nothing dominates this culture's attention these days than does the phenomenon of Green. Environmentalism has become a new religion, a new way for individuals to feel as though they are a part of something larger than themselves and thus inflict change upon a society that seems stagnant at times.

I want to begin, however, not with how I believe Christians should respond to Earth Day, but rather how they should not. There are two extremes which clearly should be avoided.

1) We must avoid becoming obsessed with environmental aims. Not long ago I saw an article praising a youth Disciple Now weekend in which the theme was "Go Green." The author (a speaker at the event) noted that "the curriculum allows students to explore why the environment is important and what they can (and should) do about it." Disciple Now events often have a huge impact on a youth group and many result in revivals in the lives of the youth who participate. Yet, this church chose to focus not on the Gospel, but on the environment. This is a tragedy and an inappropriate response to environmental concerns. We have to remember that this world we live in, while it is under our charge, is ultimately passing away. We should expect that it will deteriorate and ultimately be destroyed. Romans 8:19-23 speaks to this reality.
For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay and obtain the freedom of the glory of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.
2) The opposite response, while not as dangerous, is also inappropriate. That response is apathy, or even contempt, for environmental issues. A friend recently told me of his mega-church pastor who declared before his congregation - in response to the idea of global warming - that because such was false, we should gleefully turn on every light in our household and to be as wasteful as we desire. He claimed that Jesus was coming back soon anyway, so why worry about the environment? After all, a new heaven and a new earth is soon to appear! There are many problems with this response. Besides the fact that it is built upon a false eschatological view, the greater problem is that it does not take seriously our God-given responsibility to rule and reign over the Earth. We are called to be good stewards of all that is within our realm of responsibility. And certainly the Earth is one of those things. Another problem is that our excesses often causes others' insufficiency. I believe we are beginning to see the fruit of that in current food shortages.

So what should our response be?

1) We should reject the cult of environmentalism and not be swayed by the so-called "science" that seems to change daily. We should not place our faith in charts, weather patterns, or biofuels. Our faith firmly rests on Jesus Christ. He is not surprised by what has happened in our world. In fact, He is sovereignly in control. He alone controls the weather, the amount of radiation emanating from the sun (which actually was determined thousands of years ago), and technologies which either alleviate or add to our sufferings. Additionally, we must remember that our stewardship of this earth is not our ultimate command, nor even our penultimate one. No, we are called to be like Christ, who said nothing of taking care of the earth. His concern was that we glorify Him by being holy, loving His children, and pointing others to Him. To the extent that caring for the environment does these things, we should be involved. When it distracts us from our central message we should refrain from emphasizing it.

2) We should do what we can to insure we are indeed fulfilling our duty to attend to the creation placed in our care. That involves conservation by using our recycling bins and reducing our use of resources. We must be mindful that overuse causes a burden on others. I can't imagine that mega-church pastor preaching to the people of my congregation in Georgia that they should use as much water as they want and not worry - after all Jesus is coming soon! (For those who do not know, last year Georgia had a drought so severe that some places were forced to ration water so the supply did not completely run out.) In such cases, it is the poor who suffer the worst, since they have less resources from which to draw help. Imagine if this country experienced a famine, or energy crisis, or widespread water shortage. The impact would be massive on the poor. As the people of God we are charged to remember the poor - alleviate their suffering and prevent them from being burden.

Thus, by watching our lifestyles and taking steps to protect our world, we can fulfill God's call without losing our focus and hindering the work of the Gospel. So here are five practical ways we can make an impact on the Earth while being fixated on Christ:

1) Replace your incandescent bulbs with CFL's. This will not only lower your electricity bills, it will also lessen the load on your power grid. If whole churches did this, they could save thousands a year and make a huge impact on our energy needs.
2) Recycle. This is an easy one for most of you. All it takes is placing your recyclable items in a specific bin and placing it outside of your home with the rest of your garbage. For others, it may mean driving a short distance. But, if more did this we could lower the cost of oil-based products, and possibly oil itself, which would lessen strain on families struggling with the current fuel costs.
3) Adjust your water heater or replace it. Lowering your water heater setting to "warm" can save hundreds of dollars a year. Also, consider wrapping your heater with an insulated blanket. For more savings, replace your gas water heater with a tankless one. These cost upwards of $2000, but a federal tax credit is available for it. Finally, for the truly adventurous, you can build your own solar water heater for a few hundred dollars. Not only will you save money, but you may help alleviate the current oil shortage (which may last a long time).
4) Weather-proof your home. This is a practical, inexpensive solution that can save you hundreds of dollars a year. Weather-stripping is relatively cheap and there are plenty of guides on the internet as to how and where to apply it.
5) Purchase and use a programmable thermostat. Costs range from $40-200, but the Energy Star website claims that when properly used you can save up to $150 a year. And again, by using less energy you can lessen the burden on others.


Hopefully, this was helpful and challenged you as a Christian to take care of creation and alleviate suffering without feeling as though you have to accept the theory of global warming (which I, by the way, do not), or worship at the altar of environmentalism.
          Together for the Gospel Reflections        
Words cannot express how grateful I am that I could be a part of the Together for the Gospel 2008 Conference (Listen to all the messages here). It was truly a life-changing experience. And that's not because of some sort of spiritual high I felt, nor was it due to some commitment I made or remade. No, it was because through T4G, God touched not only my heart, but especially my head. There are so many things I came to understand intellectually during the conference that it would be hard to write them all down, or even to understand their significance at this time. But what I want to do is highlight just a few things that I came to conclude during this conference and why these things are important and will continue to be so in my life and ministry. Bear in mind that these thoughts are in no particular order (I'm not sure that I could place any measure of priority on them even if I tried).
  1. Theology changes and shapes men's hearts. Reading and understanding theology has always brought me into a closer relationship with God, but I always felt as though I was unique in that way. Now, that's not to say that I believed I was the only one like this, but rather that there just weren't many of us. After worshipping with over 5,000 other believers and seeing the difference in the passions displayed in corporate musical expression before the messages of the speakers and then afterwards, it seems crystal clear that the idea that theological truth stirs the affections is much more universal that I had once thought. Thus, it leads me to conclude that the more deep theological truth is conveyed in the pulpit, the more likely our churches are going to have believers in them whose hearts are stirred, who minds are altered, and whose lives are changed.

  2. Worship should seek to connect the heart with what the mind has just encountered. This builds upon my first observation and acknowledges that when men and women properly understand God they naturally desire to express their appreciation to Him. After the proclamation of the Word of God at T4G, it was evident that those men and women gathered there were mentally affected and had a desire to express it. I think this is a highly neglected arena of worship. While I was a member of Pontchartrain Baptist Church in New Orleans we revamped the worship services and placed the preaching of the Word early on in the service. Then at the point of the invitation, the call was expanded to everyone to respond to the Word that had been preached. That doesn't sound all that groundbreaking (and in reality it wasn't), but it did have a profound effect on how I viewed the invitation time, and I think it allowed those in attendance to express themselves in worship in ways that couldn't have been done otherwise. After all, once the Word has been preached on most occasions (if we are honest), we simply start thinking about lunch, not more about God.

  3. Where the emphasis is on Christ, fellowship with believers is sweet, refreshing, and necessary. Being a shy individual and often an introvert, I was a bit intimidated going to T4G by myself. Sure, I had friends I would be meeting there, but that's an awful lot of people gathered in one place, especially when you consider that a great many of them are larger than life figures whom I greatly respect as men of God. That said, it was interesting to see how the emphasis wasn't on big personalities, but rather on our Big God. Conversations didn't center on how good the messages were, but rather on the importance of the doctrines presented to our churches. And I didn't leave being impressed by great men, but rather with the impression that I am a part of a great revival of theology and Biblical studies that threatens to renew our churches in a way that goes far beyond current fads that ebb and flow every few years. I feel refreshed knowing that so many others believe like me, preach like me, and have the same desire I do to teach their flock the deep things of God.

  4. Like other pastors, I need other pastors to minister to me. During panel discussions it was evident that those who spoke clearly ministered to those who organized the conference. This was never more clear than in the discussion after John Piper spoke. The panel, as usual, included Mark Dever, Ligon Duncan, Al Mohler, and C.J. Mahaney - all pastors and leaders who bear ultimate responsibility over other individuals. Yet when Piper sat among them, it was clear that they saw him as their pastor at that moment. I needed to see that. I needed to remember that no matter what a pastor, teacher, theologian, or whoever accomplishes through the Holy Spirit, nor how intimate their relationship with Christ seems to be, they need others to minister to them. They, too, need to hear Biblical preaching. To that end, I plan to listen to no less than 2 sermons by other ministers each week.
So there you have it, my reflections on T4G 2008. I am sure that there are many more things I could say about what God taught me during the conference, but suffice to say that I cannot wait until T4G 2010.

          åŠ£ãƒ¢ã‚¸ãƒ¥ãƒ©æœ€å¤§åŒ–によるエントリの推薦をやってみた        

背景

半年前から機械学習に関するよさそうなエントリを提示してくれるbot(ML君)を運用しています。

大量のtweetの中から関連するエントリを人手で探す手間は省けるようになったのですが、最近別の問題が起こっています。以下の画像はある日に提示されたエントリの結果ですが、arxivの論文(しかもほぼ深層学習関連のもの)ばかりになっています…。ML君はURLが与えられたときに、それが機械学習に関連するいいエントリかどうかを判定しますが、提示したエントリの話題が重複しているなど条件は全く考慮していないので、当然と言えば当然の結果です。ML君を責めてはいけない。

上のような推薦結果は私が深層学習研究者/エンジニアなら喜ぶかもしれませんが、残念ながらそうではありません。機械学習/自然言語処理に関連する企業のニュース/githubのライブラリなど、色々なトピックについてカバーして欲しいものです。問題設定が抽出型の複数文書要約と似ている(めっちゃ大雑把に説明すると、様々なトピックをカバーしつつ、重要な文を選択するタスク)なと思ったので、要約業界で使われる手法でこの問題を解決してみることにしました。

最適化問題としての自動要約/エントリ選択

X語以内でなるべく多くのトピックをカバーする(例えば異なり語をできるだけ多く)という問題は、典型的な離散最適化問題です。可能な解を全列挙すると

  • エントリ1を解に入れる/入れない
  • エントリ2を解に入れる/入れない
  • エントリNを解に入れる/入れない

となり、愚直にやると2^N通りについて考えなければなりません(これに加えて、その解が制約を満たしているかチェックする必要があります)。エントリは50個以上はあるので、全列挙は厳しいです。このような問題について研究している最適化理論の分野では、分枝限定法やラグランジュ緩和、劣モジュラ最適化などがよく使われます。今回は劣モジュラ最適化の方法を実装してみました。理由は以下の通りです。

  • 実装が簡単
    • 貪欲法の亜種のような形になるので、すぐ書ける
  • 高速
    • 線形計画法(ILP)のソルバーを使うと解が出るまで結構時間がかかります
  • 最悪ケースが保証されている
    • 目的関数が最適解の場合と比べて(1 - 1 / e) / 2以下にはならないってやつですね
    • かなり緩い下限ではあるものの、ないよりは安心できるし、実験的にはかなり最適解に近い解を出すことが多い

劣モジュラ最適化の欠点としては、目的関数が劣モジュラ関数である必要がある、というのがありますが、自分に必要なCoverage functionは劣モジュラ関数なので大丈夫です。

劣モジュラ最適化(最大化)のアルゴリズムは、あるエントリxを解に含めたときに目的関数が最も上昇するようなxを貪欲的に制約を越えるまで追加していく、という簡単なものです。目的関数はあるエントリの部分集合をS、元々のエントリ集合をVとすると、Vに含まれるエントリとSに含まれるエントリとの類似度の和のような形で表わされます。詳しくは元論文を参照してください。学生時代に紹介エントリも書いていました。

元論文では文iと文jの類似度を計算するために、それらの文に含まれている単語のtf-idfのコサイン類似度を計算していましたが、ML君でエントリから特徴抽出したベクトルに対する重みを保持していたので、エントリiとエントリjに関連する重みベクトルのコサイン類似度を今回は使ってみました(\mathbf{f}_i \odot \mathbf{w}と\mathbf{f}_j \odot \mathbf{w}のコサイン類似度)。詳しい実装は以下を参照してください。

元論文ではCoverage function以外に多様性を考慮した項も入っています。しかし、論文の実験結果を見ると、この項がなくてもそれほど悪くならないようなので、今回は実装していません。

実験結果

元々100件程度あるML君の提示結果を、劣モジュラ最大化で20件に絞ってみました。結果はこちら。

arxivの論文もありつつ、最近出た本の話題や、人工知能系のニュースも入っていて、色々なトピックがカバーできたような気がします。自分で運用しているbotなので、評価用データセットなどは特に用意していないですが、しばらくこれで運用してみようと思います。

個々のアイテムのよしあしだけではなく、一覧や集合として出力されたもののよしあしを考慮したいケースはWebエンジニアでも結構あると思うので、他にも使いどころを探ってみたいところです。

劣モジュラ最適化と機械学習 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

劣モジュラ最適化と機械学習 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)


          ä¸å®šæœŸML&NLPå ±#4        

最近の機械学習&自然言語処理に関する情報をまとめるコーナーです。前回はこちら。このエントリ忘れてるよというのがありましたら、たれこみフォームから教えてもらえるとうれしいです。

論文

  • [1701.07875] Wasserstein GAN
    • GANを含む生成系のタスクは難しいことが知られているが、学習時に使う距離をWasserstein距離というものを使うと学習が安定したという話

ブログ/勉強会資料

speakerdeck.com

機械学習モデルのバージョン管理をするstarchartというツールは知らなかった。解説記事もあった。

speakerdeck.com

機械学習というよりはログ基盤的な話。

AWS Athenaを使って 30TBのWeb行動ログ集計を試みた from Tetsutaro Watanabe
www.slideshare.net

ビジネス

学会/勉強会

NIPS読み会

Kaggle Tokyo Meetup #2

全脳アーキテクチャ若手の会

AAAI2017

その他

機械学習のための連続最適化 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

機械学習のための連続最適化 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

関係データ学習 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

関係データ学習 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)


          ç•°å¸¸æ¤œçŸ¥æœ¬ã®èª­æ›¸ãƒ¡ãƒ¢ Part 5(密度比推定による変化検出)        

前回に引き続き、密度比を直接推定するコーナー。時系列の変化検出や多変数の依存関係の崩れを捉える構造変化検知の手法を密度比推定で解く。

変化検知問題とカルバックライブラー密度比推定法

変化検知問題は第9節で取り扱った。ある時点tを含む前後で分布がどれくらい異なるかの異常度をはかりたいというのがやりたいことであった(分布変化検知とも呼ばれる)。

式(9.8)a^{(t)} \propto k (1 - {{\mathbf{u}}^{(t)}}^T \mathbf{q}^{(t)})では、前後それぞれ確率密度のパラメータ(uとqがそれ)を計算したが、密度比推定ではそれぞれのパラメータを推定するのではなく、KLダイバージェンスを用いて直接密度比を推定する。これは勾配法を使って簡単に解くことができ、(12.3)式

\alpha(D, D^\prime) = \frac{1}{N} \sum_{i=1}^N \log \hat{r}(\mathbf{x}_i)

のように異常度が計算できる。

KLダイバージェンスの問題点と代替のダイバージェンス

↑のKLダイバージェンスを用いた方法で問題が全て解決すればよいのだが、なかなかそうはいかない。KLダイバージェンスによる異常度は対数関数が入るため、0周辺で微小な変化が敏感に捉えられる反面、ノイズの影響を受けやすく、特にセンサーデータなどでは困ってしまう。そこで、代替となるダイバージェンスがいくつかある。

  • ピアソンダイバージェンス
    • (t-1)2という形をしており、対数関数を含まないためKLダイバージェンスよりロバストに動く
  • 相対ピアソンダイバージェンス
    • 割り算の分母が0になるときがあるので、それをなまして使おうというアイディア
    • 分母がp^\prime(\mathbf{x})だったものを\beta p(\mathbf{x}) + (1 - \beta p^\prime(\mathbf{x}))と置き換える
    • 最小二乗密度比推定と同じような形で閉じて解が得られる
    • ハイパーパラメータのβが増えているので、チューニングの手間は増える

確率分布の構造変化検知

次に、第10章でやった疎構造学習による異常検知(特に異常解析や構造変化検知)を密度比推定で解く。

疎構造学習によってDとD'でそれぞれ確率密度を推定することができるが、実は以下のような問題がある。

  • 構造変化検知をするためにDとD'でそれぞれ精度行列を求めると、本当は辺の重みが変化していない場合でもそれぞれの推定誤差により変化したと検知してしまう場合がある

これをどうにか防ぎたい。ここで、変化前後の密度比が

\frac{N(\mathbf{x} | 0, \Lambda^{-1})}{N(\mathbf{x} | 0, {\Lambda^\prime}^{-1})} \propto \exp(- \frac{1}{2} \mathbf{x}^T (\Lambda_{m, m^\prime} - \Lambda_{m, m^\prime}^\prime) \mathbf{x})

と書けること(式(12.6))に注目する。これから、正規分布による密度比推定をデータから推定することで精度行列の差が直接推定できる。規格化条件を自動的に満たすようなパラメトリックなモデルとして

r_\boldsymbol\Theta(\mathbf{x}) \propto \exp(- \frac{1}{2} \mathbf{x}^T \boldsymbol\Theta \mathbf{x})

を考える(正規化項書くの面倒なのではしょった)。このモデルを元に、pとrp'のKLダイバージェンスを考え、L1の正則化付きで最適化問題として定式化できる。その最適化問題の解き方は元論文を参照のこと。こいつを使うと誤検知を減らすことができる。

また、理論的な解析もAAAI2015でされているらしく、密度比で構造変化検出する方法に必要なサンプル数は、グラフ全体のの辺の数ではなく変化した辺の数によって決まるらしい(そんなに変化してなければサンプル数がオーダー的にはそんなにはいらないということか)。

疎密度比推定の高次拡張

ガウス型のグラフィカルモデルでは共分散相当の構造(つまり二次まで)しか見ることができないが、非線形な特徴ベクトルを使うとより高次の関係も捉えることができる。少しこみいっているが、定式化の手順はさほど変わらずシンプルにできる。

参考

密度比推定による変化検知 from Erika Fujita
異常検知と変化検知 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

異常検知と変化検知 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

入門 機械学習による異常検知―Rによる実践ガイド

入門 機械学習による異常検知―Rによる実践ガイド


          ç•°å¸¸æ¤œçŸ¥æœ¬ã®èª­æ›¸ãƒ¡ãƒ¢ Part 4(密度比推定による異常検知)        

前回扱った内容を密度比推定により直接的にかっこよく解く。

やりたいこと

  • 正常であると分かっているデータを元に異常が含まれるかもしれないデータの中から異常な標本を見つけ出す
    • 個々に外れ値検出するのではなく、テストデータ全体の確率分布も考える
    • 全体を考えることでノイズを減らせるのではないか、という期待がある

やる方法としては、密度比を基底関数の線形モデルで表わし、KLダイバージェンスなり、最小二乗の考え方で目的関数に落とし込んで線形モデルのパラメータを求める、というもの。割とシンプル。

密度比による外れ値検出問題の定式化

正常なデータ集合Dと異常標本が混入しているかもしれないデータ集合D^\primeが与えられているとする。ネイマンピアソン決定則によると\mathbf{x} \in D^\primeに対する異常さの度合いと表わす尺度として、a(\mathbf{x}) = - \log r(\mathbf{x})を自然に考えることができる(ただし、r(\mathbf{x}) = \frac{p(\mathbf{x})}{p^\prime(\mathbf{x})}で、p^\prime(\mathbf{x})はテストデータが従う確率密度)。

密度比のふるまいについてまとめる。D^\primeにおいて、異常標本の割合を\alphaとすると、連続性など適切な条件を満たせばp^\prime(\mathbf{x}) = (1 - \alpha)p(\mathbf{x}) + \alpha \tilde{p}(\mathbf{x})のような形を仮定できる(\tilde{p}(\mathbf{x})はpとp^\primeの差に対応する規格化条件を満たす関数)。これを使うと密度比は

r(\mathbf{x}) = \frac{p(\mathbf{x})}{(1 - \alpha)p(\mathbf{x}) + \alpha \tilde{p}(\mathbf{x})} = \frac{1}{(1 - \alpha) + \alpha \frac{\tilde{p}(\mathbf{x})}{p(\mathbf{x})}}

と表現できる。

  • 正常なxに対しては\frac{\tilde{p}(\mathbf{x})}{p(\mathbf{x})}が1より小さい値を取る
  • 異常なxに対しては\frac{\tilde{p}(\mathbf{x})}{p(\mathbf{x})}は1より大きな値を取る

↑より、以下のことが分かる。

  • 正常なxに対しては密度比r(\mathbf{x})が大きな値を取る
  • 異常なxに対しては密度比r(\mathbf{x})が小さな値を取る

また、密度比は 0 \leq r(\mathbf{x}) \leq \frac{1}{1 - \alpha}なので、\mathbf{x}^\primeに対する異常度は\log (1 - \alpha) \leq a(\mathbf{x}^\prime) \lt \inftyを満たす。実用上、異常標本の割合は1より圧倒的に小さいので、左辺は- \alphaで近似でき(0周辺でテイラー展開)、これが異常度の近似的な下限となる。これより、異常度が\alphaのオーダーより非常に小さい場合は異常が疑われる、ということになる。

ここで問題になることが1つあって、p(\mathbf{x})とp^\prime(\mathbf{x})の推定には誤差が必ず含まれ、割り算によってその誤差が増幅されてしまうということ。今回欲しいのは異常度a(\mathbf{x}) = - \log r(\mathbf{x})であるから、個々の分布が分からなくても密度比が分かればそれでよい。バプニックの原理から密度比を直接的に求めていくことを考えよう。

カルバックライブラー密度比推定法

密度比を表わすモデルとして線形モデル

r_{\boldsymbol\theta}(\mathbf{x}) = \sum_{j=1}^b \theta_j \phi_j(\mathbf{x}) = {\boldsymbol\theta}^T \boldsymbol\phi(\mathbf{x})

を仮定する。ただし、\boldsymbol\phi(\mathbf{x})はb次元の非負値を取る基底関数、\boldsymbol\thetaはb次元のパラメータである。このような仮定を入れると、密度比推定はパラメータ\boldsymbol\thetaの推定問題に落ちる。あとは、その目的関数を決めてやればよいが、以下のような基準を考えることができる。

  • パラメータ\boldsymbol\thetaはr_{\boldsymbol\theta}(\mathbf{x}) p^\prime(\mathbf{x})がp(\mathbf{x})にできるだけ近くなるように
  • r_{\boldsymbol\theta}(\mathbf{x}) p^\prime(\mathbf{x})は非負値で規格化条件を満たす

これらを満たす基準として、非負関数fとgの情報理論的な距離を測る一般化カルバックライブラーダイバージェンス

\mbox{gKL}(f||g) = \int f(\mathbf{x}) \log \frac{f(\mathbf{x})}{g(\mathbf{x})} d \mathbf{x} - (\int f(\mathbf{x}) - g(\mathbf{x}) d \mathbf{x})

を考える(これの気持ちはよく分からない...)。fとgにp(\mathbf{x})とr_{\boldsymbol\theta}(\mathbf{x}) p^\prime(\mathbf{x})を代入すると

\mbox{gKL}(p||r_{\boldsymbol\theta}(\mathbf{x}) p^\prime(\mathbf{x})) = \int p(\mathbf{x}) \log \frac{p(\mathbf{x})}{r_{\boldsymbol\theta}(\mathbf{x}) p^\prime(\mathbf{x})} d \mathbf{x} - 1 + \int r_{\boldsymbol\theta}(\mathbf{x}) p^\prime(\mathbf{x}) d \mathbf{x}

となる。上の式の期待値を経験分布で近似して、定数項を無視すると、以下の目的関数の最小化を考えればよいことになる。

J(\boldsymbol\theta) = - \frac{1}{|D|} \sum_{x \in D} \log r_{\boldsymbol\theta}(\mathbf{x}) + \frac{1}{|D^\prime|} \sum_{x \in D^\prime} r_{\boldsymbol\theta}(\mathbf{x})

第一項は異常度の期待値なので、異常度の期待値を最小化したいということを表わしていて、第二項は規格化条件を表わしている。

なお、本では一般化カルバックライブラーダイバージェンスの最小化で定式化されているが、元の論文ではカルバックライブラーダイバージェンスに正規化項等を陽に制約に加えた最適化問題を解いているので、理解する分には制約付きのカルバックライブラーダイバージェンスの最小化と思って普通に問題ない。

パラメータの最適化

J(\boldsymbol\theta)の最小化は凸最適化問題なので、勾配法などで求めることができる。基底関数は例えばRBFカーネルを使うことができる。RBFカーネルのバンド幅は交差検定によって求めることができる。

最小二乗密度比推定法

カルバックライブラー密度比推定法では目的関数を一般化カルバックライブラーダイバージェンスに置いたが、他の目的関数を置くことももちろんできる。ここでは最小二乗の考え方でやっていて、正則化項を付け加えても閉じた形でパラメータを求めることができる。閉じた形で表わせる分計算としては楽だが、KLダイバージェンスを最小化した場合で得られた解との性質の違いは後で抑えておきたい。

参考

異常検知と変化検知 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

異常検知と変化検知 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

入門 機械学習による異常検知―Rによる実践ガイド

入門 機械学習による異常検知―Rによる実践ガイド


          ç•°å¸¸æ¤œçŸ¥æœ¬ã®èª­æ›¸ãƒ¡ãƒ¢ Part 3(疎構造学習による異常検知)        

前回の復習

前回のChaper 9では「単一の」「時系列データ」に対し、部分空間法を使った変化検出法を見た。

概要はこんな感じであった。

  • 小さいwindow幅でデータを切って、ベクトルデータにする
  • 過去側と現在側の2つに領域に分割
  • 時刻tにおける過去側と現在側の確率分布の相違度を計算するためにKLダイバージェンス
    • 確率分布としてフォンミーゼスフィッシャー分布を採用
  • 小さいwindow幅で切られたデータはノイズが多いので、そのままでは役に立たない
  • ノイズを減らして特徴的なベクトルを得るために特異値分解を使う

多変量の変数間の依存関係の崩れを検知 => 対マルコフネットワーク

Chaper 10ではデータの時系列的な関係は無視するが、「多変量の変数間の依存関係の崩れ」を検知することを目標とする。変数間の関係は対マルコフネットワーク(pairwise Markov network)を使って捉える。pairwiseなので3変数以上の相関は考えない。対マルコフネットワークで依存関係を表わすので、変数間に関係があればネットワークにエッジがあり、関係なければエッジがない。

直接相関と間接相関の区別

変数間の関係を表わす際に重要なことは直接相関と間接相関の区別である。これを区別しないと、教会の数と殺人事件には関係があるということになってしまう(間接相関)。都市の人口といった仲介している変数があるので、それらを条件付けた上で関係があるかを考えなければならない(直接相関)。

間接相関では他の変数からも来る間接的な依存関係表現する。周辺化の操作をする。

p(x_1, x_2) = \int \cdots \int p(\mathbf{x}) d x_3 \cdots d x_M

直接相関では、他の変数を条件付けた2つの変数間の関係のみを切り出して表現する。

p(x_1, x_2 | x_3, \cdots, x_M) = \frac{p(\mathbf{x})}{p(x_3, \cdots, x_M)}

正規分布に基づく対マルコフネットワーク

対マルコフネットワークを考える際も直接相関を考えたいが、上で見たように条件付き分布をよく考えることになる。モデル化するなら、条件付き分布が簡単になる分布を選びたい。正規分布は他の変数条件付けた残りの変数も正規分布になるというよい性質があるので、正規分布を使ってマルコフネットワークをモデル化する。

ラプラス分布によるsparse化

変数間のエッジが多いと解釈がむずかしいので、ネットワークはなるべく疎(sparse)になっていたほうがうれしい。疎なネットワークにするために精度行列の事前分布としてラプラス分布を採用する。ラプラス分布を採用した上で、MAP推定でパラメータを求める。実際の手順は少し込みいっているが、基本的にはブロッック座標降下法(block coordinate descent)でいける(1つの変数に着目し、それ以外の変数を固定して最適化を繰り返す)。

疎構造学習に基づく異常度の計算

疎構造学習を使って異常を見つけることを考えた場合、以下の2つの問題設定が考えられる。

外れ値解析の場合

正常時のデータ(D)を使って確率分布p(x|D)が得られたとする。新しくデータx^\primeが手に入ったときに、x^\primeの各変数の異常度は

a_i(\mathbf{x}) = - \log p(x_i^\prime | \mathbf{x}_{-i}^\prime, D) = \frac{1}{2} \log{\frac{2 \pi}{\Lambda_{i,i}}} + \frac{1}{2 \Lambda_{i,i}} (\sum_{j=1}^M \Lambda_{i,j} x_j^\prime)^2

として書ける。どのデータが異常だった(外れ値検出)というだけでなく、どの変数の振舞いがおかしいかまでやるという意味で外れ値解析と本書では呼ばれている。

異常解析の場合

↑の外れ値解析の場合とは異なり、正常なデータ集合Dとテストのデータ集合D^\primeが得られたとする。DとD^\primeの間でどの変数にどれくらい食い違いがあるかを考えたい、というのが異常解析の問題設定である。ここまでの議論を考えると、変数毎に確率密度比の期待値を考えて

a_i = \int \int \log{\frac{p(x_i^\prime | \mathbf{x}_{-i}^\prime, D)}{p(x_i^\prime | \mathbf{x}_{-i}^\prime, D^\prime)}} p(\mathbf{x}_{-i}^\prime | D) p(x_i^\prime | \mathbf{x}_{-i}^\prime, D)  d x_i^\prime d \mathbf{x}_{-i}^\prime

と定義できる。p(\mathbf{x}_{-i}^\prime | D)とp(x_i^\prime | \mathbf{x}_{-i}^\prime, D)のカルバックライブラーダイバージェンスを考えたものともいえる。計算を頑張ると、これも簡単な形で計算できるようになる。

Chaper11以降では確率密度を構成する各要素を陽には考えず、密度比を直接求めるアプローチが紹介されている。

参考

Anomaly detection char10 from natsup

異常検知と変化検知 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

異常検知と変化検知 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

入門 機械学習による異常検知―Rによる実践ガイド

入門 機械学習による異常検知―Rによる実践ガイド


          ç•°å¸¸æ¤œçŸ¥æœ¬ã®èª­æ›¸ãƒ¡ãƒ¢ Part 2(方向データの異常検知と部分空間法による変化検出)        

方向データの異常検知

方向データの異常検知は前回スキップしていたところ。部分空間法による変化検出をするときに方向データに関する知識が必要になったので、戻ってきた。

方向データを扱う際にキーになる分布はフォンミーゼスフィッシャー分布。こんな分布知らんがなと思ったんだけど、実はPRMLの2章にこっそり出てきている。方向データとか球面上の確率分布と言われてもよく分からなかったので、少し調べた。説明としては以下のサイトの説明が一番しっくりきた。

データに対して特徴量を正規化(ノルムが1になるようにする)すると、データは単位円上のどこか一点に対応する。よく出てきそうな特徴量は似たようなところに固まる。そうすると単位円上のよく出てくるところは確率密度が高くなるので、棒が高くなる(wikipediaの図)。フォンミーゼスフィッシャー分布は感覚的にはガウス分布と似ていて、平均と分散相当のパラメータ(平均方向と集中度)を持っている。平均方向が単位円上の分布でどこが高くなっているかを表わしていて、集中度は平均方向からどれくらい離れうるかを記述するパラメータである。

これをどうやって数式で表現するか。フォンミーゼスフィッシャー分布はベッセル関数が入っているので、異常に難しく見えるが正規化項をCを置くと理解しやすくなる。フォンミーゼスフィッシャー分布の確率密度関数はf(\mathbf{x}) = C \exp{(k {\mu}^T \mathbf{x})}である。ここで、\mathbf{x}はノルムが1のd次元ベクトル、\muはノルムが1の平均方向のパラメータ、kは集中度を表わすスカラーのパラメータである。\muと\mathbf{x}を考えるので、これらが同じ方向を向いていると値が大きくなる(確率密度が高い)。また、kが大きいとピーキーな分布になるということを表わしている。

本に書いてあるパラメータの推定方法は最尤推定*1。ノルムが1の制約も入れてラグランジュの未定乗数法で解くと平均方向のパラメータについては学習データの平均を正規化したものになる。集中度パラメータkについてはclosed-formで解くことができないので、解きたければ勾配法とかで頑張ることになる。本の中では異常検知と合わせてkもどうにかする方法が書いてある。

最尤推定ができてパラメータが得られたら、方向データに関する異常度を決めたい。a(\mathbf{x}^{\prime}) = 1 - \hat{\mu}^T \mathbf{x}^{\prime}となる。また、異常度に基づく警報を出すためには異常度の確率分布がどのようなものになっているかを計算する必要がある。詳細は終わないが、計算していくとこの確率分布は近似的にカイ二乗分布であることが分かる。

部分空間法による変化検出

これまでの章はpoint-wiseにデータが異常かどうかを判断していたが、ここからはpoint-wiseではなく時系列でデータを見て異常かどうかを判断する。本では累積和法と近傍法について書いてあるが、データに対する事前知識や自己一致をしないようにする工夫が必要なので、省略する。スライド窓でずらして新しくデータを作るというアイディアだけあれば十分。

部分空間法では過去側と現在側の2つに領域を分割し、それぞれに対し確率分布を考える(後述)。ある時刻tにおいて、過去側と現在側の確率分布の相違度を計算して、それを変化度としよう、というのが部分空間法の主な考え方。

時刻tにおける過去側と現在側の確率分布の相違度を計算するためにKLダイバージェンス(尤度比の対数の期待値)を使う。KLダイバージェンスを計算するためには密度比が必要である。カーネル密度推定などの方法もあるが、ここではフォンミーゼスフィッシャー分布を使う。時系列データはそのまま使うとノイズが多いので、ノイズを抑えつつ典型的な波形を表わす何かが得られる(後述)として、その確率変数をzで表わす。zに対し、過去側と現在側の確率分布を考え、方向ベクトルは最尤推定したもの、集中度パラメータは同じと仮定するとKLダイバージェンスは綺麗な形で出てくる。

a^{(t)} \propto k (1 - {{\mathbf{u}}^{(t)}}^T \mathbf{q}^{(t)})

過去と現在の部分集合の特徴のパラーンが同じ場合は異常度0になり、直行しているときに最大となる。

今回はデータの典型的な波形を確率変数ベクトルzで表わしたが、実用的には特徴的なパターンは複数本あったほうが現実を反映できる。さて、問題は時系列特有のノイズを抑えつつ、データの典型的な波形を表わすベクトルを複数個どうやって得るかということになる。答えから行くと特異値分解(SVD; Singular Value Decomposition)をすればよいということになるが、本では「特徴的なパターンはデータの線形和で書き表わせるとして、(一番人気度を高める方向に)その係数を求める問題を考えると、特異値分解に辿り着く」ということが丁寧に書いてある。私としては雑に「元のデータからノイズを減らして複数個ベクトルを得たいんだから特異値分解使うよ」と言ってくれてもよかったかなという気分ではある。大雑把な人間なので...。

特異値分解で複数個の特徴的なベクトルが得られたら、式(9.9)を行列のノルムを使って自然な拡張として書き表わすことができる。これまでに説明した方法のことを特異スペクトル変換という。特異スペクトル変換を使うと、時系列データに対して変化点の検出をすることができる。

本の中では特異スペクトル変換はそのまま使うと特異値分解が重すぎて辛いので楽できる方法が紹介されているが、概要が知りたかったので、この辺で終わります。

異常検知と変化検知 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

異常検知と変化検知 (機械学習プロフェッショナルシリーズ)

*1:ベイズだとどういう事前分布を置くのかな


          About Jackie Robinson        

Who was Jackie Robinson?

 

Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was the first black Major League Baseball. Robinson broke the baseball color barrier when he signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. As the first black man to play in the major leagues, (aside from the 1880s, before the MLB was organized) he is most known for bringing social justice to baseball, which had seperate leagues for blacks (the Negro leagues) and whites for six decades. His character and skills are what helped him challenge the traditional basis of segregation, which was prevalent in all areas of American Life, and was a catalyst to the Civil Rights Movement. Robinson was not just any other baseball player, he strived for success and achieved it, as he helped the Dodgers get to six World Series' and win it all in 1955. He was Rookie of the Year in 1947, MVP in 1949 and a six time All-Star from 1949-1954. He was then inducted to the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown in 1962 followed by all of MLB retiring the Jackie Robinson Jersey: number 42, in 1997, an honor reserved solely to Robinson. 

Pre Baseball Life

Jackie was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia, to a family of farmers during a Spanish flu and smallpox epidemic. He was the youngest of five children, after his brothers Edgar, Frank, Matthew, and Willa Mae. He was named "Roosevelt" as a middle name, in honor of former President Theodore Roosevelt, who died earier that month. The Robinson's moved to 121 Pepper Street in Pasadena, California after their father left them in 1920. Their mother worked various jobs to support them as they grew up in relative poverty even though Pasadena was considered an affluent place. They attended Washington Junior High School followed by Muir Tech High School. The Robinsons were superb athletes. Matthew was a silver medalist in the 1936 Olympics and he and Frank inspired Jackie to seriously pursue a career in sports. Jackie played on the Muir Tech football team as quarterback, basketball team as a guard, track team as a jumper, tennis team and baseball team as both a catcher and shortstop. In 1936, he won a Tennis Tournament and played in the Pomona baseball tournament all star team with fellow future Hall of Famers Ted Williams and Bob Lemon. 

After High School, Jackie went on to Pasadena Junior College where he continued his involvement in sports. He also was elected to the Lancers, a local organization responsible for helping patrol school activities. In 1938, Jackie joined the All-Southland Junior College baseball team and was selected as that years MVP. He also received honors for his outstanding community service, even though he sometimes acted against those around him who seemed racist. While playing football for PJC, Jackie broke his ankle. A few days before Jackie's 19th birthday he was arrested for vocally disputing the arrest of a black friend of his. He quickly earned a reputation for being one who won't shy away from beligerrance in the face of racism.

After graduating from PJC, Jackie's brother, Frank, was killed in a motorcycle accident which helped Jackie make a decision to move to L.A. where he could console Frank's family. Jackie decided to attend UCLA where he met is future wife, Rachel Isum, and won varsity letters in all the major sports. He won the 1940 NCAA Mens Outdoor Track and Field Championship in the Long Jump,jumping a whopping 24 Feet 10.5 Inches. Ironically, in that year, robinson batted .097 for the UCLA baseball squad. In 1941, he took a job with the NYA as an assistant athletic director, as it would have been impossible for him to get a job as a proffesional athlete due to the color barrier. Later that year he traveled to Hawaii where he had an opportunity to play for the racially mixed semi-pro Honolulu Bears' football team. After that season he would move back to L.A. to play for a local football team, not realizing that the US involvement in World War 2 would sidetrack him for a little while and end his short football career.

Robinson was drafted to the Army in 1942 and was stationed in Fort Riley, Kansas. Throughout his 3 plus years in the Army, he was always treated as a subordinate by the White controlled military. He still managed to become a second lieutenant in 1943, and joined the Black Panthers Tank Battallion, the first Black tank unit to see combat in WWII. However, jackie was never in combat. After getting engaged to his College sweetheart, Rachel, he was sidelined after injuring the same ankle he hurt back in high school. He would finish his army service as a coach for army athletes until 1944 when he was discharged. While in the Army, Robinson made close ties with boxer, Joe Louis, as they helped each other struggle in the white dominated Army.

In early 1945, after working some part time coaching jobs, Jackie received an offer from the Kansas City Monarchs to Play professional Baseball in the Negro Leagues. He signed a contract worth $400 a month as he played for the Monarchs for 1 Season. He played 47 games at shortstop batting .387. The Negro leagues were'nt for Jackie as he didn't like their unorganized style. Luckily he received a secret offer from the GM of the Brooklyn Dodgers, Branch Rickey, to come to NY and play for their Minor League team. They offered him $600 a month on the condition that he would be able to take abuse from other players for being the only black, but contain himself from fighting back. Jackie accepted, and immediately left the Monarchs for NYC where he would marry Rachel Isum, who was in NY studying to be a Nurse. Jackie would start with the Dodgers' AAA club in Daytona Beach, FL that next season.

Baseball Career

In 1946, Robinson arrived at Daytona Beach, Florida, for spring training with the Montreal Royals of the Class AAA International League (the designation of "AAA" for the highest level of minor league baseball was first used in the 1946 season). Robinson's presence was controversial in racially charged Florida. As he was not allowed to stay with his teammates at the team hotel, he lodged instead at the home of a local black politician. Since the Dodgers organization did not own a spring training facility (the Dodger-controlled spring training compound in Vero Beach known as "Dodgertown" did not open until spring 1948), scheduling was subject to the whim of area localities, several of which turned down any event involving Robinson or Johnny Wright, another black player whom Rickey had signed to the Dodgers' organization in January. In Sanford, Florida, the police chief threatened to cancel games if Robinson and Wright did not cease training activities there; as a result, Robinson was sent back to Daytona Beach. In Jacksonville, the stadium was padlocked shut without warning on game day, by order of the city's Parks and Public Property director. In DeLand, a scheduled day game was called off, ostensibly because of faulty electrical lighting.

After much lobbying of local officials by Rickey himself, the Royals were allowed to host a game involving Robinson in Daytona Beach. Robinson made his Royals debut at Daytona Beach's City Island Ballpark on March 17, 1946, in an exhibition game against the team's parent club, the Dodgers. Robinson thus simultaneously became the first black player to openly play for a minor league team and against a major league team since the de facto baseball color line had been implemented in the 1880s. Later in spring training, after some less-than-stellar performances, Robinson was shifted from shortstop to second base, allowing him to make shorter throws to first base. Robinson's performance soon rebounded. On April 18, 1946, Roosevelt Stadium hosted the Jersey City Giants' season opener against the Montreal Royals, marking the professional debut of the Royals' Jackie Robinson. In his five trips to the plate, Robinson had four hits, including a three-run home run. He also scored four runs, drove in three, and stole two bases in the Royals' 14–1 victory. Robinson proceeded to lead the International League that season with a .349 batting average and .985 fielding percentage, and he was named the league's Most Valuable Player. Although he often faced hostility while on road trips (the Royals were forced to cancel a Southern exhibition tour, for example), the Montreal fan base enthusiastically supported Robinson. Whether fans supported or opposed it, Robinson's presence on the field was a boon to attendance; more than one million people went to games involving Robinson in 1946, an amazing figure by International League standards. In the fall of 1946, following the baseball season, Robinson returned home to California and briefly played professional basketball for the short-lived Los Angeles Red Devils.

The following year, six days before the start of the 1947 season, the Dodgers called Robinson up to the major leagues. With Eddie Stanky entrenched at second base for the Dodgers, Robinson played his initial major league season as a first baseman. On April 15, 1947, Robinson made his major league debut at Ebbets Field before a crowd of 26,623 spectators, including more than 14,000 black patrons. Although he failed to get a base hit, the Dodgers won 5–3. Robinson became the first player since 1880 to openly break the major league baseball color line. Black fans began flocking to see the Dodgers when they came to town, abandoning their Negro league teams.

Robinson's promotion met a generally positive, although mixed, reception among newspapers and white major league players. However, racial tension existed in the Dodger clubhouse. Some Dodger players insinuated they would sit out rather than play alongside Robinson. The brewing mutiny ended when Dodgers management took a stand for Robinson. Manager Leo Durocher informed the team, "I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fuckin' zebra. I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays. What's more, I say he can make us all rich. And if any of you cannot use the money, I will see that you are all traded."

Robinson was also derided by opposing teams. Some, notably the St. Louis Cardinals, threatened to strike if Robinson played. After the threat, National League President Ford Frick and Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler let it be known that any striking players would be suspended. Robinson nonetheless became the target of rough physical play by opponents (particularly the Cardinals). At one time, he received a seven-inch gash in his leg. On April 22, 1947, during a game between the Dodgers and the Philadelphia Phillies, Phillies players called Robinson a "nigger" from their dugout and yelled that he should "go back to the cotton fields". Rickey later recalled that Phillies manager Ben Chapman "did more than anybody to unite the Dodgers. When he poured out that string of unconscionable abuse, he solidified and united thirty men."

Robinson received significant encouragement from several major league players. Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese once came to Robinson's defense with the famous line, "You can hate a man for many reasons. Color is not one of them." In 1948, Reese put his arm around Robinson in response to fans who shouted racial slurs at Robinson before a game in Cincinnati. A statue by sculptor William Behrends, unveiled at KeySpan Park on November 1, 2005, commemorates this event by representing Reese with his arm around Robinson. Jewish baseball star Hank Greenberg, who had to deal with racial epithets during his career, also encouraged Robinson. After colliding with Robinson at first base on one occasion, Greenberg whispered a few words into Robinson's ear, which Robinson later characterized as "words of encouragement." Greenberg had advised him that the best way to combat the slurs from the opposing players was to beat them on the field.

Robinson finished the season having played in 151 games for the Dodgers, with a batting average of .297, an on-base percentage of .383, and a .427 slugging percentage. He had 175 hits (scoring 125 runs) including 31 doubles, 5 triples, 12 home runs, driving in 48 runs for the year. Robinson led the league in sacrifice hits, with 28, and in stolen bases, with 29. His cumulative performance earned him the inaugural Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award (separate National and American League Rookie of the Year honors were not awarded until 1949).

Following Stanky's trade to the Boston Braves in March 1948, Robinson took over second base, where he logged a .980 fielding percentage that year (second in the National League at the position, fractionally behind Stanky). Robinson had a batting average of .296 and 22 stolen bases for the season. In a 12–7 win against the St. Louis Cardinals on August 29, 1948, he hit for the cycle—a home run, a triple, a double, and a single in the same game. The Dodgers briefly moved into first place in the National League in late August 1948, but they ultimately finished third as the Braves went on to win the league title and lose to the Cleveland Indians in the World Series.

Racial pressure on Robinson eased in 1948 as a number of other black players entered the major leagues. Larry Doby (who broke the color barrier in the American League on July 5, 1947) and Satchel Paige played for the Cleveland Indians, and the Dodgers had three other black players besides Robinson. In February 1948, he signed a $12,500 contract (equal to $120,914 today) with the Dodgers; while a significant amount, this was less than Robinson made in the off-season from a vaudeville tour, where he answered pre-set baseball questions, and a speaking tour of the South. Between the tours, he underwent surgery on his right ankle. Because of his off-season activities, Robinson reported to training camp 30 pounds (14 kg) overweight. He lost the weight during training camp, but dieting left him weak at the plate.

In the spring of 1949, Robinson turned to Hall of Famer George Sisler, working as an advisor to the Dodgers, for batting help. At Sisler's suggestion, Robinson spent hours at a batting tee, learning to hit the ball to right field. Sisler taught Robinson to anticipate a fastball, on the theory that it is easier to subsequently adjust to a slower curveball. Robinson also noted that "Sisler showed me how to stop lunging, how to check my swing until the last fraction of a second". The tutelage helped Robinson raise his batting average from .296 in 1948 to .342 in 1949. In addition to his improved batting average, Robinson stole 37 bases that season, was second place in the league for both doubles and triples, and registered 124 runs batted in with 122 runs scored. For the performance Robinson earned the Most Valuable Player award for the National League. Baseball fans also voted Robinson as the starting second baseman for the 1949 All-Star Game—the first All-Star Game to include black players.

That year, a song about Robinson by Buddy Johnson, "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball?", reached number 13 on the charts; Count Basie recorded a famous version. Ultimately, the Dodgers won the National League pennant, but lost in five games to the New York Yankees in the 1949 World Series.

Summer 1949 brought an unwanted distraction for Robinson. In July, he was called to testify before the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) concerning statements made that April by black athlete and actor Paul Robeson. Robinson was reluctant to testify, but he eventually agreed to do so, fearing it might negatively affect his career if he declined.

In 1950, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman with 133. His salary that year was the highest any Dodger had been paid to that point: $35,000 ($338,091 in 2012 dollars). He finished the year with 99 runs scored, a .328 batting average, and 12 stolen bases. The year saw the release of a film biography of Robinson's life, The Jackie Robinson Story, in which Robinson played himself, and actress Ruby Dee played Rachael "Rae" (Isum) Robinson. The project had been previously delayed when the film's producers refused to accede to demands of two Hollywood studios that the movie include scenes of Robinson being tutored in baseball by a white man. The New York Times wrote that Robinson, "doing that rare thing of playing himself in the picture's leading role, displays a calm assurance and composure that might be envied by many a Hollywood star."

Robinson's Hollywood exploits, however, did not sit well with Dodgers co-owner Walter O'Malley, who referred to Robinson as "Rickey's prima donna". In late 1950, Rickey's contract as the Dodgers' team President expired. Weary of constant disagreements with O'Malley, and with no hope of being re-appointed as President of the Dodgers, Rickey cashed out his one-quarter financial interest in the team, leaving O'Malley in full control of the franchise. Rickey shortly thereafter became general manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates. Robinson was disappointed at the turn of events and wrote a sympathetic letter to Rickey, whom he considered a father figure, stating, "Regardless of what happens to me in the future, it all can be placed on what you have done and, believe me, I appreciate it."

Before the 1951 season, O'Malley reportedly offered Robinson the job of manager of the Montreal Royals, effective at the end of Robinson's playing career. O'Malley was quoted in the Montreal Standard as saying, "Jackie told me that he would be both delighted and honored to tackle this managerial post"—although reports differed as to whether a position was ever formally offered.

During the 1951 season, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman for the second year in a row, with 137. He also kept the Dodgers in contention for the 1951 pennant. During the last game of the season, in the 13th inning, he had a hit to tie the game, and then won the game with a home run in the 14th. This forced a playoff against the New York Giants, which the Dodgers lost.

Despite Robinson's regular-season heroics, the Dodgers lost the pennant on Bobby Thomson's famous home run, known as the Shot Heard 'Round the World, on October 3, 1951. Overcoming his dejection, Robinson dutifully observed Thomson's feet to ensure he touched all the bases. Dodgers sportscaster Vin Scully later noted that the incident showed "how much of a competitor Robinson was." He finished the season with 106 runs scored, a batting average of .335, and 25 stolen bases.

Robinson had what was an average year for him in 1952. He finished the year with 104 runs, a .308 batting average, and 24 stolen bases. He did, however, record a career-high on-base percentage of .436. The Dodgers improved on their performance from the year before, winning the National League pennant before losing the 1952 World Series to the New York Yankees in seven games. That year, on the television show Youth Wants to Know, Robinson challenged the Yankees' general manager, George Weiss, on the racial record of his team, which had yet to sign a black player. Sportswriter Dick Young, whom Robinson had described as a "bigot", said, "If there was one flaw in Jackie, it was the common one. He believed that everything unpleasant that happened to him happened because of his blackness." The 1952 season was the last year Robinson was an everyday starter at second base. Afterward, Robinson played variously at first, second, and third bases, shortstop, and in the outfield, with Jim Gilliam, another black player, taking over everyday second base duties. Robinson's interests began to shift toward the prospect of managing a major league team. He had hoped to gain experience by managing in the Puerto Rican Winter League, but according to the New York Post, Commissioner Happy Chandler denied the request.

In 1953, Robinson had 109 runs, a .329 batting average, and 17 steals, leading the Dodgers to another National League pennant (and another World Series loss to the Yankees, this time in six games). Robinson's continued success spawned a string of death threats. He was not dissuaded, however, from addressing racial issues publicly. That year, he served as editor for Our Sports magazine, a periodical focusing on Negro sports issues; contributions to the magazine included an article on golf course segregation by Robinson's old friend Joe Louis. Robinson also openly criticized segregated hotels and restaurants that served the Dodger organization; a number of these establishments integrated as a result, including the five-star Chase Park Hotel in St. Louis.

In 1954, Robinson had 62 runs, a .311 batting average, and 7 steals. His best day at the plate was on June 17, when he hit two home runs and two doubles. The following autumn, Robinson won his only championship when the Dodgers beat the New York Yankees in the 1955 World Series. Although the team enjoyed ultimate success, 1955 was the worst year of Robinson's individual career. He hit .256 and stole only 12 bases. The Dodgers tried Robinson in the outfield and as a third baseman, both because of his diminishing abilities and because Gilliam was established at second base. Robinson, then 37 years old, missed 49 games and did not play in Game 7 of the World Series. Robinson missed the game because manager Walter Alston decided to play Gilliam at second and Don Hoak at third base. That season, the Dodgers' Don Newcombe became the first black major league pitcher to win twenty games in a year.

In 1956, Robinson had 61 runs, a .275 batting average, and 12 steals. By then, he had begun to exhibit the effects of diabetes, and to lose interest in the prospect of playing or managing professional baseball. After the season, Robinson was traded by the Dodgers to the arch-rival New York Giants for Dick Littlefield and $35,000 cash (equal to $299,192 today). The trade, however, was never completed; unbeknownst to the Dodgers, Robinson had already agreed with the president of Chock full o'Nuts to quit baseball and become an executive with the company. Since Robinson had sold exclusive rights to any retirement story to Look magazine two years previously,[165&91; his retirement decision was revealed through the magazine, instead of through the Dodgers organization.

Legacy

Robinson's major league debut brought an end to approximately sixty years of segregation in professional baseball, known as the baseball color line. After World War II, several other forces were also leading the country toward increased equality for blacks, including their accelerated migration of to the North, where their political clout grew, and President Harry Truman's desegregation of the military in 1948. Robinson's breaking of the baseball color line and his professional success symbolized these broader changes and demonstrated that the fight for equality was more than simply a political matter. Martin Luther King, Jr. said that he was "a legend and a symbol in his own time", and that he "challenged the dark skies of intolerance and frustration." According to historian Doris Kearns Goodwin, Robinson's "efforts were a monumental step in the civil-rights revolution in America ... [His&91; accomplishments allowed black and white Americans to be more respectful and open to one another and more appreciative of everyone's abilities."

Beginning his major league career at the relatively advanced age of twenty-eight, he played only ten seasons, all of them for the Brooklyn Dodgers. During his career, the Dodgers played in six World Series, and Robinson himself played in six All-Star Games. In 1999, he was posthumously named to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.

Robinson's career is generally considered to mark the beginning of the post–"long ball" era in baseball, in which a reliance on raw power-hitting gave way to balanced offensive strategies that used footspeed to create runs through aggressive baserunning. Robinson exhibited the combination of hitting ability and speed which exemplified the new era. He scored more than 100 runs in six of his ten seasons (averaging more than 110 runs from 1947 to 1953), had a .311 career batting average, a .409 career on-base percentage, a .474 slugging percentage, and substantially more walks than strikeouts (740 to 291). Robinson was one of only two players during the span of 1947–56 to accumulate at least 125 steals while registering a slugging percentage over .425 (Minnie Miñoso was the other). He accumulated 197 stolen bases in total, including 19 steals of home. None of the latter were double steals (in which a player stealing home is assisted by a player stealing another base at the same time). Robinson has been referred to by author David Falkner as "the father of modern base-stealing."

"I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me ... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being." —Robinson, on his legacy

 

Historical statistical analysis indicates Robinson was an outstanding fielder throughout his ten years in the major leagues and at virtually every position he played. After playing his rookie season at first base, Robinson spent most of his career as a second baseman. He led the league in fielding among second basemen in 1950 and 1951. Toward the end of his career, he played about 2,000 innings at third base and about 1,175 innings in the outfield, excelling at both.

Assessing himself, Robinson said, "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me ... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being." Regarding Robinson's qualities on the field, Leo Durocher said, "Ya want a guy that comes to play. This guy didn't just come to play. He come to beat ya. He come to stuff the goddamn bat right up your ass."

Post-baseball life

Robinson as ABC sports announcer in 1965

Robinson retired from baseball on January 5, 1957. Later that year, after he complained of numerous physical ailments, his doctors diagnosed Robinson with diabetes, a disease that also affected his brothers. Although Robinson adopted an insulin injection regimen, the state of medicine at the time could not prevent continued deterioration of Robinson's physical condition from the disease.

In his first year of eligibility for the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962, Robinson encouraged voters to consider only his on-field qualifications, rather than his cultural impact on the game. He was elected on the first ballot, becoming the first black player inducted into the Cooperstown museum.

In 1965, Robinson served as an analyst for ABC's Major League Baseball Game of the Week telecasts, the first black person to do so. In 1966, Robinson was hired as general manager for the short-lived Brooklyn Dodgers of the Continental Football League. In 1972, he served as a part-time commentator on Montreal Expos telecasts.

On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired his uniform number, 42, alongside those of Roy Campanella (39) and Sandy Koufax (32). From 1957 to 1964, Robinson was the vice president for personnel at Chock full o'Nuts; he was the first black person to serve as vice president of a major American corporation. Robinson always considered his business career as advancing the cause of black people in commerce and industry. Robinson also chaired the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) million-dollar Freedom Fund Drive in 1957, and served on the organization's board until 1967. In 1964, he helped found, with Harlem businessman Dunbar McLaurin, Freedom National Bank—a black-owned and operated commercial bank based in Harlem. He also served as the bank's first Chairman of the Board. In 1970, Robinson established the Jackie Robinson Construction Company to build housing for low-income families.

Robinson was active in politics throughout his post-baseball life. He identified himself as a political independent although he held conservative opinions on several issues, including the Vietnam War (he once wrote Martin Luther King, Jr. to defend the Johnson Administration's military policy). After supporting Richard Nixon in his 1960 presidential race against John F. Kennedy, Robinson later praised Kennedy effusively for his stance on civil rights. Robinson was angered by conservative Republican opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. He became one of six national directors for Nelson Rockefeller's unsuccessful campaign to be nominated as the Republican candidate for the 1964 presidential election. After the party nominated Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona instead, Robinson left the party's convention commenting that he now had "a better understanding of how it must have felt to be a Jew in Hitler's Germany". He later became special assistant for community affairs when Rockefeller was re-elected governor of New York in 1966. Switching his allegiance to the Democrats, he subsequently supported Hubert Humphrey against Nixon in 1968.

Protesting the major leagues' ongoing lack of minority managers and central office personnel, Robinson turned down an invitation to appear in an old-timers' game at Yankee Stadium in 1969. He made his final public appearance on October 15, 1972, throwing the ceremonial first pitch before Game 2 of the World Series. He gratefully accepted a plaque honoring the twenty-fifth anniversary of his MLB debut, but also commented, "I'm going to be tremendously more pleased and more proud when I look at that third base coaching line one day and see a black face managing in baseball." This wish was fulfilled only after Robinson's death: following the 1974 season, the Cleveland Indians gave their managerial post to Frank Robinson (no relation), a Hall of Fame-bound player who would go on to manage three other teams. Despite the success of these two Robinsons and other black players, the number of African-American players in Major League Baseball has declined since the 1970s.

Family life and death

After Robinson's retirement from baseball, his wife, Rachel Robinson, pursued a career in academic nursing—she became an assistant professor at the Yale School of Nursing and director of nursing at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. She also served on the board of the Freedom National Bank until it closed in 1990. She and Jackie had three children: Jackie Robinson Jr. (born November 18, 1946), Sharon Robinson (born January 13, 1950), and David Robinson (born May 14, 1952).

Robinson's eldest son, Jackie Robinson Jr., had emotional trouble during his childhood and entered special education at an early age. He enrolled in the Army in search of a disciplined environment, served in the Vietnam War, and was wounded in action on November 19, 1965. After his discharge, he struggled with drug problems. Robinson Jr. eventually completed the treatment program at Daytop Village in Seymour, Connecticut, and became a counselor at the institution. On June 17, 1971, at the age of 24, he was killed in an automobile accident. The experience with his son's drug addiction turned Robinson, Sr. into an avid anti-drug crusader toward the end of his life.

Robinson did not long outlive his son. Complications of heart disease and diabetes weakened Robinson and made him almost blind by middle age. On October 24, 1972, he died of a heart attack at home in Stamford, Connecticut, aged fifty-three. Robinson's funeral service on October 27, 1972, at New York City's Riverside Church attracted 2,500 admirers. Many of his former teammates and other famous black baseball players served as pallbearers, and the Rev. Jesse Jackson gave the eulogy. Tens of thousands of people lined the subsequent procession route to Robinson's interment site at Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York, where he is buried next to his son Jackie and mother-in-law Zellee Isum. Jackie Robinson Parkway also runs through the cemetery.

After Robinson's death, his widow founded the Jackie Robinson Foundation, of which she remains an officer as of 2009. On April 15, 2008, she announced that in 2010 the foundation will be opening a museum devoted to Jackie in Lower Manhattan. Robinson's daughter, Sharon, became a midwife, educator, director of educational programming for MLB, and the author of two books about her father. His youngest son, David, who has ten children, is a coffee grower and social activist in Tanzania.

Awards and recognition

According to a poll conducted in 1947, Robinson was the second most popular man in the country, behind Bing Crosby. In 1999, he was named by Time on its list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Also in 1999, he ranked number 44 on the Sporting News list of Baseball's 100 Greatest Players and was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team as the top vote-getter among second basemen. Baseball writer Bill James, in The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract, ranked Robinson as the 32nd greatest player of all time strictly on the basis of his performance on the field, noting that he was one of the top players in the league throughout his career. Robinson was among the 25 charter members of UCLA’s Athletics Hall of Fame in 1984. In 2002, Molefi Kete Asante included Robinson on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans. Robinson has also been honored by the United States Postal Service on three separate postage stamps, in 1982, 1999, and 2000.

The City of Pasadena has recognized Robinson in several ways. Brookside Park, situated next to the Rose Bowl, features a baseball diamond and stadium named Jackie Robinson Field. The city's Human Services Department operates the Jackie Robinson Center, a community outreach center that provides early diabetes detection and other services. In 1997, a $325,000 bronze sculpture (equal to $470,522 today) by artists Ralph Helmick, Stu Schecter, and John Outterbridge depicting oversized nine-foot busts of Robinson and his brother Mack was erected at Garfield Avenue, across from the main entrance of Pasadena City Hall; a granite footprint lists multiple donors to the commission project, which was organized by the Robinson Memorial Foundation and supported by members of the Robinson family.

Major League Baseball has honored Robinson many times since his death. In 1987, both the National and American League Rookie of the Year Awards were renamed the "Jackie Robinson Award" in honor of the first recipient (Robinson's Major League Rookie of the Year Award in 1947 encompassed both leagues). On April 15, 1997, Robinson's jersey number, 42, was retired throughout Major League Baseball, the first time any jersey number had been retired throughout one of the four major American sports leagues.

As an exception to the retired-number policy, MLB has recently begun honoring Robinson by allowing players to wear number 42 on April 15, Jackie Robinson Day. For the 60th anniversary of Robinson's major league debut, MLB invited players to wear the number 42 on Jackie Robinson Day in 2007. The gesture was originally the idea of outfielder Ken Griffey, Jr., who sought Rachel Robinson's permission to wear the number. After receiving her permission, Commissioner Bud Selig not only allowed Griffey to wear the number, but also extended an invitation to all major league teams to do the same. Ultimately, more than 200 players wore number 42, including the entire rosters of the Los Angeles Dodgers, New York Mets, Houston Astros, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Brewers, and Pittsburgh Pirates. The tribute was continued in 2008, when, during games on April 15, all members of the Mets, Cardinals, Washington Nationals, and Tampa Bay Rays wore Robinson's number 42. On June 25, 2008, MLB installed a new plaque for Robinson at the Baseball Hall of Fame commemorating his off-the-field impact on the game as well as his playing statistics. In 2009, all uniformed personnel (players, managers, coaches, and umpires) wore number 42 on April 15.

At the November 2006 groundbreaking for a new ballpark for the New York Mets, Citi Field, it was announced that the main entrance, modeled on the one in Brooklyn's old Ebbets Field, would be called the Jackie Robinson Rotunda. The rotunda was dedicated at the opening of Citi Field on April 16, 2009. It honors Robinson with large quotations spanning the inner curve of the facade and features a large freestanding statue of his number, 42, which has become an attraction in itself. Mets owner Fred Wilpon announced that, in conjunction with Citigroup and the Jackie Robinson Foundation, the Mets will create a Jackie Robinson Museum and Learning Center, located at the headquarters of the Jackie Robinson Foundation at One Hudson Square in lower Manhattan. The main purpose of the museum will be to fund scholarships for "young people who live by and embody Jackie's ideals."

Since 2004, the Aflac National High School Baseball Player of the Year has been presented the "Jackie Robinson Award".

Robinson has also been recognized outside of baseball. In December 1956, the NAACP recognized him with the Spingarn Medal, which it awards annually for the highest achievement by an African-American. President Ronald Reagan posthumously awarded Robinson the Presidential Medal of Freedom on March 26, 1984, and on March 2, 2005, President George W. Bush gave Robinson's widow the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian award bestowed by Congress; Robinson was only the second baseball player to receive the award, after Roberto Clemente. On August 20, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and his wife, Maria Shriver, announced that Robinson was inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts in Sacramento.

A number of buildings have been named in Robinson's honor. The UCLA Bruins baseball team plays in Jackie Robinson Stadium, which, because of the efforts of Jackie's brother Mack, features a memorial statue of Robinson by sculptor Richard H. Ellis. City Island Ballpark in Daytona Beach, Florida—the baseball field that became the Dodgers' de facto spring training site in 1947—was renamed Jackie Robinson Ballpark in 1989. A number of facilities at Pasadena City College (successor to PJC) are named in Robinson's honor, including Robinson Field, a football/soccer/track facility named jointly for Robinson and his brother Mack. The New York Public School system has named a middle school after Robinson, and Dorsey High School plays at a Los Angeles football stadium named after him. In 1976, his home in Brooklyn, the Jackie Robinson House, was declared a National Historic Landmark. Robinson also has an asteroid named after him, 4319 Jackierobinson. In 1997, the United States Mint issued a Jackie Robinson commemorative silver dollar, and five dollar gold coin. That same year, New York City renamed the Interboro Parkway in his honor.

In 2011, the U.S. placed a plaque at Robinson's Montreal home to honor the ending of segregation in baseball. The home is located at 8232 avenue de Gaspe south of rue de Guizot Est and near Jarry Park and close to Delorimier Stadium, where Robinson played for the Montreal Royals during 1946. In a letter read during the ceremony, Rachel Robinson, Jackie's widow, wrote: "I remember Montreal and that house very well and have always had warm feeling for that great city. Before Jack and I moved to Montreal, we had just been through some very rough treatment in the racially biased South during spring training in Florida. In the end, Montreal was the perfect place for him to get his start. We never had a threatening or unpleasant experience there. The people were so welcoming and saw Jack as a player and as a man."

Career statistics

YearTeamGABRH2B3BHRRBISBCSBBSOAVGOBPSLGTBSHSFIBBHBPGDPE
1945 Kansas City 47 163 36 63 14 4 5 23 13       .387                  
1946 Montreal 124 444 113 155 25 8 3 66 40   92 27 .349                 10
1947 Brooklyn 151 590 125 175 31 5 12 48 29   74 36 .297 .383 .427 252 28     9 5 16
1948 Brooklyn 147 574 108 170 38 8 12 85 22   57 37 .296 .367 .453 260 8     7 7 15
1949 Brooklyn 156 593 122 203 38 12 16 124 37   86 27 .342 .432 .528 313 17     8 22 16
1950 Brooklyn 144 518 99 170 39 4 14 81 12   80 24 .328 .423 .500 259 10     5 11 11
1951 Brooklyn 153 548 106 185 33 7 19 88 25 8 79 27 .338 .429 .527 289 6     9 10 7
1952 Brooklyn 149 510 104 157 17 3 19 75 24 7 106 40 .308 .440 .465 237 6     14 16 20
1953 Brooklyn 136 484 109 159 34 7 12 95 17 4 74 30 .329 .425 .502 243 9     7 12 6
1954 Brooklyn 124 386 62 120 22 4 15 59 7 3 63 20 .311 .413 .505 195 5 4a   7 13 7
1955 Brooklyn 105 317 51 81 6 2 8 36 12 3 61 18 .256 .378 .363 115 6 3 5b 3 8 10
1956 Brooklyn 117 357 61 98 15 2 10 43 12 5 60 32 .275 .382 .412 147 9 2 2 3 9 9
TotalsBrooklyn13824877947151827354137734197 740291.311.409.47423101049772113107
 Career155354941096173634267161867248   .316    97   

a The sacrifice fly (SF) as a unique statistical category did not exist in Major League Baseball from 1940 through 1953. Any pre-1954 sacrifice flies by Robinson would be reflected in the sacrifice hit (SH) category.

b Likewise, the intentional walk (IBB) category only became a unique statistic beginning in 1955. Any intentional walks issued to Robinson before that year would be reflected in the walk (BB) category.

 


           "Lock plan (gantt chart)": commented by Nick Kellen IV         

This needs to be done. very frustrating to have dates change.


          Guest book Letter, with Name & Date Tag, Custom by DebbieSaenz        

73.00 USD

Any Letter…Any Color…Different Sizes Available…Tag Included…Custom!

Guestbook letters are the new trend, a modern alternative to the traditional guest book. You'll love to hang your special shabby chic letter in your home to keep the memories of your Wedding Day alive for years to come. Your "guest book" will be on visual display rather than hidden in a storage box!

* * * I've also made these for Birthdays, Graduations, Baptisms and Anniversaries

For an Extra Special touch (Included in Price), I'll hand stamp your names and wedding date onto a copper tag.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * My Process * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

I hand cut each letter myself using my own templates. I use a high quality 1/2" lightweight wood. Four sizes are currently available (See Below).

I will sand your letter smooth and paint the front, back, and edges in your choice of color (See Below), then give your letter a Shabby look by distressing the edges. I'll seal your letter with UV protective varnish. I'll stamp the information you want on a copper tag and adhere it the the bottom of your letter.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * How to Order * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Simply use the scroll down menu where it says, "Size" to select the size letter you want (Name and date tag included).

Sizes:
18" ($73.00)
20" ($83.00)
24" ($93.00
26" ($103.00)

Answer these questions in the 'Message to seller" section upon payment:

1. Letter
2. Color (I can paint your letter any color you want)
3. Information for tag, (I can stamp anything, as long as it fits!).

Due to the nature of the hand-stamping process, the letters will not look "machine" perfect...adding to the handmade charm!

PLEASE NOTE: **Pen/Marker is not included** I recommend a fine point or extra fine point Sharpie permanent marker. I'll send a small painted sample of wood for you to practice and try out different markers.

ALSO PLEASE NOTE: I make these letters out of a lightweight 1/2" wood. I work very hard to make sure all the edges are smooth and take great care in giving each letter a hand rubbed antiqued look after I paint your letter in the color of your choice. I then hand cut and stamp your personal message onto a copper plate. Made with lots of Love, to be enjoyed for years to come!

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * After You Place Your Order * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

I will confirm your order through an Etsy conversation. I'll send you a color proof for your approval (or an image of a letter I've previous made in your color), upon request, once I'm clear on the color you want (Normally within 48hrs). I don't offer a color chart since I will work with you to get just the color you want!

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

I also sell other letter styles and sizes.…Go here for all those listings: https://www.etsy.com/shop/DebbieSaenz?section_id=7685637

Please note*** Because this is a custom order, please allow 3 to 4 weeks for delivery. If you need it sooner, I offer a Rush option for a small fee. Message me for details.

Thanks for visiting, view more items in my little shop at: http://debbiesaenz.etsy.com

Visit my blog at:
http://debbiesaenz.typepad.com


          Comment on Brandy & Coke: A Celebration of UK Garage by Dudley Garner        
With many pirate radio stations filling up the FM airwaves, the soaring popularity of UK garage saw 1999 take the genre into the mainstream, breaking into the music charts . Production duos Shanks & Bigfoot and Artful Dodger were very successful with the tracks " Sweet Like Chocolate " and " Re-Rewind ", respectively. After the platinum-selling success of "Sweet Like Chocolate", the floodgates had opened. Although "Re-Rewind" was denied a #1 position by Cliff Richard and his song " The Millennium Prayer ", it was also a platinum seller, one of the garage scene's first and last. They became anthems for the 2-step scene, and got onto BBC's Top of the Pops . Other huge hits in 1999 include the #1 house/garage anthem " You Don't Know Me " by Armand Van Helden . Although not UK garage, Mr. Oizo 's #1 single " Flat Beat " received extensive airplay on pirate radio stations upon release, thus leading to numerous UK garage/2-step remixes of the track. DJ Luck & MC Neat also had a chart hit with " A Little Bit of Luck " in late 1999 into early 2000.
          Hello Fall! Let's get ready for (a little) more time spent inside.        
Fall is such a beautiful time of the year, isn't it?  Mother Nature really struts her stuff.  You think green leaves and flowers in every shade are pretty?  Then they all turn a riot of hot shades and it's hard to keep your eyes on the road when you drive as the scenery is so stunning.  Love it!

We start to think of fun holidays and gathering with family and friends, and of cozy evenings snuggling on the sofa.  I might change out a few of the accent pillows, using richer colors and fuzzy textures and then put a warm throw over a chair near a big window with a beautiful view, but has a bit of a draft.


Flanking that beautiful-but-drafty window with a pair of gorgeous drapes in a color like Spicy Amber (shown here on our Modern Stripe pattern with q European header) is a quick and easy way to get ready for the season.  We use a thick nap lining with this fabric, to give it nice body, but it also provides some great insulation against any coolness coming in from the window frame.


Modern Stripe also comes in 2 fantastic blues.  This one is Aqua Delight.  It's more of a bird's egg blue with a raised detail that features a tiny pop of rust with stripes in a range of warm beige.  



And this one is Modern Stripe in our Grey Blue.  A cooler blue, with that raised detail in grey with a stripe that leans toward chartreuse.  This pattern is a great way to use a stripe without going too cabana-y.  We love this pattern in every room, but it's a standout in the Dining Room.  

Since our drapes are custom made upon order, they take 4-6 weeks to arrive at your doorstep.  Now is a great time to start thinking about getting the house ready for parties, pictures and presents!

Ciao,
Anne


          Materi Sejarah Kls.XII IPS SMANDAKOSTA        

PERISTIWA SEKITAR PROKLAMASI 17 AGUSTUS 1945


A.   PEMBENTUKAN BPUPKI
Pada tahun 1944 Saipan jatuh ke tangan Sekutu. Demikian halnya dengan pasukan Jepang di Papua Nugini, Kepulauan Solomon dan Kepulauan Marshall, dipukul mundur oleh pasukan Sekutu. Dengan demikian seluruh garis pertahanan Jepang di Pasifik sudah hancur dan bayang-bayang kekalahan Jepang mulai nampak. Selanjutnya Jepang mengalami serangan udara di kota Ambon, Makasar, Menado dan Surabaya. Bahkan pasukan Sekutu telah mendarat di daerah-daerah minyak seperti Tarakan dan Balikpapan.
Dalam situasi kritis tersebut, pada tanggal 1 maret 1945 Letnan Jendral Kumakici Harada, pimpinan pemerintah pendudukan Jepang di Jawa, mengumumkan pembentukan Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (Dokuritsu Junbi Cosakai). Pembentukan badan ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki hal-hal penting menyangkut pembentukan negara Indonesia merdeka. Pengangkatan pengurus ini diumumkan pada tanggal 29 April 1945. dr. K.R.T. Radjiman Wediodiningrat diangkat sebagai ketua (Kaico). Sedangkan yang duduk sebagai Ketua Muda (Fuku Kaico) pertama dijabat oleh seorang Jepang, Shucokan Cirebon yang bernama Icibangase. R.P. Suroso diangkat sebagai Kepala Sekretariat dengan dibantu oleh Toyohito Masuda dan Mr. A.G. Pringgodigdo.
B.   SIDANG-SIDANG BPUPKI
Pada tanggal 28 Mei 1945 dilangsungkan upacara peresmian Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan bertempat di gedung Cuo Sangi In, Jalan Pejambon (sekarang Gedung Departemen Luar Negeri), Jakarta. Upacara peresmian itu dihadiri pula oleh dua pejabat Jepang, yaitu : Jenderal Itagaki (Panglima Tentara Ketujuh yang bermarkas di Singapura dan Letnan Jenderal Nagano (Panglima Tentara Keenambelas yang baru). Pada kesempatan itu dikibarkan  bendera Jepang, Hinomaru oleh Mr. A.G. Pringgodigdo yang disusul dengan pengibaran bendera Sang Merah Putih oleh Toyohiko Masuda. Peristiwa itu membangkitkan semangat para anggota dalam usaha mempersiapkan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Sidang BPUPKI
Persidangan BPUPKI untuk merumuskan Undang-undang Dasar diawali dengan pembahasan mengenai persoalan “dasar” bagi Negara Indonesia Merdeka. Untuk itulah pada kata pembukaannya, ketua BPUPKI, dr. Radjiman Wediodiningrat meminta pandangan para anggota mengenai dasar Negara Indonesia merdeka tersebut. Tokoh yang pertama kali mendapatkan kesempatan untuk mengutarakan rumusan Dasar Negara Indonesia Merdeka adalah Mr. Muh. Yamin. Pada hari pertama persidangan pertama tanggal 29 Mei 1945, Muh. Yamin mengemukakan lima “Azas Dasar Negara Kebangsaan Republik Indonesia” sebagai berikut :
1.   Peri Kebangsaan;
2.   Peri Kemanusiaan;
3.   Peri Ke-Tuhanan;
4.   Peri Kerakyatan;
5.   Kesejahteraan Rakyat.
Dua hari kemudian pada tanggal 31 Mei 1945 Prof. Dr. Mr. Supomo mengajukan Dasar Negara Indonesia Merdeka adalah sebagai berikut :
1.   persatuan
2.   kekeluargaan
3.   keseimbangan
4.   musyawarah
5.   keadilan sosial
Keesokan harinya pada tanggal 1 Juni 1945 berlangsunglah rapat terakhir dalam persidangan pertama itu. Pada kesempatan itulah Ir. Sukarno mengemukakan pidatonya yang kemudian dikenal sebagai “Lahirnya Pancasila”. Keistimewaan pidato Ir. Sukarno adalah selain berisi pandangan mengenai Dasar Negara Indonesia Merdeka, juga berisi usulan mengenai nama bagi dasar negara, yaitu : Pancasila, Trisila, atau Ekasila. “Selanjutnya sidang memilih nama Pancasila sebagai nama dasar negara. Lima dasar negara yang diusulkan oleh Ir. Sukarno adalah sebagai berikut :
1.   Kebangsaan Indonesia;
2.   Internasionalisme atau peri-kemanusiaan;
3.   Mufakat atau demokrasi
4.   Kesejahteraan sosial;
5.   Ke-Tuhanan Yang Maha Esa.
Persidangan pertama BPUPKI berakhir pada tanggal 1 Juni 1945. Sidang tersebut belum menghasilkan keputusan akhir mengenai Dasar Negara Indonesia Merdeka. Selanjutnya diadakan masa “reses” selama satu bulan lebih.
Pada tanggal 22 Juni 1945 BPUPKI membentuk Panitia Kecil yang beranggotakan 9 orang. Oleh karena itu panitia ini juga disebut sebagai Panitia Sembilan. Anggota-anggota Panitia Sembilan ini adalah sebagai berikut :
1.   Ir. Sukarno
2.   Drs. Moh. Hatta
3.   Muh. Yamin
4.   Mr. Ahmad Subardjo
5.   Mr. A.A. Maramis
6.   Abdulkadir Muzakkir
7.   K.H. Wachid Hasyim
8.   K.H. Agus Salim
9.   Abikusno Tjokrosujoso.
Musyawarah dari Panitia Sembilan ini kemudian menghasilkan suatu rumusan yang menggambarkan maksud dan tujuan pembentukan Negara Indonesia Merdeka. Oleh Muh.Yamin rumusan itu diberi nama Jakarta Charter atau Piagam Jakarta. Rumusan draft dasar negara Indonesia Merdeka itu adalah :
1.   Ke-Tuhanan, dengan kewajiban menjalankan Syari’at Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya;
2.   (menurut) dasar kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab;
3.   Persatuan Indonesia;
4.   (dan) kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan perwakilan;
5.   (serta dengan mewujudkan suatu) keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.
Pada tanggal 10 Juli 1945 dibahas Rencana Undang-undang Dasar, termasuk soal pembukaan atau preambule-nya oleh sebuah Panitia Perancang Undang-undang Dasar yang diketuai oleh Ir. Sukarno dan beranggotakan 21 orang. Pada tanggal 11 Juli 1945, Panitia Perancang Undang-undang Dasar dengan suara bulat menyetujui isi preambule (pembukaan) yang diambil dari Piagam Jakarta.
Selanjutnya panitia tersebut membentuk Panitia Kecil Perancang Undang-undang Dasar yang diketuai Prof. Dr. Mr. Supomo dengan anggotanya Mr. Wongsonegoro, Mr. Ahmad Subardjo, Mr. A.A. Maramis, Mr. R.P. Singgih, H. Agus Salim dan Sukiman. Hasil perumusan panitia kecil ini kemudian disempurnakan bahasanya oleh Panitia Penghalus Bahasa yang terdiri dari Husein Djajadiningrat, Agus Salim dan Supomo.
Persidangan kedua BPUPKI dilaksanakan pada tanggal 14 Juli 1945 dalam rangka menerima laporan Panitia Perancang Undang-undang Dasar. Ir. Sukarno selaku ketua panitia melaporkan tiga hasil, yaitu :
1.    Pernyataan Indonesia Merdeka;
2.    Pembukaan Undang-undang Dasar;
3.    Undang-undang Dasar (batang tubuh);
C.   AKTIVITAS GOLONGAN MUDA
Angkatan Moeda Indonesia dan Gerakan Angkatan Baroe Indonesia
Sebelum BPUPKI dibentuk di Bandung pada tanggal 16 Mei 1945 telah diadakan Kongres Pemuda Seluruh Jawa yang diprakarsai Angkatan Moeda Indonesia. Organisasi itu sebenarnya dibentuk atas inisitaif Jepang pada pertengahan 1944, akan tetapi kemudian berkembang menjadi suatu pergerakan pemuda yang anti-Jepang. Kongres pemuda itu dihadiri oleh lebih 100 utusan pemuda, pelajar dan mahasiswa seluruh Jawa diantaranya Djamal Ali, Chairul Saleh, Anwar Tjokroaminoto, Harsono Tjokroaminoto serta sejumlah mahasiswa Ika Daigaku Jakarta. Kongres menghimbau para pemuda di Jawa hendaknya bersatu dan mempersiapkan diri untuk melaksanakan proklamasi kemerdekaan yang bukan hadiah Jepang. Setelah tiga hari berlangsung kongres akhirnya memutuskan dua buah resolusi, yaitu:
1.    semua golongan Indonesia, terutama golongan pemuda dipersatukan dan dibulatkan dibawah satu pimpinan nasional.
2.    dipercepatnya pelaksanaan pernyataan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Walaupun demikian kongres pun akhirnya menyatakan dukungan sepenuhnya dan kerjasama erat dengan Jepang dalam usaha mencapai kemerdekaan.
Pernyataan tersebut tidak memuaskan beberapa tokoh pemuda yang hadir, seperti utusan dari Jakarta yang dipimpin oleh Sukarni, Harsono Tjokroaminoto dan Chairul Saleh. Mereka bertekad untuk menyiapkan suatu gerakan pemuda yang lebih radikal. Untuk itulah pada tanggal 3 Juni 1945 diadakan suatu pertemuan rahasia di Jakarta untuk membentuk suatu panitia khusus yang diketuai oleh B.M. Diah, dengan anggotanya Sukarni, Sudiro, Sjarif Thajeb, Harsono Tjokroaminoto, Wikana, Chairul Saleh, P. Gultom, Supeno dan Asmara Hadi.
Pertemuan semacam itu diadakan lagi pada tanggal 15 Juni 1945, yang menghasilkan pembentukan Gerakan Angkatan Baroe Indonesia. Dalam prakteknya kegiatan organisasi itu banyak dikendalikan oleh para pemuda dari Asrama Menteng 31. Tujuan dari gerakan itu, seperti yang tercantum di dalam surat kabar Asia Raja pada pertengahan bulan Juni 1945, menunjukkan sifat gerakan yang lebih radikal sebagai berikut :
1.    mencapai persatuan kompak di antara seluruh golongan masyarakat Indonesia;
2.    menanamkan semangat revolusioner massa atas dasar kesadaran mereka sebagai rakyat yang berdaulat;
3.    membentuk Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia;
4.    mempersatukan Indonesia bahu-membahu dengan Jepang, tetapi jika perlu gerakan itu bermaksud untuk mencapai kemerdekaan dengan kekuatannya sendiri.
Gerakan Rakyat Baroe
Gerakan Rakyat Baroe dibentuk berdasarkan hasil sidang ke-8  Cuo Sangi In yang mengusulkan berdirinya suatu gerakan untuk mengobar-ngobarkan semangat cinta kepada tanah air dan semangat perang. Pembentukan badan ini diperkenankan oleh Saiko Shikikan yang baru, Letnan Jenderal Y. Nagano pada tanggal 2 juli 1945. Susunan pengurus pusat organisasi ini terdiri dari 80 orang. Anggotanya terdiri atas penduduk asli Indonesia dan bangsa Jepang, golongan Cina, golongan Arab dan golongan peranakan Eropa. Tokoh-tokoh pemuda radikal seperti Chairul Saleh, Sukarni, B.M. Diah, Asmara Hadi, Harsono Tjokroaminoto, Wikana, Sudiro, Supeno, Adam Malik, S.K. Trimurti, Sutomo dan Pandu Kartawiguna diikutsertakan dalam organisasi tersebut.
Tujuan pemerintah Jepang mengangkat wakil-wakil golongan muda di dalam organisasi itu adalah agar pemerintah Jepang dapat mengawasi kegiatan-kegiatan mereka. Sumobuco Mayor Jenderal Nishimura menegaskan bahwa setiap pemuda yang tergabung di dalamnya harus tunduk sepenuhnya kepada Gunseikanbu (pemerintah militer Jepang) dan mereka harus bekerja dibawah pengawasan pejabat-pejabat pemerintah. Dengan demikian berarti kebebasan bergerak para pemuda dibatasi, sehingga timbullah rasa tidak puas. Oleh karena itulah, tatkala Gerakan Rakyat Baroe ini diresmikan pada tanggal 28 Juli 1945, tidak seorang pun pemuda radikal yang bersedia memduduki kursi yang telah disediakan. Sehingga nampak semakin tajam perselisihan paham antara golongan tua dan golongan muda tentang cara melaksanakan pembentukan negara Indonesia Merdeka.
D.   PEMBENTUKAN PPKI
Pada tanggal 7 Agustus 1945 BPUPKI dibubarkan. Sebagai gantinya pemerintah pendudukan Jepang membentuk PPKI (Dokuritsu Junbi Inkai). Sebanyak 21 anggota PPKI yang terpilih tidak hanya terbatas pada wakil-wakil dari Jawa yang berada di bawah pemerintahan Tentara Keenambelas, tetapi juga dari berbagai pulau, yaitu : 12 wakil dari Jawa, 3 wakil dari Sumatera, 2 wakil dari Sulawesi, seorang dari Kalimantan, seorang dari Sunda Kecil (Nusatenggara), seorang dari Maluku dan seorang lagi dari golongan penduduk Cina. Ir. Sukarno ditunjuk sebagai ketua PPKI dan Drs. Moh. Hatta ditunjuk sebagai wakil ketuanya. Sedangkan Mr. Ahmad Subardjo ditunjuk sebagai penasehatnya.
Kepada para anggota PPKI, Gunseikan Mayor Jenderal Yamamoto menegaskan bahwa para anggota PPKI tidak hanya dipilih oleh pejabat di lingkungan Tentara Keenambelas, akan tetapi oleh Jenderal Besar Terauci sendiri yang menjadi penguasa perang tertinggi di seluruh Asia Tenggara.
Dalam rangka pengangkatan itulah, Jenderal Besar Terauci memanggil tiga tokoh Pergerakan Nasional, yaitu Ir. Sukarno, Drs. Moh. Hatta dan dr. Radjiman Wediodiningrat. Pada tanggal 9 Agustus 1945 mereka berangkat menuju markas besar Terauci di Dalat, Vietnam Selatan. Dalam pertemuan di Dalat pada  tanggal 12 Agustus 1945 Jenderal Besar Terauci menyampaikan kepada ketiga tokoh itu bahwa Pemerintah Kemaharajaan telah memutuskan untuk memberikan kemerdekaan kepada Indonesia. Pelaksanaannya dapat dilakukan segera setelah persiapannya selesai oleh PPKI. Wilayah Indonesia akan meliputi seluruh bekas wilayah Hindia Belanda.
Ketika ketiga tokoh itu berangkat kembali menuju Jakarta pada tanggal 14 Agustus 1945, Jepang telah dibom atom oleh Sekutu di kota Hirosima dan Nagasaki. Bahkan Uni Soviet mengingkari janjinya dan menyatakan perang terhadap Jepang seraya melakukan penyerbuan ke Manchuria. Dengan demikian dapat diramalkan bahwa kekalahan Jepang akan segera terjadi. Keesokan harinya, pada tanggal 15 Agustus 1945 Sukarno-Hatta tiba kembali di tanah air. Dengan bangganya Ir. Sukarno berkata : “Sewaktu-waktu kita dapat merdeka; soalnya hanya tergantung kepada saya dan kemauan rakyat memperbarui tekadnya meneruskan perang suci Dai Tao ini. Kalau dahulu saya berkata ‘Sebelum jagung berbuah, Indonesia akan merdeka : sekarang saya dapat memastikan Indonesia akan merdeka, sebelum jagung berbuah.” Perkataan itu menunjukkan bahwa Ir. Sukarno pada saat itu belum mengetahui bahwa Jepang telah menyerah kepada Sekutu.
E.   PERBEDAAN PENDAPAT ANTARA GOLONGAN TUA DAN GOLONGAN MUDA
Berita tentang kekalahan Jepang, diketahui oleh sebagian golongan muda melalui radio siaran luar negeri. Pada malam harinya Sutan syahrir menyampaikan berita itu kepada Moh. Hatta. Syahrir juga menanyakan mengenai kemerdekaan Indonesia sehubungan dengan peristiwa tersebut. Moh. Hatta berjanji akan menanyakan hal itu kepada Gunseikanbu. Setelah yakin bahwa Jepang telah menyerah kepada Sekutu, Moh. Hatta mengambil keputusan untuk segera mengundang anggota PPKI.
Selanjutnya golongan muda mengadakan rapat di salah satu ruangan Lembaga Bakteriologi di Jalan Pegangsaan Timur, Jakarta. Rapat dilaksanakan pada tanggal 15 agustus 1945, pukul 20.30 waktu Jawa. Rapat yang dipimpin oleh Chairul Saleh itu menghasilkan keputusan  â€œ kemerdekaan  Indonesia adalah hak dan soal rakyat Indonesia sendiri, tak dapat digantungkan pada orang dan negara lain. Segala ikatan dan hubungan dengan janji kemerdekaan dari Jepang harus diputuskan dan sebaliknya diharapkan diadakan perundingan dengan golongan muda agar mereka diikutsertakan dalam pernyataan proklamasi.”
Keputusan rapat itu disampaikan oleh Wikana dan Darwis pada pukul 22.30 waktu Jawa kepada Ir. Sukarno di rumahnya, Jl. Pegangsaan Timur 56, Jakarta.  Kedua utusan tersebut segera menyampaikan keputusan golongan muda agar Ir. Sukarno segera memproklamasikan kemerdekaan Indonesia tanpa menunggu hadiah dari Jepang. Tuntutan Wikana yang disertai ancaman bahwa akan terjadi pertumpahan darah jika Ir. Sukarno tidak menyatakan proklamasi keesokan harinya telah menimbulkan ketegangan. Ir. Sukarno marah dan berkata “Ini leher saya, seretlah saya ke pojok itu dan sudahilah nyawa saya malam ini juga, jangan menunggu sampai besok. Saya tidak bisa melepaskan tanggungjawab saya sebagai ketua PPKI.  Karena itu saya tanyakan kepada wakil-wakil PPKI besok”.  Ketegangan itu juga disaksikan oleh golongan tua lainnya seperti : Drs. Moh. Hatta, dr. Buntaran, dr. Samsi, Mr. Ahmad Subardjo dan Iwa Kusumasumantri.
Dalam diskusi antara Darwis dan Wikana, Moh. Hatta berkata, “Dan kami pun tak dapat ditarik-tarik atau didesak supaya mesti juga mengumumkan proklamasi itu. Kecuali jiak Saudara-saudara memang sudah siap dan sanggup memproklamasikan. Cobalah! Saya pun ingin melihat kesanggupan Saudara-saudara !” Utusan itu pun menjawab “Kalau begitu pendirian Saudara-saudara berdua, baiklah ! Dan kami pemuda-pemuda tidak dapat menanggung sesuatu, jika besok siang proklamasi belum juga diumumkan. Kami pemuda-pemuda akan bertindak dan menunjukkan kesanggupan yang saudara kehendaki itu!”
F.   PERISTIWA RENGASDENGKLOK
Sekitar pukul 12.00 kedua utusan meninggalkan halaman rumah Ir. Sukarno dengan diliputi perasaan kesal memikirkan sikap dan perkataan sukarno-Hatta. Sesampainya mereka di tempat rapat, mereka melaporkan semuanya. Menanggapi hal itu  kembali golongan muda mengadakan rapat dini hari tanggal 16 Agustus 1945 di asrama Baperpi, Jalan Cikini 71, Jakarta. Selain dihadiri oleh para pemuda yang mengikuti rapat sebelumnya, rapat ini juga dihadiri juga oleh Sukarni, Jusuf Kunto, dr. Muwardi dari Barisan Pelopor dan Shudanco Singgih dari Daidan PETA Jakarta Syu. Rapat ini membuat keputusan “menyingkirkan Ir. Sukarno dan Drs. Moh. Hatta ke luar kota dengan tujuan untuk menjauhkan mereka dari segala pengaruh Jepang”. Untuk menghindari kecurigaan dari pihak Jepang, Shudanco Singgih mendapatkan kepercayaan untuk melaksanakan rencana tersebut.
Rencana ini berjalan lancar karena mendapatkan dukungan perlengkapan Tentara PETA dari Cudanco Latief Hendraningrat yang pada saat itu sedang menggantikan Daidanco Kasman Singodimedjo yang sedang bertugas ke Bandung. Maka pada tanggal 16 Agustus 1945 pukul 04.30 waktu Jawa sekelompok pemuda membawa Ir. Sukarno dan Drs. Moh. Hatta ke luar kota menuju Rengasdengklok, sebuah kota kawedanan di pantai utara Kabupaten Karawang. Alasan yang mereka kemukakan ialah bahwa keadaan di kota sangat genting, sehingga keamanan Sukarno-Hatta di dalam kota sangat dikhawatirkan. Tempat yang dituju merupakan kedudukan sebuah cudan (kompi) tentara PETA Rengasdengklok dengan komandannya Cudanco Subeno.
Sehari penuh Sukarno dan Hatta berada di Rengasdengklok. Kewibawaan yang besar dari kedua tokoh ini membuat para pemuda segan untuk melakukan penekanan lebih jauh. Namun dalam suatu pembicaraan berdua dengan Ir. Sukarno, Shudanco Singgih beranggapan Sukarno bersedia untuk menyatakan proklamasi segera setelah kembali ke Jakarta. Oleh karena itulah Singgih pada tengah hari itu kembali ke Jakarta untuk menyampaikan rencana proklamasi kepada kawan-kawannya.
Sementara itu di Jakarta para anggota PPKI yang diundang rapat pada tanggal 16 agustus memenuhi undangannya dan berkumpul di gedung Pejambon 2. Akan tetapi rapat itu tidak dapat dihadiri oleh pengundangnya Sukarno-Hatta yang sedang berada di Rengasdengklok. Oleh karena itu mereka merasa heran. Satu-satu jalan untuk mengetahui mereka adalah melalui Wikana salah satu utusan yang bersitegang dengan Sukarno-Hatta malam harinya. Oleh karena itulah Mr. Ahmad Subardjo mendekati Wikana. Selanjutnya antara kedua tokoh golongan tua dan tokoh golongan muda itu tercapai kesepakatan bahwa Proklamasi Kemerdekaan harus dilaksanakan di Jakarta. Karena adanya kesepakatan itu, maka Jusuf Kunto dari golongan muda bersedia mengantarkan Mr. Ahmad Subardjo bersama sekretarisnya, Sudiro (Mbah) ke Rengasdengklok. Rombongan ini tiba pada pukul 18.00 waktu Jawa. Selanjutnya Ahmad Subardjo memberikan jaminan dengan taruhan nyawa bahwa Proklamasi Kemerdekaan akan diumumkan pada keesokan harinya tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 selambat-lambatnya pukul 12.00. Dengan adanya jaminan itu, maka komandan kompi PETA Rengasdengklok, Cudanco Subeno bersedia melepaskan Ir. Sukarno dan Drs. Moh Hatta kembali ke Jakarta.
G.   PERUMUSAN TEKS PROKLAMASI
Rombongan tiba kembali di Jakarta pada pukul 23.30 waktu Jawa. Setelah Sukarno dan Hatta singgah di rumah masing-masing rombongan kemudian menuju ke rumah Laksamana Maeda di Jalan Imam Bonjol No. 1, Jakarta (sekarang Perpustakaan Nasional). Hal itu juga disebabkan Laksamana Tadashi Maeda telah menyampaikan kepada Ahmad Subardjo  (sebagai salah satu pekerja di kantor Laksamana Maeda) bahwa ia menjamin keselamatan mereka selama berada di rumahnya.
Sebelum mereka memulai merumuskan naskah proklamasi, terlebih dahulu Sukarno dan Hatta menemui Somubuco (Kepala Pemerintahan Umum) Mayor Jenderal Nishimura, untuk menjajagi sikapnya mengenai Proklamasi Kemerdekaan. Mereka ditemani oleh Laksamana Maeda, Shigetada Nishijima dan Tomegoro Yoshizumi serta Miyoshi sebagai penterjemah. Pertemuan itu tidak mencapai kata sepakat. Nishimura menegaskan bahwa garis kebijakan Panglima Tentara Keenambelas di Jawa adalah “dengan menyerahnya Jepang kepada sekutu berlaku ketentuan bahwa tentara Jepang tidak diperbolehkan lagi merubah status quo (status politik Indonesia). Sejak tengah hari sebelumnya tentara Jepang semata-mata sudah merupakan alat Sekutu dan diharuskan tunduk kepada sekutu”. Berdasarkan garis kebijakan itu Nishimura melarang Sukarno-Hatta untuk mengadakan rapat PPKI dalam rangka proklamasi kemerdekaan.
Sampailah Sukarno-Hatta pada kesimpulan bahwa tidak ada gunanya lagi membicarakan kemerdekaan Indonesia dengan pihak Jepang. Akhirnya mereka hanya mengharapkan pihak Jepang tidak menghalang-halangi pelaksanaan proklamasi yang akan dilaksanakan oleh rakyat Indonesia sendiri. Maka mereka kembali ke rumah Laksamana Maeda. Sebagai tuan rumah Maeda mengundurkan diri ke lantai dua. Sedangkan di ruang makan, naskah proklamasi dirumuskan oleh tiga tokoh golongan tua, yaitu : Ir. Sukarno, Drs. Moh. Hatta dan Mr. Ahmad Subardjo. Peristiwa ini disaksikan oleh Miyoshi sebagai orang kepercayaan Nishimura, bersama dengan tiga orang tokoh pemuda lainnya, yaitu : Sukarni, Mbah Diro dan B.M. Diah. Sementara itu tokoh-tokoh lainnya, baik dari golongan muda maupun golongan tua menunggu di serambi muka.
Ir. Sukarno yang menuliskan konsep naskah proklamasi, sedangkan Drs. Moh. Hatta dan Mr Ahmad Subardjo menyumbangkan pikiran secara lisan. Kalimat pertama dari naskah proklamasi merupakan saran dari Mr. Ahmad Subardjo yang diambil dari rumusan BPUPKI. Sedangkan kalimat terakhir merupakan sumbangan pikiran dari Drs. Moh. Hatta. Hal itu disebabkan menurut beliau perlu adanya tambahan pernyataan pengalihan kekuasaan (transfer of sovereignty). Sehingga naskah proklamasi yang dihasilkan adalah sebagai berikut :
Proklamasi
Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.
Hal-2 jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselengarakan dengan tjara seksama dan dalam tempoh jang sesingkat-singkatnja
Djakarta, 17 – 8 –‘05
Wakil-2 bangsa Indonesia,
Pada pukul 04.30 waktu Jawa konsep naskah proklamasi selesai disusun. Selanjutnya mereka menuju ke serambi muka menemui para hadirin yang menunggu. Ir. Sukarno memulai membuka pertemuan dengan membacakan naskah proklamasi yang masih merupakan konsep tersebut. Ir. Sukarno meminta kepada semua hadirin untuk menandatangani naskah proklamasi selaku wakil-wakil bangsa Indonesia. Pendapat itu diperkuat oleh Moh. Hatta dengan mengambil contoh naskah “Declaration of Independence” dari Amerika Serikat. Usulan tersebut ditentang oleh tokoh-tokoh pemuda. Karena mereka beranggapan bahwa sebagian tokoh-tokoh tua yang hadir adalah “budak-budak” Jepang. Selanjutnya Sukarni, salah satu tokoh golongan muda, mengusulkan agar yang menandatangani naskah proklamasi cukup Sukarno-Hatta atas nama bangsa Indonesia.
Setelah usulan Sukarni itu disetujui, maka Ir. Sukarno meminta kepada Sajuti Melik untuk mengetik naskah tulisan tangan Sukarno tersebut, dengan disertai perubahan-perubahan yang telah disepakati. Ada tiga perubahan yang terdapat pada naskah ketikan Sajuti Melik, yaitu : kata “tempoh” diganti “tempo”, sedangkan kata “wakil-wakil bangsa Indonesia” diganti dengan “Atas nama bangsa Indonesia”. Perubahan juga dilakukan dalam cara menuliskan tanggal, yaitu “Djakarta, 17-8-05” menjadi “Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen ‘05”. Sehingga naskah proklamasi ketikan Sajuti Melik itu, adalah sebagai berikut :
PROKLAMASI
Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menjatakan Kemerdekaan Indonesia.
Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselengarakan dengan tjara seksama dan dalam tempoh jang sesingkat-singkatnja
Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen ‘05
Atas nama bangsa Indonesia,
Soekarno/Hatta
(tandatangan Sukarno)
(tandatangan Hatta)
Selanjutnya timbul persoalan dimanakah proklamasi akan diselenggarakan. Sukarni mengusulkan bahwa Lapangan Ikada (sekarang bagian tenggara lapangan Monumen Nasional) telah dipersiapkan bagi berkumpulnya masyarakat Jakarta untuk mendengar pembacaan naskah Proklamasi. Namun Ir. Sukarno menganggap lapangan Ikada adalah salah satu lapangan umum yang dapat menimbulkan bentrokan antara rakyat dengan pihak militer Jepang. Oleh karena itu Bung Karno mengusulkan agar upacara proklamasi dilaksanakan di rumahnya, di Jalan Pegangsaan Timur No. 56 dan disetujui oleh para hadirin.
H.   PELAKSANAAN PROKLAMASI KEMERDEKAAN 17 AGUSTUS 1945
Pada pukul 05.00 waktu Jawa tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, para pemimpin Indonesia dari golongan tua dan golongan muda keluar dari rumah Laksamana Maeda. Mereka pulang ke rumah masing-masing setelah berhasil merumuskan naskah proklamasi. Mereka telah sepakat untuk memproklamasikan kemerdekaan pada pukul 10.30 waktu Jawa atau pukul 10.00 WIB sekarang. Sebelum pulang Bung Hatta berpesan kepada para pemuda yang bekerja di kantor berita dan pers, utamanya B.M. Diah untuk memperbanyak teks proklamasi dan menyiarkannya ke seluruh dunia.
Pagi hari itu, rumah Ir. Sukarno dipadati oleh sejumlah massa pemuda yang berbaris dengan tertib. Untuk menjaga keamanan upacara pembacaan proklamasi, dr. Muwardi (Kepala Keamanan Ir. Sukarno) meminta kepada Cudanco Latief Hendraningrat untuk menugaskan anak buahnya berjaga-jaga di sekitar rumah Ir. Sukarno. Sedangkan Wakil Walikota Suwirjo memerintahkan kepada Mr. Wilopo untuk mempersiapkan  pengeras suara. Untuk itu Mr. Wilopo dan Nyonopranowo pergi ke rumah Gunawan pemilik toko radio Satria di Jl. Salemba Tengah 24, untuk meminjam mikrofon dan pengeras suara. Sudiro yang pada waktu itu juga merangkap sebagai sekretaris Ir. Sukarno memerintahkan kepada S. Suhud (Komandan Pengawal Rumah Ir. Sukarno) untuk menyiapkan tiang bendera. Suhud kemudian mencari sebatang bambu di belakang rumah. Bendera yang akan dikibarkan sudah dipersiapkan oleh Nyonya Fatmawati.
Menjelang pukul 10.30 para pemimpin bangsa Indonesia telah berdatangan ke Jalan Pegangsaan Timur. Diantara mereka nampak Mr. A.A. Maramis, Ki Hajar Dewantara, Sam Ratulangi, K.H. Mas Mansur, Mr. Sartono, M. Tabrani, A.G. Pringgodigdo dan sebagainya. Adapun susunan acara yang telah dipersiapkan adalah sebagai berikut:
Pertama, Pembacaan Proklamasi;
Kedua, Pengibaran Bendera Merah Putih;
Ketiga, Sambutan Walikota Suwirjo dan Muwardi.
Lima menit sebelum acara dimulai, Bung Hatta datang dengan berpakaian putih-putih. Setelah semuanya siap, Latief Hendraningrat memberikan aba-aba kepada seluruh barisan pemuda dan mereka pun kemudian berdiri tegak dengan sikap sempurna. Selanjutnya Latif mempersilahkan kepada Ir. Sukarno dan Moh. Hatta. Dengan suara yang mantap Bung Karno mengucapkan pidato pendahuluan singkat yang dilanjutkan dengan pembacaan teks proklamasi.
Acara dilanjutkan dengan pengibaran bendera Merah Putih. S. Suhud mengambil bendera dari atas baki yang telah disediakan dan mengikatkannya pada tali dengan bantuan Cudanco Latif Hendraningrat. Bendera dinaikkan perlahan-lahan. Tanpa dikomando para hadirin spontan menyanyikan Indonesia Raya. Acara selanjutnya adalah  sambutan dari Walikota Suwirjo dan dr. Muwardi.
Berita proklamasi yang sudah meluas di seluruh Jakarta disebarkan ke seluruh Indonesia. Pagi hari itu juga, teks proklamsi telah sampai di tangan Kepala Bagian Radio dari Kantor Berita Domei, Waidan B. Palenewen. Segera ia memerintahkan F. Wuz untuk menyiarkan tiga kali berturut-turut. Baru dua kali F. Wuz menyiarkan berita itu, masuklah orang Jepang ke ruangan radio. Dengan marah-marah orang Jepang itu memerintahkan agar penyiaran berita itu dihentikan. Tetapi Waidan memerintahkan kepada F. Wuz untuk terus menyiarkannya. Bahkan berita itu kemudian diulang setiap setengah jam sampai pukul 16.00 saat siaran radio itu berhenti. Akibatnya, pucuk pimpinan tentara Jepang di Jawa memerintahkan untuk meralat berita itu. Dan pada hari Senin tanggal 20 Agustus 1945 pemancar itu disegel dan pegawainya dilarang masuk.
Walaupun demikian para tokoh pemuda tidak kehilangan akal. Mereka membuat pemancar baru dengan bantuan beberapa orang tehnisi radio, seperti : Sukarman, Sutamto, Susilahardja dan Suhandar. Sedangkan alat-alat pemancar mereka ambil bagian-demi bagian dari kantor betita Domei, kemudian dibawa ke Jalan Menteng 31. Maka terciptalah pemancar baru di Jalan Menteng 31. Dari sinilah seterusnya berita proklamasi disiarkan.
Selain lewat radio, berita proklamasi juga disiarkan lewat pers dan surat selebaran. Hampir seluruh harian di Jawa dalam penerbitannya tanggal 20 Agustus 1945 memuat berita proklamasi dan Undang-undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia

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bobmarley2003_08@hotmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net, ginoboscariol@hotmail.com, pjcogar@yahoo.com, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, hulagirl0475@yahoo.com, grobbins@heidelberg.edu, parso105@chapman.edu, the69na@hotmail.com, tpesba@gmail.com, mshams115@yahoo.com, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com, LauraARogers@aol.com, belle@dovesforlove.com, kielcravatta@yahoo.com, danny.solomon@gmail.com, gibb.ie.27@hotmail.com, sszero1988@aol.com, blfletch@utk.edu, weechicky@gmail.com, peterlim80@yahoo.com, seb.tombeur@telenet.be, candice@doveforlove.com, bward10@vt.edu, kimmen_13@hotmail.com, alikatt@dovesforlove.com, justine@dovesforlove.com, andres.bardon@gmail.com, britcollins7@yahoo.com, rms_seymour@hotmail.com, my_name_is_chris@hotmail.co.uk, chances_here@yahoo.co.uk, nemesisx2r@hotmail.com, ecstasio@ecstasio.com, pablocarbonell@hotmail.com, carol.mills@uky.edu, augchoi@hotmail.com, airslant@yahoo.com, facebook@dovesforlove.com,albertphilip@yahoo.com, dayday2@charter.net, andy.wynne@live.co.uk, jdmtalon@live.com, hazelalki3@aim.com, Muhammad.synyster@gmail.com,rapiduntouhables@gmail.com, siavach@gmail.com, vinay_bgh@rediffmail.com, w-cc@live.ca, Kindredsins@hotmail.com, A_roc636@yahoo.com, hazon-midion@hotmail.com,whuzupgirl23@hotmail.com, chris__keating@hotmail.com, inoca_14@yahoo.com, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com,courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com,Ombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.com,aloyaal@hotmail.com,,j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com,raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,j.danson@sky.com, jennaneddie@gmail.com,roydebroy@yahoo.co.in, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, meiallen76@yahoo.com.au,wesprayconcreting@aapt.net.au, dpa36709@bigpond.net.au,pykeybaby@hotmail.com,darkshadow7827@aol.com, trubin54@yahoo.com,steverichards1@btinternet.com,lwnshed@aim.com, herry.limanto@imperial.ac.uk, mobbywars@gmail.com, bravesboston@netscape.net, landon_89@hotmail.com, tangiblewhisper@gmail.com, rrw2659@email.vccs.edu, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com, courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com, raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com, jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, Muhammad.synyster@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net, ginoboscariol@hotmail.com, pjcogar@yahoo.com, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, trywoody@hotmail.com, hulagirl0475@yahoo.com, jjojay@hotmail.co.uk,eli_cmk@hotmail.com, wnogay@sewickley.org, kdlowe@tstc.net, bruzer08@hotmail.com, scott.fields@gmail.com, glyphs@live.ca, ilhamsyah03@hotmail.com, rblessum@csu.fullerton.edu, ty_man10_15_10@hotmail.com, shay.graham@gmail.com, calluch@hotmail.com, united_clansmen@yahoo.ca, maxchicky2k03@sky.com, ryshtyanna@gmail.com, bruchart@gmail.com, drakus_burton@yahoo.ca, krystein@yahoo.com, miss_jordanna_lee@yahoo.com, miss_jordanna_lee@yahoo.ca, allisonmobwar@gmail.com, angelamobwar@gmail.com, ashmobwar@gmail.com, babemobwar@gmail.com, babsmobwar@gmail.com, bootymobwar@gmail.com, caponemobwar@gmail.com, candymobwar@gmail.com, chastitymobwar@gmail.com, danamobwar@gmail.com, mdtrout1983@aol.com, studio65graphics@hotmail.com, celvinsa@hotmail.co.uk, clarke187@gmail.com, darkzide79@hotmail.com, rlph_wiggins@yahoo.com, vey5001@psu.edu, dnathe4th@gmail.com, mblake@mix.wvu.edu, roger.lightbody@systoc.com, elementboarder319@yahoo.com, damatman@hotmail.com, benboccio@yahoo.com, korebuster@hotmail.com, fluffythepig69@hotmail.com, sarthebears@gmail.com, dickinsonja@hotmail.com, jferena@willschreiber.com, dvanvechten@gmail.com, tferena@willschreiber.com, wferena@willschreiber.com, mferena@willschreiber,com, rferena@willschreiber.com, eferena@willschreiber.com, deamonkateyez@gmail.com, lawrencetkc@hotmail.com, lawrencetkc1@gmail.com, pasiegosoriano@hotmail.com, alvintks@gmail.com, k.p.w74@hotmail.com, amalone13@hotmail.co.uk, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com, medy2kv@hotmail.com, s18bsa@hotmail.com, rblessum@csu.fullerton.edu, apmatte@cogeco.ca, co_1nk@hotmail.com, r.i.o@hotmail.com, freak1ofnature@yahoo.com, hillkids27@hotmail.com, sandyhill1@hotmail.com,ben_loves_jess@hotmail.com, jenta23@hotmail.com, ibmanic@hotmail.com, darwin_tayson@yahoo.com, darkvash_23@yahoo.com, darwin.tayson@yahoo.com, dv_ichigo.kurosaki@yahoo.com, jovanjox@yahoo.com, william.illingworth@yahoo.com,amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com,frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com,courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com,raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net,donnydonny66@hotmail.com,ginoboscariol@hotmail.com,pjcogar@yahoo.com, joecramp123@hotmail.co.uk, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, xtremeganesh@hotmail.com, neo_inside@yahoo.com, rajer_94@yahoo.com; amsouthworth@hotmail.com,btassignon@gmail.com,mrbags@hotmail.com,danny.solomon@gmail.com, iacovus79@yahoo.com, kullest_destiny@hotmail.com, ,Ombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.com,aloyaal@hotmail.com,psyrus_10@hotmail.com, damian_amberg@yahoo.com, gen711@aol.com, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com,mike_gil@sympatico.ca, riomenajang@yahoo.com,j enmcco@sbcglobal.net, jmcco@ku.edu, cubster_05@msn.com, tombeechey@hotmail.com, whuzupgirl23@hotmail.com, geocricket@gmail.com, q.oneil@gmail.com, usmarine07727@yahoo.com, ZBTChip@aol.com, Friendlys00@Yahoo.com, mammacobb5@yahoo.com, lovinglife2326@hotmail.com, xron010110@yahoo.com, jamdiscodj@hotmail.com, old-skool@hotmail.co.uk, dgboudreau1@yahoo.ca, jeburton3978@aol.com, kristine_pamplin@hotmail.com,raiyan00@yahoo.com,roydebroy@yahoo.co.in, neilmcse@hotmail.com,camdrums@hotmail.com, b6l0g4@yahoo.com, estremel@hotmail.com, tmmzc85@yahoo.com, trevor.okrafka@gmail.com, djuett1@mymail.slcc.edu,rezaul.hayat@gmail.com, ragnar_noi@hotmail.com,plaincat@gmail.com, UABlade@siu.edu, lawrencetkc@hotmail.com, lawrencetkc1@gmail.com, alvintks@gmail.com, we1hong@hotmail.com, pissedpanda@gmail.com,allanliewck@yahoo.com, mtclipTweedleDum@gmail.com, cookiedough_dynamo@hotmail.com,bevandkev101@hotmail.co.uk, calluch@hotmail.com,tonmoy_alam19@hotmail.com,vinay_bgh@rediffmail.com,enyaht_sivad190@hotmail.com,traceyx35@hotmail.com, john_young33@yahoo.com, kahyoon@gmail.com, A_roc636@yahoo.com, elizabethabauer@gmail.com,mblake@mix.wvu.edu, hazon-midion@hotmail.com, youngkiwis@gmail.com,midknyghtdrym2001@yahoo.com,rayan_a_s@hotmail.com, amalone13@hotmail.co.uk, silver.amir@yahoo.com, tma122@hotmail.com, discoverystore@gmail.com, m_843589@hotmail.com,sunnyy2k1025@hotmail.com,landon_89@hotmail.com, chiefbradd@aol.com, johnthemobster@yahoo.com, tangiblewhisper@gmail.com,gz410@verizon.net, rrw2659@email.vccs.edu, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com, amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net, shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com, courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com, raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net, ginoboscariol@hotmail.com,pjcogar@yahoo.com, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, gz410@verizon.net, hulagirl0475@yahoo.com, parso105@chapman.edu, the69na@hotmail.com, mshams115@yahoo.com, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com,LauraARogers@aol.com, kielcravatta@yahoo.com, danny.solomon@gmail.com, gibb.ie.27@hotmail.com, sszero1988@aol.com, blfletch@utk.edu, weechicky@gmail.com, peterlim80@yahoo.com, seb.tombeur@telenet.be, candice@doveforlove.com, bward10@vt.edu, kimmen_13@hotmail.com, alikatt@dovesforlove.com, justine@dovesforlove.com, andres.bardon@gmail.com, britcollins7@yahoo.com, rms_seymour@hotmail.com, my_name_is_chris@hotmail.co.uk, chances_here@yahoo.co.uk, nemesisx2r@hotmail.com, ecstasio@ecstasio.com, pablocarbonell@hotmail.com, carol.mills@uky.edu, augchoi@hotmail.com, airslant@yahoo.com, facebook@dovesforlove.com,albertphilip@yahoo.com, dayday2@charter.net, andy.wynne@live.co.uk, jdmtalon@live.com, hazelalki3@aim.com, rapiduntouhables@gmail.com, siavach@gmail.com, vinay_bgh@rediffmail.com, w-cc@live.ca, Kindredsins@hotmail.com, A_roc636@yahoo.com, hazon-midion@hotmail.com,whuzupgirl23@hotmail.com, chris__keating@hotmail.com, inoca_14@yahoo.com, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com,courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com,Ombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.com,aloyaal@hotmail.com,,j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com,raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,j.danson@sky.com, jennaneddie@gmail.com,roydebroy@yahoo.co.in, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, meiallen76@yahoo.com.au,wesprayconcreting@aapt.net.au, dpa36709@bigpond.net.au,pykeybaby@hotmail.com,darkshadow7827@aol.com, trubin54@yahoo.com,steverichards1@btinternet.com,lwnshed@aim.com, herry.limanto@imperial.ac.uk, mobbywars@gmail.com, bravesboston@netscape.net, landon_89@hotmail.com, tangiblewhisper@gmail.com, rrw2659@email.vccs.edu, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com, courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com, raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com, jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net, ginoboscariol@hotmail.com, pjcogar@yahoo.com, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, trywoody@hotmail.com, hulagirl0475@yahoo.com, jjojay@hotmail.co.uk,eli_cmk@hotmail.com, wnogay@sewickley.org, kdlowe@tstc.net, bruzer08@hotmail.com, scott.fields@gmail.com, glyphs@live.ca, ilhamsyah03@hotmail.com, rblessum@csu.fullerton.edu, ty_man10_15_10@hotmail.com, shay.graham@gmail.com, calluch@hotmail.com, united_clansmen@yahoo.ca, maxchicky2k03@sky.com, ryshtyanna@gmail.com, bruchart@gmail.com, drakus_burton@yahoo.ca, krystein@yahoo.com, miss_jordanna_lee@yahoo.com, miss_jordanna_lee@yahoo.ca, allisonmobwar@gmail.com, angelamobwar@gmail.com, ashmobwar@gmail.com, babemobwar@gmail.com, babsmobwar@gmail.com, bootymobwar@gmail.com, caponemobwar@gmail.com, candymobwar@gmail.com, chastitymobwar@gmail.com, danamobwar@gmail.com, mdtrout1983@aol.com, studio65graphics@hotmail.com, celvinsa@hotmail.co.uk, clarke187@gmail.com, darkzide79@hotmail.com, rlph_wiggins@yahoo.com, vey5001@psu.edu, dnathe4th@gmail.com, mblake@mix.wvu.edu, roger.lightbody@systoc.com, elementboarder319@yahoo.com, damatman@hotmail.com, benboccio@yahoo.com, korebuster@hotmail.com, fluffythepig69@hotmail.com, sarthebears@gmail.com, dickinsonja@hotmail.com, jferena@willschreiber.com, dvanvechten@gmail.com, tferena@willschreiber.com, wferena@willschreiber.com, mferena@willschreiber,com, rferena@willschreiber.com, eferena@willschreiber.com, deamonkateyez@gmail.com, lawrencetkc@hotmail.com, lawrencetkc1@gmail.com, pasiegosoriano@hotmail.com, alvintks@gmail.com, k.p.w74@hotmail.com, amalone13@hotmail.co.uk, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com, medy2kv@hotmail.com, s18bsa@hotmail.com, rblessum@csu.fullerton.edu, apmatte@cogeco.ca, co_1nk@hotmail.com, r.i.o@hotmail.com, freak1ofnature@yahoo.com, hillkids27@hotmail.com, sandyhill1@hotmail.com,ben_loves_jess@hotmail.com, jenta23@hotmail.com, ibmanic@hotmail.com, darwin_tayson@yahoo.com, darkvash_23@yahoo.com, darwin.tayson@yahoo.com, dv_ichigo.kurosaki@yahoo.com, jovanjox@yahoo.com, william.illingworth@yahoo.com,amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com,frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com,courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com,raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net,donnydonny66@hotmail.com,ginoboscariol@hotmail.com,pjcogar@yahoo.com, joecramp123@hotmail.co.uk, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, xtremeganesh@hotmail.com, neo_inside@yahoo.com, rajer_94@yahoo.com; amsouthworth@hotmail.com,btassignon@gmail.com,mrbags@hotmail.com,danny.solomon@gmail.com, iacovus79@yahoo.com, kullest_destiny@hotmail.com, ,Ombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.com,aloyaal@hotmail.com,psyrus_10@hotmail.com, damian_amberg@yahoo.com, gen711@aol.com, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com,mike_gil@sympatico.ca, riomenajang@yahoo.com,j enmcco@sbcglobal.net, jmcco@ku.edu, cubster_05@msn.com, tombeechey@hotmail.com, whuzupgirl23@hotmail.com, geocricket@gmail.com, q.oneil@gmail.com, usmarine07727@yahoo.com, ZBTChip@aol.com, Friendlys00@Yahoo.com, mammacobb5@yahoo.com, lovinglife2326@hotmail.com, xron010110@yahoo.com, jamdiscodj@hotmail.com, old-skool@hotmail.co.uk, dgboudreau1@yahoo.ca, jeburton3978@aol.com, kristine_pamplin@hotmail.com,raiyan00@yahoo.com,roydebroy@yahoo.co.in, neilmcse@hotmail.com,camdrums@hotmail.com, b6l0g4@yahoo.com, estremel@hotmail.com, tmmzc85@yahoo.com, trevor.okrafka@gmail.com, djuett1@mymail.slcc.edu,rezaul.hayat@gmail.com, ragnar_noi@hotmail.com,plaincat@gmail.com, UABlade@siu.edu, lawrencetkc@hotmail.com, lawrencetkc1@gmail.com, alvintks@gmail.com, we1hong@hotmail.com, pissedpanda@gmail.com,allanliewck@yahoo.com, mtclipTweedleDum@gmail.com, cookiedough_dynamo@hotmail.com,bevandkev101@hotmail.co.uk, calluch@hotmail.com,tonmoy_alam19@hotmail.com,vinay_bgh@rediffmail.com,enyaht_sivad190@hotmail.com,traceyx35@hotmail.com, john_young33@yahoo.com, kahyoon@gmail.com, A_roc636@yahoo.com, elizabethabauer@gmail.com,mblake@mix.wvu.edu, hazon-midion@hotmail.com, youngkiwis@gmail.com,midknyghtdrym2001@yahoo.com,rayan_a_s@hotmail.com, amalone13@hotmail.co.uk, silver.amir@yahoo.com, tma122@hotmail.com, discoverystore@gmail.com, m_843589@hotmail.com,sunnyy2k1025@hotmail.com,landon_89@hotmail.com, chiefbradd@aol.com, johnthemobster@yahoo.com, tangiblewhisper@gmail.com,gz410@verizon.net, rrw2659@email.vccs.edu, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com, amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net, shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com, courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com, raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, 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          My Latest Song Syndrome        
Hi Guys..this song is just awesome and is No. 1 on Packan's charts for nearly 2 weeks now...

Here it is...1234 by Feist


          Picture Book Thursday        
SCAREDY SQUIRREL GOES CAMPING by Melanie Watt: Scaredy Squirrel does not think camping is a great idea; there are simply too many hazards, like zippers and penguins and mosquitoes. So he decides to experience camping by watching television shows about camping. The only problem? He must set out on an adventure in order to plug in his extension cord! Along the way, he faces many of his fears and learns the joys of camping.

I read this to my six-year-old daughter, and we are both now Scaredy Squirrel fans. Scaredy Squirrel's charts, maps, and detailed plans are hilarious additions to quirky, fun illustrations. The narrative will appeal to children and adults - my daughter and I were both cracking up. And the lesson, that things are not as scary as they seem, that some things are worth the risk, is hard to argue with. A delightful picture book.

Source disclosure: I received an e-galley of this title from the publisher.
          Playing around with LINQ to SQL: Enumerable.ToDictionary Extension Method        

Playing around with Linq I noticed the Enumerable.ToDictionary extension method on IEnumerables<T>. I found it very handy to store expected results for Unit Testing. Yesterday I was playing around with general stuff and I did some looking around a ToDictionary.

We all know what Dictionaries are in the programming world right? Well they are data structures where each element is a key/value pair. Each key in it must be unique and it cannot be null. They are blindly fast for element retrieval by key too, O(n) . So basically they are very efficient at locating, inserting, deleting records associated by keys,

The ToDictionary<TSource,TKey> can be used in many ways, 4 to be more precise but in all them you have to specify a Func<TSource,TElement> to be your key selector, you also have the choice to provide another function to your element selector, ie the object that you are going to store as key and finally you can pass on a IEqualityComparer<T> to compare keys so the underlying HashTable can determine whether keys used are equal. (If you try to add an Element with a Key that already exists in the Dictionary, an ArgumentException will be thrown.

Examples:

 

[TestMethod]
public void CreateDictionary_of_AnonymousTypes()
{
var ps = from p in productos
orderby p.ProductID ascending
select new
{ p.ProductID,p.ProductName};

// Creates a Dictionary where the Key is a productID and the Object is an Anonymous type.
var dummyDictionary = ps.ToDictionary(a => a.ProductID); // Note the Ano

// 77 Products in Northwind...
Assert.AreEqual(77, dummyDictionary.Count());
Assert.AreEqual("Tofu", dummyDictionary[14].ProductName);
// Is it a fib that oo.ProductName is not 'Chai tea' ?
Assert.IsFalse(dummyDictionary[1].ProductName != "Chai tea"); // Product Name of Product with ID = 1 is 'Chai tea'
}

In this example all I did was crated a Dictionary by using the productID as key selector, the dictionary will have a integer as key and the Element will be an Anonymous type.

[TestMethod]
public void CreateDictionary2()
{
var ps = from p in productos
orderby p.ProductID ascending
select new
{ p.ProductID, p.ProductName };

// Creating a dictionary by explicitly determining the Key and the Element
Dictionary<int,string> elDictionary = ps.ToDictionary(a => a.ProductID, a=>a.ProductName);
CollectionAssert.AllItemsAreUnique(elDictionary.Keys);
}

This example a function to select keys and select Elements was done, resulting in a Dictionary<int,String>

[TestMethod]
public voidDictionary_Products_By_CategoryName()
{
       Dictionary<string, IEnumerable<Product>> superDictionary;        
          
        var prods = fromp inproductos
                    groupp byp.Category.CategoryName intoprods_by_categoryName
                    select new
                  
{                           
                        list = prods_by_categoryName
                    };
        superDictionary = prods.ToDictionary(a => a.list.Select(b => b.Category.CategoryName).First(), c => c.list.Select(y=>y));
        IOrderedEnumerable<String> coll = superDictionary.Keys.OrderBy(a=>a);

        IEnumerable<String> orderedCategories = ((fromcats inctx.Categories
                                                     selectcats.CategoryName).OrderBy(h=>h));
        List<String> myList = coll.ToList();
        myList.Reverse();
        myList.Reverse();
        CollectionAssert.AreEqual(myList , orderedCategories.ToList());
       
}


This example I created a Dictionary of Products, where the key is the CategoryName and the Elements is a IEnumberable of Products for that Category.

The same can be achieved as below, much simpler!


[TestMethod]
public void Dictionary_Products_By_CategoryName_Simple()
{
Dictionary<string, IEnumerable<Product>> superDictionary;
superDictionary = (from categories in ctx.Categories
select new
{
categories.CategoryName,
ProductsInCategory = categories.Products.Select(a=>a)
}).ToDictionary(a=>a.CategoryName,a=>a.ProductsInCategory);

Assert.IsInstanceOfType(superDictionary, typeof(Dictionary<string, IEnumerable<Product>>));
}

Here I want to list all Products by Category, and sort them by total unit price...


[TestMethod]
public void do_all_that_stuff_in_less_lines_of_code()
{
NorthwindDataContext ctx = new NorthwindDataContext();
var result = (from categories in ctx.Categories
select new
{
CategoryName = categories.CategoryName,
TotalCategoryUnitPrice = categories.Products.Sum(a=>a.UnitPrice),
Products = categories.Products.OrderByDescending(a=>a.UnitPrice).ToList()
}).OrderByDescending(a=>a.TotalCategoryUnitPrice);

foreach (var category in result)
{
Console.WriteLine( String.Format("\n{0}:\n{1}",category.CategoryName, new String('-', category.CategoryName.Length )));
category.Products.ForEach(p => Console.WriteLine(String.Format("{0,-35} {1,10:C2}", p.ProductName, p.UnitPrice)));
Console.WriteLine(String.Format( "{0,46}", new String('-',6) ));
Console.WriteLine("Total:".PadLeft(38) + String.Format("{0,8:C2}", category.TotalCategoryUnitPrice));
}
}

Capture


Also the ToLookup function is worth mentioning. What it does is creates a Lookup<TKey,TElement> ( basically a collection where each key is mapped to one or more values)


[TestMethod]
public void ToLookup()
{
var prods_by_cat = from products in ctx.Products
select products;

Lookup<string, string> ellookup = (Lookup<string, string>)prods_by_cat.ToLookup(
a => a.Category.CategoryName, // Key
a => a.ProductName); // Value
// Iterate through each IGrouping in the Lookup and output the contents.
foreach (IGrouping<string, string> packageGroup in ellookup)
{
// Print the key value of the IGrouping.
Console.WriteLine(packageGroup.Key);
// Iterate through each value in the IGrouping and print its value.
foreach (string str in packageGroup)
Console.WriteLine(" {0}", str);
}
}

and the output..note that packageGroup is just a collection of Products for that particular Category. Cool eh?


Beverages
Chai tea
Changta
Guaraná Fantástica
Steeleye Stout
Côte de Blaye
Chartreuse verte
Ipoh Coffee
Laughing Lumberjack Lager
Outback Lager
Rhönbräu Klosterbier
Lakkalikööri
Condiments
Aniseed Syrup
Chef Anton's Cajun Seasoning
Chef Anton's Gumbo Mix
Grandma's Boysenberry Spread
Northwoods Cranberry Sauc

Anyway, I don't think I'll be playing with any Dictionaries for a while, done and dusted!


          [news] A Special Report on Business Intelligence        
Thursday, July 8, 2004
Dateline: China
 
One of my favorite industry trades, Computerworld, recently published a special report on business intelligence (BI).  (See http://tinyurl.com/2w8j2 .)  As regular readers of this blog know, I'm hot, hot and hotter on BI.  Not only are BI apps booming in their own right, but BI also provides an open door into other structured data apps (e.g., ERP and SCM).  Also, there is a burgeoning number of apps requiring both BI and knowledge management (KM) solutions, providing a host of new opportunities.  (For now, think of BI for structured data and KM for unstructured data.  But the lines between KM and BI are blurring.)
 
The Computerworld report includes an introduction to BI titled, "BI for the Masses," an introduction to Web harvesting, and a superb article on text mining; there are several online exclusives as well.  In this post, I'm going to focus on an article titled, "Predictions for BI's Future," by providing excerpts with commentary.  As usual, items in bold are MY emphasis; items in red are MY commentary.
 
Embedded BI.  "Over the next four to six years, BI systems will become embedded in small, mobile devices, such as manufacturing sensors and PDAs in the field, which in turn will be linked to more centralized systems." -- Erik Thomsen, distinguished scientist, Hyperion Solutions Corp., Sunnyvale, Calif.
 
PB DM (petabyte data mining).  "Within three years, companies and governmental agencies will be able to successfully run analytics within a centralized data warehouse containing 1 petabyte or more of data -- without performance limitations." -- Dave Schrader, technology futurist, Teradata, a division of NCR Corp., El Segundo, Calif.
 
HPC to the rescue!  "Within the next two to three years, high-performance computing technology used by scientific and engineering communities and national R&D labs will make its way into mainstream business for high-performance business analytics. This transition will be driven by the growing volume of complex data and the pressing need for companies to use forecasting and predictive analytics to minimize risk and maximize profit-generating opportunities." -- Phil Fraher, chief operating officer, Visual Numerics Inc., San Ramon, Calif.
 
BI meets AI.  "In the near future, business leaders will manage by exception, and automated systems will handle significant loads of routine tasks." -- Mike Covert, chief operating officer, Infinis Inc., Columbus, Ohio
 
Visualization.  "Over the next two to three years, BI systems will automatically suggest appropriate visualizations, which in turn will dramatically increase the use of visualization and our understanding of complex relationships." -- Erik Thomsen, distinguished scientist, Hyperion Solutions
 
BI + BPM + BAM.  "Businesses need more than a rearview mirror to drive their business forward into the next era. A new category of intelligence tools will emerge over the next two to three years that combines business process management, business activity monitoring (BAM) and business intelligence to enable the "actively managed enterprise." This will combine the scorecards and rearview-analysis capabilities of BI with the real-time, event-driven analysis of BAM and feed that information into automated business processes for on-the-fly steering of the business towards scorecard goals. This will exponentially elevate the speed at which businesses are able to operate, adapt and make critical decisions." -- Tim Wolters, chief architect of business activity monitoring solutions, webMethods Inc., Fairfax, Va.
 
Bottom line:  Go to a BI-related ACM or IEEE CS conference and you'll hear a lot of presentations on all of the apps described above.  It's where the rubber meets the road:  This stuff is real!!  However, it's important to differentiate "real" BI with much more simplistic reporting software (like a good "chunk" of the so-called BI solutions provided by Business Objects, Cognos and even Microsoft -- via their recent acquisition of ActiveViews).
 
A BI Site to Review
 
Last week I came across a paper published in the current issue of the Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems.  In this paper the project called "Data Mining and Decision Support for Business Competitiveness: A European Virtual Enterprise" (SolEuNet) is used as a case study and "the source of lessons learned."  The paper provides a link to the SolEuNet Web site (see http://tinyurl.com/3x5vo ); at the SolEuNet site I found a wealth of case studies with supporting technical documents on leading-edge BI apps (see, for example, Workpackage 7 on "Combining Data Mining and Decision Support with Information Systems" at http://tinyurl.com/yqkqm ).  Remember, strategy consulting isn't merely about comparing product specs (regardless what the IT advisory services may say).
 
The Gartner Conference on BI
 
I got my hands on three i-banking analyst reviews of the Gartner BI conference.  The Morgan Stanley report (dated 27 April) noted that customer activity levels appeared to be strong and "many seem to be taking a more strategic approach to BI, resulting in the emergence of larger transactions."  (My emphasis.)  Corporate performance management (CPM) is driving some of the larger deals, with Cognos and Hyperion taking the lead.  Evidently, systems integrators (SIs) are getting religion and developing collaterals around CPM messaging.  RBC Dominion Securities produced a more in-depth report (dated 29 April) and noted the following:
  • Gartner expects the market to accelerate in 2004.
  • The ETL (extraction, transformation, and load) market will flatten (finally).
  • CPM is hot.  "Hyperion, Cognos, and SAS appeared to be the best positioned non-ERP vendors to capitalize on the CPM market opportunity."  However, "(they) believe that SAP is the best-positioned large enterprise software vendor to execute in both the BI and CPM market ..."
  • Finally, the Gartner BI conference itself was hot, with 973 attendees, an increase in attendance of 70% over last year.
UBS chimed in with their own report (dated 30 April), which in some ways was a bit more technical than the other two reports cited above.  UBS noted that heterogeneous environments require independent tools (e.g., it is very difficult to get heterogeneous data into an ERP data warehouse <DW>).  Gartner's rule of thumb is that an ERP-derived BI/DW solution should be on the short-list only if more than 60% of an organization's BI data resides within that single app vendorUBS also noted that the importance of BI is leading to the formation of BI competency centers.  They also believe that SAP and Microsoft remain significant long-term threats to the independent software vendors such as Cognos and Business Objects.  BTW, all three reports seemed a bit down on Business Objects.
 
Another Computerworld feature on BI
 
Sometimes advertorials can be a good thing.  A case in point is the 26 April issue of Computerworld which provides a link to a new, six page Computerworld White Paper on BI.  The paper is titled, "Charting the Course: A Guide to Evaluating Business Intelligence Products"; it's a good, practical read.  Tactical, product spec advice and guidelines, but still a good read.  The PDF can be found at http://tinyurl.com/2gt3d .
 
Recent Tidbits on BI
 
The New Straits Times (Malaysia) via Asia Africa Intelligence Wire reported on 24 June that SAS "expects the BI market in Asia to register double-digit growth for the next five years.  (Don Cooper Williams, director of marketing and alliances for SAS Asia-Pacific) cites a recent report from research house International Data Corp, which predicts that BI software market in the region (excluding Japan) to grow by 12 per cent this year, up from 7.5 per cent in 2003."  Note to SIs in China:  BI isn't just hot in the States; leverage your skills for serving the U.S. market and the domestic market.
 
From the channel, India Business Insight (also via Asia Africa Intelligence Wire) on 31 May announced that "Business Objects has entered into a long-standing systems integrator agreement with Wipro Infotech (WI) to provide business intelligence (BI) solutions to customers."  Note to SIs in China:  Don't be left without a dance partner.
 
Additional Articles for Review
 
I did a quick scan of trade lit and found a few articles worth reading.  First, the March-April issue of Financial Executive talks about CPM -- Corporate Performance Management -- as it relates to BI.  The May issue of Insurance & Technology takes a vertical look at BI (rather basic apps), as does the April issue of Business Credit.  Always think verticals.
 
A Final Wrap (or Should I Say, "Rap"?)
 
Back to Computerworld.  More specifically, see the 29 March issue of Computerworld.  According to a survey conducted by IBM Business Consulting Services, BI is a high priority on the plate of C-level execs.  In a Computerworld poll, 39% of IT executives listed business intelligence projects as their most critical IT projects.  By 2005, market research firm IDC projects that the worldwide market for business intelligence software will total about $6 billion -- up from $2.5 billion in 2003 -- signaling a major increase in business intelligence projects.  IT executives say the skills they need on business intelligence projects include systems integration, data modeling, database administration, data standardization and project management.
 
Cheers,
 
David Scott Lewis
President & Principal Analyst
IT E-Strategies, Inc.
Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
http://www.itestrategies.com (current blog postings optimized for MSIE6.x)
http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa (access to blog content archives in China)
http://tinyurl.com/2azkh (current blog postings for viewing in other browsers and for access to blog content archives in the US & ROW)
http://tinyurl.com/2hg2e (AvantGo channel)
 
To automatically subscribe click on http://tinyurl.com/388yf .
 

          ADMINISTRATEUR SYSTÈME H/F - Clémentine International - Paris        
Clémentine, cabinet de conseil en recrutement spécialiste des métiers du Digital, de l'IT et du Cloud, recherche pour son client un Administrateur Système H/F. Notre client est le premier groupe européen d'agences de voyages en ligne et le cinquième dans le monde. Le groupe représente aussi la plus grande société européenne d'e-commerce. Les différentes marques disposent des meilleures offres sur des vols réguliers, charters et compagnies aériennes lowcost. Elles proposent également...
          Administrateur Système Linux (H/F) - Clémentine International - paris        
Administrateur Système (H/F) Notre client est le premier groupe européen d'agences de voyages en ligne et le cinquième dans le monde. Le groupe représente aussi la plus grande société européenne d'e-commerce. Les différentes marques disposent des meilleures offres sur des vols réguliers, charters et compagnies aériennes lowcost. Elles proposent également d'autres services et produits, tels que des hôtels, de la location de voitures, des séjours packagés ou à composer sur...
          Administrateur Système et Réseau (H/F) - Apside - Centre        
Poste et missions : Dans le cadre de nos activités production/exploitation, nous recherchons un administrateur systèmes et réseaux H/F pour nos activités en région Centre (Tours, Orléans, Chartres), au Mans et à Niort. Au sein du département production, vos activités seront les suivantes : Analyse et traitement des incidents en niveaux ; Traitement des demandes de travaux ; Administration des équipements ; Gestion des performances ; Gestion des droits d'accès aux serveurs et aux...
          KADÄ°R GECEMÄ°Z MÜBAREK OLSUN        

Merhaba Dostlar,
Çok şükür Kadir Gecesine Ulaştık. Rabbim herkesin ibadetini, duasını kabul etsin. Dolu dolu geçirmeyi nasip etsin. Yazının devamı için buraya bir tık lütfen.


Ziyaretiniz İçin Teşekkür Ederim, Her Zaman Beklerim... Aysel...
          Ramazan Yazıları ve Patates Kroket        
Merhaba Misafirlerim, Dostlarım,
Yeni yazımız Wordpres bloğuma eklenmiştir. Sizleri oraya beklerim

Ramazan Hadisleri

Bu gün de size arşivimden bir tavsiyem olsun. Üstelik blog istatistiklerine göre en fazla görüntülenen tariflerimden biridir kendileri;  Patates Kroket
Patates Köftesi
Patates Köftesi
Ziyaretiniz İçin Teşekkür Ederim, Her Zaman Beklerim... Aysel...

          Bloglovindeyim        

Evet Bloglovin'e burdan merhaba diyelim. Google Reader sizlerin de bildiği gibi 01 Temmuz itibariyle artık kullanım dışı oldu. Eee o zaman takip listemizi ne yapacağız. Bloglovin'e üye olup takiplerimizi bloglovin'e aktaracağız. Ve beni takip etmek içinde http://www.bloglovin.com/en/blog/5661511 ya da bloğumdaki Bloglovindeyim Takip İçin Bir Tık yazısına tıklayacağız. Detaylı anlatımı bir arkadaşımız çok güzel vermiş. Ayrıntılı bilgi için buraya bakabilirsiniz. http://degmesinyagliboya.blogspot.gr/2013/03/bloglovin-vs-google.html
Bloglovin
Takipte kalmanız dileğiyle, sımsıcak sevgiler...

Ziyaretiniz İçin Teşekkür Ederim, Her Zaman Beklerim... Aysel...
          GTA V Online: Pegadinhas #9 - Prendendo Players nos Assaltos as Lojas        

Pegadinha mais ÉPICA do GTA V que já fizemos, prepara pra rir hauahau
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          The remastered Wipeout: Omega Collection speeds to the top of the UK charts in a first for the franchise        
Sony scores a UK no.1 with the debut of Wipeout: Omega Collection. It’s been more than 20 years since the first Wipeout game whooshed onto the PlayStation, and in all that time, the series has never quite managed to get to No.1 in the UK charts. So the news that
          ECN Broker Comparison        
Compare commissions across ECN brokers with our interactive chart. FXOpen ([site|17|1][site]) delivers the tightest commissions across our panel.
          Live Gold Chart        
Check today's gold price with our interactive gold price chart updated in real-time.
          The N-Word Presentation        
I developed this sample presentation for a course on "othering."  It is designed to both model how I'd like students to construct their own presentations throughout the semester and also to introduce them to some of the controversial issues that will arise as they read and discuss Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.  The presentation brings up some important issues for teachers to consider--what are the consequences of using this term in the classroom or of avoiding the term?

I've posted the rough script below.  Follow along with the visual part of the presentation at: http://www.mixbook.com/photo-books/education/the-n-word-controversy-7764505.

Page 1
N-Word Controversy—more apt title might be N-Word Controversies
Used as my cover image a pic of Malcolm X, a man who gave a lot of thought to this word
According to a treatise that he wrote for the Organization of Afro-American Unity in his final years, decided that it must be rejected in all of its forms
So, going to turn it over to you
Will ask you to think about whether this word should ever be uttered in today’s world
If so, who has the right to say it?
When should it be said?
Should it be printed in classic literary texts?
Finally, how should we handle this issue as we encounter the term in our own classroom?
Disclaimer—I use term “n-word” when reading aloud, but I have printed the actual word in the text of the presentation

Page 2
Going to start by talking a little bit about the word's orgins, specifically how it came to be used in the US
N-word derived from the Latin “niger,” meaning “black,” according to an entry in the OED
More importantly, became derogatory in the US as African-Americans became quintessential others
Read quote
Remember our definition of othering—projecting negative traits onto another human or group of humans in order to imagine that you don’t possess those traits and then treating them as inferior to reinforce your own superiority
This is exactly how white colonists used n-word—to show that they were superior to another group, to other and oppress

Page 3
Many ask, why is this one word so incredibly offensive, maybe more so than any other in the English language?
Let’s follow the flow chart here
In American, at least, it all started with slavery
Here we have a poster, offering a monetary reward for the return of human property
Read poster
Evidence of people hunted like animals, forced to serve others in ways that we don’t want to even imagine, and regarded as little more than part of white people’s larger estate
Next, after abolition, freed slaves were forced to continue to serve white people, despite their legal “freedom”—as cooks, caregivers, maids, farm-hands
Disallowed opportunities for education, social advancement, political activism
Any attempts at uplift were met with violence
Were continued to be treated as others in order to reinforce superiority of white people
Here we have an example of segregation—a “colored” water fountain, where black people were forced to drink water separately from white people because white people could not bear the thought of putting their lips near a metal piece that black people might also put their touch with their mouths
Finally, in the present day, we only have to look at incarceration statistics to know that racism continues

There were more than five times as many black men in jail than white men in 2006 according to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics.
We know that this is partly due to the continued limited opportunities available to black men and partly due to the stricter penalties enacted on black men vs. white men
So, why is this word so offensive?
Aha! I know.
It has everything to do with othering
It is because this word represents how black men and women have been othered throughout American history, it has been used to reinforce the inferiority of black men and women for centuries
A clip from YouTube shows this legacy of oppression well--http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mdY04-xds3k: show segments 0-53, 1:24-2:05, 2:50-4:56

Page 4
The history of othering and oppression that my flow chart and the video show are very convincing in suggesting that the word should just never be spoken
On the other hand, some insist that we should say the word in appropriate contexts, in order to diffuse its power over us
Emily Bernard writes about a series of discussions that she had with her college-aged students about the word
Most refused to say it, but some agreed with her that it should be spoken
Quote
In The N-Word, a documentary produced by Andy Cohen, comedian Dick Gregory goes a step further, saying that we are actually allowing a white racist system to erase a history of oppression if we stop saying the word that represents that oppression.
Quote
Certainly, we don’t want our silence to amplify or erase a history of othering

Page 5
In the past few decades, black men and women have attempted to rehabilitate the n-word, or the different forms of it that I’ve printed on this pageWe know that lots of people today use it as a way of identifying fellowship or brotherhood among black people or even just close friends
OED even recognizes this positive form of the word’s usage
We see this in the media with figures like Laurence Fishborne, film director, who admits to using the term within close circles of friends on the documentary The N-Word
Nicki Minaj uses the term a total of 35 times in just one song, entitled “N.I.G.G.A.S.,” which laments the current oppression of black men in this country
And she actually references the problem that I talked about a few minutes ago—that many black men are given very little opportunity for social advancement and end up incarcerated in numbers that are not proportionate to the number of white men who are imprisoned for the same crimes
It is as if she is using this word—which some would say carries with it a history of oppression—to unite the black community in continuing “hold on” and “keep tryin,'” as the lyrics to the song say
Then we have Sean Combs and Ludacris who also use the word in their music as a way of indicating fellowship or closeness with other black men
Samuel L. Jackson says on The N-Word that he insists that all who work with him know upfront that he is an n-word
Using the word in slightly different way—to indicate that he is tough and not afraid to fight for what he believes in
Then we have Katt Williams who uses the term liberally in stand-up
Use of n-word by black people themselves started to gain national attention in the 1970s when Richard Pryor began to do it in his comedy routines
Used it in a positive way, as a way of showing affection between family members, brotherhood between men—much like all of these contemporary figures do
Ironically, after pretty much single-handedly managing to take the use of this word mainstream, Pryor renounced his use of the term in the late 80s.
According to Hilton Als, Pryor came to the conclusion that “to call one's brother a 'nigger'" is to describe one's own "wretchedness’”

Page 6
Now going to turn to the use of the word in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Ranked #14 on the American Library Association’s list of Top 100 Banned/Challenged Books for the decade of 2000-2009Reason cited is racism
Book actually uses word total of 219 times
Might have something to do with it
Because of the history of oppression and othering that comes with this word, it can make the book very difficult to read, even at the college level
Going to quote from an article that you are going to read for this class in a couple of weeks
This section of the article is written from the perspective of a non-traditional student—African-American woman, on her experience of reading Huck Finn
Had just returned to college
Excited to have opportunity to read this classic that she had never read
Read quote
Interesting that she refers to Malcolm X here, man who believed in procuring dignity of black men and women through eradication of n-word, in her lamentation of its use in this American classic
If it is this painful for a grown woman to read this word, imagine effects on a child

Page 7
This is why, in 2011, publisher NewSouth introduced edited versions of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Replaced "n-word" with "slave"
Here are some reasons that Professor Alan Gribben gave during NPR’s Talk of the Nation last January for agreeing to edit the two texts in this way
Says that this edition is for young children who would not get to read the book otherwise because of the ways that the book has been censored
Quote
Says that Twain might well have adapted to this change, since this author was particularly known for changing his opinions about matters throughout his life
Quote
And, finally, says that this edition does not change the central concept of the book, only makes it more tolerable for those sensitive to a particular word
Quote
It would appear that Professor Gribben should get a gold star, right?

Page 8
Well, except for the fact that the new edition has caused public and scholarly outrage
One commentator on NPR’s Weekend Edition Saturday compared the editing out of the n-word in Huck Finn to the covering of the bloody figures in Picasso’s “Guernica” with band-aids
Quote
Picasso painted “Guernica” to protest the bombing of Guernica, Spain by German and Italian warplanes during the Spanish Civil War
Meant to show suffering that war causes
To put band-aids over the gashes in this scene would not only deface this classic, evocative work of art, but it would also cover over a history of suffering that we should remember
Similarly, Simon is saying that to change "slave" for the n-word in Huck Finn is to tamper with a work of art and also to deny the oppression and othering that this word connotes
It is both silly and unwise

Page 9
Time is ticking
Now is when you decide what you believe and how you will handle this issue
We’ve looked at figures like Malcolm X and Richard Pryor, who insist that the use of this term is harmful
People like Nicki Minaj, who see it as a way of uniting black men and women and fighting oppression
Seen how it can be hurtful to people when read in classic texts like Huck Finn
Learned how others insist that we must keep it and talk about it in order to remember a history of oppression
What do you think?
Maybe take three comments on one small part of this issue, most important to us, how we should handle this in the classroom
Each extreme and in the middle
Clearly a provocative topic
My hope is that discussion of it can bring us together instead of divide us

Page 10
Works Cited


          INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS AND REBEKAHS        
The Cobourg Odd Fellow Lodge # 136 got its charter March 30, 1874 and the Duke of Kent Rebekah Lodge # 326 received its charter on September 14, 1944. Locally our Lodges have served young people through scholarships and the opportunity to participate in United Nations Pilgrimage for Youth tours. We also have a humanitarian services program that offers hospital Continue Reading
          51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best? A. A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits. B. Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time. C. Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan. D. A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.         

BUS/475 Guide 4


1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
A.   $8,250
B.   $750 C.   $4,500
D.   $5,250
           
5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
A.   2,133 units
B.   6,200 units
C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
           
6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
A.   Master budgeting analysis
B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
D.   Static reporting
8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
C.   $28,000
D.   $18,000
           
9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                        Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
            Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
           

Closing entries are necessary for __________.
A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
13) Managerial accounting __________.
A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
           
14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
           
18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
           
19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
A.   supply tax
B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
           
21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
           
23) Which of the following is not correct?
A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
           
24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
C.   government financial account.
D.   current account.
25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
C.   the time inconsistency of policy
D.   inflation targeting
26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
           
30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
C.   Leading D.   Controlling
E.   Planning
31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
A.   Planning B.   Supervising
C.   Controlling
D.   Organizing E.   Leading
34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
E.   ISO 9000
35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
E.   Diagnostic skills
37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
C.   Self-managed teams
D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
           
39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
A.   Goal Coordination
B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
           
41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
For this sample, the median is _____.
A.   3 B.   3.5
C.   2.5
D.   2
43) Use the following table to answer question:
 P(S | W) is approximately _____.
A.   .40
B.   .30
C.   .12
D.   .58
           
44) Use the following table to answer question:
 P(M  A) is approximately _____.
A.   .50 B.   .625
C.   .125
D.   .25
45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
A.   Midrange
B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
           
48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
Max P = $20X + $30Y
and constraints of:
3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
           
50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
           
52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
E.   digital, physical
54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
E.   Hyperlink data
55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
           
56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
E.   Ethical, legal
58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
A.   Operational control
B.   Expertise C.   Management control
D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
62) Geocoding is __________.
A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
A.   48 months
B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
A.   Cash flow statement
B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
           
65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
           
66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
           
69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
A.   at equilibrium.
B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
Cost of debt     8%
Cost of preferred stock           12%
Cost of common stock            16%
Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
A.   $1,568
B.   $871 C.   $1,241
D.   $463
72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
           
73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
A.   eliminate different financial risks.
B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
A.   Income from discontinued operations
B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
           
77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
A.   Promotion.
B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
E.   Market segmentation
81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
B.   most consu
          52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that: A. you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B. the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80. C. you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours. D.         

BUS/475 Guide 4


1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
A.   $8,250
B.   $750 C.   $4,500
D.   $5,250
           
5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
A.   2,133 units
B.   6,200 units
C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
           
6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
A.   Master budgeting analysis
B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
D.   Static reporting
8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
C.   $28,000
D.   $18,000
           
9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                        Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
            Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
           

Closing entries are necessary for __________.
A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
13) Managerial accounting __________.
A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
           
14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
           
18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
           
19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
A.   supply tax
B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
           
21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
           
23) Which of the following is not correct?
A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
           
24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
C.   government financial account.
D.   current account.
25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
C.   the time inconsistency of policy
D.   inflation targeting
26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
           
30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
C.   Leading D.   Controlling
E.   Planning
31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
A.   Planning B.   Supervising
C.   Controlling
D.   Organizing E.   Leading
34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
E.   ISO 9000
35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
E.   Diagnostic skills
37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
C.   Self-managed teams
D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
           
39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
A.   Goal Coordination
B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
           
41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
For this sample, the median is _____.
A.   3 B.   3.5
C.   2.5
D.   2
43) Use the following table to answer question:
 P(S | W) is approximately _____.
A.   .40
B.   .30
C.   .12
D.   .58
           
44) Use the following table to answer question:
 P(M  A) is approximately _____.
A.   .50 B.   .625
C.   .125
D.   .25
45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
A.   Midrange
B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
           
48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
Max P = $20X + $30Y
and constraints of:
3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
           
50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
           
52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
E.   digital, physical
54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
E.   Hyperlink data
55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
           
56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
E.   Ethical, legal
58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
A.   Operational control
B.   Expertise C.   Management control
D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
62) Geocoding is __________.
A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
A.   48 months
B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
A.   Cash flow statement
B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
           
65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
           
66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
           
69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
A.   at equilibrium.
B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
Cost of debt     8%
Cost of preferred stock           12%
Cost of common stock            16%
Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
A.   $1,568
B.   $871 C.   $1,241
D.   $463
72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
           
73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
A.   eliminate different financial risks.
B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
A.   Income from discontinued operations
B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
           
77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
A.   Promotion.
B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
E.   Market segmentation
81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
B.   most consu
          53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel. A. physical, digital B. e-commerce, digital C. physical, financial D. digital, e-commerce E. digital, physical        

BUS/475 Guide 4


1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
A.   $8,250
B.   $750 C.   $4,500
D.   $5,250
           
5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
A.   2,133 units
B.   6,200 units
C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
           
6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
A.   Master budgeting analysis
B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
D.   Static reporting
8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
C.   $28,000
D.   $18,000
           
9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                        Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
            Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
           

Closing entries are necessary for __________.
A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
13) Managerial accounting __________.
A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
           
14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
           
18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
           
19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
A.   supply tax
B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
           
21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
           
23) Which of the following is not correct?
A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
           
24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
C.   government financial account.
D.   current account.
25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
C.   the time inconsistency of policy
D.   inflation targeting
26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
           
30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
C.   Leading D.   Controlling
E.   Planning
31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
A.   Planning B.   Supervising
C.   Controlling
D.   Organizing E.   Leading
34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
E.   ISO 9000
35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
E.   Diagnostic skills
37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
C.   Self-managed teams
D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
           
39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
A.   Goal Coordination
B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
           
41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
For this sample, the median is _____.
A.   3 B.   3.5
C.   2.5
D.   2
43) Use the following table to answer question:
 P(S | W) is approximately _____.
A.   .40
B.   .30
C.   .12
D.   .58
           
44) Use the following table to answer question:
 P(M  A) is approximately _____.
A.   .50 B.   .625
C.   .125
D.   .25
45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
A.   Midrange
B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
           
48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
Max P = $20X + $30Y
and constraints of:
3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
           
50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
           
52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
E.   digital, physical
54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
E.   Hyperlink data
55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
           
56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
E.   Ethical, legal
58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
A.   Operational control
B.   Expertise C.   Management control
D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
62) Geocoding is __________.
A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
A.   48 months
B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
A.   Cash flow statement
B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
           
65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
           
66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
           
69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
A.   at equilibrium.
B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
Cost of debt     8%
Cost of preferred stock           12%
Cost of common stock            16%
Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
A.   $1,568
B.   $871 C.   $1,241
D.   $463
72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
           
73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
A.   eliminate different financial risks.
B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
A.   Income from discontinued operations
B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
           
77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
A.   Promotion.
B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
E.   Market segmentation
81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
B.   most consu
          54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________. A. Tracking cookies B. Web data C. Information D. Clickstream data E. Hyperlink data        

BUS/475 Guide 4


1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
A.   $8,250
B.   $750 C.   $4,500
D.   $5,250
           
5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
A.   2,133 units
B.   6,200 units
C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
           
6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
A.   Master budgeting analysis
B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
D.   Static reporting
8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
C.   $28,000
D.   $18,000
           
9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                        Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
            Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
           

Closing entries are necessary for __________.
A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
13) Managerial accounting __________.
A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
           
14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
           
18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
           
19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
A.   supply tax
B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
           
21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
           
23) Which of the following is not correct?
A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
           
24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
C.   government financial account.
D.   current account.
25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
C.   the time inconsistency of policy
D.   inflation targeting
26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
           
30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
C.   Leading D.   Controlling
E.   Planning
31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
A.   Planning B.   Supervising
C.   Controlling
D.   Organizing E.   Leading
34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
E.   ISO 9000
35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
E.   Diagnostic skills
37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
C.   Self-managed teams
D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
           
39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
A.   Goal Coordination
B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
           
41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
For this sample, the median is _____.
A.   3 B.   3.5
C.   2.5
D.   2
43) Use the following table to answer question:
 P(S | W) is approximately _____.
A.   .40
B.   .30
C.   .12
D.   .58
           
44) Use the following table to answer question:
 P(M  A) is approximately _____.
A.   .50 B.   .625
C.   .125
D.   .25
45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
A.   Midrange
B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
           
48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
Max P = $20X + $30Y
and constraints of:
3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
           
50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
           
52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
E.   digital, physical
54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
E.   Hyperlink data
55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
           
56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
E.   Ethical, legal
58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
A.   Operational control
B.   Expertise C.   Management control
D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
62) Geocoding is __________.
A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
A.   48 months
B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
A.   Cash flow statement
B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
           
65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
           
66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
           
69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
A.   at equilibrium.
B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
Cost of debt     8%
Cost of preferred stock           12%
Cost of common stock            16%
Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
A.   $1,568
B.   $871 C.   $1,241
D.   $463
72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
           
73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
A.   eliminate different financial risks.
B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
A.   Income from discontinued operations
B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
           
77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
A.   Promotion.
B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
E.   Market segmentation
81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price