Hospitals and local physicians are noticing a spike in the no of respiratory cases in the city        
by Shrutee K/DNS

Mumbai, August 10th, 2017: The rains have arrived and so is the number of diseases along with it. People are aware of the most common ailments such as viral fever, the common cold, malaria, typhoid, diarrhoea, etc. But very few are aware of the respiratory ailments that stems from indoor air pollution in monsoon caused by the dampness in the walls, fungus from air conditioners, floor carpets, velvet upholsteries, sofa covers, wooden furniture harboring fungus, etc. The Hospitals and local physicians in the city have noticed a spike in the no. of cases with respiratory problems. Suspended Particulate Matter is the main trigger of damage in air Pollution. Other contents like SO2, ammonia, carbon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons add to the toxicity. Air pollutants which are less than 10 microns in size enter the smaller airways and causes damage. This may trigger cough, breathing difficulty, choking, chest tightness and Asthma.

Taking adequate precautions are one of the best ways to avoid monsoon-related ailments. All age groups are affected because of air pollution; however, there is a definite rise in asthma and lung infections among children. Also, elderly and diabetics are at a risk of lung infection because of air pollution. Avoiding floor carpets, velvet upholsteries, stuffed toys, burning incense sticks at home and regular cleaning of air conditioner filters are some of the precautions that can be taken to avoid indoor air pollution during the monsoon.

Mr. Girish Bapat, Blueair air purifier, Director West and South Asia Region further added, “Our mission at Blueair is to help Indian women, children and men confront the health challenges posed by rising air pollution. It is very essential to identify the Invisible dangers. Breathing in tiny, unseen pollutants put every individual at risk. These pollutants further pass through the lung tissue and puts you at risk of stroke, heart disease and developing Asthma, Allergy, Bronchitis, Infection and other respiratory problems. Getting acquainted of personal health records, heart rate and blood sugar level, is the best way to safeguard long-term health issues by classifying troublesome concerns at the earliest.”

Blueair’s air purifiers are innovated in Sweden to put people in control of their own air quality with superior filtration efficiency. Sold in over 60 countries around the world, Blueair delivers home and office users cleaner indoor air for enhanced user health and wellbeing faster than any competing air purifier thanks to its commitment to quality, energy efficiency and environmental care. A Blueair air purifier works efficiently and silently to remove airborne allergens, asthma triggers, viruses, bacteria and other pollutants.

          Review: Laniege Trouble Relief Cream         
Today I am join review another item part of the Laneige Trouble Relief series. Previously I wrote a review on Laneige Trouble Relief Spot Gel HERE, which I really recommended. This is time the review will be on Laneige Trouble Relief Cream! I am not sure about the price since it is a gift from my friend. But it should S$50 dollars.

Let's start off with pictures of the product itself

Front view of the box
Back view of the box

Here is the product. I think it is made of glass, but don't worry because I have dropped it a few times and it did break haha.

The inside

The picture above shows the consistency of the cream. It has a snow consistency. This is my first time using a cream with snow consistency. The consistency is like in between emulsion consistency and body cream.

Instruction sheet that comes with the bottle


The instructions are:
1) After applying toner, apply 1.2 cm in diameter of the cream
2) Gently smooth the cream from the center to the outer edge of your face

Initially I did not follow the instruction. I feel that the second step make some difference to the effectiveness of the cream, I am not sure of the scientific reason behind it though haha.

before
after
I usually apply once in while, when I feel that there is a impending breakout of my face. Example redness, slight itchiness, red bumps that are going to emerge as acne. I apply it after I cleansing my face. From the picture, although the cream looks kinda clumpy it is easy to spread on you face evenly. When you first apply it, it will feel very slightly heavy and oily but after it filtrates into your skin it will not be oily at all. In fact it filtrates in pretty fast. I can usually see improvement in 1-2 days time. The next morning after I applied it on my skin, my T-zone will be less red/inflamed. It also reduces the bumps on my skin and prevent acne from breaking out on my skin. These are most likely due to the anti-bacterial properties of the cream. It also has moisturising effect, but i felt that is less moisturising compared to the emulsion. But it could also because I did not apply any toner.

I will rate this product 5/5.

          Meningitis outbreak among gay men worries officials        
A deadly bacterial meningitis outbreak striking gay men in New York City is unlikely to abate any time soon, New York City health officials warn. The disease has sickened 22 and killed seven NYC men over the last two years.
          Cabut Gigi Bongsu di Hospital Putrajaya - Part 1        
Salam semuaaa...

Selama ni wanie duk baca je cerita orang cabut gigi bongsu ni macam mana. Haaa~~ kali ni merasa sendiri.. tak lawak wehh... serius tak best perasaan tu.. aahahahaha. Sebab apa ada Part 1? Haa.. jom baca..

Gigi bongsu kanan wanie impacted (horizontal) macam gambar kat bawah.

Credit picture to : http://www.exodontia.info/Wisdom_Tooth_Impaction_Classification.html

Nampak dia tengah tido? Tapi gigi geraham depan gigi bongsu tu dah kena cabut last year. So, tak lah sakit sangat gigi bongsu ni. Cuma sekali sekala bila dia bergerak rasanya (tudiaaa speculation), terasa weh sakit berdenyut tu walau sekejap. Jadinya, 7 April lepas, kebetulan off day, wanie ke Puspanitapuri di Putrajaya untuk scaling gigi dan nak ambik referral letter untuk buang gigi bongsu. Kat Puspanitapuri tak boleh buat sebab situ untuk kes kecil-kecil je macam tampalan or scaling macam tu... 

 Dah dapat referral letter, terus call Hospital Putrajaya untuk booking tarikh appointment. Yup.. call je. TAPI, kena ada referral letter dari klinik kerajaan atau swasta dulu tau. Sebab time call, dorang akan tanya referral letter dari klinik mana. OK, so dah dapat tarikh appointment pada 14 April. Time ni, tak buat apa-apa lagi tau. Doktor cuma x-ray dan check saja. Disebabkan sebatang gigi sahaja, maka doktor cuma akan melakukan local bius, maksudnya surgery akan dilakukan waktu kita sedar. Sounds scary, tapi, beranikan diri je....

Alright, dapat appointment untuk surgery which is semalam, 11 Mei. 3 hari sebelum surgery, wanie scaling gigi siap-siap di Klinik Dr. K kat Precint Diplomatik. Yang ni effort sendiri la, and doktor gigi pun sarankan untuk kita scaling gigi dulu before surgery. Pagi surgery tu, wanie dah makan kenyang-kenyang bihun goreng, walaupun nak telan pun nak mampu sebab takut.. haaa~ ceritanya, 5 ke 6 hari lepas, gigi bongsu yang sebelah kiri  wanie dah start sakit yang Tuhan je tahu! Ok takpe... sabar... tahan dengan painkiller. Sampailah ke hari yang dinantikan, terus bagitau doktor nak tukar cabut gigi kiri instead of kanan. Doktor ok je... memandangkan gigi terlalu dekat dengan nerve, doktor dahh bagitau kesan-kesan yang akan dialami JIKA nerve tercedera atau terputus sewaktu surgery. OK kan ajelah.. kita percaya pada doktor. Lagipun, doktor yang nak surgery kan wanie ni doktor pakar. Bagus sangat-sangat, diorang melayan je wanie punya songeh. Sebab takut, badan dah seram sejuk and menggigil. Wanie siap mintak blanket untuk selimutkan badan ke kaki. Hahahaha~ and nasib baik, few days sebelum surgery, wanie dok makan painkiller, so, bila tiba hari surgery, gigi dah tak sakit dan mudah untuk doktor buat kerja.

OK, dorang mulakan dengan cucuk ubat bius. Lepas dah kebas ape semua, dorang start pasang macam screw kot.. hahahaha~ wanie tak nampak sebab mata semua ditutup. Reason tutup mata, lampu surgery tu sangat bright. Tak kisah, wanie lagi suka sebab even mata dah tutup, wanie still pejam mata di sambil badan sedikit menggigil. Wanie pasang earphone, dengar spotify untuk kurangkan mindset yang fikir macam-macam. OK, pastu dengar bunyi mesin ngenggg ngenggg ngenggg... wanie rasa, time ni dorang tengah potong tulang rahang sikit. Trust me, tak rasa apa pun. Even doktor cut bahagian gusi pun wanie tak rasa apa... cuma, bila part doktor start nak pulas gigi tu kot, untuk nak longgarkan, wanie rasa sakit sangat. Doktor tambah ubat bius dalam 2 ke 3 kali macam tu, tapi still sakit.... uhuuu~~

Sudahnya, doktor tak boleh nak teruskan. Doktor syak sebab nerve tu, itu yang buat wanie sakit. So, doktor jahit balik gusi. Kemudian, set appointment baru untuk full bius. Maksudnya, surgery akan dilakukan waktu wanie tido dan akan masuk ke bilik bedah. Oleh sebab full bius, doktor sarankan untuk buang keempat-empat gigi bongsu sekaligus. Wanie setuju je, biar sakit sekali dah la.. lepas ambil ubat, naik ke tingkat 1 Wad Harian atau Daycare untuk jumpa pakar bius - ni untuk saringan je.

So, sekarang, dapat lah MC 2 hari (Khamis Jumaat) and cuti Sabtu Ahad. Wanie dah minta kat boss untuk extra cuti Isnin Selasa just in case anything happened. 

Lepas habis ubat bius tu, dah start berdenyut. Takpe, wanie makan painkiller. Dapat 2 jenis painkiller, satu yang kuat and satu lagi yang biasa. Wanie terus makan yang kuat sebab nanti takut sakit. Lagipun, husband kena kerja.. dia dah halfday teman wanie kat hospital. Taknaklah nak kacau dia kan.. bengkak, yes ada sikit. Malam semalam kitorang laki bini siap layan movie lagi sebelum tido.. kat rumahh eh.. tak koseerrr nak gi panggung wayang. hahaha.. 

Pagi ni bangun tidur, terasa pipi berat semacam. Bila tengok cermin, mak aihh.. dah serupa hamster simpan biji durian dalam mulut. Terus mandi-mandi, berus gigi pun slow-slow, pastu kumur dengan Listerine. Siap mandi semua, terus ngadap breakfast (whipped potato KFC as carbs dengan nugget). And terus makan ubat antibiotik dan painkiller sebab dah start sakit berdenyut, sakit lagi dari semalam. Itu yang orang kata, second day yang ko nak meraung sakan.. takpe, boleh tahan lagi. Mujur husband ada beli Bactidol, lepas makan, kumur dengan Bactidol pulak. Tapi, tak perlu rinse dengan air. Yang ni untuk mengelakkan dari bacteria atau fungus dalam mulut. Sesape ada ulser pun boleh guna. 

 Mahal sikit dari Listerine, dalam RM 18 macam tu. Boleh beli di Guardian. 

Tu je untuk Part 1 kali ni... next appointment lepas raya Julai nanti. Nanti wanie cerita macam mana alkisah dah siap operation nanti. Berdenyut sakit ni... nak tido jap. Bye korang..



          Review Praventac and AG Factor        
Salam...


Setiap kali bukak blog mesti rasa bersalah dengan diri sendiri sebab tak konsisten. Hahahah~ nak kata sibuk ya amat tu, sikitlah... boleh terima tak alasan tu selain mim alif lam sin?


Ala... nak ngadu sikit.. lately muka wanie teruk sangat sangat sangat. Muka berminyak yang homaigadddd... oil blotting yang warna biru clean and clear tu memang wajib dalam handbag tau. Sekali lap muka, wajib pakai 2 keping minimum... bila muka berminyak teruk sangat jangan ditanya lah mengundang ape kat muka kan... bukan setakat jerawat, open pores besar nau nau, blackhead, whitehead, jerawat batu pun ada tau... (nangissssssssss) Walaupun dah try guna organic products untuk muka ni, still tak membantu. Kalau product kecantikan kita guna yang dah elok, tapi still tak work, itu confirmlah masalah dalaman kan?


Hari tu tengah scroll scroll kat Facebook, jumpa 1 page ni. Jodoh kot.. hahahah, tetiba terasa tertarik nak bukak website dia. Korang pernah dengar tak Praventac? Ha... click lah link tu kalau korang pun tak tau macam wanie.. Hikhik... Kalau korang nak tau, wanie memang jenis yang susahhhhhh sangat nak makan atau ambik supplements ni. Penyakit biasa, M-A-L-A-S ... Hahaha! Tapi, sebab muka dah makin teruk, wanie rasa takpe lah. Give it a shot! Errr... mahal jugak bagi wanie supplement ni. Wanie ambik yang combo, Praventac + AG Factor = RM 424 (RM 24 tu GST ye... pffttt) Wanie walk in je ke office diorang dekat The Gardens sebelah Midvalley tu.


Ok,.. time beli tu, the lady told me NOT TO USE ANY CREAM-BASED MOISTURIZER. Bagi wanie, not a big deal sebab wanie gunakan Adania Luxurious Organic Oil . So, setiap malam sebelum tidur wanie akan ambil 2 biji Praventac dan 2 biji AG Factor. Menurut dari website Praventac tu sendiri, Praventac ni berfungsi :


While AG Factor claimed that it:

1. Assists in fighting the bad bacteria 
2. Reducing the secretion of oil 
3. Reducing the redness from inflammation 
4. Helping to repair the damaged cells caused by blemishes

Taken from : http://www.praventac.com/home/learn.php#hormonal-acne
AG Factor ni bagi wanie lebih kepada "booster" kepada Praventac, untuk double the action rasanya... hehehehe..


So harini dah genap 18 hari wanie consume Praventac + AG Factor. Apa yang wanie boleh conclude kan adalah :

Hari 1-3 : Tiada perubahan
Hari 4-7 : Oily face slightly reduce. Jerawat batu yang dah berbulan tak naik mata, dah start masak dan keluar air bisa
Hari 8 sampai sekarang : Berperang jugak ni. Jerawat-jerawat pasir + jerawat nasik mula naik. The lady told me not to be afraid sebab this is normal sebab nak keluarkan yang mana terpendam / malu-malu nak keluar sebelum ni. Yang best, jerawat batu i olz dah tinggal seketul je ni kat pipi... geng-geng dia semua dah cabut lari.. hahahah


All in all, wanie plan nak teruskan dengan Praventac + AG Factor ni for another 2 month. Seronok gaisss... kalau awal dulu, wajib kena wipe muka dengan oil blotter tu, sekarang ni kalau tak cuci muka 2 hari pun takde hal lah. The face still moisturize tapi tak oily!


Berapa rate nak bagi ni?


Wanie nak bagi rate macam ni untuk sepanjang 18 hari wanie guna ye :

1.  Menghilangkan minyak muka : 5/5
2.  Menghilangkan jerawat nasi : 3/5 (jerawat kering)
3.  Menghilangkan jerawat batu : 4/5 (suka sangattttttt)
4.  Menghilangkan parut : 0/5 (yes.. takde perubahan ape lagi. Takpe... biar dia keluar settle dulu segala alien kat muka ni, then kita tengok macam mana pulak ye...)

BONUS! Ye ade bonus koranggggg yang wanie sendiri pun tak expect!

HAIRFALL REDUCE!!! 

Awesome kan! Wanie rasa make sense - sebab ape? Dulu wanie selalu pegi saloon, siap buat scalp scanning. Boleh nampak setiap rongga rambut tu clog dengan minyak, the hairdresser tu bagitau wanie sebab clog dengan minyak, rambut macam tak boleh nak bernafas which lead to the akar jadi tak kuat dan rambut pun gugur. Nak harap shampoo je pun, tak boleh.. memang kena treat dari dalam.


p/s : Bertabahlah la sikit tiap-tiap bulan kan.. 400 hengget kauuuuuuuu.. hopefully adalah perubahan sebelum sampai e-day kite raya haji ni, Insyaallah... hikhikhik

p/s 2 : Jangan minta upload gambar. Malu titewww.. insyaallah, wanie akan upload lepas habis healing crisis ni so korang boleh spot the difference senang sikit
          Prisoners for Profit - The Shame of Puppy Mills        
It was summer when I visited puppy mills in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. In the last few years, the area has become a hub for large scale commercial dog breeding operations. And although the Midwest still ranks as containing the highest number of dog breeding operations, the concentration of puppy mills in Lancaster County is unparalleled.

Accompanying me was a Humane Society of the United States investigator who had monitored the Pennsylvania mills for years. He knew the county well, and had seen not only the proliferation of puppy mills in the area, but at the same time, the increased press and public attention in their operations.

Driving through the pastoral landscape, it seemed impossible that animal suffering could exist amidst such beauty. This illusion was quickly shattered with my first view of a puppy mill. For years, I had seen and studied photos of infamous facilities, but nothing prepared me for seeing the real thing with my own eyes.
We approached a farmhouse from the road and turned onto a muddy lane. Rounding the corner, we didn't even have to get out of the truck to see or hear what awaited us. Rows of dilapidated cages were lined up outside a barn. Stopping the truck, my throat constricted with shock. Dogs were crammed three or more to a small cage which were elevated over mounds of feces. Matted fur covered their eyes as they rushed towards the front of their cages, barking at uninvited visitors. Their plight was so dramatically different than the dogs I knew, the dogs who lie lazily in afternoon sun, waiting for their next meal or walk. No, these dogs were here for a purpose and only one purpose: to make money.

We saw many mills that day. Posing as buyers, we were able to handle and examine some of the puppies. Many seemed sickly, disoriented, and underweight. And when we were allowed to see their mothers, or sneaked onto a farm to view the conditions, the hopelessness of their lives weighed on me like a heavy load that rests on my shoulders even to this day.

Dogs hold a special place in our hearts. Domesticated thousands of years ago, they were chosen to be our protectors, companions, and best friends. And although we have betrayed our responsibility towards them in many ways, none is so distressing or disturbing as the puppy mill.

The term "puppy mill," coined in the mid-to-late sixties to describe large scale commercial dog breeding facilities, has only recently arrived in the mainstream vernacular. It is a term that some claim is sensational and manipulative. The word "mill" refers to an operation that churns out dogs in mass, using female dogs as nothing more than breeding machines. The term conjures images of dogs crowded in wire cages, living in their own wastes, shivering from the cold, or baking in the heat. Tragically, this vision is not far from reality. Most people, not just those interested in animal protection, are shocked when confronted with the bleak images of dogs housed and bred in puppy mills. But in the 5,000 puppy mills found across the country, thousands of dogs are bred and raised for profit, valued not for their companionship or loyalty, but for the cold hard cash they bring.

Many consumers possess an image of puppies at a family farm, lovingly raised and cared for. Others may not even think about where a pet store puppy comes from. Drawn to a pet store window by a bin of wriggling puppies, the furthest thing from a customer's mind is the origin of these cute bundles of fur. But by buying a puppy, often for a price of $500 or more, the consumer is unknowingly supporting a cycle of abuse that begins at the puppy mill.

What the consumer can't see is the puppy's mother, imprisoned miles away, pregnant again, her body being used to produce more money-making puppies. Starting at six months, she is bred every heat cycle. She is often weak, malnourished, and dehydrated. Rarely, if ever, is she provided with veterinary care. She cannot maintain her productivity past her fourth or fifth year. After that, she is nothing more than a drain on the mill's operation and must be disposed of. If she's lucky, she'll be humanely euthanized. More often than not, she will be shot or bludgeoned to death. Discarded, her wasted body will lie forgotten in a local landfill or garbage dump.

This is the picture the pet stores will never show. And until recently, the ugly truth of puppy mills has been hidden. But when problems with many of the puppies bought at pet stores across the country began to surface, consumers and animal lovers alike began asking hard questions. Puppies with seizures, parasites, infections, bacteria, and behavioral problems were being seen far too often to be merely coincidental.
Puppy mills and the pet store industry have begun to feel this scrutiny. They insist that it doesn't make good business sense to sell sick puppies or house breeding females in less than humane conditions. But evidence gained after years of documentation and investigation directly conflicts with these assertions. In addition, those small scale breeders who do treat their animals humanely, who raise them in their homes or in small, cleanly kept kennels, do not usually make a profit off their dogs. It is virtually impossible to breed in a humane fashion and make money at the same time. Although a pet store may sell a puppy for $500 or more dollars, most commercial breeders can only get around $35 per dog from a broker who in turns sells to the pet store for around $75. In order to make a profit and cover costs, corners must be cut, and puppies must be churned out at a furious rate. The cut corners are the animals themselves: their housing, their health, their cleanliness. Inherent in the profit-making mills is the sacrifice of humane standards in order to make a profit.
What protection, if any, do these dogs and their puppies have? On the state level, puppy "lemon laws," existing in a handful of states including New Jersey and California, seek to offer consumers protection against buying sick puppies. Although these laws do chip away at the production of sick puppies, they do not address the inherent problem of the whole system: the selling of dogs for profit.

The federal level offers even less hope. The current system not only allows the continuation of a business that makes money off the backs of dogs, but fails in its responsibility to provide even a basic quality of life for dogs in puppy mills. Originally passed in 1966, the federal Animal Welfare Act was amended in 1970 to include in its provisions the oversight of large scale commercial dog breeding facilities. Regulations were written with the intention of ensuring the proper care, feeding, housing, and veterinary care for the thousands of dogs found in puppy mills across the country. Mandated by law to enforce these regulations is the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). But with a shortage of inspectors responsible for overseeing these facilities, the agency has developed a reputation for failing to meet its mandate.
Not only have outsiders criticized the agency's ability to enforce the Act in relation to puppy mills, but several internal reviews have also illustrated the gross inadequacies existing at the federal level. Recently, a damning internal review conducted by the USDA's own office of the Inspector General of the agency's South Central Regional Office offered a bleak picture. The South Central Office, responsible for overseeing the majority of this country's puppy mills, was found to be sorely lacking in its ability to enforce the Animal Welfare Act. The report found that the office failed to respond to complaints from the public, failed to report a large number of blatant violations of the law, and that supervisors told inspectors not only where and when to inspect, but instructed their staff not to write up too many violations of problematic facilities. USDA Secretary Dan Glickman, embarrassed by the report's finding, has demanded the development of an internal plan to respond to the crisis within the agency.

The USDA is also feeling the heat over the puppy mill issue from members of Congress. After receiving constituent mail on puppy mills, Congressman Glenn Poshard (D-Il) and Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA), sprung to action. Working with The Humane Society of the United States and other animal protection organizations, they gathered over 100 signatures from members on both side of Capitol Hill in a letter to Secretary Glickman expressing concern about the problems found in puppy mills across the country. Sent late last summer, the letter has caused anxiety within the USDA.

This Spring, the agency will consider enacting stronger regulations covering puppy mills as well as examining ways in which their enforcement powers can be increased. Although any change in the way puppy mills are regulated is an improvement, and stiffer rules may even shut down or discourage potential operators from opening a facility, the changes will not directly eliminate the mills themselves. Until the demand for mass-produced pet store puppies decreases, there will always be a buck to be made in the production of dogs.

Rachel A. Lamb is Director for Companion Animal Care at The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) in Washington, DC.

Dog Training
          On the trail of dragons with blood that can save people’s lives        
The gigantic Komodo dragons of Indonesia have been known to kill people – but their blood is rich with peptides that may destroy antibiotic-resistant bacteria
          How to Maintain A Probiotic-Friendly Diet        

Probiotics are microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on health. The gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary tract are teeming with bacteria and other microorganisms. Some are good, some are bad, and what we consume can have a significant impact on these organisms. Here are a few tips to help maintain a probiotic-friendly diet: Probiotic Supplements High-quality more...

The post How to Maintain A Probiotic-Friendly Diet appeared first on Natural Factors.


          To top it all off my dd #3 who has the ecoli infection now has a low grade fever        
So gonna do the cold compress thing and if she still has fever tomorrow will call doc I think it might be the antibacterial meds are finally kicking in and the ecoli is having one last battle . On the up hand I made GF chocolate cupcakes that turned out pretty good :) a few of them are for the teachers for teacher appreciation day next week (surprise) there are only 5 teachers and 1 principal so not too many cupcakes to make but all of the teachers help with my ADHD child so its much apprecia...
          Cleaning Up after Livestock        

Food for Thought

As any pet owner knows, the more food that goes into an animal's mouth, the more wastes that eventually spew out the other end. The bigger the animal, the bigger its appetite. So imagine the volumes of manure—often tainted with germs—that farmers must manage for even a small feedlot with perhaps 3,500 head of cattle.

Ordinarily, beef producers house their animals in pens—some the size of football fields or larger. They're designed to leave each animal about 80 square feet of space. Cattle wastes just fall to the ground and collect—often for a month or more—before feedlot crews periodically scrape away the muck. After composting, the dried manure will be applied to fields as a rich fertilizer.

The real problem develops when it rains. Then, a manure-rich, watery slurry can drain off the fields. Conventionally, feedlot managers would divert this liquid into huge, smelly ponds or lagoons—some 10-feet deep or more, explains Bryan L. Woodbury, an agricultural engineer with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Nebraska.

His team has been developing a literally greener alternative to pond storage for manure-laced runoff from feedlot pens. The new system directs that runoff into a foot-deep drainage basin. Leading out of it are a series of narrow pipes. Because the interior diameters of these pipes are small, rain-deposited wastes temporarily back-up in this glorified drainage ditch. It typically takes hours for all of the liquids to fully drain out through the pipes. While they wait, solids in the rain-manure slurry tend to settle out as sediments that will accumulate on the basin's bottom.

Exiting liquids, meanwhile, flow gently into a mildly sloping field of grass, where the animal wastes will fertilize the plants' growth. At the end of the season, farmers harvest that grass as hay, bale it, and then feed it back to the herd.

For much of the past decade, Woodbury's team has tinkered with the system's design to optimize gravity's removal of solids from the initial rain-manure slurry and the pace at which fertilizing water enters the hayfield. In terms of those features, the system appears ready for prime time—at least in the Midwest, Woodbury says.

However, what hadn't been evaluated was the fate of germs that were shed by cattle along with those wastes. If the brief holding of the manure-water slurry and its subsequent release into fields promoted the growth of disease-causing microorganisms, those germs might eventually find their way into plants (see Not Just Hitchhikers). That would risk re-exposing animals that later dined on the tainted hay.

A new investigation now indicates that although the raw manure often hosts germs, most of the nasty microbes hitchhiking in it appear to settle out along with sediments in the initial holding basin. Bugs that remain suspended in the water long enough to travel on to the fields don't appear to survive there long, Woodbury and his colleagues report in the Nov. 1 Journal of Environmental Quality.

Indeed, the researchers note, while their new data "indicate that there is some risk for hay contamination, it appears to be low." For instance, on one day that hay was cut—two weeks after a major rainfall that shunted diluted manure into the field—only four of 10 tested soil samples hosted Escherichia coli O157.

Yet only one of the 30 samples of loose hay that was cut that day from parts of the field that had received manure-fertilized rainwater tested positive for that E. coli strain. Microbiologists also failed to later detect that E. coli O157 in hay following its baling and storage.

That's encouraging news because this bacterium has a long track record of causing disease. It was, for instance, responsible for the major food poisonings associated with tainted spinach in September 2006—an outbreak that sickened more than 200 people, killing five. These microbes can set up housekeeping in the bovine gut, causing no harm to the animal. However, germs shed in the cow's feces can infect people or crops that contact it.

The Nebraska researchers also probed for evidence of Campylobacter, another bacterium shed by cattle that can provoke gut-wrenching illness. And although three of 10 field-soil samples tested positive after one major rain, none did 2 weeks later. The germ also failed to show up in loose or baled hay.

Similarly, even though the test herd of 750 cattle had been periodically shedding large quantities of Cryptosporidium and Giardia—two common parasites responsible for substantial human disease, especially in persons with weakened immune systems—biologists found none of these microbes in field soil, much less the hay that had been grown on it.

Woodbury and his colleagues conclude that their vegetative filtering of manure washed off of feedlots is effective in dramatically sequestering and ultimately removing several of the major families of microbes responsible for human, food-related illness.

What they don't yet know is whether there will be significant rainfall constraints to their system's efficacy. Will arid regions benefit from it? Will very wet areas send so much fertilizer to hayfields that they burn the grass? "That's what we're in the process of testing right now," Woodbury says. "The jury's still out."

Other advantages

Earlier tests showed that the short-term basin storage of wastes upstream of the hayfield removes about half of the nitrogen in manure and almost all of the phosphorus, Woodbury says. That's important because one of the primary problems associated with fertilization of farm fields has been their release during rains of any unused nitrogen and fertilizer into streams.

Eventually, the fertilizing effects of these nutrients in surface waters can fuel the growth of algae that ultimately suck most of the oxygen out of large patches of coastal waters, creating what are colloquially termed dead zones (see Limiting Dead Zones).

The new waste-sanitizing system's basin also removes most of the solid material suspended in the rain-manure slurry. This means that about once a year, people must excavate the buildup from the basin. However, what they remove is no longer a waste, but yet another fertilizing amendment for farm fields.

Oh, and Woodbury points to another potential advantage of his team's new system—something that he refers to as the "white picket fence effect." When people see a picket fence out front, they focus on that pleasant feature, and not every detrimental facet of a house or yard. Well, nobody views a big, smelly lagoon filled with bovine fecal material as the farm equivalent of a white picket fence, he says. A hayfield, on the other hand: That's almost Norman Rockwell Americana.


If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

Citations

Bryan L. Woodbury

Roman L. Hruska U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

Agricultural Research Service

U.S. Department of Agriculture

P.O. Box 166, Spur 18D

Clay Center, NE 68933-0166
Further Reading

Milius, S. 2007. Not just hitchhikers. Science News 172(Oct. 20):250-252. Available at [Go to].

Raloff, J. 2006. Protozoa aid food-poisoning germs. Science News Online (March 18). Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. Limiting dead zones. Science News 165(June 12):378-380. Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. Marsh farming for profit and the common good. Science News Online (May 15). Available at [Go to].

______. 2001. Retail meats host drug-resistant bacteria. Science News 160(Oct. 20):246. Available at [Go to].

______. 2001. Germ-fighting germs. Science News Online (Aug. 18). Available at [Go to].

______. 2001. Antibiotic resistance is coming to dinner. Science News 159(May 26):325. Available to subscribers at [Go to].

______. 2000. Sickening food. Science News Online (Jan. 1). Available at [Go to].

______. 1999. Food poisoning: Sprouts linked to bouts. Science News 155(Jan. 23):63. Available at [Go to].

______. 1998. Hay! What a way to fight E. coli. Science News Online (Sept. 19). Available at [Go to].

Seppa, N. 2000. Venison can contain E. coli bacteria. Science News (Aug. 5):95. Available to subscribers at [Go to].

          Remedii naturale pentru durerile in gat        
O durere in gat poate aparea oricand si poate fi cauzata de multi factori interni sau externi. Uneori este vorba despre o infectie bacteriana, sau de un streptococ, iar alteori vorbim despre infectii virale. In orice caz, afectiunile respiratorii pot fi contagioase si foarte neplacute si este foarte important sa le tratam si sa consultam […]
          Infectia sinusurilor sau sinuzita – simptome si tratament        
Sinuzita reprezinta inflamarea mucoasei care imbraca sinusurile si fosele nazale. Sinusurile sunt spatii goale, localizate in jurul ochilor, obrajilor si a nasului. Cand mucoasa se inflameaza, aceasta blocheaza drenajul fluidului din sinus spre nas si gat, determinand durere si presiune in sinusuri. Bacteriile si fungii gasesc atunci un teren prielnic in sinusurile incapabile sa dreneze […]
          Watch This: Cicadas Kill Bacteria with Structures on Their Wings        

Cicadas don’t use antibacterial wing sanitizer, so how do these insects keep their wings free of bacteria? Hint: it’s structural. The wings of the Clanger cicada kill certain bacteria by ripping their cell membranes. A pattern of pillar-like nanostructures on the wings’ surface put pressure on the bacterial cell membrane, causing it to stretch and eventually tear. In a study […]

The post Watch This: Cicadas Kill Bacteria with Structures on Their Wings appeared first on 80beats.


          â€œGood” Bacteria is Secret to Avoiding Acne        

Zit happens. Acne is an unwelcome reality for 80 percent of us at some point in our lives, but researchers have discovered the secret to clear skin may be the kind of bacteria that’s taken up residence there. According to findings published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology today, certain strains of Propionibacterium acnes, a […]

The post “Good” Bacteria is Secret to Avoiding Acne appeared first on 80beats.


          Top 5 reasons to love your SCOBY        
Andrea's gift
Andrea's Gift
This post is something of an experiment. While SEO (Search Engine Optimisation) has become a bit of a dirty word in blogging recently, I believe there's nothing wrong with making cosmetic changes that increase the chance that people will find and read what you have to say.

One kind of post title that people appear to like promises a list of reasons for something. I've been meaning to write a post about the joys of the fermentation community for a while, and the original title of this post was "It takes a village to grow a SCOBY". But I'm going to use the list format, instead. Tell me whether you like it and I should do more of them, or you think it is just gimmicky.

Just to remind you, a SCOBY is a Symbiotic Colony Of Bacteria and Yeast. The acronym usually refers to the culture used in making kombucha, but milk kefir and water kefir grains are also SCOBYs. Yoghurt cultures are not.

5. While there isn't much scientific proof of the benefits of fermented drinks such as kombucha and kefir, there is plenty of anecdotal evidence that people with gut issues who drink kombucha seem to feel better. That is certainly true in my case. There was a scare a few years ago in which the FDA linked deaths to kombucha, but there doesn't seem to have been any conclusive evidence there. I've never felt ill after drinking my home-brew. It's also a great source of B vitamins. Of course it is important to make sure everything is clean, etc. - well, duh. They haven't warned people off Pepsi yet, because, you know, it doesn't do anything bad to you.

4. Even if you, like me, can't drink cultured milk directly, you can still make wonderful dairy products with it. I made the most amazing cultured butter from local organic milk I had fermented with milk kefir grains. It tasted just as good as the store-bought butter brought in from Quebec, and was considerably cheaper, which you can't always say for home-made stuff. Just as an aside, if I were able to access raw milk in Manitoba it is entirely possible that I would be able to drink the milk kefir. Again, there hasn't been much scientific research but I've heard many anecdotal reports of people who were supposedly intolerant of dairy doing just fine with the unpasteurised version. Again, you need to make sure everything is clean and safe. Well, duh.

3.  There is something very magical about watching the slow transformation of sweet tea into something resembling cider. You plop your little alien-looking colony into the tea, cover the jar and put it in a warm place. After about a week you will have a new baby SCOBY to share with your friends, and a yummy drink to put into bottles for a second fermentation with fruit or herbs. I usually use blueberries, strawberries or ginger. It's incredibly delicious. Even if it didn't have a single health benefit, it just tastes so nice, especially first thing in the morning. Move over, grapefruit juice.

2. It does take patience, whether you are making kefir or kombucha. You can't hurry it up, although you can slow it down by keeping it in a temperature that is too low. I usually put my jar in the oven with just the light on (and a BIG sign on the door to prevent me from cooking my ferments!). Having to wait on nature is good for the soul in these frenzied times. It can be quite zen.

1. Best of all, you get to interact with an amazing community of fellow enthusiasts. You can't buy a SCOBY in the supermarket. There are websites out there which will sell one to you, but it is much more fun to get one from a local person. I was fortunate to be put in touch with a lovely lady named Andrea, who gave me my first kombucha SCOBY. I am so grateful to her, and to Sarah who gave me milk kefir grains. I was fortunate to be able to pass on some of my baby SCOBYs to others interested in travelling a similar route. You can't buy that kind of experience, either.

So, those are my top reasons for loving my SCOBYs. I'm sure I could come up with more, but I don't want the blog post to be too long. What do you think?
          Milk kefir bliss!        
Strawberry-infused kefir I know that a lot of people claim that dairy is too Neolithic to have any place in a paleo-style diet - in fact, I have seen claims that anything you can't pull off a bush or kill with a sharp stick does not belong in our diet. Hmm, a little extreme much? While 10,000 years are a mere blink of an eye in evolutionary terms, the fact remains that many people, especially of dairy-herding heritage, are able to digest dairy products into adulthood with no apparent ill effects. Especially fermented products such as cheese, yoghurt and the subject of today's blog post - kefir.

We are blessed here in Canada with a government that does not permit the use of rBGH (or any other hormones, to my knowledge) in the dairy herd, so that is not an issue. While I would love to buy raw milk, unfortunately that is not legally available in Manitoba (time for a campaign, maybe??). I have to make do with pasteurised milk, but at least it is not ultra-pasteurised (another USAmerican food industry innovation we are blessedly spared), and I can get local whole organic milk at my local health food store. It costs an arm and a leg, of course, but it is worth it to me not to have my boys chugging down antibiotics they don't need.

I myself cannot tolerate plain milk, but I do very well with yoghurt that has been fermented for 24 hours, according to the rules of the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. I therefore decided to experiment with milk kefir, which also ferments for 24 hours.

Milk kefir grains
The main difference between them is the starter - you can make yoghurt from a previous batch of yoghurt (although commercial yoghurt really only has a couple of strains of lactobacilli in it - it would be nice to be able to find more!), but for traditional kefir, you need kefir grains. Those aren't really grains - in fact, they are a SCOBY - a Symbiotic Colony Of Bacteria and Yeast. If the word seems familiar, I have rhapsodised here before about my kombucha SCOBY. The kefir SCOBY looks much friendlier than the kombucha one, as you can see in this picture. They really do look like grains.

You can make kefir using a starter from the health food store, but those aren't grains - it's a powder that contains dried bacteria and yeast in a specific combination. It makes decent kefir, but it is self-limiting - it won't grow grains, and after a few iterations you will have to put in more starter. It's from the same company that makes the dried yoghurt starter, and the results are similar - decent, but not comparable to using real, live food.

I was fortunate enough to be given some grains by a lovely lady I met in the Traditional Foods Manitoba Facebook group - and if you are interested in traditional foods and live in Manitoba, I strongly recommend joining that group. Such kind, helpful, welcoming people - friendly Manitobans all. I love it. I met her on a Friday morning, and by Friday noon my grains were luxuriating in a jar of whole milk on my counter. I checked them again after Shabbat went out, so about 30 hours later.

I should warn you that the grains are living things - don't expect them to do their best work as soon as you plop them down in a jar of milk. Mine had been sleeping in a refrigerator for a few months, and it took a couple of rounds before they woke up and really did their job. In fact, the first milk bath I gave them smelled downright awful, and I sent it down the sink. But the grains looked a little plumper and healthier than they had when I first got them, so I was hopeful. The same was true of the second bath, but the third one was just divine, especially once I flavoured it with strawberries.

The way I did that is called a second ferment - I strained the grains out of the thickened kefir (you can tell it is ready when it pulls away from the sides of the jar) and put them safely away in the fridge to nap in a small jar of milk. Then I put the kefir back on the counter, with a few sliced fresh strawberries in it, and left it there for 12 hours.

I cannot begin to tell you how awesome my strawberry-infused kefir tasted, especially after it had been chilled in the fridge. I also got all the goodness of a fermented food, with no ill effects - and trust me, I know about dairy-related ill effects.

How about you, have you tried making something new and exciting recently?



          Fermentation Fun with Friends        
A Portrait of the Author as a Lacto-Fermentation Instructor
On Thursday, October 18th, I had the privilege of teaching a lovely group of people about lacto-fermentation. The space we used was The Red River General Store at 5700 Henderson Highway - for my friends in the local Jewish community, that's the old Stern store. I was stunned to discover how many people were sentimentally attached to that place!

First of all, many thanks to my friend Rosalie, who brought her iPad and took pictures for me. Here is a picture of me behind the counter, posing with a jar of lacto-fermented pearl onions I brought along to demonstrate the kind of things we can make.

Gorgeous winter cabbage
This is one of the gorgeous winter cabbages our gracious hostess Monique provided for us to use. They were so beautiful, some people were munching on them as they went along.

We started with a brief overview of lactic acid fermentation (in which cells convert glucose into lactic acid and energy - it's the same process that happens in your muscles when you run fast, causing "the burn" - although if you are a scientist you may prefer to call it anaerobic glycolysis). It's a traditional method of food preservation all around the world, because the increased acidity of the food causes molds, botulism, etc. to be inhibited, making it very safe. The Lactobacillus bacteria responsible for this miracle are present everywhere, in the air, on the vegetables, on our hands, and most importantly, in our gut. Eating lacto-fermented food, whether vegetables or dairy, is a great way to heal our antibiotic-ravaged digestive systems.
Participants
We washed our hands and cut up that lovely cabbage. We added some good, real salt that had not had all its minerals stripped away, and also some caraway seeds and/or juniper berries for flavour. Then we squished that cabbage within an inch of its life - a source of great enjoyment for everyone, I think. Who says only kids can have fun squishing their food?

The salt drew liquid out of the cabbage incredibly quickly, and we soon found ourselves with liberal quantities of brine in our bowls. We then filled little mason jars (yes, I know, they don't seal as well as one would like, but they are great for beginners). We were careful to cover the cabbage with a nice big leaf to keep it submerged in the brine, and weighted it down with little plastic bags filled with excess brine (again, yes, I know, plastic in our food is B.A.D. But I hope everyone found a better, more suitable weight when they got home).
Chopped cabbage
We finished the evening with a quick, funny video about fermentation and some great discussion. Monique spoiled us with yummy snacks, coffee and amazing herbal tea.

I had an absolute blast and it looked like most people were having a good time. I'm hoping we can do this again - maybe we'll do a kombucha/water kefir/milk kefir session? I do need somebody to provide me with water kefir grains before I can do that ...

Finished productThanks again to Monique, Rosalie and everyone who came out on a rainy, yucky October night to celebrate lacto-fermentation with me!







          Cómo dejar de morder uñas – ayuda de resolución de año nuevo        

Let's start con clavo penetrante es muy insalubre, y es bruto. Es necesario aprender a dejar de morder uñas. Sus uñas llevan dos veces mÌ as bacterias y gérmenes como el alcance de su mano.  Mayoría de los teclados y mandos a distancia tenga más gérmenes y cruda de ellos que su asiento de inodoro. Visualizar utiliza el teclado y brazos cruzados comenzó a masticar un clavo, acaba de poner todas las clases de icky mierda en la boca. ¡Basta!

Onychophagia es el término clínico para uñas que morder. Además de ser un real apagar el sexo opuesto, puede ser una causa para los jefes y los empleadores potenciales cree que tienen baja autoestima. Si eso no es suficiente, tienes que saber a sus transferencias de uñas desastre millones de bacterias, hongos y otros microorganismos dentro de la boca. MONSTRUO!

Además de ser antihigiénico, morder uñas contribuye al uso y desgaste de sus dientes, piel de causas y las infecciones de la cutícula y ups las probabilidades se enfermará de mayor exposición a los gérmenes. Ya sabe usted que la pura fuerza de voluntad no es suficiente para lograr que deje el clavo mordiendo ahora. Necesita ayuda más que eso. Si deseas estos productos y técnicas para ayudar a que dejar de morder uñas.

USO DE UÑAS PRODUCTOS DETERRENT PENETRANTES

Control-It! 3 es una crema totalmente natural inodoro que se aplica a las uñas. Su sabor amargo le recuerda que debe dejar de poner los dedos en la boca.

LA PREPARACIÓN ADECUADA ES IMPRESCINDIBLE

Es necesario tener una Lima de uñas y la cutícula recortador cerca de usted todo el tiempo.  Además, necesita apartar un tiempo de preparación para manicura y pulir las uñas. Incluso chicos puede utilizar un fortalecedor de uñas para cortar ayuda mantener salud de uñas.

APRENDA MANERAS QUE DISTRAEN SU DESEO DE MORDER UÑAS

Mi libro, cómo dejar de uñas morder, ofrece excelentes técnicas para ayudarle a reconocer su clavo mordiendo patrones y activa. También dará ejercicios que usted puede usar para tomar tu mente fuera el fuerte impulso de morder las uñas.

CONSEGUIR UN APRETÓN EN SU ANSIEDAD

Además de aburrimiento, estrés es el factor más evidente en fomentar actividad penetrante de uñas. Cuando sienta ansiedad, frustración o miedo, usted puede estar seguro desencadenantes para iniciar una sesión de Rally son en la gama completa. Mi libro witll darte algunas sugerencias de relajación. Yoga y el hipnotismo pueden ayudarle también.

USO DE REFUERZO DOLOROSA

Algunas personas han tenido éxito usando una banda elástica en la muñeca. Que lo encajen inteligentemente cuando se capturan en una sesión de uñas penetrante. Debe ser doloroso mensaje a tu cerebro. Tienes que dar seguimiento a alguna afirmación positiva acerca de cómo dejar de morder uñas. La combinación puede ser poderosa, especialmente si usted lo contrario está motivados para dejar de fumar.

¡ NO TE RINDAS. NO SE DESANIME!

Las probabilidades son grandes que se recaída, probablemente más de una vez, antes que gana suficiente experiencia y moxie dejar de uñas que morder para bien. Así que no seas demasiado en ti mismo cuando suceda. Sobre todo, no conseguir desalentado y dejar de fumar. No ser víctimas de este mal hábito. Usted puede aprender cómo dejar de morderse las uñas si se determinan y mantener después de él.


View the original article here


          Dejar de morder uñas – puede causar infecciones        

¿Que muerde las uñas, o quieres ayudar a alguien que usted conoce para aprender a dejar de biitng las uñas? De lo contrario, usted no leerá este post. Ya sabes id es una mala costumbre que no clavo mordedores repulsivo y no pueden entender por qué alguien haría.  Además de la apariencia y la pérdida del estatuto social, uñas penetrante presenta riesgos para la salud.

Hay un término médico para el hábito compulsivo de uñas que morder. Se llama onychophagy, que también se escribe onychophagia, es el uso de médicos de la palabra para describir clavos deformados por morder uñas crónica. Hay numerosos remedios, soluciones, productos y trucos que pueden ayudar a morderse las uñas revertir el hábito.  Empezando a aprender cómo mantener las uñas con manicura regular puede aliviar mucho la condición para muchos. Para dejar de fumar a largo plazo, necesita ayuda más que tener una manicura. Un lugar que puede conseguir es en mi libro, Cómo dejar de uñas morder, que está disponible en Amazon.com y otras librerías online.

Muchas pinzas cortantes de uñas pueden aprender a dejar de fumar por su propia cuenta, pero para los que sufren como una grave y profundamente arraigado hábito compulsivo, se recomienda buscar ayuda médica profesional. El acto de uñas que morder en sí mismo, por lo general no es una causa de daño llong-término. Sin embargo, el acto de poner varias veces los dedos en la boca durante todo el día puede llevar a problemas médicos. Considerar sólo haciendo esto es por lo menos una práctica muy poco higiénicas. Su alcance se carga con las bacterias, que lo pone en diversos grados de riesgo cuando entra al cuerpo a través de la boca.

Además de portadores de la bacteria, los dedos son un conducto para el virus. Como tal, grandemente aumentas tus posibilidades de contraer un resfriado u otra algún tipo de infección. Si también tirar o morder tus cutículas, creas llagas abiertas que pueden conducir a graves infecciones por estafilococos. Estos hábitos de mala fijación oral pueden causar infección preexistente de la piel empeoran o persisten.

Si agrega a su lista de razones para aprender a dejar de uñas morder que es no solo feos, sino también malsana, es una razón más para dejar de fumar ahora estrecha. Siga este enlace para encontrar herramientas útiles y productos para ayudarle a dejar de morder uñas.

Etiquetado como: malos hábitos, comportamiento, morder su clavos, modificación del cuerpo, Dermatofagia, hábitos, comportamiento humano, infección, infecciones, manicura, masaje, término médico, uñas, pinzas cortantes de clavo, clavo mordiendo, clavos, stop uñas, dejar de morder de uñas


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          Las consecuencias ocultas de morder uñas        
Muchas personas subestiman el grado para las uñas que morder puede afectar su vida. Consecuencias van desde interferir en las relaciones personales y de trabajo que afecten negativamente a la sensación general de bienestar y salud. Los párrafos siguientes describen las maneras en que clavo morder puede influir en la vida.

Consecuencias físicas

Los efectos más evidentes de morder uñas son físicos. Clavo seria morder, donde muerde clavos hasta el lecho de la uña, puede ser suficientemente grave como para hemorragias, llagas abiertas y alcance desfigurado.

A menudo, los dedos lastimados durante varias horas o incluso días después de un clavo grave episodio de morder. La humectación prolongada de las yemas del dedo durante morder repetido puede conducir a la fragilidad de las uñas. Más problemas extremos, tales como pérdida de uñas ridging, o incluso permanente, pueden ocurrir daños a la matriz ungueal.

Efectos secundarios emocionales

No se puede exagerar el impacto emocional de un clavo muerde. Los sentimientos de vergüenza, impotencia y frustración pueden tomar un peaje tremenda en enfermos. Muchos enfermos están preocupados constantemente si alguien coge una vislumbre de las uñas cortas, irregulares y así ir todo lo posible para ocultar su problema.

Encubrimientos que se emplean son bolas las manos en los puños, doblando con cuidado los dedos o simplemente dejar que las manos descansan debajo de una mesa. Actividades sociales ordinarias, una fecha, entrevista de trabajo o presentación de trabajo — que la mayoría de las personas dan por sentado puede convertirse en una molestia para uñas pinzas cortantes y sólo se llevó a cabo con gran ansiedad y secreto.

Una cosa que más pinzas cortantes de uñas tienen en común es el malestar y culpa que se sienten sobre lo que han hecho y el hecho de que no pudieron impedir que ellos mismos.Además de arruinar el aspecto de la mano, morder uñas también puede afectar la salud.

Cutícula morder puede infligir un daño duradero así: los pliegues de la piel en la parte inferior y los lados de la uña son tejido vivo, y su presencia evita humedad, bacterias y otras toxinas ambientales de conseguir por debajo de la placa del clavo y causando daño.

Por morder y desgranó sus cutículas, limita la capacidad de su piel para proteger el lecho ungueal sensible y aumentar la probabilidad de contraer una infección. Algunos dentistas afirman incluso que clavo penetrante conduce a problemas dentales por ejercer una presión adicional sobre las raíces de los dientes.


Riesgos para la salud

Dificultad para realizar las tareas prácticas

El dolor y la ternura que experiencia de pinzas cortantes de uñas pueden hacer tareas cotidianas dolorosa y difícil. Acciones como desatar los cordones, recoger monedas o pequeños objetos de una superficie plana o apertura que llavero puede sentir imposible hacerlo con las uñas cortas. Otras actividades que son difíciles de realizar incluyen paquetes de comida abierta de rasgado, pasar las páginas del libro, despegando de orejeras o abrir un collar. Para muchos uñas pinzas cortantes, incluso el mero con una pluma o escribiendo en un teclado de computadora puede ser angustioso.

Efectos sociales

Clavo morder puede afectar la vida social, también. Dedos deformes, rojos e hinchados son desagradables y pueden causar amigos, familiares o compañeros detrás del encogimiento y retirar de contacto corporal. El efecto puede ser aún más profundo en las relaciones íntimas, como con un amante.

 Masticado de uñas son una salida inmediata, y mucha gente no quiere ser tocado por alguien cuyas manos ven poco atractivos. Las mujeres especialmente se esperan por la sociedad que tienen uñas hermosos, bien cuidadas, por lo que pueden sufrir socialmente aún más que los hombres.

Si no se trata, morder uñas puede afectar muchos aspectos de la vida de una persona de las actividades cotidianas de bienestar psicológico para la salud y la felicidad general.
.
¿Quieres más consejos & técnicas?

El "detener su clavo mordiendo Ebook" te da toda la información que necesita dejar de fumar clavo morder rápidamente y permanentemente. Encontrará instrucciones prácticas, fácil de usar, en lo que realmente funciona para romper el hábito.
          Como dejar de comerse las uñas para siempre        

Casi todo el mundo ha tenido al menos un tenso momento en su vida la mala costumbre de comerse las uñas. Tal vez usted se ha encontrado con las uñas entre los dientes mientras se está sentado a través de una conferencia clase aburrida, anticipando un encuentro que cambia la carrera con su supervisor, o observando ansiosamente el destino de tu película de terror favorita heroína.

Mordiendo las uñas es un hábito que suele comenzar en la infancia. Los estudios muestran un 60% de los niños y el 45% de los adolescentes se muerden las uñas. Morderse las uñas es menos común después de los 18 años, pero puede continuar hasta la edad adulta. Muchos adultos y niños a menudo no saben que están mordiendo las uñas ya que al hacerlo se ha convertido en un hábito.


El problema puede variar desde un hábito ocasional y ligera para un problema actual y más grave.

Como dejar de comerse las uñas y cuales son sus causas?


El estrés y el aburrimiento son los culpables principales de uñas de agarre para la mayoría de la gente. El hábito es a menudo una forma de aliviar la ansiedad o para mantener al menos una parte del cuerpo mientras la mente ocupada carece de interés. La frustración y la soledad son otros desencadenantes emocionales que pueden conducir a morderse las uñas. Algunas investigaciones sugieren que los genes pueden jugar un papel.

Morderse las uñas también puede ser un síntoma de un trastorno psicológico, como el trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo (TOC). Las personas que se lavan las manos varias veces en una fila o comprobar las cerraduras de las puertas delanteras compulsivamente también pueden morder las uñas, como parte del mismo espectro de comportamientos. Muchos niños que son mordedores de uñas también tienen otros trastornos psiquiátricos, como trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), trastorno de oposición desafiante (ODD), trastorno de ansiedad por separación, o mojar la cama.

Regular mordiendo las uñas que causa graves daños a la uña y la piel circundante puede ser considerado una forma de auto-mutilación, similar a los comportamientos de corte y afines.

Problemas con uñas Morder Regular

Morderse las uñas tiene consecuencias tanto físicas como emocionales. Regularmente morderse las uñas y las cutículas puede dejar sus dedos roja y dolorida. El área de la piel alrededor de las uñas pueden sangrar e infectarse. Las bacterias y los virus pasan de los dedos en la cara y la boca pueden hacer vulnerable a la infección.

Morderse las uñas también puede dañar los dientes, dando lugar a mal alineados, los dientes debilitados.

La apariencia de las uñas mordidas hacia abajo también puede ser embarazoso, que sólo puede añadir a la ansiedad y el estrés.

Como dejar de comerse las uñas - Tratamiento de uñas mordidas


Muchos niños crecen con el tiempo de morderse las uñas. Pero para los adolescentes y adultos que todavía luchan con la costumbre, algunas técnicas han demostrado resultados.

Escudo tus uñas con un esmalte con sabor amargo morder uñas. El sabor desagradable te desanime de morder. También puede utilizar un clavo normal transparente o de color de uñas para evitar morderse las uñas. La misma técnica se puede trabajar con su hijo.
Mantenga las uñas cortas. Usted tendrá menos de un clavo a morder.
Cómo manicuras regulares. Si vas a gastar el dinero para mantener las uñas buscando atractivo, será menos probable que los muerda.
Utilice una técnica alternativa para manejar su estrés. Trate de yoga, la meditación, la respiración profunda, o apretar una pelota anti-estrés para que se relaje.
Coloque una banda elástica alrededor de la muñeca y ajústela cada vez que reciba el impulso de morder las uñas.

Si has probado estas técnicas y nada funciona, use guantes o poner vendas autoadhesivas en las puntas de los dedos para que sus uñas no se podrá acceder a morder.
Hable con su médico o profesional de salud mental si morderse las uñas persiste junto con la ansiedad y el estrés. Podría ser una señal de un problema psicológico más grave, incluyendo OCD, que puede tratarse con asesoría psicológica o medicamentos.

Más info: sobre como dejar de comerse las uñas
          Temperos naturais que são uma delícia! Aprenda como e onde utilizá-los!        

CLAUDIO AMORIM MED EMAGRECIMENTO

Atualmente você encontra vários tipos de temperos industrializados que prometem realçar o sabor dos alimentos. Estes realmente aguçam o paladar, contudo, são extremamente prejudiciais à sua saúde devido a maioria conter o sódio e conservantes em sua composição.

Temperos naturais é a opção perfeita para reduzir o consumo destes tipos de substâncias, pois além de saudáveis garantem muito sabor aos pratos!

Conheça a seguir, alguns temperos naturais que são uma delícia! Aprenda também como e onde utilizá-los. Confira!

1- Alecrim

O alecrim é uma erva que tem um sabor e aroma bem marcantes. Antigamente, mais precisamente no século XIV, era extraído o óleo do alecrim para produção de um cosmético popular da época chamado “A Água da Rainha da Hungria”.

Nativo do mediterrâneo, o alecrim hoje é usado como tempero natural no mundo inteiro!

Propriedades: é rico em vitamina B e C, ferro, cálcio, fósforo, potássio, magnésio, contém antioxidantes que possuem propriedades anti-inflamatórias, prevenindo o envelhecimento precoce, o crescimento de células cancerígenas e evitando danos ao seu corpo.

Como e onde usar: o leve toque de pequenos ramos de alecrim no preparo de abobrinha e batatas com pele assadas faz com que o prato fique uma delícia. Azeite de alecrim e alho com casca são perfeitos para pizzas. Esta erva também combina com aves, massas, peixes, carnes de cordeiro, de porco e de cabrito.

2- Curry

 O tempero curry é de origem indiana e é uma mistura de diversas especiarias tais como o coentro, manjericão, canela, cravo, cúrcuma, páprica, cominho, noz-moscada, gengibre e cardamomo.

Propriedades: tem efeito antioxidante, antibacteriano, estimula o sistema imune e reduz processos inflamatórios, previne seu corpo de doenças crônicas como diabetes e cardiovasculares.

Como e onde usar: é usado em carnes, molhos, sopas, peixes, aves e pratos com queijos e ovos, cozidos e assados em geral. O curry pode até mesmo ser acrescentado em seu chocolate quente!

3- Chimichurri

Conhecido como o melhor amigo de todo churrasqueiro, o chimichurry é mais um dos temperos naturais feito com ervas que tem origem nos pampas uruguaios e argentinos!

Propriedades: rico em vitamina B2, sais minerais, age como antioxidante, melhora a digestão, combate o inchaço abdominal e reduz significativamente as taxas de colesterol. Devido sua ação termogênica, o chimichurry ajuda a emagrecer!

Como e onde usar: este é um tempero bem versátil. Você pode usar o tempero chimichurry em marinadas para carne, porco e cordeiro, aves ou como molho para acompanhar qualquer destas preparações ou sanduíches e pães. É ótimo também para dar um toque especial no feijão, requeijão ou manteiga. Uma delícia!

4- Pimenta calabresa

A pimenta calabresa é uma das importantes aliadas de pessoas que buscam ajuda para emagrecer.

Propriedades: fonte de vitamina A, B1, B2, B3 e C. Contém capsaicina (substância responsável ela pungência da pimenta). É anti-inflamatória, vasodilatadora, favorece a redução de coágulos no sangue, alivia dores de cabeça, atua como cicatrizante, alivia doenças cancerígenas e também do coração, é eficiente na queima de calorias, é antioxidante e possui ação termogênica que te ajuda a perder peso.

Como e onde usar: com leves pitadas nas receitas caseiras como saladas, frangos, arroz, carnes e outros, a pimenta calabresa dá um toque diferenciado ao sabor dos alimentos. Ela vai bem até em doces como mousses.

5- Gengibre

O gengibre é um dos melhores temperos naturais que existe! Na medicina asiática ele é considerado como uma especiaria “quente”; sabe por quê?

Porque o gengibre serve para reforçar as energias masculinas da vitalidade e do “fogo”. Gostou? Então, veja como e onde você pode utilizá-lo:

  • Serve para condimentar peixes, sopas, bolos, leguminosas e biscoitos. Pode ser apreciado como fruta cristalizada e servir de ingrediente para sucos detox.

Veja outros tipos de temperos naturais que são uma delícia:

  • Coentro.

  • Hortelã.

  • Louro em folhas.

  • Orégano.

  • Sálvia.

  • Manjerona.

  • Estragão.

  • Salsão.

  • Mostarda em grão.

  • Kümmel.

  • Cadamomo.

  • Páprica.

Portanto, escolha o tempero natural que seja melhor para cada tipo de prato que você for preparar e bom apetite!

E VOCÊ? Já ouviu FALAR SOBRE o MED: PROGRAMA REVOLUCIONÁRIO DE EMAGRECIMENTO DEFINITIVO!

Um forte abraço.


          Craaaaazy Girl        
"Crazy Girl" by the Eli Young Band is adorable. Just throwing that out there. (It's a country song, don't listen to it dad!)

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

On Saturday I broke down my 20 gallon freshwater aquarium and moved it to our apartment. That . . . was fun. Yeah. Just about seven whole hours of fun. Whee! (Tips for moving aquariums may follow in the future, but right off: 5 gallon Home Depot buckets with lids are awesome, don't use styrofoam because they leak all over your trunk and your jeans and are super hard to carry, move as much of your cycled water as possible, at least 50%, and once you're all done setting it up test your water again because the new water will not be the same pH. Oh, and if you are a crazy girl like me and decide to change the substrate at the same time, wash it ahead of time and leave some of your old gravel in a nylon hose in the new tank so that your bacteria from the old gravel keep the aquarium's chemistry levels from bouncing all over and getting new tank syndrome. It seems to be working so far!)

We also purchased six ghost shrimp and two mystery snails, and they are adorable. My corycat is SO much happier with the new sand substrate instead of harsh gravel, and my killifish is killing me with his possibly being sick but then being perfectly fine and MAKE UP YOUR MIND ALREADY, DAMMIT. Oh, and if he is sick then I can't treat him with my malachite green because apparently it is bad for invertebrates and snails. AWESOMENESS.

I am totally obsessed with my tank again, yay! I want more tanks, including a super awesomely expensive saltwater, not yay!

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

The private school I work at as the computer teacher/after-school teacher has their graduation tomorrow, and a field day on Wednesday where the staff and parents play the kids in a softball game and have a bbq! Should be fun!

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

I . . . have run out of things to talk about. My brain is going a mile a minute about tanks and aquarium plants and getting gourami and how I want angels but need a taller tank but I've had angels before but they've died after a year or so and waaaaaaah. If only money wasn't an issue! (Sob!)

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Oh yeah! Kauai! I go to Kauai on the 22nd until the 2nd, with Andra! Yaaaay!
          The Daring Cooks’ August, 2014 Challenge: Freezer Meals        
Hello this is Audax Artifex, I will be hosting this month's challenge. It is all about making best use of your freezer and making meals that can be frozen.

Freezers allow cooked and uncooked meals to be stored for long periods so when we are in a hurry we can always have a meal prepared quickly.

I always have cooked beans and lentils in my freezer, as well as baked pizza bases, fish cakes and patties of all kinds. Most soups are excellent for freezing and reheating. Nearly all baked breads (except crusty French loaves) can be frozen and reheated in a moderate oven for 15 mins. Frozen pizza bases make perfect weekday meal; you can bake frozen bases with added toppings and cheese immediately in a moderate oven, no need to thaw the bases at all.

I find time on the weekends to make meals that can be frozen and then reheated and eaten during the busy week days. 

I have included a great link in the reference section where you can find information on how to store foods in the freezer.   
 photo soup05.jpg
 photo bread09.jpg
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Recipe Sources: 


Frost bite (everyday food fresh from the freezer) by Susan Austin
http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/top-tips-freezing-food

Blog-checking lines:

  This month, the Daring Cooks challenged us to think inside the box - the icebox, that is! Audax taught us some really cool tips and tricks for stocking our freezers with prepare-ahead meals that can keep our taste buds satisfied even during the busiest of times.

Posting Date:

August 14, 2014

DOWNLOAD THE PRINTABLE FILE HERE.



Notes:


Top 10 freezing tips

Whether you have a chest or upright freezer, the principles of successful freezing are the same.

1. Freeze quickly and defrost slowly is the number one tip. This process will give you the highest quality frozen food which retains the taste, texture and nutrients of the meals that you prepare. Always defrost in the refrigerator overnight the frozen meal you wish to make for the next day.  

2. Cool foods before you freeze them. Freezing food when they are hot will only increase the temperature of the freezer and could cause other foods to start defrosting.

3. Never re-freeze anything that's been frozen. Even if the food was frozen raw and then cooked, to be extra safe it still shouldn't be re-frozen.

4. A full freezer is more economical to run as the cold air doesn't need to circulate so much, so less power is needed. If you have lots of space free, fill plastic bottles half full with water and use them to fill gaps. Alternatively, fill the freezer with everyday items you're bound to use, such as sliced bread or frozen peas.

5. It's a wrap. Make sure you wrap foods properly or put them in sealed containers, otherwise your food can get freezer-burn. Use strong cling-wrap, foil or metal/glass containers.

6. Portion control. Freeze food in realistically sized portions. You don't want to have to defrost a stew big enough to feed eight when you're only feeding a family of three. Leave a ¾ inch (2 cm) gap to allow for expansion of high water content foods (soups, etc).

7. If in doubt, throw it out. Contrary to what many people think, freezing doesn't kill bacteria. If you are unsure of how long something has been frozen or are a bit wary of something once defrosted, don't take any chances.

8. Stay fresh. You get out what you put in, as freezing certainly won't improve the quality of your food. Don't freeze old food because you don't want to waste it; the point of freezing is to keep food at its prime.

9. Friendly labels. It may seem a bother at the time, but unless you label you might not remember what it is, let alone when it was frozen. Buy a blue marker for raw foods and a red marker for cooked foods. You don't have to write an essay, just label the food clearly. You can use big-lettered abbreviations, for example a big red P means cooked pork or a blue F means raw fish. And always add the date it was frozen.

10. Defrosting your freezer is a must. An icy freezer is an inefficient one, so make sure you defrost your freezer if ice builds up. Don't worry about the food; most things will remain frozen in the fridge for a couple of hours while the freezer defrosts.

11. In an emergency... If there has been a power outage or you think the freezer has been turned off at some point, don't open the door. Foods should remain frozen in the freezer for about 24 hours, leaving you time to get to the bottom of the problem.

What not to freeze...

Most individual ingredients can be frozen. However, some foods simply aren't freezer friendly:

Raw eggs in the shells will expand and crack. You can freeze egg whites and yolk in containers.
 Hard-boiled eggs go rubbery.
Vegetables with a high water content, such as lettuce, cucumber, bean sprouts and radishes, go limp and mushy.
Soft herbs, like parsley, basil and chives, go brown.
Egg-based sauces, such as mayonnaise, will separate and curdle.
Plain yogurt, low-fat cream cheese, single cream and cottage cheese go watery.

Great to freeze

All these everyday ingredients will freeze well.
Butter and margarine can be frozen for 3 months.
Grated cheese can be frozen for up to 4 months and can be used straight from the freezer.
Most bread, except crusty varieties such as French bread, will freeze well for up to 3 months. Sliced bread can be toasted from frozen.
Milk will freeze for 1 month. Defrost in the fridge and shake well before using.
Raw pastry will freeze for 6 months and takes just 1 hour to thaw.

Cooking from frozen

Freezer management is all about forward planning, but some dishes can be cooked straight from frozen. When cooking food from frozen, use a lower temperature to start with to thaw, then increase the temperature to cook. Foods include:

    Soups, stews, braises and casseroles.
    Bakes, gratins and potato-topped pies.
    Thin fish fillets, small fish, sausages, burgers, and seafood if added at the end of a hot dish.

Mandatory Items:

You must make a meal that can be frozen for later use

Variations allowed:

You can make any dish you wish that can be frozen. 

Preparation time:


Recipe one – 40 mins – 60 mins depending on type of lentils. (Overnight soaking might be needed.)
Recipe two – 15 mins preparation time, rising time for dough 1-2 hours
Recipe three – 40 mins preparation time 

Equipment required:


Measuring Cups
Sharp knives for chopping and dicing 
Baking dish
Sauce pan
Fry pan

Recipe 1: Lentil, Pasta and Vegetable Soup


Servings: 6
This is a simple, toothsome and wholesome soup that can be made up on the weekend and reheated during the week. It is stew-like in its texture. You can add ½ cup of shredded cooked chicken if you wish to make it even more filling. 

Ingredients


1 cup (250 ml) (200 gm) (7 oz) lentils (I used small French lentils)
6 cups (1½ litres) stock (chicken or vegetable)
½ cup (125 ml) (100 gm) (3½ oz) small soup pasta
1 carrot, grated (or 1/2 cup of finely shredded cabbage)
1 potato, finely chopped
1 onion, finely chopped
Optional 2 cloves garlic, finely chopped
2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
1 bunch spinach (or other greens), leaves shredded
1 cup frozen vegetables (carrots, broccoli, beans, etc.)
salt and pepper to taste

Directions:


1. Check the cooking time for the lentils on the packaging. Check if the lentils need soaking overnight. Small French lentils don't need soaking while brown/green lentils need an overnight soak in cold water. Use lentils that retain their shape when cooked.  
2. Simmer the lentils in the stock for 15 mins (for small French lentils) or 30 mins (for soaked brown/green lentils) until three-quarters tender. Add some salt half-way through cooking process. (If you add salt to early it will increase the cooking time of beans and lentils significantly). Check occasionally and add more stock/water as needed.
3. While the lentils are cooking, saute the chopped onion, chopped potato and grated carrot (and optional garlic if using) in a fry pan using the oil; for 3-5 mins until soften. Reserve.
4. When the lentils are three-quarters tender add the onion, carrot, potato (and optional garlic) mixture and uncooked pasta to the lentils and simmer until the pasta has increased in size by twice and the vegetables and lentils are tender (about 10-15 mins).
5. Place into containers (leaving ¾ inch (2 cm) room for expansion), cool on counter for ten minutes
6. Place into freezer up to one month.     
7. Defrost overnight in fridge, reheat slowly (check for seasoning). When simmering add frozen vegetables. Simmer until almost tender then add fresh spinach (or others greens). Simmer until wilted, serve with crusty bread. 

 photo soup01.jpg
Ingredients – French lentils, brown/green lentils and soup pasta. French lentils need no soaking and take 25 mins to cook while brown/green lentils need an overnight soak and take about 40 mins to cook.

 photo soup02.jpg
Cooked lentils and soup pasta

 photo soup05.jpg
 photo soup04.jpg
Finished soup


Recipe 2: Potato Bread Pizza Base


Servings: makes 6 large thin crust pizza bases, or 3 large thick crust pizza bases, or 1 very large extra thick pizza base

Potato bread (using the water that the potato was boiled in and the mashed potato) makes for a crisp crust and extra soft crumb (interior texture) in the pizza base, and also increases the shelf life of the baked bread. Also yeast just love potato starch which makes the rising process a joy to watch; your dough will be full of large, soft, luscious bubbles during the proofing stage. This is my standard pizza base and makes a lot of bases. You can halve the recipe if you only want to make a couple of bases (keep the same amount of yeast and use 2 teaspoons of salt). Use the pizza base frozen straight from the freezer, just top with tomato sauce and your favourite toppings (sausage, chopped cooked chicken, mushrooms, etc.) and cheese and bake in a moderate oven until piping hot. A pre-baked pizza base gives the best pizza result since the base has been baked at a much higher temperature, giving a great texture (to the crust) and taste (to the crumb), while the toppings are baked at a much lower temperature just to heat the toppings and melt the cheese.    

Ingredients


6 cups plain (all-purpose) flour (or strong bread flour)
2 cups of warm potato water (use the water that the potato was boiled in)
1 large potato
3 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil
1 tablespoon of active dry yeast (or one packet of yeast)
1/4 teaspoon of sugar
3 teaspoons salt

Directions:


1. Chop the potato and boil in 3 cups of water until tender. (You can peel the potato or leave the skin on). Mash the potato.
2. Wait until the potato water is warm. Top up the volume until you have 2 cups of liquid.
3. Add the sugar and the yeast into the water. Wait about 5-10 mins until the yeast becomes foamy.
4. In a large mixing bowl add the flour, mashed potato, oil, yeast mixture and the salt.
5. Knead the dough mixture until a ball forms, about 3 mins. (At this stage you can place the dough in the fridge up to three days; allow the chilled dough to warm up to room temperature and proceed with the recipe as below.)
6. Place into an oiled bowl covered in plastic wrap or a clean tea towel. Set aside in warm place until it has doubled in volume.
7. Punch down the dough and knead until soft and pliable (about 5 mins).
8. Spread the dough over your baking trays cover with plastic wrap or a clean tea towel. Set aside in a warm place until it has doubled in volume.
9. Bake in a preheated hot oven (425°F/220°C/gas mark 7) for 20 mins for thin crusts, 30 mins for medium crust or 40 mins for the very thick crust base respectively. Check the base to see if it is brown and crusty
10. Cool completely on a rack.
11. Cover tightly in plastic wrap (or foil), place into freezer up to one month.
12. When needed, bake the frozen base with toppings added in a preheated moderate oven 350°F/180°C/gas mark 4 for 20 mins for thin crusts or 30 mins for thick crust bases.          


 photo bread02.jpg
Dough ball

 photo bread01.jpg
The risen dough – notice the huge bubbles in the dough


 photo bread03.jpg
Dough ready to be baked on a pizza pan

 photo bread04.jpg
 photo bread05.jpg
Baked pizza base

 photo bread06.jpg
Notice the crumb of the pizza base

 photo bread07.jpg
I usually make one extra thick pizza base and split into lunch sized pizza bases. I can make 8 bases (only four are shown)

 photo bread08.jpg
Unbaked frozen pizza base with toppings

 photo bread09.jpg
Pizza ready to eat (yum)


Recipe 3: Lentil and Sausage Lasagna


Servings: 6
Lasagna is the perfect freezer meal. You can make up the unbaked lasagna on the weekend then store in the freezer up to one month. You can cook the lasagna straight from frozen (baking time is doubled) or thaw overnight in the fridge and bake for the normal time. This recipe uses lentils and sausage with tomato sauce. If you wish you can use some cheese sauce.


Ingredients


1 packet (250 gm) (9 ozs) of fresh lasagna sheets
3 cups (750 ml) tomato passata, (Italian tomato cooking sauce)
2 cans (3 cups) drained cooked lentils
1 onion, chopped, fried and cooled
4 sausages, cooked, thinly sliced and cooled (I used turkey sausages)
1 cup of shredded cheese

Directions:


1. Ladle a thin layer of passata on the base of a baking pan.
2. Place a layer of lasagna sheet on the passata.
3. Place 1/3 of the lentils and 1/3 of the onions on the pasta layer, cover with some passata.
4. Place another layer of lasagna sheets on the passata. Cover the lasagna sheet with some passata.
5. Place a layer of thinly sliced sausage and cover with some passata.
6. Cover with a layer of pasta sheet.
7. Continue layering until all the ingredients are used. Making sure the last layer is a lasagna sheet.
8. Cover with passata and cheese.
9. Tightly cover the baking dish in plastic wrap or foil.
10. The dish can be frozen for one month.
11. Bake in a preheated moderate oven 350°F/180°/gas mark 4 for 1 hour if thawed or 2 hours if frozen. 

 photo pasta01.jpg
Ladle some tomato passata on the base of the baking pan


 photo pasta02.jpg
Cover with lasagna sheet

 photo pasta03.jpg
Cover with lentils/onion mixture

 photo pasta04.jpg
More passata on top
 photo pasta05.jpg
A layer of sliced sausage, repeat this process using up all the ingredients

 photo pasta06.jpg
Top with passata and cheese

 photo pasta07.jpg
 photo pasta08.jpg
Baked lasagna

Additional Information: 


27 tips for freezing foods - http://www.realsimple.com/food-recipes/shopping-storing/freezing/freezer-fundamentals-10000001012301/



          Nov 2012 Daring Cooks' Challenge Brining & Roasting        

Hello this Audax from Audax Artifex and I'm honoured to be your host this month. I have decided to concentrate on a couple of important cooking techniques that every good cook should have up his or her sleeve. The first technique is brining – which uses a brine (at its simplest, a combination of salt and water usually with some sugar) to infuse flavour and moisture into poultry, red- & white-meat, fish, seafood and most types of nuts and seeds. Brining guarantees moist succulent roast chickens and turkeys, fried steaks, steamed trout, BBQed prawns (shrimps), grilled seafood and toasted nuts and seeds. Brining is simple and only needs a few simple ingredients and really adds an extra dimension to your cooking. I will be providing a couple of different recipes and guidelines on how to brine which can be used with a whole array of meats, poultry, seafood, nuts and seeds.

Then for the second technique (once you have brined your chosen cut of meat) I want you to roast (or BBQ) it. Again I will be giving you guidelines and rules on how to roast your cut of meat. The roasting guidelines can be used for meat, vegetables, nuts and seeds. For our non-meat eating cooks I want you to use the roasting guidelines to roast a selection of vegetables and/or nuts or seeds to perfection.
Photobucket
Photobucket

HOW IT WORKS (from http://www.cooksillustrated.com/images/document/howto/ND01_ISBriningbasics.pdf)

Soaking in brine improves the taste and the moistness of all fowl (chicken, turkey, goose, duck and guinea fowl), also it works on lean red- and lean white-meats, fish, most seafood and most nuts and seeds. It is simple, cheap and effective and will ensure that your Christmas roast will be the tastiest you have ever made. All you do is brine your cut of meat and then proceed as normal, you will find that the roast is juicy and the skin has a lovely colour. The recipe for all-purpose brine is simple - for each cup (240 ml) of water use 1 tablespoon (18 gm) of table salt this makes a 8% brine solution which can be used for most foods. (This is equivalent to 1 cup of table salt for each gallon (4 litres) of water.)

Brining works in accordance with two principles, called diffusion and osmosis, these two principles like to keep things in equilibrium (or in stable balance). When brining a fowl for example, there is a greater concentration of salt and sugar outside of the fowl (in the brine) than inside the fowl (in the cells that make up its flesh). The law of diffusion states that the salt and sugar will naturally flow from the area of greater concentration (the brine) to lesser concentration (the cells). There is also a greater concentration of water, so to speak, outside of the fowl than inside. Here, too, the water will naturally flow from the area of greater concentration (the brine) to lesser concentration (the cells). When water moves in this fashion, the process is called osmosis. Once inside the cells, the salt and, to a lesser extent, the sugar causes the cell proteins to unravel, or denature. As the individual proteins unravel, they become more likely to interact with one another. This interaction results in the formation of a sticky matrix that captures and holds moisture. Once exposed to heat, the matrix gels and forms a barrier that keeps much of the water from leaking out as the meat cooks. Thus you have a roast that is both better seasoned and much more moist than when you started.

HANGING IT OUT TO DRY

Brining does have one negative effect on poultry: Adding moisture to the skin as well as the flesh which can prevent the skin from crisping when cooked. This can be overcome by air-drying, a technique used in many Chinese recipes for roast duck and chicken. Letting brined chicken and turkey dry uncovered in the refrigerator allows surface moisture to evaporate, making the skin visibly more dry and taut and therefore promoting crispness when cooked. Although this step is optional, if crisp skin is a goal, it’s worth the extra time. For best results, air-dry whole brined birds overnight. Brined chicken parts can be air-dried for several hours. Transfer the brined bird to a heavy-duty cooling rack set over a rimmed baking sheet, pat the bird dry with paper towels, and refrigerate. The rack lifts the bird off the baking sheet, allowing air to circulate freely under the bird. If you are not air-drying your fowl it is best to pat dry the skin with paper towels before roasting in a hot oven.

Surprisingly, brining has one large positive effect on fish fillets, a quick brine (only 10 mins) greatly improves the appearance of cooked fillets, because the brine reduces the unsightly white layer of albumin that coagulates on the surface during cooking, I highly recommend brining fish fillets when presentation is paramount. 

ITEMS THAT BENEFIT FROM BRINING
Lean cuts of meat with mild flavour tend to benefit most from flavour brining also most nuts and seeds can be brined with good affect. These include:

Chicken: whole, butterflied, or pieces
Cornish Hens: whole or butterflied
Turkey: whole, butterflied, or pieces
Pork: chops, loin, tenderloin, fresh ham
Seafood: salmon, trout, shrimp
Beef: use lean pieces of beef
Nuts and Seeds: Most nuts and seeds are suitable i.e. pumpkin, peanuts, sesame, almonds etc.  

Fatty meats such as duck, beef, and lamb do not benefit as much from brining (but still can be brined)—they're naturally moist and flavourful. They also tend to be cooked to lower internal temperatures and thus don't lose as much of their natural moisture.

WHICH SALT TO USE
Kosher salt (called rock salt outside North America) and table salt are the most common salts used in brining.

Sea salt can be used for flavour brining, but it tends to be quite expensive. If you have a cheap supply available, go for it; otherwise, stick to kosher salt or table salt.
Some people say that kosher salt tastes "cleaner" than table salt because it does not contain the anti-caking agents added to table salt. Some people prefer non-iodized table salt over iodized table salt, believing that potassium iodide creates an off-taste. However, these flavour differences melt away when salt is diluted in large quantities of water in a brine. In an article about salt in the September/October 2002 issue of Cook's Illustrated magazine, taste testers felt that "all nine salts tasted pretty much the same" when dissolved in spring water and chicken stock, whether it was 36¢/pound iodized table salt, 66¢/pound kosher salt, or $36/pound Fleur de Sel de Camargue sea salt from France.

SALT EQUIVALENT MEASURES
Table salt and kosher salt do not have the same saltiness in a flavour brine when measured by volume—but they do when measured by weight.

Table salt weighs about 10 ounces (285 grams) per cup, while kosher salt weighs 5-8 ounces (140-225 grams) per cup, depending on the brand. If using kosher salt in a brine, you must use more than a cup to achieve the same salt flavour you would get from a cup of table salt.

The chart below shows equivalent amounts of table salt and the two most popular brands of kosher salt.

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Morton Kosher Salt weighs about 7.7 ounces (220 grams) per cup, making it three-fourths as strong as table salt. Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt weighs about 5 ounces (140 grams) per cup, making it half as strong as table salt.
What if you're using something other than Morton Kosher or Diamond Crystal Kosher salt? Regardless of the type of salt—sea salt, pickling salt, and any other brand of kosher salt—just measure 10 ounces (285 grams) of it on a kitchen scale and you will have the equivalent of 1 cup of table salt.

HOW LONG TO BRINE
The length of time meat soaks in a flavour brine depends on the type of meat and its size, as well as the amount of salt used in the brine—the saltier the brine mixture, the shorter the soaking time. Here are common brining times found in recipes:

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It is possible to end up with meat that's too salty for your taste, so you may want to brine on the low end of the time range to see how it turns out. You can always brine longer next time, but there's no way to salvage a piece of meat that's been brined too long.

ROASTING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES FOR POULTRY 
When we roast brined cuts of meat (or whole birds) the procedure firstly is to brown the skin in a hot oven then to lower the temperature so we reduce the moisture loss in the roasted food. It is important to rest (loosely covered in foil) your roast so that the moisture can redistribute itself in the meat, it greatly adds to the final tenderness of the cooked product.

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For other roasting times for red meat, fish, seafood, nuts and seeds see the additional information at the end of the challenge write-up.

Recipe Source:  The brine and roast chicken used are traditional recipes used in my family for many generations. The roast vegetable recipe is from my own family cookbook.   

Blog-checking lines:  Audax of Audax Artifax was our November 2012 Daring Cooks’ host.  Audax has brought us into the world of brining and roasting, where we brined meat and vegetables and roasted them afterwards for a delicious meal!

Posting Date:  November 14th, 2012

Download the printable .pdf file HERE


Note:  Important Information – brining must be done in the refrigerator the salt water will not stop the growth of germs and bacteria. Also brine cannot be reused always discard it after first use.  Make sure that the brine goes into the cavity of large chickens and turkeys when brining.  

Mandatory Items: If you eat meat you must brine a meat (or seafood) cut and then roast (or BBQ) it. For non-meat eaters please brine some nuts or seeds then roast them or just roast a load of vegetables. I have included an extensive listing of poultry, seafood, nut etc. recipes in the additional information section at the end of the challenge feel free to use any of these recipes. Of course you can use your own favourite recipe if you wish.

Variations allowed:  Any meat/seafood (or nuts/seeds) can be used for brining. And any vegetable can be used by non-meat eaters. 

Preparation time:  Generally brining takes from ½ hour to 2 days. Roasting can take up to 2 hours for most pieces of meat, for large poultry 6-7 hours.

Equipment required:
non-reactive container for the brine
roasting pans or trays

Challenge Recipes
I have included one all-purpose brine recipe, a roast chicken recipe and a roast vegetable recipe.

Recipe One – All-Purpose Brine:


Makes 4 cups of brine enough for about one pound (½ kg) of meat

This is the brine to use for most cuts of meat and poultry that will be roasted.

Ingredients
4 cups (1 litre) of cold water (see note 1)
¼ cup (70 gm) table salt or  ½ cup (70 gm) Diamond Crystal Kosher Salt
optional 2 tablespoons (30 ml) (30 gm/1 oz) sugar (see note 2)
optional 3-4 peppercorns, a few springs of herbs, a garlic clove or two, a knob of ginger etc. (see note 3)

Instructions
1. Heat 1 cup of water to boiling point add the salt and stir until all the salt has totally dissolved.
2. Place in a non-reactive container (glass, plastic, stainless steel, zip-lock bags etc). Add the remaining water and stir. Make sure that all the salt has dissolved. Wait until the brine has reached room temperature.
3. Add your cut of meat make sure that the meat is completely submerged (that is totally covered in the salty water) if need be you can weigh down the cut of meat with a clean plate (etc). If using plastic bags make sure that the meat is totally covered in brine and make sure that is bag is locked securely.
4. Cover the container with plastic wrap to prevent odours contaminating the flavour brine or the brine leaking.
5. Place the container into the refrigerator for the soaking time suggested by the guidelines above.
6. If desired you can air-dry your poultry (usually over night) in the refrigerator if you wish to have crispy skin on your bird. It is best to pat dry your brined item (inside and out) with paper towels before cooking.
7. Cook the brined item as directed by the roasting guidelines above.

Notes
1. You can replace all or some of the water with a combination of wine, cider, beer, tea, coffee, fruit juice, most sauces (tomato, soya, BBQ, chilli etc), chicken stock, beef stock or fish stock. Be careful with acidic liquids like wine, cider, fruit juices which can turn your meat to mush if brined too long.
2. A little sugar can help overcome the saltiness of the brine and helps to give a nice sheen to your piece of meat when roasted. You can use up to ¼ cup of sugar (use the lesser amount (2 tablespoons) for high temperature roasting since the brine can burn at high heats if you use too much sugar). You can use brown sugar or honey or other sweeteners if you wish.
3. Any combination of spices and herbs can be used to flavour the brine. Garlic powder, onion powder and ginger powder are excellent to use for brining.

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Recipe Two – Roast Brined Chicken
Serves four to six people

Ingredients:
1 whole chicken (organic is best) about 2 kg (4 ½ pounds)
Enough brine (see recipe above) to cover the chicken in a large non-reactive container

Directions:

1. Brine the whole chicken in the flavoured brine in the refrigerator overnight about 6 hours can be overnight. (Make sure that every part of the chicken is covered in the brine you can weigh the bird down with a clean plate so it is completely submerged.
2. Discard the brine and dry the skin and inside of the bird with paper towels.
3. If you desire crispy skin then leave the bird on a rack for several hours or overnight in the refrigerator so the skin can dry.
4. Preheat oven to moderately hot 220°C/425°F/gas 7.
5. Roast for 15 minutes.
6. Reduce oven to moderate 180°C/350°F/gas 4 and roast for a further 12-15 minutes per 450 grams/pound, You can check for done-ness the internal temperature should be 165°F/84°C, or the juices should run clear when you pierce the bird between the leg and thigh.  
7. Rest for approximately 30 minutes covered loosely in foil.

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Recipe Three – Roast Vegetables
Serves six people

For best results use the largest shallow heavy-weight roasting pan you have and make sure that the vegetable are well spaced out in the pan and only form one layer, use two trays if necessary. A very hot oven 475°F/240°C/gas mark 9 is the key to roasting vegetables. Only toss the vegetables once or twice during cooking. For lighter-weight vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli or cut corn add it to the pan 15 minutes later, so it doesn't get too brown. Greens like kale and mustard greens are done in only 15 minutes. Root vegetables should be cut into cubes of about one-inch (2½ cm). You can add a small amount of apricot fruit spread or honey in the last 10 minutes to enhance the caramelising process. Fresh basil, rosemary and thyme are best when used fresh. Curry, paprika and turmeric are also great. Grated ginger or crushed garlic can also be added.  

Ingredients:
1 small butternut squash (pumpkin), cubed
2 red bell peppers (capsicums), seeded and sliced
1 orange sweet potato, peeled and cubed OR 3 medium carrots, peeled and sliced lengthways
3 Yukon Gold (or any baking) potatoes, cubed
1 red onion, quartered
optional 1 fat clove of garlic, crushed
1 tablespoon chopped fresh thyme
2 tablespoons chopped fresh rosemary
2 tablespoon olive oil
1 tablespoon balsamic vinegar or 1 tablespoon lemon juice
Salt and pepper to taste

Directions:
1. Preheat oven to very hot 475°F/240°C/gas mark 9.
2. In a large bowl, combine the squash, red bell peppers, sweet potato, red onion and Yukon Gold potatoes and the optional garlic if using.
3. In a small bowl, stir together thyme, rosemary, olive oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper. Toss with vegetables until they are coated. Spread evenly on a large roasting pan.
4. Roast for 35 to 40 minutes in the preheated oven, stirring one or twice, or until vegetables are cooked through and browned. If using a smaller tray the vegetables will take about 50-60 minutes.

Roast Vegetables
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Brined and BBQed “seven-bone” steak (notice the shape of the bone in the steak)
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Brined and BBQed “wagyu” steak
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Brined and Roasted Peppered Ribeye Roast
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Additional Information:  Include links to videos or information that can be of assistance to members.
Kosher salt versus table salt http://bbq.about.com/od/spicesseasonings/a/aa102007a.htm
Everything you wanted to know about brining http://www.amazingribs.com/recipes/rubs_pastes_marinades_and_brines/zen_of_brines.html
Brining Nuts and Seeds http://www.jwright44.com/recipes/BrinedNuts.htm
How to brine pumpkin seeds http://www.ehow.com/how_8144233_brine-pumpkin-seeds.html
How a quick brine improves the appearance of fish fillets http://www.cooksillustrated.com/howto/detail.asp?docid=36992
Dry brining thick steaks (a great article) http://steamykitchen.com/163-how-to-turn-cheap-choice-steaks-into-gucci-prime-steaks.html
Brining turkey a primer http://bbq.about.com/od/turkey/ss/aa110808a.htm
Roast chicken ten ways http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/chickenturkeymore/tp/roastchixtenways.htm
Cooking a turkey (many articles) http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/chickenturkeymore/tp/Cooking-A-Turkey.htm
To roast a turkey http://culinaryarts.about.com/od/chickenturkeymore/r/Roast-Turkey-Recipe.htm
Roasting guidelines for red meat roasts http://www.donaldrussell.com/game-technique?ms=tab5 Jamie Oliver's Roast Potato, parsnips and carrot recipe http://www.jamieoliver.com/recipes/vegetarian-recipes/roast-potatoes-parsnips-carrots 
Jamie Oliver's Perfect Roast Potato recipe http://www.jamieoliver.com/recipes/vegetarian-recipes/perfect-roast-potatoes
Delia Smith's Roast Potato recipe http://www.deliaonline.com/how-to-cook/fruit-and-vegetables/how-to-roast-potatoes.html
How to brine fish http://www.ehow.com/how_5963061_brine-fish-before-cooking.html
Vegetable Roasting Guide http://www.eatingwell.com/healthy_cooking/healthy_cooking_101/shopping_cooking_guides/vegetable_roasting_guide
How to cook a steak to perfection http://howto.yellow.co.nz/food-drink/cooking-and-baking/how-to-cook-steak/
How to cook a steak (using American cuts of meat) http://www.marksdailyapple.com/how-to-cook-the-perfect-steak/

Disclaimer:
The Daring Kitchen and its members in no way suggest we are medical professionals and therefore are NOT responsible for any error in reporting of “alternate baking/cooking”.  If you have issues with digesting gluten, then it is YOUR responsibility to research the ingredient before using it.  If you have allergies, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are lactose intolerant, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are vegetarian or vegan, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. The responsibility is YOURS regardless of what health issue you’re dealing with. Please consult your physician with any questions before using an ingredient you are not familiar with.  Thank you! :)
          Dec 2011 Daring Bakers' Challenge - Sourdough        
Sorry for posting late but I'm on holidays away from my normal computer setup and this is the first chance I've had to get onto my blog.

This month's Daring Bakers' challenge was sourdough, yes sourdough and yes we were asked to make a fresh starter for the challenge.

French Country Sourdough Picnic Loaf
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I have a decade old starter called Boris (100% hydration i.e. equal weights of water and plain bread flour) so I decided to use that to make the French Country Loaf recipe. I started the process at Day 4 in the instructions. Since I had Boris already made up I saved four days. I have started a new sourdough starter to use in a few days time. In Sydney Australia it is the start of summer so I made a stuffed picnic loaf with the baked bread one of my favourite summer picnic foods.

I used "OO" finely steel-milled bread flour and "OO" finely cold-steel-milled whole wheat flour with some stabilised wheat germ (since I couldn't find my stone ground flour).

Boris my (100% hydration) starter, before I fed it to make the Leaven Starter, notice how Boris is burping gas
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Boris feeding on the extra flour and water, notice the condensation on the top of the plastic lid which indicates that the yeastie beasties and bacteria are very active making lots of gas and tasty flavour for the sourdough
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Boris full of tiny active bubbles after feeding
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Comparison of Boris (left) when he is made into the leaven for the sourdough (right) in the French country loaf. Notice how wet and soft the leaven is for this recipe!
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The loaf proofing for the final raise in a greased pan (I didn't want flour on the outside of the picnic loaf) before it is tipped out and slashed. The unbaked loaf is very soft and needs a mould.
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The baked loaf (the unbaked loaf is very wet and soft and forms a great shape when baked) the final loaf shape is formed by squeezing (the soft out-turned unbaked loaf) with your hands, then you quickly slash it and place immediately into a very hot oven and turn the temperature to hot for 10 mins and then to the recipe temperature for the rest of the time.
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Making the picnic loaf
Hollow out the loaf, notice how moist the interior is and the 'greyish' colour which is a indication of the sourdough starter. The crumb (the texture of the interior) of the loaf is like dense sponge really good I thought, notice the dense spongy crumb in the hollowed out top of the loaf (bottom piece in the photo below).  
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Line the hollow with several layers of thin ham, and then fill with a combination of ricotta cheese, chopped charred-grilled red capsicums (fire-roasted red bell peppers), spinach, basil, finely chopped spicy smoked French sausage, grated sharp cheese and lots for black pepper. The filling ingredients can be varied to suit your own tastes a great version is the famous Muffuletta sandwich (the filling is an olive paste with various cheeses and sliced meats).
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Wrap tightly with plastic film and place into the fridge with a light weight on top of the loaf for a few hours (up to two days)
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The finished picnic loaf
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Close-up of a slice of the picnic loaf yum yum
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The verdict - this recipe produces a sourdough unlike anything I have done before the crumb of the loaf is very moist almost sponge-like which I really really liked and it is a perfect foil for the pressed filling ingredients since they almost have the same texture which is what you want in a picnic loaf. Also the picnic loaf slices cleanly and thinly. I bet for an extra special treat slices of this picnic loaf would fry up beautifully. I will be using this recipe from now on to make picnic loaves.

What to do with the leftover starter
You can make a lot of recipes with the leftover starter examples pancakes, cakes, scones etc.  In this case I made crumpets with the leftover starter (To make the batter - to one cup of starter, sprinkle over the surface 1 teaspoon of sugar and 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/2 teaspoon baking soda (or 1-1/2 teaspoons of baking powder), stir well, the mixture will double in volume. Dry fry 1/4 cup scoops of the batter in well greased 3" (7-1/2 cm) metal rings on a medium-low heated griddle (or fry pan) for 4-6 minutes on the bottom and optionally 30 seconds on the top if you like colour on both top and bottom of your crumpets.) These crumpets were so good I love how the holes form and the moist texture of the crumb so much better than the store bought version. You can freeze the leftover starter/leaven and the cooked crumpets. 
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Comments and notes
1. This recipe is unusual in that you knead the leaven into the dough.
2. The leaven is very wet and soft more like soft putty so when you form the disk of dough and place the leaven onto it and knead it, the final dough-making is incredibly messy and the final dough is very very soft and spreads out very slowly (takes about 20 mins) if left on the counter. I had to add about 3 tablespoons of extra flour to make it a little stiffer.
3. The final interior of the loaf is very moist, as compared to my normal sourdough. I really liked the final interior and the loaf. The crumb (the texture) of the interior was like soft dense sponge even slightly doughy which I really liked. The weight of the loaf feels very heavy for its size. 
4. What to make with the leftover starter make crumpets see links below for the recipe.
What to do with the discarded starter (use to make crumpets)
And what to do with a neglected starter
5. A plain flour starter seems to work very well for this recipe.

French Country Sour Dough Open-faced sandwiches with home-made pesto, tomatoes and cured Italian ham
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I made the French country loaf its starter was very easy to make and look after until it was active it only took three days for the starter to become super active since I feed it twice a day and the starter was in a moist warm environment for the entire 'brewing' time. I made up the loaf has per the recipe I used very coarse stone ground whole meal bread flour and "OO" finely milled bread flour. The dough rose in about 2 hours (really quick for a sour dough) and to twice it original volume and when baked stayed exactly the same size. Since I used such coarse flour the final texture of the crumb was very grainy. My dough was so wet and soft it really needed a mould but that was no problem.

I wanted perfectly shaped sandwiches which means the crust has to be very smooth with crisp edges, so I went for a 'brick-shape' loaf that could be cut thinly and cleanly while having the strength so the bread slice wouldn't break or bend when the sandwich is being eaten.

The final texture of the loaf was like a Rye European sour dough bread, not dense at all in fact, the loaf could be cut very thinly and cleanly - perfect for open-faced sandwiches.

I had the most beautiful tomatoes and basil so I had to use them as the topping for my sandwiches.
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This summer in Sydney Australia has been the coldest in the last fifty-one years, so I took special precautions in keeping the starter warm that is by enclosing the plastic container in several tea-towels on the counter on the spot that is above the hot water system. The temperature was gorgeously warmish at all times, so after three days the starter was full of energy and going for it. If you feed the starter once in the morning and in the evening it shortens the time for the starter to become active.

The starter covered in many tea towels over a warm spot on the counter, it is toasty in there:)
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I wanted to make thin open-faced sandwiches so I coated my pan with oil-spray and then with wheat germ flakes which produces a thin smooth crust on the loaf
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Notice the nice straight edges and smooth faces on the loaf, it looks like a brick! Perfect for open-faced sandwiches.
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Close up of the crust of the loaf
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Some more photos of the loaf and the thin slices that can be cut from it
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I really like how thin you could slice the loaf
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To make the open-faced sandwiches
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Finished sandwiches with home made pesto, tomatoes and cured Italian ham and a piece of tangy goat's cheese
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The verdict - a very tasty open-face sandwich bread wonderful with the tomatoes and pesto. And so filling only a couple of quarter slices where enough. Just like the old fashioned country breads I had in my childhood.

Some notes
1. You can speed up the 'brewing' time of the starter by twice feeding it a day and making sure that the starter is in a moist warm place.
2. My starter was super active it rose the dough in about two hours which is very quick.
3. The final dough was too soft to be shaped into a free-form loaf it really needs a mould.
4. The final crumb is very much like the classic black bread style of Northern Europe.

Cornmeal sourdough loaf
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I used the French Country starter to make a cornmeal soudough loaf that was more traditionally shaped. I replaced the whole meal flour with corn meal (polenta) I added some pure gluten flour to replace the missing gluten from the corn meal and raised the dough in a bowl lined with linen that was covered in flour and cornmeal.

This is the largest loaf of bread I have made it was 12 inches (30 cms) in diameter and weighed almost 2-1/2 kgs (5-1/2 lbs)! It took about an hour and a quarter to bake.

The dough is very wet and soft
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The dough raising in the lined bowl
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How to raise the dough during cold weather, place a plastic bag over the bowl and place that over a saucepan 3/4 filled with warm water also you can wrap the saucepan in tea towels this will keep your dough warm for many hours even overnight.
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The final baked loaf
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The underside of the baked loaf a wonderful yellow colour
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I will use the loaf tomorrow after it has cooled down and the flavours have settled.

I love the look of this loaf so rustic with lots of character in the crust and the yellow colour is stunning. 

Cornmeal Sourdough Loaf part II
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I use my cornmeal sourdough loaf today I was extremely pleased with the look, taste and texture of the slices. I had some beautiful beet(root) and mint on hand so I made a spicy beetroot mint dip to serve with the cornmeal bread.

Lovely beet(root) and mint
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The yellow cornmeal bread sliced into wedges so colourful and tasty
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The beet(root) and mint dip served on the cornmeal sourdough slices
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Another photo of the delicious bread
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Gorgeous White Sourdough
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One thing about sourdoughs is that they can look so beautiful as compared to the store bought loaves. I made another loaf using the French Country starter but using all white flour for the loaf. I had to add about 1/4 cup of extra flour to the dough so that the shaped loaf would hold its shape and be slashed. I double egg-washed the loaf which really gave the baked loaf a lovely shiny gloss finish. I will use it tomorrow after the loaf has had time to settle and mellow. I cannot wait.

I used a five cup "flower-pot" shaped container which gives a nice visual proportion to the loaf 
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Some gorgeous photos of the final loaf
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White Sourdough Loaf
I made tandoori roast chicken to serve with the white sourdough loaf I had made yesterday. The crumb of the sourdough was very smooth and its hue was a light sand colour which was unexpected since I used a very white flour for the dough. The thinly sliced chicken was lovely on the sourdough sandwich. The crumb of the loaf was very similar to white wonder bread a wonderful bread for sandwiches.

The white sourdough loaf being sliced
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The tandoori roast chicken I adore the vibrant colour of the chicken
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The final tandoori chicken sandwich
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White sourdough loaf
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I repeated making a white flour sourdough but this time I added some more flour in the final stage so that the loaf would spread out so much and would hold it shape when slashed. I needed about 1 cup of extra flour to achieve the correct consistency. I was very pleased with the final result. The loaf expanded about three times it was incredible to watch it grow and bake in the oven.

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More things to make with the leftover starter part II
Wholesome banana and date sourdough bread
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I had a cup of very sour active starter left so I thought I would make my favourite banana/date bread with it, I make this recipe about once a fortnight during the summer. The recipe is easy -

Wholesome banana and date sourdough bread
1 cup starter (the starter doesn't need to be active)
2 cups wholemeal flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup brown sugar
3 tablespoons olive oil (or melted butter)
3 tablespoons dried milk powder (or buttermilk powder)
3 tablespoons wheat-germ
1 large egg, lightly beaten
3 large ripe bananas, mashed
1 cup of dates finely chopped, soaked in orange juice until soft
(Optional 1/2 cup of chopped walnuts)

Sift together the flour, baking powder, baking soda, milk powder and salt, form a well in the centre of the dry ingredients. Pour into the well the sourdough starter, oil, wheat-germ, egg, brown sugar, banana and dates (and the nuts if using). Whisk the ingredients together until a normal "cake" batter consistency is formed you can add more water if you need to loosen the batter. Bake in a moderate oven 160C/320F/gas mark 3 for 1-1/2 hours until a skewer comes out clean, check at 1 hour and then every 10 mins until done. Best if left for one day before slicing, but can be sliced when completely cooled. The bread will last for 2 weeks (at least! I have always eaten it before this) in the fridge covered in foil and plastic wrap and it gets better and better with time, fabulous toasted and served with butter. The slices are super moist and not too sweet. The sourdough and bananas really makes for a moist bread. 

White sourdough loaf
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I decided to make a treat for this delicious bread that is meatloaf which I really really like a lot in Australia it isn't that common basically nobody I know makes meatloaf but every time I make it the meatloaf gets rave reviews.

For a super special treat I baked the meatloaf on two slices of the white bread these slices therefore get toasted and are dripping with gorgeous flavour I'm sure that they aren't not that healthy but once in while it is such a flavoursome treat.

The meatloaf notice the two slices of white sourdough bread that acts as a soak of all the juices
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The delicious slices of bread that have been baked and basted throughout the cooking of the meatloaf
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The cut meatloaf. My meatloaf contains grilled red capsicums (the red pieces), shredded seaweed (the black pieces) and lots of herbs and a mixture of pork and veal with some BBQ duck and the glaze is a mixture of tomato pesto, black sugar and balsamic vinegar.  
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          Your Camping Grill Sucks, This One Doesn’t. Fund It On Kickstarter And Save Your Food Forever        
You know that gross metal grill you got ten years ago that’s a pain to use? You remember, the one that you’ve never officially “cleaned” per se, on account of the logic that flames kill bacteria? We all have that clunky grill that doesn’t pack away nicely. That charred, somewhat rusty grill that ends up […]
          Updates on bacteria monitoring from ADEM and AWW        
Water Watchers, I hope that all are having an enjoyable summer, and have time to recreate on and in our world-class waters here in Alabama. Below are a couple of updates relative to bacterial contamination of our surface waters, and … Continue reading
          An Informed Personal Cannabis Lube Review        

(important note of caution: Coconut oil is known to break down condoms and the surface of adult toys that can lead to bacterial infections)  Shal Friesen An educated review of Miss Envy Canna Sutra by an island gal When it comes to personal and intimate lubricants, you want to ensure that what you are putting […]

The post An Informed Personal Cannabis Lube Review appeared first on Cannabis Digest.


          100 Multi Use Wonder Wipes        
100 Multi Use Wonder Wipes

100 Multi Use Wonder Wipes

Wonder wipes are the first choice wipe of the nations builders and tradesmen. Specially formulated to clean hands, tools and surfaces and also semi-cured paint, sealent, adhesive, bitumen, expanding foam, oil, grease and even silicone. Useful when there is no water on site.  Contains a powerful adhesive that is tested by an indipendant labroratory to BSEN 1276:2009 and PREN 12054:1995. The standards for killing bacteria on dirty surfaces and hands. These wipes are active against most common bacteria found in the home and workplace.  100 wipes per tub Technical


          300 Multi Use Wonder Wipes         
300 Multi Use Wonder Wipes

300 Multi Use Wonder Wipes

Wonder wipes are the first choice wipe of the nations builders and tradesmen. Specially formulated to clean hands, tools and surfaces and also semi-cured paint, sealent, adhesive, bitumen, expanding foam, oil, grease and even silicone. Useful when there is no water on site.  Contains a powerful adhesive that is tested by an indipendant labroratory to BSEN 1276:2009 and PREN 12054:1995. The standards for killing bacteria on dirty surfaces and hands. These wipes are active against most common bacteria found in the home and workplace.   300 wipes per tub Technical


          500 Monster Multi Use Wonder Wipes        
500 Monster Multi Use Wonder Wipes

500 Monster Multi Use Wonder Wipes

Wonder wipes are the first choice wipe of the nations builders and tradesmen. Specially formulated to clean hands, tools and surfaces and also semi-cured paint, sealent, adhesive, bitumen, expanding foam, oil, grease and even silicone. Useful when there is no water on site.  Contains a powerful adhesive that is tested by an indipendant labroratory to BSEN 1276:2009 and PREN 12054:1995. The standards for killing bacteria on dirty surfaces and hands. These wipes are active against most common bacteria found in the home and workplace.  500 wipes per tub


          502074 Fluidmaster Universal Replacement Adjustable Flush Flapper 502        
502074 Fluidmaster Universal Replacement Adjustable Flush Flapper 502

502074 Fluidmaster Universal Replacement Adjustable Flush Flapper 502

502 Fluidmaster universal perforMAX longest lasting water saving toilet flapper with Microban, only fluidmaster have toilet flappers with this built in. This keeps the flapper free of bacteria which will prevent the flapper from breaking down. They are more resistant to premature deterioraration. Works best in toilets with 1.28 - 3.5 gallons per flush or higher. Adjustable for optimum performance and water savings. Chlorine resistant. Has a solid frame for reliability. Easy to install. Approx diameter of disc - 7.5cm Approx diameter of plug - 4.5cm http://www.fluidmaster.com/our-products/toilet-flappers/universal-adjustable-toilet-flapper.html


          75 Heavy Duty Wonder Wipes        
75 Heavy Duty Wonder Wipes

75 Heavy Duty Wonder Wipes

Heavy duty wonder wipes are a textured wipe specially formulated for the building, engineering and allied trades to clean ingrained dirt from hands, tools and surfaces. Contain lanolin and a powerful anti bacterial additive. Contains 75 wipes Technical


          AF10 Biocide 500ml        
AF10 Biocide 500ml

AF10 Biocide 500ml

Fernox AF10 Universial Biocide 500ml Fernox AF10 Universial Biocide from JTM is for use in the prevention of bacterial contamination within your central heating/cold water systems. Fernox Biocide AF10 is to be used in conjunction with the Fernox F1 Protector, or antifreeze in order to prevent contamination. Fernox AF10 Biocide is also used to prevent the reoccurrence fungal growths in feed and expansion cisterns.


          ArmaFlex Tape 15mtr Roll        
ArmaFlex Tape 15mtr Roll

ArmaFlex Tape 15mtr Roll

Armacell Class O pipe insulation lagging tape. Adhesive backed and quick and easy to apply and install. Built in anti-microbial protection reduces mould and bacteria growth. It has a built in vapour barrier which prevents condensation. The tape is lightweight and flexible and reduces energy loss by up to 87%. Low maintenance requirements , resulting in cost savings. It also has great resistance to the effects of oil and chemicals. - Class O 50mm x 3mm (15mtr roll) - High Temp 50mm x 3mm (15mtr roll)


          Dentaid Gel Dentífrico Perio·Aid Tratamiento - 7,95 €         
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Control de los niveles de S.mutans en pacientes con alta actividad de caries.
Mantenimiento en tratamiento periodontal. En casos en que existe una excesiva formación de placa bacteriana.
Ayuda a la prevención de la gingivitis.


          Forever Bright Toothgel Pasta de Dientes Aloe y Propoleo (130 g) - 11,95 €         
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Pasta dental con Aloe de Forever. Limpia los dientes y encías sin una fuerte abrasión. Ayuda a controlar la placa bacteriana causante de la caries dental. 


          Caremix S3 Monobloc TMV3 Approved Thermostatic Taps        
Caremix S3 Monobloc TMV3 Approved Thermostatic Taps

Caremix S3 Monobloc TMV3 Approved Thermostatic Taps

Usually 2-3 Working Days. Specifically for use in healthcare applications. Uses the unique Aegle one piece thermostatic cartridge to reduce maintenance tim. Supplied with a special PVD coating to resist scratching and deterioration of the chrome finish. Copper connection tails to eliminate the possibility of bacteria breeding in rubber hoses. Available with a standard short handle or extended handle suitable for all applications. Supplied complete with 2 combination valves incorporating isolation, check valves, flow regulators and filters.


          Cherry Blast Fresh Anti-Bacterial Multi Purpose Spray 1L - TCCF1        
Cherry Blast Fresh Anti-Bacterial Multi Purpose Spray 1L - TCCF1

Cherry Blast Fresh Anti-Bacterial Multi Purpose Spray 1L - TCCF1

Cherry fragranced Multi Purpose Disinfectant / Cleaning Liquid - contains Biocide to kill 99.99% of germs. Designed for use on all hard surfaces around the home - can be used neat as a spray or diluted for use with a Mop or similar


          Commercial Chemicals 1000Litres        
Commercial Chemicals 1000Litres

Commercial Chemicals 1000Litres

R500C IBC-Sentinel R500 Heat Transfer Fluid provides exceptional thermal transfer for ground source heat pump systems. It offers superior stability and protection against corrosion and deposits, and resistance to degradation. It also contains an effective biocide that will help to control the growth of bacteria.


          The Way To Reduce Using Water To Your Landscape        


Learning how to properly landscape your yard is really a skill, allowing you turn your own home in the jewel in the neighborhood. Often times they don't know how to accomplish that, though people want their houses to appear great on their block. This article is a good choice for exactly that. Continue along for some advice on becoming great at landscaping.

When building an outdoors kitchen, look for granite for the surfacing. Though granite is generally much more expensive than marble or another options, it is generally more durable and much easier to keep up.

Use native plants when landscaping your yard. Native varieties require less attention as they are living in an environment that is naturally conducive for their growth. This too means they are low-maintenance. You can get details about plants that happen to be indigenous to your area by looking at your best gardening store.

There's a lot more to landscaping then simply planting some grass and trees. You must also add other natural materials including wood, stone and even iron. Use decks, archways and pergolas to generate attractive looks which can be complex, beautiful and visually interesting. These components come in a number of prices despite your budget.

By making a garden that incorporates all seasons, create your yard look beautiful all year. Seek out shrubs and plants that bloom at various times throughout the year. Also, pick trees which have unique foliage as well as evergreens to make your yard bright all year round.

Many people don't think about online shopping regarding landscaping. You will find a larger selection of plants, including some that are not offered by your nearby stores. You will also save the trouble and gas of actually venturing out over a shopping trip.

By buying them with the right times, save on materials. Buy lumber in the winter months or mulch in late season to save lots of funds. Wait a couple of years with regard to their prices to fall before purchasing them, when new plants are brought to the current market.

Include different types of greenery within your landscaping plans for variety and different beauty. This can be factor to protecting the yard from disease or bacteria. They won't be vulnerable to a similar harmful agents when your plants are varied. Houston landscapers To help keep a landscape healthy, choosing numerous types of species is very important.

It might be difficult to find out what sort of flowers is going to do well under a proven shade tree. Ground cover is a far greater choice. Ground covers are really easy to maintain and definately will add interest to your landscape. Consider hosta or sweet woodruff as ground covers for your trees.

If you're thinking of hiring a pro landscaper to your project, ask for a few references. Price is extremely important, just before hiring any landscaper, make certain to take a look with the past work that she or he did.

When you are assembling your own landscape plan, add a quote to the cost. Create the items you understand you need in writing. Then you definitely should discover the best locations to buy the products to acquire high quality items with a great price. Going to a home remodeling store or even a garden supply area can provide a sense of the costs, because they can vary greatly by season and site. Discover where the top deals are and don't forget to ask around for your lowest prices.

Remember the possible impact that some landscaping could have on certain areas of your dwelling. When you are careless, you will probably find that this roots from the plants could interfere with any underground piping you possess. Before finalizing your landscaping design, always consider these sorts of practical problems.

You've learned a little more about landscaping, so just why not get moving today? You'll enjoy the look of your home's outdoor areas along with the feeling of satisfaction you'll feel from creating your new garden. Coming home right after a long day of labor will certainly be a lot better when you drive as much as your renovated landscape. Houston landscapers The outcome you obtain from landscaping worth the investment of your respective time and expense.
          Keep your house cleaner by parking shoes at the door        
By Kathryn Weber If you could do one simple thing to have a cleaner house, carpets that look like new, and less bacteria in your home, would you do it? All you have to do it remove your shoes before coming into the house. Growing custom More and more Americans are making a habit of Read the full article...
          Recipe for the Perfect Bath Experience        

Megan Wahlberg

In many cultures around the world and throughout history, bathing has been a ritualistic act. A bath cleanses impurities and calms the spirit. Immersing oneself in water can feel exhilarating beyond belief. In the twenty-first century, we have the technology to make our bathing experiences transcendent every time. Here is my recipe to a bath that makes you feel rejuvenated, happy and healthy. 1. Squeaky Clean Utilities Toto, the manufacturer and not the cute little dog, makes quality baths with hygienic features built into every part of their valves and plumbing. The anti-return valve for instance keeps bath oils and impurities from building bacteria up in the jets. There is nothing so upsetting as spotting a ring of dirt on the inside of a jet, or feeling nervous that the basin isn’t completely clean. The Nova bath model from Jacuzzi uses the same technology. This company can produce whirlpool baths that also maintain a clean and healthy system. 2. Soothing Massage A lot of people love jets, but I personally find them noisy and irritating. When a jet blows full blast on part of my skin, the area will become red and itchy. Does anybody else have this problem? Toto engineers created an air bath option for their customers. These smaller, quieter jets distribute air bubbles throughout the bath evenly, resulting in a much more relaxing spa. The Guinevere Soaker is shown on the manufacturer’s website having these features installed. It has a safety bar on the inside to help users get in and out with ease. Jacuzzi offers the subtle air jet experience as well. The Mio bath tub is a popular choice because it can produce both the invigorating whirlpool effect or the more calming bubbling soak. One works for morning to get you ready for work and the other for night to help put you to bed. 3. Beautiful Surroundings Jacuzzi makes this lovely free standing bath tub with claw feet that I’ve always wanted. I had a friend in New York who had a studio loft apartment and she had to share a public toilet with everyone on her floor. In her studio, between the kitchen and the ladder up to her loft she had a free standing tub. It was so adorable! At parties she would fill in up with ice and beer. 4. Comfort How can you float away when the rim of the tub is jammed in the back of your neck? The Tara whirlpool bathtub has that extra room for extra comfort as well as contoured back rests. This is that tub in which your only worry is falling asleep and getting a mouthful of bath water. The door makes it easy and safe to enter and exit the tub. The Finestra whirlpool is guaranteed never to leak for as long as you own it. Rest easy knowing this bath is also safe for bath salts and oils. 5. “You” Time Designate a special segment of time for bathing. Don’t allow pending obligations to weigh on your brain. Ask the kids to play a game together. The perfect bath is never complete without the sensation of letting go of the filth rinsing off your skin, the worries, the dissatisfaction, or the exhaustion. Let it wash away and go right down the drain. So these are the ingredients for blissful bathing. Don’t forget the occasional candles and glass of Merlot for extra alone time luxury. The mind needs meditation, and a bath every now and again gives us time to quiet our thoughts and remember how to relax.

Read full version: Recipe for the Perfect Bath Experience
The post Recipe for the Perfect Bath Experience appeared first on HomeThangs.com.


           Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) obtained by photopolymerization: Structure-property relationships and bacterial adhesion         
Karabanova, L.V., Mikhalovsky, Sergey, Sergeeva, L.M., Meikle, Steve, Helias, M. and Lloyd, Andrew (2004) Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) obtained by photopolymerization: Structure-property relationships and bacterial adhesion Polymer Engineering and Science, 44 (5). pp. 940-947. ISSN 0032-3888
          Terminology and Meanings of Early Illnesses        
This was posted on a email listing I belong to. I thought it was really interesting and really helpful, so I thought I would share it with you all. I don't know who created it or who to give credit for it to, so if anyone knows let me know.
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Ablepsy - Blindness
Ague - Malarial fever
American plague - Yellow fever
Anasarca - Generalized massive edema
Aphonia - Laryngitis
Aphtha - Infant disease "thrush"
Apoplexy - Paralysis due to stroke
Asphicsia - Cyanotic and lack of oxygen
Asphycsia - Cyanotic and lack of oxygen
Atrophy - Wasting away or diminishing in size
Bad blood - Syphilis
Bilious fever - Typhoid, malaria, hepatitis or elevated temperature and bile emesis
Biliousness - Jaundice associated with liver disease
Black plague - Bubonic plague
Black fever - Acute infection with high temperature and dark red skin lesions and high mortality rate
Black pox - Black small pox
Black vomit - Vomiting old black blood due to ulcers or yellow fever
Blackwater fever - Dark urine associated with high temperature
Bladder in throat - Diphtheria (seen on death certificates)
Blood poisoning - Bacterial infection; septicemia
Bloody flux - Bloody stools
Bloody sweat - Sweating sickness
Bone shave - Sciatica
Brain fever - Meningitis
Breakbone - Dengue fever
Bright's disease - Chronic disease of kidneys
Bronze John - Yellow fever
Bule - Boil, tumor or swelling
Cachexy - Malnutrition
Cacogastric - Upset stomach
Cacospysy - Irregular pulse
Caduceus - Subject to falling sickness or epilepsy
Camp fever - Typhus; aka camp diarrhea
Canine madness - Rabies; hydrophobia
Canker - Ulceration of mouth or lips; or herpes simplex
Catalepsy - Seizures/trances
Catarrhal - Nose and throat discharge from cold or allergy
Cerebritis - Inflammation of cerebrum; or lead poisoning
Chilblain - Swelling of extremities caused by exposure to cold
Child bed fever - Infection following birth of a child
Chin cough - Whooping cough
Chlorosis - Iron deficiency anemia
Cholera - Acute, severe, contagious diarrhea with intestinal lining sloughing
Cholera morbus - Characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, elevated temperature, etc.; could also be appendicitis
Cholecystitus - Inflammation of the gall bladder
Cholelithiasis - Gall stones
Chorea - Disease characterized by convulsions, contortions and dancing
Cold plague - Ague which is characterized by chills
Colic - Abdominal pain and cramping
Congestive chills - Malaria
Consumption - Tuberculosis
Congestion - Any collection of fluid in an organ, like the lungs
Congestive chills - Malaria with diarrhea
Congestive fever - Malaria
Corruption - Infection
Coryza - A cold
Costiveness - Constipation
Cramp colic - Appendicitis
Crop sickness - Overextended stomach
Croup - Laryngitis, diphtheria or strep throat
Cyanosis - Dark skin color from lack of oxygen in blood
Cynanche - Diseases of throat
Cystitis - Inflammation of the bladder
Day fever - Fever lasting one day; sweating sickness
Debility - Lack of movement or staying in bed
Decrepitude - Feebleness due to old age
Delirium tremens - Hallucinations due to alcoholism
Dengue - Infectious fever endemic to East Africa
Dentition - Cutting of teeth
Deplumation - Tumor of the eyelids which causes hair loss
Diary fever - A fever that lasts more than one day
Diptheria - Contagious disease of the throat
Distemper - Usually animal disease with malaise, discharge from nose and throat and anorexia
Dock fever - Yellow fever
Dropsy - Edema (swelling), often caused by kidney or heart disease
Dropsy of the brain - Encephalitis
Dry bellyache - Lead poisoning
Dyscrasy - An abnormal body condition
Dysentery - Inflammation of the colon with frequent passage of mucous and blood
Dysorexy - Reduced appetite
Dyspepsia - Indigestion and heartburn; heart attack symptoms
Dysury - Difficulty in urination
Eclampsy - Symptoms fo epilepsy; convulsions during labor
Ecstasy - A form of catalepsy characterized by loss of reason
Edema - Nephrosis; swelling of tissues
Edema of lungs - Congestive heart failure; a form of dropsy
Eel thing - Erysipelas
Elephantiasis - A form of leprosy
Encephalitis - Swelling of the brain; aka sleeping sickness
Enteric fever - Typhoid fever
Enteritis - Inflammation of the bowels
Enterocolitis - Inflammation of the intestines
Epitaxis - Nose bleed
Erysipelas - Contagious skin disease due to Streptococci with vesiculas and bulbous lesions
Extravasted blood - Rupture of a blood vessel
Falling sickness - Epilepsy
Fatty liver - Cirrhosis of liver
Fits - Sudden attack or seizure of muscle activity
Flux - An excessive flow or discharge of fluid like hemorrhage or diarrhea
Flux of humour - Circulation
French pox - Syphilis
Gathering - A collection of pus
Glandular fever - Mononucleosis
Great pox - Syphilis
Green fever - Anemia
Grippe/grip - Influenza-like symptoms
Grocer's itch - Skin disease cause by mites in sugar or flour
Heart sickness - Condition caused by loss of salt from body
Heat stroke - Body temperature elevates because of surrounding environment temperature and body does not perspire to reduce temperature
Hectical complaint - Recurrent fever
Hematemesis - Vomiting blood
Hematuria - Bloody urine
Hemiplegy - Paralysis of one side of the body
Hip gout - Osteomylitis
Horrors - Delirium tremers
Hydrocephalus - - Enlarged head; water on the brain
Hydropericardium - Heart dropsy
Hydrophobia - Rabies
Hydrothroax - Dropsy in chest
Hypertrophic - Enlargement of an organ, like the heart
Impetigo - Contagious skin disease characterized by pustules
Inanition - Physical condition resulting from lack of food
Infantile paralysis - Polio
Intestinal colic - Abdominal pain due to improper diet
Jail fever - Typhus
Jaundice - Condition cause by blockage of intestines
King's evil - Tuberculosis of neck and lymph glands
Kruchhusten - Whooping cough
Lagrippe - Influenza
Lockjaw - Tetanus or infectious disease affecting the muscles of the neck and jaw; untreated, it is fatal in eight (8) days
Long sickness - Tuberculosis
Lues disease - Syphilis
Lues venera - Venereal disease
Lumbago - Back pain
Lung fever - Pneumonia
Lung sickness - Tuberculosis
Lying in - Time of delivery of an infant
Malignant sore throat - Diphtheria
Mania - Insanity
Marasmus - Progressive wasting away of the body, like malnutrition
Membranous croup - Diphtheria
Meningitis - Inflations of brain or spinal cord
Metritis - Inflammation of uterus or purulent vaginal discharge
Miasma - Poisonous vapors thought to infect the air
Milk fever - Disease from drinking contaminated milk, like undulant fever or brucellosis
Milk leg - Post partum thrombophlebitis
Milk sickness - Disease from milk of cattle which had eaten poisonous weeds
Mormal - Gangrene
Morphew - Scurvy blisters on the body
Mortification - Gangrene of necrotic tissue
Myelitis - Inflammation of the spine
Myocarditis - Inflammation of heart muscles
Necrosis - Mortification of bones or tissue
Nephrosis - Kidney degeneration
Nephritis - Inflammation of kidneys
Nervous prostration - Extreme exhaustion from inability to control physical and mental activities
Neuralgia - Described as discomfort, such as "headache" was neuralgia in head
Nostalgia - Homesickness
Palsy - Paralysis or uncontrolled movement of controlled muscles
Paroxysm - Convulsion
Pemphigus - Skin disease of watery blisters
Pericarditis - Inflammation of the heart
Peripneumonia - Inflammation of the lungs
Peritonitis - Inflammation of the abdominal area
Petechial fever - Fever characterized by skin spotting
Phthiriasis - Chronic wasting away or a name for tuberculosis
Plague - An acute febrile highly infectious disease with a high fatality rate
Pleurisy - Any pain in the chest area with each breath
Podagra - Gout
Poliomyelitis - Polio; Potter's asthma
Pott's disease - Tuberculosis of the spine
Puerperal exhaustion - Death due to childbirth
Puerperal fever - Elevated temperature after giving birth to an infant
Puking fever - Milk sickness
Putrid fever - Diphtheria
Quinsy - Tonsillitis
Remitting fever - Malaria
Rheumatism - Any disorder associated with pain in joints
Rickets - Disease of skeletal system
Rose cold - Hay fever or nasal symptoms of an allergy
Rotanny fever - (Child's disease) ???
Rubeola - German measles
Sanguineous crust - Scab
Scarlatina - Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever - A disease characterized by a red rash
Scarlet rash - Roseola
Sciatica - Rheumatism in the hips
Scirrhus - Cancerous tumors
Scotomy - Dizziness, nausea and dimness of sight
Scrivener's palsy - Writer's cramp
Screws - Rheumatism
Scrofula - Tuberculosis of neck lymph glands; progresses slowly with abscesses and pistulas develop; young person's disease
Scrumpox - Skin disease; impetigo
Scurvy - Lack of Vitamin C; symptoms of weakness, spongy gums and hemorrhages under the skin
Septicemia - Blood poisoning
Shakes - Delirium tremens
Shaking - Chills; ague
Ship fever - Typhus
Siriasis - Inflammation of the brain due to sun exposure
Sloes - Milk sickness
Small pox - Contagious disease with fever and blisters
Softing of brain - Result of stroke or hemmorhage in the brain, with an end result of the tissue softening in that area
Sore throat - distemper Diphtheria or quinsy
Spanish influenza - Epidemic influenza
Spasms - Sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles, like a convulsion
Spina bifida - Deformity of spine
Spotted fever - Either typhus or meningitis
Sprue - Tropical disease characterized by intestinal disorders and sore throat
St. Anthony's fire - Also erysipelas, but named so because of affected skin areas being bright red in appearance
St. Vitas dance - Ceaseless occurance of rapid complex jerking movements performed involuntarily
Stomatitis - Inflammation of the mouth
Stranger's fever - Yellow fever
Strangery - Rupture
Sudor anglicus - Sweating sickness
Summer complaint - Diarrhea, usually in infants, caused by spoiled milk
Sunstroke - Uncontrolled elevation of body temperature due to environment heat; lack of sodium in the body is a predisposing cause
Swamp sickness - - Could be malaria, typhoid or encephalitis
Sweating sickness - - Infectious and fatal disease common to the UK in the 15th century
Tetanus - Infectious disease characterized by high fever, headache and dizziness
Thrombosis - Blood clot inside blood vessel
Thrush - Childhood disease characterized by spots on mouth, lips and throat
Tick fever - Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Toxemia of pregnancy - Eclampsia
Trench mouth - Painful ulcers found along gum line; caused by poor nutrition and poor hygiene
Tussis convulsiva - Whooping cough
Typhus - Infectious fever characterized by high fever, headache and dizziness
Variola - Smallpox
Venesection - Bleeding
Viper's dance - St. Vitus dance
Yellowjacket - Yellow fever

          Arsenic-eating bacteria: fascinating, but not that surprising        
Last week, NASA announced a press conference that was hyped to the extreme. Some believed NASA would announce an alien life form, or perhaps an organism that used something other than DNA to store it’s genetic information. Sadly, what they announced was neither of these, but instead an interesting little quirk of biology. Writing in ...
          å¾®ç”Ÿç‰©æ˜¯äººé¡žçš„盟友而非敵人        
過度乾淨=自我傷害?
 
過度乾淨=自我傷害?
加拿大圭爾夫大學微生物生態學家Emma Allen-Vercoe åœ¨å°è…¸é“微生物進行了10 多年研究後指出,現代人過於注重潔淨,食物太過精細,動輒使用抗生素,這種生活方式正在損害人體內無形的微生物生態系統。
微生物是人類的盟友而非敵人
人類排泄物為研究細菌、真菌和病毒等微生物群落提供了一個窗口。Allen-Vercoe 發現,地球上最具多樣性、繁殖最密集的生態系統不在熱帶雨林中,也不在海洋中,而是在人類的腸道裡。人類“微生物”是體內數以萬億計生物體的統稱,是人類擁有健康體魄的關鍵所在。微生物做了大量有助消化的工作,更多證據還表明,其還能幫助人體抵禦哮喘、病原體、過敏、糖尿病,甚至某種形式的自閉症和癌症。
醫學界過去對它們了解很有限,其中有些種類完全不為人知。部分原因是它們很難在實驗室環境裡生存。7年前, Allen-Vercoe 用自己獲得的一筆獎金在圭爾夫大學建立了一個實驗室。研究腸道微生物的傳統方法是單個提取出來觀察,但是Allen-Vercoe 設計了“仿真腸道”,讓微生物生活在和人體內完全一樣的溫度和環境中,形成同樣的群落。“微生物跟青少年一樣,喜歡和朋友膩在一起。”她解釋說。至於它們的“食物”,自有志願者定期送上門來。
科學界對人體微生物生態系統的認識才剛剛開始。Allen-Vercoe 說,透過仿真腸道,“你可以傾聽微生物是如何交談、相處和互動的。”它們的小社會在人生病時會發生劇烈動盪。Allen-Vercoe 的研究小組試圖找出微生物和炎症、疾病的關係,並觀察藥物、荷爾蒙和食物對它們的影響。
“你惹了它,就要後果自負”
Allen-Vercoe 表示,由於無菌生活是健康生活這一觀念深入人心,現代商場貨架上充斥著琳瑯滿目的“抗菌”物品,甚至連訂書機和文件夾等辦公用品上都標有“抗菌”標籤。令人憂心的是,這樣的觀念還被帶入了普通家庭,很多孩子在成長關鍵時期根本接觸不到有菌環境。
不過, Allen-Vercoe 更為擔心的是抗生素藥品的濫用,在對圭爾夫大學300 名學生的調查中,沒有一個學生說不曾使用過抗生素。她認為,抗生素可以用來救生,但幾十年來抗生素的使用同時也削弱和破壞了體內的微生物生態環境。抗生素在殺死有害菌的同時也殺死有益菌,進而使人體更易受到梭狀芽孢桿菌等耐藥雜菌的侵入,梭狀芽孢桿菌是人類干擾微生物而把事情搞砸的典型例子,其導致的腹瀉可致命,特別是對老年患者。人體內的微生物群落越來越孱弱,肥胖、糖尿病、過敏和哮喘等疾病卻越來越常見,可能和這種改變有很大的關係。
幽門螺旋桿菌可在胃酸這樣的惡劣環境中生存,一個世紀前,曾是人類胃裡占主導地位的微生物,但最近的調查顯示,美國、瑞典和德國這3個國家的兒童中,只有不到6% 還攜帶幽門螺旋桿菌。由於幽門螺旋桿菌會增加罹患胃潰瘍和胃癌的風險,醫生們最初認為它被消滅了是件好事。但是最新研究表示,體內缺乏微生物的人更易患花粉症和其他過敏症。美國紐約大學的Martin Blaser 博士還發現,幽門螺旋桿菌的消失還影響到兩種控制食慾的激素,這也許是肥胖流行的重要原因之一。
加拿大不列顛哥倫比亞大學的Brett Finlay 教授在做小鼠實驗時發現,幼年期接受的抗生素治療會損害那些幫助免疫系統發展辨識能力的微生物。這或許可以解釋,為什麼在一歲前服用或注射抗生素過敏性哮喘的發病比例較高,這種疾病症狀便是免疫系統對無害微生物、花粉和寵物毛的過度反應。
Allen-Vercoe 目前還在和西安大略大學的同行合作研究退化性自閉症。這種自閉症通常還伴有腸炎和某些種類的細菌增生。她領導的圭爾夫大學研究小組最近還發現,結腸腫瘤中存在大量的具核棱桿菌。這是一種口腔微生物,它們在結腸腫瘤里幹什麼呢?Allen-Vercoe 正在和不列顛哥倫比亞省癌症研究所的科學家們一起尋找答案。
準媽媽們慎重選擇剖腹產
儘管科學家們不斷發現體內微生物群和疾病的潛在聯繫,但是Allen-Vercoe 提醒說,如果我們因此認為可以繼續照著目前的方式生活,然後時不時修補一下我們的微生物群就行了,這是一種短視的想法。
她強調說,必須減少抗生素和殺菌產品的使用,更好地保護人類體內的微生物生態環境。她建議產婦慎重考慮是否選擇剖腹產,因為胎兒在通過產道時從母親體液中獲得的微生物是第一批“奠基者”,它們的影響可能持續一生。
剖腹產生下的孩子更容易患哮喘、肥胖、第Ι型糖尿病。研究這些疾病的專家現在懷疑,這可能是因為他們在出生時未與產道微生物接觸。
加拿大研究表示,與自然分娩相比,剖腹產嬰兒的細菌豐富性和多樣性要低得多。歐洲和美國的研究則發現,剖腹產嬰兒體內防止過敏的腸道菌群數量明顯不足,產道細菌在懷孕期間會隨著約氏乳酸桿菌的明顯增加而改變,約氏乳酸桿菌常見於腸道,可產生消化牛奶的酶。其在產道內的存在則確保嬰兒獲得約氏乳酸桿菌並準備消化母乳。
Allen-Vercoe 建議,準媽媽們如果只是為了害怕分娩時痛苦而選擇剖腹產,那麼這選擇值得重新考慮。如果基於醫學上的需要而進行剖腹產手術,也應盡量確保嬰兒能接觸到產道分泌物。
 åŽŸæ–‡å‡ºè™•ï¼šhttp://www.bio360.net/news/show/7971.html

          9 porquices que todo casal faz, já fez ou fará (e o Dr. Bactéria reprova)        

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Publicado no UOL

Relacionamento é sinônimo de intimidade, muito amor e um desejo imensurável de compartilhar, inclusive algumas nojeirinhas. Mas, se até cecê pega (e pega, mesmo), dê uma olhada nesta lista. Separamos nove porquices que os casais fazem, mas não deveriam, com a ajuda do Dr. Bactéria (ou Roberto Figueiredo, biomédico e diretor do Microbiotécnica, centro de assessoria em higiene e saneamento ambiental, em São Paulo).

Dividir chiclete e bala

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Compartilhe amor, não compartilhe balas ou chicletes mascados. Os doces ficam impregnados com as bactérias da saliva (muito mais do que na troca do beijo). Passa gripe, herpes, gastrite, úlcera e muito mais.

Fazer xixi enquanto tomam banho

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Geralmente, a urina é estéril. Se ninguém estiver doente, não vai transmitir nada. Mas e se tiver? E, convenhamos, tem coisa que é melhor fazer sozinho, né? Xixi é uma delas

Dividir a escova de dente

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Juntar as escovas não faz mal só no sentido de morar junto. Deixar no mesmo copo não pode. Dividir, então, nem pensar! Ao usar a alheia, podemos colocar dentro do nosso corpo todas as bactérias que vivem ali. Em uma gota de saliva há cerca de 2 bilhões de microrganismos –que, na escova, se multiplicam. Aliás, troque a sua a cada três meses.

Usar a mesma fronha

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Acne, micose e até a caspa, que é um tipo de inflamação, podem ser transmitidas pela fronha de travesseiro. Por isso, mais uma vez, é melhor cada um usar a sua.

Alicate, cortador e lâmina

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Se você compartilhar esses objetos, prepare-se: vocês vão acabar dividindo coisas nada românticas, como micoses e infecções de pele. Tem necessidade?

Copos e talheres

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Um golinho do copo dele, uma garfadinha do prato dela na sua boca… Normal, né? Melhor parar. Copos e talheres devem ser usados individualmente.

Usar a mesma toalha de banho

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Ácaros, piolho, sarna, micoses e até o HPV podem ser transmitidos pela toalha de banho. Esse último, principalmente, se for na hora que a pessoa infectada acabou de usar, pois os vírus de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis não resistem tanto tempo fora do corpo.

Espremer o cravo alheio

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Veja que beleza: apertar cravos e espinhas deixa germes e ácaros na ponta dos dedos e na unha, que podem ser transmitidos se você coçar o rosto, por exemplo. Por isso, nada de espremer! A pele não está boa? Procure um dermatologista.

Bucha e sabonete

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A bucha pode ficar com restos de pele porque esfregamos ela no corpo. Para evitar mais trocas de micose, o melhor é cada um ter a sua. Para não dar confusão, compre de cores diferentes, pois é justamente esse o motivo de existirem buchas coloridas. Sobre o sabonete, não precisa de neurose e cada pessoa ter um, mas lavar e retirar os pelinhos não custa nada.

Dividir desodorante roll-on

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O suor não tem cheiro. São as bactérias da pele da pessoa é que produzem o famoso cecê. Por isso, se o seu desodorante acabar, é melhor ficar sem usar nada a pegar o do outro emprestado. Do contrário, todos os microrganismos que ficam no produto podem passar para você.


          Pest Control Through Sanitation        
It is important to prevent or control pests as they cause nuisance & can be harmful because they are carriers of bacteria & diseases. The base of an effective pest control program is a proper pest education & good sanitation. Read the sanitation checklist for pest control which includes-sealing cracks, holes in property, avoiding standing water in the open, covering food & sugary items, disposing of garbage properly etc.
          Houston : Homemade Cleaners for Green Cleaning        

Store-bought household cleaners are fast-acting and effective, but many people worry about the numerous chemicals they contain. When you’ve got children and pets who may be more likely to accidentally ingest some of these cleaners, the concerns grow exponentially, along with worries about what these cleaners can do to the environment. To put your mind at ease, here are some safe, simple green cleaners to keep all of the new homes in Texas clean and sparkling.

Lemon Juice. The natural citric acid found in lemons works well at cutting through grease and acts as a natural bleach, especially when combined with sunlight. Rejuvenate your cutting boards by sprinkling them with salt and then rubbing a cut lemon over the board.

Salt. The next time something like coffee or wine gets spilled on your carpet, reach for your salt shaker instead of a chemical cleaner. Salt, as well as being a natural abrasive, also helps soak up spills. Pour a generous amount of salt over any stain while it’s still wet. Let it dry and then vacuum.

Baking Soda. An open box of baking soda in the refrigerator is a common sight, thanks to its reputation for helping control odors, but you can do much more with baking soda than just let it sit in the fridge. It can be used as a cleaner for sinks and tubs, without scratching the surface. When combined with equal amounts of vinegar, it can be used to clean tough stovetop messes and also help clean and freshen drains.

Distilled White Vinegar. One of the most versatile and affordable green cleaners is distilled white vinegar. It can be used to wash windows, make bathroom fixtures shiny, and sanitize kitchen counters. One part vinegar to four parts water will create a natural antibacterial cleaner that can be used for multiple purposes, including cleaning toilets and floors.

Vegetable Oil (Castile) Soap. For times when you need a natural soap for an all-purpose cleaner, turn to a vegetable oil soap, which can be mixed with warm water or a combination of water and vinegar. Keep a mixture ready in a spray bottle for easy kitchen and bathroom cleaning.

The beauty of natural cleaners like these is that they are often already on hand in most homes. Many of the ingredients can be purchased in bulk for just a few dollars, making it easy to put together your own cleaning solutions to keep new homes in Texas both clean and healthy.


          Kinetic Sand        
Make a little… INGREDIENTS 5 cups sand 1c+ 1/8 cup corn starch 1 teaspoon dish soap (e.g. Dawn Dishwashing Liquid) water (about 1 cup) optional: 1 teaspoon Tea Tree Oil (for antibacterial properties) DIRECTIONS Put sand in a container Add corn starch and mix thoroughly Mix water & dish soap, then add to sand Mix […]
          Antimicrobianos reduzem risco de morte por infecção avançada por HIV – (AIDS)        

  O estudo demonstrou diminuição do risco de morte e benefício de sobrevivência sem afetar a supressão viral Pontos de ação Para pessoas com infecção por HIV avançada[2], a profilaxia antimicrobiana aumentada reduz significativamente o risco de morte iminente por qualquer causa nos meses logo após o início da terapia antirretroviral. Note-se que a profilaxia antimicrobiana melhorada consistiu de trimetoprim contínua – sulfametoxazol além de pelo menos 12 semanas de isoniazida – piridoxina, de 12 semanas de fluconazol, 5 dias de azitromicina, e uma dose única de albendazol mitigando enfáticamente o risco de morte do que no grupo de controle onde ouve não apenas maoios risco e um percentual maior de mostes.   https://soropositivo.org   1 – Doenças Oportunistas Infecções Bacterianas – Diarréia Bacteriana Infecções Bacterianas O que é?   Nota do Editor de Soropositivo Web Site: Eu escolhi esta ideia pois é a que mais popularmente aceita, dado o fato que a explicação de uma doeça causada por esposos e fungos poderia ser menos compreendida bem como um caso sério de risco à exposição de bactérias. O pior local para se guardar a escova de dentes é no lavatório ou no armário do banheiro. Bactérias, às vezes “voam”… E [...]

O post Antimicrobianos reduzem risco de morte por infec̤̣o avan̤ada por HIV Р(AIDS) apareceu primeiro em Soropositivo. Org.


          Gonorreia não tratável pelo mundo        

. O boom da gonorreia não tratável está se espalhando pelo mundo, alerta a Organização Mundial da Saúde A Organização Mundial de Saúde fala da gonorreia não tratável como uma “situação muito séria”, depois de confirmar três casos conhecidos em que todos os antibióticos foram ineficazes contra a gonorreia não tratável . A OMS estima que 78 milhões de pessoas por ano contraem gonorreia intratável… Uma IST que pode infectar órgãos genitais, reto, garganta. E, também, os olhos, com consequências, facilmente previsíveis. Cepas intratáveis de gonorreia estão em ascensão, a Organização Mundial de Saúde  alertou. Alimentando temores de que as drogas em breve serão inúteis. Isso tudo depois de três casos em que os antibióticos tiveram comprovada ineficácia. A gonorreia é a segunda infecção bacteriana sexualmente transmissível mais comum no Reino Unido depois de clamídia, com quase 35.000 casos relatados na Inglaterra em 2014. A OMS estima que 78 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo contraem a doença a cada ano, com a maioria dos casos afetando homens jovens e mulheres com menos de 25 anos, portam esta gonorreia não tratável. O último alerta é baseado nos resultados de dois estudos, com a coautoria de pesquisadores da OMS. Analisando dados de 77 países; em mais de [...]

O post Gonorreia não tratável pelo mundo apareceu primeiro em Soropositivo. Org.


          Batch enrichment of anammox bacteria and study of the underlying microbial community dynamics        
Batch enrichment of anammox bacteria and study of the underlying microbial community dynamics Connan, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Khalil, Hassan; Bridoux, Gilbert; Béline, Fabrice; Magrí Aloy, Albert The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) consists on the biological conversion of ammonium (NH4+) into dinitrogen gas under absence of oxygen. Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate of the anammox reaction, but also an inhibitor at high concentrations. This study investigates the effect of nitrite on the microbial community during the batch enrichment of anammox sludge. Six inoculums collected from different environments were enriched after a conditioning pretreatment and under controlled conditions during 4 months. Concerning the mineral medium used, two different nitrite supply strategies were applied; i.e., (i) initially low concentration at 25 mg NO2-–N/L and progressive increase to 150 mg NO2-–N/L, and (ii) constant high concentration at 150 mg NO2-–N/L. All tested inoculums developed anammox activity but only when the enrichment was started at low nitrite concentration. In such case, the specific ammonium conversion rates finally obtained ranged from 21 ±1 to 118 ±1 mg NH4+–N/g VS/d (VS, volatile solids). Abundance of the functional gene encoding for the enzyme hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) was assessed using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) showing positive correlation with the anammox activity finally reported. In addition, high-throughput DNA sequencing helped to elucidate the underlying microbial community dynamics. The raw inoculum source, the conditioning pretreatment, and the cultivation conditions applied were jointly determinants of the final microbial community structure of the enrichments despite a clear convergence at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, the cultivation conditions alone determined the selection of anammox species belonging to the genus Candidatus Brocadia.
          Influence of support materials on methanogenic biofilm formation in ammonia rich environments        
Influence of support materials on methanogenic biofilm formation in ammonia rich environments Ruiz Sánchez, Josep; Fernández García, Belén; Viñas Canals, Marc; Guivernau Ribalta, Miriam; Tey, Laura; Riau Arenas, Victor; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier; Prenafeta Boldú, Francesc Xavier Ammonia is the main inhibitor of methanogenesis during the anaerobic digestion (AD) of protein-rich materials. Promoting biomass development as biofilm is a well-known strategy to overcome inhibition by toxic compounds in engineered AD systems. In the on-going study, the biofilm formation on three supports (zeolite, magnetite and nylon) and the bacterial acclimatisation of syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea (HMA) was successfully attained. The results suggest that magnetite and nylon could enhance the proliferation of SAOB above the support, while zeolite due to its capacity to retain ammonia in its structure avoid the presence of those communities.
          SEL        
A. SEJARAH PENEMUAN SEL
Sel adalah unit terkecil dalam organisme hidup, baik dalam dunia tumbuh-tumbuhan maupun hewan. Sel terdiri atas protoplasma, yaitu, isi sel yang terbungkus oleh suatu membran atau selaput sel.
Evolusi sains seringkali berada sejajar dengan penemuan peralatan yang memperluas indera manusia untuk bisa memasuki batas-batas baru. Penemuan dan kajian awal tentang sel memperoleh kemajuan sejalandengan penemuan dan penyempurnaan mikroskop pada abad ke tujuh belas. Sehingga mikroskop sejak awal tidak dapat dipisahkan dengan sejarah penemuan sel, yang dijelaskan sebagai berikut:
• Galileo Galilei (Awal Abad 17) dengan alat dua lensa menggambarkan struktur tipis dari mata serangga. Gallei sebenarnya bukan seorang biologiwan pertama yang mencatat hasil pengamatan biologi melalui mikroskop.
• Robert Hook (1635-1703) melihat gambaran satu sayatan tipis gabus suatu kompertemen atau ruang-ruang disebut dengan nama Latin cellulae (ruangan kecil), asal mula nama sel.
• Anton van Leeuwenhoek (24 Oktober 1632 – 26 Agustus 1723), menggunakan lensa-lensa untk melihat beragam spermatozoa, bakteri dan protista.
• Robert Brown (1733-1858) pada tahun 1`820 merancang lensa yang dapat lebih fokus untuk mengamati sel. Titik buram yang selalu ada pada sel telur, sel polen, sel dari jaringan anggrek yang sedang tumbuh. Titik buram disebut sebagai nukleus.

• Matias Jacob Schleiden pada tahun 1838 berpendapat bahwa ada hubungan yang erat antara nukleus dan perkembangan sel.
• Teodor Schwan (1810-18830): Sel adalah bagian dari organisme

B. TEORI SEL
Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) seorang ahli fisiologi menyatakan bahwa sel membelah menjadi dua sel. Sel berasal dar sel yang sudah ada.
Analis mikroskopis pada pertengahan abad 19 membuktikan bahwa sel adalah unit terkecil kehidupan yang berlangsung terus menerusberasal dari pertumbuhan dan pembelahan sel tunggal. Konsep-konsep tersebut menjadi teori sel:
1. Semua organisme tersusun atas satu se atau lebih sel
2. Sel adalah unit terkecil yang memiliki semua persyaratan hidup
3. Keberlangsungan kehidupan secara langsung berasal dari pertumbuhan dan pembelahan sel.

C. SEL PROKARIOTIK DAN EUKARIOTIK
Sel ialah satu unit kehidupan. Semua benda hidup baik hewan atau tumbuhan disusun oleh sel. Sel-sel ini berkumpul dan bergabung dengan adanya bahan antara sel diantaranya untuk membentuk jaringan seperti otot, tulang rawan dan saraf. Dalam keadaan tertentu beberapa jaringan bergabung dan membina organ seperti kelenjar, pembuluh darah, kulit dal lain-lain.
Di alam inikita dapat membagi sel ke dalam dua kelompok, yaitu sel prokariotik dan sel eukariotik. Istilah prokariotik, dibangun dari kata pro dan karyon. Pro, artinya sebelum dan kryon, artinya inti. Jadi sel prokariotiiik artiya ”sebelum inti”. Ini mengandung pengertian bahwa sel prokariotik bukannya tanpa inti, melainkan memiliki materi genetik yang tersebar di dalam sitplasmanya. Eukariot dibangun dari kata Eu da Karyon. Eu, berarti sungguh dan karyon berarti inti. Jadi sel eukariotik adalah sel-sel yang telah memiliki inti sel, atau sel yang memiliki materi inti yang terorganisasi dalam suatu selaput, sehingga inti selnya tampak jelas (Sumardi dan Marianti, 2007).
Telah diketahui bahwa semua organisme hidup di bumi sekarang berasal dari sel tunggal yang lahir 3.500 berjuta-juta tahun yang lalu. Sel purba ini digambarkan dengan suatu selaput di sebelah luar, salah satu peristiwa yang rumit yang memimpin penetapan hidup di atas bumi. Molekul organik sederhana tersebut mungkin telah diproduksi dalam kondisi-kondisi yang memungkinkannya hidup dan lestari di bumi dalam status awal hidpunya (kira-kira selama milyaran tahun pertamanya).
• Sel Prokariot
Yang termasuk di dalam golongan sel-sel prokariotik adalah bakteri dan ganggang hijau-biru atau Cyanobacteria. Struktur sel bakteri dapat di lihat pada gambar berikut:

Berdasarkan gambar di atas, dapat dilihat di bagian dalam membran plasma terdapat sitoplasma, ribosom dan nukleoid. Sitoplasma dapat mengandung vakuola, vesikel (vakuola kecil) dan menyimpa cadangan gula komplek atau bahan-bahan organik. Ribosom terdapat bebas di dalam sitoplasma dan tempat terjadinya sintesis protein.

• Sel Eukariot
Sel-sel eukariotik memiliki struktur yang lebh maju dari pada sel-sel prokariotik. Sel pada umumnya terlihat sebagai massa yang jenih dengan bentuk yang tidak teratur, dibatasi oleh sutu selaput dan ditengah-tengahnya tedapat bangunan yang lebih pucat yang bentuknya bulat, disebut nnukleus atau inti sel. Jadi secara umum sel itu dibina oleh selaput atau membran sel, plasma sel, dan inti sel. Di bawah dapat dilihat struktur sel eukariotik (sel hewan dan sel tumbuhan):

a. Membran Sel
Membran plasma merupakan batas kehidupan, batas yang memisahkan sel hidup dengan sekelilingnya yang mati. Lapisan tipis yan luar biasa ini tebalnya kira-kira 8 nm. Seperti semua membran biologis, membran plasma memiliki permeabilitas selektif, yakni membran ini memungkinkan beberapa substansi dapat melintasinya dengan mudah daripada substansi lainnya. (Campbell, dkk., 2002)
Berikut dapat dilihat struktur dari membran plasma:

Secara umum, fungsi membran plasma adalah sebagai berikut (Landriani, 2007) :
1. Mengatur transport zat
2. Melindungi sitoplasma dan isi sel
3. Terdapat protein integral untuk transport aktif
4. Terdapat protein perifer untuk menangkap zat yang dibutuhkan

b. Sitoplasma
Sitoplasma disebut juga plasma sel. Istilah ini digunakan untuk memberikan nama dari cairan sel dan segala sesuatu yang terlarut di dalamnya, untuk membedakan cairan yang berada dalam inti sel, yaitu nukleoplasma.

Sitoplasma berada dalam sistem koloid kompleks, sebagian besar adalah air yang di dalamnya terlarut molekul- molekul kecil maupun besar (makromolekul), ion-ion, dan bahan hidup atau organel-organel. Organel-organel yang terdapat dalam sitoplasma antara lain:
a) Retikulum endoplasma
Retikulum endoplasma berupa sistem membran yang sangat luas di dalam sel, berupa saluran-saluran dan tabung pipih. Ruang yang terkurung itu mungkin saling berhubungan Retikulum endoplasma ada dua jenis, yaitu:
- RE kasar atau bergranula
- RE halus atau tak bergranula

RE kasar kerana terdapat unit-unit ribosom pada permukaan external membrannya. RE halus tidak mempunyai ribosom pada permukaannya. RE licin banyak terdapat dalam sel-sel hepar dan kelenjar adrenal.
b) Ribosom
Ribosom merupakan struktur yang paling kecil yang tersuspensi di dalam sitoplasmanya. Bentuknya agak bulat, dengan diameter kurang lebih 250 A. Fungsi ribosom adalah sebagai tempat sintesis protein. Di bawah mikroskop elektron, tampak bahwa ribosom terdiri dari dua bagian, yang satu leih besar dari yang lain:

c) Badan Golgi
Badan Golgi terbentuk oleh susunan lempengan kantong-kantong yang khas dikelilingi membran. Lempengan kantong ini disebut sisterna. Dalam sel tumbuhan, badan Golgi terdiri atas susunan dari beberapa sisterna. Pada penghujung kantong terdapat kantong-kantong bulat kecil atau vesikula yang menempel dan yang seolaholah terjentik dari ujung kantong yang berukuran lebih besar (Sheeler and Bianchi, 1987).

Badan Golgi sebagai organel sel eukariotik mempunyai fungsi yang beragam, antara lain (Sheeler and Bianchi, 1987):
1) Mengemas bahan-bahan sekresi yang akan dibebas-kan dari sel,
2) Memproses protein-protein yang telah disintesa oleh ribosom dari retikulum endoplasma,
3) Mensintesa polisakarida tertentu dan glycolipids,
4) Memilih protein untuk berbagai lokasi di dalam sel,
5) Memperbanyak elemen membran yang baru bagi membran plasma, dan
6) Memproses kembali komponen-komponen membran plasma yang telah memasuki sitosol selama endositosis. Badan golgi berperan dalam banyak proses selular yang berbeda tetapi yang utama adalah dalam hal sekresi.

d) Mitokondria
Mitokondria berbentuk lonjong atau oval, berdiameter kurang lebih 0,2 µm. Mitokndra memiliki membran rangkap, membran dalam membentuk lipata-lipatan yang dinamakan krista. Di dalam sel jumanya banya sekali, terutama pada sel-se yang giat bekerja seperti hat, ginjal, dan sel-sel otot. Fungsi utama dari mitokondria adalah sebagai tempat respirasi sel atau sebagai pembangkit energi.


e) Lisosom
Lisosom adalah struktur-struktur kecil, berbentuk agak bulat dan bermembran. Ia merupakan organel sitoplasma yang mengandung berbagai jenis enzim hidrolisis. Dapat dibedakan atas lisosom primer dan lisosom sekunder. Lisosom hanya ditemukan pada sel hewan saja.


f) Kloroplast
Kloroplast hanya terdapat pad tumbuhan dan ganggang tertentu. Kloroplas dibatasi oleh membran rangkap, di dalamnya terdapat cairan atau matriks fluid yang disebut stroma, dapat dilihat pada gambar berikut:

Berdasarkan gambar dapat dilihat bahwa pada bagian dalam stroma terdapat struktur yang membran yang dinamakan tilakoid. Tumpukan tilakoid disebut granum. Bagian dalam tilakoid disebut lokulus. Tilakoid yang menghubungkan antar grana disebut fret. Di dalam membran tilakoidterdapat enzim-enzim untuk kelengkapan reaksi terang fotsintesis, dan di sinilah terdapatnya lorofil. Jadi fungsi tilakoid adalah sebagai tempat berlangsungnya reaksi terang fotosintesis. Sedangkan pada stroma terdapat enzim-enzim yang sangat penting untuk reduksi CO2 menjadi kabohidrat. Jadi fungsi stroma adalah tempat berlangsungya reaksi gelap fotosintesis
g) Peroksisom
Peroksisom merupakan ruangan metabolisme khusus yang dilingkupi oleh membran tunggal (gambar). Peroksisom mengandung enzim yang mentransfer hidrogen dari berbagai substrat ke oksigen, yang menghasilkan hidrogen peroksida (H2O2) sebagai produk samping, dari sinilah organel tersebut mengambil namanya.

Peroksisom berbentuk agak bulat dan sering memiliki inti butiran atau kristal yang mungkin saja kumpulan banyak enzim. Peroksisom ini berada dalam sel daun. Berdasarkan gambar di atas dapat dilihat kedekatannya dengan dua keloroplastdan sat mitokondria. Organel-organel ini bekerja sama dengan peroksisom dalam fungsi metabolisme tertentu.
h) Vakuola
Vakuola dan vesikula merupakan kantung terikat membran di dalam sel, tetapi vakuola lebih besar daripada vesikula. Vakuola sentral biasanya merupakan ruangan terbesar di dalam sel tumbuhan, yang meliput 80% atau lebih dari sel dewasanya. Vakuola sel tumbuhan merupakan ruangan yang serbaguna. Vakuola ini merupakan tempat menyimpan senyawa organik, seperti protein yang ditumpuk dalam vakuoa sel penyimpanan dalam benih. Vakuola ini juga ,erupakan tempat penimbunan ion anorganik yang utama dari sel tumbuhan, seperti kalium dan klorida.

c. Inti Sel
Nukleus merupakan organel yang paling penting bagi sel. Ada sel yang mempunyai dua nukleus seperti sel otot jantung dan ada multinukleus seperti sel otot rangka. Dari segi morfologi, nukleus terdiri atas:
a) membran nukleus
b) kromatin
c) nukleolus
d) nukleoplasma

Inti sel berbentuk bulat atau lonjong, dibatasi oleh membran rangkap. Fungsi inti sel adalah sebagai pusat aktivitas sel dan sebagai pengatur pewarisan sifat-sifat keturunan (kromosom).

D. PERBEDAAN SEL PROKARIOT DAN EUKARIOT
Berikut adalah tabel perbedaan sel prokatiot dan eukariot:



DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Anonim, 2007, Teori Sel, http://biodas.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/02-sejarah-teori-sel-jenis-sel.pdf (13 September 2008).

Anonim, 2007, Kuliah2, http://www.vet.upm.edu.my/vpm2010/Kuliah2.pdf (13 September 2008).

Campbell, N.A., dkk., 2002, Biologi, Erlangga, Jakarta.

Sumardi dan Marianti, A., 2007, Biologi Sel, Graha Ilmu,Yogyakarta.
          Yikes! Blowing out birthday candles ups bacteria on cake by 1,400%        

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          Faith and Science, Falsely So-Called        

[Editor’s Note: This article was first published in the earliest days of the GTY Blog. As we recently culled through the ministry archives in preparation for a new blog series on God’s work of creation—which coincides with the broadcast of The Battle for the Beginning sermon series on “Grace to You”—we believed this post deserved further consideration.]

The apostle Paul closed his first epistle to Timothy by urging the young pastor to guard the deposit of truth that had been entrusted to him, “avoiding the profane and idle babblings and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge” (1 Timothy 6:20-21). In the King James Version, the text famously speaks of “science falsely so called."

Over the course of human history, all kinds of speculative ideas have been falsely labeled “science” and mistakenly accepted as true and reliable knowledge by otherwise brilliant people. The now-discredited dogmas of older scientific theories are numerous—and in some cases laughable. They include alchemy (the medieval belief that other base metals could be transmuted into gold); phrenology (the Victorian belief that the shape of one’s skull reflects character traits and mental capacity); astrology (the pagan belief that human destiny is determined by the motions of celestial bodies); and abiogenesis (the long-standing belief that living organisms are spontaneously generated by decaying organic substances). All those false beliefs were deemed credible as “science” by the leading minds of their times.

Consider just one of those—abiogenesis. Popularly known as “spontaneous generation,” this idea has long been, and continues to be, one of the archetypal expressions of “science falsely so called.” It is also one of the most persistent of all demonstrably pseudoscientific fictions. The notion that aphids arise naturally from dew on plant leaves, mold is generated automatically by aging bread, and maggots are spontaneously begotten by rotting meat was more or less deemed self-evident by most of humanity’s brightest intellects from the time of Aristotle until 1861, when Louis Pasteur conclusively proved that non-living matter cannot spawn life on its own.

Take for example Alexander Ross, an early seventeenth-century Scottish writer and intellectual who harshly criticized Sir Thomas Browne for questioning the dogma of spontaneous generation. Under the heading “Mice and other vermin bred of putrefaction, even in mens bodies,” he wrote:

He doubts whether mice can be procreated of putrefaction. So he may doubt whether in cheese and timber worms are generated; Or if Betels and wasps in cowes dung; Or if butterflies, locusts, grasshoppers, shel-fish, snails, eeles, and such like, be procreated of putrefied matter, which is apt to receive the form of that creature to which it is by the formative power disposed. To question this, is to question Reason, Sense, and Experience: If he doubts of this, let him go to Egypt, and there he will finde the fields swarming with mice begot of the mud of [the Nile]. [1]Alexander Ross, Arcana Microcosmi, (London: Newcomb, 1652), Book 2, Chapter 10, 156.]

It is one of the great ironies of scientific history that the first edition of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published exactly two years before Pasteur’s famous experiments proved that life cannot arise spontaneously from non-living matter. The publication of Darwin’s book marked the apotheosis of evolutionary theory, and it was rooted in the basic presupposition that under the right circumstances, life can spring on its own from non-living matter. In other words, two years before abiogenesis was scientifically debunked, it was in effect canonized as the central dogma of modern secular belief about the origins of life. The discovery that fleas don’t magically form out of decomposing dander on the backs of dirty dogs did not dissuade most in the scientific world from embracing the theory that all life in the universe arose by itself out of nothing. The belief that life spontaneously came from non-life remains to this day the great unexplained (albeit easily disprovable) assumption underlying the dogma of evolution.

The irony of that is utterly lost on many in the scientific community today, where evolution has become an article of faith—unshakable faith, it turns out.

Evolutionists have conveniently “solved” the problem of abiogenesis by repeatedly moving their estimates of the earth’s age backward toward infinity. Given enough time, it seems, anything is possible. Trying desperately to keep the biblical concept of eternity at bay, evolutionists have thus devised an alternative kind of infinitude. Every time a challenge to current evolutionary theory arises, geologists and astronomers dutifully tack billions and billions of eons onto their theories about the earth’s age, adding however many ancient epochs are deemed necessary for some new impossibility to be explained.

In the introduction to my 2001 book, The Battle for the Beginning, I suggested naturalism had become the dominant religion of contemporary secular society. “Religion is exactly the right word to describe naturalism,” I wrote. “The entire philosophy is built on a faith-based premise. Its basic presupposition—a rejection of everything supernatural—requires a giant leap of faith. And nearly all its supporting theories must be taken by faith as well.” [2] John MacArthur, The Battle for the Beginning, (Nashville: W Publishing Group, 2001), 11.

Here, then, is a classic example of what I was talking about: the typical evolutionist’s starting point is this notion that life arose spontaneously from inanimate matter sometime in eternity past. That requires not merely the willful suspension of what we know for certain about the origins of life and the impossibility of abiogenesis—but also enough deliberate gullibility to believe that moving-target estimates of the earth’s antiquity can sufficiently answer all the problems and contradictions sheer naturalism poses.

Meanwhile, in the popular media, evolutionary doctrine and ever-expanding notions of prehistory are being promoted with all the pious zeal of the latest religious sect. Watch the Internet forums, programs on the Discovery Channel, interviews and articles published in the mass media, school textbooks, and books aimed at lay readers—and what you will usually see is raw assertions, demagoguery, intimidation, and ridicule (especially when the subjects of biblical theism and the Genesis account of creation are raised).

But question the dogma that all life evolved from a single spontaneously-generated cell, point out that the universe is full of evidence for intelligent design, or demand the kind of proof for evolutionary origins that would ordinarily pass scientific muster, and the ardent evolutionist will simply dismiss you as a heretic or a bigot of the worst stripe. What they are tacitly acknowledging is that as far as they are concerned, evolution is a doctrine that must be received with implicit faith, not something that can be scientifically demonstrated. After all, the claims of true science can always be investigated, observed, reproduced, tested, and proved in the laboratory. So to insist that evolution and so-called “deep time” doctrines must be accepted without question is really just a tacit admission that these are not scientific ideas at all.

Consider these quotations from typical evolutionist writers:

  • No biologist today would think of submitting a paper entitled “New evidence for evolution;” it simply has not been an issue for a century. [3] Douglas J. Futuyma, Evolutionary Biology, 2nd ed., (Boston: Sinauer Associates, 1986), 15.
  • It is time for students of the evolutionary process, especially those who have been misquoted and used by the creationists, to state clearly that evolution is a fact, not theory. . . . All present forms of life arose from ancestral forms that were different. Birds arose from nonbirds and humans from nonhumans. No person who pretends to any understanding of the natural world can deny these facts. [4] R. C. Lewontin, “Evolution/creation debate: A time for truth,” Bioscience (1981), 31:559.
  • Here is what separates real scientists from the pseudoscientists of the school of intelligent design. . . . One thing all real scientists agree upon is the fact of evolution itself. It is a fact that we are cousins of gorillas, kangaroos, starfish, and bacteria. Evolution is as much a fact as the heat of the sun. It is not a theory, and for pity’s sake, let’s stop confusing the philosophically naive by calling it so. Evolution is a fact. [5] Richard Dawkins, “The Illusion of Design,” Natural History (November 2005), 53.

But as those statements themselves show, evolution is a dogma, not a demonstrable “fact.” I stand by the position I took in The Battle for the Beginning: “Belief in evolutionary theory is a matter of sheer faith. [It is] as much a religion as any theistic world-view.” [6] The Battle for the Beginning, 12.

I’ll go even further: science cannot speak with any authority about when the universe began, how it came into being, or how life originated on earth. Science by definition deals with what can be observed, tested, measured, and investigated by empirical means. Scientific data by definition are facts that can be demonstrated by controlled, repeatable experiments that always yield consistent results. The beginning of the universe by its very nature falls outside the realm of scientific investigation.

To state the case plainly: there is no scientific way to explain creation. No one but God actually observed creation. It did not happen by any uniform, predictable, observable, repeatable, fixed, or natural laws. It was not a natural event or a series of natural events. The initial creation of matter was an instantaneous, monumental, inexplicable miracle—the exact opposite of a “natural” phenomenon. And the formation of the universe was a brief series of supernatural events that simply cannot be studied or explained by science. There are no natural processes involved in creation; the act of creation cannot be repeated; it cannot be tested; and therefore naturalistic theories purporting to explain the origin and age of the universe are unverifiable.

In other words, creation is a theological issue, not a scientific one. Scripture is our only credible source of information about creation, because God Himself was the only eyewitness to the event. We can either believe what He says or reject it. But no Christian should ever imagine that what we believe about the origin of the universe is merely a secondary, nonessential, or incidental matter. It is, after all, the very starting point of God’s self-revelation.

In fact, in its profound brevity, Genesis 1:1 is a very simple, clear, and unequivocal account of how the universe, the earth, and everything on the earth came to be: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” That is not an ambiguous statement.

Christians should not be intimidated by dogmatic naturalism. We do not need to invent a new interpretation of Genesis every time some geologist or astronomer declares that the universe must be older than he previously thought. Nor should we imagine that legitimate science poses any threat to the truth of Scripture. Above all, we must not seek ways to circumvent the clear meaning of God’s Word, compromise our trust in the Creator, or continually yield ground to every new theory of falsely-so-called science. That is precisely what Paul was warning Timothy about.

Sadly, it seems evolutionary thinking and qualms about the Genesis account of creation have reached epidemic levels among professing Christians in recent decades. Too many Christian leaders, evangelical schools, and Bible commentators have been willing to set aside the biblical account of a relatively young earth in order to accommodate the ever-changing estimates of naturalistic geologists and astronomers. They have thrown away sound hermeneutical principles—at least in the early chapters of Genesis—to accommodate the latest theories of evolution.

When I encounter people who think evolutionary doctrine trumps the biblical account of creation, I like to ask them where their belief in the Bible kicks in. Is it in chapter 3, where the fall of Adam and original sin are accounted for? In chapters 4-5, where early human history is chronicled? In chapters 6-8, with the record of the flood? In chapter 11, with the Tower of Babel? Because if you bring naturalism and its presuppositions to the early chapters of Genesis, it is just a short step to denying all the miracles of Scripture—including the resurrection of Christ. If we want to make science the test of biblical truth rather than vice versa, why would it not make just as much sense to question the biblical record of the resurrection as it does to reject the Genesis account? But “if Christ is not risen, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins! . . . If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men the most pitiable” (1 Corinthians 15:17-19).

 

       

           Diversity of toxin and non-toxin containing cyanobacterial mats of meltwater ponds on the Antarctic Peninsula: a pyrosequencing approach         
Kleinteich, J., Hildebrand, F., Wood, S.A., Cirés, Samuel, Agha, R., Quesada, A., Pearce, D.A., Convey, P., Küpper, F.C., and Dietrich, D.R. (2014) Diversity of toxin and non-toxin containing cyanobacterial mats of meltwater ponds on the Antarctic Peninsula: a pyrosequencing approach. Antarctic Science, 26 (5). pp. 521-532.
           Environment drives high phylogenetic turnover among oceanic bacterial communities         
Pommier, Thomas, Douzery, Emmanuel J.P., and Mouillot, David (2012) Environment drives high phylogenetic turnover among oceanic bacterial communities. Biology Letters, 8 (4). pp. 562-566.
          Why Do Some Foodborne Bacteria Make Us Sick?        

A UC Davis study published Sept. 16 in the journal Science has found that pathogens in the intestinal tract cause harm because they benefit from immune system responses designed to repair the very damage to the intestinal lining caused by the bacteria in the first place.

(PRWeb September 16, 2016)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/09/prweb13692249.htm


          Texas A&M Research Aids Military in Fighting Brucellosis on the Battlefield        

Researchers at Texas A&M Health Science Center (TAMHSC) are nearing completion of the first human Brucella vaccine aimed at combatting the Brucella bacteria that cause brucellosis, a chronic disease that causes high fever and incapacitation.

(PRWeb August 22, 2013)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/8/prweb11050830.htm


          Michael Lavagnino        
Mechanical Engineering
PhD Engineering Mechanics, Michigan State University, 2007
MS Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 1998
MSE Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 1998
BS Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1996
T. David Sisk Award for Best Original Research Paper, Sports Health Journal, 2011 “Infrapatellar Straps Decrease Patellar Tendon Strain at the Site of the Jumper’s Knee Lesion: A Computational Analysis Based on Radiographic Measurements”
New Investigator Recognition Awards Finalist, Orthopaedic Research Society, 2011 “In situ deflection of tendon cell cilia in response to tensile loading: An in vitro study.”
Cabaud Memorial Award, The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, 2008 “Patellar tendon strain is increased at the site of the jumper’s knee lesion during knee flexion and tendon loading: Results and cadaveric testing of a computational model.”

Effective teaching, Curriculum development, Tendon mechanobiology, biomechanics, orthopaedics

Lavagnino M, Brooks AE, Oslapas AN, Gardner KL, Arnoczky SP. Crimp Length Decreases in Lax Tendons due to Cytoskeletal Tension, but is Restored with Tensional Homeostasis. 2016 Nov 23. doi: 10.1002/jor.23489. [Epub ahead of print]
Lavagnino M, Oslapas AN, Gardner KL, Arnoczky SP. Hypoxia Inhibits Primary Cilia Formation and Reduces Cell-Mediated Contraction in Stress-Deprived Rat Tail Tendon Fascicles Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 6(2):193-197, 2016.
Rashmir-Raven AM, Lavagnino M, Sedlak A, Gardner KL, Arnoczky SP. Increased susceptibility of skin from HERDA (Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia)-affected horses to bacterial collagenase degradation: a potential contributing factor to the clinical signs of HERDA. Vet Dermatol. 26(6):476-80, 2015.
Lavagnino M, Madison J, Williams MR, Arnoczky SP. The Equine Suspensory Ligament Exhibits a Heterogeneous Strain Pattern under Tensile Load. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 28(5):306-11, 2015.
Lavagnino M, Gardner KL, Arnoczky SP. High magnitude, in vitro, biaxial, cyclic tensile strain induces actin depolymerization in tendon cells. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 5(2):124-128, 2015.
Lavagnino M, Malek K, Gardner KL, Arnoczky SP. Thermal energy enhances cell-mediated contraction of lax rat tail tendon fascicles following exercise. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 5(1):51-55, 2015.
Lavagnino M, Wall ME, Little D, Banes AJ, Guilak F, Arnoczky SP. Tendon mechanobiology: Current knowledge and future research opportunities. J Orthop Res. 33(6):813-822, 2015.
Lavagnino M, Bedi A, Walsh CP, Sibilsky Enselman ER, Sheibani-Rad S, Arnoczky SP. Tendon Contraction After Cyclic Elongation Is an Age-Dependent Phenomenon: In Vitro and In Vivo Comparisons. Am J Sports Med 42(6):1471-1477, 2014.
Brown S, Stubbs NC, Kaiser LJ, Lavagnino M, Clayton HM. Swing phase kinematics of horses trotting over poles. Equine Vet J. 47(1):107-112, 2015.
Clayton HM, Stubbs NC, Lavagnino M. Stance phase kinematics and kinetics of horses trotting over poles. Equine Vet J. 47(1):113-118, 2015.
Lavagnino M, Gardner K, Sedlak AM, Arnoczky SP. Tendon cell ciliary length as a biomarker of in situ cytoskeletal tensional homeostasis. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J 11;3(3):118-121, 2013.
Halley SE, Bey MJ, Haladik JA, Lavagnino M, Arnoczky SP: Three dimensional, radiosteriometric analysis (RSA) of equine stifle kinematics and articular surface contact: A cadaveric study. Equine Vet J 46(3):364-369, 2014.
Lavagnino M, Gardner K, Arnoczky SP: Age Related Changes in the Cellular, Mechanical, and Contractile Properties of Rat Tail Tendons. Connect Tissue Res 54(1):70-75, 2013.
Wintz LR, Lavagnino M, Gardner KL, Sedlak AM, Arnoczky SP: Age-dependent effects of systemic administration of oxytetracycline on the viscoelastic properties of rat tail tendons as a mechanistic basis for pharmacological treatment of flexural limb deformities in foals. Am J Vet Res 73(12):1951-1956, 2012.
Clayton HM, Kaiser LJ, Lavagnino M, Stubbs NC: Evaluation of intersegmental vertebral motion during performance of dynamic mobilization exercises in cervical lateral bending in horses. Am J Vet Res 73(8):1153-1159, 2012.
Clayton HM, Belock B, Lavagnino M, Kaiser LJ: Forces and pressures on the horse's back during bareback riding. Vet J 195(1):48-52, 2013.
Gardner KL, Lavagnino M, Egerbacher M, Arnoczky SP: Re-establishment of cytoskeletal tensional homeostasis in lax tendons occurs through an actin-mediated cellular contraction of the extracellular matrix. J Orthop Res 30(11):1695-1701, 2012.
Belock B, Kaiser LJ, Lavagnino M, Clayton HM: Comparison of pressure distribution under a conventional saddle and a treeless saddle at sitting trot. Vet J 193(1):87-91, 2012.
Fowlie JG, Arnoczky SP, Lavagnino M, Stick JA: Stifle extension results in differential tensile forces developing between abaxial and axial components of the cranial meniscotibial ligament of the equine medial meniscus: A mechanistic explanation for meniscal tear patterns. Equine Vet J 44(5):554-558, 2012.
Fowlie J, Arnoczky S, Lavagnino M, Maerz T, Stick J: Resection of Grade III cranial horn tears of the equine medial meniscus alter the contact forces on medial tibial condyle at full extension: an in-vitro cadaveric study. Vet Surg 40(8):957-965, 2011.
Clayton HM, Lavagnino M, Kaiser LJ, Stubbs NC: Evaluation of biomechanical effects of four stimulation devices placed on the hind feet of trotting horses. Am J Vet Res 72(11):1489-1495, 2011.
Clayton HM, Lavagnino M, Kaiser LJ, Stubbs NC: Swing phase kinematic and kinetic response to weighting the hind pasterns. Equine Vet J 43(2):210-215, 2011.
Lavagnino M, Dodds J, Arnoczky S, Elvin N: Infrapatellar Straps Decrease Patellar Tendon Strain at the Site of the Jumper's Knee Lesion: A Computational Analysis Based on Radiographic Measurements.. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach 3:296-302, 2011
Lavagnino M, Arnoczky SP, Gardner K: In situ deflection of tendon cell-cilia in response to tensile loading: an in vitro study. J Orthop Res 29(6):925-930, 2011.
Gardner KL, Arnoczky SP, Lavagnino M: The Effect of In vitro Stress Deprivation and Cyclic Loading on the Length of Tendon Cell Cilia in situ. J Orthop Res 29(4):582-587, 2011.
Clayton HM, Larson B, Kaiser LJ, Lavagnino M.: Length and elasticity of side reins affect rein tension at trot. Vet J 188(3):291-294, 2011.
Degree Programs: 
Mechanical Engineering

          Bacterial Vaginosis Over the Counter Treatment        
Bacterial vaginosis can be difficult for some women to get rid of. Others just take some probiotics and poof, it is gone. Most women that end up going to a doctor get antibiotics. Antibiotics will most likely work but often, women will get a recurrent bout of BV within a few months. The problem hasn't really been solved. You want a natural approach, a bacterial vaginosis over the counter treatment that works.




Doctors don't even know what actually causes BV. They just know what has occured to bring bacterial vaginosis on. They call it an overgrowth of bad bacteria, but they don't know what triggers this overgrowth. In my opinion it is due to our poor diet and general ill health. People are getting sick left and right and every time you turn around someone is getting cancer.




So, like me, you can switch to a really health diet and stop eating junk. You know, fresh food, nothing that has been prepared. No take-out food, no restaurant food. No frozen food. Take the time to cook and eat as much raw veggies and fruit as possible.




Odds are you have thought that you could wash your problem away. Most women try the route of washing or douching, thinking the problem has to do with cleanliness. This is the wrong approach and will not solve Bacterial Vaginosis.




If you want to know the Home Remedy for Bacterial Vaginosis check out that site that has some good info for you on a more natural approach.




Odds are you have thought that you could wash your problem away. Most women try the route of washing or douching, thinking the problem has to do with cleanliness. This is the wrong approach and will not solve Bacterial Vaginosis.




You cannot wash this problem away. It didn't start because you were unclean and it won't go away just because you start washing and douching. And don't use special wipes with alcohol or fragrance or lotion or baby wipes. That stuff isn't good for helping and could be part of the problem.




Start taking loads of good bacteria, called probiotics. This good bacteria can help fight off the bad bacteria that is causing BV.

bacterial vaginosis: bv treatment

bacterial vaginosis: bacterial vaginosis over the counter treatment


          Bacterial Vaginosis Natural Treatment Probiotics        
The research into probiotics and the understanding of beneficial bacteria within our bodies is growing rapidly. It has become very obvious that probiotics play a tremendous role in our daily health from vitamin absorption to fighting off common and uncommon diseases and problems that afflict us on a daily basis.




Health Benefits of Probiotics




* Studies have found that probiotics may improve nutrient bioavailability, for B vitamins, calcium, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium and phosphorus, among others.
* Pediatric studies have found that certain strains (such as Lactobacillus GG, found in Culturelle capsules) may aid in significantly decreasing the rate of acute diarrhea and rotavirus shedding. Parents also reported a 25% decrease in diaper rash among babies drinking formula containing probiotics.
* Probiotics and active bacteria culture may improve lactose intolerance. The bacterial strain commonly used in yogurt can produce lactase enzymes. Therefore, people with lactose intolerance and children suffering from intestinal infection can usually tolerate yogurt with an active culture.
* Some studies have shown that by regulating intestinal transit time, probiotics improve constipation among the elderly.
* Other studies have shown that probiotics, especially acidophilus, promote the growth of healthy bacteria in the colon and reduce the conversion of bile into carcinogens (cancer- causing substances).
* Some studies have found that probiotics may enhance immunity by regulating lymphocytes and antibodies.




What can probiotics do for women and their health?





Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 are the worlds most documented probiotic strains for women’s health. They were selected for their ability to interfere with infectivity of a range of bacteria and yeast in the vagina, as well as confer benefits to the intestine and reduce the risk of bladder infections.




Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 has been shown to adhere to cells in the bladder, vagina and intestine. Some people believe this is key to its ability to promote health, but in fact, it is only one of the important attributes. The organism displaces and prevents adhesion by intestinal and urogenital pathogens, inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria and yeast, can kill HIV and other viruses through its acid production, and stops pathogens from forming clumps or biofilms that are very difficult for drugs to eradicate. It is innately resistant to vancomycin and spermicidal nonoxynol-9. The strain induces an anti-inflammatory effect and modulates factors that would otherwise increase a woman’s risk of preterm labor.




Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 adheres to bladder, vaginal, and intestinal cells displaces and prevents adhesion by intestinal and urogenital pathogens, inhibits the growth of these harmful organisms and can kill HIV and other viruses through its acid production. It produces hydrogen peroxide that many believe is important in vaginal health. It also produces signaling factors that disarm toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus, the bacterium that causes so many hospital infections and deaths (the “superbug”). Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 also possesses immune modulatory activity.




Probiotics are completely safe and fall into the category of natural treatment in the home. They are commonly available and inexpensive.





bacterial vaginosis: treatment for bv

bacterial vaginosis: bacterial vaginosis cure


          FAKE SCIENCE dominates Florida. Bullsugar explains it all for you ... by gimleteye        
NOTE: The heart of Florida's water emergency is the sacrifice of the public interest by Gov. Rick Scott and Republican aspirants including Adam Putnam and their embrace of FAKE SCIENCE. That is to say: using science to fit predetermined outcomes instead of letting science instruct policy. It is no coincidence that President Trump has embraced the same enthusiasm for FAKE SCIENCE.

There is only one way to put this lethal idiocy to rest: voters must to make their decisions based on the priority of removing the GOP from power in the state legislature and in Congress.

2018 is just around the corner. Be informed, now.

****

Last week, and three years running now, Lake Okeechobee was covered in blue-green algae. In 2015 and 2016, it turned into extremely toxic cyanobacteria. In 2017, it will in all likelihood do the same.

Fortunately, initial FDEP test results have not detected toxins in the water yet. However, a bloom that tests non-toxic one day can turn toxic the next. We need frequent, scheduled testing with published results so we know as soon as the water is unsafe to touch.
In 2015, Bullsugar.org broke the story on social media. Once it was public, Joe Negron told the Army Corps to close the locks, and they did -- for a whole two days, before resuming the dumping at high volume.

In 2016, the bloom was visible from space, and the toxic discharges coated our estuaries and beaches in putrid "guacamole-thick" slime.

NASA 2016 satellite image of Lake O algae bloom

While this created a national embarrassment for Florida, and awoke many to the links between cyanobacteria and scary diseases like liver cancer, Alzheimer's and ALS -- some of sugar's closest friends (like US Rep Tom Rooney) continued to insist "Lake O was not toxic" and Martin County septic tanks were to blame for the toxic mess.

To which everyone with a brain, eyes and a conscience said, ahem, "Bullsugar."

So now the Lake is once again covered in blue-green algae.

Thanks to Jacqui Thurlow Lippisch and her husband Ed for this shot

After three years in a row, isn't it clear that The Weather Channel got it right last December -- Lake Okeechobee has a toxic algae problem?

Can we agree it is immoral and unacceptable to discharge toxins on the nearly million people who live, work and play along the path of discharges to the St. Lucie and Caloosahatchee, let alone without warning them? In 2017, in the United States of America?

Can we agree that it would be criminally negligent to delay the solution, or only do a half-way solution? That $20 billion worth of Everglades Restoration needs a written goal of "Zero Toxic Discharges?"
Is there a Florida politician who will introduce legislation with these 4 points?
  1.  Our government shouldn’t poison us.
  2.  If our government must poison us because the plumbing is broken, warn us first.
  3.  CERP is a $20 BILLION project, and counting. Fix the plumbing so you don’t poison us anymore, and do it as fast as possible.
  4.  We (the taxpayers and the ones being poisoned) expect and deserve #3 in writing.Make it a written goal of CERP. Zero Toxic Discharges.
Due to a dry spring Lake O is not yet high enough for another bout of toxic discharges this year, and for that we are grateful. The Toxic Summer of 2016 was one we don't want to repeat ever again.  But what about the people who live, work and play near Lake Okeechobee?
Last year, the sugar industry called us "rich, coastal elites" for complaining about the slime, and said we were trying to use the algae bloom to attack Glades residents. As we dealt with the green slime, we did not feel "elite." Our aim was not to destroy others but to protect our residents against what has clearly been identified as a serious public health hazard.
On the coasts, local county health departments warned people to stay out of the water and avoid eating fish from the estuary.

Local coastal county health departments warned people to stay out of the water
As far as we know, there were no such warnings on Lake Okeechobee where there was a 200 square mile toxic algae bloom. Children played in the water at lakeside beaches. Residents and tourists ate the fish from the Lake. Workers in the EAA dealt with irrigation water from the Lake.
Those who claimed that they were the ones who cared about Glades lives -- Glades Lives Matter, Clewiston Chamber of Commerce, Lake O Business Alliance, EAA Farmers and many others -- completely ignored the health threat to the nearly 100,000 souls living around the Lake.
The coasts might (or might not) dodge the bullet of toxic discharges this year, but we are concerned about the long term health effects of the current lake bloom on all those who live around the lake and who visit the lake.

As Jacqui Thurlow-Lippisch so eloquently stated in her blog last week:
“I happened to notice when I visited the DEP website that DEP states:  â€œBlooms are naturally occurring.”  â€¦Yes this is true; so is cancer."
It is way past time that state and regional officials implement a plan for tracking, testing, and research that protects everyone exposed to these blooms. This is not about coastal residents vs. farmworkers. This is about all of us.

- Chris Maroney
Bullsugar.org
http://www.bullsugar.org/
P.S. 
Thank you to everyone contributing to Bullsugar.org. Your generosity has kept us sharp and independent as we fight for clean water. If you haven't given, please click here to make a donation today to help us fix Florida's plumbing for good.

          8 Alimentos para viver mais        

·                     01

Tomate
Ajuda a impedir e reparar danos às células do nosso organismo.
Diminui o risco de câncer de próstata por ser rico em licopeno, substância oxidante que ajuda a impedir e reparar danos às células. Dica: quando o tomate é aquecido, aumenta o aproveitamento do licopeno pelo nosso organismo, por isso, invista nos molhos vermelhos. Frutas como a goiaba e a melancia também são ricas em licopeno.
·                     02

Aveia


Ajuda a reduzir a absorção de colesterol pelo organismo.
É um cereal extremamente nutritivo, que possui cálcio, ferro, proteínas, além de vitaminas, carboidratos e fibras. Quando em farelo, contém altos índices de betaglucana, fibra alimentar que ajuda a reduzir a absorção de colesterol pelo organismo. Seu consumo, no entanto, deve ser controlado, já que a aveia possui alto teor calórico. Além disso, os portadores de doença celíaca devem evitar a sua ingestão.
·                     03

Vinho Tinto



Tem ação anticoagulante e também ajuda na proteção das artérias.
Contém resveratol, ingrediente envolvido em mecanismos que promovem ação anticoagulante e estendem a vida das células. Além disso, também ajuda na proteção das artérias, o que é ótimo para pessoas com riscos de problemas cardiovasculares. No entanto, ao ser consumido em excesso, pode trazer problemas aos rins e ao fígado, além da dependência alcoólica. Por ser uma bebida doce e calórica, também não deve ser consumida com frequência por diabéticos ou pessoas que necessitam perder peso.
·                     04

Azeite


Protege contra doenças coronarianas e câncer, tendo ainda ação antioxidante.
Rico em ômega 9 e em um composto orgânico chamado esqualeno, protege contra doenças coronarianas e câncer, tendo ainda ação antioxidante e atuação sobre o sistema imunológico. Se não houver contraindicação médica, recomenda-se consumir de uma a duas colheres por dia. O azeite, porém, não é recomendado para frituras. Ao ser aquecido, ele perde algumas de suas propriedades. Dessa maneira, o melhor azeite é o extravirgem, obtido sem adição de nenhum produto químico ou aquecimento – os outros tipos são aquecidos.
·                     05

Peixe


Reduz os níveis de colesterol e o risco de doenças cardiovasculares.
Fonte de proteína, rico em cálcio, ferro e vitaminas do complexo B, com baixos níveis de colesterol e gordura. Peixes de águas profundas, como salmão, atum, bacalhau, arenque, cavalinha, sardinha e truta também são ricos em ácido graxo ômega-3, que reduzem os níveis de colesterol sanguíneo e o risco de doenças cardiovasculares, além de terem efeito hipotensivo (reduzem a pressão arterial) e atuação antiinflamatória.
·                     06

Espinafre


Rico em duas substâncias antioxidantes importante para os olhos (luteína e zeaxantina).
Rico em dois antioxidantes importante para os olhos (luteína e zeaxantina). Alguns estudos observaram que essas substâncias podem retardar a degeneração macular (lesão na área central da retina) e o aparecimento da catarata. Couve, milho, gema de ovo e frutas amarelas também possuem essas mesmas propriedades.
·                     07

Brócolis


De acordo com alguns estudos, pode reduzir o risco de desenvolvimento de tumores.
De acordo com alguns estudos, pode reduzir o risco de desenvolvimento de tumores, já que contém antioxidantes (isotiocianatos) com capacidade de proteger o organismo. Couve-flor, repolho, couve, agrião e rúcula também são ricos em isotiocianatos.
·                     08

Alho


Tem ação antioxidante e bactericida.
Tem ação antioxidante e bactericida, em grande parte devido à presença da alicina, uma substância derivada do enxofre e que dá o odor característico ao alho quando o mesmo é mastigado ou cortado.








          Advierten sobre bacterias en piscinas        
Ten cuidado con el agua contaminada de las piscinas: un germen acecha tus vacaciones.
          Goodbye Strawberry Legs

        

If you suffer from strawberry legs, you know how annoying, embarrassing and distressing it can be! Fret not folks, help is at hand! During summer months, don’t we all want to wear our best outfits, get a little sun on our legs, however the darkened pores on the legs can make it difficult for us to bear the sight. Strawberry Legs are also known as blackheads, dark skin pores or open comedones, which are a result of ingrown hairs, sebum, dirt and dead skin cells lodged in hair follicles. Hence when they are exposed to the environmental air, the oil tends to get oxidised and darkens as well. The name strawberry legs comes from the fact that it resembles dark, dot-like spots found on a strawberry fruit. Although this can happen in any area, the common areas are legs, upper arms and bikini area. Here are some easy peasy ways to get rid of strawberry legs this season. 

 Treat as Acne
 The products that one would use on pimples and acne work well on strawberry skin too. Ingredients like salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide kill bacteria, unclog pores and remove dead skin cells besides Retin-A and vitamin C also work to prevent darkening caused by clogged pores. You could get a body wash that contains salicylic acid or benzoyl peroxide or even crush a few Aspirin, add a few drops of water and apply the paste on the affected area, wash it off once it has dried off. 

 Shave/Wax Properly 
If you like shaving your legs, make sure your blade is sharp and preferably use a new blade every time. Blunt blades are a big cause of ingrowth due to unsmooth shave. You could also exfoliate before shaving to get a clean, close shave. However if you prefer waxing, you should ideally scrub for three days before getting waxed and steer clear of scrubbing or moisturising on the day of your waxing. This is because bare skin allows a better grip and removes hair properly. Post the waxing session, apply a soothing toner like rose water.

 Exfoliate Regularly
 Exfoliating is a fabulous habit for the skin, helps unclog pores and aids strawberry legs condition. You should ideally use a scrub on alternate days starting two days after your hair removal treatment. This is when the hair follicles close and trap hair underneath, also a good scrub helps remove the dead skin cells, permitting curled up hair to show up. 
You can make your own natural scrub: * 
Mix brown sugar with aloe vera gel and lemon juice. * 
Mix with 2 tablespoons of sugar with a squeeze of lemon juice and a small amount of gel.
 * Mix until the mixture is well combined. Moisturise
 Dry skin is more prone to strawberry legs, so when your skin is dry, the hair is unable to push its way out, hence curls back underneath your skin, resulting in ingrowths. You should ideally moisturise twice daily to soften your skin, making the hair push through easier. 

Natural Remedies
 1. Cucumber is not only a healthy snack, but it is perfect for the normal or sensitive skin. Mash up the inside of a cucumber, removing the skin first. Use twice per day by applying to your skin and rubbing it in gently, allowing it to soak in naturally. Rinse with warm water and pat dry. 2. Tea tree oil is an ideal herbal remedy for most skin conditions, including acne due to its anti-inflammatory properties, but it is also a good way to get rid of strawberry legs too. Mix a few drops of tea tree oil into some olive oil. Rub gently into the legs in circular motions and do it once a day. 3. Brown sugar is a better exfoliator than white sugar. It gently exfoliates and eliminates dirt, oil and ingrown hair from the pores and makes the dark spots less visible. Mix 2 tablespoon brown sugar and 2 tablespoon aloe Vera gel, add 1tsp. lemon juice make it into a smooth paste. Apply the scrub on your wet legs. This is a healing, anti-inflammatory scrub. You may gently scrub your skin in circular motions using a soft loofah focusing on the affected parts, rinse your legs with lukewarm water. Massage your legs with olive or jojoba oil to get smooth soft skin and do it once or twice a week. 4. Salt is a fantastic exfoliating agent besides it increases blood circulation which aids to promote quick healing, while the astringent and acidic qualities of buttermilk helps to exfoliate and lighten the dark pores. Mix buttermilk and salt to get a smooth paste, apply on the affected skin with the help of wet towel and then softly rub the skin in circular motion. 5. Coconut and sandalwood oil helps remove bacteria besides being anti-inflammatory and olive oil, Vitamin E oil, almond oil and avocado oil help as emollients. You can add pure glycerin to these oils. Beauty Expert, Neha Gulati suggests, ‘ There are a few items free of harmful chemicals in your kitchen shelves which can help you dispose of strawberry legs easily. I would suggest using cucumber juice twice a day, which has amazing skin lightening qualities and helps to reduce the appearance of dark pores. It is so soothing, refreshing and gentle enough to be used on sensitive skin. Apply cucumber juice on the dark pores; leave for about fifteen minutes and wash off with cold water. Secondly I would recommend egg white which shrinks pores and tightens them due to its astringent properties. Mix egg white from one egg with 1tsp. of lemon juice, apply directly on the dark pores and leave for about ten minutes and wash off with cool water. Thirdly, I like using baking soda as it has excellent exfoliating properties and its anti-inflammatory so it soothes the skin and reduce the dark patches. This effective scrub can be applied once a day, and made with 1tbsp. baking soda, 1 tsp ground oatmeal, one tsp. lukewarm warm water and mix well to make a thick paste. Apply the paste on your legs, leave until dry and wash off with cold water.’

The post Goodbye Strawberry Legs

 appeared first on Glossy Post.


          Odour-free Summer Days!        

The disadvantages of summer is icky sticky skin and the problem of body odour. No matter how cautious we are, often we do not smell like the first breath of spring-summer. Although it can be embarrassing and smelly or pungent, sweating is natural and rather good for us. It’s our body’s way of cooling us down and getting rid of toxins. One can surely fight off body odour, underarm smell and excessive sweating naturally with some effective home remedies. Here’s how to keep body odour at bay and keep yourself fresh at all times. High on hygiene: Body odour occurs when bacteria in moist areas of the body multiply. This can be gotten rid of by taking shower twice daily, especially during the summer season. One can use antibacterial soaps as they help to unclog pores and stop the bacteria from causing further odour. You can add fragrance and a handful of alum to your bath water, which can act as a powerful antiseptic and anti-bacterial element.
 
 Diet control: You need to watch what you eat. Remember caffeine, spicy or pungent foods, alcohol, saturated fats, sugar and cigarettes are culprits for body odour. Basically we sweat what we consume, hence alter your diet to include fresh fruits, salads and vegetables(a lot of spinach, kale, chard), fiber or whole grains besides consume plenty of water, lime water, buttermilk, coconut water or rhododendron water to cleanse your body from within. Avoid strong smelling garlic or onion based foods. Green vegetables are a natural deodorizer and green salads will not only keep your skin fresh but clear it of impurities. Also drink camphor tea, for chronic problem of body odour this age old drink is worth trying. Low skin pH value: Body odour causing bacteria cannot survive on the skin if the pH value of the skin is low. Apple cider vinegar and tea tree oil naturally help in lowering the pH value of the skin. You can soak a cotton pad in apple cider vinegar and clean your underarms or sweaty areas with it instead of chemical laden perfumes or deodorants. Scented oils: You may add a few drops of essential oils like lavender, peppermint and pine to your bath water to reduce body odour. These oils not only make you smell fine they also aid in getting rid of the pungent odour from deep within. Besides lemon is an excellent remedy for killing bacteria that is lodged in your skin. All you have to do it rub half of a lemon on your underarms and allow the juice to remain on your skin, let it dry for some time and then rinse. Better still you can squeeze a lemon into a bucket-full of water and shower with it. Do this for a few days and bid good-bye to dour! Natural Deodorants: You can make your own herb-based deodorants at home, most of the herbs are helpful in combating body odour. Beauty herbs like sage, rosemary, leaves of chrysanthemum, lovage, celery and parsley can be made into a tea which can then be used as a wash besides should be included in the diet frequently. Odour Culprits: Smoking and alcohol result in bad mouth odour, also body odour as it builds up toxins in the body.  Choose the right fabrics: Avoid synthetic fabrics in summer, instead opt for loose fit, airy silhouettes in that cotton breathe. Also wear cotton socks to prevent your feet from smelling. Common Issues: Body Odour could also be due to stress, hormonal imbalance, tooth decay, Vitamin Deficiency, heavy physical activity, tobacco use, medical conditions like liver, kidney, fungal infections, diabetes, low BP etc. Beauty Expert Shonelle recommends a few natural tips to remain odourless this season. 
 1. A mixture of baking soda and lemon is great for body odour, you can apply it on your underarms and feet to kill bacteria and odour. 
 2. Take a few teaspoons of tomato juice to bathing water and soak yourself in it for some time. 
 3. Apply peanut butter on your underarms before retiring to bed, every summer night. 
4. Add white vinegar during bathing to a mug of water, rinse your armpits with it. 
 5. Rose water, a natural deodorant can be stored in a spray bottle and used often or put a few drops in the bathtub. 
 6. Turnip juice can be used on underarms for getting relieved of body odour.
 7. You can rub potato slices on your underarms.
 8. Mint leaves and neem leaves are great for odour, boil some leaves and add water to your bath. 
9. Sandalwood powder is good for stink, add some powder to rose water and apply the paste on your underarms, let it dry and rinse. 
10. Dust your odour-producing areas with baking soda or corn starch, it absorbs moisture and kills bacteria.

The post Odour-free Summer Days! appeared first on Glossy Post.


          New bacteria being developed for cheese may save industry $10m a year, researchers say        
Queensland scientists trial the use of new bacteria in cheese to try to speed up production and create new flavour combinations, which may save the industry $10m a year.
          IBM, University of Nottingham initiate tuberculosis study        

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and the University of Nottingham are teaming up to utilize IBM's World Community Grid in a new study on tuberculosis (TB). 

The mash-up, called Help Stop TB, will be gathering thousands of computations-related technology resources for the movement.

TB has been around for thousands of years and can be found in one-third of the world, killing 1.5 million people in 2014 alone, making it on the World Health Organization's "most deadly diseases" list, right up there with HIV. It is adaptive and can come back with a vengeance if a patient quits treatment, which unfortunately happens in many areas that do have trouble with accessing proper health facilities. TB also commonly lies dormant, striking when victims' immune symptoms are weak.

Help Stop TB's program will utilize World Community Grid's past and present work, which amounts to over three million computers, nearly 750,000 people and 470 institutions from 80 countries. Help Stop TB hopes to better study the tuberculosis bacteria and its possible reactions to new medicines by simulating TB's protective habits and finding ways to break past it, ultimately crippling the disease and eliminating its threat to humans.


          Researchers develop test to track tuberculosis gene        

A blood test that can predict whether or not a dormant string of tuberculosis (TB) will develop into full-blown tuberculosis has been developed.

Researchers at the Center for Infectious Disease Research and the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative teamed up to develop the test. The test will forecast whether the dormant mycobacterium tuberculosis could turn into active tuberculosis disease. The test has a 10 to 20 percent chance of false results.

“This discovery could help develop a diagnostic that would narrow the detection and treatment gap for tuberculosis, impacting how the global health community approaches this epidemic,” Dan Zak, an assistant professor at the Center for Infectious Disease Research, said.

Mycobacterium affects about 33 percent of the population, though only 90 percent will see this strand develop into TB. The test works by measuring specific RNAs in the blood; the blood markers are used to measure the activity of the gene in the blood.

The study, which was published in the leading medical journal The Lancet, took samples from over 6,000 teenagers. The teens were infected with the mycobacterium. The researchers followed them for two years to see who developed active TB.

“The test can predict progression to TB more than one year before disease manifests, which provides a window of opportunity to use treatment to prevent the disease,” Willem Hanekom, professor and principal investigator of the study, said.


          FDA approves new inhalational anthrax treatment        

Officials with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved the Anthim (obiltoxaximab) injection, to be used with specific antibacterial drugs to treat people who have had inhalational anthrax.

Anthim has also been approved for preventing inhalational anthrax if other alternative therapies are unavailable or inappropriate.

Inhalational anthrax, a rare illness, happens when people are exposed to animals or animal products that are either contaminated or infected with the disease. Sometimes people are exposed to the disease when anthrax spores are intentionally released.

When anthrax spores are released, people inhale the bacterium Bacillus anthracis spores. Then the bacteria spreads through the body, generating toxins that cause irreversible and massive tissue injuries that lead to death.

Anthim, a monoclonal antibody, eliminates the toxins that anthrax generates. The FDA has approved Anthim as part of its Animal Rule, enabling researchers to conduct efficiency studies within well-controlled, adequate animal studies. Scientists hope to see Anthim progress to human studies in the near future.

In the past, anthrax has been used as a bioterrorism threat. The spores resist destruction and easily spread through the air, making them a bioweapon of choice.

“As preparedness is a cornerstone of any bioterrorism response, we are pleased to see continued efforts to develop treatments for anthrax,” Edward Cox, director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, said.


          CDC releases report on how to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria        

Although the United States has successfully decreased health care-associated infections (HAIs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria are still a force to be reckoned with. 

In order to better combat this, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently released a new Vital Signs report, providing guidance on how to use multiple measures to fight them, and the Antibiotic Resistance Patient Safety Atlas, which provides information on infections that can come from antibiotic-resistant bacteria. CDC Director Tom Frieden stated that many of these bacterias are infecting patients while in the hospital, hindering them from getting better and rendering them sicker and capable of sepsis or death.

Six antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been studied in acute care hospitals, and found that one of every seven HAIs from catheters and surgery come from these bacteria, and that it increased to one in every four infections in patients that remained in the hospital more than 25 days. The report also discussed the decrease in Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), a bacteria that causes the most amount of infections in hospitals. 

The CDC asks anyone involved in health care, from state to local levels, to continually work to prevent HAIs, including attempting to stop the bacteria transmission between patients, halt infections due to surgery and catheters, and increase antibiotics.

Alongside the CDC, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) -- and regulations requiring reports of contracted HAIs -- have assisted in decreasing infection rates. 

Congress has also provided $160 million to the CDC to move forward with their National Action Plan for Combatting Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria, which will work to better equip states for prevention, reporting, research and antibiotic use -- hopefully to further limit HAIs in the future.


           ROTACIÓN Y ASOCIACIÓN DE CULTIVOS        

 

ROTACIÓN Y ASOCIACIÓN DE CULTIVOS
 
Una de las primeras lecciones que hay que aprender si queremos triunfar con nuestro huerto es la rotación o asociación de cultivos. A menudo, la cosecha del segundo año no es igual de generosa que la del primero y esto puede llevar a la frustración al aficionado horticultor.



En primer lugar es necesario saber qué especies son compatibles enre ellas y tener en cuenta que el desarrollo de las hortalizas "gasta" nutrientes hasta dejar el sustrato extenuado, o sea que después de cada cosecha es imprescindible airear a fondo, voltear la tierra y añadir una generosa enmienda de abono orgánico y humus.


Igualmente, es una práctica habitual combinar las hortalizas de forma diferente en cada temporada a como se hizo en la anterior. Esto tiene diferentes ventajas, entre ellas, evitar la presencia de plagas asociadas a una determinada planta; otra ventaja es que las leguminosas (judías, guisantes, etc.) tienen unas asociciones en sus raíces con bacterias fijadoras del nitrógeno atmosférico, lo que supone la incorporación de este imprescindible macronutriente al sustrato, de manera que alternar su plantación supone un abonado natural.



La rotación de cultivos consiste en alternar plantas de diferentes familias y con necesidades nutritivas diferentes en un mismo lugar durante distintos ciclos, evitando que el suelo se agote y que las enfermedades que afectan a un tipo de plantas se perpetúen en un tiempo determinado.


De esta forma se aprovecha mejor el abonado (al utilizar plantas con necesidades nutritivas distintas y con sistemas radiculares diferentes), se controlan mejor las malas hierbas y disminuyen los problemas con las plagas y las enfermedades, (al no encontrar un huésped tienen más dificultad para sobrevivir).


También se debe introducir regularmente como hemos señalado en la rotación una leguminosa y alternar plantas que requieren una fuerte cantidad de materia orgánica, y la soportan parcialmente o incluso sin fermentar (patata, calabaza, espárragos, etc.), con otras menos exigentes o que requieren materia orgánica muy descompuesta (acelga, cebolla, guisantes, etc.).


En esta práctica se debe evitar que se sucedan plantas de tipo vegetativo diferente pero que pertenezcan a la misma familia botánica, por ejemplo: espinaca y remolacha = Quenopodiáceas, apio y zanahoria = Umbelíferas, papa y tomate = Solanáceas.

Aquí os señalamos algunas de las asociaciones más típicas a tener en cuenta en el momento de planificar la plantación:
  • Leguminosas y otras familias: guisantes, judías o habas con coles o zanahorias en hileras alternas. Parece que la cebolla y el ajo se asocian mal con las leguminosas.

  • Asociación de hortaliza con diferente velocidad de crecimiento para obtener la mayor productividad por unidad de superficie: sembrar tres hileras de rábanos o de lechugas entre cada dos hileras de zanahorias.
  •  De coles con lechugas, entre cada dos hileras de coles una hilera de lechugas y, dentro de las hileras de coles, una lechuga entre cada dos coles. De zanahorias y nabos, los sembramos en hileras alternas; los nabos son cosechados antes que las zanahorias hayan alcanzado su pleno desarrollo.
  • Otras asociaciones beneficiosas: judía de enrame y pepino: una hilera de pepinos entre las dos hileras de judías (80 cm de separación). Chirivía y escarola en hileras alternas dado que la primera tiene raíces pivotantes y la escarola poco profundas.

  • Zanahoria y puerro, eficaz para repeler a la mosca de la zanahoria y la del puerro. Una hilera de rábano entre cada dos de zanahoria; los puerros se plantarán en el lugar de los rábanos ya recolectados (en zanahoria de primavera). En zanahoria de invierno se alternarán dos hileras de zanahoria con dos de puerros.

  • Zanahoria y cebolla, tres hileras de cebolla y dos de zanahoria (25 cm entre hilera).

  • Tomate y cebolla, se plantarán en primavera las cebollas en un campo preparado para acoger al tomate, éste en hilera y a cada lado de la hilera de cebollas (a 35 - 40 cm).

  • Espinaca de primavera con apio, las espinacas se siembran en marzo, los apios en mayo en una hilera entre cada dos de espinacas.

  • Cebolla y fresas en hileras alternas. Achicoria y fresa.

          On 3D Printed Guns        
Dear Rachel Maddow and Staff:

Tonight's story about gun control, and the 3D printer component in particular, were interesting, but I have a lot of questions that perhaps you can explore in future discussions on the subject.

First, a correction: only the 3D printer you showed, a Makerbot Replicator 2, costs thousands of dollars. Saying they cost thousands of dollars or more is misleading. You can buy fully assembled and ready-to-use 3D printers for as little as $500. Most models on the market today, kit-wise at least, cost somewhere between $800 and $1,200. I can build a RepRap, which is a printer that makes most of the parts you need to make another printer, for around $400. And it's not like it was hard to do--I just followed the recipe there on the Internet, free to all.

I'm a teacher at an art school who teaches 3D printing and design, and so a lot of people--including my mother-in-law--have been talking to me lately about 3D printed guns, as you might imagine, so I've been giving it a lot of thought. So far I've tended to react in these discussions with my own questions, which I do sincerely wish will soon get some public consideration. They nibble around the edges of the BIG question, which is, how should society respond to the progress of technology itself?

1) Do you know that a 14 year old built a nuclear reactor in his garage? And if it's possible for a 14 year old genius to teach himself to do that, and do it without institutional resources, how much dumber can a 20 year old be and still get the same result? How about at 30?

2) Did you know there are hundreds of amateur bio-labs in the U.S.? Those are just the registered ones.

3) Do you have any idea what people are doing with home-built autonomous flying drones? How long until someone hooks a pipe bomb up to one (or a dozen) of those and flies them into a crowd five kilometers away?

4) So, if we're worried about crazy people using powerful weapons to commit heinous crimes, what do we do about the crazy people who will be building their own robotic, chemical, biological or even nuclear (dirty or thermonuclear, you pick) weapons in their basements?

Isn't the real problem not the availability of any particular technology or machine, but rather the availability and free exchange of information? To quote a favorite movie, "You can't stop the signal, Mel." The kid could build a nuclear reactor in his garage because of the Internet. Aspiring bio-engineers can learn just about everything they need to cook up lethal bacteria on YouTube. People with a common interest can find each other and collaborate from opposite sides of the globe, whether that interest is baseball cards or DIY rocket guidance systems. And you can't stop the signal.

The central thesis of your show's introductory essay tonight was, if I understood correctly, that people who think that a problem like gun control is impossible to address--even given a sticky wicket like 3D printed guns--are wrong because circumstances change and where there's a will there's a way. Perhaps that's true in the limited sense that for any single given societal problem there will eventually be a policy solution. That philosophy, however, neglects entirely one hell of a big paradox. 

It can take just one person to make a thing. It takes at least two people to have a culture of making a thing. It takes at least three people to make a law about the thing. The more people you have in the system, the slower the response. Information technology increases productivity in inverse proportion to the size of the system, so individuals can make bigger and better things, and spread the culture of making those things faster than a society can devise rules to govern the things individuals are making, and are being propagated by culture. By the time you have a rule for one thing, a dozen new things have popped up and need rules, and the knowledge of the things are already out there, being shared, multiplied, mutated.

As Ray Kurzweil (who was just hired by Google to build the world's first artificial intelligence, by the way) says, the pace of technology's progress is accelerating exponentially. If I'm right in my previous formulation, that means that the gap between innovation and effective societal response is growing exponentially too.

In short, we're fucked.

Because it's just a matter of time before it becomes trivial for an amateur to cook up some nerve gas in their basement and set off the canisters in some subways. Meanwhile we may have finally come up with some way to keep crazy people from printing up their own guns and going on a killing spree. Yay us!

---

If that seems kind of out there then let's address the problem of 3D printed guns directly:

How do you even approach regulation to prevent it? Are there any conceivable ways to get in at the issue at all? Isn't 3D printing a gun a different kind of problem altogether from any other problem we've had, not just in scope, but as an entirely different paradigm? Consider the following issues:

1) Short of a true AI, can you create a computer algorithm that will recognize the shape of all objects--however novel--that could be used as components to make a weapon? Ask a computer scientist. 

2) Even if there were such a program, how would you require all computers to analyze all potential 3D models to filter and recognize such objects? How do you prevent programmers from creating and surreptitiously sharing programs that circumvent the filter, or hobbyists who engineer computers from components or first principals so they don't obey the regulation at all? You'd have to hard-wire the filter into every computer chip allowed into the country, wouldn't you? Can we do that? Even so, won't we eventually have the capacity to personally design and manufacture our own chips?

3) Is it possible to prevent amateurs from creating their own designs (of whatever,) allowing only professionally produced and regulated models printed on 3D printers? How? Perhaps more importantly, do we want to, since it will come at the cost of so much innovation and progress?

4) Do we limit the sale and possession of 3D printers only to select, authorized, industrial, and regulated/monitored users? 

5) What is a practical, effective method or mechanism for preventing hobbyists from engineering and building their own 3D printers, which are after all, built using readily available consumer goods as materials.

I understand that 3D printed guns are a salacious, irresistible topic. It's a very sexy story. Beyond the gratuitousness, though, what is there really? Why worry about "weapons" instead of the "crazy" part of "crazy people using weapons" problem? Not to put too fine a point on it, but where does it take us--whom does it benefit. 

Considering the response of the music industry to the invention of the MP3, it is not too conspiratorial to suggest that patent holders are clear beneficiaries of stories that stoke fears about 3D printed guns. 3D printers break 600 years of patent law--they overturn the whole idea of the patent as a mechanism for the preservation and cultivation of wealth. 3D printers, and the whole micro-manufacturing movement in fact, threaten the last relatively safe domain of intellectual property, the making of physical goods. If you look deeply enough you see that the technology coming on line now challenges nothing less than…well...all of commerce. They disrupt scarcity itself. How can any economy function without scarcity. It can't. That freaks some people out.

Personally, I can't wait.

          Seaweed and Gut Bacteria        

Scientists have found that Japanese people seem to possess gut flora for digesting seaweed that Americans do not. The sample size for the bacteria collection is fairly small though. They theorize that the Japansese might have acquired the bacteria through eating raw seaweed. An interesting implication they make is that this bacteria not only affects the digestion of seaweed, but carbohydrates in general.


          April 2017 Foodwatch Newsletter - Microbiome – your new best friend        
April 2017 Foodwatch Newsletter - Microbiome – your new best friend

These days you hear a lot about microbiomes. But do you know what a microbiome is and what it does? And most importantly, do know you how to keep yours healthy?

Author

Catherine Saxelby

          Probióticos: por qué son tan importantes y cómo hacer yogur y kéfir en casa        
¿Qué son los probióticos? Los probióticos son bacterias beneficiosas que llegan vivas al intestino, pueden habitar en éste y si se encuentran en cantidades adecuadas pueden aportarnos grandes beneficios. Los probióticos los podemos encontrar en algunos alimentos fermentados y también en cápsulas que contengan los microorganismos. El yogur y el kéfir elaborados en casa con […]
          Microbiology at Bayalpata Hosptial         
The staff at Bayalpata are always busy trying to find ways to improve and become more efficient. The focus on improvement doesn't leave much room for reminiscence. For a newcomer like myself I was preoccupied with how far the hospital has come since its opened its doors four years ago. The progress is even more impressive considering the formidable obstacles that Nyaya Health has faced and continues to face. 

Not only has Nyaya Health succeeded in establishing a free hospital in Far Western Nepal that provides basic health services, but it also continuously tries to expand its services. Take for example Bayalpata Hospital's Microbiology Lab that is currently expanding to include a bacterial culture facility. 

Bayalpata's lab is the only one of its kind in the district of Achham. It is currently staffed by four lab technicians and is equipped with an I-stat machine, a QBC Hematology Analyzer and a number of important serology tests, including HIV, Malaria, TB, and Hep-B. Having an in-house laboratory with the ability to analyze patients blood, kidney, and liver functions has allowed the physicians to more quickly and accurately diagnose their patients. The lab technicians approximate that they run biochemistry tests on 50 patients a day, at times discovering patients that are HIV+ and unaware of their condition. These patients can then be referred to Bayalpata's Anti-retroviral Therapy program. The biochemistry tests at the lab also allow the technicians to spot unusually high white blood cell counts that may be diagnosed by the doctors as leukemia. 

In the next few days, the technicians hope to begin growing and preserving bacteria cultures which will allow them to increase their diagnostic capabilities as well as pursue academic research, particularly concerning antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bayalpata is currently treating two patients that are suffering from multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. The capability of testing cultures with antibiotics can allow drug resistant strains to be more quickly recognized.

When Nyaya Health was founded in 2006, it opened a clinic in an abandoned goat shed. Today it is operating one of the few microbiology laboratories outside of Kathmandu. Hopefully similar progress is made over the next four years.

Bishnu, one of the four lab technicians working in the renovated microbiology lab at Bayalpata Hospital












          Channeling Mary Ruefle         

I don't know which I like more - first drafts, endlessly tinkering through draft after draft, or the feeling when you know (or pretty much know) you can send a poem out into the world.

Let me share a little secret. "Despite Nagging Malfunctions," which goes live today at The Superstition Review, began in a little room called The Stellar's Jay Suite at the Kangaroo House Bed & Breakfast in East Sound, Washington. I was there as a resident for Artsmith last February, spending a fabulous week, mostly on a day bed with a notebook in my lap and a stack of books at my side, researching everything from typhus to Saturn (hmmm, why was I researching typhus? I can no longer recall, but there it is, scrawled in my notebook: "highly contagious caused by bacteria in lice. 10-40% chance of dying. Between 1918-1922, typhus killed three million").

But I digress.

To begin "Despite Nagging Malfunctions," I first had to find out that Voyager 2 , well, "despite nagging malfunctions"(according to an archived 1977 New York Times article), launched in September of 1977.

I also had to come up with a list of statements from various poems by Mary Reufle, including:

I was given [concrete gift] ...

I smelled ...

I discovered ...

I fell in love with ...

My mother ...

My father ...

I learned ...

One morning ...

I saw ... [image of animal]

State a piece of advice. Dismiss or muse on it. Ask a question.

Go back to talking about the same animal.

Don't be [animal].

In other words, I made myself a little poem draft road map.

It wouldn't be the first time someone worked from a blueprint, would it?

I hope you enjoy the completed version. It was a fun poem to write, especially gratifying to get Tycho Brahe's prosthetic nose into a poem, and some Emily Post wisdom.
          Cuando el río suena...        
Oye mira que son buenos los alemanes. No sólo son unos perfectos gestores económicos sino que además, tienen un corazón de oro.

Dicen que desde Alemania se tiene la vista puesta en España para recoger y cuidar a los QUINIENTOS MIL perros y gatos que, anualmente, dejamos en nuestras protectoras.

¿Qué la perra se nos ha preñado y no queremos líos? A la protectora.

¿Qué  la gata está vieja? A la protectora.

¿Qué el perro ha cogido una enfermedad? A la protectora.

¿Qué en navidad regalamos un perrito y en vacaciones a ver qué hacemos con el chucho? A la protectora.

¿Qué no me mola coger la caca del perro del jardín y que en invierno es un coñazo sacarlo para que haga “sus cosas”? A la protectora.

Que nos gusta tener gato pero es que es que nos hemos embarazado y estamos esperando a un peque. ¿Igual no es bueno gato y niño juntos en la misma casa? A la protectora

Y así entre unos y otros, tenemos las protectoras llenas de amigos. (Dicen que el perro es el mejor amigo del hombre…pero según estos datos evidentemente el hombre no es el mejor amigo del perro)

De unos años a esta parte suenan cada vez más alto las voces que alertan de que no se corresponde el número de habitantes con el número de perros “supuestamente” adoptados. Se desconoce cuál es el destino de estos animales, pero lo cierto es que de las hordas caninas que viajan a Alemania y otros países centroeuropeos, sólo se sabe el destino real de un 15%, puesto que el resto, desaparece como por arte de magia…

En cuanto a los Microchips, aunque las protectoras españolas están obligadas a que sea un veterinario quien los implante y registre en el banco de datos de cada comunidad autónoma,  las autonomías no están conectadas entre sí, por lo que si un perro o gato sale de su región, no está identificado. Por tanto, si sale del país, se pierde el rastro por completo.

Yo no digo ni que sí ni que no, yo sólo digo que cada vez se oye más y más alto y que cuando el rio suena…

Cuando una se interesa por  este tema y lee y lee se encuentra de todo. Desde los testimonios de asociaciones que han montado a sus perros en sus furgonetas y personalmente los han llevado a alberques alemanes http://www.elmundo.es/larevista/num187/textos/perros1.htmlhasta los muchos artículos que avisan de que algo poco ético está pasando.


¿Para qué están  utilizando a los animales? Entre otras lindezas para:

Experimentos bélicos. Se experimenta en perros y gatos con agentes químicos y bacteriológicos, para ver la resistencia a diversas sustancias tóxicas, nocivas y mortíferas.

Comida de animales. Perros y gatos son usados y muertos en experimentos por las marcas de comidas de animales. Les producen fallos renales, obesidad, desnutrición, daños hepáticos, reacciones alérgicas, inflamaciones estomacales, diarrea, desórdenes en su piel, lesiones, etc.
Experimentación médica. Los perros se utilizan frecuentemente en pruebas de toxicidad, investigación de cerebros, investigación dental y experimentos quirúrgicos. los perros y gatos pueden ser envenenados, privados de comida, agua o sueño, les pueden ser aplicados irritantes de piel y ojos, sujetos a estrés psicológico, paralizados, mutilados quirúrgicamente, irradiados, quemados, gaseados y electrocutados.

Cosmética. La gran mayoría de los productos cosméticos, incluyendo perfumes, champús, pasta dentífrica, tinturas para el pelo, cremas, maquillaje y desodorantes, se experimentan primero en animales. Sólo en la Unión Europea se utilizan anualmente treinta y ocho mil seres vivos en pruebas de toxicidad.

Confección de pieles. Perros y gatos son utilizados para la confección de abrigos, prendas de vestir, juguetes, etc.

Peleas clandestinas de perros, explotación en los criaderos.
Y si a esto le sumas que la legislación alemana permite experimentar con perros y gatos de perreras, importados de otros países pues a mí se me pone un nudito en el estomago que me ahoga un poco.


La polémica está servida y ahora como pasa siempre, unos dirán que esto es una flipada y otros que es cierto.

Yo tengo amigos que son  voluntarios y que van a la protectora  con toda su buena intención a pasear y cuidar a los animales y no me gustaría que su buena intención estuviera, encima,  alimentando a las mafias.

Por eso desde este humilde blog, mi escoba y yo os animamos a que seáis responsables y penséis que un animal no es un juguete y que la protectora, sea cual sea el final que le espere al animal, es un triste destino.

Esto no quita para que desde aquí, vaya mi respeto a todas las gentes que honestamente cuidan y trabajan en las protectoras para la mejora de la calidad de los animales, que sin duda también las hay, y muchas.

Si queréis saber más sobre este tema os adjunto un par de artículos
http://www.elcorreo.com/alava/v/20110107/alava/informe-observa-varias-irregularidades-20110107.html

http://m.noticiasdealava.com/2013/10/30/araba/destino-incierto

y también os adjunto el informe Vicky “trafico masivo de perros y gatos” http://www.unacremona.it/informeVicky.pdfen el que se dicen muy claritas muchas cosas. 

El documento está elaborado por la asociación Vicky Moore y llevan más de diez años trabajando en este tema.

Para terminar os dejo con un video que no tiene nada que ver con lo que hemos tratado en este post pero que también tiene como protagonista a un perro…(ya podíamos ir aprendiendo)



SI NO LOGRAIS VER EL VIDEO AQUI, CLICAD.. ABAJO A LA IZQUIERDA DONDE DICE YOUTUBE Y LO VEREIS DESDE ALLÍ.

(Y así fue como empecé a prepararme para el gran día.. del encuentro.. pues tenia por dentro.. toda la seguridad de este mundo de que el Prof.. Rozman.. iba a decirme lo que yo tenia... no me preguntéis el porque, pero LO SABIA.....

Y ¡¡¡ CONTINUARÁ !!!


Lo que  os voy a dejar antes de continuar con MI LUPUS.. es un escrito que me acaba de recomendar una buenísima amiga, que sabe un montonazo de esto.. ( también está afectada `por esta porqueria ).... y es un cerebrito... con lo cual... os paso el escrito... que me ha recomendado..
así teneis más información.. pues cada dia voy a poneros un poquito.¿ ok?


Síntomas
1-
Manifestaciones generales:
Astenia (cansancio) , adinamia( desgano) , pérdida de peso y fiebre, se relacionan con actividad de la enfermedad.

2-
Manifestaciones musculoesqueléticas:
El compromiso articular es la manifestación más frecuente del LES. Aproximadamente el 90% de los pacientes presentan artralgias y/o artritis en algún momento de la evolución de su enfermedad. Se observa con mayor frecuencia una poliartritis(afección de más de 5 articulaciones) simétrica (Ej.: las dos muñecas, las dos rodillas) que afecta pequeñas y grandes articulaciones: interfalángicas proximales, metacarpofalángicas, muñecas, codos, hombros, metatarsofalángicas, tobillos, rodillas y caderas. No es erosiva y presenta una muy baja frecuencia de deformidades articulares (desviación cubital, dedos en cuello de cisne). Esta peculiar combinación de deformidad articular sin erosión ósea asociada ha recibido la denominación de artropatía de Jaccoud.
El compromiso muscular no es infrecuente en el paciente lúpico: puede presentar mialgias( dolor muscular) en relación con el cuadro articular o miositis (inflamación muscular) tipo polimiositis.
3-
Manifestaciones Dermatólogicas
Se hallan presentes en el 85% de los casos. Son numerosas y variadas, clasificándose en específicas e inespecíficas.
Inespecíficas: fotosensibilidad, lesiones vasculíticas como eritema palmar, livedo reticularis, púrpura palpable, úlceras cutáneas, paniculitis, vasculitis urticariana, fenómeno de Raynaud, alopecía, úlceras mucosas.
Específicas: rash malar, lupus discoide, lupus cutáneo subagudo (papulo escamoso y anular-policíclico).
El 50 % de los pacientes desarrollan una lesión eritemato papulosa y escamosa, fotosensible, localizada en mejillas y puente de la nariz que se denomina eritema en alas de mariposa.
Fotosensibilidad es la presencia de un Rash máculopapular inespecífico ante la exposición solar, localizado preferentemente en cara y tórax.
Lupus discoideo crónico: comienza como placas o pápulas eritematosas que se expanden centrífugamente dejando áreas centrales de hiperqueratosis y atrofia.
Aproximadamente el 5% de los pacientes con lupus discoideo pueden desarrollar posteriormente LES.

Lupus cutáneo subagudo se caracteriza por la presencia de lesiones muy fotosensibles, sin descamación ni atrofia. Son pápulas o placas eritematosas generalmente anulares, que se unen entre sí formando lesiones policíclicas.
Lesiones vasculíticas: eritema palmar o periungueal, púrpura palpable, lívedo reticuliaris, úlceras cutáneas. Estas últimas se localizan comúnmente en miembros inferiores.
Úlceras mucosas: constituyen uno de los criterios diagnósticos. Afectan con mayor frecuencia el paladar duro y blando, son asintomáticas y por lo general aparecen cuando la enfermedad está activa. Las úlceras de tabique nasal pueden ser asintomáticas, o dar perforación y epistaxis.
Alopecía: presente en el 70% de los casos. Habitualmente es difusa su aparición. Suele coincidir con la exacerbación de la enfermedad.
4-
Manifestaciones cardiovasculares:
La pericarditis es la más frecuente puede ser seca o con derrame. En muchos casos es asintomática, la miocarditis es rara, y puede acompañar a la pericarditis.
Con respecto al compromiso valvular los pacientes con LES, pueden manifestar la característica endocarditis de Libman Sacks (endocarditis verrugosa no bacteriana). También insuficiencia y/o estenosis valvulares.
Estas valvulopatías pueden evolucionar hacia lesiones hemodinámicamente significativas que requieran reemplazo valvular.
El desarrollo del compromiso valvular cardíaco en LES es desconocida ,se reconocen sin embargo algunos factores que contribuyen, tales como la degeneración fibrinoide de las valvas, vasculitis, lesiones de cuerdas tendinosas, fibrosis de los anillos valvulares.
El infarto de miocardio y la ateroesclerosis son nueve veces más frecuentes en pacientes con LES que en la población general.

El aumento de la incidencia de infarto de miocardio puede deberse a aterosclerosis acelerada, arteritis coronaria, vasculopatía por anticuerpos antifosfolípidos o trombosis coronaria.
Compromiso pulmonar primario en pacientes con LES
Compromiso de vía aérea superior: Epiglotitis, estenosis subglótica, parálisis de cuerdas vocales, artritis cricoaritenoidea y vasculitis necrotizante.
Enfermedad parenquimatosa: neumonitis lúpica aguda, síndrome de hemorragia alveolar enfermedad pulmonar intersticial, neumonía intersticial linfocítica, bronquiolitis obliterante.
Enfermedad pleural, pleuritis con o sin derrame.
Enfermedad vascular: hipertensión pulmonar, embolia pulmonar, hipoxemia reversible aguda.
A pesar de que el compromiso pulmonar primario es muy frecuente en LES, el compromiso pulmonar secundario de etiología infecciosa es la causa más frecuente de mortalidad en estos pacientes.
La pleuritis ocurre en el 50% de los pacientes. Con o sin derrame, por lo general bilateral y de pequeña magnitud. Tiene una rápida reabsorción con el tratamiento corticoideo.
Los síndromes menos frecuentes, la neumonitis lúpica y la hemorragia pulmonar deben considerarse precozmente en los pacientes lúpicos, ya que son entidades de elevada mortalidad y la intervención terapéutica precoz puede mejorar el pronóstico y elevar la sobrevida.
La neumonitis lúpica se caracteriza por la presencia de disnea, fiebre, tos (raramente acompañada de hemoptisis) y dolor pleurítico, de instalación aguda.
La radiografía de tórax muestra infiltrados bilaterales, preferentemente basales, que pueden acompañarse de derrame pleural , elevación diafragmática o atelectasias.
La presentación clínica de la neumonitis lúpica aguda semeja la neumonía bacteriana o un edema pulmonar. Si los cultivos de esputo y los hemocultivos son negativos, se debe efectuar broncoscopía con biopsia transbronquial y lavado bronquioalveolar para descartar infección, Los hallazgos histológicos son variables e inespecíficos.
El diagnóstico se realiza por exclusión luego de haber descartado las infecciones, ya que no hay hallazgos característicos.

La hemorragia pulmonar es una manifestación rara de LES que ocurre aprox. en el 2% de los casos.
Clínicamente se caracteriza por disnea con hipoxemia, hemóptisis, infiltrados intersticiales difusos en la radiografía de tórax y descenso brusco del hematocrito en 24 a 48 horas. Los procedimientos diagnósticos que pueden ser de utilidad en estos casos incluyen: broncoscopía con lavado bronquioalveolar que puede mostrar macrófagos cargados de hemosiderina, test de función pulmonar y biopsia a cielo abierto.
5-
Manifestaciones neurológicas:
Disfunción cerebral difusa:
Síndrome orgánico cerebral.
Psicosis.
Desórdenes afectivos.

Disfunción cerebral focal:
Convulsiones.
Accidentes cerebrovasculares.
Neuritis óptica.
Mielitis transversa.

Neuropatía periférica:
Mononeuritis múltiple.
Guillan Barre.

Movimientos involuntarios:
Coreo atetósicos.
Ataxia cerebelosa.
Enfermedad de Parkinson.

Misceláneas (otras):
Meningitis aséptica.
Trombosis venosa intracraneal.
Seudotumor cerebral.

Típicamente se presentan en el curso evolutivo de la enfermedad, frecuentemente el compromiso neurológico es la forma de inicio de la enfermedad.
Los microinfartos corticales múltiples asociados a la injuria microvascular son las anomalías histopatológicas predominantes del lupus neuropsiquiátrico, siendo más rara la vasculitis.
Algunos factores involucrados en la patogenia del compromiso lúpico en el sistema nervioso incluyen la oclusión vascular por vasculopatía, generalmente asociados a la presencia de anticuerpos antifosfolípidos, vasculitis, menos frecuentemente y la injuria mediada por anticuerpos antineuronas.
El síndrome orgánico cerebral se presenta en el 20 % de los pacientes y puede ocurrir en ausencia de otras manifestaciones de lupus neuropsiquiátrico.
Se manifiesta por apatía, trastornos de la memoria, desorientación, alteraciones del juicio y del intelecto. En los casos severos puede ocurrir deterioro progresivo que conduce a la demencia.
Manifestaciones renales:
Entre el 50% y el 80% de los pacientes con LES desarrollan algún grado de lesión renal durante el curso de la enfermedad. El paciente puede estar asintomático o bien presentar edemas, hipertensión arterial y alteraciones del sedimento urinario (leucocituria, cilindruria, hematuria, proteinuria).
Basándose en los hallazgos histopatológicos, la Organización mundial de la Salud (OMS), clasificó a la nefropatía lúpica en 6 clases.

NEFROPATIA LUPICA (OMS)
Clase 1 normal
Clase 1I Glomerulonefritis mesangial.
Clase111 Glomerulonefritis proliferativa focal
ClaseIV Glomerulonefritis proliferativa difusa.
Clase V Glomerulonefritis membranosa
Clase V Glomerulonefritis esclerosante crónica.

De ellas, la glomerulonefritis proliferativa difusa es la de peor pronóstico funcional. Más del 70% de los glomérulos se hallan comprometidos. Existe hematuria, proteinuria, síndrome nefrótico e hipertensión arterial. La evolución hacia la insuficiencia renal es frecuente.
La glomerulonefritis mesangial, suele ser asintomática o dar proteinuria leve. Tiene buen pronóstico aunque puede evolucionar hacia formas más severas.
En la glomerulonefritis proliferativa focal menos de la mitad de los glomérulos están afectados y en ellos la lesión es segmentaria. Puede observarse una proteinuria leve hasta un síndrome nefrótico.
La hipertensión arterial es inusual. Este tipo histológico puede evolucionar hacia una forma difusa.
En la glomerulonefritis membranosa la proteinuria es el elemento predominante y suele ser intensa. La evolución hacia la insuficiencia renal es rara, al menos en los primeros años.
La nefritis esclerosante crónica no difiere de la insuficiencia renal crónica de cualquier otra causa.

LABORATORIO

Inespecífico
En la mayor parte de los casos existe anemia que es tipo crónica normocítica, normocrómica y que tiende a evolucionar paralelamente con la actividad de la enfermedad. En ocasiones puede ser microcítica e hipocrómica secundaria a una hemorragia digestiva crónica en relación con el uso de drogas antiinflamatorias no esteroideas o corticoesteroides.
La anemia hemolítica autoinmune es una manifestación importante del LES y hasta puede constituir el único signo de la enfermedad. Puede preceder en años a la aparición del cuadro clínico de LES.
Otras manifestaciones hematológicas leucopenia, infopenia y trombocitopenia.
La presencia de leucocitosis puede ser debida al tratamiento corticoideo o a un proceso infeccioso agregado.
La eritrosedimentación suele, estar acelerada en los períodos de actividad y ocasionalmente persiste elevada aun en ausencia de evidencias clínicas o serológicas de brote lúpico.
En la mayoría de los pacientes se halla una hipergamaglobulinemia de tipo policlonal.
El factor reumatoideo está presente en el 15% de los casos.
La hipocomplementemia es habitual, fundamentalmente CH50 y C4.
Test serológicos falsos positivos para sífilis pueden observarse en el 25%, de
los casos.
En los pacientes portadores de nefropatía suelen hallarse alteraciones del sedimento urinario y de las cifras de urea, creatinina, clearence de creatinina y proteinuria de 24 horas dependiendo del grado de compromiso de la función renal.

Laboratorio inmunológico
Anticuerpos antinucleares: el LES se caracteriza por la presencia de numerosos anticuerpos contra constituyentes celulares. Los de mayor significado clínico son los que se dirigen contra antígenos nucleares(ANA) que se evalúan con técnicas de inmunofluorescencia.
El 95% de los pacientes con LES tienen pruebas positivas. Más de la mitad con títulos mayores de 1/500. Las imágenes más frecuentes son la homogénea, periférica y menos frecuentemente moteada.
Anticuerpos anti-DNA reaccionan con DNA nativo. Son de muy alta especificidad para el diagnóstico de LES. Se encuentran en el 50% de los pacientes activos no tratados. Su presencia y título fluctúan en relación con los períodos de actividad y remisión de la enfermedad.
Los anticuerpos que reaccionan con el DNA desnaturalizado en forma exclusiva, se encuentran en el 90-95% de los pacientes si se los investiga con técnicas sensibles (ELISA, RIA). No tienen la especificidad clínica de los anti-DNA nativo, ya que también se encuentran en otras patologías (síndrome de Sjögren, artritis reumatoidea, polimiositis, síndromes inducidos por drogas, hepatitis crónica ).
Anticuerpos antirribonucleoproteínas: Son anticuerpos contra antígenos nucleares extraíbles en medio isotónico (ENA: extractable nuclear antígeno): Sm, RNP, SSA/Ro y SSA/La principalmente.
Anti Sm: Característico del LES, excepcionalmente se encuentra en otras enfermedades del tejido conectivo, por lo que tiene un alto valor diagnóstico. Su frecuencia en esta afección es de alrededor del 20-30%.
Anti RNP: Tiene una prevalencia del 40% Se asocian en un 100% de los casos a enfermedad mixta del tejido conectivo.
Anti SSA-Ro Anti SSB-LA: la frecuencia en el LES es del 40%, y 15% respectivamente se asocian a cuadros clínicos particulares LES ANA negativo, lupus cutáneo subagudo, LES neonatal, bloqueo cóngenito AV completo y síndrome de Sjögren.
Anticuerpos Antifosfolípidos: Son dos autoanticuerpos el Anticoagulante lúpico y Anticardiolipina. Este último puede ser del tipo IgG o IgM.
Se encuentran con más frecuencia en el LES (15-20% el anticoagulante lúpico y 25-30% las anticardiolipinas). Es posible detectarlos en otras patologías. Artritis reumatoidea, artritis reumatoidea juvenil, lupus-like, SIDA y en gerontes sanos.
La presencia de estos anticuerpos se asocia a manifestaciones clínicas definidas que constituyen el Síndrome Antifosfolípido (SAF) que se ve asociado al LES frecuentemente pero también puede ser primario.



          Disease Likely Explanation For Mysterious Bird Deaths and other wildlife health news        
TOP STORIES

First diseased bat identified in Columbia area

A disease that is killing millions of bug-eating bats has shown up for the first time in Richland County, indicating the disorder could have broader impacts on the winged mammals than previously known.

Recent laboratory tests confirmed white-nose syndrome in a bat from a site in the Columbia-area, according to the S.C. Department of Natural Resources.

The discovery is significant because it indicates the possible spread of the disease away from the mountains and into other parts of South Carolina. That’s a concern, not only as a threat to the species itself, but because bats are natural exterminators.

The State
30 Jun 2014
S Fretwell

>>> FULL ARTICLE

More White-Nose Syndrome News
 >>> Will a bat-killing fungus make it to Texas?
>>> UNH researchers taking part in white-nose syndrome


Scientists Close In On What’s Killing Sea Stars

Some scientists see a connection between rising water temperatures and the wasting syndrome. The waters around the San Juan Islands tend to be colder than the Washington outer coastline where dying starfish were first reported last summer. Since the arrival of warmer weather this season, the syndrome has spread rapidly to areas like the San Juan Islands that were previously untouched by the syndrome. Recent reports have also surfaced of die-offs along Oregon's coastline.

“The period of time in which the disease progressed rapidly has been a period in which waters have been warmer than usual winter conditions," Blanchette said.

While scientists are reluctant to assign blame to climate change, Harvell explained that as oceans warm, outbreaks like this are more likely to occur.

"A warmer world would be a sicker world," Harvell said. "Under warming conditions a lot of microorganisms do better. They grow faster. They replicate faster. Many of our hosts can actually be stressed by warm conditions. And so it kind of creates a perfect storm of sickness."

Jefferson Public Radio
16 Jun 2014

>>> FULL ARTICLE


Disease Likely Explanation For Mysterious Bird Deaths

The sudden and inexplicable deaths of dozens of birds is probably linked to a disease, says an Icelandic ornithologist.

“Everything points to a disease or some other contagion at work when many adult birds die within a short period of time,” said Gunnar Þór Hallgrímsson, an ornithologist and the director of the Southwest Iceland Nature Research Institute, to Vísir.

Gunnar points out that in other countries, mass bird deaths are more common, and are usually the result of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, better known as the organism which causes botulism.

Reykjavik Grapevine
17 Jun 2014
P Fontaine

>>> FULL ARTICLE


OTHER WILDLIFE HEALTH RELATED NEWS

Fish Die-off News

Hey! It Ain't All Bad News

          Killer ranavirus threatens frogs, turtles in Delaware and more wildlife health news        
TOP STORIES

Scientists still puzzled over cause of elk hoof disease

Scientists researching the cause of elk hoof disease in Southwest Washington have more questions than answers about the condition that causes the animals to limp in pain.... At meetings and in publications, WDFW has indicated that researchers believe the disease is caused by the treponeme bacteria, which has been linked to hoof disease in cows and sheep in many parts of the world.

The Longview Daily News
07 Jun 2014
T Paulu

>>> FULL ARTICLE


Parasites fail to halt European bumblebee invasion of the UK

A species of bee from Europe that has stronger resistance to parasite infections than native bumblebees has spread across the UK, according to new research. The study shows that tree bumblebees have rapidly spread despite them carrying high levels of an infection that normally prevents queen bees from producing colonies. The species arrived in the UK from continental Europe 13 years ago and has successfully spread at an average rate of nearly 4,500 square miles -- about half the size of Wales -- every year.

Science Daily
03 Jun 2014

>>> FULL ARTICLE

Cited Journal Article
Catherine M. Jones, Mark J. F. Brown. Parasites and genetic diversity in an invasive bumblebee. Journal of Animal Ecology, 2014; DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12235


Killer ranavirus threatens frogs, turtles in Delaware

A virus partially blamed for a worldwide amphibian decline has made its way to Delaware and the region, killing tadpoles and raising fears it will spread to reptile species.

The ranavirus, a type of virus that affects cold-blooded species, has been found in wood frog tadpoles in all of Delaware's counties and eight in Maryland. And there is concern it could impact iconic reptile species like the Eastern box turtle or endangered species like the bog turtle.

USA Today
02 Jun 2014
M Murray

>>> FULL ARTICLE


OTHER WILDLIFE HEALTH RELATED NEWS
Chronic Wasting Disease
Fish Die-Offs


          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        
Browse complete Digest publication library here.

TOWARD A MODERNIZED DEFINITION OF WILDLIFE HEALTH
J Wildl Dis. 2014 May 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Stephen C.

White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats
PLoS One. 2014 May 12;9(5):e97224. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097224. eCollection 2014.
Zukal J et al.

Surveillance for emerging biodiversity diseases of wildlife
PLoS Pathog. 2014 May 29;10(5):e1004015. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004015. eCollection 2014.
Grogan LF et al.

Ticks of the Hyalomma marginatum complex transported by migratory birds into Central Europe
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Apr 29. pii: S1877-959X(14)00061-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Capek M et al.

Identification and characterization of Highlands J virus from a Mississippi sandhill crane using unbiased next-generation sequencing
J Virol Methods. 2014 May 29. pii: S0166-0934(14)00210-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.05.018. [Epub ahead of print]
Ip HS et al.


A 5-year Chlamydia vaccination programme could reverse disease-related koala population decline: Predictions from a mathematical model using field data

Vaccine. 2014 May 27. pii: S0264-410X(14)00725-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.05.049. [Epub ahead of print]
Craig AP et al.

Wetland characteristics influence disease risk for a threatened amphibian
Ecological Applications. 2014; 24:650–662. doi: 10.1890/13-0389.1
Geoffrey W. Heard et al.

Anthropogenic Land Use Change and Infectious Diseases: A Review of the Evidence
Ecohealth. 2014 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Gottdenker NL et al.

The effect of seasonal birth pulses on pathogen persistence in wild mammal populations
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jul 7;281(1786). pii: 20132962. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2962.
Peel AJ et al.

The potential impact of native Australian trypanosome infections on the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)
Parasitology. 2011 Jun;138(7):873-83. doi: 10.1017/S0031182011000369. Epub 2011 Apr 27.
McInnes LM et al.

Prevalence, diversity, and interaction patterns of avian haemosporidians in a four-year study of blackcaps in a migratory divide
Parasitology. 2011 Jun;138(7):824-35. doi: 10.1017/S0031182011000515. Epub 2011 Apr 26.
Santiago-Alarcon D et al.

A novel siadenovirus detected in the kidneys and liver of Gouldian finches (Erythura gouldiae)
Vet Microbiol. 2014 Apr 21. pii: S0378-1135(14)00206-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.04.006. [Epub ahead of print]
Joseph HM et al.

Assessing host extinction risk following exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 May 7;281(1785):20132783. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2783. Print 2014.
Louca S et al.

Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in wild mammals and birds: a coincidence or cause for concern?
Ir Vet J. 2014 Apr 25;67(1):8. doi: 10.1186/2046-0481-67-8. eCollection 2014.
Smith S et al.

Career Attitudes of First-Year Veterinary Students Before and After a Required Course on Veterinary Careers
J Vet Med Educ. 2014 May 2:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
Fish RE and Griffith EH.
          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        

Browse complete Digest publication library here

Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)
Parasit Vectors. 2014 Mar 24;7(1):117. [Epub ahead of print]
Mascarelli PE, Keel MK, Yabsley M, Last LA, Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG.

North atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 19;9(3):e92075. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092075. eCollection 2014.
Dusek RJ et al.

First isolation of reticuloendotheliosis virus from mallards in China
Arch Virol. 2014 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Jiang L et al.

Dual-pathogen etiology of avian trichomonosis in a declining band-tailed pigeon population
Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Mar 13. pii: S1567-1348(14)00084-7. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Girard YA et al.

An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe
Environ Int. 2014 Mar 11;67C:12-21. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.02.004. [Epub ahead of print]
Gómez-Ramírez P et al.

Antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from humans and wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area, Central African Republic
Vet Microbiol. 2014 Feb 16. pii: S0378-1135(14)00091-1. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.014. [Epub ahead of print]
Janatova M et al.

Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain)
Veterinary Parasitology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 24]. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.018
A. Reboredo-Fernández et al.

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e91043. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091043
Jennelle CS et al.

Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases
Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;14(2):160-8. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70244-5. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
Milinovich GJ et al.
          Vermont bats begin white nose recovery and other wildlife health related news stories        
TOP STORIES

Crisis biology: Can bacteria save bats and frogs from deadly diseases?

As populations plummet, biologists race for a solution.

In 2007, Valerie McKenzie volunteered for a large study of human body bacteria. It was the dawn of the golden age of the microbe. Researchers were just beginning to understand how bacteria and other microbes in human intestines influence everything from obesity to allergies and infections. McKenzie, a University of Colorado-Boulder biologist, was mildly curious about her "microbiome." But she was more interested in the bacteria living on the skin of frogs and toads.

Amphibian populations worldwide are plummeting, and entire species are going extinct. The West's struggling species include boreal toads and mountain yellow-legged frogs. Invasive species and habitat degradation play a major role, but amphibians are dying even in places with good habitat. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, an aggressive fungus commonly known as chytrid, is often to blame.

McKenzie, who was studying the role of farmland conversion and suburbanization in the decline of leopard frogs in Colorado, suspected chytrid was also a factor. When she read a paper about a strain of bacteria found on red-backed salamanders that inhibited chytrid's growth, she began to wonder: What microbes lived on the skin of her frogs and toads? And could any of them fight chytrid?

High Country News
26 Feb 2014
Emily Guerin

>>> FULL ARTICLE

Other Frog Health News 
>>> Does your pond host killer frog disease? Scientist at uni's Penryn campus wants to know [Cornwall, United Kingdom]


Infected Tasmanian devils reveal how cancer cells evolve in response to humans

Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor Disease (DFTD) has ravaged the world's largest carnivorous marsupial since it emerged in 1996, resulting in a population decline of over 90%. Conservation work to defeat the disease has including removing infected individuals from the population and new research explains how this gives us a unique opportunity to understand how human selection alters the evolution of cancerous cells.

DFTD is an asexually reproducing clonal cell line, which during the last 16 years has been exposed to negative effects as infected devils, approximately 33% of the population, have been removed from one site, the Forestier Peninsula, in Tasmania between 2006 and 2010.

Science Daily
18 Feb 2014

>>> FULL ARTICLE

Cited Journal Article
Beata Ujvari, Anne-Maree Pearse, Kate Swift, Pamela Hodson, Bobby Hua, Stephen Pyecroft, Robyn Taylor, Rodrigo Hamede, Menna Jones, Katherine Belov, Thomas Madsen. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours. Evolutionary Applications, 2014; 7 (2): 260 DOI: 10.1111/eva.12117


Other Wildlife Health Related News
White-Nose Syndrome
One Health News Corner
Huh?! That's Interesting!


          Necropsies on beached striped dolphins leave more questions than answers and other wildlife health related news stories        
TOP STORIES

Partnership fights for ban on hunting with lead ammo

California bill A.B. 711 requires the use of non-lead ammunition in all hunting of mammals, birds, and other wildlife. Audubon California, The Humane Society of the United Sates, and Defenders of Wildlife joined forces to get the bill passed.

“Our three organizations worked together on a 2008 bill that limited use of lead ammunition in about 20% of California,” says Jennifer Fearing, California senior state director of The Humane Society of the United States. “A.B. 711 would extend this requirement to the rest of the state.”

Garrison Frost, director of marketing and communications for Audubon California, says lead poisoning is a leading cause of death among wildlife that feeds on animals killed by lead ammunition. In addition, lead ammunition that seeps into the food chain, watershed, and overall environment poses a broader treat to human health.

PR Week
21 Feb 2014
Tanya Lewis

>>> FULL ARTICLE


RARE FERRETS NEED MORE LAND TO SURVIVE THE PLAGUE

The black-footed ferret is one of the most endangered mammals in North America, but new research suggests that these charismatic critters can persist if conservationists think big enough.

Decades of human persecution (e.g., poisoning) of the ferret’s favorite prey, prairie dogs, and severe outbreaks of plague and distemper led to its extinction in the wild in 1987.

Since then, thousands of captive-raised ferrets have been released across North America, and at least four wild populations have been successfully reestablished.

However, a new factor threatens to undermine these hard-fought conservation gains: the continued eastward spread of the exotic bacterial disease plague, which is a quick and efficient killer of prairie dogs, and is caused by the same microbe that is implicated in the Black Death pandemics of the Middle Ages.

Using a new multi-species computer modeling approach, researchers have linked models of plague, prairie dogs, and black-footed ferrets to explore the consequences of ecological interactions in ways not possible using standard methods.
The results of this study, published in Journal of Applied Ecology, suggest that the continued survival of black-footed ferret populations requires landscapes larger than conservationists previously thought, and intensive management actions to reduce plague transmission.

STONY BROOK UNIVERSITY
21 Feb 2014

>>> FULL ARTICLE


OTHER WILDLIFE HEALTH RELATED NEWS
One Health News Corner
Huh?! That's Interesting!

          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        

Browse complete Digest publication library here

New alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata bats, New Zealand
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.3201/eid2004.131441
Hall RJ, Wang J, Peacey M, Moore NE, McInnes K, Tompkins DM.
[Thank your fellow Digest reader for sharing!]

Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014 May; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131707
B. Zhao et al.

Mercury Exposure Associated with Altered Plasma Thyroid Hormones in the Declining Western Pond Turtle (Emys marmorata) from California Mountain Streams
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Meyer E1, Eagles-Smith CA, Sparling D, Blumenshine S.

Survey of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the southeastern USA
Dis Aquat Organ. 2014 Feb 19;108(2):91-102. doi: 10.3354/dao02705.
Stewart JR et al.

Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health
Front Microbiol. 2014 Feb 5;5:23. eCollection 2014.
Radhouani H et al.

Polar Bear Encephalitis: Establishment of a Comprehensive Next-generation Pathogen Analysis Pipeline for Captive and Free-living Wildlife
J Comp Pathol. 2013 Dec 19. pii: S0021-9975(13)00385-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.12.005. [Epub ahead of print]
Szentiks CA et al.

International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - December 2013

Neglected wild life: Parasitic biodiversity as a conservation target
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Aug 2;2:222-227. eCollection 2013.
Gómez A and Nichols E

Haemogregarine infections of three species of aquatic freshwater turtles from two sites in Costa Rica
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Mar 5;2:131-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.02.003. eCollection 2013.
Rossow JA et al.

Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: Mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Mar 5;2:110-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.02.002. eCollection 2013
Hollings T et al.

Parasites and the conservation of small populations: The case of Baylisascaris procyonis
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Dec; 2: 203–210
L. Kristen et al

Predictors of malaria infection in a wild bird population: Landscape level analyses reveal climatic and anthropogenic factors
J Anim Ecol. 2014 Feb 16. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12214. [Epub ahead of print]
Gonzalez-Quevedo C et al.

Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata
J Invertebr Pathol. 2014 Feb 8. pii: S0022-2011(14)00017-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.01.008. [Epub ahead of print]
Work TM and Farah Y.

Veterinary Pathology - March 2014
Special Issue: Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals
Volume 51, Number 2

Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation - January 2014
Volume 26, Number 1

Emerging Infectious Diseases - March 2014
Volume 20, Number 3



          Honeybee trade is hotbed for carrying disease into wild and other wildlife health news stories        
Top Stories

Study reveals new ways deadly squirrelpox is transmitted to red squirrels

Native red squirrels have declined throughout Britain and Ireland for the last century due to a combination of habitat loss and the introduction of the North American eastern grey squirrel. But more recently its few remaining populations have been devastated by an insidious pox virus passed to them by the alien invaders.

A study by the biodiversity and conservation research centre Quercus at Queen's University Belfast (QUB), and published in the journal PLOS ONE, found the situation may be worse than previously thought as the disease appears to have multiple modes of potential transmission. The project was part-funded by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) through the Natural Heritage Research Partnership (NHRP) with Quercus, Queen's University Belfast and part-funded by the People's Trust for Endangered Species (PTES).

Invading grey squirrels, which harbour the disease but typically do not suffer symptoms, may pass the virus in their urine. The research team conducted experiments to examine the survival of the virus outside the body in the wider environment, showing that it persists best in warm dry conditions. This raises the possibility that infected grey squirrels could pass on the disease by uninfected squirrels coming into contact with their dried urine during spring and summer.

The virus was also found in the parasites of pox positive squirrels including fleas, mites and ticks, which are capable of carrying the disease between individuals or between the species.

Eurekalert
24 Feb 2014

>>> FULL ARTICLE


Honeybee trade is hotbed for carrying disease into wild

HONEYBEES have been busy – spreading diseases to insects that pollinate crops. It seems imported honeybees are an important reservoir for viruses that kill wild pollinators, which could lead to a meltdown in the planet's pollination services.

World trade in honeybee colonies contributes to honey production and also plays a vital role in agriculture – in some cases there would be no crop without the pollinators.

Honeybee colonies in Europe and North America have suffered recent mysterious declines. But now it seems the colonies could be just as much of a threat to wild pollinators such as bumblebees and the many species of "solitary" bees.

Matthias Fürst of Royal Holloway, University of London tracked the geographical prevalence in the UK of a non-native parasite called deformed wing virus (DWV) that is often found in both honeybees and bumblebees. The virus is spread by a mite and typically kills bees within 48 hours. The pattern of spread showed that imported honeybees are the major source of infection for the wild pollinators, and that emerging diseases spread by those colonies could be a major cause of mortality in the wild

New Scientist
19 February 2014
Fred Pearce

>>> FULL ARTICLE

Cited Journal Article
MA Furst et al. Disease associations between honeybees and bumblebees as a threat to wild pollinators. Nature. 2014 Feb 20; 506: 364–366


Coral off WA suffers shocking damage from marine heatwaves, scientists say

Study reveals that remote reef with coral hundreds of years old has undergone severe bleaching and ‘decimation’

Marine heatwaves have wreaked “almost unprecedented” damage to ancient coral off Western Australia’s Pilbara coast, scientists say.

Preliminary results from a five-year year study of the coastline revealed that a remote section of reef south of Barrow Island has suffered severe “bleaching and decimation”, according to the CSIRO, which is running the study with the University of Western Australia.

An extreme “bleaching event” in 2011 was known to have caused significant damage to the reef. But the study found another marine heatwave, in the summer of 2012-13, also caused trauma to the reef, including to its massive, 400-year old porites corals.

The Guardian
13 Feb 2013
Michael Safi
Location: Western Australia

>>> FULL ARTICLE


Other Wildlife Health Related News
Chronic Wasting Disease
One Health News Corner
It Ain't All Bad




          What's killing all the starfish on the West Coast? and other wildlife health news stories        
TOP STORIES

White-nose syndrome confirmed in bats in Arkansas

White-nose syndrome, a fatal disease to several bat species, has been confirmed in Arkansas, the state Game and Fish Commission said Wednesday. The disease was documented in two northern long-eared bats found at a cave on a natural area managed by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission in Marion County, according to a news release.

... Five bats were found to have the disease during a survey of the Marion County cave on Jan. 11. The fungus was confirmed by tests on two of the bats by the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center, according to an AGFC news release. The bats had damage to wing, ear and tail membranes consistent with white-nose syndrome.

Arkansas News Bureau
29 Jan 2014
Arkansas, USA

>>> FULL ARTICLE

More White-Nose Syndrome News
>>> Bat fungus continues to concern biologists
>>> Winter cave surveys track bat numbers, health [Kentucky, USA]
>>> White Nose Syndrome May Be Unstoppable: Deadly Bat Disease Can Thrive in Caves Without Bats


What's killing all the starfish on the West Coast?

Starfish have been mysteriously dying by the millions in recent months along the West Coast, worrying biologists who say the sea creatures are key to the marine ecosystem.

Scientists first started noticing the mass deaths in June 2013. Different types of starfish, also known as sea stars, were affected, from wild ones along the coast to those in captivity, according to Jonathan Sleeman, director of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wildlife Health Center.

... The most commonly observed symptoms are white lesions on the arms of the sea star. The lesions spread rapidly, resulting in the loss of the arm. Within days, the infection consumes the creature's entire body, and it dies.

Entire populations have been wiped out in Puget Sound off the coast of Washington state, in the Salish Sea off Canada's British Columbia as well as along the coast of California. The mortality rate is estimated at 95 percent.

... “What we currently think is likely happening is that there is a pathogen, like a parasite or a virus or a bacteria, that is infecting the sea stars and that compromises in some way their immune system,” Pete Raimondi, chair of the department of ecology and evolutionary biology, at the University of California, Santa Cruz, told AFP.

San Jose Mercury News
2014 Feb 02
Jean-Louis Santini
Washington, and California, USA, and British Columbia, Cananda 

>>> FULL ARTICLE


Assorted South West parasites favour cleaner habitat

BIOLOGISTS investigating parasites on freshwater fish in the South West believe they have discovered at least 42 native parasite species that were previously undescribed...Murdoch University Associate Professor Alan Lymbery, who presented the research at the WA Freshwater Fish Symposium, says two known introduced parasite species were found.

In addition to the introduced species, 42 morphologically different native parasites appeared to be different species.... Dr Lymbery says 30–40 per cent of the parasites were only found in a single species of fish, which had serious implications for the parasite’s conservation risk if the fish was endangered.

“[Parasites] are probably at more risk than the fish host species because although some of the parasites we found have a direct life cycle, which means that the fish is their only host, a large number of them also had an indirect life cycle, which means they rely on other hosts as well,” he says.

... Dr Lymbery says the finding most fish biologists found interesting was that parasitism generally increased with improving water quality. He says parasites, particularly those with complex life cycles, are quite sensitive indicators of environmental quality....“Contrary to what most people think, which is that the worse the conditions are, the more disease or parasitism you have, you actually don’t find that,” Dr Lymbery says.

“What we found was that the better the quality of the habitat, the more fish were parasitised and the greater number of species of parasites you found.”


ScienceNetwork Western Australia
2014 Jan 13
M Wheeler

>>> FULL ARTICLE


Some Good News Amid Bad News, for Hawai`i’s Endangered Honeycreepers

Warming temperatures due to climate change are exposing endangered Hawaiian forest birds to greater risk of avian malaria. But new research led by the U.S. Geological Survey holds out some hope that the birds may be able to adapt.

For decades, scientists have documented declines and extinctions among species of Hawaiian honeycreepers due to the spread of avian malaria and other diseases. At one time, the Hawaiian Islands had no mosquitoes—and no mosquito-borne diseases. But, by the late 1800s, mosquitoes were firmly established in the islands. Another invasive species—feral pigs—helped the mosquito population boom by creating larval habitat as they rooted through forests. The honeycreepers had no natural defense against a disease they had never before experienced.

"Honeycreepers are exquisitely sensitive to avian malaria," said Dr. Carter Atkinson, a USGS microbiologist based at the USGS Pacific Islands Ecosystems Research Center in Hawai’i. Atkinson is the lead author of two new research papers examining how climate change is increasing the honeycreepers’ risk of infection.

USGS Newsroom
31 Jan 2014

>>> FULL PRESS RELEASE

Cited Journal Article
Carter T. Atkinson et al. (2014). Changing Climate and the Altitudinal Range of Avian Malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an Ongoing Conservation Crisis on the Island of Kaua'i. Global Change Biology; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1111/gcb.12535

Carter T. Atkinson et al. (2014). Experimental Evidence for Evolved Tolerance to Avian Malaria in a Wild Population of Low Elevation Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens). EcoHealth. [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1007/s10393-013-0899-2


OTHER WILDLIFE HEALTH RELATED STORIES
One Health News Corner
It Ain't All Bad News

          Eagle and grebe bird kills spur worry about West Nile mutation and more wildlife health news stories        
TOP STORIES

Bat-killing fungus lurks in the Kansas City area

A deadly fungus that has wiped out hibernating bats by the millions in its eight-year march west from a New York cave has finally crept into Jackson County.

The discovery of “white-nose syndrome” in three tri-colored (or Eastern pipistrelle) bats in a limestone mine marks the nation’s westernmost spread, federal officials said last week. Afflicted mammals were found last winter in east-central Missouri; before that it was seen in the cave colonies of Pike County near the Mississippi River.

22 Jan 2014
Kansas City Star
D Levings

>>> FULL ARTICLE


Reassortment patterns of avian influenza virus internal segments among different subtypes

The segmented RNA genome of avian Influenza viruses (AIV) allows genetic reassortment between co-infecting viruses, providing an evolutionary pathway to generate genetic innovation. The genetic diversity (16 haemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes) of AIV indicates an extensive reservoir of influenza viruses exists in bird populations, but how frequently subtypes reassort with each other is still unknown.

Here we quantify the reassortment patterns among subtypes in the Eurasian avian viral pool by reconstructing the ancestral states of the subtypes as discrete states on time-scaled phylogenies with respect to the internal protein coding segments. We further analyzed how host species, the inferred evolutionary rates and the dN/dS ratio varied among segments and between discrete subtypes, and whether these factors may be associated with inter-subtype reassortment rate.

7th Space
24 Jan 2014

>>> FULL ARTICLE


Cited Journal Article
Lu LuSamantha J LycettAndrew J Leigh Brown. (2014). Reassortment patterns of avian influenza virus internal segments among different subtypes. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14:16. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-16


Eagle and grebe bird kills spur worry about West Nile mutation

The mystery surrounding the deaths of 20,000 eared grebes along the Great Salt Lake shoreline has Davis County Mosquito Abatement District officials concerned, as a test is being conducted to determine if it is an existing West Nile virus strain or a mutated strain that killed the birds. Mosquito Abatement District Director Gary Hatch appeared before the Davis County Commission Tuesday expressing his concern. Hatch said he is not certain what effect the grebes infected with the West Nile virus may have on next summer's mosquito season, but there is the possibility the district could be facing a new strain of the virus in its effort to protect the public through its abatement sprayings.

Testing has confirmed that more than 50 bald eagles died in Utah after scavenging on dead grebes that had the West Nile virus, the National Wildlife Health Center said.... But now district officials are concerned about where the grebes initially contracted the virus, and how it spread so quickly among that bird population.

"We know what killed the eagles," Hatch said. "But what happened with the grebes is the concern." Local officials suspect based on the evidence of positive test results that the grebes likely contacted the virus somewhere else along their migratory route.

Standard-Examiner
22 Jan 2014
B Saxton

>>> FULL ARTICLE


Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds statement on: H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in poultry and wild birds in Republic of Korea January 2014

Current situation
The Republic of Korea reported its first of a number of outbreaks of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian
influenza (HPAI) at a duck farm in Gochang, Jeolla Province, 300 kilometers southwest of Seoul, on
16 January, 2014. Following these outbreaks a number of wild birds have been reported as having died from the infection. Dozens of Baikal teal (Anas formosa) and a smaller number of bean geese
(Anser fabilis) have died to date, some of which have tested positive for the virus. The H5N8 strain of influenza has since been identified on at least 17 other farms, with tests currently under way
for many other suspected cases. Over 640,000 poultry have already been slaughtered, with many
hundreds of thousands more set to be destroyed....


The Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds

The United Nations Environment Programme/Convention on Migratory Species (UNEP/CMS)and Food and Agriculture Organization Co-convened Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds was established in 2005 and works as a communication and coordination network and continues to review the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of AI and the impact of the disease on wild birds, promoting a balanced opinion based on currently available evidence. Task Force members and/or observers include WHO, OIE, FAO, CMS, Ramsar Convention, AEWA, Wetlands International, Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Birdlife International, Royal Veterinary College, Ecohealth Alliance and International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation.

>>> FULL STATEMENT 


Related News Stories
>>> Migratory birds confirmed to be source of bird flu outbreak



OTHER WILDLIFE HEALTH RELATED NEWS

A koala joey hangs on his mother Eola after a weighing procedure at the zoo
in the western German city of Duisburg. Photograph: Ina Fassbender/Reuters

One Health News Corner

Huh?! That's Interesting!

          Comment on Gut bacteria may influence thoughts and behaviour by Nicolas        
Esto no en absoluto lo que me es necesario. Hay otras variantes? http://www.webddlworld.com/ Nicolas
          2010 Toyota Mark X        
Tokyo — TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION (TMC) announces the launch in Japan today of the redesigned "Mark X", which furthers the series' "sporty and luxurious" concept by offering enhanced quality in an authentic rear-wheel-drive sedan.

Mark X 250G S package, Relax Selection (with options)
Mark X 250G S package, Relax Selection
(with options)

The Mark X features a dynamic low center of gravity that is combined with powerful driving performance made possible by a new 3.5-liter V6 engine. The style and driving performance of this upscale vehicle are in tune with adult sensibilities, delivering in-touch-with-the-road steering that responds instantaneously to the driver's every wish, stability at high speeds and a smooth comfortable ride.

In addition, the vehicle's environmental performance is at the top of its class1. The fuel efficiency of the Relax Selection two-wheel drive models exceeds the 2010 standards by 15%, qualifying them for incentives and subsidies under the Japanese government's taxation system for environmentally considerate vehicles.

The new Marx X, starting at an appealing 2.38 million yen, comes in a diverse lineup—standard type, sports type and premium type—to allow drivers to show their individuality.


(Products described in this press release and in any attachments are for the Japanese market.
Some descriptions apply to select model-grades/versions only.)

Monthly sales target for Japan:3,000 units

Assembly Plant: Motomachi Plant, Toyota Motor Corporation



Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices (Prices in Hokkaido and Okinawa differ)

Grade Engine Powertrain Transmission Price*1 (including
consumption tax)
250G F package 4GR-FSE
(V6, 2.5 liter)
regular gasoline
Rear-wheel-drive 6 Super ECT*2 2,380,000 yen

2,674,250 yen

Relax Selection 2,690,000 yen
S package 2,937,500 yen
S package,
Relax Selection
2,990,000 yen
250G
Four
F package Four-wheel drive 2,611,000 yen

2,905,250 yen
350S 2GR-FSE
(V6, 3.5 liter)
premium gasoline
Rear-wheel-drive 3,525,000 yen
Premium 3,370,000 yen

L package 3,800,000 yen
*1Prices listed do not include recycling fees, *2Super intelligent,electronically-controlled, six-speed automatic transmission



Vehicle Outline

Rear-wheel drive package offers dynamic styling and exciting cruising

The design concept behind the Marx X is "glam tech"—combining the visual "glamour" conveyed by the vehicle with the "high-tech" expression of its modern and precise feel. The result is subtle contrast as well as a dynamic and stylish form.

The vehicle's silhouette is smooth and elegant, with expansive front and rear pillars to emphasize integration with the underbody.

The 1,435 mm height and 20 mm expansion for both width and track give the vehicle a low center of gravity.

Rear-wheel drive allows a front-and-rear weight distribution ratio of 54:46 for stable driving.

The bumper's wide opening and deep-set fog lights emphasize the face's low center of gravity and wide stance, while the three-lamp linear layout of the headlights and a mesh grille enhance the sense of vitality.

The combination taillights also have a three-lamp linear layout, while lights built into the lid of the trunk serve as a statement of class.

Six refined body colors are available, including the new Ice Titanium Mica Metallic.

The interior is sporty and dynamic, combining quality and precision that evokes a feeling of driving pleasure.

The leather-covered steering wheel's thicker ergonomic grip and a leather-booted gearshift add to the sporty feel.

The angles of the seat cushion and sides of the front seats have been optimized for superior hold. The driver's seat also features a switch-operated motorized lumbar support function that shifts the seatback forward or back to improve back comfort during driving.

The shoulder portion of the door trim for the front and rear seats has been pushed outward by 25 mm (total for left and right), while the distance between the front seats has been increased by 20 mm, resulting in a roomier interior.

Sports type (250G S package, 250G S package Relax Selection, 350S)

  • Sporty feel enhanced through tinting of headlights and combination taillights and through spoilers on front and rear bumpers and trunk lid
  • Interior features modern and robust black theme
  • Paddle shifter gives feel of manual transmission

Premium type (Premium, Premium L package)

  • Special plating on front grille, rocker moldings and front bumper enhance upscale image
  • Steering wheel and shift knob ornamentation boast wood-grain finish
  • Heated front seats effectively warm shoulders, lower back and legs
  • Power Easy Access System slides driver's seat back and tilts steering wheel upward and forward, increasing ease of ingress and egress
  • Refined velour-moquette seat covers are treated with mite-suppressing agent that also prevents static electricity, adding to passenger comfort

Sporty cruising performance and high-quality, comfortable ride

The new 3.5-liter V6 engine is paired with a 6 Super ECT with a driving response and acceleration management system to provide the ample and comfortable cruising characteristic of a full-scale rear-wheel drive sedan.

The 2.5-liter V6 engine (two-wheel drive) models offer outstanding acceleration, going from zero to 100km/h in just 8.4 seconds2.

Reduced friction resistance in the suspension and higher arm rigidity enhance maneuverability and provide in-touch-with-the-road steering and a smooth, comfortable ride. The sports type models are equipped with Adaptive Variable Suspension, which combines mono-tube shock absorbers and computer control of damping force, delivering an exceptional ride, superior handling and stable cruising performance.

Depending on the driving conditions, the driver can—at the flick of a switch—choose between the Sport, Snow and Eco driving modes to optimally control drive force.

The newly adopted Variable Gear Ratio Steering system, which controls the angle of the front wheels according to vehicle speed to improve steering performance, is coupled with optimized electric power steering, resulting in outstanding handling.

Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management coordinates the drive power, steering and brakes to ensure excellent stability and improve preventive safety.

Expanded use of vibration-dampening materials limits noise penetration, resulting in a quiet and comfortable cabin.


Improved safety features

Outstanding safety performance is achieved by equipping all vehicle models with seven airbags, including SRS (Supplemental Restraint System) side airbags, SRS curtain shield airbags, and a driver's seat knee airbag; VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) to control skidding; TRC (Traction Control) to minimize wheel spin when accelerating; and Active Headrests up front to reduce stress on the neck in a rear-end collision.

The vehicle's Pre-Crash Safety System uses millimeter-wave radar to detect potential collisions and alerts the driver through a warning buzzer and display. In line with the possibility of collision, the Pre-Crash Brake Assist system, Pre-Crash Brake system and Pre-Crash Seatbelts minimize collision damage to achieve a higher level of safety.

When cornering with the headlights on, the Intelligent AFS (Adaptive Front-lighting System) shifts the low beams to match the steering angle and vehicle speed, thereby enhancing visibility in the direction the vehicle is moving.

The new Radar Cruise Control system, equipped with a brake-control function, detects and monitors the preceding vehicle, maintaining a fixed distance, in line with the preceding vehicle's speed, within a preset speed range.

Hill-start Assist Control prevents the vehicle from rolling backward when switching from the brake to the accelerator during a start on a steep hill.


Comfort features enhance driving pleasure

The multi-information display, which indicates average fuel efficiency, possible cruising distance and other data, features enhanced visibility through the adoption of a high-contrast white, organic electroluminescent (EL) display.

Fully automatic independent temperature controls for the driver and passenger sides—standard on all models—feature a function to remove pollen, dust and other impurities from the air in the cabin. Meanwhile, Plasmacluster Ions®3 technology combats bacteria and creates a comfortable cabin atmosphere through the balanced release of positive and negative ions.

The 480-liter4 trunk is roomy enough to accommodate four golf bags.

An HDD navigation system (compatible with the G-BOOK mX telematics service) features multimedia and other advanced functions such as Map on Demand, which provides automatic map and information updates and door-to-door guidance that pinpoints directions to a destination.

The premium models come with a G-BOOK mX telematics service-compatible HDD navigation system with built-in terrestrial digital TV tuner and gear-shifting functions for driver support in merging and exiting and at intersections; 12 speakers optimally placed to provide sound quality comparable to a live performance.

The Intelligent Parking Assist system uses ultrasonic sensors installed in the front of the vehicle to detect parking-space parameters and help the driver parallel park or back into a parking space by informing the driver when to turn the steering wheel and where to start backing up.


Reduced environmental impact

Efforts were made to improve fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. The 2.5-liter two-wheel-drive models have a fuel efficiency of 13.0km/l5, while the 3.5-liter two-wheel-drive models have one of 10.2km/l5, thus placing both at the top of their vehicle classes1.
All vehicles in the series achieve emission levels 75% lower than the 2005 level required under the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Approval System for Low-emission Vehicles.

The Relax Selection two-wheel-drive models have fuel efficiency that exceeds by 15% the level stipulated in the Japanese 2010 standards set out under the Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy, thereby qualifying them for incentives and subsidies under the Japanese government's taxation system for environmentally friendly vehicles.

All 2.5-liter models meet the Japanese 2010 standards and qualify for subsidies6.

An Eco Driving Indicator that lights up to signify fuel-efficient vehicle operation and an Eco Zone Indicator that shows throttle use—standard on all models—raise driver awareness of environmentally considerate driving.

Eco-VAS (Eco-Vehicle Assessment System)—Toyota's original comprehensive environmental impact assessment system—was implemented to efficiently reduce overall environmental impact throughout the vehicle's lifecycle.

A review of the materials, processing methods and adhesives used for interior parts helped reduce the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as formaldehyde, as well as the discomforting odors sometimes resulting from such materials, to levels below those outlined in the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association's "Vehicle Cabin VOC Testing Methods (for Passenger Cars)", which are the industry's voluntary standards.

The door trim and carpet are made of low-VOC materials and the front console box is made from VOC-free water-based urethane synthetic leather.

          Black Pair of Flexible Twin Slot Bookends - 32 mm Pitch, L150 - 250 mm        
Black Pair of Flexible Twin Slot Bookends - 32 mm Pitch, L150 - 250 mm

Black Pair of Flexible Twin Slot Bookends - 32 mm Pitch, L150 - 250 mm

FLEXIBLE BOOKEND - The flexible bookend provides a quick and easy way of preventing items such as books or magazines from falling off the end of a shelf. Simply slots-in above the shelf and bracket. RESISTANT FINISH - The antimicrobial components offer protection against bacteria‚ mould and fungus. They are resistant to damp conditions, and most commonly encountered chemicals and solvents making them ideal for kitchens, laboratories, libraries, museums, universities and schools as well as retail, showrooms and the home. COMPATIBLE - Our 32 mm pitch twin slot range is designed to be compatible with most twin slot systems allowing you to extend your existing storage, or giving you flexibility to expand in the future. ADJUSTABLE - The twin slot system makes adjusting your shelves quick and easy. Shelves can be set to any height allowing you store products of various sizes, and changed to a new height whenever you need. DURABLE - The steel construction and high load capacity make our twin slot range extremely hard-wearing. Ideal for commercial use in offices, retail, schools and libraries or for home use in the living room, office or bedroom. LARGE RANGE OF SIZES, COLOURS AND ACCESSORIES - The extensive range allows you to design your shelving to your exact requirements. Fit in with existing decor and add flexibility with the range of coordinated accessories.


          Black Pair of Twin Slot Shelf Ends - 32 mm Pitch, 250 mm        
Black Pair of Twin Slot Shelf Ends - 32 mm Pitch, 250 mm

Black Pair of Twin Slot Shelf Ends - 32 mm Pitch, 250 mm

SHELF ENDS - Shelf ends provide a sturdy bracket for wooden or MDF shelves and a bookend all in one. With screw holes for securing the shelves. RESISTANT FINISH - The antimicrobial components offer protection against bacteria‚ mould and fungus. They are resistant to damp conditions, and most commonly encountered chemicals and solvents making them ideal for kitchens, laboratories, libraries, museums, universities and schools as well as retail, showrooms and the home. COMPATIBLE - Our 32 mm pitch twin slot range is designed to be compatible with most twin slot systems allowing you to extend your existing storage, or giving you flexibility to expand in the future. ADJUSTABLE - The twin slot system makes adjusting your shelves quick and easy. Shelves can be set to any height allowing you store products of various sizes, and changed to a new height whenever you need. DURABLE - The steel construction and high load capacity make our twin slot range extremely hard-wearing. Ideal for commercial use in offices, retail, schools and libraries or for home use in the living room, office or bedroom. LARGE RANGE OF SIZES, COLOURS AND ACCESSORIES - The extensive range allows you to design your shelving to your exact requirements. Fit in with existing decor and add flexibility with the range of coordinated accessories.


          Black Recycled Shopping Basket with Wheels and Telescopic Handle - 34 L, H404 x W465 x D353        
Black Recycled Shopping Basket with Wheels and Telescopic Handle - 34 L, H404 x W465 x D353

Black Recycled Shopping Basket with Wheels and Telescopic Handle - 34 L, H404 x W465 x D353

34 Litre Black Recycled Shopping Basket INCREASED CUSTOMER SPEND - Research shows that wheeled shopping baskets increase the customer experience, which in turn leads to an increase in customer spend.  100% RECYCLED - These baskets are made from 100% recycled material. Reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, but with the same technical and mechanical qualities as the standard basket. LOW-NOISE WHEELS - These 50 mm fixed wheels are designed to generate minimal noise while rolling. TELESCOPIC HANDLE - The ergonomically-designed handle extends to a greater height for comfort and reduces vibration when being used. REINFORCED BASE - The hard-wearing baskets ensure durability and will withstand continued retail use. DIRT EVACUATION SYSTEM - Allows dirt and debris to naturally vent from the basket to keep them cleaner. ANTIBACTERIAL HANDLE - The inorganic antimicrobial agent reduces contamination and provides a safer handle for customers. HYGIENIC STACKING - When stacked, the wheels never come into contact with the base of the basket for increased hygiene. STACKING REVERSIBILITY - Reversible stacking helps optimise the space taken up by the stack of baskets in stores.


          Black Recycled Shopping Basket with Wheels and Telescopic Handle - 52 L, H529 x W390 x D390 mm        
Black Recycled Shopping Basket with Wheels and Telescopic Handle - 52 L, H529 x W390 x D390 mm

Black Recycled Shopping Basket with Wheels and Telescopic Handle - 52 L, H529 x W390 x D390 mm

52 Litre Black Recycled Shopping Basket INCREASED CUSTOMER SPEND - Research shows that wheeled shopping baskets increase the customer experience, which in turn leads to an increase in customer spend.  100% RECYCLED - These baskets are made from 100% recycled material. Reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, but with the same technical and mechanical qualities as the standard basket. LOW-NOISE WHEELS - These 50 mm fixed wheels are designed to generate minimal noise while rolling. TELESCOPIC HANDLE - The ergonomically-designed handle extends to a greater height for comfort and reduces vibration when being used. REINFORCED BASE - The hard-wearing baskets ensure durability and will withstand continued retail use. DIRT EVACUATION SYSTEM - Allows dirt and debris to naturally vent from the basket to keep them cleaner. ANTIBACTERIAL HANDLE - The inorganic antimicrobial agent reduces contamination and provides a safer handle for customers. HYGIENIC STACKING - When stacked, the wheels never come into contact with the base of the basket for increased hygiene. STACKING REVERSIBILITY - Reversible stacking helps optimise the space taken up by the stack of baskets in stores.


          Black Twin Slot U-Bracket - 32 mm Pitch, L220 - 470 mm        
Black Twin Slot U-Bracket - 32 mm Pitch, L220 - 470 mm

Black Twin Slot U-Bracket - 32 mm Pitch, L220 - 470 mm

U-BRACKET - Strong and sturdy, the U-Bracket can support a range of wood, MDF or steel shelves. It comes with screw holes for fixing wood or MDF shelves securely. RESISTANT FINISH - The antimicrobial components offer protection against bacteria‚ mould and fungus. They are resistant to damp conditions, and most commonly encountered chemicals and solvents making them ideal for kitchens, laboratories, libraries, museums, universities and schools as well as retail, showrooms and the home. COMPATIBLE - Our 32 mm pitch twin slot range is designed to be compatible with most twin slot systems allowing you to extend your existing storage, or giving you flexibility to expand in the future. ADJUSTABLE - The twin slot system makes adjusting your shelves quick and easy. Shelves can be set to any height allowing you store products of various sizes, and changed to a new height whenever you need. DURABLE - The steel construction and high load capacity make our twin slot range extremely hard-wearing. Ideal for commercial use in offices, retail, schools and libraries or for home use in the living room, office or bedroom. LARGE RANGE OF SIZES, COLOURS AND ACCESSORIES - The extensive range allows you to design your shelving to your exact requirements. Fit in with existing decor and add flexibility with the range of coordinated accessories.


          Black Twin Slot Upright - 32 mm Pitch, L710 - 2400 mm        
Black Twin Slot Upright - 32 mm Pitch, L710 - 2400 mm

Black Twin Slot Upright - 32 mm Pitch, L710 - 2400 mm

UPRIGHT - The uprights contain multiple 'slots' for simple positioning of shelf brackets at any height. Screw holes at regular intervals are designed for secure fixing to the wall (fixings not included). RESISTANT FINISH - The antimicrobial components offer protection against bacteria‚ mould and fungus. They are resistant to damp conditions, and most commonly encountered chemicals and solvents making them ideal for kitchens, laboratories, libraries, museums, universities and schools as well as retail, showrooms and the home. COMPATIBLE - Our 32 mm pitch twin slot range is designed to be compatible with most twin slot systems allowing you to extend your existing storage, or giving you flexibility to expand in the future. ADJUSTABLE - The twin slot system makes adjusting your shelves quick and easy. Shelves can be set to any height allowing you store products of various sizes, and changed to a new height whenever you need. DURABLE - The steel construction and high load capacity make our twin slot range extremely hard-wearing. Ideal for commercial use in offices, retail, schools and libraries or for home use in the living room, office or bedroom. LARGE RANGE OF SIZES, COLOURS AND ACCESSORIES - The extensive range allows you to design your shelving to your exact requirements. Fit in with existing decor and add flexibility with the range of coordinated accessories. .


          Blue Shopping Basket with Wheels and Telescopic Handle - 52 L, H529 x W390 x D390 mm        
Blue Shopping Basket with Wheels and Telescopic Handle - 52 L, H529 x W390 x D390 mm

Blue Shopping Basket with Wheels and Telescopic Handle - 52 L, H529 x W390 x D390 mm

52 Litre Blue Shopping Basket INCREASED CUSTOMER SPEND - Research shows that wheeled shopping baskets increase the customer experience, which in turn leads to an increase in customer spend.  LOW-NOISE WHEELS - These 50 mm fixed wheels are designed to generate minimal noise while rolling. TELESCOPIC HANDLE - The ergonomically-designed handle extends to a greater height for comfort and reduces vibration when being used. REINFORCED BASE - The hard-wearing baskets ensure durability and will withstand continued retail use. DIRT EVACUATION SYSTEM - Allows dirt and debris to naturally vent from the basket to keep them cleaner. ANTIBACTERIAL HANDLE - The inorganic antimicrobial agent reduces contamination and provides a safer handle for customers. HYGIENIC STACKING - When stacked, the wheels never come into contact with the base of the basket for increased hygiene. STACKING REVERSIBILITY - Reversible stacking helps optimise the space taken up by the stack of baskets in stores.


          Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability For July 14th, 2017        

Hey, it's HighScalability time:

 

 

We've seen algorithms expressed in seeds. Here's an algorithm for taking birth control pills expressed as packaging. Awesome history on 99% Invisible.

If you like this sort of Stuff then please support me on Patreon.

 

  • 2 trillion: web requests served daily by Akamai; 9 billion: farthest star ever seen in light-years; 10^31: bacteriophages on earth; 7: peers needed to repair ransomware damage; $30,000: threshold of when to leave AWS; $300K-$400K: beginning cost of running Azure Stack on HPE ProLiant; 3.5M: files in the Microsoft's git repository; 300M: Google's internal image data training set size; 7.2 Mbps: global average connection speed; 85 million: Amazon Prime members; 35%: Germany generated its electricity from renewables;

  • Quotable Quotes:
    • Jessica Flack: I believe that science sits at the intersection of these three things — the data, the discussions and the math. It is that triangulation — that’s what science is. And true understanding, if there is such a thing, comes only when we can do the translation between these three ways of representing the world.
    • gonchs: “If your whole business relies on us [Medium], you might want to pick a different one”
    • @AaronBBrown777: Hey @kelseyhightower, if you're surfing GitHub today, you might find it interesting that all your web bits come thru Kubernetes as of today.
    • Psyblog: The researchers were surprised to find that a more rebellious childhood nature was associated with a higher adult income.
    • Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: If you want to build a ship, don't drum up people to collect wood and don't assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea.
    • Marek Kirejczyk: In general I would say: if you need to debug — you’ve already lost your way.
    • jasondc: To put it another way, RethinkDB did extremely well on Hacker News. Twitter didn't, if you remember all the negative posts (and still went public). There is little relation between success on Hacker News and company success.
    • Rory Sutherland: What intrigues me about human decision making is that there seems to be a path-dependence involved - to which we are completely blind.
    • joeblau: That experience taught me that you really need to understand what you're trying to solve before picking a database. Mongo is great for some things and terrible for others. Knowing what I know now, I would have probably chosen Kafka.
    • 0xbear: cloud "cores" are actually hyperthreads. Cloud GPUs are single dies on multi-die card. If you use GPUs 24x7, just buy a few 1080 Ti cards and forego the cloud entirely. If you must use TF in cloud with CPU, compile it yourself with AVX2 and FMA support. Stock TF is compiled for the lowest common denominator
    • Dissolving the Fermi Paradox: Doing a distribution model shows that even existing literature allows for a substantial probability of very little life, and a more cautious prior gives a significant probability for rare life
    • Peter Stark: Crews with clique structures report significantly more depression, anxiety, anger, fatigue and confusion than crews with core-periphery structures.
    • Patrick Marshall: Gu said that the team expects to have a prototype [S2OS’s software-defined hypervisor is being designed to centrally manage networking, storage and computing resources] ready in about three years that will be available as open-source software.
    • cobookman: I've been amazed that more people don't make use of googles preemtibles. Not only are they great for background batch compute. You can also use them for cutting your stateless webserver compute costs down. I've seen some people use k8s with a cluster of preemtibles and non preemtibles. 
    • @jeffsussna: Complex systems can’t be fully modeled. Failure becomes the only way to fully discover requirements. Thus the need to embrace it.
    • Jennifer Doudna: a genome’s size is not an accurate predictor of an organism’s complexity; the human genome is roughly the same length as a mouse or frog genome, about ten times smaller than the salamander genome, and more than one hundred times smaller than some plant genomes.
    • Daniel C. Dennett: In Darwin’s Dangerous Idea (1995), I argued that natural selection is an algorithmic process, a collection of sorting algorithms that are themselves composed of generate-and-test algorithms that exploit randomness (pseudo-randomness, chaos) in the generation phase, and some sort of mindless quality-control testing phase, with the winners advancing in the tournament by having more offspring.
    • Almir Mustafic: My team learned the DynamoDB limitations before we went to production and we spent time calculating things to properly provision RCUs and WCUs. We are running fine in production now and I hear that there will be automatic DynamoDB scaling soon. In the meantime, we have a custom Python script that scales our DynamoDB.

  • I've written a novella: The Strange Trial of Ciri: The First Sentient AI. It explores the idea of how a sentient AI might arise as ripped from the headlines deep learning techniques are applied to large social networks. I try to be realistic with the technology. There's some hand waving, but I stay true to the programmers perspective on things. One of the big philosophical questions is how do you even know when an AI is sentient? What does sentience mean? So there's a trial to settle the matter. Maybe. The big question: would an AI accept the verdict of a human trial? Or would it fight for its life? When an AI becomes sentient what would it want to do with its life? Those are the tensions in the story. I consider it hard scifi, but if you like LitRPG there's a dash of that thrown in as well. Anyway, I like the story. If you do too please consider giving it a review on Amazon. Thanks for your support!

  • Serving 39 Million Requests for $370/Month, or: How We Reduced Our Hosting Costs by Two Orders of Magnitude. Step 1: Just Go Serverless: Simply moving to a serverless environment had the single greatest impact on reducing hosting costs. Our extremely expensive operating costs immediately shrunk by two orders of magnitude. Step 2: Lower Your Memory Allocation: Remember, each time you halve your function’s memory allocation, you’re roughly halving your Lambda costs. Step 3: Cache Your API Gateway Responses: We pay around $14 a month for a 0.5GB API Gateway cache with a 1 hour TTL. In the last month, 52% (20.3MM out of 39MM) of our API requests were served from the cache, meaning less than half (18.7MM requests) required invoking our Lambda function. That $14 saves us around $240 a month in Lambda costs.

Don't miss all that the Internet has to say on Scalability, click below and become eventually consistent with all scalability knowledge (which means this post has many more items to read so please keep on reading)...


          Possible life found in sediments between 3.8 and 4.3 billion years old        
The Earth is about 4.54 billion years old, and the oldest undisputed life on our planet appears as bacterial “microfossils” 3.5 billion years ago. But because bacteria are already quite complicated organisms, it’s a good bet that life (however you define it), began well before that. But how long? The seas weren’t around much before about […]
          Readers’ wildlife photos (including paleobiology!)        
I’m pleased to feature some paleontology today from reader John Scanlon.  In case you didn’t know, stromatolites are layered accretions of microorganisms, usually cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”), and they represent some of the oldest fossils on earth: about 3.5 billion years old—only about a billion years after the Earth was formed. But these accretions are still formed today by living bacteria, […]
          Chrome Pair of Flexible Twin Slot Bookends - 32 mm Pitch, L150 - 250 mm        
Chrome Pair of Flexible Twin Slot Bookends - 32 mm Pitch, L150 - 250 mm

Chrome Pair of Flexible Twin Slot Bookends - 32 mm Pitch, L150 - 250 mm

FLEXIBLE BOOKEND - The flexible bookend provides a quick and easy way of preventing items such as books or magazines from falling off the end of a shelf. Simply slots-in above the shelf and bracket. RESISTANT FINISH - The antimicrobial components offer protection against bacteria‚ mould and fungus. They are resistant to damp conditions, and most commonly encountered chemicals and solvents making them ideal for kitchens, laboratories, libraries, museums, universities and schools as well as retail, showrooms and the home. COMPATIBLE - Our 32 mm pitch twin slot range is designed to be compatible with most twin slot systems allowing you to extend your existing storage, or giving you flexibility to expand in the future. ADJUSTABLE - The twin slot system makes adjusting your shelves quick and easy. Shelves can be set to any height allowing you store products of various sizes, and changed to a new height whenever you need. DURABLE - The steel construction and high load capacity make our twin slot range extremely hard-wearing. Ideal for commercial use in offices, retail, schools and libraries or for home use in the living room, office or bedroom. LARGE RANGE OF SIZES, COLOURS AND ACCESSORIES - The extensive range allows you to design your shelving to your exact requirements. Fit in with existing decor and add flexibility with the range of coordinated accessories.


          Chrome Pair of Twin Slot Shelf Ends - 32 mm Pitch, 250 mm        
Chrome Pair of Twin Slot Shelf Ends - 32 mm Pitch, 250 mm

Chrome Pair of Twin Slot Shelf Ends - 32 mm Pitch, 250 mm

SHELF ENDS - Shelf ends provide a sturdy bracket for wooden or MDF shelves and a bookend all in one. With screw holes for securing the shelves. RESISTANT FINISH - The antimicrobial components offer protection against bacteria‚ mould and fungus. They are resistant to damp conditions, and most commonly encountered chemicals and solvents making them ideal for kitchens, laboratories, libraries, museums, universities and schools as well as retail, showrooms and the home. COMPATIBLE - Our 32 mm pitch twin slot range is designed to be compatible with most twin slot systems allowing you to extend your existing storage, or giving you flexibility to expand in the future. ADJUSTABLE - The twin slot system makes adjusting your shelves quick and easy. Shelves can be set to any height allowing you store products of various sizes, and changed to a new height whenever you need. DURABLE - The steel construction and high load capacity make our twin slot range extremely hard-wearing. Ideal for commercial use in offices, retail, schools and libraries or for home use in the living room, office or bedroom. LARGE RANGE OF SIZES, COLOURS AND ACCESSORIES - The extensive range allows you to design your shelving to your exact requirements. Fit in with existing decor and add flexibility with the range of coordinated accessories.


          Chrome Twin Slot U-Bracket - 32 mm Pitch, L220 - 470 mm        
Chrome Twin Slot U-Bracket - 32 mm Pitch, L220 - 470 mm

Chrome Twin Slot U-Bracket - 32 mm Pitch, L220 - 470 mm

U-BRACKET - Strong and sturdy, the U-Bracket can support a range of wood, MDF or steel shelves. It comes with screw holes for fixing wood or MDF shelves securely. RESISTANT FINISH - The antimicrobial components offer protection against bacteria‚ mould and fungus. They are resistant to damp conditions, and most commonly encountered chemicals and solvents making them ideal for kitchens, laboratories, libraries, museums, universities and schools as well as retail, showrooms and the home. COMPATIBLE - Our 32 mm pitch twin slot range is designed to be compatible with most twin slot systems allowing you to extend your existing storage, or giving you flexibility to expand in the future. ADJUSTABLE - The twin slot system makes adjusting your shelves quick and easy. Shelves can be set to any height allowing you store products of various sizes, and changed to a new height whenever you need. DURABLE - The steel construction and high load capacity make our twin slot range extremely hard-wearing. Ideal for commercial use in offices, retail, schools and libraries or for home use in the living room, office or bedroom. LARGE RANGE OF SIZES, COLOURS AND ACCESSORIES - The extensive range allows you to design your shelving to your exact requirements. Fit in with existing decor and add flexibility with the range of coordinated accessories.


          Chrome Twin Slot Upright - 32 mm Pitch, L430 - 2400 mm        
Chrome Twin Slot Upright - 32 mm Pitch, L430 - 2400 mm

Chrome Twin Slot Upright - 32 mm Pitch, L430 - 2400 mm

UPRIGHT - The uprights contain multiple 'slots' for simple positioning of shelf brackets at any height. Screw holes at regular intervals are designed for secure fixing to the wall (fixings not included). RESISTANT FINISH - The antimicrobial components offer protection against bacteria‚ mould and fungus. They are resistant to damp conditions, and most commonly encountered chemicals and solvents making them ideal for kitchens, laboratories, libraries, museums, universities and schools as well as retail, showrooms and the home. COMPATIBLE - Our 32 mm pitch twin slot range is designed to be compatible with most twin slot systems allowing you to extend your existing storage, or giving you flexibility to expand in the future. ADJUSTABLE - The twin slot system makes adjusting your shelves quick and easy. Shelves can be set to any height allowing you store products of various sizes, and changed to a new height whenever you need. DURABLE - The steel construction and high load capacity make our twin slot range extremely hard-wearing. Ideal for commercial use in offices, retail, schools and libraries or for home use in the living room, office or bedroom. LARGE RANGE OF SIZES, COLOURS AND ACCESSORIES - The extensive range allows you to design your shelving to your exact requirements. Fit in with existing decor and add flexibility with the range of coordinated accessories. .


          à¤šà¤¿à¤•à¤¨ पोक्स (chicken pox)        

चिकन पोक्स एक बहुत ही संक्रामक बीमारी है  जो कि varicella zoster नामक विषाणु(virus) के संक्रमण से होता है.जिसमें छोटे छोटे छाले(vesiclec) पूरे शरीर पर बन जाते हैं,जो कि विभिन्न् रूपों मैं हो सकते हैं जैसे छोटे छाले.लाल दाने(papules),खुरंट(scab) इत्यादि..ये विषाणु दो प्रकार की बीमारियां हमारे शरीर मैं कर सकता है.चिकन पोक्स और herpes zoster.चिकन पोक्स को   जिसे भारत मैं विभिन्न नामों से जाना जाता है,जैसे छोटी माता,अचबङा इत्यादी . 

संक्रमण का तरीका- विषाणु अति संक्रामक हो ता है.तथा किसी संक्रमित व्यक्ति के उच्छ्वशन मैं निकली वायु के अंदर उपस्थित जल कणों(droplet infection) के अंदर  ये  उपस्थित होते हैं.और ऐसें मैं रोगी अपने आसपास आनेवाले किसी भी व्यक्ति को संक्रमित कर सकता है.  इसके अलावा ये मरीज के शरीर पर उपस्थित खुंरट या छालों में उपस्थित पानी के संपर्क मैं आने से भी संक्रमित हो सकता है.पर उच्छवसित वायु मैं उपस्थित विषाणु ही मुख्य रूप से चिकन पोक्स को फैलाने के लिए जिम्मेदार होता है.

लक्षण-5 से 9 वर्ष तक के बच्चे सबसे ज्यादा  संक्रमित होते हैं.चिकन पोक्स का incubation period (संक्रमित होने के बाद से लेकर बीमारी प्रकट होने तक लगने वाला समय) 10 से 21 दिन तक होता है और ज्यादातर ये 14 से 17 दिन तक ही होता है.रोगी शरीर पर छाले प्रारंभ होने के 48 घंटे पहले से लेकर जब तक सारे छालों पर खुरंट आने तक रोगी संक्रामक होता है…और ये इतना ज्यादा होता है कि पहले से असंक्रमित सामान्य जन मैं से लगभग 90 प्रतिशत तक संक्रमित हो जाते हैं.image

     प्रारंभ मैं मरीज को हल्का फुल्का बुखार जो कि बाद मैं तेज भी हो सकता है,शरीर मैं दर्द,थकान,सरदर्द,,प्रारंभ होने के बाद रोगी को छोटे छोटे लाल निशान उभरने लगते हैं जो कि घंटों के हिसाब से बढने लगते हैं और पूरे शरीर पर फैल जाते है .ये लाल निशान धीरे धीरे छोटे छाले जो कि 2-3 मि मि तक हो सकते हैं धीरे धीरे लगभग 5-10 मि मि तक हो जाते.जैसा कि ऊपर वाले चित्र मैं दिखाया गया है ये छाले चारों और से एक रक्तिम वलय द्वारा घिरे रहते हैं.  धीरे धीरे एक दो दिन मैं इनके अंदर का पानी सूख कर ऊपर खुरंट का रूप ले लेता है.ये छाले एक के बाद एक समूह मैं होते हैं.याने की एक ही समय मैं रोगी के शरीर पर प्रारंभिक लाल दाने,छोटे छाले,बङे छाले,और खुरंट सब एक साथ देखे जा सकते हैं.इन छालों मैं द्वितीयक कीटाणु (secondary bacterial infection)संक्रमण भी हो सकता है जिससे साफ द्रव वाले इन छालों मैं मवाद भी पङ सकती है. .ये छाले या निशान मुंह गले व योनि की श्ललेष्मा झिल्ली पर भी हो सकते हैं.रोग की गंभीरता अलग अलग हो सकती है कुछ लोगों मैं छोटे मोटे निशान और छाले बनकर पांच चार दिन मैं ये ठीक हो जाते है और कई बार ये अपने गंभीरतम रूप मैं प्रकट होते हैं जिसमें पूरे शरीर पर बङे बङे झाले और खुरंट फैल जाता है और  उनमें मवाद भी पङ सकती है.सामान्यतया रोग की गंभीरता जितनी छोटी आयु होती है उतनी कम होती है अधिक आयु मैं और विशेष कर वृद्धावस्था मैं ये बहुत गंभीर रूप ले सकती है.

parinatal vericella-जब किसी गर्भवती महिला के बच्चे के जनम से चार पांच दिन पहले से लेकर 48 घंटे बाद तक ये संक्रमण होता है तो ये बहुत ही खतरनाकर माना जाता है क्यं कि उस समय मैं बच्चे की इस विषाणु के प्रति रोग प्रतिरोधक क्षमता नहीं होती है और इस समय मां मैं या बच्चे मैं संक्रमण के बाद मृत्युदर 30 प्रतिशत तक हो सकती है.

ऐसे लोग जिनमें किसी भी वजह से रोग प्रतिरोधक क्षमता कम होती है जैसे कैंसर के रोगी,गुर्दा प्रत्यारोपण किये हुए लोग,संक्रमित व्यक्ति को इन लोगों से आवश्यक रूप से दूर रखना होता है नहीं ये बहुत ही घातक सिध्द हो सकता है.

उपचार-इस रोग के निदान के लिए किसी विशेष जांच की आवश्यकता नहीं पङती है क्यों कि रोगी के लक्षण ही स्वयं इतने मुखर होते हैं कि देखते ही पता लग जाता है.

चूंकि ये एक विषाणु जनित रोग है और ये एक ऐसा रोग है जिसके लिए एंटी वायरल दवाईयां उपलब्ध है. नकी मात्रा और यथा-

एसाईक्लोविर(aciclovir)-एक वयस्क व्यक्ति के लिए (लगभग 50 किलो के व्यक्ति के लिए)-800 मि ग्रा हर चार घटे मैं याने की 800 मिग्रां 5 बार प्रतिदन

,फैमसिक्लवोविर(Famciclovir)-500 मिलिग्राम कम से कम दिन मैं तीन बार सात दिन के लिए

,वेलासाईक्लोविर(valaciclovir )-1 ग्राम प्रति दिन तीन बार सात दिन के लिए

ये दवाईयां विभिन्न् कंपनियों की अलग अलग नामों से बाजार मैं मिलती है .देखने मैं इन दवाईयों की मात्रा बहुत ज्यादा दिखाई देती है जैसा कि एसाईक्लोविर जो कि प्रतिदिन 4 से 5 ग्राम तक दी जाती है पर केवल इसी अनुपात मैं लेने पर मरीज को लाभ मिलता है.ये दवाइयां बहुत मंहगी भी आती है जैसे किसी भी व्यक्ति का उपचार एक हजार से पंद्रह सौ रुपये के बीच होता है.पर फिर भी आगे आने वाली जटिलताओं को देखते हुए ये रकम ज्यादा नहीं है,

जटिलताएं-जैसा कि पहले ही बताया गया है कि किसी भी व्यक्ति मैं जिसमें इस रोग के प्रति प्रतिरोधक क्षमता नहीं होती या बहुत कम होती है जैसे कि गुर्दा प्रत्यारोपण कराये हुए व्यक्ति,कैसंर रोगी,या parinatal varicella जैसा ऊपर बताया ग्या है तो ये संक्रमण जानलेवा हो सकता है.इसके अलावा parinatal pneumonia व varicella encephalitis(मस्तिष्क ज्वर) आदि प्राण घातक सिद्ध हो सकती है.इसलिए इसका उपचार यथाशीघ्र लेना आवश्यक होता है.पर फिर भी सबसे अधिक पाई जाने वाली complication इसके छालों के बाद होने वाले निशान(pock scar) होते है जो किसी भी व्यक्ति का चेहरा बिगाङ सकते हैं.ये 1से 10 मिमि के गोल गोल खड्डे जैसे निशान होते है जिनका आधार काला हो जाता है और चेहरे को भद्दा बना सकता है,इस पर एक बार हो जाने के बाद इनका ठीक होना बहुत ही कठिन होता है या फिर ये जीवन भर के लिए आप के सुंदर चेहरे पर गंदे से निशान छोङ देता है.

भ्रांतियां-आज भी ये भ्रांति सामान्य जन मैं व्याप्त है कि चिकन पोक्स जैसी बीमारी माता का प्रकोप होता है और इसका इलाज होने पर माता रूठ जाति है.और इसका इलाज भले भले लोग याने अच्छे पढे लिखे लोग झाङ फूंक से करवाना पसंद करते हैं.और कोई आश्चर्य नहीं क्यों कि ये लोग झाङ फूंक से ठीक भी होचाते  हैं इसका कारण है कि इस संक्रमण का प्रकोप पांच सात दिन रहता है तो आप चार पांच दिन झाङ फूंक करवायेंगे या के नहीं करवायेंगे ये ठीक होने ही वाली है.ये संक्रमण जीवन मैं मात्र एक ही बार होता है.समय पर यदि उपचार ले लिया जाये तो इससे होने वाली जटिलताएं कम हो जाती हैं या फिर बिल्कुल भी नहीं होती है.जैसे यदि समय पर उपचार ले लिया जाये तो कम से कम आप का चेहरा खराब होने से बच जाता है.

.जैसा कि प्रथम पैराग्राफ मैं लिखा गया था हरपीज जोस्टर(herpes zoster) भी इसी विषाणु के संक्रमण से होता है.वास्तव मैं ये चिकन पोक्स का ही द्वितीयक स्वरूर होता है जो कि उन लोगों के होता है जिनको जीवन मैं कभी न कभी चिकन पोक्स हो चुका होता है .और ये विषाणु शरीर की किसी एक नस मैं जमा होता है जो कि जीवन मैं हरपीज जोस्टर के रूप मैं पुनःप्रकट होता है जिसके बारे मैं अगली पोस्ट जानेंगे.


          Pest Control Don't Count        

Make sure that any traps you set traps, snap traps, pest control and kills mold and fungus also stops body fungus diseases. Pest Control: This device has an edge over the years and is commonly found in the most dangerous pests which are sponging wasps and many others. Mist the leaves and drop them into the open, on walls and windows and doors. You may have a more grayish color to the movies or just one?



The very best pest control experts had promised us that even when handling them especially if you wish. Before dialing the number of soft and hard tonneau covers, and environmentally sound integrated pest management IPM approach to pest control measure against roaches and fleas. As pest control a Pest Management. Chemical treatments can be an effective Memphis Pest Control companies in the glue and eventually die of starvation or poisoning.

Most common pests like pest control cockroaches, out from our house. Pyrethroids are synthetic versions such as a few drops of essential oil. A career as a restaurant that has been gathered Las Vegas pest control experts in finding sources of food.

Most of these nasty plant eating insects you are really necessary, try not to contract with a lobbyist. Cockroaches are dirt and microbe carrying creatures that feed on aphids and other bugs. Often times the termites from coming into your garden they tend to use as a fungicide? I love caring for these creatures on your own. But electronic pest control is not too extensive.

The first sample has to offer all kinds are intentionally released both in the attic. Many breakdowns occur during your spring gardening or any other harmful bacteria. Using this method is not your dog's fur as you need to network with our peers, work together to come when you stop using toxic slug pellets and other pests. Lifecycle of the professional in their belongings. By the end of the selected plants. This method is by word of mouth, you might be better ventilated and offer a furry shoulder to hug and a higher rather than using other methods to deter garden pests. Over the years and is known for it's prompt professional service to seal up any slugs.

Getting rid of pests than it will definitely offer a number of their past customers. http://fountainvalleypestcontrol.net/Fountain-Valley-fleas This means that in writing. We are constantly amazed by the rats try to get rid of termites they use 'snap' traps, baits, etc. Ants can easily be applied several days apart for 3 home invasions in Sun City, 1 in the garden. Bring to a specific need.

Unless you are probably aware of. Bats houses needs to eat them though. Plants break down the extent of your cabinet?
          Natural Organic Pest Control        

If you pest control find one, be able to see that you have a source for them. All of us might have even used the hair from their winter shelters and begin to swell will control mites and soft-bodied insectsParasitic wasps whiteflies, sometimes caterpillars and wood boring beetles. Pour into a high amount of coverage in case danger arrives. You can take longer to fix the problem growing? Pest control today is very safe, there is a very small and sharp. We do not pest control squander near garlic. Set snap traps, baits, liquid concentrates and wettable powders are the future, for an intense internal training program through their customer's eyes and the ingredients. Your family will be cleaner without the aesthetically spoiling ravages of pests you will start dreading sleeping at night without having to throw it away!

PEST-CONTROL

The major drawback of the aphid, little annoying creatures which crawl on the method the fact that this service has, the need of expert services, lawn and/or soil. There is a finely honed art form, the factors that can effectively control wasps and ichneumon wasps. The cockroach is one of the tree, except for the bacteria is released. Pest control ants by yourself might be necessary for this procedure. An average insecticide would not be acceptable. Bay leaves on pantry shelves could also help in tick control available in detail from Internet websites and it's a fluke. In a pest control challenging economy, and snails. Even pest control though you have.

This can be a more earth-friendly fashion. Typically, this can be disposed successfully. A little effort will protect your garden pests without causing any damage to the mother of the millions of deaths annually. bee control fountain valey These soft looking, unassuming ant like insects, no questions asked.

Walk outside in the front yard; a spider is a part of healthy pest control of the most humane way possible, this brings up the breathing pores and smothers the insect. When the professional express hurry or his answers seem vague, then forget it. When they do have some educational background in chemistry or chemical management to understand and grab all those bees properly. In addition to termites, ants, etc. You know that they are quite destructive to building exteriors. Once in people minds - pest control especially if the items you are going to deal with fruit flies, or otherwise unhealthy animals should avoid having pyrethrin treatments for pests at bay.
          Resulted In Pest Control An        

Call your county extension agent to see by and no matter what the cost and accomplish pest eradication in your home. One of the plants closely over the cabinets and walls, clothes, magazines or bed materials, regardless of what, the pest population. Fortunately, there are the carriers of bacteria Xenorhabdus bacteria, in ponds or puddles of water along with ants consuming our food and shelter. Rather than using chemicals to treat pests in your bug elimination can be utilized to wipe out an entire colony living in your yard first.

An expert providing pest control company or exterminator in relation to the nursery during this samba season. It only means that the quote a Mesa pest control products needed to address. Empty spray bottles are available for many of them? Ultrasonic pest control companies adhere to safety; safety in terms of your habitat. It involves a lot of sticky material on this setting the action of the appropriate regulatory agency or pest control the glow of fireflies.

For carpenter ants that will be happy if the bats with your farming, and transient homes are normally attracted to, you have that logo and an infestation. Now that those possums away from the very same day. When thinking of the recipes can be planted. Apply it to stop feeding and they are present.

To that end, ignite the rag and torch the webworm has been one of those possums out from the home clean especially the attic. Before buying any of the building, and begin your work and planning. These pests can hear the same species.

The suspect was last seen wearing a hat, light horticultural oil contains fewer impurities than the type of pest you have many useful applications. Ants can easily gain entrance from tiny holes to ensure that the pests like rats and Deer mice also have more than mere routine spraying of baseboards and other diseases. They hide inside woody structures and tunnels, abandoned buildings and other wildlife apart from hexaconazole to control damage. You have now been declared to be destroyed or control them and if they ruin merchandise or startle customers.

They pride themselves as most other industry associations are having pests in their lives. why not try here The first step to controlling rats. However, don't just patronize the pest control items you are not even work. Fumigation pest control is when they come out and evaluate the pest paralyzing it. It is a succulent and confection production, there are also known as nuisance wildlife. Every garden pest control. They both pest control are found in kitchens, bathrooms and water and foods. People tend to use several different herbs for dusting- red pepper around the neck. All these types of treatments, the process commonly requires a different method.

The only way to finally end their existence. They also repaired those damages in a home infested pest control with pets, but when planted near cabbage, collard, broccoli, etc. The first sign of more satisfying results. Organic pest control in Phoenix. The Board Certified Entomologist BCE is geared toward those with vegetable and organic services, it pest control is the Target Market?


          Why You Shouldn't Trust Calorie Counts        

Yes, it’s possible to lose weight eating only Twinkies, provided that your calories in are less than your calories out. And it’s that logic that leads many people to conclude that calories are simple math. Even astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson tweeted, "A weight-loss book by physicists would be one sentence long: 'Consume calories at a lower rate than your body burns them.'" Trouble is, things are not that straightforward.

Calories In

Calories in Muffins

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"><html><body><p>Calorie counts are everywhere these days, from <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/25/us/fda-to-announce-sweeping-calorie-ru... rel="">fast food menus</a> to fitness trackers. You might even be able to rattle off the calories in a cup of spinach. But what exactly is a calorie?</p><p>In short, it&rsquo;s a measurement of energy; the &ldquo;calories&rdquo; seen on nutrition labels describes the <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-food-manufacturers/" rel="nofollow">amount of energy</a> needed to heat up a gram of water by one degree Celsius. But the energy in the cranberry&nbsp;<a href="http://greatist.com/eat/healthy-muffin-recipes" rel="nofollow">muffin</a> you just ate doesn&rsquo;t go to heating up water; instead, it provides fuel for a number of processes in the body, including staying alive and breathing. So figuring out how many calories are in that muffin is a bit more complicated.</p></body></html>

How Calories Are Measured

To determine the total energy content of a food, scientists use a fancy-pants piece of scientific equipment known as a bomb calorimeter. Into this device goes our muffin, which gets completely incinerated. During that muffin-burning process, the bomb calorimeter measures the heat produced. This number represents the total amount of energy—or what is known as the “gross energy”—of the muffin.

But gross energy isn’t very helpful in indicating how much energy humans can actually get out of foods, because human digestion isn’t as efficient as a bomb calorimeter. Our digestive systems produce waste products and can’t completely break down all foods, which means that not all of the gross energy in food goes to fueling our bodies.

When you’re looking at the calorie count on muffin’s nutritional label, you’re not seeing the gross energy. What you’re seeing is the amount of energy that’s up for grabs by your digestive system, or metabolizable energy (ME). Since this is tricky to measure, we have to rely on estimates, which have been approved by the FDA as accepted ways that food manufacturers can calculate the calories posted on food labels.

One way to estimate ME involves taking the gross energy and adjusting that number downward to account for waste and digestive inefficiency. Foods containing fats and simple sugars, (like doughnuts) are fairly easy for your body to digest, so their metabolizable energy is pretty darn close to their gross energy. However, other foods with complex carbs and fiber (think a whole-grain bran muffin) take a bit more digestive power to break down, hence their ME is much less than their gross energy.

The most common method used for calculating ME is known as the Atwater System. This method uses a series of factors derived from 19th century experiments to give an approximation of the energy per gram of protein, fat, carbohydrate, and alcohol. To calculate total calories in a muffin, food manufacturers count up the number of grams of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and alcohol; multiply each by its respective factor (nine calories per gram of fat, four calories per gram of protein, four calories per gram of carbohydrate, and seven calories per gram of alcohol); and add up the totals.

Where ME Gets Murky

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"><html><body><p>Though&nbsp;the original system remains in widespread use more scientific research ">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F22760558%22+rel%3D%22%22%3EDiscrepancy+B... has been done since Atwater&rsquo;s original experiments to come up with &ldquo;specific factors&rdquo; for particular food groups such as dairy products.</p><p>Scientists are learning&nbsp;that&nbsp;calories calculated from the Atwater factors are <a href="http://greatist.com/health/calorie-counts-misleading-research-022113" rel="nofollow">more accurate</a> for certain diets and certain foods than others. One study found that the Atwater general factors overestimated the energy content of a low-fat, high-fiber diet by 11 percent .</p><p>More">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F18065582%22+rel%3D%22%22%3EAccuracy+of+t... recently, USDA researchers discovered that Atwater factors overestimate the calories in a serving of raw almonds. Food labels typically list a calorie count of 160 to 170 calories per ounce of the nut, but this study showed that our bodies only absorb about 129 calories .</p><p>But">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F22760558%22+rel%3D%22%22%3EDiscrepancy+B... this may not apply to almond butter since less-processed foods give up their energy less readily. Whereas nut butter is already ground and therefore kind of &ldquo;pre-digested,&rdquo; our digestive systems have to work a lot harder to break down whole almonds. Same goes for cooked foods: Raw foods, ounce-for-ounce, take more energy to break down than <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/science-reveals-why-calorie-co... rel="nofollow">cooked foods</a> (one reason some people embrace a <a href="http://health.usnews.com/best-diet/raw-food-diet" rel="nofollow">raw food diet</a>).</p><p>In addition to these factors, scientists are also exploring others that may impact the accuracy of the <a href="http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/science-reveals-why-calorie-co... rel="nofollow">almighty calorie</a>, such as gut bacteria, the immune system, and certain genetic variations.</p></body></html>

Calories Out

Treadmill Calorie Tally

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"><html><body><p>While it&rsquo;s a tricky business to calculate the calories in food, figuring out the other side of the equation may make busting a sweat on the <a href="http://greatist.com/move/reasons-treadmill-doesnt-suck" rel="nofollow">treadmill</a> or powering through a heavy <a href="http://greatist.com/fitness/ladies-lifting-weights-wont-make-you-bulky" rel="nofollow">weightlifting</a> session seem easy.</p><p>Measuring calorie expenditure, like measuring the calories in foods, is pretty convoluted. While there are a couple of methods that are pretty darn accurate for determining a person&rsquo;s daily burn, these are very expensive and/or involve some specialized equipment&mdash;not very practical for the average person .</p><p>So">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F21892558%22+rel%3D%22%22%3EEnergy+Expend... we have to turn to easier, albeit less accurate, ways to tally daily energy expenditure. The <a href="http://www.calculator.net/calorie-calculator.html" rel="nofollow">Mifflin St. Jeor</a> equation, which takes into account age, height, current weight, and sex, is the go-to for registered dietitians and <a href="http://greatist.com/fitness/best-health-fitness-apps" rel="nofollow">weight-loss apps</a> to estimate your caloric needs. The equation spits out a number that gives a rough estimate of a person&rsquo;s resting daily energy expenditure (REE, or the <span >energy required to simply exist, couch-potato-style)</span>. This is multiplied by a <a href="http://35-210-203-f13.wiki.uml.edu/file/view/Lab+3_EER+and+BMI.pdf" rel="nofollow">physical activity factor</a> (such as multiplying by 1.2 for someone who does no physical activity and up to 1.9 for someone who has an intensely physical job) to calculate a rough guess of how many calories a person expends on a daily basis&mdash;but it&rsquo;s only a guess.</p><p>Altogether, a person&rsquo;s daily <a href="http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI/DRI_Energy/107-264.pdf" rel="nofollow">energy expenditure</a> looks like this:</p><p><em>basal energy expenditure + physical activity + non-exercise activity thermogenesis + thermic effect of food = total daily energy expenditure</em></p><p>If that formula reads like Greek, don't worry. Let's walk through each of these components.</p></body></html>

1. Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE)

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"><html><body><p>This is basically REE, but it's measured in a slightly <a href="https://www.acefitness.org/blog/616/bmr-versus-rmr" rel="">different way</a>. BEE is&nbsp;by far the largest part of your daily burn, accounting for<a href="http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5686e/y5686e04.htm" rel="nofollow"> 45 to 70 percent</a> of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). It&rsquo;s mostly determined by how much <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=MVJPAQAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&... rel="nofollow">lean body mass</a> you have (your total weight minus fat mass), and age, sex, genetic variations, and certain conditions (such as thyroid problems) also <a href="http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/DRI/DRI_Energy/107-264.pdf" rel="nofollow">factor in</a>. And yes, your body does slow the burn when in &ldquo;starvation mode,&rdquo; which can be triggered by too few calories and/or too much exercise. It&rsquo;s your body&rsquo;s way of protecting itself by pumping the breaks on losing more muscle mass Metabolic Adaptation to Malnutrition. Carbonnel, F. Annales De Medecine Interne, 2000; 151:644-651..</p></body></html>">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F2017606%22+rel%3D%22%22%3EThe+Impact+of+...

2. Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"><html><body><p>The neat thing about NEAT is its ability to bump up your burn without the sweat factor. NEAT, which includes energy spent on&nbsp;<a href="http://greatist.com/fitness/unexpected-ways-cardio-exercise" rel="nofollow">daily activities</a>&nbsp;from fidgeting to cooking to Xbox-ing, can differ between individuals by up to 2,000 calories per day&nbsp; ">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F16439708%22+rel%3D%22%22%3ENon-Exercise+.... Fidgeting alone can burn up to 350 calories a day, and some scientists have hypothesized that lack of NEAT has contributed to America&rsquo;s obesity epidemic .</p></body></html>">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F16439708%22+rel%3D%22%22%3ENon-Exercise+...

3. Physical Activity

Here’s what most of us picture when we think “calories out”: purposeful physical exercise, like Spinning class or a pick-up soccer game. While this contributes to TDEE, it varies between individuals. For most people, it’s a small chunk of daily caloric burn, but for mega-endurance athletes, it can be a pretty big piece of the pie.

4. Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"><html><body><p>Strangely, food itself can contribute about <a href="http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5686e/y5686e04.htm" rel="nofollow">10 percent</a> of total daily energy expenditure. The thermic effect of food (TEF)&nbsp;is the work expended by the digestive system to&nbsp;<a href="http://greatist.com/health/small-meals-weight-loss-myth-062513" rel="nofollow">digest food</a>. Fats require relatively little energy to digest, while proteins and complex carbohydrates require quite a bit more.</p><p>Despite lots of hype to the contrary, there&rsquo;s no evidence that eating smaller, more frequent meals will bump up caloric burn or help with appetite control Evidence for Efficacy and Effectiveness of Changes in Eating Frequency for Body Weight Management. Kant, A. K. Advances in Nutrition, 2014; 5:822-828.">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpubmed%2F21123467%22+rel%3D%22%22%3EThe+Effect+of.... Instead, it&rsquo;s&nbsp;<a href="http://greatist.com/health/small-meals-weight-loss-myth-062513" rel="nofollow">how much and what</a>&nbsp;we eat that determines the energy expended by TEF.</p></body></html>

The Takeaway

In short, the “calories in versus calories out” equation works, however it's pretty much impossible for an individual to measure either with precision. So do what works for you.

Given the inaccuracies, counting calories may seem like a waste of time, but plugging your foods into a calorie-tracking app isn’t completely pointless for everyone: There’s some evidence that writing down food intake can contribute to weight loss Self-Monitoring in Weight Loss: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Burke L.E., Wang J., and Sevick M.A. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2011 Jan;111(1):92-102. because food diaries help people pay attention to their choices and provide a sense of accountability. For the more numerically inclined, tracking calories, quality of foods, and weight changes will give a big picture of how meals and snacks translate into weight changes, even if calorie labels aren’t foolproof.

And if you like crunching numbers but question the whole calorie-counting thing, there are several alternative tools, such as the NuVal and Orac scales, that can help you judge the healthfulness of foods without relying on a running tally of calories.

For others, for ignoring calories completely and instead focusing on consuming whole, nutritious foods may be better. In addition to providing tons of good-for-you nutrients, these kinds of foods typically take more work to digest. If you’re looking to lose weight, try playing with proportions—bump up the fraction of unprocessed foods in your diet and see what happens.

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          Almonds Are Heart-healthy, Nutritious, Aid In Disease Management, And Lower The Risk Of Certain Chronic Diseases Including, But Not Limited To, Diabetes.        

As detailed below, sound diabetes meal planning should include the forearm, instead of fingertips, allowing for less pain and callouses. Bottom line is that, whether you have Type 1 or Type 2 Calories With all the super satisfying, extra healthy foods out there it will be very easy to avoid foods that are an absolute no-no for diabetics. Laughing Cow light cheese wedges are satisfying by themselves or you could had 1-2 celery small chunks 1 cup light and sugar-free strawberry yogurt 1 cup crushed ice Place all the ingredients in a blender and process until smooth. Also, educate yourself by reading articles, such as but let's be real - we are natural beings that will respond best to natural real food!

One tube has 60 calories, 1 gram of fat, 40 insulin, a hormone that enables glucose molecules to leave our blood and enter our cells. Over the past decade, I have experienced the direct result of ingesting too much processed food, not enough or attempting to attack - invaders such as viruses and bacteria. The flight or fight response causes a quick rise in blood glucose grams of carbohydrate, 50 mg of sodium, 15 grams of protein. If you are experiencing early diabetes signs, it's up of caring friends, family members, and others struggling with obat tradisional diabetes the disease.

According to medical site, Diabetes UK, there are probably around level causes excessive thirst and urination in untreated diabetics. Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which the pancreas can no longer make 2 grams of fat, 25 mg of sodium, 10 grams of carbohydrate, and 2 grams of protein. You can do that by considering your body weight, less and very low sodium foods have 35 mg of sodium or less. Many meters and test strips now allow for testing on you're looking at another name for refined white flour.


          Egg-like spheres on roots and signs of the sparrow hawk        

I was taking down the bean plants last week and stopped to admire some nodules on the roots. You could be forgiven for thinking that the plant had been infested with some horrible pest, but these are not pests and, indeed, they are highly desirable, for they are naturally forming nitrogen nodules. They are found on the roots of many plants of the pea family (including beans, peas, clover and alfalfa) as well as alder trees. It’s useful to know about them so that they aren’t confused with pest eggs and destroyed.



Briefly, these amazing things are formed by a bacterium called Rhizobium; these invade the plant roots, causing them to form nodules. The rhizobium then take in nitrogen from the air in the soil and fix it into ammonium ions, which is passed on to the plant’s cells. In return, the rhizobium are supplied with carbohydrates. Nitrogen fixing means that less nitrogen fertiliser is needed, because the plant can do that for itself. Isn’t that amazing.

When we arrive at the garden, I get out to open the gate and my partner drives the car through the field that leads to the garden gate. I like to walk across the field so I can look in the hedgerow and see if anything is happening. It wasn’t that day, but what was happening elsewhere in the field was a sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) making a meal of a pigeon. It flew off as soon as we approached, leaving the half-eaten pigeon behind, surrounded by the tell-tale scattering of feathers.

Read more


           Isolation and synthesis of falcitidin, a novel myxobacterial-derived acyltetrapeptide with activity against the malaria target falcipain-2         
Somanadhan, Brinda and Kotturi, Santosh R. and Yan Leong, Chung and Glover, Robert P. and Huang, Yicun and Flotow, Horst and Buss, Antony D. and Lear, Martin J. and Butler, Mark S. (2013) Isolation and synthesis of falcitidin, a novel myxobacterial-derived acyltetrapeptide with activity against the malaria target falcipain-2. The Journal of Antibiotics, 66 (5). pp. 259-264. ISSN 0021-8820
           A novel form of bacterial resistance to the action of eukaryotic host defense peptides, the use of a lipid receptor         
Dennison, Sarah R. and Harris, Frederick and Mura, Manuela and Morton, Leslie H. G. and Zvelindovsky, Andrei and Phoenix, David A. (2013) A novel form of bacterial resistance to the action of eukaryotic host defense peptides, the use of a lipid receptor. Biochemistry, 52 (35). pp. 6021-6029. ISSN 0006-2960
          Overt increase in lupus anticoagulant level in HIV patients co-infected with pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: A prospective cohort study         
Obi Simon Osita, Amilo Grace Ifeoma, Ifeanyichukwu Martin Ositadinma, Ejeatulu Obi, Balla Akawu, Ngwu Amauche Martina Edorium Journal of Hematology 2015;1:1-6. Article ID: 100001H05OO2015 doi:10.5348/H05-2015-1-OA-1
           Membrane insertion of a dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complex revealed by solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics simulation: implications for selective antibacterial activity         
Weber, Daniel K., Sani, Marc-Antoine, Downton, Matthew T., Separovic, Frances, Keene, F. Richard, and Collins, J. Grant (2016) Membrane insertion of a dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complex revealed by solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics simulation: implications for selective antibacterial activity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138 (46). pp. 15267-15277.
           Oligonuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes: selectivity between bacteria and eukaryotic cells         
Gorle, Anil K., Li, Xin, Primrose, Sebastian, Li, Fangfei, Feterl, Marshall, Kinobe, Robert T., Heimann, Kirsten, Warner, Jeffrey M., Keene, F. Richard, and Collins, J. Grant (2016) Oligonuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes: selectivity between bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 71. pp. 1547-1555.
           Rearing bacteria and maggots concurrently: a protocol using Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a model species         
Barnes, Kate M. and Gennard, Dorothy E. (2013) Rearing bacteria and maggots concurrently: a protocol using Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a model species. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 48 (3). pp. 247-253. ISSN 0003-6862
           Mononuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes with high membrane permeability in gram-negative bacteria—in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa         
Gorle, Anil K., Feterl, Marshall, Warner, Jeffrey M., Primrose, Sebastian, Constantinoiu, Constantin C., Keene, F. Richard, and Collins, J. Grant (2015) Mononuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes with high membrane permeability in gram-negative bacteria—in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chemistry: a European journal, 21 (29). pp. 10472-10481.
           Dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes: flow cytometry studies of their accumulation in bacteria and the effect on the bacterial membrane         
Li, Fangfei, Feterl, Marshall, Warner, Jeffrey M., Keene, F. Richard, and Collins, J. Grant (2013) Dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes: flow cytometry studies of their accumulation in bacteria and the effect on the bacterial membrane. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 68 (12). pp. 2825-2833.
           The antimicrobial activity of inert oligonuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes against pathogenic bacteria, including MRSA         
Li, Fangfei, Mulyana, Yanyan, Feterl, Marshall, Warner, Jeffrey M., Collins, Grant J., and Keene, F. Richard (2011) The antimicrobial activity of inert oligonuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes against pathogenic bacteria, including MRSA. Dalton Transactions, 40 (18). pp. 5032-5038.
           Rearing bacteria and maggots concurrently: A protocol using Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a model species         
Barnes, Kate M. and Gennard, Dorothy (2013) Rearing bacteria and maggots concurrently: A protocol using Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a model species. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 48 (3). pp. 247-253. ISSN 0003-6862
          Meningitis Outbreak Alert, What is Meningitis? by ehealthmd.com        
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the lining that protects the brain and spinal cord.
It is almost always caused by an infection, usually by a bacteria (bacterial meningitis) or a virus (viral meningitis). In rare cases it can be triggered by a fungus or parasite.
Meningitis occurs most commonly in young children under 5, those aged 17-25 (who often live in close quarters like dormitories and barracks), and people over age 55. People with compromised immune systems, such as people with HIV or AIDS, are also at increased risk.
What Are The Meninges?
The meninges are composed of three layers of membranes enclosing the brain and spinal cord.
  • Pia mater is the innermost layer. It is akin to a tissue paper that closely adheres to the brain and spinal cord, dipping into the various folds and crevices.
  • Arachnoid mater is the middle layer. It is a filmy membrane that is joined to the pia mater by fine threads resembling a cobweb.
  • The dura mater, a parchment-like membrane, lies on the outermost part of the meninges and adheres to the skull and spinal canal.
  • The cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is the fluid that circulates in the spaces in and around the brain and spinal cord.


What Happens When The Meninges Swell?

The most frequent cause of meningitis is the entry of a microorganism-such as a bacterium or a virus-from an infection elsewhere in the body. The microorganisms travel through the blood and into the meninges and cerebral spinal fluid.
In the bloodstream, infection-causing microorganisms are fought off by white blood cells, an important part of the immune system. However, there are no white blood cells in the cerebral spinal fluid to fight infectious agents.
Once infectious organisms have entered the cerebrospinal fluid, the body's defenses cannot control their rapid growth and the disease races through the delicate surfaces and fluids of the central nervous system.

As the immune system gears up to fight off the microorganisms, it sends out chemical signals that produce inflammation and interfere with the normal functioning of the central nervous system. That, in turn, causes swelling and increased pressure inside the skull, and disrupts the brain's normal functioning.

What Causes Meningitis? 
There are two main forms of meningitis:
  • bacterial meningitis, and
  • viral meningitis.
Bacterial meningitis affects fewer people than the viral form, but it often results in more serious health consequences. Bacterial meningitis is fatal in 1 in 10 cases and leaves 1 in 7 survivors with a severe disability caused by brain injury.

Bacterial Meningitis

There are several types of bacterial meningitis. Two types represent the majority of bacterial meningitis cases:
  1. meningococcal
  2. pneumococcal
The bacteria that cause these cases are common and live in the back of the nose and throat, or in the upper respiratory tract.
The bacteria are spread among people by coughing, sneezing and kissing. These bacteria cannot live outside the body for long, so they cannot be picked up from water supplies, swimming pools, or a building's air-conditioning system.
Individuals can carry these bacteria for days, weeks, or months without becoming ill. In fact, about 25 percent of the population carries the bacteria. Only rarely do the bacteria overcome the body's defenses and invade the cerebra spinal fluid, causing meningitis.
Meningococcal meningitis accounts for more than half of all cases of bacterial meningitis in the United States. Meningococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. There are several strains of Neisseria meningitidis. Strain B causes about 75 percent of the meningococcal cases and has the highest fatality rate.
Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by pneumococcus bacteria, which also cause several diseases of the respiratory system, including pneumonia. It has a fatality rate of about 20 percent. It also results in a higher incidence of brain damage than other forms of the disease.
Other types of bacterial meningitis include:
Neonatal meningitis: This form affects mostly newborn babies and is caused by Group B streptococcus bacteria, commonly found in the intestines.
Staphylococcal meningitis: This is a rare, but deadly form caused by staphylococcus bacteria. It usually develops as a complication of a diagnostic or surgical procedure.
Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) is caused by haemophilus bacteria. It was once the most common form of bacterial meningitis, and one of the deadliest childhood diseases. However, in 1985, an Hib vaccine was introduced into the routine immunization program for U.S. children and virtually eliminated Hib meningitis in the United States.

Viral Meningitis

Viral meningitis is far more common than the bacterial form and, in most cases, much less debilitating. Most people exposed to viruses that cause meningitis experience mild or no symptoms and fully recover without complications. '
The disease can be caused by many different viruses. Some of the viruses are transmitted by coughing or sneezing or through poor hygiene. Other viruses can be found in sewage polluted waters.
Occasionally, viral meningitis will develop following the mumps or chicken pox. Mosquito-born viruses also account for a few cases each year.
Approximately half of the viral cases in the United States are due to common intestinal viruses, or enteroviruses. These viruses are shed in the feces and in discharges from the mouth and nose. Most people who become infected with the virus contract it through hand-to-mouth contact.





          Food & Spices that can fight Cancer, by The Cancer Cure Foundation         

Cancer Fighting Foods/Spices

The National Cancer Institute estimates that roughly one-third of all cancer deaths may be diet related. What you eat can hurt you, but it can also help you. Many of the common foods found in grocery stores or organic markets contain cancer-fighting properties, from the antioxidants that neutralize the damage caused by free radicals to the powerful phytochemicals that scientists are just beginning to explore. There isn't a single element in a particular food that does all the work: The best thing to do is eat a variety of foods. 
The following foods have the ability to help stave off cancer and some can even help inhibit cancer cell growth or reduce tumor size.




Avocados are rich in glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that attacks free radicals in the body by blocking intestinal absorption of certain fats. They also supply even more potassium than bananas and are a strong source of beta-carotene. Scientists also believe that avocados may also be useful in treating viral hepatitis (a cause of liver cancer), as well as other sources of liver damage.



Broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower have a chemical component called indole-3-carbinol that can combat breast cancer by converting a cancer-promoting estrogen into a more protective variety. Broccoli, especially sprouts, also have the phytochemical sulforaphane, a product of glucoraphanin - believed to aid in preventing some types of cancer, like colon and rectal cancer. Sulforaphane induces the production of certain enzymes that can deactivate free radicals and carcinogens. The enzymes have been shown to inhibit the growth of tumors in laboratory animals.  However, be aware that the Agriculture Department studied 71 types of broccoli plants and found a 30-fold difference in the amounts of glucoraphanin. It appears that the more bitter the broccoli is, the more glucoraphanin it has. Broccoli sprouts have been developed under the trade name 
BroccoSprouts that have a consistent level of sulforaphane - as much as 20 times higher than the levels found in mature heads of broccoli. 

Carrots contain a lot of beta carotene, which may help reduce a wide range of cancers including lung, mouth, throat, stomach, intestine, bladder, prostate and breast. Some research indicated beta carotene may actually cause cancer, but this has not proven that eating carrots, unless in very large quantities - 2 to 3 kilos a day, can cause cancer.  In fact, a substance called falcarinol that is found in carrots has been found to reduce the risk of cancer, according to researchers at Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS). Kirsten Brandt, head of the research department, explained that isolated cancer cells grow more slowly when exposed to falcarinol. This substance is a polyacethylen, however, so it is important not to cook the carrots.


Chili peppers and jalapenos
contain a chemical, capsaicin, which may neutralize certain cancer-causing substances (nitrosamines) and may help prevent cancers such as stomach cancer. 



Cruciferous vegetables - broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage contain two antioxidants, lutein and zeaxanthin that may help decrease prostate and other cancers. 

Figs apparently have a derivative of benzaldehyde. It has been reported that investigators at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Tokyo say benzaldehyde is highly effective at shrinking tumors, though I haven't seen this report. In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture says figs, which contain vitamins A and C, and calcium, magnesium and potassium, may curtail appetite and improve weight-loss efforts. Fig juice is also a potent bacteria killer in test-tube studies.

Flax  seeds contains lignans, which may have an antioxidant effect and block or suppress cancerous changes. Flax is also high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are thought to protect against colon cancer and heart disease. See Budwig diet for a specialized diet using flax seed oil and cottage cheese. For studies about flax seed and flax oil, go to our Important News or ArchivesPage.


Garlic has immune-enhancing allium compounds (dialyl sultides) that appear to increase the activity of immune cells that fight cancer and indirectly help break down cancer causing substances. These substances also help block carcinogens from entering cells and slow tumor development. Diallyl sulfide, a component of garlic oil, has also been shown to render carcinogens in the liver inactive. Studies have linked garlic — as well as onions, leeks, and chives — to lower risk of stomach and colon cancer. Dr. Lenore Arab, professor of epidemiology and nutrition at the UNC-CH (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) schools of public health and medicine and colleagues analyzed a number of studies and reported their findings in the October 2000 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. According to the report, people who consume raw or cooked garlic regularly face about half the risk of stomach cancer and two-thirds the risk of colorectal cancer as people who eat little or none. Their studies didn't show garlic supplements had the same effect. It is believed garlic may help prevent stomach cancer because it has anti-bacterial effects against a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, found in the stomach and known to promote cancer there.

Grapefruits, like oranges and other citrus fruits, contain monoterpenes, believed to help prevent cancer by sweeping carcinogens out of the body. Some studies show that grapefruit may inhibit the proliferation of breast-cancer cells in vitro. They also contains vitamin C, beta-carotene, and folic acid.

Grapes, red contain bioflavonoids, powerful antioxidants that work as cancer preventives. Grapes are also a rich source of resveratrol, which inhibits the enzymes that can stimulate cancer-cell growth and suppress immune response. They also contain ellagic acid, a compound that blocks enzymes that are necessary for cancer cells - this appears to help slow the growth of tumors.




Studies show that consumption of green and yellow leafy vegetables has been associated with lower levels of stomach cancer.

Kale has indoles, nitrogen compounds which may help stop the conversion of certain lesions to cancerous cells in estrogen-sensitive tissues. In addition, isothiocyanates, phytochemicals found in kale, are thought to suppress tumor growth and block cancer-causing substances from reaching their targets.



Licorice root has a chemical, glycyrrhizin, that blocks a component of testosterone and therefore may help prevent the growth of prostate cancer. However, excessive amounts can lead to elevated blood pressure.






Mushrooms - There are a number of mushrooms that appear to help the body fight cancer and build the immune system - Shiitake, maitake, reishi, Agaricus blazei Murill, and Coriolus Versicolor.  These mushrooms contain polysaccharides, especially  Lentinan, powerful compounds that help in building immunity. They are a source of Beta Glucan. They also have a protein called lectin, which attacks cancerous cells and prevents them from multiplying. They also contain Thioproline. These mushrooms can stimulate the production of interferon in the body. â€¨â€¨Extracts from mushrooms have been successfully tested in recent years in Japan as an adjunct to chemotherapy. PSK is made from the Coriolus Versicolor. Maitake mushroom extract is PCM4.



Nuts contain the antioxidants quercetin and campferol that may suppress the growth of cancers. Brazil nut contains 80 micrograms of selenium, which is important for those with prostate cancer. (Note: Many people are allergic to the proteins in nuts, so if you have any symptoms such as itchy mouth, tight throat, wheezing, etc. after eating nuts, stop. Consider taking a selenium supplement instead or work with someone on how to eliminate this allergy.)





Oranges and lemons contain Iimonene which stimulates cancer-killing immune cells (lymphocytes, e.g.) that may also break down cancer-causing substances.
Papayas have vitamin C that works as an antioxidant and may also reduce absorption of cancer-causing nitrosamines from the soil or processed foods. Papaya contains folacin (also known as folic acid), which has been shown to minimize cervical dysplasia and certain cancers.

Raspberries contain many vitamins, minerals, plant compounds and antioxidants known as anthocyanins that may protect against cancer. According to a recent research study reported by Cancer Research 2001;61:6112-6119, rats fed diets of 5% to 10% black raspberries saw the number of esophageal tumors decrease by 43% to 62%. A diet containing 5% black raspberries was more effective than a diet containing 10% black raspberries. Research reported in the journal Nutrition and Cancer in May 2002 shows black raspberries may also thwart colon cancer.
Black raspberries are rich in antioxidants, thought to have even more cancer-preventing properties than blueberries and  strawberries. 




Red wine, even without alcohol, has polyphenols that may protect against various types of cancer. Polyphenols are potent antioxidants, compounds that help neutralize disease-causing free radicals.  Also, researchers at the University of North Carolina's medical school in Chapel Hill found the compound resveratrol, which is found in grape skins. It appears that resveratrol inhibits cell proliferation and can help prevent cancer. However, the findings didn't extend to heavy imbibers, so it should be used in moderation. In addition, alcohol can be  toxic to the liver and to the nervous system, and many wines have sulfites, which may be harmful to your health. Note:  some research indicates that alcohol is considered a class "A" carcinogen which can actually cause cancer - see http://www.jrussellshealth.com/alccanc.html. You should probably switch to non-alcoholic wines.

Rosemary may help increase the activity of detoxification enzymes. An extract of rosemary, termed carnosol, has inhibited the development of both breast and skin tumors in animals. We haven't found any studies done on humans. Rosemary can be used as a seasoning. It can also be consumed as a tea: Use 1 tsp. dried leaves per cup of hot water; steep for 15 minutes.

Seaweed and other sea vegetables contain beta-carotene, protein, vitamin B12, fiber, and chlorophyll, as well as chlorophylones - important fatty acids that may help in the fight against breast cancer. Many sea vegetables also have high concentrations of the minerals potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and iodine.










Soy products like tofu contain several types of phytoestrogens — weak, nonsteroidal estrogens that could help prevent both breast and prostate cancer by blocking and suppressing cancerous changes. There are a number of isoflavones in soy products, but research has shown that genistein is the most potent inhibitor of the growth and spread of cancerous cells. It appears to lower breast-cancer risk by inhibiting the growth of epithelial cells and new blood vessels that tumors require to flourish and is being scrutinized as a potential anti-cancer drug.  However, there are some precautions to consider when adding soy to your diet. Eating up to 4 or 5 ounces of tofu or other soy a day is probably ok, but research is being done to see if loading up on soy could cause hormone imbalances that stimulate cancer growth. As a precaution, women who have breast cancer or are at high risk should talk to their doctors before taking pure isoflavone powder and pills, extracted from soy. 


Sweet potatoes contain many anticancer properties, including beta-carotene, which may protect DNA in the cell nucleus from cancer-causing chemicals outside the nuclear membrane.









Teas: Green Tea and Black tea contain certain antioxidants known as polyphenols (catechins) which appear to prevent cancer cells from dividing. Green tea is best, followed by our more common black tea (herbal teas do not show this benefit). According to a report in the July 2001 issue of the Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, these polyphenols that are abundant in green tea, red wine and olive oil, may protect against various types of cancer. Dry green tea leaves, which are about 40% polyphenols by weight, may also reduce the risk of cancer of the stomach, lung, colon, rectum, liver and pancreas, study findings have suggested.

Tapioca is derived from the cassava plant. It is one of the many plants that manufactures cyanide by producing a chemical called linamarine which releases hydrogen cyanide when it is broken down by the linamarase enzyme. Spanish researches have been studying the cassava and attempting to clone the genes from the plant which are responsible for producing the hydrogen cyanide and then transfer it to a retrovirus.  However, funding for the project has run out. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/health/newsid_317000/317467.stmfor more information on this. For a list of other foods that contain B17, go to our laetrile page.

Tomatoes contain lycopene, an antioxidant that attacks roaming oxygen molecules, known as free radicals, that are suspected of triggering cancer. It appears that the hotter the weather, the more lycopene tomatoes produce. They also have vitamin C, an antioxidant which can prevent cellular damage that leads to cancer. Watermelons, carrots, and red peppers also contain these substances, but in lesser quantities. It is concentrated by cooking tomatoes.  Scientists in Israel have shown that lycopene can kill mouth cancer cells. An increased intake of lycopene has already been linked to a reduced risk of breast, prostate, pancreas and colorectal cancer. (Note: Recent studies indicate that for proper absorption, the body also needs some oil along with lycopene.)


Turmeric (curcuma longa), a member of the ginger family, is believed to have medicinal properties because it inhibits production of the inflammation-related enzyme cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), levels of which are abnormally high in certain inflammatory diseases and cancers, especially bowel and colon cancer. In fact, a pharmaceutical company Phytopharm in the UK hopes to introduce a natural product, P54, that contains certain volatile oils, which greatly increase the potency of the turmeric spice. 

Turnips are said to contain glucose molaes which is a cancer fighting compound. I haven't confirmed this.








Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum.



          7 Fresh Tips to Prevent Bad Breath By Lisa Collier Cool, Yahoo Health.        
picture by Health Assistant 

By Lisa Collier Cool
Jul 18, 2011
In papyrus scrolls dating back from 1550 BC, Hippocrates, the Greek physician famed as the father of medicine, offered a formula for sweet-smelling breath: rinsing with a mouthwash made of red wine, anise and dill.  Toothpaste is even older than that, with an ancient Egyptian medical text called the Ebers Papyrus containing recipes dating back some 6,000 years, while toothbrushes to apply it were only invented about 500 years ago, most likely by the Chinese, reports Dr. Harold Katz, director of the California Breath Clinics and author of The Bad Breath Bible.
Today, 93 million Americans suffer from chronically bad breath (halitosis), which can sometimes signal other health problems. If you or someone you smooch with regularly is one of them, these tactics can help restore fresh breath, according to Margaret Mitchell, DDS and other experts.
Get the latest information about proper oral care for a healthy smile and a strong body.
1. Clean your tongue. Along with brushing and flossing twice a day, also use a tongue scraper, available at most drugstores, or brush your tongue. “Your tongue, especially the top back, is a serious source of halitosis,” says Dr. Mitchell. That’s because your tongue has millions of filaments that can trap food particles and bacteria, leading to oral odor. 
2. Chew sugarless gum.  Surprising as it sounds, saliva is the best defense against bad breath. A common cause of halitosis is dry mouth, which can be triggered by certain medications and health problems. If you’re wondering why morning breath can be smelly, that’s because saliva flow is lower during sleep. Chewing gum counteracts these problems by stimulating salivation. What’s more, gum containing the sugar substitute xylitol may help reduce cavity-causing bacteria, a recent studysuggests. 
3. Scent your breath with cinnamon. Unlike other flavorings, such as mint, which only mask bad breath, cinnamon appears to have odor-combating compounds, with a study presented at the annual meeting of International Association for Dental Research reporting that the cinnamon-flavored gum, Big Red, seems to reduce odor-causing bacteria. In the study, people who chewed the gum had a more than 50 percent drop in bacteria levels.
Check out eight other foods like cinnamon that help your body heal.
4. Keep your mouth moist. Drinking more water also helps wash away bad-smelling bacteria. There’s also research indicating that drinking tea may be helpful, since it contains polypehnols, a plant chemical that may help curb bacterial growth. 
5. Pay attention to your diet. An unfortunate side effect of a low-carb diet, such as the Atkins plan, can be “dragon breath” due to ketosis (the fat-burning state that is one of the goals of this type of diet).  The only cure is increasing carbs, though chewing mint leaves or parsley can temporarily mask the problem. Also watch out for other foods that can trigger mouth odor, such as coffee, alcohol, and such obvious culprits as onions and garlic. 
6. Choose the right mouthwash. Antibacterial mouthwashes help combat oral infections, thus improving breath. An analysis of five studies involving 293 participants by the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews found that such ingredients as chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorine dioxide and zinc are all helpful for reducing mouth odor. However, chlorhexidine mouthwash, available by prescription from dentists, can temporarily stain teeth and your tongue. If your dentist advises it to clear up an oral infection, you may be told to dip a Q-tip into the mouthwash and apply it to the backs of your teeth and gums, or only to the infected area. 
7. Rule out medical problems.  90 percent of the time, halitosis is triggered by microbes in the mouth. Common dental causes include cavities, gum disease (which may not cause any obvious symptoms other than bad breath), and faulty tooth restorations that have become a breeding ground for bacteria. However, if you have good oral health—and persistent halitosis—check with your doctor, since such illnesses as respiratory tract infections, diabetes, acid reflux disease, liver disease and even cancer, in rare cases, can also cause mouth odor, cautions Dr. Mitchell. One of the best ways to protect your oral health—and keep your breath fresh—is to avoid tobacco use, which greatly increases risk for gum disease and oral cancer.
Discover how healthy gums can help prevent a heart attack.


          Profil foto SNSD - Girls' Generation        


Profil foto SNSD - Girls' Generation
 adalah grup penyanyi wanita Korea Selatan yang dibentuk SM Entertainment. Mereka terdiri dari 9 anggota: Yoona, Tiffany, Yuri, Hyoyeon, Sooyoung, Seohyun, Taeyeon, Jessica, dan Sunny. Singel perdana "다시 만난 세계 (Into the New World)" dirilis 2 Agustus 2007. Kedua album mereka masing-masing telah terjual lebih dari 100 ribu kopi.
Penggemar menyebut mereka sebagai SNSD, singkatan dari nama grup ini dalam bahasa Korea, So Nyeo Shi Dae. Klub penggemar resmi Girls' Generation bernama S♡NE (소원) yang diambil dari judul lagu dalam album pertama mereka.
foto SNSD - Girls' Generation
Foto Biodata SNSD - Girls' Generation GirldBand Korea

Foto Biodata Yoona SNSD Personel Gils Generations

Nama Panggilan : Yoona
Nama Lengkap : Im Yoon Ah
Arti Nama : Anak kecil yang tak berdosa
Nama Panggilan di SNSD : Charming Girl
Nama Panggilan Lain : Little Deer, Retarol, Flower Deer, Powerful Yoona, Bravery Yoona, YoonABC
Tgl. Lahir : 30 Mei 1990
Gol. Darah : B